Science.gov

Sample records for geothermal electricity development

  1. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Kreycik, Claire; Young, Katherine

    2009-09-01

    This research explores the effectiveness of the historical and current body of policies in terms of increased geothermal electricity development. Insights are provided into future policies that may drive the market to optimize development of available geothermal electricity resources.

  2. Status of geothermal electrical power development in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso E.H.; Manon M.A.

    1983-09-01

    A review of geothermal power generation in Mexico is given. The status of power plants on-line and under construction at Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros is presented. A forecast of generating capacity for the future is given along with the obstacles to geothermal energy development in Mexico.

  3. Geothermal Power Development Resource Evaluation Aspects for Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-30

    This report is a limited review of and presents comments on the geothermal resource exploration program of Kyushu Electric Power Company (KEPCO). This program is for developing geothermal resources to generate electric power on Kyushu Island, Japan. Many organizations in Japan and in particular Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. are actively exploring for and developing geothermal resources on Kyushu Island. KEPCO has already demonstrated an ability and expertise to explore for geothermal resources by their successful exploration and subsequent development of several fields (Hatchobaru and Otake) on the island of Kyushu for electric power generation. The review and comments are made relative to the geothermal resource aspects of Kyushu Electric Power Company's geothermal exploration program, and within the time, budget, and scope of the Rogers Engineering's effort under the existing contract. Rogers and its consultants have had a wide variety of geothermal exploration experience and have used such experience in the analysis of what has been presented by KEPCO. The remainder of the introduction section develops general knowledge concerning geothermal power development with particular emphasis on the resource exploration. The data received section describes the information available to perform the project work. There are no interpretative parts to the data received section. The philosophy section relates our understanding of the KEPCO thinking and conditions surrounding current geothermal resource development in Japan. The survey and methods sections presents three important items about each study KEPCO has performed in the resource exploration program. These three aspects are: what should be obtained from the method, what data was obtained and presented, and what is a review and analysis of where the KEPCO exploration program is currently in terms of progress and successful location of reservoirs. The final section presents recommendations on the many aspects of the

  4. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  5. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  7. Geothermal energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B. ); Freeston, D.H. . Geothermal Inst.)

    1994-04-01

    Today, electricity is generated from geothermal energy in 21 countries. The installed capacity is nearly 6300 MW-electric. Four developing countries (El Salvador 18%, Kenya 11%, Nicaragua 18% and Philippines 21%) produce over 10% of their total electricity from geothermal. Electric generation cost is commonly around 4 US cents/kWh. Direct utilization of geothermal water is known in about 40 countries, thereof 14 countries have each an installed capacity of over 100 MW-thermal. A worldwide survey shows that the total investments in geothermal energy between 1973 and 1992 amounted to approximately 22 billion US$. During the two decades, 30 countries invested each over 20 million US$, 12 countries over 200 million US$, and 5 countries over 1 billion US$. During the first decade, 1973--1982, public funding amounted to 4.6 billion US$ and private funding to 3 billion US$. During the second decade, 1983--1992, public funding amounted to 6.6 billion US$ and private funding to 7.7 billion US$. The relative economic viability of geothermal energy will improve significantly if and when a pollution tax is endorsed on power production using fossil fuels. Geothermal exploration and exploitation requires skills from many scientific and engineering disciplines. International geothermal training centers are operated in Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and New Zealand. The International Geothermal Association was founded in 1988 and has over 2,000 members in all parts of the world.

  8. Geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, E.W.; Pick, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This book studies the impact of geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California. An integrated assessment model for public policy is presented. Geothermal energy resources in Imperial County are identified. Population and employment studies project the impact of geothermal on demography and population movement in the county. A public opinion, and a leadership opinion survey indicate support for well-regulated geothermal development. Actual development events are updated. Finally, research conclusions and policy recommendations are presented.

  9. Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND Electricity from geothermal resources could play a significant role in the United States over the next few decades; a 2006 study by MIT expects a capacity of 100GWe by 2050 as feasible; approximately 10% of total electricity generating capacity up from less than 1% today. However, there is limited research on the water requirements and impacts of generating electricity from geothermal resources - conventional as well as enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, there is no baseline exists for water requirements of geothermal electricity. Water is primarily required for cooling and dissipation of waste heat in the power plants, and to account for fluid losses during heat mining of enhanced geothermal resources. MODEL DESCRIPTION We have developed a model to assess and characterize water requirements of electricity from hydrothermal resources and enhanced geothermal resources (EGS). Our model also considers a host of factors that influence cooling water requirements ; these include the temperature and chemical composition of geothermal resource; installed power generation technology - flash, organic rankine cycle and the various configurations of these technologies; cooling technologies including air cooled condensers, wet recirculating cooling, and hybrid cooling; and finally water treatment and recycling installations. We expect to identify critical factors and technologies. Requirements for freshwater, degraded water and geothermal fluid are separately estimated. METHODOLOGY We have adopted a lifecycle analysis perspective that estimates water consumption at the goethermal field and power plant, and accounts for transmission and distribution losses before reaching the end user. Our model depends upon an extensive literature review to determine various relationships necessary to determine water usage - for example relationship between thermal efficiency and temperature of a binary power plant, or differences in efficiency between various ORC configurations

  10. Geothermal Power Development in the Phillippines

    SciTech Connect

    Jovellanos, Jose U.; Alcaraz, Arturo; Datuin, Rogelio

    1980-12-01

    The generation of electric power to meet the needs of industrial growth and dispersal in the Philippines is aimed at attaining self-reliance through availment of indigenous energy resources. The Philippines by virtue of her position in the high-heat flow region has in abundance a number of exploitable geothermal fields located all over the country. Results indicate that the geothermal areas of the Philippines presently in various stages of exploration and development are of such magnitude that they can be relied on to meet a significant portion of the country's power need. Large scale geothermal energy for electric power generation was put into operation last year with the inauguration of two 55-MW geothermal generating units at Tiwi, Albay in Southern Luzon. Another two 55-MW units were added to the Luzon Grid in the same year from Makiling-Banahaw field about 70 kilometers south of Manila. For 1979 alone, therefore, 220-MW of generating capacity was added to the power supply coming from geothermal energy. This year a total of 220-MW power is programmed for both areas. This will bring to 443-MW of installed generating capacity from geothermal energy with 3-MW contributed by the Tongonan Geothermal pilot plant in Tongonan, Leyte, Central Philippines in operation since July 1977. Financial consideration of Philippine experience showed that electric power derived from geothermal energy is competitive with other sources of energy and is a viable source of baseload electric power. Findings have proven the technical and economic acceptability of geothermal energy resources development. To realize the benefits that stem from the utilization of indigenous geothermal resources and in the light of the country's ever increasing electric power demand and in the absence of large commercial oil discovery in the Philippines, geothermal energy resource development has been accelerated anew. The program includes development of eight fields by 1989 by adding five more fields to the

  11. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  12. Geothermal Field Developments in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirakawa, Seiichi

    1983-12-15

    The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

  13. Geothermal: Energy for development - The World Bank and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsmeier, W.

    1986-01-01

    The World Bank views geothermal energy as one of a variety of natural resources which can be developed to supply the energy needs of a country. Since the World Bank Group finances projects in developing countries. This paper discusses geothermal energy only in that context. Geothermal power is generated in nine developing countries today, which represent nearly 40% of worldwide geothermal generating capacity. The World Bank has helped finance geothermal investments in six of these countries-the Phillippines, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Kenya.

  14. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  15. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  16. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  17. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  18. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume 1. Review and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topics covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, public utilities commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  19. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  20. FIJI geothermal resource assessment and development programme

    SciTech Connect

    Autar, Rohit K.

    1996-01-24

    The Fiji Department of Energy (DOE) has a comprehensive resource assessment programme which assesses and promotes the use of local renewable energy resources where they are economically viable. DOE is currently involved in the investigation of the extent of geothermal resources for future energy planning and supply purposes. The aim is to determine (a) whether exploitable geothermal fields exist in the Savusavu or Labasa areas. the two geothermal fields with the greatest potential, (b) the cost of exploiting these fields for electricity generation/process heat on Vanua Levu. (c) the comparative cost per mega-watt-hour (MWh) of geothermal electricity generation with other generating options on Vanua Levu, and. (d) to promote the development of the geothermal resource by inviting BOO/BOOT schemes. Results to date have indicated that prospects for using geothermal resource for generating electricity lies in Savusavu only - whereas the Labasa resource can only provide process heat. All geophysical surveys have been completed and the next stage is deep drilling to verify the theoretical findings and subsequent development.

  1. Geothermal Energy Development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Kuide, Xin; Qilong, Yang

    1983-12-15

    China's geothermal resources are mainly of low - medium temperature. More than 30 geothermal areas have been or are being explorated. According to the geology, economy and technology of geothermal energy development main efforts are concentrated in some places with better conditions and can be exploited effectively in the near future, such as low temperature geothermal fields in Beijing and Tianjin, Yangbajain and Dengchong high temperature geothermal fields respectively in Tibet and Ynnan province. In Beijing and Tianjin the geothermal water is used for space heating, bathing, medical treatment, greenhouse, raising tropical fish, industry and so on. In Beijing now more than 200 thousand sq. m. of indoor floor is being heated with geothermal water and about 50 thousand persons per day use it to take bath. In future, the low temperature geothermal water utilization in these big citites would flourish. In 1970 the first experimental geothermal power plant using the flashing method was built in Dengwu, Guangdong province. In 1977 one MW experimental wet steam power plant was built in Yangbajain, Tibet, a 6 MW power plant in 1981, and another 3 MW generator is expected to complete in 1985. This paper is intended to summarize some important results of exploration, particularly in the geothermal reservoir engineering.

  2. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  3. Geothermal development in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizagaque, R.F.; Tolentino, B.S.

    1982-06-01

    The development of geothermal resources and energy in the Philippines is discussed. Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation initiated the first semi-commercial generation of geothermal power in July 1977 with the installation of a 3MWe plant. By 1980 the country had 440 MWe on line at Mak-Ban and Tiwi. This placed the Philippines second after the US among countries using geothermal energy for power generation. Before the end of 1981, PNOC-EDC added 6 additional MWe of geothermal power generating capacity to increase the total to 446 MWe. As part of the five-year National Energy Development Programme covering the period 1981-1985, additional power plants will be installed in various project areas to increase the share of geothermal power generation from the present 9.8% to 18.6% of the nationwide power-generation total, or the equivalent of 16.6 million barrels of oil per year. (MJF)

  4. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  5. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  6. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  7. Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, Kevin Kit; Moore, J. N.

    1999-10-01

    Emission of “greenhouse gases” into the environment has become an increasing concern. Deregulation of the electrical market will allow consumers to select power suppliers that utilize “green power.” Geothermal power is classed as “green power” and has power emissions of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity than even the cleanest of fossil fuels, natural gas. However, previously published estimates of carbon dioxide emissions are relatively old and need revision. This study estimates that the average carbon dioxide emissions from geothermal and fossil fuel power plants are: geothermal 0.18 , coal 2.13, petroleum 1.56 , and natural gas 1.03 pounds of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour respectively.

  8. Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study

    SciTech Connect

    K. K. Bloomfield; J. N. Moore

    1999-10-01

    Emission of �greenhouse gases� into the environment has become an increasing concern. Deregulation of the electrical market will allow consumers to select power suppliers that utilize �green power.� Geothermal power is classed as �green power� and has lower emissions of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity than even the cleanest of fossil fuels, natural gas. However, previously published estimates of carbon dioxide emissions are relatively old and need revision. This study estimates that the average carbon dioxide emissions from geothermal and fossil fuel power plants are: geothermal 0.18 , coal 2.13, petroleum 1.56 , and natural gas 1.03 pounds of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour respectively.

  9. Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering

    SciTech Connect

    Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

    1994-08-08

    This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

  10. Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor

    2012-05-31

    Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.

  11. Deep geothermal resources and energy: Current research and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.; Milsch, H.; Hahne, B.; van Wees, J. D.; Bruhn, D.

    2012-04-01

    Energy from deep geothermal resources plays an increasing role in many European countries in their efforts to increase the proportion of renewables in their energy portfolio. Deep geothermal heat and electric power have a high load factor, are sustainable and environmentally friendly. However, the safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, also in less favourable regions, faces a number of issues requiring substantial research efforts: (1) The probability of finding an unknown geothermal reservoir has to be improved. (2) Drilling methods have to be better adapted and developed to the specific needs of geothermal development. (3) The assessment of the geothermal potential should provide more reliable and clear guidelines for the development. (4) Stimulation methods for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) have to be refined to increase the success rate and reduce the risk associated with induced seismicity. (5) Operation and maintenance in aggressive geothermal environments require specific solutions for corrosion and scaling problems. (6) Last but not least, emerging activities to harness energy from supercritical reservoirs would make significant progress with qualified input from research. In particular, sedimentary basins like e.g. the North German and Polish Basin, the Pannonian Basin, the Po Valley, the Bavarian Molasse Basin or the Upper Rhine Graben have a high geothermal potential, even if geothermal gradients are moderate. We will highlight projects that aim at optimizing exploration, characterization, and modeling prior to drilling and at a better understanding of physical, hydraulic and chemical processes during operation of a geothermal power plant. This includes geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations regarding potential geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary basins, as well as modelling of geothermally relevant reservoir parameters that influence the potential performance and long-term behavior of a future

  12. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  13. Imaging Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure as a Tool in Developing Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. Wannamaker

    2007-12-31

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop desktop capability for 3-D EM inversion as a complement or alternative to existing massively parallel platforms. We have been fortunate in having a uniquely productive cooperative relationship with Kyushu University (Y. Sasaki, P.I.) who supplied a base-level 3-D inversion source code for MT data over a half-space based on staggered grid finite differences. Storage efficiency was greatly increased in this algorithm by implementing a symmetric L-U parameter step solver, and by loading the parameter step matrix one frequency at a time. Rules were established for achieving sufficient jacobian accuracy versus mesh discretization, and regularization was much improved by scaling the damping terms according to influence of parameters upon the measured response. The modified program was applied to 101 five-channel MT stations taken over the Coso East Flank area supported by the DOE and the Navy. Inversion of these data on a 2 Gb desktop PC using a half-space starting model recovered the main features of the subsurface resistivity structure seen in a massively parallel inversion which used a series of stitched 2-D inversions as a starting model. In particular, a steeply west-dipping, N-S trending conductor was resolved under the central-west portion of the East Flank. It may correspond to a highly saline magamtic fluid component, residual fluid from boiling, or less likely cryptic acid sulphate alteration, all in a steep fracture mesh. This work gained student Virginia Maris the Best Student Presentation at the 2006 GRC annual meeting.

  14. San Diego Gas and Electric Company Imperial Valley geothermal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric and its wholly owned subsidiary New Albion Resources Co. have been affiliated with Magma Power Company, Magma Energy Inc. and Chevron Oil Company for the last 2-1/2 years in carrying out geothermal research and development in the private lands of the Imperial Valley. The steps undertaken in the program are reviewed and the sequence that must be considered by companies considering geothermal research and development is emphasized. Activities at the south end of the Salton Sea and in the Heber area of Imperial Valley are leading toward development of demonstration facilities within the near future. The current status of the project is reported.

  15. Geothermal pipeline - progress and development update, geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document is a progress and development update and geothermal progress monitor prepared by the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Several upcoming meetings in the field of geothermal energy and resource development are announced. Proposed and past geothermal activities within the Glass Mountain Known Geothermal Resource Area are also discussed. As of this date, there has been limited geothermal exploration in this area, however, two projects located in the near vicinity have been proposed within the last two years.

  16. Tongonani geothermal power development, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Minson, A.A.C.; Fry, T.J.; Kivell, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the features, design and construction of a 112 MWe geothermal power project, representing the first stage development of the substantial geothermal resources of the central Philippine region. The project has been undertaken by the Philippine Government. The National Powe Corporation is responsible for generation and distribution facilities and the Philippine National Oil Company Energy Development Corporation is responsible for controlled delivery of steam to the powe station.

  17. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  18. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  19. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 1000 C (2120 F) were identified. In addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 1470 F (2970 F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tecson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraing to projected growth. A regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption, and energy prices are given. Potential geothermal users in Pima County are identified and projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization are given. One hundred fifteen firms in 32 industrial classes have some potential for geothermal use are identified. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  20. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  1. A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Benjamin R.; Ziagos, John; Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur; Hass, Eric

    2013-02-13

    Characterizing productive geothermal systems is challenging yet critical to identify and develop an estimated 30 gigawatts electric (GWe) of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western U.S. This paper, undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), summarizes needs and technical pathways that target the key geothermal signatures of temperature, permeability, and fluid content, and develops the time evolution of these pathways, tying in past and current GTO exploration Research and Development (R&D) projects. Beginning on a five-year timescale and projecting out to 2030, the paper assesses technologies that could accelerate the confirmation of 30 GWe. The resulting structure forms the basis for a Geothermal Exploration Technologies Roadmap, a strategic development plan to help guide GTO R&D investments that will lower the risk and cost of geothermal prospect identification. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  2. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  3. Electrical Generating Capacities of Geothermal Slim Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented to estimate the electrical generating capacity of the hot fluids discharged from individual geothermal wells using small wellhead generating equipment over a wide range of reservoir and operating conditions. The purpose is to appraise the possibility of employing slim holes (instead of conventional production-size wells) to power such generators for remote off-grid applications such as rural electrification in developing countries. Frequently, the generating capacity desired is less than one megawatt, and can be as low as 100 kilowatts; if slim holes can be usefully employed, overall project costs will be significantly reduced. This report presents the final results of the study. Both self-discharging wells and wells equipped with downhole pumps (either of the ''lineshaft'' or the ''submersible'' type) are examined. Several power plant designs are considered, including conventional single-flash backpressure and condensing steam turbines, binary plants, double-flash steam plants, and steam turbine/binary hybrid designs. Well inside diameters from 75 mm to 300 mm are considered; well depths vary from 300 to 1200 meters. Reservoir temperatures from 100 C to 240 C are examined, as are a variety of reservoir pressures and CO2 contents and well productivity index values.

  4. A study of geothermal drilling and the production of electricity from geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the production of electricity from geothermal energy with particular emphasis on the drilling of geothermal wells. A brief history of the industry, including the influence of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, is given. Demand and supply of electricity in the United States are touched briefly. The results of a number of recent analytical studies of the cost of producing electricity are discussed, as are comparisons of recent power purchase agreements in the state of Nevada. Both the costs of producing electricity from geothermal energy and the costs of drilling geothermal wells are analyzed. The major factors resulting in increased cost of geothermal drilling, when compared to oil and gas drilling, are discussed. A summary of a series of interviews with individuals representing many aspects of the production of electricity from geothermal energy is given in the appendices. Finally, the implications of these studies are given, conclusions are presented, and program recommendations are made.

  5. Geothermal Electric Projects from a User's Viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, James M.

    1980-12-01

    The financing of a geothermal power plant has a unique characteristic which is not present with conventional oil, coal, or nuclear power plants and which has slowed development of geothermal resources. That unique characteristic is the increased risk as perceived by utilities, banks and lessors and the unpredictability of those risks as perceived by insurance companies. From a utility company perspective, the increased risk is the potential financial loss to the stockholders in the event the power plant is unable to economically produce electricity due to depletion, scaling or other problems. Such an eventuality could result in the utility having to ''write-off'' the value of the asset and pass the loss onto the stockholders. Banks, lessors and others share these same concerns for their stockholders; thus, are willing to finance power plants only if most of the financial risk is borne by the utility. Retention of financial risk by the utility can take the form of a ''hell or high water'' power purchase contract wherein the utility makes payments even when no power is being produced, or an indemnity agreement with a plant lessor wherein the utility agrees to indemnify the lessor in the event he loses any of the tax or income benefits contemplated, or a credit agreement with a bank or other source of funds wherein the utility company's general credit backs up the obligation. As a result of their perception of increased risk, utilities have been searching for ways to reduce the risk to their stockholders by shifting it either to the taxpayer in the form of a DOE grant or DOE loan guarantee, or the rate-payer in the form of Public Utility Commission (PUC) approvals or other sharing. Other potential methods for reducing risk may entail finding a plant lessor or other entity willing to accept some of the risk in exchange for a higher rate of return obtaining insurance; or some combination of DOE loan guarantee, lease and insurance. No attempt has been made to include the

  6. POLLUTION CONTROL GUIDANCE FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pol...

  7. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  8. Unalaska geothermal exploration project. Electrical power generation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most cost-effective power cycle for utilizing the Makushin Volcano geothermal resource to generate electricity for the towns of Unalaska and Dutch Harbor. It is anticipated that the geothermal power plant would be intertied with a planned conventional power plant consisting of four 2.5 MW diesel-generators whose commercial operation is due to begin in 1987. Upon its completion in late 1988, the geothermal power plant would primarily fulfill base-load electrical power demand while the diesel-generators would provide peak-load electrical power and emergency power at times when the geothermal power plant would be partially or completely unavailable. This study compares the technical, environmental, and economic adequacy of five state-of-the-art geothermal power conversion processes. Options considered are single- and double-flash steam cycles, binary cycle, hybrid cycle, and total flow cycle.

  9. Harnessing the geothermal resources of sedimentary basins for electricity production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2011-02-01

    Use of geothermal resources for generating electricity is briefly analyzed. Results obtained from optimization of the thermodynamic cycle implemented in the secondary coolant circuit of a binary geothermal power station and the parameters of its primary heat carrier circuit are presented.

  10. Diagnostics-while drilling: Reducing the cost of geothermal-produced electricity

    SciTech Connect

    PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,DAVID A.

    2000-01-26

    The goal of this document is to estimate the potential impact of proposed new Diagnostics-While-Drilling technology on the cost of electricity (COE) produced with geothermal energy. A cost model that predicts the COE was developed and exercised over the range of conditions found for geothermal plants in flashed-steam, binary, and enhanced-reservoir (e.g., Hot Dry Rock) applications. The calculations were repeated assuming that DWD technology is available to reduce well costs and improve well productivity. The results indicate that DWD technology would reduce the geothermal COE by 2--31%, depending on well depth, well productivity, and the type of geothermal reservoir. For instance, for a typical 50-MW, flashed-steam geothermal power plant employing 3-MW wells, 6,000-ft deep, the model predicts an electricity cost of 4.9 cents/kwh. With the DWD technology envisioned, the electricity cost could be reduced by nearly 20%, to less than 4 cents/kwh. Such a reduction in the cost of electricity would give geothermal power a competitive edge over other types of power at many locations across the US and around the world. It is thus believed that DWD technology could significantly expand the role of geothermal energy in providing efficient, environment-friendly electric generating capacity.

  11. CO2 emission mitigation by geothermal development - especially with geothermal heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybach, L.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal technologies for power generation or direct use operate with little or no greenhouse gas emissions. Since no burning processes are involved they are low in CO2 emissions. Geothermal energy development has thus great CO2 emission reduction potential when substituting fossil sources of energy. Geothermal heat pumps (GHP) represent the fastest growing branch of geothermal technology; they use the ubiquitous shallow geothermal resource. GHPs are electricity consumers, nevertheless they can contribute to the fight against climatic warming. Such systems are now increasingly used for space heating, cooling, and to provide domestic hot water. With heat pump systems the use of fossil primary energy sources can be avoided, thus GHPs contribute to energy security: many countries must rely in their space heating systems on imported fossil fuels. The degree of dependence on these can be reduced. Since heat pumps are usually driven by electric components the origin of the electricity and the corresponding CO2 emission must be considered. A compilation shows that there are great differences in this respect from country to country. The same (=electricity need with CO2 emission consequences) applies to GHPs too. This means that by new geothermal heat pumps only additional CO2 emission can be avoided ("saving"), not a reduction of actual emissions. When GHPs are installed in refurbishment (to replace fossil-fueled systems) actual emission reduction can be achieved. Emission reduction is also evident when electric heater/cooler installations, driven by fossil-based electricity, are replaced by GHP systems. Numerical examples are presented about saving and reduction.

  12. Geothermal energy development in the Philippines: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, D.; Javellana, S.P.; Benavidez, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Philippines is the third largest producer of geothermal electricity after the US and Mexico. Geothermal exploration was started in 1962, and the first large commercial power plants came on-line in 1979 in two fields. By 1984, four geothermal fields had a combined installed capacity of 890 MWe and in 1992 these plants supplied about 20% of the country`s electric needs. Geothermal energy development was stimulated in the mid-1970s by the oil crisis and rapidly growing power demand, government support, available foreign funding, and a combination of private and government investment and technical expertise. However, no new geothermal capacity has been added since 1984, despite the growing demand for energy and the continuing uncertainty in the supply of crude oil. The Philippines` geothermal capacity is expected to expand by 270--1,100 MWe by the end of 1999. Factors that will affect the rate growth in this decade include suitable legislation, environmental requirements, financing, degree of private involvement, politics, inter-island electric grid connections, and viability of the remaining prospects.

  13. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  14. Novel approaches for an enhanced geothermal development of residential sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Firmbach, Linda; Shao, Haibing; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An ongoing technological enhancement drives an increasing use of shallow geothermal systems for heating and cooling applications. However, even in areas with intensive shallow geothermal use, planning of geothermal systems is in many cases solely based on geological maps, drilling databases, and literature references. Thus, relevant heat transport parameters are rather approximated than measured for the specific site. To increase the planning safety and promote the use of renewable energies in the domestic sector, this study investigates a novel concept for an enhanced geothermal development of residential neighbourhoods. This concept is based on a site-specific characterization of subsurface conditions and the implementation of demand-oriented geothermal usage options. Therefore, an investigation approach has been tested that combines non-invasive with minimum-invasive exploration methods. While electrical resistivity tomography has been applied to characterize the geological subsurface structure, Direct Push soundings enable a detailed, vertical high-resolution characterization of the subsurface surrounding the borehole heat exchangers. The benefit of this site-specific subsurface investigation is highlighted for 1) a more precise design of shallow geothermal systems and 2) a reliable prediction of induced long-term changes in groundwater temperatures. To guarantee the financial feasibility and practicability of the novel geothermal development, three different options for its implementation in residential neighbourhoods were consequently deduced.

  15. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update from the geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This document is a Progress and Development Update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor. It contains brief descriptions of progress made on varying projects involving the use of geothermal resources or research about geothermal systems. This article describes the following projects: Conversion of waste water to geothermal energy in Northern California, Hydrogen sulfide study in Hawaii, a new program at the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Mexico, geothermal heating of a Nevadan school, development of a geothermal fluid standard, and the broadcasting of geothermal teleconferences.

  16. Geothermal development issues: Recommendations to Deschutes County

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report discusses processes and issues related to geothermal development. It is intended to inform planners and interested individuals in Deschutes County about geothermal energy, and advise County officials as to steps that can be taken in anticipation of resource development. (ACR)

  17. Geothermal policy development program. Geothermal issues that cross county lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The principal issues related to geothermal resources for the production of electricity, which cross county lines, as well as issues which may not cross county lines but which are of common concern to the four counties in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified and described briefly. As this compilation makes clear, the generation of electricity at The Geysers does not occur in a trouble-free environment - rather, it occurs under difficult circumstances componded by jurisdictional fragmentation. These factors are recognized by grouping the issues according to whether they are Environmental, Administrative, or Planning in nature.

  18. Geothermal Field Development in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Hector Alonso

    1983-12-15

    Mexico is a Country characterized by its diversified means of Power Gerneration. Actual installed capacity is almost 19000 MW, of which 205 MW corresponds to Geothermal Plants, that is, 180 MW in Cerro Prieto and 25 MW of Portable Plants in Los Azufres. To date, 346 area with exploitation possibilites, are known. They are mainly distributed along the Volcanic Belt where the most prominent are, Los Azufres, La Primavera, Los Humeros, Ixtlan De Los Hervores and Los Negritos, among others. Proved reserves are 920 MW, and the accessible resource base are 4600 MW identified and 6000 MW undiscovered. The long range construction studies intends to achieve a total installed capacity of 100000 MW, by the end of this century, including 2000 MW Geothermal, through conventional and Portable Plants. It is not a definite program but a development strategy. The carrying out of a definite program, will depend upon the confirmation of Hypothesis made in previous studies, and the economic decisions related to the financial sources availability, and techologies to be used in the future as well.

  19. Session 19: Geothermal Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    van Rooyen, Daniel

    1983-12-01

    Among the most pressing problems constraining the development of geothermal energy is the lack of satisfactory component and system reliability. This is due to the unavailability, on a commercial scale, of cost-effective materials that can function in a wide range of geothermal environments and to the unavailability of a comprehensive body of directly related test data or materials selection experience. In 1976, the GHTD started the Geothermal Materials Program to address materials-related problems, and since 1978 Brookhaven National Laboratory has provided technical and managerial assistance in the implementation of the effort. Major successes have been attained in the development of elastomers for high-temperature applications and in the use of polymer concrete liners for corrosion protection. Both technologies have been successfully transferred to industry. Current efforts in metallic and nonmetallic materials development and corrosion protection will be summarized. In the metals area, testing of a series of experimental stainless steels has led to compositions which show a very remarkable resistance to pitting corrosion in hot chloride electrolytes. Combinations of molybdenum and nitrogen are very beneficial. Alternate materials for line shaft pump bearings have been identified through tests in simulated hot brine. Cermets and carbides show promise of extending pump life. A series of drill bit steels has been examined for fatigue and hot fracture toughness. The work has indicated alloys with properties that exceed those of materials now in use. A major finding in the nonmetallic materials area has been the development of fluorinated elastomers for use in statis seals at temperatures greater than 300 C. Field testing has just commenced, but based upon laboratory results, the work is very promising. Commercialization of this material is underway. Technology transfer of a 240 C EPDM was completed earlier. Field testing of polymer concrete-lined pipe has been

  20. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update, geothermal program monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This paper is a progress and development update describing three projects in the U.S. which involve the use of geothermal energy and ground-source heat pumps. The first project is located at Fort Polk Army Base in Louisiana. Four thousand government housing units are being retrofitted with efficient ground-soured near Bend, Oregon.

  1. Geothermal instrumentation development activities at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1985-03-01

    A major element of Sandia's Geothermal Technology Development Program is the effort directed toward development of instrumentation. This effort has two aspects, the development of high temperature components and prototype tools and the investigation of new concepts and capabilities. The focus of these activities is the acquisition of information to make geothermal drilling and resource development more efficient. Several projects of varying nature and scope make up the instrumentation development element, and this element will expand as the program emphasis on development of an advanced geothermal drilling system and the need for improved information grow. 13 refs.

  2. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  3. Low-temperature Stirling Engine for Geothermal Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, Greg; Weaver, Samuel P.

    2013-03-27

    Up to 2700 terawatt-hours per year of geothermal electricity generation capacity has been shown to be available within North America, typically with wells drilled into geologically active regions of the earth's crust where this energy is concentrated (Huttrer, 2001). Of this potential, about half is considered to have temperatures high enough for conventional (steam-based) power production, while the other half requires unconventional power conversion approaches, such as organic Rankine cycle systems or Stirling engines. If captured and converted effectively, geothermal power generation could replace up to 100GW of fossil fuel electric power generation, leading to a significant reduction of US power sector emissions. In addition, with the rapid growth of hydro-fracking in oil and gas production, there are smaller-scale distributed power generation opportunities in heated liquids that are co-produced with the main products. Since 2006, Cool Energy, Inc. (CEI) has designed, fabricated and tested four generations of low-temperature (100°C to 300°C) Stirling engine power conversion equipment. The electric power output of these engines has been demonstrated at over 2kWe and over 16% thermal conversion efficiency for an input temperature of 215°C and a rejection temperature of 15°C. Initial pilot units have been shipped to development partners for further testing and validation, and significantly larger engines (20+ kWe) have been shown to be feasible and conceptually designed. Originally intended for waste heat recovery (WHR) applications, these engines are easily adaptable to geothermal heat sources, as the heat supply temperatures are similar. Both the current and the 20+ kWe designs use novel approaches of self-lubricating, low-wear-rate bearing surfaces, non-metallic regenerators, and high-effectiveness heat exchangers. By extending CEI's current 3 kWe SolarHeart® Engine into the tens of kWe range, many additional applications are possible, as one 20 k

  4. Improvements in geothermal electric power and silica production

    DOEpatents

    Hill, J.H.; Fulk, M.M.

    Electricity is generated from hot geothermal solution by extracting heat therefrom, mineral solids which form in a so cooled geothermal solution are separated to recover minerals and facilitate reinjection of the solution into the ground. The separated solids are treated to recover silica by addition of an acid (amorphous silica precipitates) or a base (other minerals precipitate and soulble silicates are formed which are subsequently precipitated by acid neutralization). If desired, after silica is separated, other minerals can be separated and recovered.

