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1

Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement  

SciTech Connect

The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

Sims, A.V.

1983-06-01

2

A fatal case of hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a geothermal power plant.  

PubMed

An adult man entered an oil separator room to remove waste oil from a vacuum pump in a geothermal power plant. He suddenly collapsed and died soon after. Since hydrogen sulfide gas was detected in the atmosphere at the scene of the accident, poisoning by this gas was suspected and toxicological analysis of sulfide and thiosulfate in blood, brain, lung, femoral muscle was made using the extractive alkylation technique combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The concentrations of sulfide in these tissues were similar to those previously reported for fatal cases of hydrogen sulfide gas. The concentration of thiosulfate in the blood was at least 48 times higher than the level in control samples. Based on these results, the cause of death was attributed to hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning. PMID:9670519

Kage, S; Ito, S; Kishida, T; Kudo, K; Ikeda, N

1998-07-01

3

HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is a review of the scientific knowledge of hydrogen sulfide in the environment. Chapter 2 contains a review of the occurrences, properties, and uses of hydrogen sulfide. In Chapter 3, the biogeochemical aspects of the sulfur cycle are discussed. Chapter 4 describes ...

4

Direct Chlorination Process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement  

SciTech Connect

The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5% hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90% excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

Sims, A.V.

1983-06-01

5

State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979  

SciTech Connect

Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

1980-03-01

6

Spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide from two geothermal power plants in complex terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns have arisen about the health impact and odor annoyance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions associated with geothermal power production. Measurements have been made at stationary measuring stations in inhabited areas but little is known about the spatial behavior of the H2S plumes. This study presents field measurements of the spatial distribution of the ground concentration of H2S within a 30 km radius of two geothermal power plants during 20 distinct events spanning one year. The results showed that high H2S concentration was correlated with high air stability, low wind speed and absence of precipitation. The odor threshold (11 ?g m-3) was exceeded in all events. The instantaneous measurements exceeded the 24-h average national health limit (50 ?g m-3) up to 26 km from the power plants. The shape of the measured plumes at the same location was similar between events, indicating repeated patterns in plume distribution. Convergence of plumes was observed due to spatial variability in wind direction. Plumes were found to follow mountain passes and accumulate alongside a mountain range. AERMOD modeling demonstrated that narrower plumes with higher concentration can be expected for smoother terrain, such as lakes, consistent with measurements.

Olafsdottir, S.; Gardarsson, S. M.; Andradottir, H. O.

2014-01-01

7

Impacts of meteorological factors on hydrogen sulfide concentration downwind of geothermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in the city of Reykjavik, downwind of geothermal power plants has been studied with respect to meteorological factors as the odor and other effects are starting to become a nuisance. The main sources of H2S in Reykjavik City were the Nesjavellir and Hellisheidi Geothermal Power Plants, which are both less than 35 km east of the city. The H2S concentration in Reykjavik was correlated with the H2S emissions from the power plants but was also heavily influenced by weather conditions. The results showed that the H2S concentration at the Grensasvegur Measuring Station was elevated when the wind direction was from 54° to 125°, especially when the wind direction was stable for several hours. The H2S concentration in Reykjavik was highest when the wind speed in the city was between 1.5 and 4 m s-1, and decreased rapidly with higher wind speeds. H2S concentration showed correlation with the air temperature in the city below 3 °C and the concentration rose as the temperature decreased, and the air became more stable and was highest when there was a temperature inversion. The quantitative effects of precipitation on H2S concentration could not be determined in this study although the events with the highest H2S concentration occurred when there was no precipitation. The results showed that favorable conditions for high H2S events can be expected in Reykjavik 2-6 times per year and events with H2S concentration exceeding 50 ?g m-3 might be expected on average about 2 times per year. The results also indicate that events with high H2S concentration can be predicted by using a current weather forecast.

Olafsdottir, S.; Gardarsson, S. M.

2013-10-01

8

Natural near field sinks of hydrogen sulfide from two geothermal power plants in Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions have been growing with the increasing utilization of geothermal resources. Atmospheric H2S concentration has been measured and studied but less is known about the natural sinks of the chemical. This study investigates the atmospheric depletion of H2S within a 35 km distance from two Icelandic power plants. The results showed that atmospheric oxidation by the OH radical was the largest sink in the area. The second largest sink was H2S uptake in surface water, in a neighboring lake, but it was, however, small compared to the reported difference of sulfur amount in the lake in- and outflow. Sulfur was found to accumulate in moss close to the power plants at a maximum rate of about 1500 mg S/kg moss per year and decreased exponentially from the source, being negligible at a distance of a few kilometers. Soil uptake was limited by diffusion of H2S into the porous media and was thus much smaller than the estimated soil uptake potential. Washout with precipitation was estimated to be the smallest sink due to the low H2S reactivity in the precipitation (pH = 5.6), compared to the surface water (pH ˜8). Depletion of H2S from the atmosphere in the study area was estimated to be about 1.2% of the 2012 power plants emissions of over 20,000 tons. Although the uncertainties in the depletion estimates were considerable, most of the H2S emitted from the power plants was strongly indicated to be transported out of the study area as H2S.

Olafsdottir, S.; Gardarsson, S. M.; Andradottir, H. O.

2014-10-01

9

Hydrogen and bioenergetics in the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem  

E-print Network

#12;Hydrogen and bioenergetics in the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem John R. Spear*, Jeffrey J in the presence of high concentrations of sulfide. geothermal springs phylogenetic study primary productivity

10

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

Supervisors · Identify research projects and experiments that use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or where H2S mayCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE Rev January 2013 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas or where hydrogen

Machel, Hans

11

CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 2 Responsibilities Supervisors Identify research projects and experimentsCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas. It outlines responsibilities, safe

Machel, Hans

12

30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250...Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2011-07-01

13

30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250...Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2012-07-01

14

30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250...Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2013-07-01

15

30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250...Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2014-07-01

16

Guidance Document Safe Handling of Sulfides and Hydrogen Sulfide  

E-print Network

in Chemistry teaching and research labs. Hydrogen sulfide may be present in natural gas samples (sour gasGuidance Document Safe Handling of Sulfides and Hydrogen Sulfide [This is a brief summary. Read concern would be hydrogen sulfide, whether handling in the pure gaseous form or by generation from various

17

Molecular Structure of Hydrogen Sulfide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydrogen Sulfide occurs naturally in crude petroleum, natural gas, volcanic gases, and hot springs. It can also result from bacterial breakdown of organic matter and it is responsible for the smell of rotten eggs. It is also produced by human and animal wastes. Although hydrogen sulfide is a toxic pollutant gas generally occurring in wastewater, it has been used to precipitate metals in wastewater treatment reactors. It has been proposed for stabilization of metals in soils and for formation of metal sulfide "quantum" particles for microelectronics applications.

2003-06-04

18

30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones where the presence of H2...

2010-07-01

19

Endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Hydrogen sulfide is one of three gases involved in biological functions and synthesized in vivo. Like NO and CO, it seems to act as a neuromodulator: it modulates NMDA glutamate receptor function. CBS seems to be the only source of hydrogen sulfide in the brain, whereas the liver synthesizes hydrogen sulfide via cystathionase. In the heart, the third pathway

P. Kamoun

2004-01-01

20

30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250...Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2012-07-01

21

30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250...Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2014-07-01

22

30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250...Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2010-07-01

23

30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250...Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2011-07-01

24

30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250...Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2013-07-01

25

30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250...Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2014-07-01

26

30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250...Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2010-07-01

27

30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250...Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2011-07-01

28

30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250...Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2013-07-01

29

30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250...Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

2012-07-01

30

Microwave production of hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste-treatment process is being developed that uses ``cold`` microwave plasma-chemical reactions to split hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. A clean sulfur product can be recovered and sold, while product gases are purified and separated into seams containing hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide at

J. B. L. Harkness; R. D

1992-01-01

31

Microwave production of hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste-treatment process is being developed that uses cold'' microwave plasma-chemical reactions to split hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. A clean sulfur product can be recovered and sold, while product gases are purified and separated into seams containing hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide at

J. B. L. Harkness; R. D

1992-01-01

32

Demonstration of EIC's copper sulfate process for removal of hydrogen sulfide and other trace contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine inlet temperatures and pressures. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results obtained during the operation of an integrated, one-tenth commercial scale pilot plant using EIC's copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions are discussed. The tests took place over a six month period at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Unit No. 7 at The Geysers Power Plant. These tests were the final phase of a development effort which included the laboratory research and engineering design work which led to the design of the pilot plant. Broadly, the objectives of operating the pilot plant were to confirm the preliminary design criteria which had been developed, and provide data for their revisions, if appropriate, in a plant which contained all the elements of a commercial process using equipment of a size sufficient to provide valid scale-up data. The test campaign was carried out in four phases: water testing; open circuit, i.e., non integrated scrubbing, liquid-solid separation and regeneration testing; closed circuit short term; and closed circuit long term testing.

Not Available

1980-05-01

33

Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide  

DOEpatents

A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

Agarwal, Pradeep K.

2007-01-16

34

Arsenic speciation in natural sulfidic geothermal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speciation of arsenic in natural sulfidic geothermal waters was studied using chemical analyses and thermodynamic aqueous speciation calculations. Samples were collected in three geothermal systems in Iceland, having contrasting H2S concentrations in the reservoir (high vs. low). The sampled waters contained 7-116 ppb As and <0.01-77.6 ppm H2S with pH of 8.56-9.60. The analytical setup used for the determination of arsenic species (Ion Chromatography-Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry, IC-HG-AFS) was field-deployed and the samples analyzed within ?5 min of sampling in order to prevent changes upon storage, which were shown to be considerable regardless of the sample storage method used. Nine aqueous arsenic species were detected, among others arsenite (HnAsO3n-3), thioarsenite (HnAsS3n-3), arsenate (HnAsO4n-3), monothioarsenate (HnAsSO3n-3), dithioarsenate (HnAsS2O2n-3), trithioarsenate (HnAsS3O) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAsS4n-3). The results of the measured aqueous arsenic speciation in the natural geothermal waters and comparison with thermodynamic calculations reveal that the predominant factors determining the species distribution are sulfide concentration and pH. In alkaline waters with low sulfide concentrations the predominant species are AsIII oxyanions. This can be seen in samples from a liquid-only well, tapping water that is H2S-poor and free of oxygen. At intermediate sulfide concentration AsIII and AsV thio species become important and predominate at high sulfide concentration, as seen in two-phase well waters, which have high H2S concentrations in the reservoir. Upon oxidation, for instance due to mixing of the reservoir fluid with oxygenated water upon ascent to the surface, AsV oxyanions form, as well as AsV thio complexes if the sulfide concentration is intermediate to high. This oxidation process can be seen in samples from hot springs in the Geysir geothermal area. While the thermodynamic modeling allows for a first-order estimation of the dominant species, discrepancies between the model results and the field data highlight the fact that for such dynamic chemical systems the exact speciation cannot be calculated, thus on-site and preferentially in-situ analysis is of crucial importance.

Keller, Nicole S.; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

2014-10-01

35

Preliminary Evaluation of the Copper Sulfate Process for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide Over a Range of Geothermal Steam Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental work and economic analyses required for a preliminary evaluation of EIC's Copper Sulfate Process for a range of geothermal steam conditions have been completed. A series of six scrubbing runs was carried out over a range of steam conditions and scrub solution compositions expected to represent the extremes likely to be encountered in practice and high degrees of

1980-01-01

36

Investigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Lung Function, Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Geothermal Area of New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background Results have been conflicting whether long-term ambient hydrogen sulfide (H2S) affects lung function or is a risk factor for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the world’s largest population exposed to ambient H2S—from geothermal sources. Objectives We investigated associations of H2S with lung function, COPD and asthma in this population. Methods 1,204 of 1,639 study participants, aged 18–65 years during 2008–2010, provided satisfactory spirometry results. Residences, workplaces and schools over the last 30 years were geocoded. Exposures were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua. Four metrics for H2S exposure, representing both current and long-term (last 30 years) exposure, and also time-weighted average and peak exposures, were calculated. Departures from expected values for pre-bronchodilator lung function, calculated from prediction equations, were outcomes for linear regression models using quartiles of the H2S exposure metrics. Separate models examined participants with and without evidence of asthma or COPD, and never- and ever-smokers. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations of COPD (a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% of expected) and asthma (doctor-diagnosed or by FEV1 response to bronchodilator) with H2S exposure quartiles. Results None of the exposure metrics produced evidence of lung function decrement. The logistic regression analysis showed no evidence that long-term H2S exposure at Rotorua levels was associated with either increased COPD or asthma risk. Some results suggested that recent ambient H2S exposures were beneficially associated with lung function parameters. Conclusions The study found no evidence of reductions in lung function, or increased risk of COPD or asthma, from recent or long-term H2S exposure at the relatively high ambient concentrations found in Rotorua. Suggestions of improved lung function associated with recent ambient H2S exposures require confirmation in other studies. PMID:25822819

Bates, Michael N.; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John R.; Garrett, Nick

2015-01-01

37

Hydrogen Sulfide Waste, Treatment By Microwave Plasma Dissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new waste-treatment technology for hydrogen sulfide using a microwave-generated plasma to dissociate hydrogen sulfide appears to have a substantial economic edge over the current industrial technology. The advantage of the plasma process is that it can recover hydrogen, as well as sulfur, from hydrogen sulfide. Since the plasma process requires less energy to dissociate hydrogen sulfide than is needed

J. B. L. Harkness; A. J. Gorskl; E. J. Daniels

1990-01-01

38

Mechanistic chemical perspective of hydrogen sulfide signaling.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide is now a well-appreciated master regulator in a diverse array of physiological processes. However, as a consequence of the rapid growth of the area, sulfide biology suffers from an increasing number of controversial observations and interpretations. A better understanding of the underlying molecular pathways of sulfide's actions is key to reconcile controversial issues, which calls for rigorous chemical/biochemical investigations. Protein sulfhydration and coordination/redox chemical interactions of sulfide with heme proteins are the two most extensively studied pathways in sulfide biochemistry. These pathways are important mediators of protein functions, generate bioactive sulfide metabolites, contribute to sulfide storage/trafficking and carry antioxidant functions. In addition, inorganic polysulfides, which are oxidative sulfide metabolites, are increasingly recognized as important players in sulfide biology. This chapter provides an overview of our mechanistic perspective on the reactions that govern (i) sulfide's bioavailability (including the delicate enzyme machineries that orchestrate sulfide production and consumption and the roles of the large sulfide-storing pools as biological buffers), (ii) biological significance and mechanisms of persulfide formation (including the reduction of disulfides, condensation with sulfenic acids, oxidation of thiols with polysulfides and radical-mediated pathways), (iii) coordination and redox chemical interactions of sulfide with heme proteins (including cytochrome c oxidase, hemoglobins, myoglobins and peroxidases), and (iv) the chemistry of polysulfides. PMID:25725513

Nagy, Péter

2015-01-01

39

Suicide by hydrogen sulfide inhalation.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of suicide by hydrogen sulfide in Australia. A young woman was located in a car wearing protective eyewear. A tub of foamy yellow substance and a quantity of hydrochloric acid and lime sulfur were also located in the rear of the vehicle. Morphological findings at autopsy were nonspecific. Toxicologic analysis of a specimen of leg blood detected elevated levels of methemoglobin. If Australia follows a similar trend to Japan and the United States, it is possible that incidences of such cases will rise, probably because of Internet dissemination. From a public health perspective, emergency service providers and forensic case workers should be aware of the potential hazards to themselves and others when dealing with such cases. PMID:23361075

Bott, Eleanor; Dodd, Malcolm

2013-03-01

40

[Hydrogen sulfide and penile erection].  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third type of active endogenous gaseous signal molecule following nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In mammalians, H2S is mainly synthesized by two proteases, cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE). H2S plays an essential function of physiological regulation in vivo, and promotes penile erection by acting on the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to relax the vascular smooth muscle as well as by the synergistic effect with testosterone and NO to relax the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). At present, the selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor is mainly used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), but some ED patients fail to respond. Therefore, further studies on the mechanism of H2S regulating penile erection may provide a new way for the management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:23193672

Huang, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Yong; Jiang, Rui

2012-09-01

41

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOEpatents

A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1993-01-01

42

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOEpatents

A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-05-18

43

Ridding Groundwater of Hydrogen Sulfide. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first in a series reviewing the problems associated with hydrogen sulfide in drinking water sources. Discussion centers on identification of a cost-effective balance between aeration and chlorination treatment operations. (AS)

Lochrane, Thomas G.