  5. Philippine geothermal resources: General geological setting and development

    SciTech Connect

    Datuin, R.T.; Troncales, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Phillippine Archipelago has a composite geologic structure arising from the multi-stage development of volcanic-tectonic events evidenced by volcanism and seismic activity occurring along the active blocks of the major structural lines which traverse most of the major islands of the Phillipines. The widespread volcanic activity located along the active tectonic block has generated regions of high heat flow, where a vast number of potential rich geothermal resources could be exploited as an alternative source of energy. As part of a systematic geothermal development program launched by the Philippine government after the successful pilot study at the Tiwi geothermal field in 1967 by the Commission on Volcanology (now called the Philippine Institute of Volcanology-PIV), the Philippines developed four geothermal fields in the period 1972-84. These four areas, Tiwi in Albay, Mak-Ban in Laguna, Tongonan in Leyte, and Palinpinon in Southern Negros, have already contributed 891 MW installed capacity to the total electrical power supply of the country, which is mainly dependent on oil resources. The Philippines envisaged that, with its accelerated geothermal energy programme, it would be able to achieve its target of reducing the country's dependence on imported fossil fuel by about 20% within the next decade through the utilization of its vast geothermal energy resources.

  6. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  7. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  8. Near-Term Developments in Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1989-03-21

    The DOE Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling geothermal wells. Current projects include: R & D in lost circulation control, high temperature instrumentation, underground imaging with a borehole radar insulated drill pipe development for high temperature formations, and new technology for data transmission through drill pipe that can potentially greatly improve data rates for measurement while drilling systems. In addition to this work, projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization are managed. During 1988, GDO projects include developments in five areas: high temperature acoustic televiewer, pneumatic turbine, urethane foam for lost circulation control, geothermal drill pipe protectors, an improved rotary head seals.

  9. Utility company views of geothermal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The views of geothermal development from a utility company standpoint are presented. The impediments associated with such developments as required reliability and identification of risks are discussed. The utility industry historically is not a risk-taking industry. Support of rapid geothermal development by the utility industry requires identification and elimination of risks or absorption of the risks by other agencies. Suggestions as to the identification and minimization of risks are made.

  10. Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, Philip E.; Wright, Phillip M.

    1992-03-24

    The principal objective of electrical geophysical research at UURI has been to provide reliable exploration and reservoir assessment tools for the shallowest to the deepest levels of interest in geothermal fields. Three diverse methods are being considered currently: magnetotellurics (MT, and CSAMT), self-potential, and borehole resistivity. Primary shortcomings in the methods addressed have included a lack of proper interpretation tools to treat the effects of the inhomogeneous structures often encountered in geothermal systems, a lack of field data of sufficient accuracy and quantity to provide well-focused models of subsurface resistivity structure, and a poor understanding of the relation of resistivity to geothermal systems and physicochemical conditions in the earth generally. In MT, for example, interpretation research has focused successfully on the applicability of 2-D models in 3-D areas which show a preferred structural grain. Leading computer algorithms for 2-D and 3-D simulation have resulted and are combined with modern methods of regularized inversion. However, 3-D data coverage and interpretation is seen as a high priority. High data quality in our own research surveys has been assured by implementing a fully remote reference with digital FM telemetry and real-time processing with data coherence sorting. A detailed MT profile across Long Valley has mapped a caldera-wide altered tuff unit serving as the primary hydrothermal aquifer, and identified a low-resistivity body in the middle crust under the west moat which corresponds closely with teleseismic delay and low density models. In the CSAMT method, our extensive tensor survey over the Sulphur Springs geothermal system provides valuable structural information on this important thermal regime and allows a fundamental analysis of the CSAMT method in heterogeneous areas. The self-potential (SP) method is promoted as an early-stage, cost-effective, exploration technique for covered hydrothermal

  11. Geothermal development in the Pacific rim. Transactions, Volume 20

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document entitled Geothermal Development in the Pacific Rim contains the Transactions, Volume 20 of the Geothermal Resources Council, 1996 Annual Meeting. Topics of the presentations include: Air quality assessment and mitigation, District heating and other direct-uses of geothermal energy, Environmental permitting in the Pacific Rim, Geothermal exploration strategies, tools and techniques, and Focus of IEA Geothermal programs. Geothermal resources and resource development in the USA, Indonesia, Mexico, Japan, and the Philippines are highlighted. Also included is a section on Geothermal power plant design, construction, and operation, and Geothermal reservoir assessment, the key to international financing.

  12. Geothermal policy development program: expediting the local geothermal permitting process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    For a number of years, concerns have been raised about the length of time and the complexity involved in obtaining required permits in order to develop the geothermal resource at the Geysers. Perhaps the most important factor is jurisdiction. At the Geysers, all three levels of government - local, state, and federal - exercise significant authority over various aspects of geothermal development. In addition, several agencies within each governmental level play an active role in the permitting process. The present study is concerned primarily with the local permitting process, and the ways in which this process could be expedited. This report begins by looking at the local role in the overall permitting process, and then reviews the findings and conclusions that have been reached in other studies of the problem. This is followed by a case study evaluation of recent permitting experience in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties, and the report concludes by outlining several approaches to expediting the local permitting process.

  13. Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Federal program's goal, strategy, plans, and achievements are summarized. In addition, geothermal development by state and local governments and, where available, by the private sector is described. (MHR)

  14. Regulation of geothermal energy development in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.; Forman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    The regulatory system is presented in a format to help guide geothermal energy development. State, local, and federal agencies, legislation, and regulations are presented. Information sources are listed. (MHR)

  15. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: GROUND WATER MONITORING GUIDELINES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses potential ground water pollution from geothermal resource development, conversion, and waste disposal, and proposes guidelines for developing a ground water monitoring plan for any such development. Geothermal processes, borehole logging, and injection well ...

  16. Geothermal resource area 9: Nye County. Area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource area 9 encompasses all of Nye County, Nevada. Within this area there are many different known geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/ to over 265/sup 0/ F. Fifteen of the more major sites have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the resource sites discussed in this Area Development Plan were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities, and comparing those with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 15 geothermal sites considered in this Area Development Plan are summarized.

  17. Current Status of Geothermal Well Cement Development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study made in 1976 indicated that the cements used for well completion deteriorate in the geothermal environments and that the life expectancy of a well, and therefore the economics of geothermal processes, could be improved significantly if better materials were developed. On the basis of this assessment, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) helped the Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy to organize a program to develop materials that meet the estimated design criteria for geothermal well cements. The BNL work involves research on polymer cements and full management of an integrated program involving contract research and industrial participation. The program consists of the following phases: (1) problem definition, (2) cement research and development, (3) property verification, (4) downhole testing, and (5) cementing of demonstration wells.

  18. NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This document highlights the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site, including the five steps to effective geothermal policy development for geothermal electricity generation and geothermal heating and cooling technologies.

  19. Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

  20. Geothermal Research and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-25

    Results are reported on adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks, physics of injection of water into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs, earth-tide effects on downhole pressures, injection optimization at the Geysers, effects of salinity in adsorption experiments, interpreting multiwell pressure data from Ohaaki, and estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments.

  1. Geothermal energy: tomorrow's alternative today. A handbook for geothermal-energy development in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mancus, J.; Perrone, E.

    1982-08-01

    This is a general procedure guide to various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development in Delaware. The following are covered: geothermal as an alternative, resource characteristics, geology, well mechanics and pumping systems, fluid disposal, direct heat utilization-feasibility, environmental and legal issues, permits and regulations, finance and taxation, and steps necessary for geothermal development. (MHR)

  2. Status of Environmental Controls for Geothermal Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, John F.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the initial findings and recommendations of the Environmental Controls Panel to the Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC). The Panel has been charged to assess the adequacy of existing environmental controls for geothermal energy systems, to review ongoing programs to develop environmental controls, and to identify controls-related research areas where redirection of federal efforts are appropriate to assure the availability of controls on a timely basis. In its deliberations, the Panel placed greatest emphasis on the use of geothermal resources for electricity generation, the application of geothermal energy receiving greatest attention today. The Panel discussed major known environmental concerns and their potential impact on the commercialization of geothermal resources, control options, regulatory considerations, and ongoing and planned research programs. The environmental concerns reviewed in this report include: air emissions, liquid discharges, solid wastes, noise, subsidence, seismicity, and hydrological alterations. For each of these concerns a brief description of the concern, associated legislation and regulations, control approaches, federal funding trend, and the Panel's recommendations and priorities are presented. In short, the Panel recommends that controls-related research efforts be rebalanced and enhanced, with the greatest emphasis placed on controls for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and non-H{sub 2}S gaseous emissions, injection monitoring methods, systems to treat and use nongeothermal waters for environmental control purposes, solid waste characterization and management methods evaluation, and subsidence controls.

  3. Honduras geothermal development: Regulations and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Winchester, W.W.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Planning, and Evaluation funded a project to review and evaluate existing power sector laws and regulations in Honduras. Also included in the scope of the project was a review of regulations pertaining to the privatization of state-run companies. We paid particular attention to regulations which might influence opportunities to develop and commercialize Honduras` geothermal resources. We believe that Honduras is well on the road to attracting foreign investment and has planned or has already in place much of the infrastructure and legal guarantees which encourage the influx of private funds from abroad. In addition, in light of current power rationing and Honduras` new and increasing awareness of the negative effects of power sector development on the environment, geothermal energy development is even more attractive. Combined, these factors create a variety of opportunities. The potential for private sector development of geothermal positive.

  4. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Skamania County, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  5. Geothermal Materials Development, Annual Report FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    Advances in the development of new materials, the commercial availabilities of which are essential for the attainment of Hydrothermal Category Level I and II Objectives, continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Development Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, utility company sponsored full cost'' recovery programs based upon materials technology developed in this project were initiated on topics such as condensing heat exchangers, high temperature composites for utility vaults used in district heating systems, and corrosion resistant coatings for use in oil-fired electric generating processes. In FY 1991 the DOE/GD-sponsored R D project was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities being performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}- resistant well cements, chemical systems for lost circulation control, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective linear systems, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems needed for use in high temperature well drilling and safety related applications.

  6. Geothermal Materials Development. Annual report FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    Advances in the development of new materials, the commercial availabilities of which are essential for the attainment of Hydrothermal Category Level I and II Objectives, continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Development Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, utility company sponsored ``full cost`` recovery programs based upon materials technology developed in this project were initiated on topics such as condensing heat exchangers, high temperature composites for utility vaults used in district heating systems, and corrosion resistant coatings for use in oil-fired electric generating processes. In FY 1991 the DOE/GD-sponsored R&D project was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities being performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}- resistant well cements, chemical systems for lost circulation control, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective linear systems, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems needed for use in high temperature well drilling and safety related applications.

  7. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update from the geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    This article is a progress and development update of new prospects for the utilization of geothermal energy. The city of San Bernadino, California uses high-quality geothermal fluids for laundry processes without the need for water softening or heating. Four geothermal prospects in Oregon including exploration work by Amadarko, CE Exploration Company, Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, and Vulcan Power Company are also reviewed.

  8. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  10. Modeling the Risks of Geothermal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Golabi, K.; Nair, K.; Rothstein, S.; Sioshansi, F.

    1980-12-16

    Geothermal energy has emerged as a promising energy source in recent years and has received serious attention from developers and potential users. Despite the advantages of this resource, such as potential cost competitiveness, reliability, public acceptance, etc., the commercial development and use of geothermal energy has been slow. Impediments to the development of this resource include technical, financial, environmental and regulatory uncertainties. Since geothermal power is unique in that the generation facility is tied to a single fuel at a single site, these uncertainties are of particular concern to utility companies. The areas of uncertainty and potential risks are well known. This paper presents a method for quantifying the relevant uncertainties and a framework for aggregating the risks through the use of submodels. The objective submodels can be combined with subjective probabilities (when sufficient data is not available) to yield a probability distribution over a single criterion (levelized busbar cost) that can be used to compare the desirability of geothermal power development with respect to other alternatives.

  11. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  12. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Northern Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. This study identified five potential geothermal resource areas, four of which have low temperature (<90{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0}F) potential and one possible igneous system. The average population growth rate in the Northern Counties is expected to be five percent per year over the next 40 years, with Mohave and Yavapai Counties growing the fastest. Rapid growth is anticipated in all major employment sectors, including trade, service, manufacturing, mining and utilities. A regional energy use analysis is included, containing information on current energy use patterns for all user classes. Water supplies are expected to be adequate for expected growth generally, though Yavapai and Gila Counties will experience water deficiencies. A preliminary district heating analysis is included for the towns of Alpine and Springerville. Both communities are believed located on geothermal resource sites. The study also contains a section identifying potential geothermal resource users in northern Arizona.

  13. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  14. Using Geothermal Electric Power to Reduce Carbon Footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombie, George W.

    Human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, increase carbon dioxide levels, which contributes to global warming. The research problem of the current study examined if geothermal electric power could adequately replace fossil fuel by 2050, thus reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide while avoiding potential problems with expanding nuclear generation. The purpose of this experimental research was to explore under what funding and business conditions geothermal power could be exploited to replace fossil fuels, chiefly coal. Complex systems theory, along with network theory, provided the theoretical foundation for the study. Research hypotheses focused on parameters, such as funding level, exploration type, and interfaces with the existing power grid that will bring the United States closest to the goal of phasing out fossil based power by 2050. The research was conducted by means of computer simulations, using agent-based modeling, wherein data were generated and analyzed. The simulations incorporated key information about the location of geothermal resources, exploitation methods, transmission grid limits and enhancements, and demand centers and growth. The simulation suggested that rapid and aggressive deployment of geothermal power plants in high potential areas, combined with a phase out of coal and nuclear plants, would produce minimal disruptions in the supply of electrical power in the United States. The implications for social change include reduced risk of global warming for all humans on the planet, reduced pollution due to reduction or elimination of coal and nuclear power, increased stability in energy supply and prices in the United States, and increased employment of United States citizens in jobs related to domestic energy production.

  15. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  16. Hydraulic fracturing and geothermal energy development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Suyama, J.; Takahashi, H.

    1982-09-01

    This paper is a review of research and development on geothermal energy extraction in Japan especially on hydraulic fracturing. First recent geothermal developments in Japan are outlined in Part I. An increase in the production rate of geothermal wells may be highly dependent on the geothermal well stimulation technology based on hydraulic fracturing. The hydraulic fracturing technique must be developed also for geothermal energy to be extracted from hot, dry rock masses. In Part II, the research on hydraulic fracturing and field application are reviewed.

  17. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update from the geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor prepared by the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Several upcoming meetings and workshops in the field of geothermal energy and resource development are announced. Geothermal exploration and development projects in several areas are described in this document: New San Luis Valley Training Program, Fish and Alligator Ranching in Idaho, the geothermal drilling operation at Newberry Volcanic Crater near Bend, Oregon, and Australian Red Claw Lobster raised in aquaculture ponds at Belmont Hot Springs, Utah.

  18. Developments in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1992-09-01

    Disposal of toxic solid waste in an environmentally and economically acceptable way may be in some cases a major impediment to large geothermal development. The major thrust of the R&D effort in this laboratory is to develop low-cost processes for the concentration and removal of toxic materials and metals from geothermal residues. In order to accomplish this, biochemical processes elaborated by certain microorganisms which live in extreme environments have served as models for a biotechnology. It has been shown that 80% or better removal of toxic metals can be achieved at fast rates (e.g., 25 hours or less) at acidic pH and temperatures of about 60{degrees}C. There are several process variables which have to be taken into consideration in the development of such biotechnology. These include reactor size and type, strain of microorganisms, biomass growth, temperature, loading concentrations of residual geothermal sludge, and chemical nature of metal salts present. Recent data generated by the research and development effort associated with the emerging biotechnology will be presented and discussed.

  19. An Overview of Geothermal Development in Tiwi and Mak-Ban, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, G.D.

    1980-12-16

    Commercial-scale geothermal development in the Philippines began i n 1972 with the completion of the discovery well in the southeastern portion of Luzon Island. A second geothermal anomaly was discovered i n 1975 on the southern flank of Mt . Makiling, forty miles south of Manila. Both fields are being developed and operated by Philippine Geothermal, Inc. (PGI) , a wholly-owned subsidiary of Union Oil Company of California. Currently the Philippines ranks second worldwide in installed geothermal-powered electrical generation capacity with 443 MW and PGI has developed 440 PW of the 443 MW country total. Additional generation capacity is planned or under construction in both fields. Over 1.9 billion kilowatt-hours of electrical power have been produced to date. This represents a savings of approximately three million barrels of imported fuel oil for power generation.

  20. Imperial County geothermal development. Quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The activities of the Geothermal Office during the quarter are discussed, including: important geothermal events, geothermal waste disposal, a grant award by the California Energy Commission, the geothermal development meeting, and the current status of geothermal development in Imperial County. Activities of the Geothermal Planner are addressed, including permits, processing of EIR's, and other planning activities. Progress on the direct heat study is reported.

  1. Recent Developments in Geothermal Drilling Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J. R.; Rand, P. B.; Nevins, M. J.; Clements, W. R.; Hilscher, L. W.; Remont, L. J.; Matula, G. W.; Balley, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, standard drilling muds have been used to drill most geothermal wells. However, the harsh thermal and chemical environment and the unique geothermal formations have led to such problems as excessive thickening of the fluid, formation damage, and lost circulation. This paper describes three recent development efforts aimed at solving some of these drilling fluid problems. Each of the efforts is at a different stage of development. The Sandia aqueous foam studies are still in the laboratory phase, NL Baroid's polymeric deflocculant is soon to be field tested, and the Mudtech high-temperature mud was field tested several months ago. Low density and the capability to suspend particles at low relative velocities are two factors which make foam an attractive drilling fluid. The stability of these foams and their material properties at high temperatures are presently unknown and this lack of information has precluded their use as a geothermal drilling fluid. The aqueous foam studies being conducted at Sandia are aimed at screening available surfactants for temperature and chemical stability. Approximately 100 surfactants have been tested at temperatures of 260 and 310 C (500 and 590 F), and several of these candidates appear very promising. NL Baroid has developed a polymeric deflocculant for water-based muds which shows promise in retarding thermal degradation effects and associated gelation. Formulations containing this new polymer have shown good rheological properties up to 260 C (500 F) in laboratory testing. A high-temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has been developed by Mudtech, Inc. A field test of this mud was conducted in a geothermal well in the Imperial Valley of California in May 1980. The fluid exhibited good hole-cleaning characteristics and good rheological properties throughout the test.

  2. Geothermal developments in the Philippines, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, D.F.X.

    1980-09-01

    The Philippines installed a 3MW geothermal in 1977, 55 MW in 1978, and 165 MW in 1979 and proposes to install 223 MW during 1980 to bring it's total installed geothermal generating capacity to 446 MW. An additional 223 MW geothermal has been proven and a goal of 1261 MW has been set for 1989 from eight geothermal fields.

  3. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D.

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  4. Geothermal development in the U.S.A. and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.M.

    1998-10-01

    The geothermal industry presently has an operating generation capacity of about 2,300 megawatts and generates about 17 billion kilowatt-hours per year in the United States. Although the domestic market is stagnant due to restructuring of the electricity industry and to the very low competing price of natural gas, the industry is doing well by developing geothermal fields and power plants in the Philippines and Indonesia. The industry strongly supports the Department of Energy research program to develop new and improved technology and help lower the costs of geothermal power generation.

  5. Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Struhsacker, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

  6. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  7. Environmental overview for the development of geothermal resources in the State of New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.; Starkey, A.H.; Dick-Peddie, W.A.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview of the present day geothermal applications for hydrothermal electrical generation and direct heat use and their environmental implications is provided. Technologies and environmental impacts are considered at all points on the pathway of development resource exploration; well field, plant and transmission line construction; and plant operation. The technologies for electrical generation-direct, dry steam conversion; separated steam conversion; single-flash conversion, separated-steam/single-flash conversion and binary cycle conversion and the technologies for direct heat use - direct use of geothermal waters, surface heat exhanger, down-the hole heat exchanger and heat pump are described. A summary of the geothermal technologies planned or in operation within New Mexico geothermal areas is provided. A review of regulations that affect geothermal development and its related environmental impact in New Mexico is presented. The regulatory pathway, both state and federal, of geothermal exploration after the securing of appropriate leases, development, and construction and implementation of a geothermal facility are described. Six categories (Geophysical, Water, Air, Noise, Biota and Socioeconomics) were selected for environmental assessment. The data available is described.

  8. Imperial County geothermal development. Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-31

    The activities of the Geothermal Office are reported including: important geothermal events, geothermal waste disposal, grant applications to the California Energy Commission, the planned geothermal development meeting, and other geothermal planning activities. The activities of the Geothermal Planner include processing of applications for geothermal permits, processing of environmental impact reports, and other geothermal planning activities. The progress on the VTN Corporation direct heat study is discussed.

  9. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Young, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration. In this paper, we Provide generalized background information on CXs, including previous NEPA reports addressing CXs, the process for developing CXs, and the role of extraordinary circumstances; Examine the history of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) geothermal CXs;Compare current CXs for oil, gas, and geothermal energy; Describe bills proposing new statutory CXs; Examine the possibility of standardizing geothermal CXs across federal agencies; and Present analysis from the Geothermal NEPA Database and other sources on the potential for new geothermal exploration CXs. As part of this study, we reviewed Environmental Assessments (EAs) conducted in response to 20 geothermal exploration drilling permit applications (Geothermal Drilling Permits or Notices of Intents) since the year 2001, the majority of which are from the last 5 years. All 20 EAs reviewed for this study resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). While many of these FONSI's involved proponent proposed or federal agency required mitigation, this still suggests it may be appropriate to create or expand an exploration drilling CX for geothermal, which would have a significant impact on reducing geothermal exploration timelines and up-front costs. Ultimately, federal agencies tasked with permitting and completing environmental

  10. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  11. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R and D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O and M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R and D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with US geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  12. Enhanced Geothermal System Development of the AmeriCulture Leasehold in the Animas Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, David V; Seawright, Gary L; Sewright, Damon E; Brown, Don; Witcher, James c.; Nichols, Kenneth E.

    2001-03-02

    Working under the grant with AmeriCulture, Inc., and its team of geothermal experts, assembled a plan to apply enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) techniques to increase both the temperature and flow rate of the geothermal waters on its leasehold. AmeriCulture operates a commercial aquaculture facility that will benefit from the larger quantities of thermal energy and low cost electric power that EGS technology can provide. The project brought together a team of specialists that, as a group, provided the full range of expertise required to successfully develop and implement the project.

  13. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  14. Time frames for geothermal project development

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, David W.

    2001-04-17

    Geothermal development can generally be broken down into distinct phases: Exploration and Leasing; Project Development And Feasibility Studies; Well Field Development; Project Finance, Construction and Start-up Operations; and Commercial Operations. Each phase represents different levels of cost and risk and different types of management teams that are needed to assess and manage the project and associated risk. Orderly transitions of management at each major phase are needed. Exploration programs are largely science based, the primary focus of the science based investigations should be to: secure the lease position, and develop sufficient information to identify and characterize an economical geothermal resource. Project development specialists build on the exploration data to: pull together a project design, develop a detailed cost estimate; prepare an environmental assessment; and collect all data needed for project financing. Construction specialist build from the development phase to: develop detailed engineering, procure equipment and materials, schedule and manage the facilities construction programs, and start and test the power plant. Operations specialists take over from construction during start-up and are responsible for sustainable and reliable operations of the resource and power generation equipment over the life of the project.

  15. Program planner's guide to geothermal development in California

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, W.W.S.; Chambers, D.M.; Elliott, J.F.; Whittier, J.P.; Schnoor, J.J.; Blachman, S.

    1980-09-30

    The resource base, status of geothermal development activities, and the state's energy flow are summarized. The present and projected geothermal share of the energy market is discussed. The public and private sector initiatives supporting geothermal development in California are described. These include legislation to provide economic incentives, streamline regulation, and provide planning assistance to local communities. Private sector investment, research, and development activities are also described. The appendices provide a ready reference of financial incentives. (MHR)

  16. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a ''bellwether'' installation for entrepreneurs to see, touch, and

  17. Geothermal institutional handbook for the State of Wyoming: a user's guide of agencies regulations, permits and aids for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Aspinwall, C.; Caplan, J.; James, R.; Marcotte, K.

    1980-05-01

    The agencies involved in geothermal development are listed and individually described. A summary of existing geothermal resource laws and their statute numbers are given followed by a discussion on the problems associated with them. The local agencies and their regulations of geothermal development are discussed. The local, state, and federal agencies directly involved in geothermal development and their permitting requirements are tabulated. Some step-by-step instructions for determining what permits are necessary for developing a specific geothermal resource are given. A list of selected references and a list of additional resources for geothermal information and referral are included. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  19. Development of geothermal power engineering technologies in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Nikol'Skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2009-11-01

    The present state of geothermal power engineering in Russia and prospects for its development are considered. An assessment is given of the projects of constructing a pilot binary geothermal power plant in Kamchatka, developing geothermal heat supply systems in the town of Vilyuchinsk and settlement of Rozovyi, and increasing the installed capacity of the Mutnovsk geothermal power station, which are the top-priority projects implemented by OAO RusGidro with scientific and technical support from ZAO GEOINKOM and ZAO Geoterm-EM.

  20. An Economic Analysis of the Kilauea Geothermal Development and Inter-Island Cable Project

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    A study by NEA completed in April 1987 shows that a large scale (500 MW) geothermal development on the big island of Hawaii and the inter-island power transmission cable is economically infeasible. This updated report, utilizing additional information available since 1987, reaches the same conclusion: (1) The state estimate of $1.7 billion for development cost of the geothermal project is low and extremely optimistic. more realistic development costs are shown to be in the range of $3.4 to $4.3 billion and could go as high as $4.6 billion. (2) Compared to alternative sources of power generation, geothermal can be 1.7 to 2.4 times as costly as oil, and 1.2 to 1.7 times as costly as a solar/oil generating system. (3) yearly operation and maintenance costs for the large scale geothermal project are estimated to be 44.7 million, 72% greater than a solar/oil generating system. (4) Over a 40-year period ratepayers could pay, on average, between 1.3 (17.2%) and 2.4 cents (33%) per kWh per year more for electricity produced by geothermal than they are currently paying (even with oil prices stabilizing at $45 per barrel in 2010). (5) A comparable solar/oil thermal energy development project is technologically feasible, could be island specific, and would cost 20% to 40% less than the proposed geothermal development. (6) Conservation is the cheapest alternative of all, can significantly reduce demand, and provides the greatest return to ratepayers. There are better options than geothermal. Before the State commits the people of Hawaii to future indebtedness and unnecessary electricity rate increases, more specific study should be conducted on the economic feasibility, timing, and magnitude of the geothermal project. The California experience at The Geyers points up the fact that it can be a very risky and disappointing proposition. The state should demand that proponents and developers provide specific answers to geothermals troubling questions before they make an

  1. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power from the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  2. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power frommore » the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  3. Development history of the Tiwi geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Gambill, D.T.; Beraquit, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Commercial production of electricity from the Tiwi geothermal system began in 1979. In 1982, Tiwi became the world`s first water-dominated system to produce more than 160 MWe. Today the field supplies about 11% of Luzon`s electricity. Initially, the reservoir was single-phase liquid with a small, shallow steam zone on the east side. Temperature reversals in the first wells showed the east to be an outflow zone. As production began, reservoir pressure declined, two-phase conditions developed, and groundwater entered the reservoir from the east. As many productions wells cooled, brine production increased and generation decreased from about 280 MWe in 1983 to about 190 MWe in 1986. Improvements to surface facilities and new wells drilled farther west raised generation to about 280 MWe by mid-1993. Separated brine was first injected into the reservoir, but this lowered steam production; injection is now outside the field.

  4. Geothermal resource area 3: Elko County. Area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 3 includes all of the land in Elko County, Nevada. There are in excess of 50 known thermal anomalies in this area. Several of the more major resources have been selected for detailed description and evaluation in this Area Development Plan. The other resources are considered too small, too low in temperature, or too remote to be considered for development in the near future. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the studied resource sites in Elko County were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics; the land ownership and land use patterns; existing population and projected growth rates; transportation facilities and energy requirements. These factors were then compared with resource site specific data to determine the most likely uses of the resource. The uses considered in this evaluation were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories several subdivisions were considered separately. It was determined that several of the geothermal resources evaluated in the Area Development Plan could be commercially developed. The potential for development for the seven sites considered in this study is summarized.

  5. Cumulative impacts study of The Geysers KGRA: public-service impacts of geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, K.M.

    1982-05-01

    Geothermal development in The Geysers KGRA has affected local public services and fiscal resources in Sonoma, Lake, Mendocino, and Napa counties. Each of these counties underwent rapid population growth between 1970 and 1980, some of which can be attributed to geothermal development. The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in The Geysers is identified. Using three different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in The Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdictions are examined and compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed, and a framework is presented for calculating mitigation costs per unit of public service.

  6. Overview of Proposed Geothermal Development in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-15

    During the four hours of the public meeting held by the State Department of Business and Economic Development (DBED) in Maui in November 1989, not one of the 200 persons present spoke in favor of geothermal development on the Big Island to supply power to Oahu. However, we were all sure after the meeting that the State would proceed on its course to develop the project in spite of any public concerns. This situation we find incredible considering there are many unanswered questions on a subject of paramount importance to the economic and environmental well being of all of us. Our concerns are well expressed in the editorial of The Maui News, December 10, 1989 . We wish to set the record straight with some facts from an economic, financial and utility planning viewpoint, recognizing also the potentially serious social, health and other environmental impacts.

  7. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  8. Present Status and Future Prospects of Geothermal Development in Italy with an Appendix on Reservoir Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldi, R.; Calamai, A.; Neri, G.; Manetti, G.

    1983-12-15

    This paper consists of two parts and an appendix. In the first part a review is made of the geothermal activity in Italy from 1975 to 1982, including electrical and non-electrical applications. Remarks then follow on the trends that occurred and the operational criteria that were applied in the same period, which can be considered a transitional period of geothermal development in Italy. Information on recent trends and development objectives up to 1990 are given in the second part of the paper, together with a summary on program activities in the various geothermal areas of Italy. The appendix specifically reviews the main reseroir engineering activities carried out in the past years and the problems likely to be faced in the coming years in developing Itallian fields.

  9. High Temperature Geothermal Elastomer Compund Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasuna, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Reliable casting packer seal elastomers for the unusually severe geothermal environment at 260 C (500 F) did not exist in 1976. L'Garde, Inc., was awarded a contract to fulfill this need by the US Department of Energy. Successful development was completed in 1979. Compounds based on four different polymer systems were developed, all of which exceed the contract requirements. Successful laboratory tests above 300 C (575 F) have been performed with packer seals. Field tests to temperatures as high as 317 C (603 F) have been performed on static O-rings in a cablehead. Successful, dynamic, drill bit seal tests were run with a presoak temperature of 288 C (550 F). The successful compounds are based on the following polymer systems: EPDM; FKM; EPDM/FKM blend, and propylene-TFE.

  10. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  11. Institutional and environmental problems in geothermal resource development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslan, F.; Gordon, T. J.; Deitch, L.

    1974-01-01

    A number of regulatory and institutional impediments to the development of geothermal energy exist. None of these seem likely to prevent the development of this energy source, but in the aggregate they will pace its growth as certainly as the technological issues. The issues are associated with the encouragement of exploration and development, assuring a market for geothermal steam or hot water, and accomplishing the required research and development in a timely manner. The development of geothermal energy in the United States at a high level is apt to cause both favorable and unfavorable, though manageable, impacts in eight major areas, which are discussed.

  12. Overview of Geothermal Development at Olkaria in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Svanbjornsson, Andres; Matthiasson, Jonas; Frimannsson, Hreinn; Arnorsson, Stefan; Rjornsson, Sveinbjorn; Stefansson, Valqarour; Samundsson, Kristjan

    1983-12-15

    The Olkaria geothermal field has been under continuous development since 1970. A feasibility study, completed in 1976, after six wells had been drilled and tested, indicated that development of the Olkaria field was feasible. The feasibility study was followed by production drilling and the construction of three 15 MW generating units. The first unit was brought on stream in July 1981, the second in December, 1982, and the third is scheduled to be completed in early 1985. The current output of 19 productive wells is equivalent to 46 MWe. Distribution of fumaroles and resistivity surveys indicate an areal extent of some 80 km{sup 2} for the Olkaria geothermal field. Gas chemistry of fumaroles indicates comparable underground temperatures over the whole field, 200-250{degrees}C. The capacity of the resource has been estimated to be 500-1000 MW electric for a production period of 25 years. Most of the drilling has been confined to a small part of the geothermal field. Here maximum recorded downhole temperature is 339{degrees}C and temperatures follow the boiling point curve with depth. A thin steam zone at 240{degrees}C is observed in the top of the reservoir at approximately 600-700 m depth. The reservoir fluid is dilute, of the sodium chloride type, contains chloride in the range of 200-700 ppm. The reservoir rocks consist of a sequence of near horizontal lavas and tuffs of trachytic composition, but basaltic andesites have also beenidentified. The drilled rocks at Olkaria are of relatively low permeability, the average yield of wells being equivalent to about 2.5 MWe. Exploratory drilling is presently in porgress in the Olkaria field, the aim being to locate new production areas withing the field. Three holes have been completed and the forth and last hole under the present plan is being drilled.

  13. National forecast for geothermal resource exploration and development with techniques for policy analysis and resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Shimamoto, G.T.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.; Finan, W.F.; Smith, M.R.; Edeistein, R.H.

    1982-03-31

    The backgrund, structure and use of modern forecasting methods for estimating the future development of geothermal energy in the United States are documented. The forecasting instrument may be divided into two sequential submodels. The first predicts the timing and quality of future geothermal resource discoveries from an underlying resource base. This resource base represents an expansion of the widely-publicized USGS Circular 790. The second submodel forecasts the rate and extent of utilization of geothermal resource discoveries. It is based on the joint investment behavior of resource developers and potential users as statistically determined from extensive industry interviews. It is concluded that geothermal resource development, especially for electric power development, will play an increasingly significant role in meeting US energy demands over the next 2 decades. Depending on the extent of R and D achievements in related areas of geosciences and technology, expected geothermal power development will reach between 7700 and 17300 Mwe by the year 2000. This represents between 8 and 18% of the expected electric energy demand (GWh) in western and northwestern states.

  14. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  15. Research and Development Program Plan for Geopressure-Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the Geopressure-Geothermal Program of the Division of Geothermal Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, is to determine by the end of FY86 the magnitude and economic potential of the geopressure-geothermal resources. This Program Plan describes how the Department of Energy proposes to achieve this objective. The main purposes of the current program are to narrow the range of uncertainty on the potential recovery of energy from the geopressure-geothermal resources and to ensure the timely development of these resources as the potential is demonstrated. For these purposes, the Division of Geothermal Energy has established the following objectives: (1) Define the magnitude, potential, and economics of the resources. (2) Conduct supporting research on reservoir and fluid characteristics. (3) Adapt or develop downhole, surface, and disposal technology. (4) Identify and mitigate adverse environmental, legal, and institutional issues in order to promote commercialization.

  16. A Technology Roadmap for Strategic Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ziagos, John; Phillips, Benjamin R.; Boyd, Lauren; Jelacic, Allan; Stillman, Greg; Hass, Eric

    2013-02-13

    Realization of EGS development would make geothermal a significant contender in the renewable energy portfolio, on the order of 100+ GWe in the United States alone. While up to 90% of the geothermal power resource in the United States is thought to reside in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), hurdles to commercial development still remain. The Geothermal Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began in 2011 to outline opportunities for advancing EGS technologies on five- to 20-year timescales, with community input on the underlying technology needs that will guide research and ultimately determine commercial success for EGS. This report traces DOE's research investments, past and present, and ties them to these technology needs, forming the basis for an EGS Technology Roadmap to help guide future DOE research. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  17. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  18. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  19. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  20. Mining earth's heat: Development of hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, R.A.; Becker, N.A.

    1983-07-01

    Geothermal energy is commonly considered to be available only in areas characterized by hot springs and geysers. However, the rock of the earth is hot at accessible depths everywhere, and this energy source is present beneath the surface in almost any location. The energy-extraction concept of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Program as initially developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is to ''mine'' this heat by creating a man-made reservoir in low-permeability, hot basement rock. This concept has been successfully proven at Fenton Hill in northern New Mexico by drilling two holes to a depth of approximately 3 km (10,000 ft) and a bottom temperature of 200/sup 0/C (392/sup 0/F), then connecting the boreholes with a large diameter, vertical hydraulic fracture. Water is circulated down one borehole, heated by the hot rock, and rises up the second borehole to the surface where the heat is extracted and the cooled water is reinjected into the underground circulation loop. This system has operated for a cumulative 416 days during engineering and reservoir testing. An energy equivalent of 3 to 5 MW(t) was produced without adverse environmental problems. During one test, a generator was installed in the circulation loop and produced 60 kw of electricity.

  1. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  2. Recent developments in geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.; Rand, P.B.; Nevins, M.J.; Clements, W.R.; Hilscher, L.W.; Remont, L.J.; Matula, G.W.; Bailey, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Three recent development efforts are described, aimed at solving some of these drilling fluid problems. The Sandia aqueous foam studies are still in the laboratory phase; NL Baroid's polymeric deflocculant is being field tested; and the Mudtech high temperature mud was field tested several months ago. The aqueous foam studies are aimed at screening available surfactants for temperture and chemical stability. Approximately 100 surfactants have been tested at temperatures of 260/sup 0/C and 310/sup 0/C and several of these candidates appear very promising. A polymeric deflocculant was developed for water-based muds which shows promise in laboratory tests of retarding thermal degradation effects and associated gelation. Formulations containing this new polymer have shown good rheological properties up to 500/sup 0/F. A high temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has been developed. A field test of this mud was conducted in a geothermal well in the Imperial Valley of California in May of last year. The fluid exhibited good hole-cleaning characteristics and good rheological properties throughout the test. (MHR)

  3. Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

  4. Local population impacts of geothermal energy development in the Geysers: Calistoga region

    SciTech Connect

    Haven, K.F.; Berg, V.; Ladson, Y.W.

    1980-09-01

    The country-level population increase implications of two long-term geothermal development scenarios for the Geysers region in California are addressed. This region is defined to include the counties of Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino and Napa, all four in northern California. The development scenarios include two components: development for electrical energy production and direct use applications. Electrical production scenarios are derived by incorporating current development patterns into previous development scenarios by both industry and research organizations. The scenarios are made county-specific, specific to the type of geothermal system constructed, and are projected through the year 2000. Separate high growth rate and low growth rate scenarios are developed, based on a set of specified assumptions. Direct use scenarios are estimated from the nature of the available resource, existing local economic and demographic patterns, and available experience with various separate direct use options. From the composite development scenarios, required numbers of direct and indirect employees and the resultant in-migration patterns are estimated. In-migration patterns are compared to current county level population and ongoing trends in the county population change for each of the four counties. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions of geothermal resource development to future population levels and the significance of geothermally induced population increase from a county planning perspective.

  5. Further Developments on the Geothermal System Scoping Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Antkowiak, M.; Sargent, R.; Geiger, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses further developments and refinements for the uses of the Geothermal System Scoping Model in an effort to provide a means for performing a variety of trade-off analyses of surface and subsurface parameters, sensitivity analyses, and other systems engineering studies in order to better inform R&D direction and investment for the development of geothermal power into a major contributor to the U.S. energy supply.

  6. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

  7. Solicitation - Geothermal Drilling Development and Well Maintenance Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    Energy (DOE)-industry research and development (R and D) organization, sponsors near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling and well maintenance costs. Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) administers DOE funds for GDO cost-shared projects and provides technical support. The GDO serves a very important function in fostering geothermal development. It encourages commercialization of emerging, cost-reducing drilling technologies, while fostering a spirit of cooperation among various segments of the geothermal industry. For Sandia, the GDO also serves as a means of identifying the geothermal industry's drilling fuel/or well maintenance problems, and provides an important forum for technology transfer. Successfully completed GDO projects include: the development of a high-temperature borehole televiewer, high-temperature rotating head rubbers, a retrievable whipstock, and a high-temperature/high-pressure valve-changing tool. Ongoing GDO projects include technology for stemming lost circulation; foam cement integrity log interpretation, insulated drill pipe, percussive mud hammers for geothermal drilling, a high-temperature/ high-pressure valve changing tool assembly (adding a milling capability), deformed casing remediation, high- temperature steering tools, diagnostic instrumentation for casing in geothermal wells, and elastomeric casing protectors.

  8. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  9. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  10. Development and utilization of geothermal energy in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.

    1981-10-01

    Japan has about 10% of all active volcanoes in the world. In 1966, Azuma Kako Co., Ltd. (present Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd.) constructed Japan's first geothermal power plant of 20 MW. Since 1966, several geothermal power plants have been constructed in Kyushu and Northeast Japan. At present there exist six power plants amounting to 162 MW in total. One more power plant is now under construction in Hokkaido, expected to begin operation in fall 1982. All six geothermal power plants are located in national parks. Two of them are expected to be doubled in near future. Now the developers, amounting to about ten, are implementing their surveys mainly outside the parks, and it is forecast that in 1985 400 MW and in 1990 1400 MW power will be obtained by geothermal energy.

  11. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region.

  12. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  13. Status of non-electric use of geothermal energy in the Southern Negros geothermal field in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, S.E.; Abito, G.F.

    1994-07-01

    A 1-MWt multi-crop drying facility using low-enthalpy waste geothermal heat is installed within the vicinity of the Southern Negros Geothermal Project (January, 1994). The plant is envisioned to demonstrate the direct use of geothermal resources for agro-industrial purposes and at the same time, provide major benefits by raising the quality of the agro-industrial products to meet higher standards. The development and design of the heat exchangers that supply the heat and the dryer used in the facility is presented. The process flow and the dryer parameters in the drying of coconut meat and other crops have been determined. The initial design of the dryers target the dehydration of coconut meat and other crops using boxes and trays.

  14. Active and passive seismic studies of geothermal resources in New Mexico and investigations of earthquake hazards to geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, P.; Daggett, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic data were collected in southwestern New Mexico to investigate the sources of the geothermal anomalies and to investigate the potential earthquake hazards of geothermal development. No major crustal structure anomalies have been located related to known geothermal resources, and no areas of continual seismicity have been identified, which is interpreted to indicate a lack of active, or recently active crustal intrusions in southwestern New Mexico. Without a magnetic heat source, the geothermal potential of the known anomalies is probably limited to intermediate and low temperature applications (<180/sup 0/C). The lack of continual seismicity indicates low seismic hazard in the area directly related to geothermal development, although the historic and geologically recent tectonic activity should be taken into consideration during any development in the area. A model of forced groundwater convection is presented to explain the geothermal anomalies in southwestern New Mexico, which is consistent with all available geological and geophysical data from the area.

  15. Geothermal Resource Area 6: Lander and Eureka Counties. Area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.; Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 6 includes Lander and Eureka Counties. There are several different geothermal resources ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/F to in excess of 400/sup 0/F within this two county area. Eleven of these resources are considered major and have been selected for evaluation in this area development plan. The various potential uses of the energy found at each of the 11 resource sites were determined after evaluating the study area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities. These were then compared with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the geothermal sites considered are summarized.

  16. Colorado geothermal commercialization program: community development of geothermal energy in Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    A district heating system for the Pagosa Springs central business district is in the planning stage. A detailed analysis of the project is presented. It comprises area and site specific studies and describes in detail the recent, current, anticipated, and postulated geothermal development activities. (MHR)

  17. National Geothermal Data System: A Geothermal Data System for Exploration and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Lee; Richard, Stephen; Patten, Kim; Love, Diane; Coleman, Celia; Chen, Genhan

    2012-09-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Data System (GDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. A growing set of more than thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define standardized interchange formats for: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, seismic event hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature description data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal characterization, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed based on existing community datasets to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate content quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other GDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, Southern Methodist University, Oregon Institute of Technology, Stanford University, the University of Utah) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to

  18. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests.

  19. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  20. Comparison of 1-Dimensional and 2- Dimensional Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Results in Geothermal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakmak, Olcay; Uyanık, Osman

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed in a geothermal area in Denizli-Turkey. All measures were taken in 2013 along to three months. VES measurements were taken throughout 3 profiles of parallel to each other in geothermal area. Distance of between profiles was selected as 500m. Each of the VES point lengths were taken as between 3-4km in a total of taken 90 number VES measurements. Also distance between the VES points was selected as 250m. Extensional direction of VES point of inside the same profile was designed to be suitable for two-dimensional. Measurements were evaluated as one-dimensional (1D) and after this two-dimensional (2D) then evaluation results were discussed. The geothermal reservoir depth was investigated and was tried to identify potential mechanical borehole locations depending on 1D and 2D evaluation results. Keywords: Geothermal Area, Vertical Electrical Sounding, 1D-2D resistivity results

  1. Geothermal power development: 1984 overview and update

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1984-10-01

    The status of geothermal power plants as of mid-1984 is given. There are 15 countries with active plants, and France (Guadeloupe) is expected to join the roster in the near future. The total number of operating units (defined as individual turbo-generator sets) is 145; the total installed capacity is somewhat less than 3770 MW. If plans for additional plants are met, the total could jump by more than 200 MW over the next two years. Recent growth is presented and the worldwide installed capacity is traced. A graphic portrayal of the growth pattern is presented. The countries that will be most responsible for sustaining this growth are the US, the Philippines, Mexico, and Indonesia. Other countries that will contribute significantly include Italy, Japan, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Turkey. The following countries do not now have any geothermal plants but may bring some online by 1990: Guatemala, Costa Rica, Greece, St. Lucia, Thailand, and Ethiopia.

  2. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  3. Geothermal energy program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  4. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines current developments

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.

    1997-03-10

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the R&D effort allowed to identify a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became a basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource and therefore differs, the emerging technology has to be also flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  5. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Current developments

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Bajsarowicz, V.; McCloud, M.

    1997-07-07

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the r and D effort identified a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became the basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource, the emerging technology has to be flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  6. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Reservoir Model Development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce A.; Birdsell, Stephen A.

    1989-03-21

    Discrete fracture and continuum models are being developed to simulate Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal reservoirs. The discrete fracture model is a two-dimensional steady state simulator of fluid flow and tracer transport in a fracture network which is generated from assumed statistical properties of the fractures. The model's strength lies in its ability to compute the steady state pressure drop and tracer response in a realistic network of interconnected fractures. The continuum approach models fracture behavior by treating permeability and porosity as functions of temperature and effective stress. With this model it is practical to model transient behavior as well as the coupled processes of fluid flow, heat transfer, and stress effects in a three-dimensional system. The model capabilities being developed will also have applications in conventional geothermal systems undergoing reinjection and in fractured geothermal reservoirs in general.

  7. Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir model development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Discrete fracture and continuum models are being developed to simulate Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal reservoirs. The discrete fracture model is a two-dimensional steady state simulator of fluid flow and tracer transport in a fracture network which is generated from assumed statistical properties of the fractures. The model's strength lies in its ability to compute the steady state pressure drop and tracer response in a realistic network of interconnected fractures. The continuum approach models fracture behavior by treating permeability and porosity as functions of temperature and effective stress. With this model it is practical to model transient behavior as well as the coupled processes of fluid flow, heat transfer, and stress effects in a three-dimensional system. The model capabilities being developed will also have applications in conventional geothermal systems undergoing reinjection and in fractured geothermal reservoirs in general. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A number of new ideas for geothermal power development and use have been proposed or initiated. British engineers have proposed using North Sea oil rigs as geothermal power stations. These stations would use the low temperature heat from the water that now occupies the former oil reservoirs to generate electricity. NASA recently retrofitted its engine test facility to enable it to use warm water from an underground aquifer as source water in a heat pump. A major policy guideline regarding electricity is issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) every two years. This year, CEC appears to be revising its method for determining the total societal cost of various electricity supply options. The change may impact geothermal energy usage in a positive way. Virtually untapped geothermal resources in Preston, Idaho will be utilized for warm water catfish farming. Stockton State College in New Jersey will be the site of one of the nation's largest geothermal projects when it is completed in 1993. It is designed to satisfy the college's energy requirements at an estimated cost savings of $300,000 per year. Aquaculture projects using thermal springs are under consideration in Utah and Washington State. Utah may be the site of an alligator farm and Washington State is being considered for raising golden tilapia, a food fish.

  9. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    A state-by-state review of major geothermal-development activities during 1982 is presented. It also inlcudes a summary of recent drilling and exploration efforts and the results of the 1982 leasing program. Two complementary sections feature an update of geothermal direct-use applications and a site-by-site summary of US geothermal electric-power development.

  10. The geothermal power organization

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  11. Power-cycle studies for a geothermal electric plant for MX operating bases

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Kochan, R.J.

    1981-11-01

    Binary geothermal plants were investigated for providing electrical power for MX missile bases. A number of pure hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures were evaluated as working fluids for geothermal resource temperatures of 365, 400, and 450/sup 0/F. Cycle thermodynamic analyses were conducted for pure geothermal plants and for two types of coal-geothermal hybrid plants. Cycle performance results were presented as net geofluid effectiveness (net plant output in watts per geofluid flow in 1 bm/hr) and cooling water makeup effectiveness (net plant output in watts per makeup water flow in 1 bm/hr). A working fluid containing 90% (mass) isobutane/10% hexane was selected, and plant statepoints and energy balances were determined for 20MW(e) geothermal plants at each of the three resource temperatures. Working fluid heaters and condensers were sized for these plants. It is concluded that for the advanced plants investigated, geothermal resources in the 365 to 450/sup 0/F range can provide useful energy for powering MX missile bases.

  12. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: AN APPROACH TO GROUNDWATER IMPACTS FROM DEVELOPMENT, CONVERSION, AND WASTE DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater monitoring for the impacts of geothermal energy development, conversion and waste disposal is similar to groundwater monitoring for other purposes except that additional information is needed concerning the geothermal reservoir. The research described here developed a...

  13. Imperial County geothermal development. Quarterly report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning; and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. Field inspections will cover the four new wells drilled by Magma at the Salton Sea in preparation for 28 MW power plant, the progress at Sperry at East Mesa, and the two on-line power plants in East Mesa and North Brawley. Evaluation of cooperative efforts will cover the Geothermal Subsidence Detection Network Resurvey, Master EIR for the Salton Sea and the Annual Imperial County Geothermal meeting. The status of Geothermal development throughout the County will cover existing proposed facilities. The summary of the Geothermal meeting (Appendix A) will also provide the status of several projects. Geothermal Planning addresses the EIR Notice of Exemption from CEQA, progress on the Master EIR for the Salton Sea, and the EIR for Phillips Petroleum for 6 exploratory wells in the Truckhaven area. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the Department of Energy Region IX meeting hosted by Imperial County, the Annual Imperial County Geothermal meeting, Class II-1 geothermal hazardous waste disposal siting study, and Imperial County Geothermal Direct Heat Study.

  14. Development and evaluation of elastomeric materials for geothermal applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Kalfayan, S. H.; Reilly, W. W.; Ingham, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A material for a casing packer for service for 24 hours in a geothermal environment was developed by synthesis of new elastomers and formulation of available materials. Formulation included use of commercial elastomer gumstocks and also crosslinking of plastic (high Tg) materials. Fibrous reinforcement of fluorocarbon rubbers was emphasized. Organic fiber reinforcement did not increase hot properties significantly. Glass fiber reinforcement gave significant increase in tensile properties. Elongation was reduced, and the glass-reinforced composition examined so far did not hold up well in the geothermal environment. Colloidal asbestos fibers were also investigated. A few experiments with polyphenyl ether gave material with low tensile and high compression set. Available high styrene SBR compositions were studied. Work to date suggests that new synthetic polymers will be required for service in geothermal environments.

  15. Geothermal resource area 11, Clark County area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 11 includes all of the land in Clark County, Nevada. Within this area are nine geothermal anomalies: Moapa Area, Las Vegas Valley, Black Canyon, Virgin River Narrows, Roger's Springs, Indian Springs, White Rock Springs, Brown's Spring, and Ash Creek Spring. All of the geothermal resources in Clark County have relatively low temperatures. The highest recorded temperature is 145{sup 0}F at Black Canyon. The temperatures of the other resources range from 70 to 90{sup 0}F. Because of the low temperature of the resources and, for the most part, the distance of the resources from any population base, the potential for the development of the resources are considered to be somewhat limited.

  16. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  17. Evaluation of state taxes and tax incentives and their impact on the development of geothermal energy in western states

    SciTech Connect

    Bronder, L.D.; Meyer, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The economic impact of existing and prospective state taxes and tax incentives on direct thermal applications of geothermal energy are evaluated. Study area is twelve western states which have existing and potential geothermal activities. Economic models representing the geothermal producer and business enterprise phases of four industrial/commercial uses of geothermal energy are synthesized and then placed in the existing tax structures of each state for evaluation. The four enterprises are a commercial greenhouse (low temperature process heat), apartment complex (low temperature space heat), food processor (moderate temperature process heat), and small scale energy system (electrical and direct thermal energy for a small industrial park). The effects of the state taxations on net profits and tax revenues are determined. Tax incentives to accelerate geothermal development are also examined. The magnitudes of total state and local tax collections vary considerably from state to state, which implies that geothermal producers and energy-using businesses may be selective in expanding or locating their geothermal operations.

  18. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  19. Thermoelectric Materials Development for Low Temperature Geothermal Power Generation

    DOE Data Explorer

    Tim Hansen

    2016-01-29

    Data includes characterization results for novel thermoelectric materials developed specifically for power generation from low temperature geothermal brines. Materials characterization data includes material density, thickness, resistance, Seebeck coefficient. This research was carried out by Novus Energy Partners in Cooperation with Southern Research Institute for a Department of Energy Sponsored Project.

  20. Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K.; Archuleta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Environmental noise need not hinder geothermal power development

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, T.R.

    1982-10-01

    Environmental noise issues have hindered some geothermal power developments located near residents by delaying necessary regulatory approvals. However, with full use of demonstrated noise control technology, noise can be reduced to levels acceptable to most quiet rural communities at a distance of about 1000 feet. Thus, it may be feasible to drill closer to residences than is often presumed.

  2. World Geothermal Development: The Present Situation and Opportunities for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Raffaele

    1987-01-01

    Claims that the exploration of geothermal energy has a somewhat marginal role to play today in the overall world energy budget. Discusses the applicability, however, of geothermal heat to some national and local energy developments. (TW)

  3. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  4. Electrical Resistivity Investigations of the Kurşunlu (Manisa/Turkey) Geothermal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarı, Coşkun; Timur, Emre

    2016-04-01

    It is of considerable importance to explore the geological structure around active faults, especially near-surface unconsolidated layers, to estimate the faults' activity. There are numerous case studies to investigate geothermal reservoirs and surrounding active faults using geophysical exploration methods; however, only a few cases have been verified in detail by comparison with other geological information. Electrical resistivity data provide a substantial contribution to the geophysical mapping and monitoring of geothermal reservoirs. We applied electrical methods, which can be effective for exploring to several hundred meters depth, to reveal geological structures covered by thick Quaternary alluvium formations. Geothermal activity around city of Manisa in Gediz Graben (Western Turkey) has been investigated by many researchers and many geothermal boreholes were drilled in order to produce electricity and for heating purposes. The Kurşunlu geothermal area is with the southern side of the Gediz Graben in 2 km west of Salihli, Manisa, Turkey. According to rising demand on thermal water around Salihli, geophysical studies were performed using the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) measurements at 16 stations around the area of Kurşunlu hot springs, and they were interpreted using both one and two-dimensional modelling. Vertical and horizontal resistivity sections were mapped, and it was determined that two low-resistivity layers exist both in the North (stations 1,2 and 4) and the South (stations 6 and 10) part of the survey area. As a result of the studies, the boundaries of the low-resistivity layer were mapped and test drilling locations were recommended.

  5. Imperial County geothermal development. Summary report, 1979-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The progress of geothermal development during the past three years, county activities in support of geothermal development, and current challenges and future needs of the geothermal industry and the county are summarized. Exploration activities have resulted in the identification and definition of three additional Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRAs) during the grant period: the Westmorland KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, both in 1980, and the South Brawley KGRA in 1982. Exploration is continuing in other areas of the county as well. Three 10 megawatt power plants have begun operations during the grant period: the Magma East Mesa 10 Megawatt Binary Power Plant, the Union/Southern California Edison 10 Megawatt Flash Power Plant in Brawley, both beginning operations in 1980, and the Union/Southern California Edison 10 Megawatt Flash Power Plant at the Salton Sea, initiating operations in 1982. Three commercial power plants are scheduled to begin construction during late 1982 or early 1983. Groundbreaking for the Heber Binary Project is scheduled for November 1982. Site work has already begun for the Heber Flash Power Plant. The Magma 28 megawatt power plant at the Salton Sea is to begin construction in early 1983. Two commercial power plants are in planning stages. (MHR)

  6. The application of surface electrical and shallow geothermic methods in monitoring network design.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Cartwright, K.

    1983-01-01

    There are a variety of surface geophysical methods that are routinely used in geologic investigations. The three broad applications of these methods to evaluate the impact of waste disposal on shallow groundwater flow systems are: 1) evaluation of proposed waste disposal sites; 2) monitoring of site performance; and 3) investigation of contaminant migration at existing sites. Electrical and shallow geothermic are two surface geophysical methods that have application to waste disposal investigations. Of the electrical methods, electrical resistivity has the greatest application with a variety of techniques available. The distribution of temperature in shallow geologic materials (shallow geothermics) may define characteristics of shallow groundwater flow systems including zones of recharge and discharge and lithologic variation in the shallow geologic materials.-from Authors

  7. Geothermal resource base of the world: a revision of the Electric Power Research Institute's estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Gambill, D.T.

    1981-04-01

    Review of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) method for calculating the geothermal resource base of a country shows that modifications are needed for several of the assumptions used in the calculation. These modifications include: (1) separating geothermal belts into volcanic types with a geothermal gradient of 50{sup 0}C/km and complex types in which 80% of the area has a temperature gradient of 30{sup 0}C/km and 20% has a gradient of 45{sup 0}C/km, (2) using the actual mean annual temperature of a country rather than an assumed 15{sup 0}C average ambient temperature, and (3) making separate calculations for the resource stored in water/brine and that stored in rock. Comparison of this method (Revised EPRI) for calculating a geothermal resource base with other resource base estimates made from a heat flow map of Europe indicates that the technique yields reasonable values. The calculated geothermal resource bases, stored in water and rock to a depth of 5 km, for each country in the world are given. Approximately five times as much energy is stored in rock as is stored in water.

  8. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Trabits, George

    2015-04-20

    After an oil, gas, or geothermal production well has been drilled, the well must be stabilized with a casing (sections of steel pipe that are joined together) in order to prevent the walls of the well from collapsing. The gap between the casing and the walls of the well is filled with cement, which locks the casing into place. The casing and cementing of geothermal wells is complicated by the harsh conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and a chemical environment (brines with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid) that degrades conventional Portland cement. During the 1990s and early 2000s, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provided support for the development of fly-ash-modified calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) cement, which offers improved resistance to degradation compared with conventional cement. However, the use of CaP cements involves some operational constraints that can increase the cost and complexity of well cementing. In some cases, CaP cements are incompatible with chemical additives that are commonly used to adjust cement setting time. Care must also be taken to ensure that CaP cements do not become contaminated with leftover conventional cement in pumping equipment used in conventional well cementing. With assistance from GTO, Trabits Group, LLC has developed a zeolite-containing cement that performs well in harsh geothermal conditions (thermal stability at temperatures of up to 300°C and resistance to carbonation) and is easy to use (can be easily adjusted with additives and eliminates the need to “sterilize” pumping equipment as with CaP cements). This combination of properties reduces the complexity/cost of well cementing, which will help enable the widespread development of geothermal energy in the United States.

  9. 2014 Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Reinhardt, Program Manager

    2014-09-01

    As a growing sector of geothermal energy development, the Low-Temperature Program supports innovative technologies that enable electricity production and cascaded uses from geothermal resources below 300° Fahrenheit.

  10. Geothermal drilling and completion research and development program

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.; Allen, A.D.

    1983-12-01

    Current activities include development of high temperature drilling fluids, methods for plugging lost circulation zones, advanced rock cutting techniques, and borehole instrumentation. Three specific projects which are being pursued include: a method for locating fractures which do not intersect the wellbore, a laboratory for simulating lost circulation zones - to be used for development of new materials and techniques, and the understanding of the capabilities and limitations of polycrystalline diamond cutter bits in the geothermal environment.

  11. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  12. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperature are indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system are described.

  13. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Gabbs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-09

    Characteristics of the site significant to the prospect for geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and the goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource evaluation is described, including the depth to reservoir, production rates of existing water wells, water quality, and the resource temperature. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the foreseeable future at Gabbs are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, legal, and regulatory requirements. The main resource, engineering and institutional considerations involved in a geothermal district heating system for Gabbs are summarized.

  14. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-04

    Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperature are indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system are described.

  15. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  16. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States. Papers presented: Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Topic areas covered include: technical assistance (hydrothermal resource application in the eastern United States); GRITS - a computer model for economic evaluation of direct-uses of geothermal energy; geothermal market penetration in the residential sector - capital stock impediments and compensatory incentives; an analysis of benefits and costs of accelerated market penetration by a geothermal community heating system.

  17. Imperial Valley's proposal to develop a guide for geothermal development within its county

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    A plan to develop the geothermal resources of the Imperial Valley of California is presented. The plan consists of development policies and includes text and graphics setting forth the objectives, principles, standards, and proposals. The plan allows developers to know the goals of the surrounding community and provides a method for decision making to be used by county representatives. A summary impact statement for the geothermal development aspects is provided.

  18. Montana Geothermal Handbook: a guide to agencies, regulations, permits and financial aids for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, S.; Birkby, J.

    1980-10-01

    The handbook is divided into three parts: a list of the permits required for various thermal projects, and an estimate of time needed to obtain them; a brief discussion of the statutes and regulations referred to; (This information was gathered in a survey of state and federal regulations, as well as in conversations with numerous state and federal officials); and a description of the state and federal grant and loan funding available to a prospective geothermal developer. The names and addresses of the relevant state and federal agencies and legal citations are listed in appendices.

  19. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvado, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included.

  20. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  1. Fracture Surface Area Effects on Fluid Extraction and the Electrical Resistivity of Geothermal Reservoir Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J J; Detwiler, R L; Ralph, W; Bonner, B

    2002-05-09

    Laboratory measurements of the electrical resistivity of fractured analogue geothermal reservoir rocks were performed to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction. Experiments were performed at confining pressures up to 10 h4Pa (100 bars) and temperatures to 170 C. Fractured samples show a larger resistivity change at the onset of boiling than intact samples. Monitoring the resistivity of fractured samples as they equilibrate to imposed pressure and temperature conditions provides an estimate of fluid migration into and out of the matrix. Measurements presented are an important step toward using field electrical methods to quantitatively search for fractures, infer saturation, and track fluid migration in geothermal reservoirs.

  2. The development of electricity futures

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, B.

    1994-12-31

    The development of electricity futures is outlined. The following topics are discussed: electricity futures contract research; evolution of the electricity industry; electric power marketer applications; natural gas marketing companies; EWG filings and approvals; and introduction to New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX).

  3. Electric power generation using geothermal brine resources for a proof of concept facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankin, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory systems study of a geothermal proof-of-concept facility is being conducted. This study is the initial phase (Phase 0) of a project to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using hot brine resources for electric power production and other industrial applications. Phase 0 includes the conceptual design of an experimental test-bed facility and a 10-MWe power generating facility.

  4. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2013-06-04

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  5. Alaska Geothermal Sites Map and Database: Bringing together legacy and new geothermal data for research, exploration and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, J. G.; Harun, N. T.; Hughes, C. A.; Weakland, J. R.; Cameron, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    , and information source. Aqueous geochemistry, a compilation of aqueous chemistry, free gas and isotopes analyses. Aqueous geochemical analyses consist of 407 aqueous geochemical analyses from 85 geothermal sites throughout Alaska. This template also includes 106 free gas analyses from 31 geothermal sites. Isotopic analyses (285) of waters from 42 geothermal sites are also contained in this geochemical data. Borehole temperature data from geothermal, and oil and gas wells are presented along with thermal depth profiles where available. Earthquakes in proximity to hot springs consists of 1,975 earthquakes that are within 5 km of thermal hot springs and may be used to detect underground movement of thermal waters. Active faults comprises active faults across Alaska (1,527) including fault type, location, orientation and slip rate. Additionally, a new comprehensive and searchable Alaska geothermal bibliography, with links to downloadable reference sources was created during this study. The completed Alaska geothermal sites map and database will be accessible to the public and industry and will enable research and development of geothermal sites in Alaska.

  6. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  7. Potential effects of environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Boies, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of several types of applicable environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development were assessed, and particular problem areas were identified. The possible impact of procedures adopted pursuant to the following Federal statutes were analyzed: Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. State regulations applicable, or potentially applicable, to geothermal facilities were also reviewed to determine: permit information requirements; pre-permit air or water quality monitoring requirements; effect of mandated time frames for permit approval; and potential for exemption of small facilities. The regulations of the following states were covered in the review: Alaska; Arizona; California; Colorado; Hawaii; Idaho; Montana; Nevada; New Mexico; Oregon; Utah; Washington; and Wyoming. (MHR)

  8. MeProRisk - a Joint Venture for Minimizing Risk in Geothermal Reservoir Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauser, C.; Marquart, G.