1979-01-01

44

Hydrogen sulfide and translational medicine  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule that has undergone large numbers of fundamental investigations. H2S is involved in various physiological activities associated with the regulation of homeostasis, vascular contractility, pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as pro- and anti-apoptotic activities etc. However, the actions of H2S are influenced by its concentration, reaction time, and cell/disease types. Therefore, H2S is a signaling molecule without definite effect. The use of existing H2S donors is limited because of the instant release and short lifetime of H2S. Thus, translational medicine involving the sustained and controlled release of H2S is of great value for both scientific and clinical uses. H2S donation can be manipulated by different ways, including where H2S is given, how H2S is donated, or the specific structures of H2S-releasing drugs and H2S donor molecules. This review briefly summarizes recent progress in research on the physiological and pathological functions of H2S and H2S-releasing drugs, and suggests hope for future investigations. PMID:24096643

Guo, Wei; Cheng, Ze-yu; Zhu, Yi-zhun

2013-01-01

45

Hydrogen and sulfur production from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a ``nonequilibrium`` plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor.

J. B. L. Harkness; R. D

1993-01-01

46

Hydrogen and sulfur production from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a nonequilibrium'' plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor.

J. B. L. Harkness; R. D

1993-01-01

47

Handling hydrogen sulfide in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the effectiveness of several chemical scavengers for removing hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids. This article begins by defining what constitutes a scavenger, followed by discussion of the types of reactions by which H{sub 2}S is removed and to which of these categories each scavenger belongs. The authors outline the two types of chemical processes by which sulfides are removed from the drilling fluid.

Singh, A.K.; Kohli, B.S. (Bombay Offshore Project, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Bombay (IN)); Wendt, R.P. (Chemistry Dept., Loyala Univ., New Orleans, LA (US))

1989-12-01

48

Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes  

E-print Network

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best...

Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

49

Cardioprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

The gaseous mediator hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is synthesized mainly by cystathionine ?-lyase in the heart and plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Here we first overview the state of the art in the literature on the cardioprotective effects of H(2)S in various models of cardiac injury. Subsequently, we present original data showing the beneficial effects of parenteral administration of a donor of H(2)S on myocardial and endothelial function during reperfusion in a canine experimental model of cardiopulmonary bypass. Overview of the literature demonstrates that various formulations of H(2)S exert cardioprotective effects in cultured cells, isolated hearts and various rodent and large animal models of regional or global myocardial ischemia and heart failure. In addition, the production of H(2)S plays a role in myocardial pre- and post-conditioning responses. The pathways implicated in the cardioprotective action of H(2)S are multiple and involve K(ATP) channels, regulation of mitochondrial respiration, and regulation of cytoprotective genes such as Nrf-2. In the experimental part of the current article, we demonstrate the cardioprotective effects of H(2)S in a canine model of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Anesthetized dogs were subjected hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with 60 min of hypothermic cardiac arrest in the presence of either saline (control, n=8), or H(2)S infusion (1 mg/kg/h for 2 h). Left ventricular hemodynamic variables (via combined pressure-volume-conductance catheter) as well as coronary blood flow, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent vasodilatation to sodium nitroprusside were measured at baseline and after 60 min of reperfusion. Ex vivo vascular function and high-energy phosphate contents were also measured. H(2)S led to a significantly better recovery of preload recruitable stroke work (p<0.05) after 60 min of reperfusion. Coronary blood flow was also significantly higher in the H(2)S group (p<0.05). While the vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside was similar in both groups, acetylcholine resulted in a significantly higher increase in coronary blood flow in the H(2)S-treated group (p<0.05) both in vivo and ex vivo. Furthermore, high-energy phosphate contents were better preserved in the H(2)S group. Additionally, the cytoprotective effects of H(2)S were confirmed also using in vitro cell culture experiments in H9c2 cardiac myocytes exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation or to the cytotoxic oxidant hydrogen peroxide. Thus, therapeutic administration of H(2)S exerts cardioprotective effects in a variety of experimental models, including a significant improvement of the recovery of myocardial and endothelial function in a canine model of cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermic cardiac arrest. PMID:21094267

Szabó, Gábor; Veres, Gábor; Radovits, Tamás; Gero, Domokos; Módis, Katalin; Miesel-Gröschel, Christiane; Horkay, Ferenc; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Csaba

2011-08-01

50

Hydrogen sulfide to the rescue in obstructive kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide is a gasotransmitter with far reaching effects on cell function. Studies show that depending on the context hydrogen sulfide can function as an ameliorative agent or as a mediator of kidney injury. PMID:24875544

Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

2014-01-01

51

HYDROGEN SULFIDE -HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN  

E-print Network

HYDROGEN SULFIDE - HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM TEXAS A, Texas A&M University Research Park, 1000 Discovery Drive, College Station, Texas 77845-9547, as well of this publication may be obtained from the Director, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University Research Park

52

REVISED HYDROGEN SULFIDE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN  

E-print Network

REVISED HYDROGEN SULFIDE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, Texas A&M University Research Park, 1000 Discovery Drive, College Station, Texas 77845-9547, as well of this publication may be obtained from the Director, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University Research Park

53

Hydrogen sulfide determination by solid surface luminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analytical system suggested, atmospheric hydrogen sulfide reacts with the surface of a filter paper treated with aqueous cadmium chloride and yields a luminescent species whose intensity can be correlated with the analyte concentration in ambient air. It was shown that the luminescent species are CdS solid particles which were formed in a well defined size. The paper luminescence

Ahmet E. Ero?lu; Mürvet Volkan; Erdal Bayramh; O. Y. Ataman; Harry B. Mark Jr.

1996-01-01

54

Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide removal with steel making slag.  

PubMed

In the present study, we experimentally investigated the removal of hydrogen sulfide using steel-making slag (SMS) and clarified the mechanism of hydrogen sulfide removal with the SMS. The results proved that SMS is able to remove hydrogen sulfide dissolved in water, and the maximum removal amount of hydrogen sulfide per unit weight of the SMS for 8 days was estimated to be 37.5 mg S/g. The removal processes of hydrogen sulfide were not only adsorption onto the SMS, but oxidation and precipitation as sulfur. The chemical forms of sulfide adsorbed onto the SMS were estimated to be sulfur and manganese sulfide in the ratio of 81% and 19%, respectively. It is demonstrated here that the SMS is a promising material to remediate organically enriched coastal sediments in terms of removal of hydrogen sulfide. Furthermore, using SMS is expected to contribute to development of a recycling-oriented society. PMID:22894171

Kim, Kyunghoi; Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Katayama, Misaki; Onoue, Takasumi

2012-09-18

55

Redetermination of piperidinium hydrogen sulfide structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of adventitious water in a reaction between dicyclopentamethylene thiuram-disulfide (C5H10NCS2)(sub 2) and a picoline solution of tricyclopentadienyl indium(III) (C5H5)(sub 3). It resulted in the formation of piperidinium hydrogen sulfide (C5H13NS). The piperidinium hydrogen sulfide produced in this way was unambiguously characterized by X-ray crystallography. The structure determination showed that the piperidinium hydrogen sulfide crystal (MW = 119.23 g/mol) has an orthorhombic (Pbcm) unit cell whose parameters are: a = 9.818(2), b = 7.3720(1), c = 9.754(1) A, V = 706.0(3) A(exp 3), Z=4. D(sub chi) = 1.122 g cm(exp -3), Mo K(alpha) (lamda = 0.71073), mu= 3.36 cm(exp -1), F(000) = 264.0, T =293 K, R = 0.036 for 343 reflections with F(sub O)(sup 2) greater than 3 sigma (F(sub O)(sup 2)) and 65 variables. The compound consists of (C5H10NH2)(+) cations and (SH)(-) anions with both species residing on crystallographic mirror planes. N-H -- S hydrogen bonding contributes to the interconnection of neighboring piperidinium components of the compound.

Andras, Maria T.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Duraj, Stan A.; Gordon, Edward M.

1994-01-01

56

Hydrogen Sulfide in Drinking Water: Causes and Treatment Alternatives  

E-print Network

of the problem and selection of the most effective and economical water treatment system. Treatment options for hydrogen sulfide The recommended treatment to remove hydro- gen sulfide from a water supply depends largely on the gas concentration. Trace amounts...

McFarland, Mark L.; Provin, Tony

1999-06-15

57

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits human platelet aggregation.  

PubMed

Gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) play a major regulatory role in the cardiovascular system homeostasis, including platelet aggregation. Here, we investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a newly recognized endogenous mediator, can affects aggregation of human platelets, using sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) as H(2)S-donor. NaHS inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, epinephrine, arachidonic acid, thromboxane mimetic, U46619, and thrombin. H(2)S effect was not dependent by cAMP/cGMP generation, NO production or potassium-channels opening. NaHS concentrations (up to 10 mM) did not exert toxic effects on platelet viability. The possible protective role of endogenous H(2)S in cardiovascular system is discussed. PMID:17291489

Zagli, Giovanni; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Abbate, Rosanna; Cinotti, Sandro; Gensini, Gian Franco; Masotti, Giulio; Geppetti, Pierangelo

2007-03-15

58

Oxidative removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for recovering elemental sulfur and selectively removing hydrogen sulfide from a hydrogen sulfide containing sour gas stream also containing carbon dioxide. The method consists of: (a) contacting the hydrogen sulfide containing sour gas stream in a first reaction zone with a buffered aqueous solution enriched in thiosulfate ions at a pH between 4.5 and 6.5 for

W. A. Cronkright; M. I. Schlossman; A. Solbakken; C. P. Van Dijk

1986-01-01

59

Caustic-impregnated activated carbons for removal of hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes improvement in a process for removing hydrogen sulfide from an oxygen-containing gas stream by passing the gas stream through caustic-impregnated activated carbon, the stream containing from about 5 ppm to about 10,000 ppm by volume of hydrogen sulfide. The improvement comprises: the breakthrough capacity of the caustic-impregnated activated carbon for hydrogen sulfide is extended by the addition of ammonia to the gas stream about the time of breakthrough.

Truk, A.

1991-06-18

60

Caustic-impregnated activated carbons for removal of hydrogen sulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes improvement in a process for removing hydrogen sulfide from an oxygen-containing gas stream by passing the gas stream through caustic-impregnated activated carbon, the stream containing from about 5 ppm to about 10,000 ppm by volume of hydrogen sulfide. The improvement comprises: the breakthrough capacity of the caustic-impregnated activated carbon for hydrogen sulfide is extended by the addition

Truk

1991-01-01

61

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the renal fibrosis of obstructive nephropathy.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide has recently been found decreased in chronic kidney disease. Here we determined the effect and underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide on a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Compared with normal rats, obstructive injury decreased the plasma hydrogen sulfide level. Cystathionine-?-synthase, a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme, was dramatically reduced in the ureteral obstructed kidney, but another enzyme cystathionine-?-lyase was increased. A hydrogen sulfide donor (sodium hydrogen sulfide) inhibited renal fibrosis by attenuating the production of collagen, extracellular matrix, and the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin. Meanwhile, the infiltration of macrophages and the expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the kidney were also decreased. In cultured kidney fibroblasts, a hydrogen sulfide donor inhibited the cell proliferation by reducing DNA synthesis and downregulating the expressions of proliferation-related proteins including proliferating cell nuclear antigen and c-Myc. Further, the hydrogen sulfide donor blocked the differentiation of quiescent renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts by inhibiting the transforming growth factor-?1-Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Thus, low doses of hydrogen sulfide or its releasing compounds may have therapeutic potentials in treating chronic kidney disease. PMID:24284510

Song, Kai; Wang, Fen; Li, Qian; Shi, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Hui-Fen; Peng, Hanjing; Shen, Hua-Ying; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

2014-06-01

62

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the renal fibrosis of obstructive nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide has recently been found decreased in chronic kidney disease. Here we determined the effect and underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide on a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Compared with normal rats, obstructive injury decreased the plasma hydrogen sulfide level. Cystathionine-?-synthase, a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme, was dramatically reduced in the ureteral obstructed kidney, but another enzyme cystathionine-?-lyase was increased. A hydrogen sulfide donor (sodium hydrogen sulfide) inhibited renal fibrosis by attenuating the production of collagen, extracellular matrix, and the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin. Meanwhile, the infiltration of macrophages and the expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the kidney were also decreased. In cultured kidney fibroblasts, a hydrogen sulfide donor inhibited the cell proliferation by reducing DNA synthesis and downregulating the expressions of proliferation-related proteins including proliferating cell nuclear antigen and c-Myc. Further, the hydrogen sulfide donor blocked the differentiation of quiescent renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts by inhibiting the transforming growth factor-?1-Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Thus, low doses of hydrogen sulfide or its releasing compounds may have therapeutic potentials in treating chronic kidney disease. PMID:24284510

Song, Kai; Wang, Fen; Li, Qian; Shi, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Hui-Fen; Peng, Hanjing; Shen, Hua-Ying; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

2014-01-01

63

Thiophene Hydrogenation to Tetrahydrothiophene over Tungsten Sulfide Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent reactions of thiophene reduction to tetrahydrothiophene and thiophene hydrogenolysis to form hydrogen sulfide and C4 hydrocarbons are shown to occur over supported tungsten sulfide catalysts and unsupported tungsten sulfide at an elevated temperature and a high pressure. The highest rate of tetrahydrothiophene formation over the supported catalysts is observed when alumina was used as a support, and the lowest

A. V. Mashkina

2003-01-01

64

High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents  

DOEpatents

A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

Copeland, Robert J. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

1993-01-01

65

Amorphous molybdenum sulfides as hydrogen evolution catalysts.  

PubMed

Providing energy for a population projected to reach 9 billion people within the middle of this century is one of the most pressing societal issues. Burning fossil fuels at a rate and scale that satisfy our near-term demand will irreversibly damage the living environment. Among the various sources of alternative and CO2-emission-free energies, the sun is the only source that is capable of providing enough energy for the whole world. Sunlight energy, however, is intermittent and requires an efficient storage mechanism. Sunlight-driven water splitting to make hydrogen is widely considered as one of the most attractive methods for solar energy storage. Water splitting needs a hydrogen evolution catalyst to accelerate the rate of hydrogen production and to lower the energy loss in this process. Precious metals such as Pt are superior catalysts, but they are too expensive and scarce for large-scale applications. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on the preparation, characterization, and application of amorphous molybdenum sulfide catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The catalysts can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition under ambient conditions from readily available and inexpensive precursors. The catalytic activity is among the highest for nonprecious catalysts. For example, at a loading of 0.2 mg/cm(2), the optimal catalyst delivers a current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential of 160 mV. The growth mechanism of the electrochemically deposited film catalysts was revealed by an electrochemical quartz microcrystal balance study. While different electrochemical deposition methods produce films with different initial compositions, the active catalysts are the same and are identified as a "MoS(2+x)" species. The activity of the film catalysts can be further promoted by divalent Fe, Co, and Ni ions, and the origins of the promotional effects have been probed. Highly active amorphous molybdenum sulfide particles can also be prepared from simple wet-chemical routes. Electron transport is sometimes slow in the particle catalysts, and an impedance model has been established to identify this slow electron transport. Finally, the amorphous molybdenum sulfide film catalyst has been integrated onto a copper(I) oxide photocathode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution. The conformal catalyst efficiently extracts the excited electrons to give an impressive photocurrent density of -5.7 mA/cm(2) at 0 V vs RHE. The catalyst also confers good stability. PMID:25065612

Morales-Guio, Carlos G; Hu, Xile

2014-08-19

66

Remediation of sulfidic wastewater by catalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

Oxidation of sulfide in aqueous solution by hydrogen peroxide was investigated in the presence of hydrated ferric oxide catalyst. The ferric oxide catalyst was synthesized by sol gel technique from ferric chloride and ammonia. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction analysis, scanning electrom microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The catalyst was quite effective in oxidizing the sulfide by hydrogen peroxide. The effects of sulfide concentration, catalyst loading, H2O2 dosing and temperature on the kinetics of sulfide oxidation were investigated. Kinetic equations and activation energies for the catalytic oxidation reaction were calculated based on the experimental results. PMID:20131606

Ahmad, Naveed; Maitra, Saikat; Dutta, Binay Kanti; Ahmad, Farooq

2009-01-01

67

Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as biological mediators.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a biological mediator with various roles such as neuromodulation, regulation of the vascular tone, cytoprotection, anti-inflammation, oxygen sensing, angiogenesis, and generation of mitochondrial energy. It is produced by cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). The activity of CBS is enhanced by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and glutathionylation, while it is inhibited by nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The activity of CSE and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), which produces the 3MST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP), is regulated by Ca2+. H2S is oxidized to thiosulfate in mitochondria through the sequential action of sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), sulfur dioxygenase, and rhodanese. The rates of the production and clearance of H2S determine its cellular concentration. Polysulfides (H2Sn) have been found to occur in the brain and activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels, facilitate the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the nucleus, and suppress the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by sulfurating (sulfhydrating) the target cysteine residues. A cross talk between H2S and NO also plays an important role in cardioprotection as well as regulation of the vascular tone. H2S, polysulfides, and their cross talk with NO may mediate various physiological and pathophysiological responses. PMID:25302704

Kimura, Hideo

2014-01-01

68

Signaling of hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides.  