    2009-12-01

    Exploration and development of geothermal reservoirs for the generation of electric energy involves high engineering and economic risks due to the need for 3-D geophysical surface surveys and deep boreholes. The MeProRisk project provides a strategy guideline for reducing these risks by combining cross-disciplinary information from different specialists: Scientists from three German universities and two private companies contribute with new methods in seismic modeling and interpretation, numerical reservoir simulation, estimation of petrophysical parameters, and 3-D visualization. The approach chosen in MeProRisk consists in considering prospecting and developing of geothermal reservoirs as an iterative process. A first conceptual model for fluid flow and heat transport simulation can be developed based on limited available initial information on geology and rock properties. In the next step, additional data is incorporated which is based on (a) new seismic interpretation methods designed for delineating fracture systems, (b) statistical studies on large numbers of rock samples for estimating reliable rock parameters, (c) in situ estimates of the hydraulic conductivity tensor. This results in a continuous refinement of the reservoir model where inverse modelling of fluid flow and heat transport allows infering the uncertainty and resolution of the model at each iteration step. This finally yields a calibrated reservoir model which may be used to direct further exploration by optimizing additional borehole locations, estimate the uncertainty of key operational and economic parameters, and optimize the long-term operation of a geothermal resrvoir.

  9. Geothermal direct use developments in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    Direct heat use of geothermal energy in the United States is recognized as one of the alternative energy resources that has proven itself technically and economically, and is commercially available. Developments include space conditioning of buildings, district heating, groundwater heat pumps, greenhouse heating, industrial processing, aquaculture, and swimming pool heating. Forty-four states have experienced significant geothermal direct use development in the last ten years. The total installed capacity is 5.7 billion Btu/hr (1700 MW/sub t/), with an annual energy use of nearly 17,000 billion Btu/yr (4.5 million barrels of oil energy equivalent). In this report we provide an overview of how and where geothermal energy is used, the extent of that use, the economics and growth trends. The data is based on an extensive site data gathering effort by the Geo-Heat Center in the spring of 1988, under contract to the US Department of Energy. 100 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  11. Imperial County geothermal development semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The current geothermal progress in Imperial County is reported. Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning, and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. In addition, the cooperative efforts between industry and the County; Master EIR for the Salton Sea KGRA and the resurveying of the subsidence detection network are covered. Geothermal Planning addresses a Board of Supervisor action on the Union Oil Geothermal Production Permit for 16 wells in the Salton Sea KGRA and a permit for Southern California Edison 10 megawatts power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA. Planning Commission action covers: Amendment of Magma Power's 49 megawatts Geothermal Production Permit to 28 megawatt power plant and relocation of the plant and wells within the Salton Sea KGRA; Exploration permit to Occidental Geothermal for four exploratory wells in East Brawley; Geothermal Production Permit to Southern California Edison to operate a 10 megawatt power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA; and Geothermal production permit to Union Oil for 16 production-injection wells in the Salton Sea KGRA. Lastly, EIR exemptions to CEQA were granted to Chevron for 70 shallow temperature observation holes and Union for fifteen. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmorland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA.

  12. Engineering Sedimentary Geothermal Resources for Large-Scale Dispatchable Renewable Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Saar, Martin; Randolph, Jimmy

    2014-05-01

    Mitigating climate change requires substantial penetration of renewable energy and economically viable options for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). We present an approach using CO2 and N2 in sedimentary basin geothermal resources that (1) generates baseload and dispatchable power, (2) efficiently stores large amounts of energy, and (3) enables seasonal storage of solar energy, all which (5) increase the value of CO2 and render CCS commercially viable. Unlike the variability of solar and wind resources, geothermal heat is a constant source of renewable energy. Using CO2 as a supplemental geothermal working fluid, in addition to brine, reduces the parasitic load necessary to recirculate fluids. Adding N2 is beneficial because it is cheaper, will not react with materials and subsurface formations, and enables bulk energy storage. The high coefficients of thermal expansion of CO2 and N2 (a) augment reservoir pressure, (b) generate artesian flow at the production wells, and (c) produce self-convecting thermosiphons that directly convert reservoir heat to mechanical energy for fluid recirculation. Stored pressure drives fluid production and responds faster than conventional brine-based geothermal systems. Our design uses concentric rings of horizontal wells to create a hydraulic divide that stores supplemental fluids and pressure. Production and injection wells are controlled to schedule power delivery and time-shift the parasitic power necessary to separate N2 from air and compress it for injection. The parasitic load can be scheduled during minimum power demand or when there is excess electricity from wind or solar. Net power output can nearly equal gross power output during peak demand, and energy storage is almost 100% efficient because it is achieved by the time-shift. Further, per-well production rates can take advantage of the large productivity of horizontal wells, with greater leveraging of well costs, which often constitute a major portion of capital costs for

  13. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update from the geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the status of three on-going geothermal projects in California and Oregon, USA. The first project involves the Bonneville Power Administration which has reached an agreement with two power companies to proceed with an environmental analysis of the Glass Mountain geothermal power project in the Klamath National Forest, California. Another project described in this article regards plans to build a geothermal power plant in a remote location in the Alvord Desert in southeastern Oregon. A brief update on the Klamath Falls, Oregon geothermal district heating system is also included.

  14. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) A New Era in Geothermal Development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) announced in September 2007 that an international industrial consortium has signed a new contract to collaborate in exploratory deep drilling in Iceland. The main objective of the IDDP is to investigate whether it is economically feasible to produce energy from geothermal systems at supercritical conditions. This will require drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km in order to reach temperatures of 400 to 600°C. Today, geothermal wells in Iceland typically range up to 2.5 km in depth and produce steam at about 300°C, or less, at a rate sufficient to generate about 4 to 7 megawatts of electricity. It is estimated that producing steam from a well penetrating a reservoir with temperatures >450°C, and at a rate of 0.67 cubic meters a second, could generate 40 to 50 MWe. If IDDP's test of this concept proves successful, it could lead to major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The consortium collaborating to fund this investigation of supercritical geothermal energy consists of three leading Icelandic power companies, Hitaveita Sudurnesja Ltd., Landsvirkjun, Orkuveita Reykjavikur, together with Orkustofnun (the National Energy Authority) and Alcoa Inc. (an international aluminum company). The three power companies financed a feasibility study for the project that was completed in 2003. Each of the three power companies is committed to drill, at their own cost, a 3.5 to 4.0 km deep well in a geothermal field that they operate. The design of these wells will permit them to be deepened to 4.5 or 5.0 km by the IDDP, and funded by the consortium with additional funds from international scientific agencies. The first deep IDDP well will be drilled in the latter part of 2008 in the Krafla geothermal field near the northern end of the central rift zone of Iceland, within a volcanic caldera that has had recent volcanic activity. Two new wells, ~4 km deep, will then be drilled at the Hengill and

  15. Failure analysis report: Heat exchanger tubes geothermal binary power plant, Magma Electric Company, East Mesa, California

    SciTech Connect

    Anliker, Dennis M.; Ellis, Peter F. II

    1982-05-01

    Radian received twelve sections of heat exchanger tubing from the Magma Electric Company's 10MW(e) East Mesa binary geothermal power plant. Three tube sections were received from each of four shell and tube heat exchangers (HX1, Hx6, HX8, and Hx10) of the isobutane vaporizer train. All samples were taken from the upper few rows of tubes. Two months later, four more tube sections were received. These four sections were taken from the lower rows of heat exchangers 1, 6 (two sections), and 10. Radian was requested to investigate the cause of severe pitting failure of these heat exchanger tubes. This report is part of a continuing DOE effort to gain insight into the service life of component materials employed in geothermal energy utilization.

  16. Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Sullivan, J. L.; Wang, M. Q.

    2010-09-17

    Geothermal energy is increasingly recognized for its potential to reduce carbon emissions and U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Energy and environmental analyses are critical to developing a robust set of geothermal energy technologies. This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies. The results of the life cycle analysis are summarized in a companion report, Life Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to inform power plant design and operations. Chapter 2 summarizes the geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study, which include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists but water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 3 describes the methods and approach to this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS plant, a 50-MW EGS plant, a 10-MW binary plant, and a 50-MW flash plant. The two EGS scenarios include hydraulic stimulation activities within the construction stage of the life cycle and assume binary power generation during operations. The EGS and binary scenarios are assumed to be air-cooled power plants, whereas the flash plant is assumed to rely on evaporative cooling. The well field and power plant design for the scenario were based on simulations using DOE's Geothermal Economic Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). Chapter 4 presents the water requirements for the power plant life cycle for the scenarios evaluated. Geology, reservoir

  17. New attempts on increasing economic gains in the development of geothermal resources in Beijing, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, K.

    1997-12-31

    The development of geothermal resources in the city of Beijing and its surrounding suburbs has been made possible by investments from companies in the surrounding Provinces of China. The development of these geothermal deposits has created a market for hot spring real estate. The real estate has been developed into comprehensive projects for recreation and vacation resorts, in addition to, heath care centers and greenhouse farming. This new attempt to develop these geothermal resources has increased the economic growth of the area and interest in geothermal expansion.

  18. Area development plan of the geothermal potential in planning region 8, Roosevelt - Custer area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Geothermal resource data, the Roosevelt-Custer Region development plan, and energy, economic, and institutional considerations are presented. Environmental considerations and water availability are discussed. (MHR)

  19. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    The objective was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, and legal and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of sites to allow the making of creditable forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. A total of 1265 potential geothermal resource sites were identified from existing literature. Site selection was based upon the presence of thermal and mineral springs or wells and/or areas of recent volcanic activity and high heat flow. 250 sites were selected for detailed analysis. A methodology to rank the sites by energy potential, degree of developability, and cost of energy was developed. Resource developability was ranked by a method based on a weighted variable evaluation of resource favorability. Sites were ranked using an integration of values determined through the cost and developability analysis. 75 figs., 63 tabs.

  20. Development of geothermal logging systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1994-04-01

    Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of (potassium, uranium and thorium) is in the calibration phase, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A fluid sampling tool is in the design phase. All tools are designed for operation at conditions exceeding 400 C, and for deployment in the slim holes produced by mining-coring operations. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry and scientific drilling programs to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. These cooperative efforts depend upon quality guidelines such as those under development within the international Ocean Drilling Program.

  1. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  2. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, October 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development.

  3. The Philippines geothermal success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsic, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    Geothermal electrical plants currently in operation in the Philippines are presented. Following a brief review of the geographical and energy situation of the nation, attention is given to the first 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi Geothermal Electric Plant, which commenced operation in January 1979, the portable 3,000-kE Leyte Geothermal Pilot Plant, which commenced operation in July, 1977 as the first geothermal power plant in the country, the Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant, the first 55,000-kW unit of which began operation in May, 1979 and the second 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi plant, which came into service in June, 1979, thus making the Philippines the fourth largest producer of geothermal electricity in the world. Factors favoring the use of geothermal plants in developing nations are pointed out, including low capital costs, no foreign exchange costs for fuel, small units, and little environmental impact, and the start-up of two more plants, the second 55,000-kW unit at Mak-Ban in September 1979 and the third Tiwi unit in January 1980, are noted. It is predicted that in 1981, when the Philippines is expected to become the largest user of geothermal energy from hot-water fields, it will have a total capacity of 552 MW from the Mak-Ban, Tiwi and Leyte sites. Further areas with geothermal potential are also pointed out.

  4. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States, Sensitivity analysis-cost of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.M.; Kroll, P.; Nilo, B.

    1982-12-01

    The Geothermal Resources Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) model is a computer code designed to estimate the costs of geothermal energy systems. The interactive program allows the user to vary resource, demand, and financial parameters to observe their effects on delivered costs of direct-use geothermal energy. Due to the large number and interdependent nature of the variables that influence these costs, the variables can be handled practically only through computer modeling. This report documents a sensitivity analysis of the cost of direct-use geothermal energy where each major element is varied to measure the responsiveness of cost to changes in that element. It is hoped that this analysis will assist those persons interested in geothermal energy to understand the most significant cost element as well as those individuals interested in using the GRITS program in the future.

  5. Accelerated Geothermal Resource Development in the Great Basin Through Enhanced Public Awareness and Outreach to Shareholders.

    SciTech Connect

    Taranik, James V.; Oppliger, Gary; Sawatsky, Don

    2002-04-10

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy conducted work encompassing two main tasks. We (1) produced a web-based, stakeholder geothermal information system for Nevada geothermal data relevant to assessing and developing geothermal resources, and (2) we held informational stakeholder workshops (both as part of GeoPowering the West Initiative). The objective of this grant was to conduct workshops and fund database and web development activities. This grant funds salaries for web and database developers and part of the administrative assistant who helps to coordinate and organize workshops, and maintain selected databases.

  6. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  7. Electrical conductivity of Icelandic deep geothermal reservoirs: insight from HT-HP laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nono, Franck; Gibert, Benoit; Loggia, Didier; Parat, Fleurice; Azais, Pierre; Cichy, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Although the Icelandic geothermal system has been intensively investigated over the years, targeting increasingly deeper reservoirs (i.e. under supercritical conditions) requires a good knowledge of the behaviour of physical properties of the host rock in order to better interpret large scale geophysical observations. In particular, the interpretation of deep electrical soundings remains controversial as only few studies have investigated the influence of altered minerals and pore fluid properties on electrical properties of rocks at high temperature and pressure. In this study, we investigate the electrical conductivity of drilled samples from different Icelandic geothermal fields at elevated temperature, confining pressure and pore pressure conditions (100°C < T < 600°C, confining pressure up to 100 MPa and pore pressure up to 35 MPa). The investigated rocks are composed of hyaloclastites, dolerites and basalts taken from depths of about 800 m for the hyaloclastites, to almost 2500 m for the dolerites. They display different porosity structures, from vuggy and intra-granular to micro-cracked porosities, and have been hydrothermally alterated in the chlorite to amphibolite facies. Electrical conductivity measurements are first determined at ambient conditions as a function of pore fluid conductivity in order to establish their relationships with lithology and pore space topology, prior to the high pressure and temperature measurements. Cementation factor varies from 1.5 for the dolerites to 2.83 for the basalt, reflecting changes in the shape of the conductive channels. The surface conductivities, measured at very low fluid conductivity, increases with the porosity and is correlated with the cation exchange capacity. At high pressure and temperature, we used the two guard-ring electrodes system. Measurements have been performed in dry and saturated conditions as a function of temperature and pore pressure. The supercritical conditions have been investigated and

  8. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  9. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  10. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  11. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, January 1981-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods as they apply to advanced drilling systems.

  12. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  13. Development potential of the Dauin geothermal prospect, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrante, L.F.; Hermoso, D.Z.; Candelaria, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Dauin geothermal prospect, situated 5 km southeast of the Palinpinon I and II sectors, was drilled between 1982 and 1983 to test its viability for development. Drilling results indicated that DN-1 was drilled closer to the source region than DN-2 where permeability, temperature, and alteration mineralogy were generally unpromising. DN-1 encountered temperatures of at least 240{degrees}C and a neutral-pH fluid with reservoir chloride of 3000 mg/kg. In particular, the presence of sulphur in the DN-1 discharge provoked debates and many speculation on the nature of the fluid in the area. The area was re-evaluated in 1996 for the following reasons: (1) Renewed interests on other geothermal prospects within Negros Island from an economic point of view and the success of modular plant developments are Pal II and other areas in the Philippines; (2) Reinterpretation of the genesis of sulphur contained in the DN-1 discharge fluid; (3) Encouraging temperature, permeability and neutral-pH alterations at depth and the neutral character of DN-1 discharge fluid; and (4) Reinterpretation of the hydrological model from a geochemical and geological point of view. The study indicates good potential for modular power development.

  14. The GEOFAR Project - Geothermal Finance and Awareness in Europeans Regions - Development of new schemes to overcome non-technical barriers, focusing particularly on financial barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, Adeline; Wendel, Marco; Jaudin, Florence; Hiegl, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Numerous advantages of geothermal energy like its widespread distribution, a base-load power and availability higher than 90%, a small footprint and low carbon emissions, and the growing concerns about climate changes strongly promote the development of geothermal projects. Geothermal energy as a local energy source implies needs on surface to be located close to the geothermal resource. Many European regions dispose of a good geothermal potential but it is mostly not sufficiently developed due to non-technical barriers occurring at the very early stages of the project. The GEOFAR Project carried out within the framework of EU's "Intelligent Energy Europe" (IEE) program, gathers a consortium of European partners from Germany, France, Greece, Spain and Portugal. Launched in September 2008, the aim of this research project is to analyze the mentioned non-technical barriers, focusing most particularly on economic and financial aspects. Based on this analysis GEOFAR aims at developing new financial and administrative schemes to overcome the main financial barriers for deep geothermal projects (for electricity and direct use, without heat pumps). The analysis of the current situation and the future development of geothermal energy in GEOFAR target countries (Germany, France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary) was necessary to understand and expose the diverging status of the geothermal sector and the more and less complicated situation for geothermal projects in different Europeans Regions. A deeper analysis of 40 cases studies (operating, planned and failed projects) of deep geothermal projects also contributed to this detailed view. An exhaustive analysis and description of financial mechanisms already existing in different European countries and at European level to support investors completed the research on non-technical barriers. Based on this profound analysis, the GEOFAR project has made an overview of the difficulties met by project

  15. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 8. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Report Number 8 presents information concerning ongoing technology transfer activities and the mechanisms used to support these activities within geothermal R and D programs. A state-by-state review of major geothermal development activities for the reporting period 1 February 1983 through 31 July 1983 is provided. Recent drilling and exploration efforts and the current status of geothermal electric power plant development in the United States are summarized.

  16. Geopressured geothermal drilling and completions technology development needs

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1981-03-01

    Geopressured geothermal formations found in the Texas and Louisiana gulf coast region and elsewhere have the potential to supply large quantities of energy in the form of natural gas and warm brine (200 to 300/sup 0/F). Advances are needed, however, in hardware technology, well design technology, and drilling and completion practices to enable production and testing of exploratory wells and to enable economic production of the resource should further development be warranted. This report identifies needed technology for drilling and completing geopressured geothermal source and reinjection wells to reduce the cost and to accelerate commercial recovery of this resource. A comprehensive prioritized list of tasks to develop necessary technology has been prepared. Tasks listed in this report address a wide range of technology needs including new diagnostic techniques, control technologies, hardware, instrumentation, operational procedure guidelines and further research to define failure modes and control techniques. Tasks are organized into the functional areas of well design, drilling, casing installation, cementing, completions, logging, brine reinjection and workovers.

  17. Geothermal development. Semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    Three areas are reported: geothermal administration, geothermal planning, and other geothermal activities. Administration covers the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of the geothermal field inspections. Planning addresses Board of Supervisor actions, Planning Commission actions, notice of exemptions, and the master Environmental Impact Report for Salton Sea. The other activity includes the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmoreland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA. (MHR)

  18. Report to the Legislature on the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Development Grant Program for Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report documents the California Energy Commission's administration of its Geothermal Development Grant Program for Local Governments. The Energy Commission established this program as a result of the passage of Assembly Bill 1905 (Bosco) in 1980. This legislation established the mechanism to distribute the state's share of revenues received from the leasing of federal mineral reserves for geothermal development. The federal government deposits these revenues in the Geothermal Resources Development Account (GRDA) created by AB 1905. The state allocates funds from the GRDA to the California Parklands and Renewable Resources Investment Fund, the counties of origin where the federal leases are located, and the Energy Commission. The legislation further directs the Energy Commission to disburse its share as grants to local governments to assist with the planning and development of geothermal resources. Activities which are eligible for funding under the Energy Commission's grant program include resource development projects, planning and feasibility studies, and activities to mitigate the impacts of existing geothermal development.

  19. Technical analyses in geothermal development: Quarterly project status report, September-November 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: (1) development of a decision-making model for geothermal sludge and solid waste disposal; (2) development of a framework for integrated economic analysis; (3) assessment of incremental royalty income; (4) technical and engineering analysis; ;and (5) impact of artificial intelligence/expert systems technology on geothermal well drilling costs. (ACR)

  20. Constraints to leasing and development of federal resources: OCS oil and gas and geothermal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Chapter I identifies possible technological, economic, and environmental constraints to geothermal resource development. Chapter II discusses constraints relative to outer continental shelf and geothermal resources. General leasing information for each resource is detailed. Chapter III summarizes the major studies relating to development constraints. 37 refs. (PSB)

  1. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-01-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  2. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  3. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  4. Research and Development of Information on Geothermal Direct Heat Application Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hederman, William F., Jr.; Cohen, Laura A.

    1981-10-01

    This is the first annual report of ICF's geothermal R&D project for the Department of Energy's Idaho Operations Office. The overall objective of this project is to compile, analyze, and report on data from geothermal direct heat application projects. Ultimately, this research should convey the information developed through DOE's and Program Opportunity Notice (PON) activities as well as through other pioneering geothermal direct heat application projects to audiences which can use the early results in new, independent initiatives. A key audience is potential geothermal investors.

  5. Materials Advances to Enhance Development of Geothermal Power

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1989-03-21

    In order to assure the continued development of geothermal resources, many advances in materials technology are required so that high costs resulting from the severe environments encountered during drilling, well completion and energy extraction can be reduced. These needs will become more acute as higher temperature and chemically aggressive fluids are encountered. High priority needs are for lost circulation control and lightweight well completion materials, and tools such as drill pipe protectors, rotating head seals, blow-out preventers, and downhole drill motors. The lack of suitable hydrolytically stable chemical systems that can bond previously developed elastomers to metal reinforcement is a critical but as yet unaddressed impediment to the development of these tools. In addition, the availability of low cost corrosion and scale-resistant tubular lining materials would greatly enhance transport and energy extraction processes utilizing hypersaline brines. Work to address these materials needs is underway at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and recent accomplishments are summarized in the paper.

  6. Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric (GRRM) Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    2015-09-02

    This paper reviews a methodology being developed for reporting geothermal resources and project progress. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow the GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress and the public. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to develop the relevant geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by the GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for evaluating and reporting on GTO funding according to resource grade (geological, technical and socio-economic) and project progress. This methodology would allow GTO to target funding, measure impact by monitoring the progression of projects, or assess geological potential of targeted areas for development.

  7. Strategic plan for the geothermal energy program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.

  8. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  9. Measuring Impact of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies Office Funding: Considerations for Development of a Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.; Bennett, Mitchell; Segneri, Brittany

    2015-04-25

    This paper reviews existing methodologies and reporting codes used to describe extracted energy resources such as coal and oil and describes a comparable proposed methodology to describe geothermal resources. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of assessing the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow for GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to inform development of a geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and we sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for assessing and reporting on GTO funding according to resource knowledge and resource grade (or quality). This methodology would allow GTO to target funding or measure impact by progression of projects or geological potential for development.

  10. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    The following subjects are covered: Oregons' geothermal potential, exploration methods and costs, drilling, utilization methods, economic factors of direct use projects, and legal and institutional setting. (MHR)

  11. Geothermal Project Data and Personnel Resumes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Rogers Engineering Co., Inc. is one of the original engineering companies in the US to become involved in geothermal well testing and design of geothermal power plants. Rogers geothermal energy development activities began almost twenty years ago with flow testing of the O'Neill well in Imperial Valley, California and well tests at Tiwi in the Philippines; a geothermal project for the Commission on Volcanology, Republic of the Philippines, and preparation of a feasibility study on the use of geothermal hot water for electric power generation at Casa Diablo, a geothermal area near Mammouth. This report has brief write-ups of recent geothermal resources development and power plant consulting engineering projects undertaken by Rogers in the US and abroad.

  12. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  13. Developing a Process for Commercial Silica Production from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Martin, S; Viani, B; Bruton, C

    2001-04-11

    Useful mineral by-products can be produced from geothermal brines. Although silica has many commercial uses, problems remain in producing a marketable product. We are conducting laboratory and modeling studies aimed at optimizing for rubber additive use, the properties of silica precipitates from Salton Sea and Coso-like geothermal fluids, Our goal is to develop a robust technique for producing silicas that have desirable physical and chemical properties for commercial use, while developing a generic understanding of silica precipitation that will allow extraction to be extended to additional fluid types, and to be easily modified to produce new types of marketable silica. Our experiments start with an acidified geothermal fluid similar to those treated by pH modification technology. Silica precipitation is induced by adding base and/or adding Mg or Ca salts to affect the nature of the precipitate. For the analog Salton Sea fluids, adding base alone caused silica to precipitate fairly rapidly. To date, we have characterized precipitates from experiments in which the final pH varied from 4 to 8, where NaOH and Na{sub 2}C0{sub 3} were added as bases, and CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} were added as salts. SEM photos of the silica precipitates from the Salton Sea and Cos0 fluids show that the silica particles are clusters of smaller silica particles down to the resolution of the SEM (about 80-100 nm in diameter). The particle sizes and surface areas of silicas from the Salton Sea and Coso analog brines are similar to the properties of the Degussa silica commonly used as a rubber additive. An evaluation of the strength of the silica-organic bond as tested by dispersion in oil (polybutadiene) was inconclusive. Neither the Degussa materials nor our laboratory precipitates dispersed readily in nor dispersed down to the fundamental particle size. Preliminary NMR data indicates that the Degussa silica has a smaller degree of silica polymerization (a slightly smaller average

  14. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  15. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  16. Geothermal Energy Summary

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Renner

    2007-08-01

    -traditional geothermal development is increasing. A comprehensive new MIT-led study of the potential for geothermal energy within the United States predicts that mining the huge amounts of stored thermal energy in the Earth’s crust not associated with hydrothermal systems, could supply a substantial portion of U.S. electricity with minimal environmental impact (Tester, et al., 2006, available at http://geothermal.inl.gov). There is also renewed interest in geothermal production from other non-traditional sources such as the overpressured zones in the Gulf Coast and warm water co-produced with oil and gas. Ormat Technologies, Inc., a major geothermal company, recently acquired geothermal leases in the offshore overpressured zone of Texas. Ormat and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center recently announced plans to jointly produce geothermal power from co-produced water from the Teapot Dome oilfield (Casper Star-Tribune, March 2, 2007). RMOTC estimates that 300 KWe capacity is available from the 40,000 BWPD of 88°C water associated with oil production from the Tensleep Sandstone (Milliken, 2007). The U. S. Department of Energy is seeking industry partners to develop electrical generation at other operating oil and gas fields (for more information see: https://e-center.doe.gov/iips/faopor.nsf/UNID/50D3734745055A73852572CA006665B1?OpenDocument). Several web sites offer periodically updated information related to the geothermal industry and th

  17. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-07-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  18. Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

  19. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-04-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  20. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-11-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  1. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

  2. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, Robert John; Laney, Patrick Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, R.J.; Laney, P.T.

    2002-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  4. Geothermal technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1981-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    The status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program is described. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, diagnostics technology, and permeability enhancement.

  5. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  6. Geothermal technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    The status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program is described. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, and diagnostics technology.

  7. Development of polymer concrete liners and coatings for use in geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.P.; Reams, W.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-09-01

    The results of a research and field testing program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy to develop polymer concrete (PC) liners and coatings for use in geothermal applications are presented. Whenever possible, carbon steel is used in geothermal facilities for components such as piping, well casings, and containment vessels. However carbon steel is subject to severe corrosion when exposed to some geothermal fluids and brines, leading to the use, in some cases, of very expensive high alloy steels. Results of laboratory tests done in simulated geothermal environments (pH 2 hydrochloric acid steam at 200{degree}C) have shown that PC materials can be used as liners and coatings to protect carbon steel surfaces from corrosion. In situ field testing of 8-in. (203-mm) inside diameter (ID) by 12-in. (305-mm) long spool sections and 12in. ID (305-mm) wellhead tee sections in operational geothermal facilities is currently being done to verify the laboratory test data. Economic studies have shown that the capital cost of the vessels and piping in a typical geothermal facility can be significantly reduced through the use of protective PC linings and coatings. As a result PC lined components are currently being used commercially at two geothermal sites.

  8. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.

    1989-03-21

    This audience is well aware that the major goal of all geothermal R&D is the successful application of advanced technology in the marketplace. In support of that goal, the Geothermal Technology Division has forged a close link between its research objectives and potentially competitive market applications. Our technical objectives are all expressed in quantified reductions in the cost of geothermal power; these cost reductions are the force that will drive the geothermal industry for the foreseeable future. I agree with the recent statement of Stephen Fye of Unocal that without a legislated incentive for geothermal or disincentive for competing fuels-such as mandated carbon dioxide reductions--any premium the public is willing to pay for the use of this premium fuel will be too small to greatly impact geothermal economics. His conclusion is that the geothermal industry must be fully competitive in the marketplace at current prices. His further conclusion--with which I fully concur--is that the avenue to competitiveness is through research, by both industry and government.

  9. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  10. {open_quotes}Full steam ahead{close_quotes} (a historical review of geothermal power development in the Philippines)

    SciTech Connect

    Gazo, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Philippine geothermal energy development is now considered in a state of maturity. After more than 20 years of geothermal experience, the total geothermal installed capacity in the Philippines reached 1,455 MW (1996) or about 12% of the total installed power plant capacity. This also enabled the Philippines to become the second largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The country`s track record in harnessing geothermal energy is considered a revelation, as it continues with its vision of {open_quotes}full steam ahead{close_quotes}, originally conceived when commercial geothermal operation started in 1973. It is thus proper and timely to refer to historical highlights and experiences in geothermal energy development for planning and implementation of the country`s geothermal energy program.

  11. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, G.M.

    1981-07-01

    Investigation and flow testing of the enlarged Phase I heat-extraction system at Fenton Hill continued throughout FY80. Temperature drawdown observed at that time indicated an effective fracture of approximately 40,000 to 60,000 m/sup 2/. In May 1980, hot dry rock (HDR) technology was used to produce electricity in an interface demonstration experiment at Fenton Hill. A 60-kVA binary-cycle electrical generator was installed in the Phase I surface system and heat from about 3 kg/s of geothermal fluid at 132/sup 0/C was used to boil Freon R-114, whose vapor drove a turboalternator. A Phase II system was designed and is now being constructed at Fenton Hill that should approach commercial requirements. Borehole EE-2, the injection well, was completed on May 12, 1980. It was drilled to a vertical depth of about 4500 m, where the rock temperature is approximately 320/sup 0/C. The production well, EE-3 had been drilled to a depth of 3044 m and drilling was continuing. Environmental monitoring of Fenton Hill site continued. Development of equipment, instruments, and materials for technical support at Fenton Hill continued during FY80. Several kinds of models were also developed to understand the behavior of the Phase I system and to develop a predictive capability for future systems. Data from extensive resource investigations were collected, analyzed, and assembled into a geothermal gradient map of the US, and studies were completed on five specific areas as possible locations for HDR Experimental Site 2.

  12. Using estimated risk to develop stimulation strategies for induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, John; Aochi, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are an attractive source of low-carbon electricity and heating. Consequently, a number of tests of this technology have been made during the past couple of decades and various projects are being planned or under development. EGS work by the injection of fluid into deep boreholes to increase permeability and hence allow the circulation and heating of fluid through a geothermal reservoir. Permeability is irreversibly increased by the shearing of pre-existing factures or fault segments, and hence by the generation of microseismicity. One aspect of this technology that can cause public concern and consequently could limit the widespread adoption of EGS within populated areas is the risk of generating earthquakes that are sufficiently large to be felt (or even to cause building damage). Therefore, there is a need to balance stimulation and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir by injecting fluids against the pressing requirement to keep the earthquake risk below an acceptable level. Current strategies to balance these potentially conflicting requirements rely on a traffic light system based on the observed magnitudes of the triggered earthquakes and the measured peak ground velocities from these events. Douglas and Aochi (Pageoph, 2014) propose an alternative system that uses the actual risk of generating felt (or damaging) earthquake ground motions at a site of interest (e.g. a nearby town) to control the injection rate. This risk is computed by combining characteristics of the observed seismicity rate of the previous six hours, with a (potentially site-specific) ground-motion prediction equation to obtain a real-time seismic hazard curve, and then the convolution of this with the derivative of a (potentially site-specific) fragility curve. Based on the relation between computed risk and pre-defined acceptable risk thresholds the injection is: increased (if the risk is below the amber level), decreased (if the risk is between amber

  13. Using Estimated Risk to Develop Stimulation Strategies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, John; Aochi, Hideo

    2014-08-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are an attractive source of low-carbon electricity and heating. Consequently, a number of tests of this technology have been made during the past couple of decades, and various projects are being planned or under development. EGS work by the injection of fluid into deep boreholes to increase permeability and hence allow the circulation and heating of fluid through a geothermal reservoir. Permeability is irreversibly increased by the generation of microseismicity through the shearing of pre-existing fractures or fault segments. One aspect of this technology that can cause public concern and consequently could limit the widespread adoption of EGS within populated areas is the risk of generating earthquakes that are sufficiently large to be felt (or even to cause building damage). Therefore, there is a need to balance stimulation and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir through fluid injection against the pressing requirement to keep the earthquake risk below an acceptable level. Current strategies to balance these potentially conflicting requirements rely on a traffic light system based on the observed magnitudes of the triggered earthquakes and the measured peak ground velocities from these events. In this article we propose an alternative system that uses the actual risk of generating felt (or damaging) earthquake ground motions at a site of interest (e.g. a nearby town) to control the injection rate. This risk is computed by combining characteristics of the observed seismicity of the previous 6 h with a (potentially site-specific) ground motion prediction equation to obtain a real-time seismic hazard curve; this is then convolved with the derivative of a (potentially site-specific) fragility curve. Based on the relation between computed risk and pre-defined acceptable risk thresholds, the injection is increased if the risk is below the amber level, decreased if the risk is between the amber and red levels, or stopped

  14. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  15. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. D.; Lepman, S. R.; Leung, K. N.; Phillips, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described as well as the structure of the database.

  16. Using electrical conductivity to monitor geothermal solute flux in major rivers of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. B.; Mahony, D.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.; Nordstrom, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal output from the magma chamber underlying Yellowstone National Park (YNP) can be estimated by monitoring Cl flux in major rivers draining the park. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service have collaborated on Cl flux monitoring towards this end since the 1970s. Researchers collected water samples from the major rivers in YNP, but funding restrictions, winter travel, and the great distances between sites limits the number of samples collected annually. The use of electrical conductivity, which is relatively easy to measure and can be automated, as a proxy for Cl enables a more consistent monitoring of thermal output. To accomplish this, it is crucial to accurately quantify the relationship between electrical conductivity, Cl, and other geothermal solutes (SO4, F, HCO3, SiO2, K, Li, B, and As) along the Madison, Firehole, Gibbon, Snake, Gardner, and Yellowstone Rivers. Conductivity measurements were made every 15 minutes adjacent to USGS stream gages, allowing for the determination of solute fluxes. In addition, continuous conductivity measurements can be used to identify changes in river chemistry as a result of geysers eruptions, rain events, or changes in thermal inputs as a result of earthquakes or other natural events. Depending on the site, we have collected 2 to 5 years of conductivity measurements. Except for some trace elements (Fe and Hg), most solutes behave conservatively, and the ratio of geothermal solute concentrations are constant. Hence, dissolved concentrations of Cl, SO4, F, HCO3, SiO2, K, Li, Ca, B, and As correlate well with conductivity (R2 > 0.96). The use of conductivity to estimate solute concentrations and fluxes will provide a greater understanding of the systematics of the Yellowstone thermal output and allow for monitoring of many more solutes at a much higher temporal frequency.

  17. Analysis of how changed federal regulations and economic incentives affect financing of geothermal projects

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, D.; Wiseman, E.; Bennett, V.

    1980-11-04

    The effects of various financial incentives on potential developers of geothermal electric energy are studied and the impact of timing of plant construction costs on geothermal electricity costs is assessed. The effect of the geothermal loan guarantee program on decisions by investor-owned utilities to build geothermal electric power plants was examined. The usefulness of additional investment tax credits was studied as a method for encouraging utilities to invest in geothermal energy. The independent firms which specialize in geothermal resource development are described. The role of municipal and cooperative utilities in geothermal resource development was assessed in detail. Busbar capital costs were calculated for geothermal energy under a variety of ownerships with several assumptions about financial incentives. (MHR)

  18. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  20. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Aaron; Young, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration.

  1. Engineering aspects of geothermal development with emphasis on the Imperial Valley of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.

    1978-01-01

    This review was prepared in support of a geothermal planning activity of the County of Imperial. Engineering features of potential geothermal development are outlined. Acreage requirements for drilling and powerplants are estimated, as are the costs for wells, fluid transmission pipes, and generating stations. Rough scaling relationships are developed for cost factors as a function of reservoir temperature. Estimates are made for cooling water requirements, and possible sources of cooling water are discussed. Availability and suitability of agricultural wastewater for cooling are emphasized. The utility of geothermal resources for fresh water production in the Imperial Valley is considered.

  2. Two-Phase Flow in Geothermal Wells: Development and Uses of a Good Computer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Ramirez, Jaime

    1983-06-01

    A computer code is developed for vertical two-phase flow in geothermal wellbores. The two-phase correlations used were developed by Orkiszewski (1967) and others and are widely applicable in the oil and gas industry. The computer code is compared to the flowing survey measurements from wells in the East Mesa, Cerro Prieto, and Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal fields with success. Well data from the Svartsengi field in Iceland are also used. Several applications of the computer code are considered. They range from reservoir analysis to wellbore deposition studies. It is considered that accurate and workable wellbore simulators have an important role to play in geothermal reservoir engineering.

  3. Geothermal development in Cerro Prieto Baja California, Mexico (1983)

    SciTech Connect

    Manon M.A.

    1983-09-01

    The actual stage of the expansion program and some of the main characteristics of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field are presented. This is similar to the one presented in this same conference back in 1981, but it has been updated.

  4. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  5. PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES OF POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides preliminary cost estimates of air and water pollution control technologies for geothermal energy conversion facilities. Costs for solid waste disposal are also estimated. The technologies examined include those for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions and fo...

  6. Finding Hidden Geothermal Resources in the Basin and Range Using Electrical Survey Techniques: A Computational Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Pritchett; not used on publication

    2004-12-01

    For many years, there has been speculation about "hidden" or "blind" geothermal systems—reservoirs that lack an obvious overlying surface fluid outlet. At present, it is simply not known whether "hidden" geothermal reservoirs are rare or common. An approach to identifying promising drilling targets using methods that are cheaper than drilling is needed. These methods should be regarded as reconnaissance tools, whose primary purpose is to locate high-probability targets for subsequent deep confirmation drilling. The purpose of this study was to appraise the feasibility of finding "hidden" geothermal reservoirs in the Basin and Range using electrical survey techniques, and of adequately locating promising targets for deep exploratory drilling based on the survey results. The approach was purely theoretical. A geothermal reservoir simulator was used to carry out a lengthy calculation of the evolution of a synthetic but generic Great Basin-type geothermal reservoir to a quasi-steady "natural state". Postprocessors were used to try to estimate what a suite of geophysical surveys of the prospect would see. Based on these results, the different survey techniques were compared and evaluated in terms of their ability to identify suitable drilling targets. This process was completed for eight different "reservoir models". Of the eight cases considered, four were "hidden" systems, so that the survey techniques could be appraised in terms of their ability to detect and characterize such resources and to distinguish them from more conventionally situated geothermal reservoirs. It is concluded that the best way to find "hidden" basin and range geothermal resources of this general type is to carry out simultaneous SP and low-frequency MT surveys, and then to combine the results of both surveys with other pertinent information using mathematical "inversion" techniques to characterize the subsurface quantitatively. Many such surveys and accompanying analyses can be carried out

  7. National Geothermal Data System: Case Studies on Exploration and Development of Potential Geothermal Sites Through Distributed Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Allison, Lee; Richard, Steve; Caudill-Daugherty, Christy; Patten, Kim

    2014-09-29

    The NGDS released version 1 of the system on April 30, 2014 using the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) as its data integration platform. NGDS supports the 2013 Open Data Policy, and as such, the launch was featured at the 2014 Energy Datapalooza. Currently, the NGDS features a comprehensive user interface for searching and accessing nearly 41,000 documents and more than 9 million data points shared by scores of data providers across the U.S. The NGDS supports distributed data sharing, permitting the data owners to maintain the raw data that is made available to the consumer. Researchers and industry have been utilizing the NGDS as a mechanism for promoting geothermal development across the country, from hydrothermal to ground source heat pump applications. Case studies in geothermal research and exploration from across the country are highlighted.

  8. DOE geothermal R&D program focused on facilitating long-term, cost-effective private resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses conducted in support of the National Energy Strategy projected that as much as 22,000 megawatts of cost-effective, moderate-temperature geothermal energy are available to the U.S. over the long-term, or to the year 2030. Thus, the primary hydrothermal technology research goal of the Department's Geothermal Division is to facilitate the ability of the private sector to exploit competitively this large source of energy up to that capacity level or greater. The primary mechanism for implementing this goal is an R&D core program cost-shared with industry focused on major cost-sensitive technology areas: exploration technology, reservoir engineering and management, and drilling. The NES analyses also indicated that electricity generated with energy derived from hot dry rock could be a geographically dispersed, logical follow-on to hydrothermal electricity in the longer term. In order to demonstrate whether energy at useful temperatures can be extracted over extended periods at competitive energy prices, a long-term flow test of an experimental HDR system will be conducted. This paper describes DOE's current participation in R&D activities leading to the development of ''cutting edge'' technology that will serve the geothermal industry's interest well into the next century.

  9. ENERGY FROM THE WEST: ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS REPORT. VOLUME VI: GEOTHERMAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the technologies likely to be used for development of geothermal resources in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming). It provides information on input materials and labor requirements, out...

  10. An assessment of leadership in geothermal energy technology research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-03-01

    Geothermal energy is one of the more promising renewable energy technologies because it is environmentally benign and, unlike most renewable energy sources, can provide base power. This report provides an assessment of the research and development (R&D) work underway in geothermal energy in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. While the R&D work underway in the US exceeds the R&D efforts of the other countries, the lead is eroding. This erosion is due to reductions in federal government funding for geothermal energy R&D and the decline of the US petroleum industry. This erosion of R&D leadership is hindering commercialization of US geothermal energy products and services. In comparison, the study countries are promoting the commercialization of their geothermal energy products and services. As a result, some of these countries, in particular Japan, will probably have the largest share of the global market for geothermal energy products and services; these products and services being targeted toward the developing countries (the largest market for geothermal energy).

  11. Geothermal Technology Development Program. Annual progress report, October 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program. The work reported is sponsored by the Department of Energy/Geothermal Hydropower Technology Division (DOE/GHTD), with program management provided by Sandia National Laboratories. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, diagnostics technology, and permeability enhancement. 102 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  13. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Exploration 1976-2006

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    This report, the first in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in exploration and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  14. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Drilling 1976-2006

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    This report, the second in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in drilling and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  15. Geothermal Steam Act Amendments of 1987. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 1006, July 14, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey estimates that it has identified recoverable geothermal energy which could be readily used to generate electricity in about 440 quadrillion BTUs, equivalent to about 40 billion barrels of oil. However, there are concerns regarding the impact of geothermal development and significant geothermal features with national parks and monuments. As important as geothermal energy is, we cannot allow it to be developed at the expense of nationally significant features, such as Old Faithful, the geyser basin in Yellowstone National Park. In accordance with Public Law No. 99-591, DOI issues a list of significant thermal features within national parks to be protected against adverse impacts of geothermal leasing. Witnesses here testified as to the adequacy of the list as well as to concerns that geothermal development on private lands may be affecting thermal features within the parks. Witnesses included officials from geothermal development companies, resource companies with geothermal interests, National Parks and Conservation Ass'n., Department of Interior, and US Senators and Congressmen. Appendices include (1) responses to additional committee questions, and (2) additional material submitted for the record.

  16. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  17. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    . The briefs addressed: Benefits of Geothermal Energy Common Questions about Geothermal Energy Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Energy and Economic Development Geothermal Energy: Technologies and Costs Location of Geothermal Resources Geothermal Policy Options for States Guidelines for Siting Geothermal Power Plants and Electricity Transmission Lines

  18. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  19. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Gabbs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-09

    The results of the analyses as well as a plan for geothermal development are described. The major findings and specific barriers to development that would have to be addressed are identified. Characteristics of the site significant to the prospect for geothermal development are described. These characteristics include physiography, demography, economy, and the goals and objectives of the citizens as they would relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource evaluation is described. Based on available information, the reservoir is generally described, defining the depth to the reservoir, production rates of the existing water wells, water quality, and the resource temperature. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the foreseeable future at Gabbs are described. The amounts and types of energy currently consumed, by end-user, are estimated. From this information, a conceptual engineering design and cost estimates are presented. Finally, the results of a life cycle analysis of the economic feasibility are discussed. A time-line chart shows the tasks, the time estimated to be required for each and the interrelatioships among the activities. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed. These include the financial, environmental, legal and regulatory requirements. The main resource, engineering, and institutional considerations involved in a geothermal district heating system for Gabbs are summarized.

  20. Development of a downhole tool measuring real-time concentration of ionic tracers and pH in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Ryan F.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Limmer, Steven; Yelton, William G.; Bingham, Samuel; Stillman, Greg; Lindblom, Scott; Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    For enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) geothermal brine is pumped to the surface via the production wells, the heat extracted to turn a turbine to generate electricity, and the spent brine re-injected via injection wells back underground. If designed properly, the subsurface rock formations will lead this water back to the extraction well as heated brine. Proper monitoring of these geothermal reservoirs is essential for developing and maintaining the necessary level of productivity of the field. Chemical tracers are commonly used to characterize the fracture network and determine the connectivity between the injection and production wells. Currently, most tracer experiments involve injecting the tracer at the injection well, manually collecting liquid samples at the wellhead of the production well, and sending the samples off for laboratory analysis. While this method provides accurate tracer concentration data at very low levels of detection, it does not provide information regarding the location of the fractures which were conducting the tracer between wellbores. Sandia is developing a high-temperature electrochemical sensor capable of measuring tracer concentrations and pH downhole on a wireline tool. The goal of this effort is to collect real-time pH and ionic tracer concentration data at temperatures up to 225 °C and pressures up to 3000 psi. In this paper, a prototype electrochemical sensor and the initial data obtained will be presented detailing the measurement of iodide tracer concentrations at high temperature and pressure in a newly developed laboratory scale autoclave.

  1. Development of Active Seismic Vector-Wavefield Imaging Technology for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Hardage; J. L. Simmons, Jr.; M. DeAngelo

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the development and testing of vector-wavefield seismic sources that can generate shear (S) waves that may be valuable in geothermal exploration and reservoir characterization. Also described is a 3-D seismic data-processing effort to create images of Rye Patch geothermal reservoir from 3-D sign-bit data recorded over the geothermal prospect. Two seismic sources were developed and tested in this study that can be used to illuminate geothermal reservoirs with S-waves. The first was an explosive package that generates a strong, azimuth-oriented, horizontal force vector when deployed in a conventional shot hole. This vector-explosive source has never been available to industry before. The second source was a dipole formed by operating two vertical vibrators in either a force or phase imbalance. Field data are shown that document the strong S-wave modes generated by these sources.

  2. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-04

    The results of the analyses as well as a plan for the development of the geothermal resource are described. Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described. These characteristics include physiography, demography, economy, and goals and ojectives of the citizens as they would relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource is described. The reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperatures ae indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The amounts and types of energy currently consumed by end users are estimated. Using this data base, conceptual engineering designs and cost estimates for three alternative district heating systems are presented. In addition, the results of a life cycle cost analysis for these alternatives are discussed. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects are discussed. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system at Hawthorne are described. A time-line chart shows the tasks, the time estimated to be required for each, and the interrelationships among the activities.

  3. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  4. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  5. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Young, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration. In this paper, we: Provide generalized background information on CXs, including previous NEPA reports addressing CXs, the process for developing CXs, and the role of extraordinary circumstances; Examine the history of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) geothermal CXs; Compare current CXs for oil, gas, and geothermal energy; Describe bills proposing new statutory CXs; Examine the possibility of standardizing geothermal CXs across federal agencies; and Present analysis from the Geothermal NEPA Database and other sources on the potential for new geothermal exploration CXs. As part of this study, we reviewed Environmental Assessments (EAs) conducted in response to 20 geothermal exploration drilling permit applications (Geothermal Drilling Permits or Notices of Intents) since the year 2001, the majority of which are from the last 5 years. All 20 EAs reviewed for this study resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). While many of these FONS's involved proponent proposed or federal agency required mitigation, this still suggests it may be appropriate to create or expand an exploration drilling CX for geothermal, which would have a significant impact on reducing geothermal exploration timelines and up-front costs. Ultimately, federal agencies tasked with permitting and completing environmental

  6. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  7. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1981-06-15

    The focus is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150/sup 0/C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of noncondensing gases such as hydrogen sulfide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. It is shown that hydrogen sulfide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odor annoyances among members of the exposed public - some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 parts per million by volume. A risk assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. The risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic is also assessed. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry are summarized briefly.

  8. G.R.I.P.S activities in the development of direct use of geothermal resources and small scale geothermal power development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    The activities of the geothermal research information and planning services (G.R.I.P.S.) in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties (i.e., Lake, Mendocino, Napa, Sonoma) in California are reported. Activities in the G.R.I.P.S. information and outreach program, workshop presentations, pilot project development, permit processing improvements and Department of Energy reporting are described.

  9. Electricity for Millions: Developing Renewable Energy in China (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    This two page fact sheet describes NREL's work developing renewable energy in China. Renewable focus areas include rural energy development, wind energy development, geothermal energy development, renewable energy business development and policy and planning.

  10. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  11. Recent exploration and development of geothermal energy resources in the Escalante desert region, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackett, Robert E.; Ross, Howard P.

    1994-01-01

    Development of geothermal resources in southwest Utah's Sevier thermal area continued in the early 1990s with expansion of existing power-generation facilities. Completion of the Bud L. Bonnett geothermal power plant at the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal area brought total power generation capacity of the facility to 13.5 MWe (gross). At Cove Fort-Sulphurdate, recent declines in steam pressures within the shallow, vapor-dominated part of the resource prompted field developers to complete additional geothermal supply wells into the deeper, liquid-dominated portion of the resource. At Roosevelt Hot Springs near Milford, Intermountain Geothermal Company completed an additional supply well for Utah Power and Light Company's single-flash, Blundell plant. with the increased geothermal fluid supply from the new well, the Blundell plant now produces about 26 MWe (gross). The authors conducted several geothermal resource studies in undeveloped thermal areas in southwest Utah. Previous studies at Newcastle revealed a well-defined, self-potential minimum coincident with the intersection of major faults and the center of the heatflow anomaly. A detailed self-potential survey at Wood's Ranch, an area in northwest Iron County where thermal water was encountered in shallow wells, revealed a large (5,900 ?? 2,950 feet [1,800 ?? 900 m]) northeast-oriented self-potential anomaly which possibly results from the flow of shallow thermal fluid. Chemical geothermometry applied to Wood's Ranch water samples suggest reservoir temperatures between 230 and 248??F (110 and 120??C). At the Thermo Hot Springs geothermal area near Minersville, detailed self-potential surveys have also revealed an interesting 100 mV negative anomaly possibly related to the upward flow of hydrothermal fluid.

  12. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update from the geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Internet has experienced explosive growth in the past year. What is the Internet you might ask? The Internet (also known as the Net) is a global community of communities. As of November 1994, it is estimated that there are 30 million Internet users in over 80 countries. These millions of people, from all walks of life, count on the Internet as an integral part of their day-to-day activities. The Internet is a new way to bring information to people with the touch of a keyboard or the click of a mouse.This article describes the Geo-Heat Center Homepage, and presents some additional information on the geothermal heating of sidewalks in Klamath Falls, Oregon.

  13. National Geothermal Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. F.; Cuyler, D.; Snyder, W. S.; Allison, M. L.; Blackwell, D. D.; Williams, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System is to design, build, implement, deploy and populate a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers. These providers will develop, collect, serve, and maintain geothermal-relevant data that operates as an integral component of NGDS. As a result the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. Five separate NGDS projects provide the data support, acquisition, and access to cyber infrastructure necessary to reduce cost and risk of the nation's geothermal energy strategy and US DOE program goals focused on the production and utilization of geothermal energy. The U.S DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Technologies Program is developing the knowledge and data foundation necessary for discovery and development of large-scale energy production while the Buildings Technology Program is focused on other practical applications such as direct use and residential/commercial ground source heat pumps. The NGDS provides expanded reference and resource data for research and development activities (a subset of the US DOE goals) and includes data from across all fifty states and the nation's leading academic geothermal centers. Thus, the project incorporates not only high-temperature potential but also moderate and low-temperature locations incorporating US DOE's goal of adding more geothermal electricity to the grid. The program, through its development of data integration cyberinfrastructure, will help lead to innovative exploration technologies through increased data availability on geothermal energy capacity. Finally

  14. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  15. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The goals are: (1) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; (2) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2002. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.

  16. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office. The goals are: (1) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; (2) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2003. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.

  17. Geothermal FIT Design: International Experience and U.S. Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Rickerson, W.; Gifford, J.; Grace, R.; Cory, K.

    2012-08-01

    Developing power plants is a risky endeavor, whether conventional or renewable generation. Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies can be designed to address some of these risks, and their design can be tailored to geothermal electric plant development. Geothermal projects face risks similar to other generation project development, including finding buyers for power, ensuring adequate transmission capacity, competing to supply electricity and/or renewable energy certificates (RECs), securing reliable revenue streams, navigating the legal issues related to project development, and reacting to changes in existing regulations or incentives. Although FITs have not been created specifically for geothermal in the United States to date, a variety of FIT design options could reduce geothermal power plant development risks and are explored. This analysis focuses on the design of FIT incentive policies for geothermal electric projects and how FITs can be used to reduce risks (excluding drilling unproductive exploratory wells).

  18. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model Geothermal User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Augustine, C.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-09-01

    The Geothermal Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an Excel-based user-friendly tools that estimates the economic impacts of constructing and operating hydrothermal and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) power generation projects at the local level for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Model Geothermal User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in using and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted.

  19. National Geothermal Academy. Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 2 (Complete Bulletin). A Quarterly Progress and Development Report on the Direct Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya; Maddi, Phillip

    2012-08-01

    The National Geothermal Academy (NGA) is an intensive 8-week overview of the different aspects involved in developing a geothermal project, hosted at University of Nevada, Reno. The class of 2012 was the second graduating class from the academy and included 21 students from nine states, as well as Saudi Arabia, Dominica, India, Trinidad, Mexico. The class consisted of people from a wide range of scholastic abilities from students pursuing a Bachelor’s or Master’s degrees, to entrepreneurs and professionals looking to improve their knowledge in the geothermal field. Students earned 6 credits, either undergraduate or graduate, in engineering or geology. Overall, the students of the NGA, although having diverse backgrounds in engineering, geology, finance, and other sciences, came together with a common passion to learn more about geothermal.

  20. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  1. IRETHERM: Developing a Strategic and Holistic Understanding of Ireland's Geothermal Energy Potential through Integrated Modelling of New and Existing Geophysical, Geochemical and Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Daly, Stephen; Vozar, Jan; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Fritschle, Tobias; Willmot Noller, Nicola; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The Science Foundation Ireland funded academia-government-industry collaborative IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie), initiated in 2011, is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's (all-island) deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical, geochemical and geological data. Potential applications include both low enthalpy district space heating of large urban centres and electricity generation from intermediate-temperature waters. IRETHERM comprises three broad geothermal target types; 1) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's radiogenic granites (EGS), (2) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's deep sedimentary basins (HSA), and, (3) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of warm springs. The geophysical subsurface imaging techniques of choice are controlled-source (CSEM) and natural-source (magnetotellurics, MT) electromagnetic methods. Electrical conductivity, being a transport property, is a proxy for permeability, and appropriate porosity-permeability relations are being developed. To date, MT measurements have been made at 466 sites over sedimentary basins (190 sites), granites (156 sites) and warm springs (120 sites), with CSEM across one warm spring. An ongoing continuous geochemical (temperature and electrical conductivity every 15 mins) and time-lapse seasonal hydrochemical sampling programmes are in progress at six warm spring sites. A database on heat production in Irish rocks has been compiled, of more than 3,300 geochemical sample measurements, with 3,000 retrieved from various archives and over 300 new analyses. Geochemistry, geochronology and isotopic analyses have been conducted on subsurface granites and exposed analogues astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in order to understand the underlying reasons for their radiogenic heat production. Finally, thermal conductivity measurements have been made on borehole samples from representative lithologies

  2. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

    2010-06-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  3. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  4. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program Annual Report Fiscal Year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Zora V.; Murphy, Hugh D.; Smith, Morton C.

    1988-01-01

    The complete list of HDR objectives is provided in Reference 10, and is tabulated below in Tables 1 and 2 for the reader's convenience. The primary, level 1, objective for HDR is ''to improve the technology to the point where electricity could be produced commercially from a substantial number of known HDR resource sites in a cost range of 5 to 8 cents/kWh by 1997''. A critically important milestone in attaining this cost target is the level II objective: ''Evaluate the performance of the Fenton Hill Phase II reservoir''. To appreciate the significance of this objective, a brief background is helpful. During the past 14 years the US DOE has invested $123 million to develop the technology required to make Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy commercially useful. The Governments of Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany have contributed an additional $32 million to the US program. The initial objectives of the program were met by the successful development and long-term operation of a heat-extraction loop in hydraulically-fractured hot dry rock. This Phase I reservoir produced pressurized hot water at temperatures and flow rates suitable for many commercial uses such as space heating and food processing. It operated for more than a year with no major problems or detectable environmental effect. With this accomplished and the technical feasibility of HDR energy systems demonstrated, the program undertook the more difficult task of developing a larger, deeper, hotter reservoir, called ''Phase II'', capable of supporting pilot-plant-scale operation of a commercial electricity-generating power plant. As described earlier in ''History of Research'', such a system was created and operated successfully in a preliminary 30-day flow test. However, to justify capital investment in HDR geothermal technology, industry now requires assurance that the reservoir can be operated for a long time without major problems or a significant decrease in the rate and quality of energy

  5. Session 10: The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico: The Experiences Gained from Its Exploration and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Cerro Prieto case study demonstrated the value of a multidisciplinary effort for exploring and developing a geothermal field. There was no problem in recognizing the geothermal potential of the Cerro Prieto area because of the many obvious surface manifestations. However, the delineation of the geothermal reservoir at depth was not so straightforward. Wells drilled near the abundant surface manifestations only produced fluids of relatively low enthalpy. Later it was determined that these zones of high heat loss corresponded to discharge areas where faults and fractures allowed thermal fluids to leak to the surface, and not to the main geothermal reservoir. The early gravity and seismic refraction surveys provided important information on the general structure of the area. Unaware of the existence of a higher density zone of hydrothermally altered sediments capping the geothermal reservoir, CFE interpreted a basement horst in the western part of the field and hypothesized that the bounding faults were controlling the upward flow of thermal fluids. Attempting to penetrate the sedimentary column to reach the ''basement horst'', CFE discovered the {alpha} geothermal reservoir (in well M-5). The continuation of the geothermal aquifer (actually the {beta} reservoir) east of the original well field was later confirmed by a deep exploration well (M-53). The experience of Cerro Prieto showed the importance of chemical ratios, and geothermometers in general, in establishing the subsurface temperatures and fluid flow patterns. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have also been helpful to determine the origin of the fluids, fluid-production mechanisms and production induced effects on the reservoir.

  6. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  7. Mining earth's heat: development of hot-dry-rock geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, R.A.; Becker, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The energy-extraction concept of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Program, as initially developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is to mine this heat by creating a man-made reservoir in low-permeability, hot basement rock. This concept has been successfully proven at Fenton Hill in northern New Mexico by drilling two holes to a depth of approximately 3 km (10,000 ft) and a bottom temperature of 200/sup 0/C (392/sup 0/F), then connecting the boreholes with a large-diametervertical hydraulic fracture. Water is circulated down one borehole, heated by the hot rock, and rises up the second borehole to the surface where the heat is extracted and the cooled water is reinjected into the underground circulation loop. This system has operated for a cumulative 416 days during engineering and reservoir testing. An energy equivalent of 3 to 5 MW(t) was produced without adverse environmental problems. During one test, a generator was installed in the circulation loop and produced 60 kW of electricity. A second-generation system, recently drilled to 4.5 km (15,000 ft) and temperatures of 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F), entails creating multiple, parallel fractures between a pair of inclined boreholes. This system should produce 5 to 10 MW(e) for 20 years. Significant contributions to underground technology have been made through the development of the program.

  8. Imperial County, geothermal development. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal development activities have increased during the October to December period. Nine power plant projects are proceeding, this includes two constructed facilities, one facility under construction, three facilities scheduled to begin construction in 1982, and three facilities in the planning or permitting stage. Geothermal exploration activities are continuing with activities in East Brawley, Truckhaven, and near the Superstition Mountains. Interest in direct heat development seems to be increasing. The City of El Centro project is under construction and there are several direct heat projects in preliminary planning stages. Permitting, planning, and waste disposal activities are reviewed.

  9. Reservoir engineering applications for development and exploitation of geothermal fields in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, N.C.; Sarmiento, Z.F.

    1986-07-01

    After a geothermal well is completed, several tests and downhole measurements are conducted to help evaluate the subsurface fluid and reservoir properties intersected. From these tests, a conceptual model of the well can be developed by integrating data from the various parts of the field. This paper presents the completion techniques applied in geothermal wells, as well as the role of reservoir engineering science in delineating a field for development. Monitoring techniques and other reservoir engineering aspects of a field under exploitation are also discussed, with examples from the Philippines.

  10. Geothermal energy: a proven resource with costly potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The commercial use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has been spreading across the country since the California Geyser site was developed in 1960. Petroleum companies see geothermal power generation as a way to broaden their own base. The binary-cycle technology to use hydrothermal resources will be ready by 1985. Power generation from geothermal heat will be costly even though the resource itself is free and renewable; but the economics will improve as fossil-fuel prices increase. (DCK)

  11. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 1. Potential noise issues with geothermal development in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, J.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report concerns primarily the environmental noise expected to arise from construction and operation at HGP-A. A brief discussion of expected noise effects if the geothermal field is developed is included. Some of this discussion is applicable to noise problems that may arise if other geothermal fields are found and developed, but site-specific discussion of other fields can be formulated only when exact locations are identified. There is information concerning noise at other geothermal fields, especially the Geysers. This report includes only second-hand references to such information. No measurements of ambient sound levels near the HGP-A are available, no reliable and carefully checked sound level measurements from the HGP-A well operation are available.

  12. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  13. Characterization of mudstone, clayey rock and argillite towards stabilisation of boreholes by developing new drilling strategies for geothermal resources exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witthaus, M.; Lempp, Ch.; Röckel, Th.; Hecht, Ch.; Herold, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, relating to the BMU Project „ borehole stabilisation as an important factor for the utilization of deep geothermal resources" (Project No. 0327594), sediment rocks with comparable lithology to the pelite beds of the Upper Rhine zone were investigated by a number of geomechanical tests. The investigation will provide detailed information on the geomechanical behaviour (brittle and ductile deformation) of clay stone formations in order to find out critical reasons for the instability of boreholes at a depth of about 2000 m. The main aspect of the study is to develop improved technical options in order to increase borehole stability. Many geothermal energy projects started near the Upper Rhine Rift in order to produce electricity, as the geothermal gradient rises there to about 150° C at 3 - 4 km depth. For these enhanced geothermal systems it is necessary to drill deep boreholes to install geothermal heat exchangers, so that the injected cold water conducts the high temperature of the rocks (Hot Dry Rock-Technology). The drillings have to be intersected through different rock layers that are influenced by varying regional stress fields respective to their depth. Between depths of 1500 to 2000 m within the Upper Rhine zone some of the drilled boreholes were in some parts very unstable, especially in formations where mud- and clay stones were dominant, as well as in interbedded strata with sandstones. As the maximum load capacity of these clays is very low and due to their ductile as well as brittle deformation behaviour, borehole convergence and borehole breakouts are detected. These changes were also caused by deep injection of drilling fluid into the rock formation, increasing the pore pressure there, so that hydraulic tension cracks were induced (hydraulic fracturing). This occurred mainly during drilling and it is the reason why there is an imminent risk of the stability of geothermal boreholes in geological formations composed of mudstones, clay

  14. Geothermal Brief: Market and Policy Impacts Update

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    Utility-scale geothermal electricity generation plants have generally taken advantage of various government initiatives designed to stimulate private investment. This report investigates these initiatives to evaluate their impact on the associated cost of energy and the development of geothermal electric generating capacity using conventional hydrothermal technologies. We use the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) to analyze the effects of tax incentives on project economics. Incentives include the production tax credit, U.S. Department of Treasury cash grant, the investment tax credit, and accelerated depreciation schedules. The second half of the report discusses the impact of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Loan Guarantee Program on geothermal electric project deployment and possible reasons for a lack of guarantees for geothermal projects. For comparison, we examine the effectiveness of the 1970s DOE drilling support programs, including the original loan guarantee and industry-coupled cost share programs.