PubMed

It has been almost two decades since the first demonstration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. H2S is physiologically important because it protects various organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury besides regulating inflammation, oxygen sensing, cell growth, and senescence. The production, metabolism, and regulation of H2S have been studied extensively. H2S modulates target proteins through sulfhydration (or sulfuration) or by the reduction of cysteine disulfide bonds. A large number of novel H2S-donating compounds are being developed owing to the therapeutic potential of H2S. Recently, polysulfides, rather than H2S, have been identified as molecules that sulfhydrate (or sulfurate) their target proteins. PMID:25178405

Kimura, Hideo

2015-02-10

69

Chemical Foundations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biology  

PubMed Central

Following nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (or its newer systematic name sulfane, H2S) became the third small molecule that can be both toxic and beneficial depending on the concentration. In spite of its impressive therapeutic potential, the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects remain unclear. Any novel mechanism has to obey fundamental chemical principles. H2S chemistry was studied long before its biological relevance was discovered, however, with a few exceptions, these past works have received relatively little attention in the path of exploring the mechanistic conundrum of H2S biological functions. This review calls attention to the basic physical and chemical properties of H2S, focuses on the chemistry between H2S and its three potential biological targets: oxidants, metals and thiol derivatives, discusses the applications of these basics into H2S biology and methodology, and introduces the standard terminology to this youthful field. PMID:23850631

Li, Qian; Lancaster, Jack R.

2013-01-01

70

Hydrogen Sulfide: Redox Metabolism and Signaling  

PubMed Central

Abstract The recognition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an endogenously produced gas with signaling potential has stimulated research on a multitude of physiological effects mediated in the cardiovascular, immune, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, and central nervous systems. The heightened activity in the area of H2S biology led to convening of the first international conference on H2S in Shanghai in the summer of 2009 and to two Forum issues published in 2010 by Antioxidants & Redox Signaling on the physiological effects of H2S. Yet, fundamental questions regarding the biogenesis and regulation of H2S, the bioenergetics of its catabolism, its tissue concentrations, and elucidation of its molecular targets remain. Some of these issues are the subject of the current Forum on H2S. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 339–341. PMID:21275829

2011-01-01

71

Hydrogen sulfide exposure in an adult male  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is responsible for many incidents of occupational toxic exposure, especially in the petroleum industry. The clinical effects of H2S depend on its concentration and the duration of exposure. H2S is immediately fatal when concentrations are over 500-1000 parts per million (ppm) but exposure to lower concentrations, such as 10-500 ppm, can cause various respiratory symptoms that range from rhinitis to acute respiratory failure. H2S may also affect multiple organs, causing temporary or permanent derangements in the nervous, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and hematological systems. We present a case of occupational exposure to H2S leading to multi-organ involvement, acute respiratory failure, organizing pneumonia, and shock resembling acute sepsis. The patient also developed mild obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disease and peripheral neuropathy. PMID:20103963

Doujaiji, Bassam; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.

2010-01-01

72

Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

2007-07-31

73

NEAR-CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE BY AN AUTOMATIC GAS CHROMATOGRAPH  

EPA Science Inventory

An automatic gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector that samples and analyzes hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide at 30-s intervals is described. Temperature programming was used to elute trace amounts of carbon disulfide present in each injection from a Supelpak-S...

74

Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.  

PubMed

Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3 < 7 mm) and 35% had severe periodontal breakdown (CAL > 7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. PMID:25280920

Basic, A; Dahlén, G

2014-09-30

75

Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite  

SciTech Connect

Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

1983-01-14

76

Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite  

SciTech Connect

Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

1983-01-01

77

An Experiment in Autotrophic Fermentation: Microbial Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an experiment which uses an autotrophic bacterium to anaerobically oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfate in a batch-stirred tank reactor. Discusses background information, experimental procedure, and sample results of this activity. (CW)

Sublette, Kerry L.

1989-01-01

78

Hydrogen sulfide and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.  

PubMed

In addition to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), synthesized enzymatically from l-cysteine or l-homocysteine, is the third gasotransmitter in mammals. Endogenous H2S is involved in the regulation of many physiological processes, including vascular tone. Although initially it was suggested that in the vascular wall H2S is synthesized only by smooth muscle cells and relaxes them by activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels, more recent studies indicate that H2S is synthesized in endothelial cells as well. Endothelial H2S production is stimulated by many factors, including acetylcholine, shear stress, adipose tissue hormone leptin, estrogens and plant flavonoids. In some vascular preparations H2S plays a role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by activating small and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Endothelial H2S signaling is up-regulated in some pathologies, such as obesity and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, H2S activates endothelial NO synthase and inhibits cGMP degradation by phosphodiesterase 5 thus potentiating the effect of NO-cGMP pathway. Moreover, H2S-derived polysulfides directly activate protein kinase G. Finally, H2S interacts with NO to form nitroxyl (HNO)-a potent vasorelaxant. H2S appears to play an important and multidimensional role in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID:25521118

Be?towski, Jerzy; Jamroz-Wi?niewska, Anna

2014-01-01

79

Hydrogen Sulfide and Hemeproteins: Knowledge and Mysteries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Historically, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been regarded as a poisonous gas, with a wide spectrum of toxic effects. However, like?·NO and CO, H2S is now referred to as a signaling gas involved in numerous physiological processes. The list of reports highlighting the physiological effects of H2S is rapidly expanding and several drug candidates are now being developed. As with?·NO and CO, not a single H2S target responsible for all the biological effects has been found till now. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that H2S can bind to hemeproteins, inducing different responses that can mediate its effects. For instance, the interaction of H2S with cytochrome c oxidase has been associated with the activation of the ATP-sensitive potassium channels, regulating muscle relaxation. Inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by H2S has also been related to inducing a hibernation-like state. Although H2S might induce these effects by interacting with hemeproteins, the mechanisms underlying these interactions are obscure. Therefore, in this review we discuss the current state of knowledge about the interaction of H2S with vertebrate and invertebrate hemeproteins and postulate a generalized mechanism. Our goal is to stimulate further research aimed at evaluating plausible mechanisms that explain H2S reactivity with hemeproteins. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 393–404. PMID:21050142

Pietri, Ruth; Román-Morales, Elddie

2011-01-01

80

Production and Physiological Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a physiological mediator with a variety of functions. It regulates synaptic transmission, vascular tone, inflammation, transcription, and angiogenesis; protects cells from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury; and promotes healing of ulcers. Recent Advances: In addition to cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase along with cysteine aminotransferase was recently demonstrated to produce H2S. Even in bacteria, H2S produced by these enzymes functions as a defense against antibiotics, suggesting that the cytoprotective effect of H2S is a universal defense mechanism in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Critical Issues: The functional form of H2S—undissociated H2S gas, dissociated HS ion, or some other form of sulfur—has not been identified. Future Directions: The regulation of H2S production by three enzymes may lead to the identification of the physiological signals that are required to release H2S. The identification of the physiological functions of other forms of sulfur may also help understand the biological significance of H2S. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 783–793. PMID:23581969

2014-01-01

81

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits plasma renin activity.  

PubMed

The development of renovascular hypertension depends on the release of renin from the juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, a process regulated by intracellular cAMP. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) downregulates cAMP production in some cell types by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, suggesting the possibility that it may modulate renin release. Here, we investigated the effect of H2S on plasma renin activity and BP in rat models of renovascular hypertension. In the two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C) model of renovascular hypertension, the H2S donor NaHS prevented and treated hypertension. Compared with vehicle, NaHS significantly attenuated the elevation in plasma renin activity and angiotensin II levels but did not affect plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. Furthermore, NaHS inhibited the upregulation of renin mRNA and protein levels in the clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats. In primary cultures of renin-rich kidney cells, NaHS markedly suppressed forskolin-stimulated renin activity in the medium and the intracellular increase in cAMP. In contrast, NaHS did not affect BP or plasma renin activity in normal or one-kidney-one-clip (1K1C) rats, both of which had normal plasma renin activity. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that H2S may inhibit renin activity by decreasing the synthesis and release of renin, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for renovascular hypertension. PMID:20360313

Lu, Ming; Liu, Yi-Hong; Goh, Hong Swen; Wang, Josh Jia Xing; Yong, Qian-Chen; Wang, Rui; Bian, Jin-Song

2010-06-01

82

Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in the Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The current literature regarding the effects of the gaseous signal molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the gastrointestinal system is reviewed. Bacterial, host and pharmaceutical-derived H2S are all considered and presented according to the physiological or pathophysiological effects of the gaseous signal molecule. These subjects include the toxicology of intestinal H2S with emphasis on bacterial-derived H2S, especially from sulfate-reducing bacteria, the role of endogenous and exogenous H2S in intestinal inflammation, and the roles of H2S in gastrointestinal motility, secretion and nociception. Recent Advances: While its pro- and anti-inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, prosecretory, and pro- and antinociceptive actions continue to remain the major effects of H2S in this system; recent findings have expanded the potential molecular targets for H2S in the gastrointestinal tract. Critical Issues: Numerous discrepancies remain in the literature, and definitive molecular targets in this system have not been supported by the use of competitive antagonism. Future Directions: Future work will hopefully resolve discrepancies in the literature and identify molecular targets and mechanisms of action for H2S. It is clear from the current literature that the long-appreciated relationship between H2S and the gastrointestinal tract continues to be strong as we endeavor to unravel its mysteries. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 818–830. PMID:23582008

2014-01-01

83

Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic  

PubMed Central

The consumption of garlic is inversely correlated with the progression of cardiovascular disease, although the responsible mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that human RBCs convert garlic-derived organic polysulfides into hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell signaling molecule. This H2S production, measured in real time by a novel polarographic H2S sensor, is supported by glucose-maintained cytosolic glutathione levels and is to a large extent reliant on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. H2S production from organic polysulfides is facilitated by allyl substituents and by increasing numbers of tethering sulfur atoms. Allyl-substituted polysulfides undergo nucleophilic substitution at the ? carbon of the allyl substituent, thereby forming a hydropolysulfide (RSnH), a key intermediate during the formation of H2S. Organic polysulfides (R-Sn-R?; n > 2) also undergo nucleophilic substitution at a sulfur atom, yielding RSnH and H2S. Intact aorta rings, under physiologically relevant oxygen levels, also metabolize garlic-derived organic polysulfides to liberate H2S. The vasoactivity of garlic compounds is synchronous with H2S production, and their potency to mediate relaxation increases with H2S yield, strongly supporting our hypothesis that H2S mediates the vasoactivity of garlic. Our results also suggest that the capacity to produce H2S can be used to standardize garlic dietary supplements. PMID:17951430

Benavides, Gloria A.; Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Mills, Robert W.; Patel, Hetal D.; Isbell, T. Scott; Patel, Rakesh P.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Doeller, Jeannette E.; Kraus, David W.

2007-01-01

84

Hydrogen Sulfide in Biochemistry and Medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: An abundance of experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a prominent role in physiology and pathophysiology. Many targets exist for H2S therapy. The molecular targets of H2S include proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, and membrane ion channels. Recent Advances: Novel H2S precursors are being synthesized and discovered that are capable of releasing H2S in a slow and sustained manner. This presents a novel and advantageous approach to H2S therapy for treatment of chronic conditions associated with a decline in endogenous H2S, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Critical Issues: While H2S is cytoprotective at physiological concentrations, it is not universally cytoprotective, as it appears to have pro-apoptotic actions in cancer cells and is well known to be toxic at supraphysiological concentrations. Many of the pleiotropic effects of H2S on health are associated with the inhibition of inflammation and upregulation of prosurvival pathways. The powerful anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, immunomodulating, and trophic effects of H2S on the vast majority of normal cells seem to be mediated mainly by its actions as an extremely versatile direct and indirect antioxidant and free radical scavenger. While the overall effects of H2S on transformed (i.e., malignant) cells can be characterized as pro-oxidant and pro-apoptotic, they contrast sharply with the cytoprotective effects on most normal cells. Future Directions: H2S has become a molecule of great interest, and several slow-releasing H2S prodrugs are currently under development. We believe that additional agents regulating H2S bioavailability will be developed during the next 10 years. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 119–140. PMID:22432697

Predmore, Benjamin Lee; Lefer, David Joseph

2012-01-01

85

Interaction of hydrogen sulfide with ion channels.  

PubMed

1. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a signalling gasotransmitter. It targets different ion channels and receptors, and fulfils its various roles in modulating the functions of different systems. However, the interaction of H(2)S with different types of ion channels and underlying molecular mechanisms has not been reviewed systematically. 2. H(2)S is the first identified endogenous gaseous opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Through the activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, H(2)S lowers blood pressure, protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury, inhibits insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells, and exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-apoptotic effects. 3. H(2)S inhibited L-type Ca(2+) channels in cardiomyocytes but stimulated the same channels in neurons, thus regulating intracellular Ca(2+) levels. H(2)S activated small and medium conductance K(Ca) channels but its effect on BK(Ca) channels has not been consistent. 4. H(2)S-induced hyperalgesia and pro-nociception seems to be related to the sensitization of both T-type Ca(2+) channels and TRPV(1) channels. The activation of TRPV(1) and TRPA(1) by H(2)S is believed to result in contraction of nonvascular smooth muscles and increased colonic mucosal Cl(-) secretion. 5. The activation of Cl(-) channel by H(2)S has been shown as a protective mechanism for neurons from oxytosis. H(2)S also potentiates N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-mediated currents that are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity for learning and memory. 6. Given the important modulatory effects of H(2)S on different ion channels, many cellular functions and disease conditions related to homeostatic control of ion fluxes across cell membrane should be re-evaluated. PMID:20636621

Tang, Guanghua; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui

2010-07-01

86

Fluorescent probes for sensing and imaging biological hydrogen sulfide  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been recognized as a toxic molecule in biological systems. However, emerging studies now link controlled fluxes of this reactive sulfur species to cellular regulation and signaling events akin to other small molecule messengers, such as nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon monoxide. Progress in the development of fluorescent small-molecule indicators with high selectivity for hydrogen sulfide offers a promising approach for studying its production, trafficking, and downstream physiological and/or pathological effects. PMID:22921406

Lin, Vivian S; Chang, Christopher J

2012-01-01

87

Plasma-chemical conversion of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste-treatment process that recovers both hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen-sulfide-contaminated industrial wastes is being developed to replace the Claus technology, which recovers only sulfur. The proposed process is based on research reported in the Soviet technical literature and uses microwave (or radio-frequency) energy to initiate plasma-chemical reactions that dissociate hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. In the plasma-chemical

J. B. L. Harkness; R. D; E. J. Daniels

1993-01-01

88

Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

1977-01-01

89

Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used an innovative, low-maintenance, low-cost biological sulfide removal technology to remove sulfides simultaneously from both gas and liquid phase. ORP (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential) was used as the controlling parameter to precisely regulate air injection to the sulfide oxidizing unit (SOU). The microaeration technique provided just enough oxygen to partially oxidize sulfides to elemental sulfur without inhibiting methanogenesis. The SOU was equipped with a diffuser at the bottom for the dispersion of sulfide-laden biogas and injected air throughout the column. The SOU can be operated as a standalone unit or coupled with an anaerobic digester to simultaneously remove sulfide from the biogas and effluent. The integrated system was capable of reducing hydrogen sulfide in biogas from 2,450 to less than 2 ppmV with minimal sulfate production at the highest available sulfide loading rate of 0.24 kg/m3-day. More than 98% of sulfide removed was recovered as elemental sulfur. However, the standalone SOU was able to operate at high hydrogen sulfide loading of 1.46 kg/m 3-day at inlet sulfide concentration of 3000 ppmV and reduce the off-gas hydrogen sulfide concentrations to less than 10 ppmV. The experiment also revealed that the ORP controlled aeration was sensitive enough to prevent oxygen overdosing (dampening effect) during unexpected surges of aeration. Using generalized linear regression, a model predicting output H2S concentration based on input H2S concentrations, SOU medium heights, and biogas flow rates, was derived. With 95% confidence, output H2S concentration was affected by changes in liquid heights the most, followed by changes in flow rates. Feasibility studies for H2S removal from biogas by micro-aeration were conducted at the Ames Water Pollution Control Facility (AWPCF) by using different types of liquid media available at the plant, i.e. plant effluent, mixed liquor, and digester supernatant. From the experiment at AWPCF, it was found that operating pHs were affected by the amount of alkalinity in the liquid media and that the removal efficiencies were affected by the operating pH. Among all the liquid media tested, digester supernatant showed the greatest potential with more than 99% H2S removal at an operating pH of 7.0 and volumetric biogas flow rate of 21.6 m3/m 3-hr. By increasing trace metal contents and temperature of the medium, the hydrogen sulfide removal rate was greatly improved. The operating cost of the full-scale system was estimated to be approximately $2/kg-S-removed. In addition, it was also revealed that abiotic sulfide oxidation accounted for 95% of overall sulfide oxidation. This technology is expected to widen the use of biogas as a renewable fuel since the maintenance requirements of biogas handling equipment, the methane purification costs, and the emissions of SOx will dramatically be reduced. Importantly, the technology does not require inoculation of special bacteria, addition of nutrients and trace elements, or chemicals for pH control.

Duangmanee, Thanapong

90

Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 ?g/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

2014-01-01

91

Hydrogen sulfide-mediated myocardial pre- and post-conditioning  

PubMed Central

Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Acute myocardial infarction, resulting from coronary artery atherosclerosis, is a serious and often fatal consequence of coronary artery disease, resulting in cell death in the myocardium. Pre- and post-conditioning of the myocardium are two treatment strategies that reduce the amount of cell death significantly. Hydrogen sulfide has recently been identified as a potent cardioprotective signaling molecule, which is a highly effective pre- and post-conditioning agent. The cardioprotective signaling pathways involved in hydrogen sulfide-based pre- and post-conditioning will be explored in this article. PMID:21373204

Predmore, Benjamin L; Lefer, David J

2011-01-01

92

76 FR 69136 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-TRI-2009-0844; FRL-9488-5] RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know...Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide; Correction...Stay of the reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide. The Office of the Federal...

2011-11-08

93

L-Cysteine, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Insulin Signaling in Diabetes  

E-print Network

L-Cysteine, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Insulin Signaling in Diabetes Prasenjit Manna LSU Health Sciences Center Diabetes has become an epidemic and remains a major public health issue worldwide. of L in diabetic animal studies. However, the molecular mechanism by which LC increases glucose utilization

Shyamasundar, R.K.

94

DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN REFINERY FUEL GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several widely employed test methods for the iodimetric measurement of hydrogen sulfide in refinery fuel gases are shown to suffer from serious thiol interferences. An absorbing solution consisting of 0.16 M cadmium sulfate/sulfuric acid at pH 3.0 is shown to be effective for the...

95

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE, REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas which is immediately lethal in concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. The toxic end-point is due to anoxia to brain and heart tissues which results from its interaction with the celluar enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of the enzyme halt...

96

Chromium(VI) Reduction by Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous  

E-print Network

Chromium(VI) Reduction by Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous Media: Stoichiometry and Kinetics C H U L S U-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that chromium hydroxide and elemental sulfur were the stable products to accidental leakages and improper disposals associated with its wide- spread usage (1-3). Since some chromium

Deng, Baolin

97

Evaluation of hydrogen sulfide concentrations in Norwegian reservoir fluids  

E-print Network

Knowledge of the hydrogen sulfide content in produced hics. petroleum fluids is important for planning of [HaS] control measures and for material selection. The Norwegian Continental Shelf is known for producing sweet crude oils, and [HaS] has...

Haland, Kjersti

1998-01-01

98

Adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on montmorillonites modified with iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium-rich montmorillonite was modified with iron in order to introduce active centers for hydrogen sulfide adsorption. In the first modification, interlayer sodium cations were exchanged with iron. In another modification, iron oxocations were introduced to the clay surface. The most elaborated modification was based on doping of iron within the interlayer space of aluminum-pillared clay. The modified clay samples were

Danh Nguyen-Thanh; Karin Block; Teresa J. Bandosz

2005-01-01

99

Biology and therapeutic potential of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen sulfide-releasing chimeras  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a colorless gas with a strong odor that until recently was only considered to be a toxic environmental pollutant with little or no physiological significance. However, the past few years have demonstrated its role in many biological systems and it is becoming increasingly clear that H2S is likely to join nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) as a major player in mammalian biology. In this review, we have provided an overview of the chemistry and biology of H2S and have summarized the chemistry and biological activity of some natural and synthetic H2S-donating compounds. The naturally occurring compounds discussed include, garlic, sulforaphane, erucin, and iberin. The synthetic H2S donors reviewed include, GYY4137; cysteine analogs; S-propyl cysteine, S-allyl cysteine, S-propargyl cysteine, and N-acetyl cysteine. Dithiolethione and its NSAID and other chimeras such as, L-DOPA, sildenafil, aspirin, diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and mesalamine have also been reviewed in detail. The newly reported NOSH-aspirin that releases both NO and H2S has also been discussed. PMID:23103569

Kashfi, Khosrow; Olson, Kenneth R.

2012-01-01

100

Adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on montmorillonites modified with iron.  

PubMed

Sodium-rich montmorillonite was modified with iron in order to introduce active centers for hydrogen sulfide adsorption. In the first modification, interlayer sodium cations were exchanged with iron. In another modification, iron oxocations were introduced to the clay surface. The most elaborated modification was based on doping of iron within the interlayer space of aluminum-pillared clay. The modified clay samples were tested as hydrogen sulfide adsorbents. Iron-doped samples showed a significant improvement in the capacity for H2S removal, despite of a noticeable decrease in microporosity compared to the initial pillared clay. The smallest capacity was obtained for the clay modified with iron oxocations. Variations in adsorption capacity are likely due to differences in the chemistry of iron species, degree of their dispersion on the surface, and accessibility of small pores for H2S molecule. The results suggest that on the surface of iron-modified clay hydrogen sulfide reacts with Fe(+3) forming sulfides or it is catalytically oxidized to SO2 on iron (hydro)oxides. Subsequent oxidation may lead to sulfate formation. PMID:15763087

Nguyen-Thanh, Danh; Block, Karin; Bandosz, Teresa J

2005-04-01

101

Hydrogen and bioenergetics in the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The geochemical energy budgets for high-temperature microbial ecosystems such as occur at Yellowstone National Park have been unclear. To address the relative contributions of different geochemistries to the energy demands of these ecosystems, we draw together three lines of inference. We studied the phylogenetic compositions of high-temperature (>70°C) communities in Yellowstone hot springs with distinct chemistries, conducted parallel chemical analyses, and carried out thermodynamic modeling. Results of extensive molecular analyses, taken with previous results, show that most microbial biomass in these systems, as reflected by rRNA gene abundance, is comprised of organisms of the kinds that derive energy for primary productivity from the oxidation of molecular hydrogen, H2. The apparent dominance by H2-metabolizing organisms indicates that H2 is the main source of energy for primary production in the Yellowstone high-temperature ecosystem. Hydrogen concentrations in the hot springs were measured and found to range up to >300 nM, consistent with this hypothesis. Thermodynamic modeling with environmental concentrations of potential energy sources also is consistent with the proposed microaerophilic, hydrogen-based energy economy for this geothermal ecosystem, even in the presence of high concentrations of sulfide. PMID:15671178

Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; McCollom, Thomas M.; Pace, Norman R.

2005-01-01

102

75 FR 8889 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental...Know Act (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS...

2010-02-26

103

76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental...Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS...

2011-10-17

104

Hydrogen sulfide decomposition cell and catalytic materials therefor  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic material for electrochemically oxidizing hydrogen sulfide or another sulfur containing gas is provided to accomplish decomposition of the gas. The catalytic materials can be incorporated in an anode for use in a electrolytic cell for removing sulfur from a contaminated useful gas to produce useful sulfur products. The catalytic materials also can be incorporated in an anode for a fuel cell wherein hydrogen sulfide or other sulfur containing gas is utilized as the fuel which is oxidized at the anode to produce electrical energy. The catalytic materials of the present invention are of a disordered multicomponent material which includes at least one element selected from the group consisting of transition elements and at least one modifying element selected from the group consisting of sulfur and oxygen. The host matrix and substrate can also include a carbon containing composition.

Venkatesan, S.; Pinsky, N.; Sapru, K.

1985-10-01

105

30 CFR 250.490 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Facility means a vessel, a structure, or an artificial island...facility and adjacent structure(s), and the height of all such facilities and structures. You must equip the...which can be invaded by atomic hydrogen when H2...

2013-07-01

106

30 CFR 250.490 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Facility means a vessel, a structure, or an artificial island...facility and adjacent structure(s), and the height of all such facilities and structures. You must equip the...which can be invaded by atomic hydrogen when H2 S...

2011-07-01

107

30 CFR 250.490 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Facility means a vessel, a structure, or an artificial island...facility and adjacent structure(s), and the height of all such facilities and structures. You must equip the...which can be invaded by atomic hydrogen when H2...

2014-07-01

108

30 CFR 250.490 - Hydrogen sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Facility means a vessel, a structure, or an artificial island...facility and adjacent structure(s), and the height of all such facilities and structures. You must equip the...which can be invaded by atomic hydrogen when H2...

2012-07-01

109

Identification of Genes Affecting Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

PubMed Central

A screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strain set was performed to identify genes affecting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Mutants were screened using two assays: colony color on BiGGY agar, which detects the basal level of sulfite reductase activity, and production of H2S in a synthetic juice medium using lead acetate detection of free sulfide in the headspace. A total of 88 mutants produced darker colony colors than the parental strain, and 4 produced colonies significantly lighter in color. There was no correlation between the appearance of a dark colony color on BiGGY agar and H2S production in synthetic juice media. Sixteen null mutations were identified as leading to the production of increased levels of H2S in synthetic juice using the headspace analysis assay. All 16 mutants also produced H2S in actual juices. Five of these genes encode proteins involved in sulfur containing amino acid or precursor biosynthesis and are directly associated with the sulfate assimilation pathway. The remaining genes encode proteins involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell membrane integrity, cell energy regulation and balance, or other metabolic functions. The levels of hydrogen sulfide production of each of the 16 strains varied in response to nutritional conditions. In most cases, creation of multiple deletions of the 16 mutations in the same strain did not lead to a further increase in H2S production, instead often resulting in decreased levels. PMID:18192430

Linderholm, Angela L.; Findleton, Carrie L.; Kumar, Gagandeep; Hong, Yeun; Bisson, Linda F.

2008-01-01

110

Utilization of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy and Induced Hypothermia After Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas produced as a byproduct of organic waste and many industrial processes. Hydrogen sulfide exposure symptoms may vary from mild (dizziness, headaches, nausea) to severe lactic acidosis via its inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to cardiac arrhythmias and death. Treatment is generally supportive. We report the case of a patient presenting with cardiac arrest secondary to hydrogen sulfide exposure treated with both hyperbaric oxygen therapy and therapeutic hypothermia with great improvement in neurologic function. PMID:22004989

Asif, Mir J.; Exline, Matthew C.

2013-01-01

111

PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY SUPERADIABATIC DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-print Network

the superadiabatic H2S decomposition reactor, product/byproduct separation schemes, hydrogen purification, and tail experimental and numerical studies analyzed chemical and thermal structures of the H2S-containing gases/air2S for recycle (to maximize the overall H2S conversion), the hydrogen product for purification

112

A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY  

EPA Science Inventory

An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

113

Selection of metallic materials for sucker rod pumps for hydrogen sulfide environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents general recommendations of metallic materials for the construction of sucker rod pumps for service in a hydrogen sulfide environment. Only pumps with one-piece barrels and metal plungers are considered.The recommended materials are presented in tabular form and in preferred order of listing for 9 different environments with varying degrees of abrasion and hydrogen sulfide corrosion. The materials

1973-01-01

114

Polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network based chemiresistive hydrogen sulfide sensor  

E-print Network

Polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network based chemiresistive hydrogen sulfide for hydrogen sulfide detection and quantification using polyaniline nanowires-gold nanoparticles hybrid network with a diameter of 250­320 nm bridging the gap between a pair of microfabricated gold electrodes were synthesized

115

Dynamic viscosity estimation of hydrogen sulfide using a predictive scheme based on molecular dynamics.  

E-print Network

1 Dynamic viscosity estimation of hydrogen sulfide using a predictive scheme based on molecular on molecular dynamics results on Lennard-Jones spheres is proposed to model the viscosity of hydrogen sulfide is that the adjustment does not involve any viscosity data because only density values have been used in order

Boyer, Edmond

116

30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 250... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? The...

2011-07-01

117

30 CFR 550.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 550... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) information must accompany the EP?...

2014-07-01

118

30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 250... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? The...

2010-07-01

119

30 CFR 550.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 550... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) information must accompany the EP?...

2012-07-01

120

30 CFR 550.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 550... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) information must accompany the EP?...

2013-07-01

121

Modeling of Syngas Reactions and Hydrogen Generation Over Sulfides  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research is to analyze pathways of reactions of hydrogen with oxides of carbon over sulfides, and to predict which characteristics of the sulfide catalyst (nature of metal, defect structure) give rise to the lowest barriers toward oxygenated hydrocarbon product. Reversal of these pathways entails the generation of hydrogen, which is also proposed for study. In this first year of study, adsorption reactions of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules with MoS{sub 2}, both in molecular and solid form, have been modeled using high-level density functional theory. The geometries and strengths of the adsorption sites are described and the methods used in the study are described. An exposed MO{sup IV} species modeled as a bent MoS{sub 2} molecule is capable of homopolar dissociative chemisorption of H{sub 2} into a dihydride S{sub 2}MoH{sub 2}. Among the periodic edge structures of hexagonal MoS{sub 2}, the (1{bar 2}11) edge is most stable but still capable of dissociating H{sub 2}, while the basal plane (0001) is not. A challenging task of theoretically accounting for weak bonding of MoS{sub 2} sheets across the Van der Waals gap has been addressed, resulting in a weak attraction of 0.028 eV/MoS{sub 2} unit, compared to the experimental value of 0.013 eV/MoS{sub 2} unit.

Kamil Klier; Jeffery A. Spirko; Michael L. Neiman

2002-09-17

122

Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur  

DOEpatents

This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-08-08

123

Hydrogen sulfide treatment induces angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a potent vasodilator and regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. Furthermore, H2 S has a crucial role in ischemia-reperfusion injuries, especially of the heart, liver, and kidneys. This study indicates that treatment with hydrogen sulfide is able to restore neurological function after ischemic stroke by promoting angiogenesis. Treatment with H2 S augments angiogenesis in the peri-infarct area, and it significantly improves functional outcomes after 2 weeks in a rat MCAO model. H2 S promotes the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK and increases the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1). H2 S-treated rats showed more newly synthesized endothelial cells in the ischemic lesion (2.31-fold, P?

Jang, Hyunduk; Oh, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Choi, In-Young; Yang, Hye Sung; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

2014-11-01

124

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports results of NASA's Chemical Instrumentation and Test Evaluation (CITE 3) during which airborne measurements for carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were intercompared. Instrumentation included a gas chromatograph using flame photometric detection (COS, H2S, and CS2), a gas chromatograph using mass spectrometric detection (COS) and CS2), a gas chromatograph using fluorination and subsequent SF6 detection via electron capture (COS and CS2), and the Natusch technique (H2S). The measurements were made over the Atlantic Ocean east of North and South America during flights from NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, in August/September 1989. Most of the intercomparisons for H2S and CS2 were at mixing ratios less than 25 pptv and less than 10 pptv, respectively, with a maximum mixing ratio of about 100 pptv and 50 pptv, respectively. Carbonyl sulfide intercomparisons were at mixing ratios between 400 and 600 pptv. Measurements were intercompared from data bases constructed from time periods of simultaneous or overlapping measurements. Agreement among the COS techniques averaged about 5%, and individual measurements were generally within 10%. For H2S and at mixing ratio greater than 25 pptv, the instruments agreed on average to about 15%. At mixing ratios less than 25 pptv the agreement was about 5 pptv. For CS2 (mixing ratios less than 50 pptv), two techniques agreed on average to about 4 pptv, and the third exhibited a bias (relative to the other two) that varied in the range of 3-7 pptv. CS2 mixing ratios over the ocean east of Natal as measured by the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique were only a few pptv and were below the detection limits of the other two techniques. The CITE 3 data are used to estimate the current uncertainty associated with aircraft measurements of COS, H2S, and CS2 in the remote troposphere.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Thornton, Donald C.; Johnson, James E.; Bandy, Alan R.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Barrick, John D.