  15. Geothermal publications list for Geopowering the West States

    SciTech Connect

    2004-12-01

    A list of geothermal publications is provided for each of the states under the ''GeoPowering the West'' program. They are provided to assist the various states in developing their geothermal resources for direct-use and electric power applications. Each state publication list includes the following: (1) General papers on various direct-uses and electric power generation available from the Geo-Heat Center either by mail or on-line at: http://geoheat.oit.edu. (2) General Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin articles related to various geothermal uses--also available either by mail or on-line; (3) Publications from other web sites such as: Geothermal-Biz.com; NREL, EGI, GEO and others ; and (4) Geothermal Resources Council citations, which are available from their web site: www.geothermal.org.

  16. Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, C.; Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Dolenc, M.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.

  17. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  18. Geothermal Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the renewed market interest in using geothermal for power generation including a concise look at what's driving interest in geothermal power generation, the current status of geothermal power generation, and plans for the future. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of geothermal power generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in geothermal power generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of geothermal power generation projects; a description of geothermal power generation technologies; a review of the economic drivers of geothermal power generation project success; profiles of the major geothermal power producing countries; and, profiles of the major geothermal power project developers.

  19. Further Development and Application of GEOFRAC-FLOW to a Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, Herbert; Vecchiarelli, Alessandra

    2014-05-01

    GEOFRAC is a three-dimensional, geology-based, geometric-mechanical, hierarchical, stochastic model of natural rock fracture systems. The main characteristics of GEOFRAC are its use of statistical input representing fracture patterns in the field in form of the fracture intensity P32 (fracture area per volume) and the best estimate fracture size E(A). This information can be obtained from boreholes or scanlines on the surface, on the one hand, and from window sampling of fracture traces on the other hand. In the context of this project, “Recovery Act - Decision Aids for Geothermal Systems”, GEOFRAC was further developed into GEOFRAC-FLOW as has been reported in the reports, “Decision Aids for Geothermal Systems - Fracture Pattern Modelling” and “Decision Aids for Geothermal Systems - Fracture Flow Modeling”. GEOFRAC-FLOW allows one to determine preferred, interconnected fracture paths and the flow through them.

  20. Geothermal direct applications hardware systems development and testing. 1979 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.

    1980-03-01

    Activities performed during calendar year 1979 for the hardware system development and testing task are presented. The fluidized bed technology was applied to the drying of potato by-products and to the exchange of heat to air in the space heating experiment. Geothermal water was flashed to steam and also used as the prime energy source in the steam distillation of peppermint oil. Geothermal water temperatures as low as 112.8/sup 0/C were utilized to distill alcohol from sugar beet juice, and lower temperature water provided air conditioning through an absorption air conditioning system. These experiments are discussed.

  1. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  2. Geothermal Project Database Supporting Barriers and Viability Analysis for Development by 2020 Timeline

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anna Wall

    2014-10-21

    This data provides the underlying project-level analysis and data sources complied in response to the DOE request to determine the amount of geothermal capacity that could be available to meet the President's request to double renewable energy capacity by 2020. The enclosed data contains compiled data on individual project names and locations (by geothermal area and region), ownership, estimated nameplate capacity, and project status, and also contains inferred data on the barriers and viability of the project to meet a 2020 development timeline. The analysis of this data is discussed in the attached NREL report.

  3. New Zealand geothermal: Wairakei -- 40 years

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This quarterly bulletin highlights the geothermal developments in New Zealand with the following articles: A brief history of the Wairakei geothermal power project; Geothermal resources in New Zealand -- An overview; Domestic and commercial heating and bathing -- Rotorua area; Kawerau geothermal development: A case study; Timber drying at Kawerau; Geothermal greenhouses at Kawerau; Drying of fibrous crops using geothermal steam and hot water at the Taupo Lucerne Company; Prawn Park -- Taupo, New Zealand; Geothermal orchids; Miranda hot springs; and Geothermal pipeline.

  4. Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2006-04-06

    The ?Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing? project substantially added to the understanding of geothermal resources, technology, and small business development by both the general public as well as those in the geothermal community.

  5. 25 CFR 212.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 212.42 Section 212.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. The provisions of § 211.42 of this subchapter...

  6. 25 CFR 211.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 211.42 Section 211.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Secretary,...

  7. 25 CFR 211.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 211.42 Section 211.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Secretary,...

  8. 25 CFR 212.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 212.42 Section 212.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. The provisions of § 211.42 of this subchapter...

  9. 25 CFR 211.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 211.42 Section 211.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Secretary,...

  10. 25 CFR 212.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 212.42 Section 212.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. The provisions of § 211.42 of this subchapter...

  11. 25 CFR 212.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 212.42 Section 212.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. The provisions of § 211.42 of this subchapter...

  12. 25 CFR 212.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 212.42 Section 212.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. The provisions of § 211.42 of this subchapter...

  13. 25 CFR 211.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 211.42 Section 211.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Secretary,...

  14. 25 CFR 211.42 - Annual rentals and expenditures for development on leases other than oil and gas, and geothermal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. 211.42 Section 211.42 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents... other than oil and gas, and geothermal resources. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Secretary,...

  15. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  16. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, P.

    1980-06-01

    The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

  17. Reservoir Engineering Aspects of the Philippines Geothermal Developments in Leyte and Southern Negros

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, R.; Watson, A.

    1983-12-15

    The current state of development of the Tongonan and Puhagan geothermal fields in the Philippines is presented and the nature of the reservoirs is described. In the latter part of the paper, reservoir engineering techniques which have been found to be particularly valuable are discussed and some aspects which give rise to problems are identified.

  18. GEOTHERMAL INDUSTRY POSITION PAPER, EPA REGULATORY OPTIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental impact of geothermal energy development may be less intense or widespread than that of some other energy sources; however, it is the first example of a number of emerging energy technologies that must be dealt with by EPA. The report discusses the regulatory app...

  19. SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS APPLYING TO GEOTHERMAL EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations that apply to geothermal energy development are summarized. Most attention is given to those regulations which deal with air pollution, water pollution, solid wastes and impact assessments. Analyses are made of the regu...

  20. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  1. Development and bottlenecks of renewable electricity generation in China: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-04-01

    This review provides an overview on the development and status of electricity generation from renewable energy sources, namely hydropower, wind power, solar power, biomass energy, and geothermal energy, and discusses the technology, policy, and finance bottlenecks limiting growth of the renewable energy industry in China. Renewable energy, dominated by hydropower, currently accounts for more than 25% of the total electricity generation capacity. China is the world's largest generator of both hydropower and wind power, and also the largest manufacturer and exporter of photovoltaic cells. Electricity production from solar and biomass energy is at the early stages of development in China, while geothermal power generation has received little attention recently. The spatial mismatch in renewable energy supply and electricity demand requires construction of long-distance transmission networks, while the intermittence of renewable energy poses significant technical problems for feeding the generated electricity into the power grid. Besides greater investment in research and technology development, effective policies and financial measures should also be developed and improved to better support the healthy and sustained growth of renewable electricity generation. Meanwhile, attention should be paid to the potential impacts on the local environment from renewable energy development, despite the wider benefits for climate change. PMID:23445126

  2. Cooperative efforts by industry and government to develop geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Federal government's current plans for participation in the geothermal field appear to affect four major areas of interest: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) resources utilization projects, (3) advanced research and technology, and (4) environmental, legal, and institutional research. Private industry is also actively involved in these same areas of interest. Because of lack of coordination and communication between the private and public sector, it appears that there will be considerable duplication of effort, and, in some cases, serious conflict. It is also likely that this lack of coordination and communication may result in lack of effort in some key areas. Close coordination and communication between government and industry may resolve some of the major problems that are clearly evident.

  3. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  4. Development of a Special Application Coiled Tubing Applied Plug for Geothermal Well Casing Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    STALLER,GEORGE E.; KNUDSEN,STEVEN D.; SATTLER,ALLAN R.

    1999-10-01

    Casing deformation in producing geothermal wells is a common problem in many geothermal fields, mainly due to the active geologic formations where these wells are typically located. Repairs to deformed well casings are necessary to keep the wells in production and to occasionally enter a well for approved plugging and abandonment procedures. The costly alternative to casing remediation is to drill a new well to maintain production and/or drill a well to intersect the old well casing below the deformation for abandonment purposes. The U.S. Department of Energy and the Geothermal Drilling Organization sponsored research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these casing remediation expenditures. Sandia, in cooperation with Halliburton Energy Services, developed a low cost, bridge-plug-type, packer for use in casing remediation work in geothermal well environments. This report documents the development and testing of this commercially available petal-basket packer called the Special Application Coiled Tubing Applied Plug (SACTAP).

  5. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Garry J.; Birkby, Jeff

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  6. Failure analysis report: 10 MW geothermal binary turbine, Magma Electric Company, East Mesa, California

    SciTech Connect

    Anliker, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The cause of failure of two isobutane turbines at the East Mesa geothermal plant was investigated. One turbine lost all the vanes in all three stages, while the other turbine sustained dings and nicks in the vanes, but remained intact. The exact cause of failure could not be determined. Three possibilities were determined: (1) a single foreign object, possibly a bolt; (2) foreign substance (geothermal fluid, oil, liquid isobutane, or particulate corrosion products) entered both turbines; or (3) one or more brazed joints failed by fatigue or by a corrosive process. 5 refs., 13 figs. (ACR)

  7. Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Thomas M; Erlach, Celeste

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  8. Environmental Considerations for a Geothermal Development in the Jemez Mountains of Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sabo, David G.

    1980-12-01

    The demonstration nature of the Baca Geothermal Project and the contractual arrangements between Public Service Company of New Me (PNM) and Union Geothermal Company of New Mexico (Union) with the Department of Energy mandate on environmental monitoring effort previously not seen for an energy development of this size. One of the most often stated goals of the Baca Project is to demonstrate the acceptability and viability of geothermal energy in an environmentally responsible manner. If this statement is to be followed, then a program would have to be developed which would (1) identify all the environmental baseline parameters, (2) monitor them during construction and operation, and (3) alleviate any possible negative impacts. The situation of the Baca project in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico offers a challenging vehicle with which to demonstrate the acceptability of geothermal energy. A few of the reasons for this are: these mountains are one of the most heavily used recreational resource areas in the state, numerous prehistoric people utilized the canyons and have left considerable archeological resources, the mountains are home for a number of individuals who prefer their serenity to the hustle and bustle of urban dwelling, and finally, the mountains are considered sacred by a number of local Indian tribes, a few of which use the mountaintop as religious sites.

  9. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Young, K. R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This paper documents the approach used to update the U.S. geothermal supply curve. The analysis undertaken in this study estimates the supply of electricity generation potential from geothermal resources in the United States and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs associated with developing these geothermal resources. Supply curves were developed for four categories of geothermal resources: identified hydrothermal (6.4 GWe), undiscovered hydrothermal (30.0 GWe), near-hydrothermal field enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) (7.0 GWe) and deep EGS (15,900 GWe). Two cases were considered: a base case and a target case. Supply curves were generated for each of the four geothermal resource categories for both cases. For both cases, hydrothermal resources dominate the lower cost range of the combined geothermal supply curve. The supply curves indicate that the reservoir performance improvements assumed in the target case could significantly lower EGS costs and greatly increase EGS deployment over the base case.

  10. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Polsky, Yarom

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  11. Circum-Pacific geothermal energy use in 1990

    SciTech Connect

    D'Olier, W.L.

    1990-06-01

    Geothermal energy utilization in Pacific Ocean nations is conveniently measured by installed electrical generating capacity in gross megawatts (MW). Better perception of comparative achievements and outlook in 1990 is obtained by separately considering California's large Geysers installation of 2,044 MW. On this basis, the US, Mexico, El Salvador, and Nicaragua have approximately 1,630 MW of geothermal electric power established. In the western Pacific, the Philippines, New Zealand, Japan, and Indonesia have approximately 1,470 MW of power generation. Geothermal energy now provides about 3% of the electric power supply in California and Mexico and 8% in the Philippines. The 1990s will see continued growth of geothermal electric power especially in the Philippines and Mexico, which are pushing beyond existing capacities of 890 and 700 MW, respectively. Costa Rica has substantial initial geothermal power capacity under construction. In California a development surge closed the 1980 decade with 240 MW of new capacity at Coso Hot Springs and 242 MW of additional capacity in Imperial Valley. The US geothermal industry is now contending with a constrained power market and negative impacts of overdevelopment at The Geysers. However, several US geothermal companies now qualified in integrated resource development, electrical generation, and marketing are advantageously positioned for the next opening in the power market. Where sound production, injection, and reservoir management are practiced, geothermal reservoirs are supporting reliable, high performance electric power generation. New technologies are further reducing geothermal's low environmental profile, particularly minimizing emissions to atmosphere. Geothermal energy utilization should continue its steady growth in the Circum-Pacific during the 1990 decade.

  12. A PACIFIC-WIDE GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH LABORATORY: THE PUNA GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.; Seki, A.; Chen, B.

    1985-01-22

    The Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP-A) well, located in the Kilauea volcano east rift zone, was drilled to a depth of 6450 feet in 1976. It is considered to be one of the hot-test producing geothermal wells in the world. This single well provides 52,800 pounds per hour of 371 F and 160 pounds per square inch-absolute (psia) steam to a 3-megawatt power plant, while the separated brine is discharged in percolating ponds. About 50,000 pounds per hour of 368 F and 155 psia brine is discharged. Geothermal energy development has increased steadily in Hawaii since the completion of HGP-A in 1976: (1) a 3 megawatt power plant at HGP-A was completed and has been operating since 1981; (2) Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) has requested that their next increment in power production be from geothermal steam; (3) three development consortia are actively, or in the process of, drilling geothermal exploration wells on the Big Island; and (4) engineering work on the development of a 400 megawatt undersea cable for energy transmission is continuing, with exploratory discussions being initiated on other alternatives such as hydrogen. The purpose for establishing the Puna Geothermal Research Facility (PGRF) is multifold. PGRF provides a facility in Puna for high technology research, development, and demonstration in geothermal and related activities; initiate an industrial park development; and examine multi-purpose dehydration and biomass applications related to geothermal energy utilization.

  13. Development of an Advanced Stimulation / Production Predictive Simulator for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, John W.

    2015-04-15

    There are several well-known obstacles to the successful deployment of EGS projects on a commercial scale, of course. EGS projects are expected to be deeper, on the average, than conventional “natural” geothermal reservoirs, and drilling costs are already a formidable barrier to conventional geothermal projects. Unlike conventional resources (which frequently announce their presence with natural manifestations such as geysers, hot springs and fumaroles), EGS prospects are likely to appear fairly undistinguished from the earth surface. And, of course, the probable necessity of fabricating a subterranean fluid circulation network to mine the heat from the rock (instead of simply relying on natural, pre-existing permeable fractures) adds a significant degree of uncertainty to the prospects for success. Accordingly, the basic motivation for the work presented herein was to try to develop a new set of tools that would be more suitable for this purpose. Several years ago, the Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office recognized this need and funded a cost-shared grant to our company (then SAIC, now Leidos) to partner with Geowatt AG of Zurich, Switzerland and undertake the development of a new reservoir simulator that would be more suitable for EGS forecasting than the existing tools. That project has now been completed and a new numerical geothermal reservoir simulator has been developed. It is named “HeatEx” (for “Heat Extraction”) and is almost completely new, although its methodology owes a great deal to other previous geothermal software development efforts, including Geowatt’s “HEX-S” code, the STAR and SPFRAC simulators developed here at SAIC/Leidos, the MINC approach originally developed at LBNL, and tracer analysis software originally formulated at INEL. Furthermore, the development effort was led by engineers with many years of experience in using reservoir simulation software to make meaningful forecasts for real geothermal

  14. Sustainable energy development and water supply security in Kamojang Geothermal Field: The Energy-Water Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam have been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of water were injected into the reservoir system. The injected water come from condensed water, local river and ground water. Sustainable production in the geothermal energy development is the ability of the production system applied to sustain the stable production level over long times and to manage the mass balance between production, injection and natural recharge in the geothermal reservoir during exploitation. Mass balance in the reservoir system can be monitored by using time lapse gravity monitoring. Mass variation of hydrodynamic in the reservoir of KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production. Large amount of fresh water is needed for sustainable geothermal energy production, while the domestic water supply need is also increased. Natural recharge, about 50% of injected water, cooling system, drilling and other production activities in KGF spend large amounts of fresh water. Water consumption for local people around KGF is about 1.46 MT/year. The water volume around KGF of total runoff is the range between dry season 0.07 MT/month and rainy season 4.4 MT/month. The water demands for sustainable geothermal production of KGF and for local people's consumption will increase in the future. Integrated planning between the energy and water sectors in KGF

  15. Geothermal Resource Area 5, Churchill, Douglas, Lyon and Storey Counties area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Within this four county area there are many known geothermal resources ranging in temperature from 70 to over 350{sup 0}F. Thirteen of these resources are considered major and have been selected for evaluation. Various potential uses of the energy found were determined after evaluating the study area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities. These factors were then compared with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation; space heating; recreation; industrial process heat; and agriculture.

  16. Impact of geothermal development on the state of Hawaii. Executive summary. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    Questions regarding the sociological, legal, environmental, and geological concerns associated with the development of geothermal resources in the Hawaiian Islands are addressed in this summary report. Major social changes, environmental degradation, legal and economic constraints, seismicity, subsidence, changes in volcanic activity, accidents, and ground water contamination are not major problems with the present state of development, however, the present single well does not provide sufficient data for extrapolation. (ACR)

  17. The development of Hawaii's H sub 2 S standards and geothermal regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Flachsbart, P.G. ); Morrow, J.W. )

    1987-01-01

    Hawaii is dependent on imported oil for about 92% of its energy needs. In 1979, the state paid over $1 billion to import petroleum. The authors describe how the state has vigorously pursued the goal of increased energy self-sufficiency. During the last ten years, Hawaii has attempted to diversify its energy sources through the development of a number of indigenous energy resources. These are discussed including solar, wind, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), biomass fuels, and geothermal development.

  18. Niland development project geothermal loan guaranty: 49-MW (net) power plant and geothermal well field development, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The proposed federal action addressed by this environmental assessment is the authorization of disbursements under a loan guaranteed by the US Department of Energy for the Niland Geothermal Energy Program. The disbursements will partially finance the development of a geothermal well field in the Imperial Valley of California to supply a 25-MW(e) (net) power plant. Phase I of the project is the production of 25 MW(e) (net) of power; the full rate of 49 MW (net) would be achieved during Phase II. The project is located on approximately 1600 acres (648 ha) near the city of Niland in Imperial County, California. Well field development includes the initial drilling of 8 production wells for Phase I, 8 production wells for Phase II, and the possible need for as many as 16 replacement wells over the anticipated 30-year life of the facility. Activities associated with the power plant in addition to operation are excavation and construction of the facility and associated systems (such as cooling towers). Significant environmental impacts, as defined in Council on Environmental Quality regulation 40 CFR Part 1508.27, are not expected to occur as a result of this project. Minor impacts could include the following: local degradation of ambient air quality due to particulate and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions, temporarily increased ambient noise levels due to drilling and construction activities, and increased traffic. Impacts could be significant in the event of a major spill of geothermal fluid, which could contaminate groundwater and surface waters and alter or eliminate nearby habitat. Careful land use planning and engineering design, implementation of mitigation measures for pollution control, and design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program that can provide an early indication of potential problems should ensure that impacts, except for certain accidents, will be minimized.

  19. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  20. Design, Development and Testing of a Drillable Straddle Packer for Lost Circulation Control in Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabaldon, J.; Glowka, D.A.; Gronewald, P.; Knudsen, S.D.; Raymond, D.W.; Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wise, J.L.; Wright, E.K.

    1999-04-01

    Lost Circulation is a widespread problem encountered when drilling geothermal wells, and often represents a substantial portion of the cost of drilling a well. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these lost circulation expenditures. Sandia has developed a down hole tool that improves the effectiveness and reduces th cost of lost circulation cement treatment while drilling geothermal wells. This tool, the Drillable Straddle Packer, is a low-cost disposable device that is used to isolate the loss zone and emplace the cement treatment directly into the region of concern. This report documents the design and development of the Drillabe Straddle Packer, the laboratory and field test results, and the design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  1. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platonares, Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Plantanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. The existence of the shallow reservoir is relatively well-characterized, and much indirect scientific evidence indicate the existence of the deeper reservoir. Based on probability distributions estimated by geologists of temperature, areal extent, depth, and porosity, the expected size of power plant that the deep reservoir can support was estimated with the following results: O-MW -- 16% (i.e., there is a 16% chance that the deep reservoir will not support a power plant); 20-MW -- 38%; 30-MW -- 25%; 55-MW -- 19%; and 110-MW -- 2%. When the cost savings from each size of plant are weighted by the probability that the reservoir will support a plant of that size, the expected monetary value of the deep reservoir can be computed. It is $42 million in present value 1987 dollars -- a cost savings of 10%. The expected savings from the 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir are expected to be close to the computed value of $25 million, i.e., the probability that the shallow reservoir can support the plant is high. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Subsurface Geophysical Characterization of the Crystalline Canadian Shield in NE Alberta: Implications to Geothermal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lee, M. D.; Moeck, I. S.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of a deep borehole offers an unprecedented opportunity to correlate surface seismic data to borehole measurements in the metamorphic rocks of northeastern Alberta, Canada. As part of the feasibility study for the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in Alberta under the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), this project provides a detailed subsurface characterization of the basement rocks by integrating the existing deep surface seismic profile with the borehole seismic and log measurements that were mostly acquired in July 2011. The purpose of geothermal energy research in Alberta is to implement alternative energy resources for water heating in oil sands processing toward minimizing greenhouse gas emissions in the province. Existing thermal gradient studies suggested that deep drilling into the crystalline basement rocks is needed to reach the desired temperature for the development of geothermal energy in northeastern Alberta. Crystalline basement rocks are known for their low porosity but the presence of highly-fractured rocks still provides an ideal environment for the development of any geothermal systems. As such, physical discontinuities including cracks, voids and joint systems, and major faults and fractures are features to target for geothermal exploration. The focus of this project is on identifying any geological features including zones of fractures in the basement rocks that could act as indicators of enhanced fluid potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. By integrating the results from a comprehensive suite of geophysical borehole logs, seismic reflection surveys, zero-offset and walk-away vertical seismic profiles, the final results provide useful information on the in-situ physical properties of the rocks, depths to fracture zones and seismic reflectors, types of fractures, stress directions, and the acoustic responses of rock properties. Significant P-wave velocity anisotropy is also

  3. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  4. Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

  5. Impacts of geothermal energy developments on hydrological environment in hot spring areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water-energy nexus such as geothermal energy developments and its impacts on groundwater, river water, and coastal water is one of the key issues for the sustainable society. This is because the demand of both water and energy resources will be increasing in near future, and the tradeoff between both resources and conflict between stakeholders will be arisen. Geothermal power generation, hot springs heat power generation, and steam power generation, are developing in hot spring areas in Ring of Fire countries including Japan, as renewable and sustainable energy. Impacts of the wasted hot water after using hot springs heat and steam power generation on ecosystem in the rivers have been observed in Beppu, Oita prefecture, Japan. The number of the fish species with wasted hot water in the Hirata river is much less than that without wasted hot water in Hiyakawa river although the dominant species of tilapia was found in the Hirata river with wasted hot water. The water temperature in Hirata rive is increased by wasted hot water by 10 degree C. The impacts of the developments of steam power generations on hot spring water and groundwater in downstream are also evaluated in Beppu. The decreases in temperature and volume of the hot spring water and groundwater after the development are concerning. Stakeholder analysis related to hot spa and power generation business and others in Beppu showed common interests in community development among stakeholders and gaps in prerequisite knowledge and recognition of the geothermal resource in terms of economic/non-economic value and utilization as power generation/hot-spring. We screened stakeholders of four categories (hot spring resorts inhabitants, industries, supporters, environmentalists), and set up three communities consisting of 50 persons of the above categories. One remarkable result regarding the pros and cons of geothermal power in general terms was that the supporter count increased greatly while the neutralities count

  6. Environmental problems and geothermal permitting

    SciTech Connect

    Windrem, P.F.; Marr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the stages of geothermal development, the attendant environmental hazards, and the jurisdictions of the various government agencies. Most examples of environmental hazards are drawn from the electric-power production in the geysers of northern California. The major enviromental effects of geothermal development are observed on air quality (including noise), land (including soil erosion, seismic activity and subsidence, wildlife habitat, and visual quality), and water quality. Ownership determines which agencies have jurisdiction, with the preparation of an environmental impact statement at the heart of the federal regulatory process and an environmental-impact report required at the state level. Environmental rules also cover power-plant construction and geothermal field abandonment. 58 references.

  7. Recent geothermal developments in the Imperial Valley: Brawley, Salton Sea, Heber

    SciTech Connect

    Papay, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    Imperial Valley programs in geothermal energy are reviewed. The Brawley plant has had a relatively high availability on line since its startup in 1980. The startup at Salton Sea plant was surprisingly smooth. Using these research projects, all of the technical parameters for commercial development of geothermal energy will be known in a year or two. Native brine handling processes, casing materials and configurations, and turbine modifications are being studied. The PUC's decision on the Heber plant was a temporary setback. PUC ruled that projects will not be approved unless they yield competitive busbar costs. The Avoided Cost concept has become the benchmark at PUC. But Avoided Cost does not account for the higher initial design costs and unknown parameters of startup as opposed to mature plant costs. Avoided Cost is seen as the only obstacle to commercial developement in all areas.

  8. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-05-28

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide

  9. Development of a geothermal resource in a fractured volcanic formation: Case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Pritchett, J.W.; Stevens, J.L.; Luu, L.; Combs, J.

    1996-11-01

    The principal purpose of this case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is to document and to evaluate the use of drilling logs, surface and downhole geophysical measurements, chemical analyses, and pressure transient data for the assessment of a high temperature volcanic geothermal field. The work accomplished during Year 1 of this ongoing program is described in the present report. A brief overview of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is given. The drilling information and downhole pressure, temperature, and spinner surveys are used to determine feedzone locations, pressures and temperatures. Available injection and production data from both slim holes and large-diameter wells are analyzed to evaluate injectivity/productivity indices and to investigate the variation of discharge rate with borehole diameter. Finally, plans for future work are outlined.

  10. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; Pruess, Karsten; Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Majer, Ernest L.; Rose, Peter E.; Adams, Michael; Roberston-Tait, Ann; Moller, Nancy; Weare, John; Clutter, Ted; Brown, Donald W.

    2010-09-01

    This report, the third in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in reservoir engineering and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  11. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Energy Conversion 1976-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, Gregory L.

    2010-09-01

    This report, the last in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in energy conversion and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  12. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.

    1999-05-01

    This report reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Research Program for Fiscal Year 1998. The Exploration Technology research area focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to expose the deep portions of known systems. The Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal and hot dry rock reservoirs. The Drilling Technology projects focus on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. The Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Direct use research covers the direct use of geothermal energy sources for applications in other than electrical production.

  13. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains appendices on: (1) resource assessment - electrical generation computer results; (2) resource assessment summary - direct use computer results; (3) electrical generation (high temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (4) direct utilization (low temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (5) electrical generation computer program CENTPLANT and related documentation; (6) electrical generation computer program WELLHEAD and related documentation; (7) direct utilization computer program HEATPLAN and related documentation; (8) electrical generation ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; (9) direct utilization ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; and (10) life cycle cost analysis computer program and related documentation. (ACR)

  14. Preliminary study of the potential environmental concerns associated with surface waters and geothermal development of the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorst, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary evaluation is presented of possible and probable problems that may be associated with hydrothermal development of the Valles Caldera Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), with specific reference to surface waters. Because of the history of geothermal development and its associated environmental impacts, this preliminary evaluation indicates the Valles Caldera KGRA will be subject to these concerns. Although the exact nature and size of any problem that may occur is not predictable, the baseline data accumulated so far have delineated existing conditions in the streams of the Valles Caldera KGRA. Continued monitoring will be necessary with the development of geothermal resources. Further studies are also needed to establish guidelines for geothermal effluents and emissions.

  15. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Development Solicitation - Final Report - 09/30/2000 - 02/01/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Dennis L.

    2001-05-07

    The Enhanced Geothermal System concept is to develop the technology required to extract energy from the reduced permeability zones that underlie all high-temperature geothermal systems. Our concept is that injection wells will be drilled into the high temperature zone. The wells will identify fractures that are only poorly connected to the overlying reservoir. Water injected into these fractures will cause them to propagate through thermal contraction, increase in hydrostatic pressure, and reduction of effective stress. The fractures will connect with the overlying normal temperature reservoir, and steam will be produced from existing production wells. The injection water will generate high thermal quality steam while mitigating problems relating to high gas and chloride.

  16. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 2. Environmental control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.; Hill, J.

    1980-07-01

    Environmental control technologies are essential elements to be included in the overall design of Imperial Valley geothermal power systems. Environmental controls applicable to abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions, cooling tower drift, noise, liquid and solid wastes, and induced subsidence and seismicity are assessed here. For optimum abatement of H{sub 2}S under a variety of plant operating conditions, removal of H{sub 2}S upstream of the steam turbine is recommended. The environmental impact of cooling tower drift will be closely tied to the quality of cooling water supplies. Conventional noise abatement procedures can be applied and no special research and development are needed. Injection technology constitutes the primary and most essential environmental control and liquid waste disposal technology for Imperial Velley geothermal operations. Subsurface injection of fluids is the primary control for managing induced subsidence. Careful maintenance of injection pressure is expected to control induced seismicity. (MHR)

  17. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT, U.S. Department of Energy: Award No. DE-EE0002855 "Demonstrating the Commercial Feasibility of Geopressured-Geothermal Power Development at Sweet Lake Field - Cameron Parish, Louisiana"

    SciTech Connect

    Gayle, Phillip A., Jr.

    2012-01-13

    The goal of the project was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of geopressured-geothermal power development by exploiting the extraordinarily high pressured hot brines know to exist at depth near the Sweet Lake oil and gas field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The existence of a geopressured-geothermal system at Sweet Lake was confirmed in the 1970's and 1980's as part of DOE's Geopressured-Geothermal Program. That program showed that the energy prices at the time could not support commercial production of the resource. Increased electricity prices and technological advancements over the last two decades, combined with the current national support for developing clean, renewable energy and the job creation it would entail, provided the justification necessary to reevaluate the commercial feasibility of power generation from this vast resource.

  18. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    All aerospace systems require power management and distribution (PMAD) between the energy and power source and the loads. The PMAD subsystem can be broadly described as the conditioning and control of unregulated power from the energy source and its transmission to a power bus for distribution to the intended loads. All power and control circuits for PMAD require electrical components for switching, energy storage, voltage-to-current transformation, filtering, regulation, protection, and isolation. Advanced electrical materials and component development technology is a key technology to increasing the power density, efficiency, reliability, and operating temperature of the PMAD. The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and/or significantly improved electronic materials for capacitors, magnetic components, and semiconductor switches and diodes. The next important step is to develop the processing techniques to fabricate electrical and electronic components that exceed the specifications of presently available state-of-the-art components. The NASA Glenn Research Center's advanced electrical materials and component development technology task is focused on the following three areas: 1) New and/or improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased capacitance volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature; 2) New and/or improved high-frequency, high-temperature soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers and inductors with increased power density, energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature; 3) Packaged high-temperature, high-power density, high-voltage, and low-loss SiC diodes and switches.

  19. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  20. 3-D fault development in a geothermal system in the German Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziesch, Jennifer; Tanner, David C.; Wawerzinek, Britta; Lüschen, Ewald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Buness, Hermann; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The southern German Molasse Basin is one of the most promising areas for geothermal exploration in Germany. We aim for an optimized reservoir exploration for deep geothermal facilities in the Bavarian realm. To do this, we analyse seismic faults to characterise potential pathways between the Malm and its overburden, which consists of Molasse sediments. A 3-D seismic survey (27 km_2) was interpreted as part of the research project GeoParaMoL (Geophysical Parameters for facies interpretation and Modelling of Long-term behaviour), in the study area at Unterhaching, Munich, Germany. GeoParaMoL is a partner project of GRAME, which aims to explore the hydrothermal Malm carbonate reservoir (at a depth of ca. 3 km) as a source for deep geothermal energy. First, we interpreted five seismic horizons and over 20 major faults. Here we present preliminary results of the derived 3-D structural model. We determined fault geometries and displacement profiles using isopach and juxtaposition maps. We observe two different tectonic events: The faults within the Molasse sediments are unrelated to the faults of the underlying Malm carbonate platform. The faults within the Malm carbonate platform propagated up to the Top Eocene horizon (Lithothamien carbonates). The faults within the younger Miocene sediments developed subsequently. They dip, in part, with opposing dip direction, but mostly with the same strike. This basic information will be further used to predict fluid pathways by carrying out retro-deformation in the study area to help understand the structural development and regional tectonics. This work will support exploration of geothermal reservoirs in general. This project is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).