1993-01-01

125

Factors controlling the reactivity of hydrogen sulfide with hemeproteins†  

PubMed Central

Hemoglobin I (HbI) from the clam Lucina pectinata is an intriguing hemeprotein that binds and transports H2S to sulfide-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria to maintain a symbiotic relationship and to protect the mollusk from H2S toxicity. Single point mutations at E7, B10 and E11 positions were introduced in the HbI heme pocket to define the reactivity of sulfide with hemeproteins. The functional and structural properties of mutant and wild type recombinant proteins were first evaluated using the well-known ferrous CO and O2 derivatives. The effects of these mutations on the ferric environment were then studied in the metaquo and hydrogen sulfide derivatives. The results obtained with the ferrous HbI mutants show that all the E7 substitutions and the PheB10Tyr mutation influence directly CO and O2 binding and stability while the B10 and E11 substitutions induce distal structural rearrangements that affect ligand entry and escape indirectly. For the metaquo-GlnE7His, PheB10Val, PheB10Leu and the E11 variants, two individual distal structures are suggested, one of which is associated with H-bonding interactions between the E7 residues and the bound water. Similar H-bonding interactions are invoked for these HbI-H2S mutant derivatives and the rHbI, altering in turn sulfide reactivity within these protein samples. This is evident in the resonance Raman spectra of these HbI-H2S complexes, which show reduction of heme iron as judged by the appearance of the ?4 oxidation state marker at 1356 cm?1, indicative of heme-FeII species. This reduction process depends strongly on distal mutations showing faster reduction for those HbI mutants exhibiting strongest H-bonding interactions. Overall, the results presented here show that: a. H2S association is regulated by steric constraints; b. H2S release is controlled by two competing reactions involving simple sulfide dissociation and heme reduction; c. at high H2S concentrations, reduction of the ferric center dominates; d. reduction of the heme is also enhanced in those HbI mutants having polar distal environments. PMID:19368335

Pietri, Ruth; Lewis, Ariel; León, Ruth G.; Casabona, Gullermina; Kiger, Laurent; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Marden, Michael C.; Cadilla, Carmen L.; López-Garriga, Juan

2009-01-01

126

Inhaled hydrogen sulfide prevents neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury in mice.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain is mediated through activation of microglia in the spinal cord. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates microglial activation and central nervous system inflammation; however, the role of hydrogen sulfide in neuropathic pain is unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of hydrogen sulfide breathing on neuropathic pain in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. After CCI, mice breathed air alone or air mixed with hydrogen sulfide at 40?ppm for 8?h on 7 consecutive days. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured in the spinal cord. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on IL-6-induced activation of microglia were examined in primary rat microglia. Mice that breathed air alone exhibited the neuropathic pain behavior including mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and increased mRNA levels of IL-6 and chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2) after CCI. Inhaled hydrogen sulfide prevented the neuropathic pain behavior and attenuated the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Sodium sulfide inhibited IL-6-induced activation of primary microglia. These results suggest that inhaled hydrogen sulfide prevents the development of neuropathic pain in mice possibly via inhibition of the activation of microglia in the spinal cord. PMID:25461302

Kida, Kotaro; Marutani, Eizo; Nguyen, Rebecca K; Ichinose, Fumito

2015-04-30

127

Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

1991-01-01

128

75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-TRI-2009-0844; FRL-9137-7] RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know...chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service...manufacture, process, or otherwise use hydrogen sulfide. Potentially affected...

2010-04-14

129

Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis  

SciTech Connect

Atherosclerosis is a chronic, complex, and progressive pathological process in large and medium sized arteries. The exact mechanism of this process remains unclear. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a novel gasotransmitter, was confirmed as playing a major role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. It plays a role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and apoptosis, participates in the progress of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY), inhibits atherogenic modification of LDL, interferes with vascular calcification, intervenes with platelet function, and there are interactions between H{sub 2}S and inflammatory processes. The role of H{sub 2}S in atherosclerotic pathogenesis highlights the mysteries of atherosclerosis and inspires the search for innovative therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the studies to date that have considered the role of H{sub 2}S in atherosclerosis.

Qiao, Wang [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Chaoshu, Tang [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Health Sciences Center, Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China) [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Health Sciences Center, Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Ministry of Education (China); Hongfang, Jin, E-mail: jinhongfang51@126.com [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Junbao, Du, E-mail: junbaodu1@126.com [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)

2010-05-28

130

Protein-based nanobiosensor for direct detection of hydrogen sulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemically modified cytochrome c from equine heart, EC (232-700-9), was immobilized onto gold nanoparticles in order to develop a specific biosensing system for monitoring hydrogen sulfide down to the micromolar level, by means of a localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The sensing mechanism is based on the cytochrome-c conformational changes in the presence of H2S which alter the dielectric properties of the gold nanoparticles and the surface plasmon resonance peak undergoes a redshift. According to the experiments, it is revealed that H2S can be detected at a concentration of 4.0 ? \\text{M} (1.3 \\text{ppb}) by the fabricated biosensor. This simple, quantitative and sensitive sensing platform provides a rapid and convenient detection for H2S at concentrations far below the hazardous limit.

Omidi, Meisam; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Habibi-Rezaei, M.

2015-01-01

131

Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: review of 5 years' experience.  

PubMed Central

The workforce of Alberta, a province rich in fossil fuel, faces an increasing risk of exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Basic knowledge of the population exposed during the years 1969 to 1973 inclusive was accumulated to identify the immediate medical and management problems. Data were recorded from three sources of records: the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta, the Alberta Hospital Services Commission and the provincial coroner's office. There were 221 cases of exposure to H2S. The overall mortality was 6%; 5% of victims were dead on arrival at hospital. Admission to hospital was required for 65% of the victims arriving at a hospital emergency room (78% of the 221). Acute problems were coma, dysequilibrium and respiratory insufficiency with pulmonary edema. Increased attention to cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the exposure site and during transportation to hospital is necessary to reduce the mortality from H2S exposure. No long-term adverse effects were apparent in the survivors. PMID:144553

Burnett, W. W.; King, E. G.; Grace, M.; Hall, W. F.

1977-01-01

132

Hydrogen Sulfide Chemical Biology: Pathophysiological roles and detection  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the most recent endogenous gasotransmitter that has been reported to serve many physiological and pathological functions in different tissues. Studies over the past decade have revealed that H2S can be synthesized through numerous pathways and its bioavailability regulated through its conversion into different biochemical forms. H2S exerts its biological effects in various manners including redox regulation of protein and small molecular weight thiols, polysulfides, thiosulfate/sulfite, iron-sulfur cluster proteins, and anti-oxidant properties that affect multiple cellular and molecular responses. However, precise measurement of H2S bioavailability and its associated biochemical and pathophysiological roles remains less well understood. In this review, we discuss recent understanding of H2S chemical biology, its relationship to tissue pathophysiological responses and possible therapeutic uses. PMID:23850632

Kolluru, Gopi K; Shen, Xinggui; Bir, Shyamal C.; Kevil, Christopher G.

2014-01-01

133

Lifelines Episode 10: Hydrogen Sulfide- What a Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking "collections" tab in the left hand column. Segment 1: What a Gas. University of Alabama Â? Birmingham researchers Jeannette Doeller and David Kraus talk about the amazing properties of hydrogen sulfide gas. Although itÂ?s lethal in even minute quantities, our bodies produce it and use it to good effect. Episode 10 graphic courtesy of David Kraus. Begins at 1:15. Segment 2: Research Progress on Colon Cancer. John Carethers of the University of California San Diego explains his research findings on colon cancer and the role that the DNA mismatch repair system plays. Begins at 15:24.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2008-06-05

134

Thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide at low concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The initial step of the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide has been investigated by the direct measurement of the time-dependent H atom concentration behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1965/sup 0/K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 2560/sup 0/K, using the atomic resonance absorption spectrophotometry (ARAS). The experiments have been performed in mixtures of Ar with small concentrations of H/sub 2/S (25 to 200 ppM), at total pressures of about 1.8 to 2.0 bar, corresponding to concentrations of the order of (5 to 7) x 10/sup 18/ molecules cm/sup -3/.

Roth, P.; Loehr, R.; Barner, U.

1982-03-01

135

The metallization and superconductivity of dense hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a prototype molecular system and a sister molecule of water (H2O). The phase diagram of solid H2S at high pressures remains largely unexplored arising from the challenges in dealing with the pressure-induced weakening of S-H bond and larger atomic core difference between H and S. Metallization is yet achieved for H2O, but it was observed for H2S above 96 GPa. However, the metallic structure of H2S remains elusive, greatly impeding the understanding of its metallicity and the potential superconductivity. We have performed an extensive structural study on solid H2S at pressure ranges of 10-200 GPa through an unbiased structure prediction method based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. Besides the findings of candidate structures for nonmetallic phases IV and V, we are able to establish stable metallic structures violating an earlier proposal of elemental decomposition into sulfur and hydrogen [R. Rousseau, M. Boero, M. Bernasconi, M. Parrinello, and K. Terakura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1254 (2000)]. Our study unravels a superconductive potential of metallic H2S with an estimated maximal transition temperature of ?80 K at 160 GPa, higher than those predicted for most archetypal hydrogen-containing compounds (e.g., SiH4, GeH4, etc.). PMID:24811660

Li, Yinwei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yanling; Ma, Yanming

2014-05-01

136

Low-level hydrogen sulfide and central nervous system dysfunction.  

PubMed

Forty-nine adults living in Lovington, Tatum, and Artesia, the sour gas/oil sector of Southeastern New Mexico, were tested for neurobehavioral impairment. Contributing hydrogen sulfide were (1) an anaerobic sewage plant; (2) two oil refineries; (3) natural gas/oil wells and (4) a cheese-manufacturing plant and its waste lagoons. Comparisons were to unexposed Wickenburg, Arizona, adults. Neurobehavioral functions were measured in 26 Lovington adults including 23 people from Tatum and Artesia, New Mexico, and 42 unexposed Arizona people. Participants completed questionnaires including chemical exposures, symptom frequencies and the Profile of Mood States. Measurements included balance, reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip strength, hearing, vibration, problem solving, verbal recall, long-term memory, peg placement, trail making and fingertip number writing errors (FTNWE). Average numbers of abnormalities and test scores were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, height and weight, expressed as percent predicted (% pred) and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ages and educational attainment of the three groups were not statistically significantly different (ssd). Mean values of Lovington residents were ssd from the unexposed Arizona people for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and closed, visual field score, hearing and grip strength. Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, verbal recall, peg placement, trail making A and B, FTNWE, information, picture completion and similarities were also ssd. The Lovington adults who averaged 11.8 abnormalities were ssd from, Tatum-Artesia adults who had 3.6 and from unexposed subjects with 2.0. Multiple source community hydrogen sulfide exposures impaired neurobehavioral functions. PMID:20504829

Kilburn, Kaye H; Thrasher, Jack D; Gray, Michael R

2010-08-01

137

Hydrogen Sulfide Is a Signaling Molecule and a Cytoprotectant  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide may function as a signaling molecule in processes such as neuromodulation in the brain and smooth muscle relaxation in the vascular system. It also has a cytoprotective effect, since it can protect neurons and cardiac muscle from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide can also modulate inflammation, insulin release, and angiogenesis. Recent Advances: The regulation of the activity of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), one of the H2S producing pathways, has been demonstrated. The production of H2S by the pathway, which is regulated by Ca2+ and facilitated by thioredoxin and dihydrolipoic acid, is also involved in H2S signaling as well as cytoprotection. Sulfur hydration of proteins by H2S has been proposed to modulate protein functions. H2S-sensitive fluorescent probes, which enable us to measure the localization of H2S in real time, have been developed. Critical Issues: The basal concentrations of H2S have recently been measured and found to be much lower than those initially reported. However, the concentration of H2S reached in stimulated cells, as well as the regulation of H2S producing enzymes is not well understood. It has been proposed that some of the effects of H2S on the regulation of enzymes and receptors might be explained through the properties of sulfane sulfur (S0), another form of active sulfur. Future Directions: The determination of H2S concentrations in activated cells using new methods including H2S-sensitive fluorescent probes, as well as the investigation of the effects of H2S using specific inhibitors, may provide better understanding of the physiological function of this molecule. Clarifying mechanisms of H2S activity may also facilitate the development of new therapeutic compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 45–57. PMID:22229673

Shibuya, Norihiro; Kimura, Yuka

2012-01-01

138

Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) in urban ambient air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite indications of high hydrogen sulfide levels in some urban environments, only sparse measurements have been reported in the literature. Here we present one full year of hydrogen sulfide measurements in an urban traffic site in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. In this 1-million-population city the H 2S concentrations were surprisingly high, with a mean annual concentration of 8 ?g m -3 and wintertime mean monthly concentrations up to 20 ?g m -3 (12.9 ppb). Daily mean concentrations in the winter were up to 30 ?g m -3 (19.3 ppb), while hourly concentrations were up to 54 ?g m -3 (34.8 ppb). During calm (wind velocity < 0.5 m s -1) conditions, mainly encountered during night-time hours, hourly values of H 2S were highly correlated with those of CO ( r2 = 0.75) and SO 2 ( r2 = 0.70), pointing to a common traffic source from catalytic converters. Annual mean concentrations are above the WHO recommendation for odor annoyance; hence, H 2S might play a role to the malodorous episodes that the city occasionally experiences. The high ambient H 2S levels might also be relevant to the implementation of preservation efforts for outdoor marble and limestone historical monuments that have been targeting SO 2 emissions as an atmospheric acidity source, since the measurements presented here suggest that about 19% of the annual sulfur (SO 2 + H 2S) emissions in Thessaloniki are in the form of H 2S.

Kourtidis, K.; Kelesis, A.; Petrakakis, M.

139

Methods for producing hydrogen (BI) sulfide and/or removing metals  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process wherein sulfide production by bacteria is efficiently turned on and off, using pH adjustment. The adjustment of pH impacts sulfide production by bacteria by altering the relative amounts of H.sub.2 S and HS-- in solution and thereby control the inhibition of the bacterial metabolism that produces sulfide. This process can be used to make a bioreactor produce sulfide "on-demand" so that the production of sulfide can be matched to its use as a metal precipitation reagent. The present invention is of significance because it enables the use of a biological reactor, a cost effective sulfide production system, by making the biological reactor produce hydrogen sulfide "on demand", and therefore responsive to production schedules, waste stream generation rate, and health and safety requirements/goals.

Truex, Michael J [Richland, WA; Peyton, Brent M [Pullman, WA; Toth, James J [Kennewick, WA

2002-05-14

140

Metal?organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

Allan, Phoebe K.; Wheatley, Paul S.; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M. Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A.; Megson, Ian L.; Chapman, Karena W.; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E. (St Andrews)

2012-04-02

141

Mechanism for the hydrogen sulfide-induced growth limitation in wetland macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide, a phytotoxin that often accumulates in anoxic marine and freshwater marsh soils, suppressed the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step in alcoholic fermentation, in the roots of two wetland macrophytes. This inhibition of root ADH activity with increasing sulfide concentration was associated with decreases in root total adenine nucleotide pool (ATP +

MARGUERITE S. KOCH; IRVING A. MENDELSSOHN; KAREN L. MCKEE

1990-01-01

142

The Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Stack Gases, Iodometric Titration After Sulfite Removal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The determination of hydrogen sulfide in effluents from coal-fired furnaces and incinerators is complicated by the presence of sulfur oxides (which form acids). Organic compounds also may interfere with or prevent the formation of the cadmium sulfide precipitate or give false positive results because of reaction with iodine. The report presents a…

Robles, E. G.

143

No facilitator required for membrane transport of hydrogen sulfide  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a new and important member in the group of gaseous signaling molecules. However, the molecular transport mechanism has not yet been identified. Because of structural similarities with H2O, it was hypothesized that aquaporins may facilitate H2S transport across cell membranes. We tested this hypothesis by reconstituting the archeal aquaporin AfAQP from sulfide reducing bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus into planar membranes and by monitoring the resulting facilitation of osmotic water flow and H2S flux. To measure H2O and H2S fluxes, respectively, sodium ion dilution and buffer acidification by proton release (H2S ? H+ + HS?) were recorded in the immediate membrane vicinity. Both sodium ion concentration and pH were measured by scanning ion-selective microelectrodes. A lower limit of lipid bilayer permeability to H2S, PM,H2S ? 0.5 ± 0.4 cm/s was calculated by numerically solving the complete system of differential reaction diffusion equations and fitting the theoretical pH distribution to experimental pH profiles. Even though reconstitution of AfAQP significantly increased water permeability through planar lipid bilayers, PM,H2S remained unchanged. These results indicate that lipid membranes may well act as a barrier to water transport although they do not oppose a significant resistance to H2S diffusion. The fact that cholesterol and sphingomyelin reconstitution did not turn these membranes into an H2S barrier indicates that H2S transport through epithelial barriers, endothelial barriers, and membrane rafts also occurs by simple diffusion and does not require facilitation by membrane channels. PMID:19805349

Mathai, John C.; Missner, Andreas; Kügler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Lee, John K.; Pohl, Peter

2009-01-01

144

Hydrogen sulfide-powered solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential utilization of hydrogen sulfide as fuel in solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated using an oxide-ion conducting YSZ electrolyte and different kinds of anode catalysts at operating temperatures in the range of 700--900°C and at atmospheric pressure. This technology offers an economically attractive alternative to present methods for removing toxic and corrosive H2S gas from sour gas streams and a promising approach for cogenerating electrical energy and useful chemicals. The primary objective of the present research was to find active and stable anode materials. Fuel cell experimental results showed that platinum was a good electrocatalyst for the conversion of H2S, but the Pt/YSZ interface was physically unstable due to the reversible formation and decomposition of PtS in H 2S streams at elevated temperatures. Moreover, instability of the Pt/YSZ interface was accelerated significantly by electrochemical reactions, and ultimately led to the detachment of the Pt anode from the electrolyte. It has been shown that an interlayer of TiO2 stabilized the Pt anode on YSZ electrolyte, thereby prolonging cell lifetime. However, the current output for a fuel cell using Pt/TiO2 as anode was not improved compared to using Pt alone. It was therefore necessary to investigate novel anode systems for H 2S-air SOFCs. New anode catalysts comprising composite metal sulfides were developed. These catalysts exhibited good electrical conductivity and better catalytic activity than Pt. In contrast to MoS2 alone, composite catalysts (M-Mo-S, M = Fe, Co, Ni) were not volatile and had superior stability. However, when used for extended periods of time, detachment of Pt current collecting film from anodes comprising metal sulfides alone resulted in a large increase in contact resistance and reduction in cell performance. Consequently, a systematic investigation was conducted to identify alternative electronic conductors for use with M-Mo-S catalysts. Anode catalysts comprising Co-Mo-S admixed with up to 10% Ag powder were found to have excellent performance and longevity, as well as improved electrical contact when compared with Pt/M-Mo-S anode systems. The highest current density of 450 mA/cm2 and power density of 115 mW/cm2 were achieved with an anode that consisted of 95% (Co-Mo-S) and 5% Ag.