  1. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Bob; Laughlin, Darren

    2013-10-29

    Under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant, A-Tech Corporation d.b.a. Applied Technology Associates (ATA), seeks to develop a seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) seismic measurement tool for high-temperature geothermal applications. The Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer includes a conventional tri-axial accelerometer, a conventional pressure sensor or hydrophone, and a tri-axial rotational sensor. The rotational sensing capability is novel, based upon ATA's innovative research in rotational sensing technologies. The geothermal industry requires tools for high-precision seismic monitoring of crack formation associated with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) stimulation activity. Currently, microseismic monitoring is conducted by deploying many seismic tools at different depth levels along a 'string' within drilled observation wells. Costs per string can be hundreds of thousands of dollars. Processing data from the spatial arrays of linear seismometers allows back-projection of seismic wave states. In contrast, a Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer would simultaneously measure p-wave velocity, s-wave velocity, and incident seismic wave direction all from a single point measurement. In addition, the Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer will, by its nature, separate p- and s-waves into different data streams, simplifying signal processing and facilitating analysis of seismic source signatures and geological characterization. By adding measurements of three additional degrees-of-freedom at each level and leveraging the information from this new seismic observable, it is likely that an equally accurate picture of subsurface seismic activity could be garnered with fewer levels per hole. The key cost savings would come from better siting of the well due to increased information content and a decrease in the number of confirmation wells drilled, also due to the increase in information per well. Improved seismic tools may also increase knowledge, understanding, and confidence

  2. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States geothermal space heating - Naval Air Rework Facility, Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F. K.; Henderson, R. W.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using geothermal energy for space heating the Naval Air Rework Facility (NARF) electronic integration hangar was evaluated. The warm water output from a single well was used in several modes: to heat via a floor radiation system or via heat pumps, with and without a ground water reservoir to store heat in off hours.

  3. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  4. Hawaii geothermal project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  5. Geothermal power development in the Philippines: an update of progress at Tongonan and Palinpinon (Okoy)

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, N.W.; Elizagaque, R.F.

    1983-09-01

    Development of the geothermal fields at Tongonan (Leyte) and Okoy (Negros) is being carried out by the Ministry of Energy of the Philippines Government. A number of papers have been published previously on a variety of aspects of the work being done at Tongonan and Palinpinon. An update of progress at a time when both projects are well advanced and have commenced, or are about to commence, commercial operation is presented. The setting within which the projects are being developed is first described, and this is followed by a brief discussion of issues of interest which have arisen as development has progressed.

  6. Electric vehicle developments in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yerkes, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Volkswagen, Mercedes, and the big three Japanese companies, Nissan, Toyota and Honda may develop for the 1998 model year good basic electric cars. VW`s Concept 1 will be offered with gasoline, diesel/electric, and full electric drive trains. From a cost stand point most of the cars will be offered with improved lead-acid batteries such as the Horizon with NiCd or some form of advanced battery as an upgrade or high performance option. General Motors will sell the Impact with lead-acid batteries. The position of Ford and Chrysler is unknown at this point, but both are fielding electric versions of vans already in production. At least one of these efforts may pay off and after 2000 the electric car could improve rapidly.

  7. Prioritizing High-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackett, R.E.; Brill, T.C.; Sowards, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Utah Geological Survey and the Utah Energy Office recently released geothermal resource information for Utah as a "digital atlas." We are now expanding this project to include economic analyses of selected geothermal sites and previously unavailable resource information. The enhancements to the digital atlas will include new resource, demographic, regulatory, economic, and other information to allow analyses of economic factors for comparing and ranking geothermal resource sites in Utah for potential electric power development. New resource information includes temperature gradient and fluid chemistry data, which was previously proprietary. Economic analyses are based upon a project evaluation model to assess capital and operating expenses for a variety of geothermal powerplant configuration scenarios. A review of legal and institutional issues regarding geothermal development coupled with water development will also be included.

  8. Evaluation of noise associated with geothermal-development activities. Final report, July 31, 1979-April 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Long, M.; Stern, R.

    1982-01-01

    This report was prepared for the purpose of ascertaining the current state of noise generation, suppression, and mitigation techniques associated with geothermal development. A description of the geothermal drilling process is included as well as an overview of geothermal development activities in the United States. Noise sources at the well site, along geothermal pipelines, and at the power plants are considered. All data presented are measured values by workers in the field and by Marshall Long/Acoustics. One particular well site was monitored for a period of 55 continuous days, and includes all sources of noise from the time that the drilling rig was brought in until the time that it was moved off site. A complete log of events associated with the drilling process is correlated with the noise measurements including production testing of the completed well. Data are also presented which compare measured values of geothermal noise with federal, state, county, and local standards. A section on control of geothermal noise is also given. Volume I of this document presents summary information.

  9. Geophysical reconnaissance of prospective geothermal areas on the island of Hawaii using electrical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kauahikaua, J.; Mattice, M.

    1981-07-01

    Resistivity data from several areas were compiled, analyzed, and interpreted in terms of possible geologic models. On the basis of this analysis alone, two areas have been ruled out for possible geothermal exploitation, two have been interpreted to have a moderate-temperature resource, and two have been interpreted to have a high-temperature resource. The two areas which have been ruled out are the Keaau and South Point areas. The Kawaihae area and the lower northwest rift zone of Hualalai appear to have anomalous resistivity structures, which suggest a moderate-temperature resource in each of these areas. Finally, specific areas in the lower southwest and lower east rift zones of Kilauea have been outlined as locations where high-temperature fluids may exist at depth.

  10. Geophysical reconnaissance of prospective geothermal areas on the Island of Hawaii using electrical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kauahikaua, J.; Mattice, M.

    1981-12-01

    Resistivity data from several areas were compiled, analyzed, and interpreted in terms of possible geologic models. On the basis of this analysis alone, two areas have been ruled out for possible geothermal exploitation, two have been interpreted to have a moderate-temperature resource, and two have been interpreted to have a high-temperature resource. The two areas which have been ruled out are the Keaau and South Point areas. The Kawaihae area and the lower northwest rift zone of Hualalai appear to have anomalous resistivity structures which suggest a moderate-temperature resource in each of these areas. Finally, specific areas in the lower southwest and lower east rift zones of Kilaauea have been outlined as locations where high-temperature fluids may exist at depth.

  11. Maintaining a competitive geothermal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zodiaco, V.P.

    1996-04-10

    I come to this geothermal business with over 30 years of experience in the power generation industry. I have earned my spurs (so to speak) in the electric utility, nuclear power, coal and the gas-fired cogeneration power businesses. I have been employed by Oxbow Power for the past seven years and for the past 18 months I have been based in Reno and responsible for the operation, maintenance and management of Oxbow`s domestic power projects which include three geothermal and two gas-fired facilities. The Oxbow Power Group (consisting principally of Oxbow Power Corporation, Oxbow Geothermal Corporation, Oxbow Power of Beowawe, Oxbow Power International and Oxbow Power Services, Inc.) is based in West Palm Beach, Florida, and has regional offices in Reno, Hong Kong and Manila to support on-line geothermal projects in Nevada, other domestic power projects and a geothermal plant under construction in the Philippines. Oxbow Power employs approximately 30 professionals in the development and management of power projects and over 100 supervisors and technicians in the operation and maintenance of power facilities. Current ownership in independent power projects total 340 MW in the United States and 47 MW under construction in the Philippines. Oxbow is currently negotiating additional projects in several Asian and Central American countries.

  12. Coordinating Permit Offices and the Development of Utility-Scale Geothermal Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Young, K.; Witherbee, K.

    2013-10-01

    Permitting is a major component of the geothermal development process. Better coordination across government agencies could reduce uncertainty of the process and the actual time of permitting. This presentation highlights various forms of coordinating permit offices at the state and federal level in the western United States, discusses inefficiencies and mitigation techniques for permitting natural resource projects, analyzes whether various approaches are easily adaptable to utility-scale geothermal development, and addresses advantages and challenges for coordinating permit offices. Key successful strategies identified include: 1. Flexibility in implementing the approach (i.e. less statutory requirements for the approach); 2. Less dependence on a final environmental review for information sharing and permit coordination; 3. State and federal partnerships developed through memorandum of understanding to define roles and share data and/or developer information. A few of the most helpful techniques include: 1. A central point of contact for the developer to ask questions surrounding the project; 2. Pre-application meetings to assist the developer in identifying all of the permits, regulatory approvals, and associated information or data required; 3. A permit schedule or timeline to set expectations for the developer and agencies; 4. Consolidating the public notice, comment, and hearing period into fewer hearings held concurrently.

  13. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, G.M.; Duffield, R.B.; Smith, M.C.; Wilson, M.G.

    1980-08-01

    The Fenton Hill Project is still the principal center for developing methods, equipment, and instrumentation for creating and utilizing HDR geothermal reservoirs. The search for a second site for a similar experimental system in a different geological environment has been intensified, as have the identification and characterization of other HDR areas that may prove suitable for either experimental or commercial development. The Phase I fracture system was enlarged during FY79. Drilling of the injection well of the Phase II system began at Fenton Hill in April 1979. Environmental monitoring of the Fenton Hill area continued through FY79. The environmental studies indicate that the hot dry rock operations have caused no significant environmental impact. Other supporting activities included rock physics, rock mechanics, fracture mapping, and instrumentation development. Two closely related activities - evaluation of the potential HDR energy resource of the US and the selection of a site for development of a second experimental heat-extraction system generally similar to that at Fenton Hill - have resulted in the collection of geology, hydrology, and heat-flow data on some level of field activity in 30 states. The resource-evaluation activity included reconnaissance field studies and a listing and preliminary characterization of US geothermal areas in which HDR energy extraction methods may be applicable. The selection of Site 2 has taken into account such legal, institutional, and economic factors as land ownership and use, proximity to possible users, permitting and licensing requirements and procedures, environmental issues, areal extent of the geothermal area, and visibility to and apparent interest by potential industrial developers.

  14. Quantitative impact of hydrothermal alteration on electrical resistivity in geothermal systems from a joint analysis of laboratory measurements and borehole data in Krafla area, N-E Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévy, Léa; Páll Hersir, Gylfi; Flóvenz, Ólafur; Gibert, Benoit; Pézard, Philippe; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Briole, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Rock permeability and fluid temperature are the two most decisive factors for a successful geothermal drilling. While those parameters are only measured from drilling, they might be estimated on the basis of their impact on electrical resistivity that might be imaged from surface soundings, for example through TEM (Transient Electro Magnetic) down to one km depth. The electrical conductivity of reservoir rocks is the sum of a volume term depending on fluid parameters and a surface term related to rock alteration. Understanding the link between electrical resistivity and geothermal key parameters requires the knowledge of hydrothermal alteration and its petrophysical signature with the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). Fluid-rock interactions related to hydrothermal circulation trigger the precipitation of alteration minerals, which are both witnesses of the temperature at the time of reaction and new paths for the electrical current. Alteration minerals include zeolites, smectites, chlorites, epidotes and amphiboles among which low temperatures parageneses are often the most conductive. The CEC of these mineral phases contributes to account for surface conductivity occuring at the water-rock interface. In cooling geothermal systems, these minerals constitute in petrophysical terms and from surface electrical conduction a memory of the equilibrium phase revealed from electrical probing at all scales. The qualitative impact of alteration minerals on resistivity structure has been studied over the years in the Icelandic geothermal context. In this work, the CEC impact on pore surfaces electrical conductivity is studied quantitatively at the borehole scale, where several types of volcanic rocks are mixed together, with various degrees of alteration and porosity. Five boreholes located within a few km at the Krafla volcano, Northeast Iceland, constitute the basis for this study. The deepest and reference hole, KJ-18, provides cuttings of rock and logging data down to 2215

  15. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  16. Geothermal monitor report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part 2 of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  17. Development of a Plan to Implement Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) in the Animas Valley, New Mexico - Final Report - 07/26/2000 - 02/01/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Schochet, Daniel N.; Cunniff, Roy A.

    2001-02-01

    The concept of producing energy from hot dry rock (HDR), originally proposed in 1971 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, contemplated the generation of electric power by injecting water into artificially created fractures in subsurface rock formations with high heat flow. Recognizing the inherent difficulties associated with HDR, the concept of Enhanced Geothermal Systems was proposed. This embraces the idea that the amount of permeability and fluid in geothermal resources varies across a spectrum, with HDR at one end, and conventional hydrothermal systems at the other. This report provides a concept for development of a ''Combined Technologies Project'' with construction and operation of a 6 MW (net) binary-cycle geothermal power plant that uses both the intermediate-depth hydrothermal system at 1,200 to 3,300 feet and a deeper EGS capable system at 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Two production/injection well pairs will be drilled, one couplet for the hydrothermal system, and one for the E GS system. High-pressure injection may be required to drive fluid through the EGS reservoir from the injection to the production well.

  18. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  19. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, David

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  20. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. A Program for Capital Recovery Assessment for the HP-97 and Other Desk Calculators

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kwang; Briesen, Roy Von

    1980-08-07

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and the Center for Metropolitan Planning and Research support the Division of Geothermal Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, in the development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. In this role, many tools have been developed to assist in the analysis of the economics of the application of geothermal energy. This report documents one computer program that has proved useful.

  1. Development and Exploitation of Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems, Example of "The Dogger" in the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Menjoz, A.; Martin, J.C.; Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.

    1987-01-20

    A feature of French geothermal engineering is the development of industrial projects in normal gradient, non-convective areas. The economic feasibility of exploiting wells producing between 150 and 350 m{sup 3}/h at temperatures from 55° to 85° from depths of 1,500 to 2,000 meters, in sedimentary basins with normal gradient, for direct heat production has been proved by 50 plants providing heating for over 500,000 people during the last few years. This opens new possibilities for geothermal energy development the world over, in particular for areas where heat consumption is higher than 2,500 Tons oil equivalent (Toe)/year over several square kilometers. The recent and rapid development of geothermal projects in France, in particular in the Paris Basin has provided much more information on the characteristics of the Jurassic Dogger, which is the unit tapped by geothermal doublets (one production and one injection well). Detailed study of the Dogger reservoir in the Paris Basin is one of the main objectives of the IMRG research and development program drawn up in 1983. The preliminary results presented here are oriented towards (1) improved knowledge of the potential geothermal resources, and (2) analysis of optimum development conditions. 1 tab., 7 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Elastomeric Materials for Geothermal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Kalfayan, S. H.; Reilly, W. W.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Mosesman, I. D.; Ingham, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    A material was formulated having about 250-350 psi tensile strength and 30-80 percent elongation at 260 C for at least 24 hours in simulated brine. The relationship between these laboratory test results and sealing performance in actual or simulated test conditions is not entirely clear; however, it is believed that no conventional formation or casing packer design is likely to perform well using these materials. The synthetic effort focused on high temperature block copolymers and development of curable polystyrene. Procedures were worked out for synthesizing these new materials. Initial results with heat-cured unfilled polystyrene 'gum' at 260 C indicate a tensile strength of about 50 psi. Cast films of the first sample of polyphenyl quinoxaline-polystyrene block copolymer, which has 'graft-block' structure consisting of a polystyrene chain with pendant polyphenyl quinoxaline groups, show elastomeric behavior in the required temperature range. Its tensile strength and elongation at 260 C were 220-350 psi and 18-36 percent, respectively. All of these materials also showed satisfactory hydrolytic stability.

  3. Electricity from biomass: A development strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the current status of biomass power technology and to evaluate the future directions for development that could significantly enhance the contribution of biomass power to U.S. production of electricity. This document reviews the basic principles of biomass electric systems, the previous contributions of industry and the National Biomass Energy Programs to technology development, and the options for future technology development. It discusses the market for biomass electric technology and future needs for electric power production to help establish a market-oriented development strategy. It projects trends in the performance and cost of the technology and examines the changing dynamics of the power generation market place to evaluate specific opportunities for biomass power development. In a separate document, the Biomass Power Program Five Year R&D Plan, the details of schedules, funding, and roles of participating R&D organizations within the R&D program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are presented. In evaluating the future directions for research and development, two cases are examined.

  4. Survey of environmental regulations applying to geothermal exploration, development, and use.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.

    1984-03-01

    Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations that apply to geothermal energy development are summarized. Most attention is given to those regulations which deal with air pollution, water pollution, solid wastes and impact assessments. Analyses are made of the regulations with respect to resource definition, pollutants currently not controlled, duplicity and overlap in permit and impact assessment requirements, the lack of uniformity of regulations between states, and the probable future approaches to the regulatory problems. This project updates a similar document (EPA/600/7-78-014) dated February 1978.

  5. Electricity reform and sustainable development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James H.; Kahrl, Fredrich

    2008-10-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of supplying electricity is a key to China's sustainable development, and a focus of both domestic and international concerns with greenhouse gas emissions. The environmental performance of the electricity sector is strongly affected by its institutional arrangements: regulatory frameworks, wholesale markets, pricing mechanisms, planning and coordination, and enforcement and incentive mechanisms. These arrangements are set to change as electricity reforms inaugurated in 2002, but sidetracked by several years of supply shortages, are being resumed. In this paper we examine the impact of electricity reform on environmental sustainability by analyzing case studies of four environmental initiatives in the electricity sector: retirement of inefficient generators, installation of pollution control equipment, renewable energy development, and efforts to promote energy efficiency. We find that implementation of these policies falls short of objectives for two main underlying reasons: conflicting priorities between central and provincial governments, and ineffective regulation. Sustainability will be best served not by redoubling short-term supply-oriented, market-based reforms, but by better aligning central and provincial government incentives, and by developing competent, independent regulation at the provincial level. China's central government and sub-national governments in industrialized countries can both contribute to the latter goal.

  6. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require that we examine many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source we will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. The objectives of this project were: 1) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the integration and utilization potential of low-temperature geothermal sources. Innovative uses of low-enthalpy geothermal water were designed and examined for their ability to offset fossil fuels and decrease CO2 emissions. 2) To perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. These processes included electricity generation using biomass and district heating systems. 3) To scale up and generalize the results of three case study locations to develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. A national-level, GIS-based, low-temperature geothermal resource supply model was developed and used to develop a series of national supply curves. We performed an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. The final products of this study include 17 publications, an updated version of the cost estimation software GEOPHIRES, and direct-use supply curves for low-temperature utilization of geothermal resources. The supply curves for direct use geothermal include utilization from known hydrothermal, undiscovered hydrothermal, and near-hydrothermal EGS resources and presented these results at the Stanford

  7. Development of Metric for Measuring the Impact of RD&D Funding on GTO's Geothermal Exploration Goals (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, S.; Young, K. R.; Thorsteinsson, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. In 2012, NREL was tasked with developing a metric to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration and cost and time improvements could be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at Geothermal">http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Geothermal). The conference paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open EI website for public access (http://en.openei.org).

  8. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  9. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  10. Performance of deep geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation of electricity. The design involves the extraction of heat from the Earth and its conversion into electricity. This is performed by allowing fluid deep into the Earth where it gets heated due to the surrounding rock. The fluid gets vaporized and returns to the surface in a heat pipe. Finally, the energy of the fluid is converted into electricity using turbine or organic rankine cycle (ORC). The main feature of the system is the employment of side channels to increase the amount of thermal energy extracted. A finite difference computer model is developed to solve the heat transport equation. The numerical model was employed to evaluate the performance of the design. The major goal was to optimize the output power as a function of parameters such as thermal diffusivity of the rock, depth of the main well, number and length of lateral channels. The sustainable lifetime of the system for a target output power of 2 MW has been calculated for deep geothermal systems with drilling depths of 8000 and 10000 meters, and a financial analysis has been performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the system for a practical range of geothermal parameters. Results show promising an outlook for deep geothermal systems for practical applications.

  11. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released summary results of an assessment of the electric power production potential from the moderate- and high-temperature geothermal resources of the United States (Williams et al., 2008a; USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3082; http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3082). In the assessment, the estimated mean power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 Megawatts-electric (MWe), more than three times the estimated mean potential from identified geothermal systems: 9057 MWe. The presence of significant undiscovered geothermal resources has major implications for future exploration and development activities by both the government and private industry. Previous reports summarize the results of techniques applied by the USGS and others to map the spatial distribution of undiscovered resources. This paper describes the approach applied in developing estimates of the magnitude of the undiscovered geothermal resource, as well as the manner in which that resource is likely to be distributed among geothermal systems of varying volume and temperature. A number of key issues constrain the overall estimate. One is the degree to which characteristics of the undiscovered resources correspond to those observed among identified geothermal systems. Another is the evaluation of exploration history, including both the spatial distribution of geothermal exploration activities relative to the postulated spatial distribution of undiscovered resources and the probability of successful discoveries from the application of standard geothermal exploration techniques. Also significant are the physical, chemical, and geological constraints on the formation and longevity of geothermal systems. Important observations from this study include the following. (1) Some of the largest identified geothermal systems, such as The Geysers vapor-dominated system in northern California and the diverse geothermal manifestations found in Yellowstone

  12. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  13. A Numerical Study on Combining CO2 Mineral Carbonation and Geothermal Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Y.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in the novel concept of operating Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 instead of water as heat transmission fluid. Initial studies have suggested that CO2 may achieve larger rates of heat extraction, and can offer geologic storage of carbon as an ancillary benefit. A fully developed EGS with CO2 would consist of three distinct zones, (1) a central zone or “core” in which all aqueous phase has been removed by dissolution into the flowing CO2 stream, so that the reservoir fluid is a single supercritical CO2 phase; (2) a surrounding intermediate zone, in which the reservoir fluid consists of a two-phase water-CO2 mixture; and (3) an outer or peripheral zone, in which the reservoir fluid is a single aqueous phase with dissolved CO2. Fluid-rock interactions in EGS operated with CO2 are expected to be vastly different in zones with an aqueous phase present, as compared to the central reservoir zone with anhydrous supercritical CO2. We have performed chemically reactive transport (TOUGHREACT ) modeling to investigate fluid-rock interactions and CO2 mineral carbonation of an EGS operated with CO2. The quartz monzodiorite unit at the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) site at Desert Peak (Nevada) was taken as an example. A geothermal injection well system with supercritical CO2 injection was simulated to (1) investigate mineral dissolution/precipitation and associated porosity changes, and (2) impacts on reservoir growth and longevity, with ramifications for sustaining energy recovery, for estimating CO2 loss rates, and for figuring tradeoffs between power generation and CO2 mineralization (geologic storage).

  14. Developing and circulating a fault system in the crystalline rock for geothermal power generation in Insheim, Germany.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teza, D.; Baumgärtner, J.; Lerch, C.; Gandy, T.; Hettkamp, T.; Penzkofer, P.; Schindler, M.; Wahl, G.

    2011-12-01

    Pfalzwerke geofuture GmbH together with its general contractor BESTEC GmbH intend to build a geothermal power plant in Insheim using a single fault system in the crystalline rock for geothermal heat extraction. The Insheim site is located in the Upper Rhine Graben, about 4 km South of the geothermal power plant in Landau, Germany, and about 30 km North of the European EGS site at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. In 2008 and 2009 two wells were successfully drilled to a depth of about 3,800 meters targeting the same fault system in the crystalline basement. The geothermal reservoir was tapped with a temperature of more than 165 degrees Celsius. In order to improve well properties and prepare both wells for safe, clean and viable power generation, circulation tests and hydraulic injections with gradually increasing flowrate were conducted in late 2009 and early 2010. Seismic monitoring networks, recording also ground velocities, along with an alarm plan ensured the success of the operations. The recorded peak ground velocities stayed far below the reference values of 3 and 5 millimeters per second, specified in the DIN 4150, while seismic activity obviously decreased during the hydraulic operations. In autumn 2010 a lateral well was drilled out of the injection well at approximately 2,500 meters, aiming to better distribute the fluid volume between the two injection branches and thus further minimize microseismic activity. During subsequent hydraulic injection tests no more seismicity was registered. The geothermal power plant in Insheim will have a capacity of 4 to 5 megawatts, capable of supplying about 8,000 homes with electrical energy. The beginning of electric power production is planned for summer 2012.

  15. Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Research at the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility was successfully concluded in September 1979. In 13,000 hours of operation over a three and one half year period, the nominal 10 megawatt electrical equivalent GLEF provided the opportunity to identify problems in working with highly saline geothermal fluids and to develop solutions that could be applied to a commercial geothermal power plant producing electricity. A seven and one half year period beginning in April 1972, with early well flow testing and ending in September 1979, with the completion of extensive facility and reservoir operations is covered. During this period, the facility was designed, constructed and operated in several configurations. A comprehensive reference document, addressing or referencing documentation of all the key areas investigated is presented.

  16. Mechanical rock properties, fracture propagation and permeability development in deep geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonie Philipp, Sonja; Reyer, Dorothea

    2010-05-01

    layers. Thus, to minimise exploration risks and for effective stimulation, the geometry of the fracture system and the mechanical properties of the host rock must be known. Here we present first results of structural geological field studies of fracture systems in outcrop analogues studies of rocks that could be used to host man-made geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary rocks in the North German Basin. As examples, we show data from different lithologies, including Buntsandstein (Lower Triassic), a sandstone-shale succession and Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic), a limestone-marl succession. We analyse natural fracture systems and the effects of rock heterogeneities, particularly stiffness variations between layers (mechanical layering) on the propagation of natural fractures. Important fracture parameters include attitude, aperture and interconnectivity to fracture systems. The field studies are supplemented by laboratory measurements of the above mentioned rock mechanical properties. Our field studies indicate that many fractures become arrested at layer contacts, particularly at contacts between layers with contrasting mechanical properties. Measurements of thousands of fractures indicate that even very thin layers (mm to cm-scale thicknesses) of shale or marl may be responsible for the arrest of many fractures. Our results suggest that the propagation and aperture variation of fractures are important parameters in the permeability development of deep geothermal reservoirs. These studies provide a basis for models of fracture networks and fluid transport in future man-made reservoirs. We conclude that the likely permeability of a man-made geothermal reservoir can be inferred from field data from outcrop analogues, laboratory measurements, and numerical models.

  17. Measurement of attitudes toward commercial development of geothermal energy in Federal Region IX. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A survey was conducted of ten target study groups and subgroups for Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Susanville, California: local government, current and potential industry at the site, relocators to the site, current and potential financial community, regulators, and current and potential promoters and developers. The results of benchmark attitudinal measurement is presented separately for each target group. A literature review was conducted and Macro-environmental attitudes of a sample of local government and industry personnel at the sites were assessed. An assessment of capabilities was made which involved two measurements. The first was a measurement of a sample of promoters, developers, and industrial service companies active at the site to determine infrastructure capabilities required by industry for geothermal plants. The second measurement involved analyzing a sample of industry management in the area and defining their requirements for plant retrofit and expansion. Finally, the processes used by the study group to analyze information to reach commitment and regulatory decisions that significantly impact on geothermal energy projects at the site were identified and defined.

  18. Up-to-date state and prospects for the development of geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The modern state of production and use of geothermal resources of the region is evaluated and the low efficiency of their development is shown. Promising developmental technologies of hydrogeothermal resources of various energy potentials with attachment to concrete geothermal deposits are presented. Technologies on the complex development of hydrogeothermal resources with the use of water for drinking or industrial water supply, the thermal potential for various energy needs, and the extraction of the gas and mineral components dissolved in water are highly efficient technologies, which make it possible to solve important environmental, economical, and social problems of the region.

  19. Geothermal induced seismicity program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A plan for a National Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program has been prepared in consultation with a panel of experts from industry, academia, and government. The program calls for baseline seismic monitoring in regions of known future geothermal development, continued seismic monitoring and characterization of earthquakes in zones of geothermal fluid production and injection, modeling of the earthquake-inducing mechanism, and in situ measurement of stresses in the geothermal development. The Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program (GISP) will have as its objectives the evaluation of the seismic hazard, if any, associated with geothermal resource exploitation and the devising of a technology which, when properly utilized, will control or mitigate such hazards.

  20. Geothermal chemistry/exploration investigations at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Bergfeld, D.; Counce, D.; Janik, C.J.; Bruton, C.J.; Nimz, G.

    1998-12-01

    Dixie Valley geothermal field has continuously produced electric power since 1988. At the request of Oxbow Geothermal Corp. and the US Department of Energy, the authors have organized an inter-agency team of investigators to examine several topics of concern regarding management and behavior of the resource. These topics include scaling of the injection system, recharge of the reservoir, geochemical monitoring of the reservoir, and development of increased fumarolic activity north of the power plant.

  1. The Geothermal Potential, Current and Opportunity in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    -load electricity and offers an opportunity for a country with naturally free-resource and less dependence on fossil fuel. However, development of geothermal energy has been stopped for more than 30 years, and currently no working geothermal power plant existed in Taiwan. To jump-start the geothermal exploitation rather than solely rely on knowledge, we also need to introduce the techniques from outside of this country.

  2. Potential for by-product recovery in geothermal energy operations issue paper

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document identifies and discusses the significant issues raised by the idea of recovering useful by-products from wastes (primarily spent brine) generated during geothermal power production. The physical availability of numerous valuable materials in geothermal brines has captured the interest of geothermal resource developers and other parties ever since their presence was known. The prospects for utilizing huge volumes of highly-saline geothermal brines for electricity generation in the Imperial Valley of California have served to maintain this interest in both private sector and government circles.

  3. Development of an improved bearing pack for downhole motors in geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Black, A.D.; Sandstrom, J.L.; Tibbitts, G.A.

    1981-10-01

    A sealed bearing pack (called the Bearing-Seal Package) is being developed for use with downhole mud motors and turbines for geothermal applications. The Bearing-Seal Package contains a sealed lubrication system which allows the bearings to operate in oil instead of abrasive drilling mud. The key to the success of the lubrication system is the development of a reliable rotary seal that will operate under downhole conditions. The development program emphasizes extensive laboratory screening tests of candidate high temperature seals and lubricants. A Seal Test Machine has been constructed to test candidate high temperature seals under simulated downhole conditions. Descriptions of the Bearing-Seal Package and Seal Test Machine are presented. Candidate high temperature seals and lubricants are reviewed and seal tests are discussed.

  4. Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council fifth annual report. Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, Fred H.

    1981-07-07

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth, and can be tapped as a clean, safe, economical alternative source of energy. Much of the geothermal energy resource is recoverable with current or near-current technology and could make a significant contribution both to increasing domestic energy supplies and to reducing the US dependence on imported oil. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural process applications. This report describes the progress for fiscal year 1980 (FY80) of the Federal Geothermal Program. It also summarizes the goals, strategy, and plans which form the basis for the FY81 and FY82 program activities and reflects the recent change in national policy affecting Federal research, development and demonstration programs. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) believes that substantial progress can and will be made in the development of geothermal energy. The IGCC goals are: (1) reduce the institutional barriers so that geothermal projects can be on-line in one-half the current time; (2) make moderate temperature resources an economically competitive source of electricity; (3) remove the backlog of noncompetitive lease applications; (4) competitive lease all KGRA lands; and (5) cut the cost of hydrothermal technology by 25%.

  5. The National Geothermal Collaborative, EERE-Geothermal Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jody Erikson

    2006-05-26

    Summary of the work conducted by the National Geothermal Collaborative (a consensus organization) to identify impediments to geothermal development and catalyze events and dialogues among stakeholders to over those impediments.