Liu, Man

2004-12-01

145

Microwave vs. solvothermal synthesis of hollow cobalt sulfide nanoprisms for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution and supercapacitors.  

PubMed

Hollow cobalt sulfide nanoprisms obtained by a two-step, microwave-assisted synthesis within 15 min exhibit higher hydrogen evolution catalytic activity and better specific capacitance than their counterparts prepared by a traditional solvothermal method. PMID:25669847

You, Bo; Jiang, Nan; Sheng, Meili; Sun, Yujie

2015-02-24

146

VERIFICATION OF AMBIENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES FOR AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing concentration of livestock agriculture into animal feeding operations (AFOs) has raised concerns about the environmental and potential health impact of the emissions from AFOs into the atmosphere. Gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2...

147

EMERSION IN THE MANGROVE FOREST FISH 'RIVULUS MARMORATUS': A UNIQUE RESPONSE TO HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae) has frequently been observed out of water, a phenomenon generally attributed to habitat drying. The authors tested the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide, a substance characteristically found in their environment, can se...

148

Hydrogen sulfide induces serum-independent cell cycle entry in nontransformed rat intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by commensal sulfate-reducing bacteria, is an environmental insult that potentially contributes to chronic intestinal epithelial disorders. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of nontransformed intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) to the reducing agent sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) activates molecular pathways that underlie epithelial hyperplasia, a phenotype common to both ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer. Exposure of

Bart Deplancke; H. Rex Gaskins

2003-01-01

149

Hydrogen sulfide scavengers market assessment. Topical report, June 16-December 15, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The report objective was to establish the dollar market size for removing low level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide from natural gas using commercially available scavengers, identify the key players, and determine significant trends in the industry. The study established the oilfield and refinery markets for the treating of natural gas, with hydrogen sulfide scavengers. The total North American market is estimated to be worth $172 million in 1995. Natural gas stream or vapor phase treating represents 85 percent of the total market.

Houston, C.W.

1996-03-01

150

The Cardioprotective Actions of Hydrogen Sulfide in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

It has now become universally accepted that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), previously considered only as a lethal toxin, has robust cytoprotective actions in multiple organ systems. The diverse signaling profile of H2S impacts multiple pathways to exert cytoprotective actions in a number of pathological states. This paper will review the recently described cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in both myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and congestive heart failure. PMID:25045576

Polhemus, David J.; Calvert, John W.; Butler, Javed; Lefer, David J.

2014-01-01

151

Influence of concurrent substances on removal of hydrogen sulfide by activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of concurrent substances on the removal of hydrogen sulfide by activated carbon was determined. The hydrogen sulfide removal ratio of an activated carbon column was measured after breakthrough of each of the substances used. At 30°C, the adsorption capacity of carbon for toluene, ethanol, carbon disulfide, butanol and isobutanol was 0.19, 0.036, 0.043, 0.13 and 0.12g\\/g-carbon, respectively. The

Junji Masuda; Joji Fukuyama; Satoshi Fujii

1999-01-01

152

Hydrogen sulfide impairs keratinocyte cell growth and adhesion inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on normal skin-derived immortalized human keratinocytes have been investigated in detail. We show in vitro that exogenous hydrogen sulfide reduces clonal growth, cell proliferation and cell adhesion of human keratinocytes. H2S, in fact, decreases the frequency of the putative keratinocyte stem cell subpopulation in culture, consequently affecting clonal growth, and impairs cell proliferation

Giuliana Gobbi; Francesca Ricci; Chiara Malinverno; Cecilia Carubbi; Maurizia Pambianco; Giuseppe de Panfilis; Marco Vitale; Prisco Mirandola

2009-01-01

153

Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Systemic Inflammation and Improves Survival by Altering Sulfide Metabolism in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced inflammation is incompletely understood. We examined the impact of H2S breathing on LPS-induced changes in sulfide metabolism, systemic inflammation, and survival in mice. Results: Mice that breathed air alone exhibited decreased plasma sulfide levels and poor survival rate at 72?h after LPS challenge. Endotoxemia markedly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels in plasma and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice that breathed air. In contrast, breathing air supplemented with 80?ppm of H2S for 6?h after LPS challenge markedly improved survival rate compared to mice that breathed air alone (p<0.05). H2S breathing attenuated LPS-induced increase of plasma ALT activity and NOx levels and lung MPO activity. Inhaled H2S suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, while it markedly induced anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 in the liver. Beneficial effects of H2S inhalation after LPS challenge were associated with restored sulfide levels and markedly increased thiosulfate levels in plasma. Increased thiosulfate levels after LPS challenge were associated with upregulation of rhodanese, but not cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), in the liver. Administration of sodium thiosulfate dose-dependently improved survival after LPS challenge in mice. Innovation: By measuring changes in plasma levels of sulfide and sulfide metabolites using an advanced analytical method, this study revealed a critical role of thiosulfate in the protective effects of H2S breathing during endotoxemia. Conclusion: These observations suggest that H2S breathing prevents inflammation and improves survival after LPS challenge by altering sulfide metabolism in mice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 11—21. PMID:22221071

Tokuda, Kentaro; Kida, Kotaro; Marutani, Eizo; Crimi, Ettore; Bougaki, Masahiko; Khatri, Ashok; Kimura, Hideo

2012-01-01

154

Increasing prevalence of hydrogen sulfide negative Salmonella in retail meats.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production is considered a typical characteristic of Salmonella and an important marker for Salmonella isolation. In this study, a total of 82 (26%) Salmonella strains were isolated from 113 chicken and 204 pork samples, within which 49 Salmonella strains were H2S positive and 33 were H2S negative. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was most prevalent in both pork and chicken followed by S. Typhimurium in pork and S. Heidelberg in chicken. Salmonella isolated from pork exhibited a much higher H2S positive rate than those from chicken (68% versus 31%). The most prevalent H2S negative serotypes were S. Derby (40%) and S. Heidelberg (30%) in chicken, and S. Typhimurium (23%) and S. Enteritidis (23%) in pork. spvC, a plasmid-encoded virulence marker, was detected in 51% and 42% of the H2S positive and negative Salmonella respectively. The presence of the two most important serotypes, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, as well as a virulence plasmid in H2S negative Salmonella suggested that H2S negative Salmonella is also a significant public health concern. Such finding warrants the development of an improved method for effective coverage of H2S negative Salmonella. PMID:24929875

Lin, Dachuan; Yan, Meiying; Lin, Song; Chen, Sheng

2014-10-01

155

[Severe hydrogen sulfide intoxication: a pediatric case of survival].  

PubMed

We report a paediatric case of survival following severe hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas intoxication. A 13-year-old boy was found submerged to the neck in a manure tank. He was hypothermic, unresponsive with bilateral mydriasis, and had poor oxygen saturation. After intubation, he was transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring high frequency percussive ventilation. Cardiac evaluation was significant for myocardial infarction and left ventricular function impairment. He completely recovered from the respiratory and cardiac failure. Neurological examinations showed abnormal signals on MRI in the semi-oval center and in the frontal cortex. Follow-up detected partial impairment of axonal fibers of the right external popliteal sciatic nerve. Paediatric cases of survival after H2S intoxication have been rarely reported. Such exposures can evolve to severe ARDS and benefit from high frequency percussive ventilation. Hypothermia and other metabolic abnormalities are now better explained thanks to actual knowledge about endogenous H2S function. Lessons learned from paediatric accidents should result in better information about this threat for farmers and families living in houses with septic tanks, reducing the risk to their own and their children's safety. PMID:22305402

Claudet, I; Marcoux, M-O; Karsenty, C; Rittié, J-L; Honorat, R; Lelong-Tissier, M-C

2012-03-01

156

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide--IGCC Applications  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) to elemental sulfur using activated carbon and NETL-processed metal oxide catalyst systems has been investigated under bench-scale, simulated pressurized IGCC conditions for use in dry and humid gas cleaning process applications. For this technology to be successful, a 20% cost effective advantage and 1 percentage-point plant efficiency gain over current commercial technology, and <10-15 ppm total gas phase sulfur release into the effluent gas stream must be demonstrated. The results of our bench-scale catalyst/sorbent desulfurization and regeneration efforts for both bulk and polishing sulfur removal indicate that direct selective catalytic oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur utilizing current activated carbon systems occurs only under conditions of low syngas temperature (<150°C), and in syngas effluent streams containing a low water and CO content. Thus the SCOHS desulfurization process is considered to be only potentially feasible for use in dry gas cleaning conditions for IGCC applications where syngas-CO is shifted to CO2, and regeneration of the catalyst occurs through heating in warm CO2, with simultaneous CO2 sequestration. SCOHS is not considered as a candidate desulfurization approach for use in humid IGCC gas cleaning applications.

Alvin, M.A.; Stevens, R.W.; Newby, R.A.; Keairns, D.L.

2006-09-01

157

Hydrogen Sulfide Induced Disruption of Na+ Homeostasis in the Cortex  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions. Here, we report by directly measuring Na+ activity using Na+ selective electrodes in mouse cortical slices that H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) increased Na+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be partially blocked by either Na+ channel blocker or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker alone or almost completely abolished by coapplication of both blockers but not by non-NMDAR blocker. These data suggest that increased H2S in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia, potentially causes a disruption of ionic homeostasis by massive Na+ influx through Na+ channels and NMDARs, thus injuring neural functions. Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR), which reduces Na+ currents/influx in normoxia, had no effect on H2S-induced Na+ influx, suggesting that H2S-induced disruption of Na+ homeostasis is resistant to DOR regulation and may play a major role in neuronal injury in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia. PMID:22474073

Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H.; Xia, Ying

2012-01-01

158

Hydrogen Sulfide Activation in Hemeproteins: The Sulfheme Scenario  

PubMed Central

Traditionally known as a toxic gas, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as an important biological molecule involved in numerous physiological functions. Like nitric oxide (•NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), H2S is produced endogenously in tissues and cells and can modulate biological processes by acting on target proteins. For example, interaction of H2S with the oxygenated form of human hemoglobin and myoglobin produces a sulfheme protein complex that has been implicated in H2S degradation. The presence of this sulfheme derivative has also been used as a marker for endogenous H2S synthesis and metabolism. Remarkably, human catalases and peroxidases also generate this sulfheme product. In this review, we describe the structural and functional aspects of the sulfheme derivative in these proteins and postulate a generalized mechanism for sulfheme protein formation. We also evaluate the possible physiological function of this complex and highlight the issues that remain to be assessed to determine the role of sulheme proteins in H2S metabolism, detection and physiology. PMID:24513534

Ríos-González, Bessie B.; Román-Morales, Elddie M.; Pietri, Ruth; López-Garriga, Juan

2014-01-01

159

Study on Fiber-optic Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a novel fiber-optic gas sensor which hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) gas can be detected by a silver coated fiber bragg grating (FBG). The H2S sensitive material Ag can be coated on the cladding surrounding surface of FBG by conventional silver mirror reaction. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to analysis the Ag film structure before and after the interaction with H2S gas. By conducting the experiment of Ag-coated optical sensor (AOS), the relation between the H2S gas concentration and absorption spectrum was built. Result shows that while the concentration alters from 0 to 9.32%, a linear response of AOS signal to H2S concentration was observed with the response sensitivity of 0.332 dBm/% and linearity R2=0.9966. Such H2S sensor is suitable for monitoring the H2S hazard as a one time disposable logging-while-drilling sensor.

Zhou, Hong; Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Zhen; Wang, Wei; Feng, De-Quan; Wang, Qi; Jia, Fei

160

Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production is essential for dietary restriction benefits.  

PubMed

Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition encompasses numerous regimens with overlapping benefits including longevity and stress resistance, but unifying nutritional and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a mouse model of DR-mediated stress resistance, we found that sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine ?-lyase (CGL), resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. SAA supplementation, mTORC1 activation, or chemical/genetic CGL inhibition reduced H2S production and blocked DR-mediated stress resistance. In vitro, the mitochondrial protein SQR was required for H2S-mediated protection during nutrient/oxygen deprivation. Finally, TSP-dependent H2S production was observed in yeast, worm, fruit fly, and rodent models of DR-mediated longevity. Together, these data are consistent with evolutionary conservation of TSP-mediated H2S as a mediator of DR benefits with broad implications for clinical translation. PAPERFLICK: PMID:25542313

Hine, Christopher; Harputlugil, Eylul; Zhang, Yue; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Lee, Byung Cheon; Brace, Lear; Longchamp, Alban; Treviño-Villarreal, Jose H; Mejia, Pedro; Ozaki, C Keith; Wang, Rui; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Madeo, Frank; Mair, William B; Mitchell, James R

2015-01-15

161

Novel Insights Into Hydrogen Sulfide–Mediated Cytoprotection  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, water soluble, flammable gas that has the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. Like other members of the gasotransmitter family (nitric oxide and carbon monoxide), H2S has traditionally been considered to be a highly toxic gas and environmental hazard. However, much like for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, the initial negative perception of H2S has evolved with the discovery that H2S is produced enzymatically in mammals under normal conditions. As a result of this discovery, there has been a great deal of work to elucidate the physiological role of H2S. H2S is now recognized to be cytoprotective in various models of cellular injury. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that the acute administration of H2S, either prior to ischemia or at reperfusion, significantly ameliorates in vitro or in vivo myocardial and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. These studies have also demonstrated a cardioprotective role for endogenous H2S. This review article summarizes the current body of evidence demonstrating the cytoprotective effects of H2S with an emphasis on the cardioprotective effects. This review also provides a detailed description of the current signaling mechanisms shown to be responsible for these cardioprotective actions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1203–1217. PMID:19769484

Calvert, John W.; Coetzee, William A.

2010-01-01

162

An inhibitory enzyme electrode for hydrogen sulfide detection.  

PubMed

An enzymatic biosensing system has been developed to study the capability of ascorbate oxidase (AOx), EC (1.10.3.3), in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection, based on the inhibition of AOx activity. The immobilization parameters including glutaraldehyde (GA) concentration and pH were optimized using experimental design. The optimized values of GA concentration and pH were found to be 12.5% (w/w) and 7, respectively, where the enzymatic reaction reached the steady-state level within 55 s. A linear relationship was observed between the decrease in the oxygen concentration and H2S concentration, where H2S concentration is in the range of 1-15 mg/L. Moreover, to investigate the selectivity of the biosensor, a certain H2S concentration (9 mg/L) was used against different ions. The results indicated that Fe(3+) and SO4(-2) ions had no significant (11% error) effect on the H2S detection. The operational stability of the biosensing system was determined in terms of response to H2S concentration, at optimal working conditions. The enzyme electrode could retain 73% of its original sensitivity after this period, which has made it possible for the system to measure H2S with concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/L. PMID:25039053

poor, Neda Zia Mottalebi; Baniasadi, Ladan; Omidi, Maysam; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Attar, Hossein; Heydarzadeh, Ali; Zarami, Ashraf Sadat Hatamian; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hassan

2014-09-01

163

Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide interactions in inflammation.  