  6. Development of a Deep-Penetrating, Compact Geothermal Heat Flow System for Robotic Lunar Geophysical Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, Seiichi; Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow measurements are a high priority for the future lunar geophysical network missions recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy. Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of two separate measurements of geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity of the regolith/soil interval penetrated by the instrument. The Apollo 15 and 17 astronauts deployed their heat flow probes down to 1.4-m and 2.3-m depths, respectively, using a rotary-percussive drill. However, recent studies show that the heat flow instrument for a lunar mission should be capable of excavating a 3-m deep hole to avoid the effect of potential long-term changes of the surface thermal environment. For a future robotic geophysical mission, a system that utilizes a rotary/percussive drill would far exceed the limited payload and power capacities of the lander/rover. Therefore, we are currently developing a more compact heat flow system that is capable of 3-m penetration. Because the grains of lunar regolith are cohesive and densely packed, the previously proposed lightweight, internal hammering systems (the so-called moles ) are not likely to achieve the desired deep penetration. The excavation system for our new heat flow instrumentation utilizes a stem which winds out of a pneumatically driven reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab tests have demonstrated that this proboscis system has much greater excavation capability than a mole-based heat flow system, while it weighs about the same. Thermal sensors are attached along the stem and at the tip of the penetrating cone. Thermal conductivity is measured at the cone tip with a short (1- to 1.5-cm long) needle sensor containing a resistance temperature detector (RTD) and a heater wire. When it is inserted into the soil, the heater is activated. Thermal conductivity of the soil is obtained from the rate of temperature

  7. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  8. Hot-dry-rock geothermal-energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.C.; Ponder, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    During fiscal year 1981, activities of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program were concentrated in four principal areas: (1) data collection to permit improved estimates of the hot dry rock geothermal energy resource base of various regions of the United States and of the United States as a whole, combined with detailed investigations of several areas that appear particularly promising either for further energy extraction experiments or for future commercial development; (2) successful completion of a 9-month, continuous, closed-loop, recirculating flow test in the enlarged Phase I System at Fenton Hill, New Mexico - a pressurized-water heat-extraction loop developed in low-permeability granitic rock by hydraulic fracturing; (3) successful completion at a depth of 4084 m (13,933 ft) of well EE-3, the production well of a larger, deeper, and hotter, Phase II System at Fenton Hill. Well EE-3 was directionally drilled with control of both azimuth and inclination. Its inclined section is about 380 m (1250 ft) vertically above the injection well, EE-2, which was completed in FY80; and (4) supporting activities included new developments in downhole instrumentation and equipment, geochemical and geophysical studies, rock-mechanics and fluid-mechanics investigations, computer analyses and modeling, and overall system design. Under an International Energy Agency agreement, the New Energy Development Organization, representing the Government of Japan has joined Kernforschungsanlage-Juelich GmbH, representing the Federal Republic of Germany, and the US Department of Energy as an active participant in the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Project.

  9. Why geothermal energy? Geothermal utilization in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Gazo, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the advantages of choosing geothermal energy as a resource option in the Philippine energy program. The government mandates the full-scale development of geothermal energy resources to meet increased power demand brought by rapid industrialization and economic growth, and to reduce fossil fuel importation. It also aims to realize these additional geothermal capacities by tapping private sector investments in the exploration, development, exploitation, construction, operation and management of various geothermal areas in the country.

  10. Management plan for fiscal year 1981: Environmental Control Technology Project, geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.F.; Stephens, F.B.

    1980-10-14

    The management of the following four assessment tasks are discussed: current progress in H/sub 2/S abatement technology; solid wastes from geothermal power production operations: characterization, handling, and disposal; problems associated with the use of agricultural drainage water for geothermal power plant cooling in the Imperial Valley; and liquid dominated, low total dissolved solids geothermal resources: characterization and evaluation of potential problems due to composition. (MHR)

  11. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  12. Geothermal Today - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  13. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  14. Geothermal Economics Calculator (GEC) - additional modifications to final report as per GTP's request.

    SciTech Connect

    Gowda, Varun; Hogue, Michael

    2015-07-17

    This report will discuss the methods and the results from economic impact analysis applied to the development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), conventional hydrothermal, low temperature geothermal and coproduced fluid technologies resulting in electric power production. As part of this work, the Energy & Geoscience Institute (EGI) has developed a web-based Geothermal Economics Calculator (Geothermal Economics Calculator (GEC)) tool that is aimed at helping the industry perform geothermal systems analysis and study the associated impacts of specific geothermal investments or technological improvements on employment, energy and environment. It is well-known in the industry that geothermal power projects will generate positive economic impacts for their host regions. Our aim in the assessment of these impacts includes quantification of the increase in overall economic output due to geothermal projects and of the job creation associated with this increase. Such an estimate of economic impacts of geothermal investments on employment, energy and the environment will also help us understand the contributions that the geothermal industry will have in achieving a sustainable path towards energy production.

  15. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  16. A Review of Methods Applied by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Assessment of Identified Geothermal Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an updated assessment of geothermal resources in the United States. The primary method applied in assessments of identified geothermal systems by the USGS and other organizations is the volume method, in which the recoverable heat is estimated from the thermal energy available in a reservoir. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. The new assessment will incorporate some changes in the models for temperature and depth ranges for electric power production, preferred chemical geothermometers for estimates of reservoir temperatures, estimates of reservoir volumes, and geothermal energy recovery factors. Monte Carlo simulations are used to characterize uncertainties in the estimates of electric power generation. These new models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of natural geothermal reservoirs.

  17. Newberry Geothermal Pilot Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    US Forest Service; US Bureau of Land Management; US Bonneville Power Administration

    1994-09-01

    BPA has decided to acquire 20 average megawatts (aMW) of electrical power from a privately-owned geothermal power plant on the west flank of Newberry Volcano in Deschutes County, Oregon. The Newberry Project will generate 30 aMW and will be developed, owned, and operated by CE Newberry, Inc. of Portland, Oregon. In addition, BPA has decided to grant billing credits to EWEB for 10 aMW of electrical power and to provide wheeling services to EWEB for the transmission of this power to their system. BPA expects the Newberry Project to be in commercial operation by November 1997. BPA has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. The Newberry Project will be used to meet the electrical power supply obligations of these customers. The Newberry Project will also demonstrate the availability of geothermal power to meet power supply needs in the Pacific Northwest and is expected to be the first commercial geothermal plant in the region. The Newberry Project was selected under the BPA Geothermal Pilot Project Program. The goal of the Program is to initiate development of the Pacific Northwest`s large, but essentially untapped, geothermal resources, and to confirm the availability of this resource to meet the energy needs of the region. The primary underlying objective of this Program is to assure the supply of alternative sources of electrical power to help meet growing regional power demands and needs.

  18. Preliminary analysis of the use of electrical resistance tomography for injectate tracking at the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, Bob; Daily, Bill

    1996-01-24

    Current geochemical and geophysical injectate tracking methods are useful reservoir management techniques but do not track injectate movement quick enough to maximize injection efficiency or avoid negative impacts on nearby steam production wells. A preliminary analysis indicates that two dimensional electrical resistance tomography (ERT) may be useful for imaging plume movement resulting from Geysers/Lake County Effluent Pipeline injectate in near real time. ERT models comparing an injection plume resistivity of 50 Ohm-m with background resistivities of 10, 100 (typical Geysers greywacke), and 500 Ohm-m (typical Geysers felsite) indicate that liquid plumes can be imaged at depths of 6,000 feet to 8,000 feet or greater for resistivity contrasts of 2 to 1 or greater. Further refinement of the ERT model could be accomplished with more data on porosity in the vicinity of the borehole, resistivity measurements, and reservoir engineering estimates of plume temperature and saturation. Based on the results of this analysis and previous successes in using ERT to map shallow subsurface steam and water movement in porous media it is likely, but not certain, that ERT will prove to be an additional reservoir management tool to be used in conjunction with additional geochemical, geophysical, and reservoir engineering techniques. A field scale test at The Geysers is required to verify the utility of ERT for injectate tracking. The goal of this paper is to stimulate discussion among geothermal researchers regarding use of the ERT technique for injectate tracking at The Geysers and get some input on the appropriateness and utility of the assumptions used.

  19. Geothermal well-field and power-plant investment-decision analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Amundsen, C.B.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1981-05-31

    Investment decisions pertaining to hydrothermal well fields and electric power plants are analyzed. Geothermal investment decision models were developed which, when coupled to a site-specific stochastic cash flow model, estimate the conditional probability of a positive decision to invest in the development of geothermal resource areas. Quantitative decision models have been developed for each major category of investor currently involved in the hydrothermal projects. These categories include: large, diversified energy resource corporations; independently operating resource firms; investor-owned electric utilities; municipal electric utilities; state-run resource agencies; and private third-party power plant investors. The geothermal cash flow, the investment decision analysis, and an example of model application for assessing the likely development of geothermal resource areas are described. The sensitivity of this investment behavior to federal incentives and research goals is also analyzed and discussed.

  20. Geothermal Energy Technology: a current-awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.

    1983-01-15

    This bulletin announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use either directly or for production of electric power. The subject content encompasses: resource status and assessment, geology and hydrology of geothermal systems, geothermal exploration, legal and institutional aspects, economic and final aspects, environmental aspects and waste disposal, by-products, geothermal power plants, geothermal engineering, direct energy utilization, and geothermal data and theory.

  1. Fracture Development within the Karaha-Telaga Bodas Geothermal Field, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemcok, M.; Moore, J.N.; Allis, R.; McCulloch, J.

    2002-01-01

    Karaha-Telaga Bodas is a partially vapor-dominated geothermal system located in an active volcano in western Java. More than 2 dozen geothermal wells have been drilled to depths of 3 km. Detailed paragenetic and fluid-inclusion studies have defined liquid-dominated, transitional and vapor-dominated stages in the evolution of this system. The liquid-dominated stage was initiated by shallow magma intrusion into the base of the volcanic cone. Lava and pyroclastic flows capped a geothermal system. The uppermost andesite flows were only weakly fractured due to the insulating effect of the intervening altered pyroclastics, which absorbed the deformation. Shear and tensile fractures were filled with carbonates at shallow depths and by quartz, epidote and actinolite at depths and temperatures over 1km and 300??C. The system underwent numerous local cycles of overpressuring, which are marked by subhorizontal tensile fractures, anastomosing tensile fractures and implosion breccias. The development of the liquid system was interrupted by a catastrophic drop in fluid pressures. As the fluids boiled in response to this pressure drop, chalcedony and quartz were deposited in fractures having the largest apertures and steep dips. The orientations of these fractures indicate that the escaping overpressured fluids used the shortest possible paths to the surface. Vapor-dominated conditions were initiated within a vertical chimney over the still hot intrusion. As pressures declined these conditions spread outward. Downward migration of the chimney occurred as the intrusion cooled and the brittle-ductile transition migrated to greater depths. Condensate that formed at the top of the vapor-dominated zone percolated downward and lowsalinity meteoric water entered the marginal parts of the system. Calcite, anhydrite, and fluorite precipitated in fractures upon heating. A progressive sealing of the fractures occurred, resulting in the downward migration of the cap rock. In response to

  2. Egs Exploration Methodology Development Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield as a Calibration Site, a Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovenitti, J. L.; Blackwell, D. D.; Sainsbury, J.; Tibuleac, I. M.; Waibel, A.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Karlin, R. E.; Kennedy, B. M.; Isaaks, E.; Wannamaker, P. E.; Clyne, M.; Callahan, O.

    2011-12-01

    An Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) exploration methodology is being developed using the Dixie Valley geothermal system in Nevada as a field laboratory. This area was chosen as the test site because its has an extensive public domain database and deep geothermal wells allowing for calibration of the developed methodology. The calibration effort is focused on the Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield (DVGW), an area with 30 geothermal wells. Calibration will be based on cross-correlation of qualitative and quantitative results with known well conditions. This project is structured in the following manner (Task 1) review and assess existing public domain and other available data (baseline data); (Task 2) develop and populate a GIS-database; (Task 3) develop a baseline (existing public domain data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate the geostatistical relationships between the various data sets, and generate a Baseline EGS favorability map from the surface to a 5-km depth focused on identifying EGS drilling targets; (Task 4) collect new gravity, seismic, magneto-tellurics (MT), geologic, and geochemical data to fill in data gaps and improve model resolution; and (Task 5) update the GIS-database for the newly acquired data and repeating the elements of Task 3 incorporating the baseline and new data to generate an Enhanced EGS Favorability Map. Innovative aspects of this project include: (1) developing interdisciplinary method(s) for synthesizing, integrating, and evaluating geoscience data both qualitatively and quantitatively; (2) demonstrating new seismic techniques based on ambient noise which is a passive survey not requiring local earthquakes and is a relatively inexpensive method to image seismic velocity, attenuation, and density; (3) determining if seismic data can infer temperature and lithology at depth; (4) extending 2D MT modeling/mapping to 3D MT; (5) generating a MT derived temperature map; and (6) jointly analyzing gravity, magnetic, seismic, and MT

  3. Permeability, electrical impedance, and acoustic velocities on reservoir rocks from the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Boitnott, G.N.; Boyd, P.J.

    1996-01-24

    Previous measurements of acoustic velocities on NEGU- 17 cores indicate that saturation effects are significant enough to cause Vp/Vs anomalies observed in the field. In this study we report on the results of new measurements on core recently recovered from SB-15-D along with some additional measurements on the NEGU-17 cores. The measurements indicate correlations between mechanical, transport, and water storage properties of the matrix which may prove useful for reservoir assessment and management. The SB-15-D material is found to be similar to the NEGU-17 material in terms of acoustic velocities, being characterized by a notably weak pressure dependence on the velocities and a modest Vp/Vs signature of saturation. The effect of saturation on Vp/Vs appears to result in part from a chemo-mechanical weakening of the shear modulus due to the presence of water. Electrical properties of SB-15-D material are qualitatively similar to those of the NEGU-17 cores, although resistivities of SB-15-D cores are notably lower and dielectric permittivities higher than in their NEGU- 17 counterparts. While some limited correlations of measured properties with depth are noted, no clear change in character is observed within SB-15-D cores which can be associated with the proposed cap-rock/reservoir boundary.

  4. SNAP-8 electrical generating system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The SNAP-8 program has developed the technology base for one class of multikilowatt dynamic space power systems. Electrical power is generated by a turbine-alternator in a mercury Rankine-cycle loop to which heat is transferred and removed by means of sodium-potassium eutectic alloy subsystems. Final system overall criteria include a five-year operating life, restartability, man rating, and deliverable power in the 90 kWe range. The basic technology was demonstrated by more than 400,000 hours of major component endurance testing and numerous startup and shutdown cycles. A test system, comprised of developed components, delivered up to 35 kWe for a period exceeding 12,000 hours. The SNAP-8 system baseline is considered to have achieved a level of technology suitable for final application development for long-term multikilowatt space missions.

  5. Future Technologies to Enhance Geothermal Energy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J J; Kaahaaina, N; Aines, R; Zucca, J; Foxall, B; Atkins-Duffin, C

    2008-07-25

    Geothermal power is a renewable, low-carbon option for producing base-load (i.e., low-intermittency) electricity. Improved technologies have the potential to access untapped geothermal energy sources, which experts estimate to be greater than 100,000 MWe. However, many technical challenges in areas such as exploration, drilling, reservoir engineering, and energy conversion must be addressed if the United States is to unlock the full potential of Earth's geothermal energy and displace fossil fuels. (For example, see Tester et al., 2006; Green and Nix, 2006; and Western Governors Association, 2006.) Achieving next-generation geothermal power requires both basic science and applied technology to identify prospective resources and effective extraction strategies. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a long history of research and development work in support of geothermal power. Key technologies include advances in scaling and brine chemistry, economic and resource assessment, direct use, exploration, geophysics, and geochemistry. For example, a high temperature, multi-spacing, multi-frequency downhole EM induction logging tool (GeoBILT) was developed jointly by LLNL and EMI to enable the detection and orientation of fractures and conductive zones within the reservoir (Figure 1). Livermore researchers also conducted studies to determine how best to stave off increased salinity in the Salton Sea, an important aquatic ecosystem in California. Since 1995, funding for LLNL's geothermal research has decreased, but the program continues to make important contributions to sustain the nation's energy future. The current efforts, which are highlighted in this report, focus on developing an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) and on improving technologies for exploration, monitoring, characterization, and geochemistry. Future research will also focus on these areas.

  6. Production data from five major geothermal fields in Nevada analysed using a physiostatistical algorithm developed for oil and gas: temperature decline forecasts and type curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Golubkova, A.; Eklund, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nevada has the second largest output of geothermal energy in the United States (after California) with 14 major power plants producing over 425 megawatts of electricity meeting 7% of the state's total energy needs. A number of wells, particularly older ones, have shown significant temperature and pressure declines over their lifetimes, adversely affecting economic returns. Production declines are almost universal in the oil and gas (O&G) industry. BetaZi (BZ) is a proprietary algorithm which uses a physiostatistical model to forecast production from the past history of O&G wells and to generate "type curves" which are used to estimate the production of undrilled wells. Although BZ was designed and calibrated for O&G, it is a general purpose diffusion equation solver, capable of modeling complex fluid dynamics in multi-phase systems. In this pilot study, it is applied directly to the temperature data from five Nevada geothermal fields. With the data appropriately normalized, BZ is shown to accurately predict temperature declines. The figure shows several examples of BZ forecasts using historic data from Steamboat Hills field near Reno. BZ forecasts were made using temperature on a normalized scale (blue) with two years of data held out for blind testing (yellow). The forecast is returned in terms of percentiles of probability (red) with the median forecast marked (solid green). Actual production is expected to fall within the majority of the red bounds 80% of the time. Blind tests such as these are used to verify that the probabilistic forecast can be trusted. BZ is also used to compute and accurate type temperature profile for wells that have yet to be drilled. These forecasts can be combined with estimated costs to evaluate the economics and risks of a project or potential capital investment. It is remarkable that an algorithm developed for oil and gas can accurately predict temperature in geothermal wells without significant recasting.

  7. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Department of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology, Japan. Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile, electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot. These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles, i.e., batteries and electric motors, does not deteriorate the environment. To drive motors for vehicle traveling, robotic technologies were applied. PMID:19803077

  8. Geothermal resource evaluation of the Yuma area

    SciTech Connect

    Poluianov, E.W.; Mancini, F.P.

    1985-11-29

    This report presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Yuma, Arizona area. A description of the study area and the Salton Trough area is followed by a geothermal analysis of the area, a discussion of the economics of geothermal exploration and exploitation, and recommendations for further testing. It was concluded economic considerations do not favor geothermal development at this time. (ACR)

  9. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  10. Empirical equation estimates geothermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Kutasov, I.M. )

    1995-01-02

    An empirical equation can estimate geothermal (natural) temperature profiles in new exploration areas. These gradients are useful for cement slurry and mud design and for improving electrical and temperature log interpretation. Downhole circulating temperature logs and surface outlet temperatures are used for predicting the geothermal gradients.

  11. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  12. Qualification Plan for Phase One of True-MidPacific Geothermal Venture: James Campbell - Kahaualea Project, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1981-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the geothermal resources of the James Campbell Estate, comprising acres in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The geothermal resource is assumed to exist in the vicinity of the East Rift of the Kilauea volcano. The location of the proposed geothermal well field and the geothermal-electric power plant are shown on Dwg. No. E-04-001. Access to the project area will be provided by a new road extension from the boundary road south from Glenwood on Highway 11.

  13. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

  14. Recovery Act. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation Prediction Model for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Marte

    2013-12-31

    This research project aims to develop and validate an advanced computer model that can be used in the planning and design of stimulation techniques to create engineered reservoirs for Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The specific objectives of the proposal are to; Develop a true three-dimensional hydro-thermal fracturing simulator that is particularly suited for EGS reservoir creation; Perform laboratory scale model tests of hydraulic fracturing and proppant flow/transport using a polyaxial loading device, and use the laboratory results to test and validate the 3D simulator; Perform discrete element/particulate modeling of proppant transport in hydraulic fractures, and use the results to improve understand of proppant flow and transport; Test and validate the 3D hydro-thermal fracturing simulator against case histories of EGS energy production; and Develop a plan to commercialize the 3D fracturing and proppant flow/transport simulator. The project is expected to yield several specific results and benefits. Major technical products from the proposal include; A true-3D hydro-thermal fracturing computer code that is particularly suited to EGS; Documented results of scale model tests on hydro-thermal fracturing and fracture propping in an analogue crystalline rock; Documented procedures and results of discrete element/particulate modeling of flow and transport of proppants for EGS applications; and Database of monitoring data, with focus of Acoustic Emissions (AE) from lab scale modeling and field case histories of EGS reservoir creation.

  15. Du pont ''Freon'' helps tap geothermal wells for power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Low-grade heat from geothermal wells can now be harnessed to produce electricity by using Du Pont ''Freon'' IF as the power conversion fluid. The new system was developed by Turbonetics Energy Inc. The company's Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system takes advantage of the low boiling point (117F) of Du Pont ''Freon'' TF. Geothermal energy is harnessed by utilizing the heat from 200F to 400F water to vaporize the ''Freon'' power fluid. Then the fluid expands through a turbine and drives a generator. The system can produce from 600 kW of electric power.

  16. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, D. S.; Thomassen, K.; Sovey, J.; Fontana, Mario

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) that were charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1) a thruster developmental testing facility, (2) a thruster lifetime testing facility, (3) a dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4) an advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualifications and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000's.

  17. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, D. S.; Thomassen, K.; Sovey, J.; Fontana, Mario

    1991-11-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) that were charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1) a thruster developmental testing facility, (2) a thruster lifetime testing facility, (3) a dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4) an advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualifications and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000's.

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Dale; Thomassen, Keith; Sovey, Jim; Fontana, Mario

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel; consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD); charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1 thruster developmental testing facility, (2 thruster lifetime testing facility, (3 dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4 advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualification and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000s.

  19. Solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion System developed under this program was designed to demonstrate all the thrust subsystem functions needed on an unmanned planetary vehicle. The demonstration included operation of the basic elements, power matching input and output voltage regulation, three-axis thrust vector control, subsystem automatic control including failure detection and correction capability (using a PDP-11 computer), operation of critical elements in thermal-vacuum-, zero-gravity-type propellant storage, and data outputs from all subsystem elements. The subsystem elements, functions, unique features, and test setup are described. General features and capabilities of the test-support data system are also presented. The test program culminated in a 1500-h computer-controlled, system-functional demonstration. This included simultaneous operation of two thruster/power conditioner sets. The results of this testing phase satisfied all the program goals.

  20. Development of a Geothermal Well Database for Estimating In-Field EGS Potential in the State of Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hillary Hanson; Greg Mines

    2001-09-01

    A database containing information on full-sized geothermal wells at hydrothermal power plants was developed. The goal of the database development was to identify the name, location, and status of all full-sized geothermal wells drilled to date. Early design and population of the database focused on wells at hydrothermal power plants in Nevada. The database was created by aggregating and cleaning data from publicly available datasets. The database was designed to track data sources for each well data point, so that information in the database can be traced back to its original source. The initial database was then examined for missing or possibly erroneous data. These data points were further investigated and corrected using original source documents, such as well logs, permitting documents, etc. when possible, and the data source of the information updated as well. The resulting database design allows for the database to be continually updated and improved as new information becomes available, and for original data sources to be identified and consulted when conflicting or erroneous information about a well is uncovered, or if further information about the data point from the original data source is desired. The geothermal well database is still being developed, and future plans call for adding wells from geothermal installations in remaining US states. Although still in development, analysis of the database has yielded some promising results. A preliminary version of the database was used to create maps of the well fields for select power plant sites in Nevada. It was demonstrated that the status of existing wells and their location relative to productive wells can be used to help determine candidate wells for in-field EGS applications: existing wells that can be stimulated to increase their permeability and/or connect them to the existing reservoir so that they can be re-purposed as production or injection wells. These maps and the information in the geothermal

  1. Heber Demonstration Plant geothermal binary electric power generation, Imperial County, California (13(B) water assessment report). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This water assessment report prepared under the provisions of Section 13(b) is an assessment of water requirements and water supply availability for a proposed Geothermal Demonstration Plant near Heber, California. It discusses (1) principal findings, (2) project description, (3) water supply and availability, and (4) effects of the project.

  2. Fracture development within a stratovolcano: The Karaha-Telaga Bodas geothermal field, Java volcanic arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemcok, M.; Moore, J.N.; Allis, R.; McCulloch, J.

    2004-01-01

    Karaha-Telaga Bodas, a vapour-dominated geothermal system located in an active volcano in western Java, is penetrated by more than two dozen deep geothermal wells reaching depths of 3 km. Detailed paragenetic and fluid-inclusion studies from over 1000 natural fractures define the liquid-dominated, transitional and vapour-dominated stages in the evolution of this system. The liquid-dominated stage was initiated by ashallow magma intrusion into the base of the volcanic cone. Lava and pyroclastic flows capped a geothermal system. The uppermost andesite flows were only weakly fractured due to the insulating effect of the intervening altered pyroclastics, which absorbed the deformation. Shear and tensile fractures that developed were filled with carbonates at shallow depths, and by quartz, epidote and actinolite at depths and temperatures over 1 km and 300??C. The system underwent numerous cycles of overpressuring, documented by subhorizontal tensile fractures, anastomosing tensile fracture patterns and implosion breccias. The development of the liquidsystem was interrupted by a catastrophic drop in fluid pressures. As the fluids boiled in response to this pressure drop, chalcedony and quartz were selectively deposited in fractures that had the largest apertures and steep dips. The orientations of these fractures indicate that the escaping overpressured fluids used the shortest possible paths to the surface. Vapour-dominated conditions were initiated at this time within a vertical chimney overlying the still hot intrusion. As pressures declined, these conditions spread outward to form the marginal vapour-dominated region encountered in the drill holes. Downward migration of the chimney, accompanied by growth of the marginal vapour-dominated regime, occurred as the intrusion cooled and the brittle-ductile transition migrated to greater depths. As the liquids boiled off, condensate that formed at the top of the vapour-dominated zone percolated downward and low

  3. Geothermal energy research in Kenya: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tole, Mwakio P.

    1996-11-01

    Geothermal energy for electricity generation is likely to become increasingly important in Kenya in the future. There are numerous centres of thermal activity in Kenya, particularly within the Rift Valley, although aridity and, consequently, availability of water may be a constraint to the development of large scale natural hydrothermal systems. Geothermal resources in the islands of Lake Turkana and those close to other rift lakes deserve further investigation as they do not suffer from the constraints of a shortage of water. The experience gained so far at Oikaria shows that environmental problems can be adequately addressed, though constant monitoring is necessary. H 2S emissions preclude the setting up of permanent residences within about 5 km of the geothermal power stations. Trace elements and radiation from geothermal fluids need to be monitored with respect to their impacts on plants and animals. The impact on the local hydrogeology also requires close observation. Multistage uses of geothermal fluids will greatly increase the benefits derived from this resource.

  4. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putt, R. A.; Merry, G. W.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this 'soluble' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (greater than 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high resistance failure of the cell. The Phase 1 program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/sq cm. By the end of the Phase 1 program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase 2 program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  5. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. )

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this soluble'' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  6. Optimal Management of Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, I. H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy technologies use the constant heat flux from the subsurface in order to produce heat or electricity for societal use. As such, a geothermal energy system is not inherently variable, like systems based on wind and solar resources, and an operator can conceivably control the rate at which heat is extracted and used directly, or converted into a commodity that is used. Although geothermal heat is a renewable resource, this heat can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal (Rybach, 2003). For heat extraction used for commodities that are sold on the market, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into profit, on a net present value basis. We present a model that couples natural resource economic approaches for managing renewable resources with simulations of geothermal reservoir performance in order to develop an optimal heat mining strategy that balances economic gain with the performance and renewability of the reservoir. Similar optimal control approaches have been extensively studied for renewable natural resource management of fisheries and forests (Bonfil, 2005; Gordon, 1954; Weitzman, 2003). Those models determine an optimal path of extraction of fish or timber, by balancing the regeneration of stocks of fish or timber that are not harvested with the profit from the sale of the fish or timber that is harvested. Our model balances the regeneration of reservoir temperature with the net proceeds from extracting heat and converting it to electricity that is sold to consumers. We used the Non-isothermal Unconfined-confined Flow and Transport (NUFT) model (Hao, Sun, & Nitao, 2011) to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are incorporated into the natural resource economics model to determine production strategies that

  7. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  8. Utilization of geothermal energy for agribusiness development in southwestern New Mexico. Technical completion report, July 19, 1978-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Landsford, R.R.; Abernathy, G.H.; Gollehon, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the direct heat utilization from geothermal resources for agribusiness uses in the Animas Valley, Southwestern New Mexico. The analysis includes an evaluation of the groundwater and geothermal resources in the Animas Valley, monitoring of an existing geothermal greenhouse, and evaluation of two potential agribusiness applications of geothermal waters (greenhouses and meat precooking).

  9. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  10. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    SciTech Connect

    Faulds, James

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  11. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: - Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see

  12. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  14. Distribution of high-temperature (>150 °C) geothermal resources in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2002-01-01

    California contains, by far, the greatest geothermal generating capacity in the United States, and with the possible exception of Alaska, the greatest potential for the development of additional resources. California has nearly 2/3 of the US geothermal electrical installed capacity of over 3,000 MW. Depending on assumptions regarding reservoir characteristics and future market conditions, additional resources of between 2,000 and 10,000 MWe might be developed (see e.g., Muffler, 1979).

  15. Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site

    SciTech Connect

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

    1984-05-01

    An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

  16. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  17. Design and development of a greenhouse growing system with a cooling facility using geothermal energy; Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shunichiro; Ishibashi, Sadato . Faculty of Agriculture); Kaieda, Masami )

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a greenhouse growing system with a night cooling facility using geothermal energy to grow fall and winter vegetables during high summer temperatures. In this paper, the authors first designed and constructed a greenhouse cooling facility using geothermal water for the driving energy, and then conducted a cooling performance test and growth experiment in the growing of vegetables. As a result of the investigation, first, the facility showed the cooling performance as designed, since the air in the greenhouse was cooled to the desired temperature of 15 C. Second, in the open division, almost all the spinach, lettuce, and Kinusaya peas died back during growing and there was therefore no yield. However, in the cooling division, all the vegetables grew normally and their yields were large. From the results mentioned above, the authors concluded that it is possible to grow vegetables during the high-temperature summer season in greenhouse cooled only at night.

  18. Geothermal Energy Program Summary Document, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal energy is derived from the internal heat of the earth. Much of it is recoverable with current or near current technology. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural applications. Three principal types of geothermal resources are exploitable through the year 2000. In order of technology readiness, these resources are: hydrothermal; geopressured (including dissolved natural gas); and hot dry rock. In hydrothermal systems, natural water circulation moves heat from deep internal sources toward the earth's surface. Geothermal fluids (water and steam) tapped by drilling can be used to generate electricity or provide direct heat. Geopressured resources, located primarily in sedimentary basins along the Gulf Coast of Texas and of Louisiana, consist of water and dissolved methane at high pressure and at moderately high temperature. In addition to recoverable methane, geopressured resources provide thermal energy and mechanical energy derived from high fluid pressures, although methane offers the greatest immediate value. Commercial development of geopressured energy may begin in the mid-1980s. Economic feasibility depends on the amount of methane that a given well can produce, a highly uncertain factor at present.

  19. Thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, California: Implications for conventional and hot dry rock geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-06-01

    The combination of recent volcanism, high heat flow ({ge} HFU or 167 mW/m{sup 2}), and high conductive geothermal gradient (up to 120{degree} C/km) makes the Clear Lake region of northern California one of the best prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development in the US. The lack of permeability in exploration wells and lack of evidence for widespread geothermal reservoirs north of the Collayomi fault zone are not reassuring indications for conventional geothermal development. This report summarizes results of thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, and discusses implications for HDR site selection in the region. The thermal models incorporate a wide range of constraints including the distribution and nature of volcanism in time and space, water and gas geochemistry, well data, and geophysical surveys. The nature of upper crustal magma bodies at Clear Lake is inferred from studying sequences of related silicic lavas, which tell a story of multistage mixing of silicic and mafic magma in clusters of small upper crustal chambers. Thermobarometry on metamorphic xenoliths yield temperature and pressure estimates of {approximately}780--900 C and 4--6 kb respectively, indicating that at least a portion of the deep magma system resided at depths from 14 to 21 km (9 to 12 mi). The results of thermal modeling support previous assessments of the high HDR potential of the area, and suggest the possibility that granitic bodies similar to The Geysers felsite may underlie much of the Clear Lake region at depths as little as 3--6 km. This is significant because future HDR reservoirs could potentially be sited in relatively shallow granitoid plutons rather than in structurally complex Franciscan basement rocks.

  20. DEVELOPING THE NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM ADOPTION OF CKAN FOR DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL DATA DEPLOYMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Ryan J.; Kuhmuench, Christoph; Richard, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) De- sign and Testing Team is developing NGDS software currently referred to as the “NGDS Node-In-A-Box”. The software targets organizations or individuals who wish to host at least one of the following: • an online repository containing resources for the NGDS; • an online site for creating metadata to register re- sources with the NGDS • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that enable access to NGDS data (e.g., WMS, WFS, WCS); • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that support dis- covery of NGDS resources via catalog service (e.g. CSW) • a web site that supports discovery and under- standing of NGDS resources A number of different frameworks for development of this online application were reviewed. The NGDS Design and Testing Team determined to use CKAN (http://ckan.org/), because it provides the closest match between out of the box functionality and NGDS node-in-a-box requirements. To achieve the NGDS vision and goals, this software development project has been inititated to provide NGDS data consumers with a highly functional inter- face to access the system, and to ease the burden on data providers who wish to publish data in the sys- tem. It is important to note that this software package constitutes a reference implementation. The NGDS software is based on open standards, which means other server software can make resources available, and other client applications can utilize NGDS data. A number of international organizations have ex- pressed interest in the NGDS approach to data access. The CKAN node implementation can provide a sim- ple path for deploying this technology in other set- tings.