PubMed

Together with carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) form a group of physiologically important gaseous transmitters, sometimes referred to as the "gaseous triumvirate". The three molecules share a wide range of physical and physiological properties: they are small gaseous molecules, able to freely penetrate cellular membranes; they are all produced endogenously in the body and they seem to exert similar biological functions. In the cardiovascular system, for example, they are all vasodilators, promote angiogenesis and protect tissues against damage (e.g. ischemia-reperfusion injury). In addition, they have complex roles in inflammation, with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects reported. Researchers have focused their efforts in understanding and describing the roles of each of these molecules in different physiological systems, and in the past years attention has also been given to the gases interaction or "cross-talk". This review will focus on the role of NO and H2S in inflammation and will give an overview of the evidence collected so far suggesting the importance of their cross-talk in inflammatory processes. PMID:24929214

Lo Faro, Maria Letizia; Fox, Bridget; Whatmore, Jacqueline L; Winyard, Paul G; Whiteman, Matthew

2014-09-15

164

Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on pancreatic beta-cells.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a third gaseous signaling molecule behind nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In pancreatic beta-cells, H2S inhibits glucose-induced insulin release. There are multiple underlying mechanisms for this inhibitory process. Apart from these inhibitory effects, H2S also protects pancreatic islets from apoptotic cell death induced by high glucose. Moreover, expression of the H2S-producing enzyme, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), is induced by glucose stimulation. These observations suggest that H2S is produced in an inducible manner, as are the other two gaseous signaling molecules, NO and CO. We recently reported that a lack of CSE induces apoptotic beta-cell death and promotes the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. These findings tempt us to suggest that H2S produced by CSE is part of a homeostatic mechanism used by pancreatic beta-cells to inhibit insulin release and reduce cellular stress evoked by glucose, possibly via the anti-oxidant properties of H2S. PMID:25461273

Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

2014-11-13

165

Hydrogen sulfide anion regulates redox signaling via electrophile sulfhydration  

PubMed Central

An emerging aspect of redox signaling is the pathway mediated by electrophilic byproducts, such as nitrated cyclic nucleotide (for example, 8-nitroguanosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP)) and nitro or keto derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids, generated via reactions of inflammation-related enzymes, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and secondary products. Here we report that enzymatically generated hydrogen sulfide anion (HS?) regulates the metabolism and signaling actions of various electrophiles. HS? reacts with electrophiles, best represented by 8-nitro-cGMP, via direct sulfhydration and modulates cellular redox signaling. The relevance of this reaction is reinforced by the significant 8-nitro-cGMP formation in mouse cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction that is modulated by alterations in HS? biosynthesis. Cardiac HS?, in turn, suppresses electrophile-mediated H-Ras activation and cardiac cell senescence, contributing to the beneficial effects of HS? on myocardial infarction–associated heart failure. Thus, this study reveals HS?-induced electrophile sulfhydration as a unique mechanism for regulating electrophile-mediated redox signaling. PMID:22772154

Nishida, Motohiro; Sawa, Tomohiro; Kitajima, Naoyuki; Ono, Katsuhiko; Inoue, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideshi; Motohashi, Hozumi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Suematsu, Makoto; Kurose, Hitoshi; van der Vliet, Albert; Freeman, Bruce A; Shibata, Takahiro; Uchida, Koji; Kumagai, Yoshito; Akaike, Takaaki

2014-01-01

166

Hydrogen sulfide anion regulates redox signaling via electrophile sulfhydration.  

PubMed

An emerging aspect of redox signaling is the pathway mediated by electrophilic byproducts, such as nitrated cyclic nucleotide (for example, 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP)) and nitro or keto derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids, generated via reactions of inflammation-related enzymes, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and secondary products. Here we report that enzymatically generated hydrogen sulfide anion (HS(-)) regulates the metabolism and signaling actions of various electrophiles. HS(-) reacts with electrophiles, best represented by 8-nitro-cGMP, via direct sulfhydration and modulates cellular redox signaling. The relevance of this reaction is reinforced by the significant 8-nitro-cGMP formation in mouse cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction that is modulated by alterations in HS(-) biosynthesis. Cardiac HS(-), in turn, suppresses electrophile-mediated H-Ras activation and cardiac cell senescence, contributing to the beneficial effects of HS(-) on myocardial infarction-associated heart failure. Thus, this study reveals HS(-)-induced electrophile sulfhydration as a unique mechanism for regulating electrophile-mediated redox signaling. PMID:22772154

Nishida, Motohiro; Sawa, Tomohiro; Kitajima, Naoyuki; Ono, Katsuhiko; Inoue, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideshi; Motohashi, Hozumi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Suematsu, Makoto; Kurose, Hitoshi; van der Vliet, Albert; Freeman, Bruce A; Shibata, Takahiro; Uchida, Koji; Kumagai, Yoshito; Akaike, Takaaki

2012-08-01

167

Interactions between oxygen homeostasis, food availability, and hydrogen sulfide signaling  

PubMed Central

The ability to sense and respond to stressful conditions is essential to maintain organismal homeostasis. It has long been recognized that stress response factors that improve survival in changing conditions can also influence longevity. In this review, we discuss different strategies used by animals in response to decreased O2 (hypoxia) to maintain O2 homeostasis, and consider interactions between hypoxia responses, nutritional status, and H2S signaling. O2 is an essential environmental nutrient for almost all metazoans as it plays a fundamental role in development and cellular metabolism. However, the physiological response(s) to hypoxia depend greatly on the amount of O2 available. Animals must sense declining O2 availability to coordinate fundamental metabolic and signaling pathways. It is not surprising that factors involved in the response to hypoxia are also involved in responding to other key environmental signals, particularly food availability. Recent studies in mammals have also shown that the small gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against cellular damage and death in hypoxia. These results suggest that H2S signaling also integrates with hypoxia response(s). Many of the signaling pathways that mediate the effects of hypoxia, food deprivation, and H2S signaling have also been implicated in the control of lifespan. Understanding how these pathways are coordinated therefore has the potential to reveal new cellular and organismal homeostatic mechanisms that contribute to longevity assurance in animals. PMID:23233860

Iranon, Nicole N.; Miller, Dana L.

2012-01-01

168

Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

2007-09-30

169

The physiological role of hydrogen sulfide and beyond.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been considered to be a physiological mediator since the identification of endogenous sulfides in the mammalian brain. H2S is produced from L-cysteine by enzymes such as cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). CSE and CAT are regulated by Ca(2+). At steady-state low intracellular concentrations of Ca(2+), CSE and the 3MST/CAT pathway produce H2S. However, after intracellular concentrations of Ca(2+) increase in stimulated cells, the production of H2S by these enzymes decreases. We recently identified a fourth pathway, by which H2S is produced from D-cysteine by the enzymes D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and 3MST. This pathway is mainly localized in the cerebellum and the kidney. The production of H2S from D-cysteine is 80 times more efficient than that from L-cysteine in the kidney, and the administration of D-cysteine to mice ameliorates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury more effectively than L-cysteine. These results suggest that D-cysteine might be used to treat renal diseases or even increase the success of kidney transplantation. We found that H2S-derived polysulfides exist in the brain and activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channels 300 times more potently than H2S. Although TRPA1 channels mediate sensory transduction and respond to a variety of stimuli, including cold temperature, pungent compounds and environmental irritants, their endogenous ligand(s) has not been identified. The sulfane sulfur of polysulfides is a reactive electrophile that is readily transferred to a nucleophilic protein thiolate to generate the protein persulfide or bound sulfane sulfur by sulfhydration (as referred to as sulfuration). The bound sulfane sulfur-producing activity of polysulfides is much greater than that of H2S. This review focuses on the physiological roles of H2S and H2S-derived polysulfides as signaling molecules. PMID:24491257

Kimura, Hideo

2014-09-15

170

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116, 5379-5391 5379 Oxidation of Amines and Sulfides with Hydrogen Peroxide and  

E-print Network

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116, 5379-5391 5379 Oxidation of Amines and Sulfides with Hydrogen Peroxide and Alkyl Hydrogen Peroxide. The Nature of the Oxygen-Transfer Step Robert D. Bach,' Ming-Der Su, and H sulfide by hydrogen peroxide and methyl hydroperoxide. Geometries of reactants, complexes, transition

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

171

Is hydrogen sulfide-induced suspended animation general anesthesia?  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) depresses mitochondrial function and thereby metabolic rates in mice, purportedly resulting in a state of "suspended animation." Volatile anesthetics also depress mitochondrial function, an effect that may contribute to their anesthetic properties. In this study, we ask whether H(2)S has general anesthetic properties, and by extension, whether mitochondrial effects underlie the state of anesthesia. We compared loss of righting reflex, electroencephalography, and electromyography in mice exposed to metabolically equipotent concentrations of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and H(2)S. We also studied combinations of H(2)S and anesthetics to assess additivity. Finally, the long-term effects of H(2)S were assessed by using the Morris water maze behavioral testing 2 to 3 weeks after exposures. Exposure to H(2)S decreases O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, and body temperature similarly to that of the general anesthetics, but fails to produce a loss of righting reflex or muscle atonia at metabolically equivalent concentrations. When combined, H(2)S antagonizes the metabolic effects of isoflurane, but potentiates the isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex. We found no effect of prior H(2)S exposure on memory or learning. H(2)S (250 ppm), not itself lethal, produced delayed lethality when combined with subanesthetic concentrations of isoflurane. H(2)S cannot be considered a general anesthetic, despite similar metabolic suppression. Metabolic suppression, presumably via mitochondrial actions, is not sufficient to account for the hypnotic or immobilizing components of the anesthetic state. Combinations of H(2)S and isoflurane can be lethal, suggesting extreme care in the combination of these gases in clinical situations. PMID:22414854

Li, Rosie Q; McKinstry, Andrew R; Moore, Jason T; Caltagarone, Breanna M; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Kelz, Max B

2012-06-01

172

Is Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Suspended Animation General Anesthesia?  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) depresses mitochondrial function and thereby metabolic rates in mice, purportedly resulting in a state of “suspended animation.” Volatile anesthetics also depress mitochondrial function, an effect that may contribute to their anesthetic properties. In this study, we ask whether H2S has general anesthetic properties, and by extension, whether mitochondrial effects underlie the state of anesthesia. We compared loss of righting reflex, electroencephalography, and electromyography in mice exposed to metabolically equipotent concentrations of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and H2S. We also studied combinations of H2S and anesthetics to assess additivity. Finally, the long-term effects of H2S were assessed by using the Morris water maze behavioral testing 2 to 3 weeks after exposures. Exposure to H2S decreases O2 consumption, CO2 production, and body temperature similarly to that of the general anesthetics, but fails to produce a loss of righting reflex or muscle atonia at metabolically equivalent concentrations. When combined, H2S antagonizes the metabolic effects of isoflurane, but potentiates the isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex. We found no effect of prior H2S exposure on memory or learning. H2S (250 ppm), not itself lethal, produced delayed lethality when combined with subanesthetic concentrations of isoflurane. H2S cannot be considered a general anesthetic, despite similar metabolic suppression. Metabolic suppression, presumably via mitochondrial actions, is not sufficient to account for the hypnotic or immobilizing components of the anesthetic state. Combinations of H2S and isoflurane can be lethal, suggesting extreme care in the combination of these gases in clinical situations. PMID:22414854

Li, Rosie Q.; McKinstry, Andrew R.; Moore, Jason T.; Caltagarone, Breanna M.; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.

2012-01-01

173

Role of hydrogen sulfide in secondary neuronal injury.  

PubMed

In acute neuronal insult events, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury, pathological processes of secondary neuronal injury play a key role in the severity of insult and clinical prognosis. Along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is regarded as the third gasotransmitter and endogenous neuromodulator and plays multiple roles in the central nervous system under physiological and pathological states, especially in secondary neuronal injury. The endogenous level of H2S in the brain is significantly higher than that in peripheral tissues, and is mainly formed by cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) in astrocytes and released in response to neuronal excitation. The mechanism of secondary neuronal injury exacerbating the damage caused by the initial insult includes microcirculation failure, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, neuronal apoptosis and calcium overload. H2S dilates cerebral vessels by activating smooth muscle cell plasma membrane ATP-sensitive K channels (KATP channels). This modification occurs on specific cysteine residues of the KATP channel proteins which are S-sulfhydrated. H2S counteracts glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity by inducing astrocytes to intake more glutamate from the extracellular space and thus increasing glutathione in neurons. In addition, H2S protects neurons from secondary neuronal injury by functioning as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mediator. However, there are still some reports suggest that H2S elevates neuronal Ca(2+) concentration and may contribute to the formation of calcium overload in secondary neuronal injury. H2S also elicits calcium waves in primary cultures of astrocytes and may mediate signals between neurons and glia. Consequently, further exploration of the molecular mechanisms of H2S in secondary neuronal injury will provide important insights into its potential therapeutic uses for the treatment of acute neuronal insult events. PMID:24239876

Wang, Jun-Feng; Li, Yu; Song, Jin-Ning; Pang, Hong-Gang

2014-01-01

174

Hydrogen sulfide and cerebral microvascular tone in newborn pigs.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that appears to be involved in numerous biological processes, including regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. The present study is designed to address the hypothesis that H2S is a functionally significant, endogenous dilator in the newborn cerebrovascular circulation. In vivo experiments were conducted using newborn pigs with surgically implanted, closed, cranial windows. Topical application of H2S concentration-dependently (10(-6) to 2×10(-4) M) dilated pial arterioles. This dilation was blocked by glibenclamide (10(-6) M). L-cysteine, the substrate of the H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), also dilated pial arterioles. The dilation to L-cysteine was blocked by the CSE inhibitor d,l-propargylglycine (PPG, 10 mM) but was unaffected by the CBS inhibitor amino-oxyacetate (AOA, 1 mM). Western blots detected CSE, but not CBS, in cerebral microvessels, whereas CBS is detected in brain parenchyma. Immunohistological CSE expression is predominantly vascular while CBS is expressed mainly in neurons and astrocytes. L-cysteine (5 mM) increased H2S concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), measured by GC-MS, from 561±205 to 2,783±818 nM before but not during treatment with PPG (1,030±70 to 622±78 nM). Dilation to hypercapnia was inhibited by PPG but not AOA. Hypercapnia increased CSF H2S concentration from 763±243 to 4,337±1789 nM before but not during PPG treatment (357±178 vs. 425±217 nM). These data show that H2S is a dilator of the newborn cerebral circulation and that endogenous CSE can produce sufficient H2S to decrease vascular tone. H2S appears to be a physiologically significant dilator in the cerebral circulation. PMID:21131483

Leffler, Charles W; Parfenova, Helena; Basuroy, Shyamali; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Umstot, Edward S; Fedinec, Alexander L

2011-02-01

175

Astrocytes produce the antiinflammatory and neuroprotective agent hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an essential physiological product in brain. We investigated the expression of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CGL), the two H(2)S synthesizing enzymes, in human cell lines and in human brain. Only astrocytes were strongly immunostained for CBS. Cultured astrocytes synthesized H(2)S at the rate of 15.06 micromol/g protein/h, which was 7.57 fold higher than microglial cells, 10.27 fold higher than SH-SY5Y cells and 11.32 fold higher than NT-2 cells. The H(2)S synthesis in all these cell types was inhibited by the CBS inhibitor hydroxylamine, but not by the CGL inhibitor propargylglycine (PAG). Synthesis of H(2)S by HUVEC cells was inhibited by PAG but not by hydroxylamine indicating that these vascular cells utilize CGL but not CBS. Inflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes caused induction of NFkappaB, release of the inflammatory mediators TNFalpha, IL-6 and nitrite ions, down-regulation of CBS, and down-regulation of H(2)S synthesis. There was no effect of such treatment on HUVEC cells. The effects were partially reversed by pretreatment of cells with the H(2)S releasing agent NaSH. These data indicate that H(2)S is an endogenous antiinflammatory and neuroprotective agent under the synthetic control of CBS. H(2)S releasing drugs may have therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative disorders of aging such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:19631409

Lee, Moonhee; Schwab, Claudia; Yu, Sheng; McGeer, Edith; McGeer, Patrick L

2009-10-01

176

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits preoptic prostaglandin E2 production during endotoxemia.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gaseous neuromodulator endogenously produced in the brain by the enzyme cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS). We tested the hypothesis that H(2)S acts within the anteroventral preoptic region of the hypothalamus (AVPO) modulating the production of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) (the proximal mediator of fever) and cyclic AMP (cAMP). To this end, we recorded deep body temperature (Tb) of rats before and after pharmacological modulation of the CBS-H(2)S system combined or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, and measured the levels of H(2)S, cAMP, and PGE(2) in the AVPO during systemic inflammation. Intracerebroventricular (icv) microinjection of aminooxyacetate (AOA, a CBS inhibitor; 100 pmol) did not affect basal PGE(2) production and Tb, but enhanced LPS-induced PGE(2) production and fever, indicating that endogenous H(2)S plays an antipyretic role. In agreement, icv microinjection of a H(2)S donor (Na(2)S; 260 nmol) reduced the LPS-induced PGE(2) production and fever. Interestingly, we observed that the AVPO levels of H(2)S were decreased following the immunoinflammatory challenge. Furthermore, fever was associated with decreased levels of AVPO cAMP and increased levels of AVPO PGE(2). The LPS-induced decreased levels of cAMP were reduced to a lesser extent by the H(2)S donor. The LPS-induced PGE(2) production was potentiated by AOA (the CBS inhibitor) and inhibited by the H(2)S donor. Our data are consistent with the notion that the gaseous messenger H(2)S synthesis is downregulated during endotoxemia favoring PGE(2) synthesis and lowering cAMP levels in the preoptic hypothalamus. PMID:23153577

Kwiatkoski, Marcelo; Soriano, Renato N; Araujo, Rebeca M; Azevedo, Leopoldo U; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Francescato, Heloísa D C; Coimbra, Terezila M; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

2013-02-01

177

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits macrophage-derived foam cell formation.  

PubMed

Recent evidence indicates that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) exerts an antiatherogenic effect, but the mechanism is unclear. Formation of macrophage-derived foam cells is a crucial event in the development of atherosclerosis. Thus, we explore the effect of H(2)S on the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Incubation of monocyte-derived macrophages with oxidized LDL (oxLDL) alone caused significant increases both in intracellular lipids revealed by Oil-red O staining and in intracellular total cholesterol (TC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) concentrations assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H(2)S donor) remarkably abrogated oxLDL-induced intracellular lipid accumulation, and attenuated TC and EC concentrations and EC/TC ratio, whereas dl-propargylglycine (PPG) (a H(2)S-generating enzyme cystathionine gamma lyase inhibitor) exacerbated lipid accumulation and augmented TC and EC concentrations and EC/TC ratio. Incubation of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-oxLDL led to lipoprotein binding and uptake of macrophages, which was blunted by NaHS, but enhanced by PPG. Furthermore, OxLDL markedly induced CD36, scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) expressions in macrophages, which was suppressed by NaHS (50-200 ?mol/L). Finally, the down-regulations of TC and EC concentrations as well as CD36 and ACAT-1 expressions by NaHS were suppressed by glibenclamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker, but facilitated by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor. These results suggested that H(2)S inhibits foam cell formation by down-regulating CD36, SR-A and ACAT1 expressions via the K(ATP)/ERK1/2 pathway in human monocyte-derived macrophages. PMID:21321313

Zhao, Zhan-Zhi; Wang, Zuo; Li, Guo-Hua; Wang, Ren; Tan, Jian-Miao; Cao, Xuan; Suo, Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

2011-02-01

178

Hydrogen sulfide mitigates transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure.  

PubMed

We reported previously that although there is disruption of coordinated cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis in transition to heart failure, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 induced antiangiogenic factors play a vital role in this process. Previous studies have shown the cardioprotective role of hydrogen sulfide (H?S) in various cardiac diseases, but its role during transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure is yet to be unveiled. We hypothesize that H?S induces MMP-2 activation and inhibits MMP-9 activation, thus promoting angiogenesis, and mitigates transition from compensatory cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure. To verify this, aortic banding (AB) was created to mimic pressure overload in wild-type (WT) mice, which were treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, H?S donor) in drinking water and compared with untreated control mice. Mice were studied at 3 and 8 wk. In the NaHS-treated AB 8 wk group, the expression of MMP-2, CD31, and VEGF was increased while the expression of MMP-9, endostatin, angiostatin, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 was decreased compared with untreated control mice. There was significant reduction in fibrosis in NaHS-treated groups. Echocardiograph and pressure-volume data revealed improvement of cardiac function in NaHS-treated groups over untreated controls. These results show that H?S by inducing MMP-2 promotes VEGF synthesis and angiogenesis while it suppresses MMP-9 and TIMP-3 levels, inhibits antiangiogenic factors, reduces intracardiac fibrosis, and mitigates transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure. PMID:21233344

Givvimani, Srikanth; Munjal, Charu; Gargoum, Riyad; Sen, Utpal; Tyagi, Neetu; Vacek, Jonathan C; Tyagi, Suresh C

2011-04-01

179

Use of hydrogen sulfide to reduce the viscosity of bottoms streams produced in hydroconversion processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal, petroleum residuum and similar carbonaceous feed materials are subjected to hydroconversion in the presence of molecular hydrogen to produce a hydroconversion effluent which is then subjected to one or more separation steps to remove lower molecular weight liquids and produce a heavy bottoms stream containing high molecular weight liquids and unconverted carbonaceous material. The viscosity of the bottoms streams produced in the separation step or steps is prevented from increasing by treating the feed to the separation step or steps with hydrogen sulfide gas prior to or during the separation step or steps. The viscosity of the heavy bottoms stream produced in the final separation step is also controlled by treating these bottoms with hydrogen sulfide gas. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the effluent from the hydroconversion reactor is subjected to an atmospheric distillation followed by a vacuum distillation and the feeds to these distillations are contacted with hydrogen sulfide during the distillations.

Effron, E.; Giese, A.A.; Melin, G.A.

1984-08-14

180

Geothermal hydrogen sulfide and health in Rotorua, New Zealand  

SciTech Connect

Rotorua, New Zealand, lies inside a volcanic caldera. Natural steam is extensively used for space and water heating, and electric power generation. This report presents results of a preliminary reconnaissance survey of atmospheric H/sub 2/S levels in the area and attempts to relate these levels to health statistics in the region. 5 refs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

1984-02-15

181

Red soil as a regenerable sorbent for high temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas.  

PubMed

In this study, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) was removed from coal gas by red soil under high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor. Red soil powders were collected from the northern, center and southern of Taiwan. They were characterized by XRPD, porosity analysis and DCB chemical analysis. Results show that the greater sulfur content of LP red soils is attributed to the higher free iron oxides and suitable sulfidation temperature is around 773K. High temperature has a negative effect for use red soil as a desulfurization sorbent due to thermodynamic limitation in a reduction atmosphere. During 10 cycles of regeneration, after the first cycle the red soil remained stable with a breakthrough time between 31 and 36 min. Hydrogen adversely affects sulfidation reaction, whereas CO exhibits a positive effect due to a water-shift reaction. COS was formed during the sulfidation stage and this was attributed to the reaction of H(2)S and CO. Results of XRPD indicated that, hematite is the dominant active species in fresh red soil and iron sulfide (FeS) is a product of the reaction between hematite and hydrogen sulfide in red soils. The spinel phase FeAl(2)O(4) was found during regeneration, moreover, the amount of free iron oxides decreased after regeneration indicating the some of the free iron oxide formed a spinel phase, further reducting the overall desulfurization efficiency. PMID:16469434

Ko, Tzu-Hsing; Chu, Hsin; Lin, Hsiao-Ping; Peng, Ching-Yu

2006-08-25

182

PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES OF POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides preliminary cost estimates of air and water pollution control technologies for geothermal energy conversion facilities. Costs for solid waste disposal are also estimated. The technologies examined include those for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions and fo...

183

Methanol and hydrogen sulfide in comet P/Halley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Giotto spacecraft measured the gas and ion composition in the coma of comet P/Halley. A detailed model of the ion chemistry inside the contact surface located at 4660 km is used to interpret the measured ion desnity profiles in the 32 to 35 amu/e mass range. The masses 33 and 35 amu/e are dominated by the protonated methanol and hydrogen sulfide ions CH3OH2(+) and H3S(+). Both profiles are essentially compatible with CH3OH and H2S originating from the nucleus only. The production rates relative to water are Y(CH3OH) = Q(CH3OH)/Q(H2O) = 1.7% and Y(H2S) = 0.41%. Our Y(CH3OH) agrees well with a determination from IR spectra obtained about 6 weeks after the Giotto encounter with P/Halley. In 7 other comets IR and microwave observations give Y(CH3OH) values between about 0.7 and 6%, indicating that the methanol abundance shows a strong variability from comet to comet. In three other comets Y(H2S) values between 0.2 and 0.5% have been reported. In addition to H2S(+), only ions containing minor isotopes of H, C, O and S contribute to mass 34 amu/e (e.g. (34)S(+), (13)CH3OH2(+), CH4DO(+)). These contributions can be calculated from the measured densities of the ions containing the major isotopes and the H2S(+) contribution from the measured H3S(+) density. From mass 34 amu/e we can also derive an upper limit of 1% for the abundance of deuterated methanol. This limit is at most marginally compatible with a direct interstellar origin of the CH3OH in P/Halley as the measured interstellar abundance of deuterated methanol is 1 to 6%.

Eberhardt, P.; Meier, R.; Krankowsky, D.; Hodges, R. R.

1994-01-01

184

Evaluation of feed COD\\/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD\\/SO42? ratio. This work

Antonio Velasco; Martha Ram ´ õrez; Tania Volke-Sep ´ ulveda; Armando Gonzalez-S; Sergio Revah

185

Evaluation of feed COD\\/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD\\/SO42? ratio. This work

Antonio Velasco; Martha Ramírez; Tania Volke-Sepúlveda; Armando González-Sánchez; Sergio Revah

2008-01-01

186

Process for purifying geothermal steam  

SciTech Connect

Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

Li, C.T.

1980-04-01

187

Process for purifying geothermal steam  

SciTech Connect

Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment of solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

Li, C.T.

1980-04-01

188

Process for purifying geothermal steam  

DOEpatents

Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

189

Associations of Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure with Self-Reported Asthma and Asthma Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Whether long-term, low-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is a cause of health effects, including asthma, is uncertain. Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the largest population exposed, from geothermal sources, to relatively high ambient levels of H2S. In a cross-sectional study, the authors investigated associations with asthma in this population. Methods A total of 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years, were enrolled during 2008-2010. Residences and workplaces were geocoded. H2S exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated using city-wide networks of passive H2S samplers and kriging to create exposure surfaces. Exposure metrics were based on (1) time-weighted exposures at home and work; and (2) the maximum exposure (home or work). Exposure estimates were entered as quartiles into log-binomial regression models, with covariate data. Results Neither exposure metric showed evidence of increased asthma risk from H2S. However, some suggestion of exposure-related reduced risks for diagnosed asthma and asthma symptoms, particularly wheezing during the last 12 months, emerged. With the maximum exposure metric, the prevalence ratio for wheeze in the highest exposure quartile was 0.80 (0.65, 0.99) and, for current asthma treatment, 0.75 (0.52, 1.08). There was no evidence that this was caused by a “survivor effect”. Conclusions The study provided no evidence that asthma risk increases with H2S exposure. Suggestions of a reduced risk in the higher exposure areas are consistent with recent evidence that H2S has signaling functions in the body, including induction of smooth muscle relaxation and reduction of inflammation. Study limitations, including possible confounding, preclude definitive conclusions. PMID:23453847

Bates, Michael N; Garrett, Nick; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John

2013-01-01

190

Hydrogen sulfide in plants: from dissipation of excess sulfur to signaling molecule.  

PubMed

Sulfur is essential in all organisms for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine and as an active component of numerous co-factors and prosthetic groups. However, only plants, algae, fungi, and some prokaryotes are capable of using the abundant inorganic source of sulfur, sulfate. Plants take sulfate up, reduce it, and assimilate into organic compounds with cysteine being the first product of the pathway and a donor of reduced sulfur for synthesis of other S-containing compounds. Cysteine is formed in a reaction between sulfide, derived from reduction of sulfite and an activated amino acid acceptor, O-acetylserine. Sulfide is thus an important intermediate in sulfur metabolism, but numerous other functions in plants has been revealed. Hydrogen sulfide can serve as an alternative source of sulfur for plants, which may be significant in anaerobic conditions of waterlogged soils. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen sulfide have been detected from many plant species. Since the amount of H2S discharged correlated with sulfate supply to the plants, the emissions were considered a mechanism for dissipation of excess sulfur. Significant hydrogen sulfide emissions were also observed in plants infected with pathogens, particularly with fungi. H2S thus seems to be part of the widely discussed sulfur-induced-resistance/sulfur-enhanced-defense. Recently, however, more evidence has emerged for a role for H2S in regulation and signaling. Sulfide stabilizes the cysteine synthase complex, increasing so the synthesis of its acceptor O-acetylserine. H2S has been implicating in regulation of plant stress response, particularly draught stress. There are more and more examples of processes regulated by H2S in plants being discovered, and hydrogen sulfide is emerging as an important signaling molecule, similar to its role in the animal and human world. How similar the functions, and homeostasis of H2S are in these diverse organisms, however, remains to be elucidated. PMID:24582856

Calderwood, Alexander; Kopriva, Stanislav

2014-09-15

191

30 CFR 250.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information...Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and Development...docd) § 250.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information...your proposed development and production activities. (b)...

2010-07-01

192

30 CFR 550.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD...Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) information must accompany the DPP or...

2013-07-01

193

30 CFR 250.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD...Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or...

2011-07-01

194

30 CFR 550.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD...Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) information must accompany the DPP or...

2014-07-01

195

30 CFR 550.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD...Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) information must accompany the DPP or...

2012-07-01

196

The Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Hydrogen Sulfide and Hydrogen Cyanide  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenously produced small molecule, protects animals from various stresses. Recent studies demonstrate that animals exposed to H2S are long lived, resistant to hypoxia, and resistant to ischemia–reperfusion injury. We performed a forward genetic screen to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms Caenorhabditis elegans uses to appropriately respond to H2S. At least two distinct pathways appear to be important for this response, including the H2S-oxidation pathway and the hydrogen cyanide (HCN)-assimilation pathway. The H2S-oxidation pathway requires two distinct enzymes important for the oxidation of H2S: the sulfide:quinone reductase sqrd-1 and the dioxygenase ethe-1. The HCN-assimilation pathway requires the cysteine synthase homologs cysl-1 and cysl-2. A low dose of either H2S or HCN can activate hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which is required for C. elegans to respond to either gas. sqrd-1 and cysl-2 represent the entry points in the H2S-oxidation and HCN-assimilation pathways, respectively, and expression of both of these enzymes is highly induced by HIF-1 in response to both H2S and HCN. In addition to their role in appropriately responding to H2S and HCN, we found that cysl-1 and cysl-2 are both essential mediators of innate immunity against fast paralytic killing by Pseudomonas. Furthermore, in agreement with these data, we showed that growing worms in the presence of H2S is sufficient to confer resistance to Pseudomonas fast paralytic killing. Our results suggest the hypoxia-independent hif-1 response in C. elegans evolved to respond to the naturally occurring small molecules H2S and HCN. PMID:21840852

Budde, Mark W.; Roth, Mark B.

2011-01-01

197

Design of an atomic layer deposition reactor for hydrogen sulfide compatibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A customized atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor was designed with components compatible with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) chemistry. H2S is used as a reactant for the ALD of metal sulfides. The use of H2S in an ALD reactor requires special attention to safety issues due to its highly toxic, flammable, and corrosive nature. The reactor was designed with respect to materials compatibility of all wetted components with H2S. A customized safety interlock system was developed to shut down the system in the event of toxic gas leakage, power outage, loss of building ventilation or compressed air pressure. ALD of lead sulfide (PbS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) were demonstrated with no chemical contamination or detectable release of H2S.

Dasgupta, Neil P.; Mack, James F.; Langston, Michael C.; Bousetta, Al; Prinz, Fritz B.

2010-04-01

198

Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008?ppm and 31,215?ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113?g?H2S?m?3?h?1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2?mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500?mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5. PMID:25147857

Abdel-Monaem Zytoon, Mohamed; Ahmad AlZahrani, Abdulraheem; Hamed Noweir, Madbuli; Ahmed El-Marakby, Fadia

2014-01-01

199

Hot Gas Removal of Tars, Ammonia, and Hydrogen Sulfide from Biomass Gasification Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of biomass is a promising source of fuels and other chemical products. However, the removal of tars, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and other byproducts from the raw gas is required. The gas clean?up technology that offers more advantages is hot catalytic gas conditioning downstream of the gasifier reactor. Here, we review the applications of basic, acidic, metallic, and redox catalysts

Walter Torres; Sourabh S. Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr

2007-01-01

200

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: HORIBA INSTRUMENTS,INC., APSA-360 AMBIENT HYDROGEN SULFIDE ANALYZER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this verification test was to evaluate the APSA-360’s performance in measuring gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ambient air at an animal feeding operation (AFO). The verification test was conducted between April 25 and June 3, 2005, at a swine finishing farm near Ames, Iowa; the AP...

201

IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. Its primary uses include the production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid, the manufacture of heavy water and other chemicals. Occupational exposure occurs primarily from its presence in petroleum, n...

202

Giant Hydrogen Sulfide Plume in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru Supports Chemolithoautotrophy  

E-print Network

Giant Hydrogen Sulfide Plume in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru Supports Chemolithoautotrophy , Julie LaRoche1,4 * 1 Research Division Marine Biogeochemistry, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 2 Institute for General Microbiology, Christian-Albrechts- University, Kiel

Boyer, Edmond

203

CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS FROM THE REACTION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The reaction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is of biological significance and may be implicated in the overall toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic. The course of the reaction in aqueous phase was monitored and an initial product, dimethylthioarsin...

204

Hydrogen Sulfide, a Toxic Gas with Cardiovascular Properties in Uremia: How Harmful Is It?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a poisonous gas which can be lethal. However, it is also produced endogenously, thus belonging to the family of gasotransmitters along with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. H2S is in fact involved in mediating several signaling and cytoprotective functions, for example in the nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems, such as neuronal transmission, blood pressure regulation and

Alessandra F. Perna; Diana Lanza; Immacolata Sepe; Ilaria Raiola; Rosanna Capasso; Natale G. De Santo; Diego Ingrosso

2011-01-01

205

Effect of sewer headspace air-flow on hydrogen sulfide removal by corroding concrete surfaces.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide adsorption and oxidation by corroding concrete surfaces at different air-flows were quantified using a pilot-scale sewer reactor. The setup was installed in an underground sewer research station with direct access to wastewater. Hydrogen sulfide gas was injected into the headspace of the sewer reactor once per hour in peak concentrations of approximately 500 ppmv. The investigated range of sewer air-flows was representative for natural ventilated sewer systems, and covered both laminar and turbulent conditions. The experiments demonstrated a significant effect of sewer air-flow on the kinetics of hydrogen sulfide removal from the sewer headspace. From the lowest to the highest air-flow investigated, the rate of adsorption and oxidation increased more than threefold. At all air-flows, the reaction kinetics followed a simple n-th order rate equation with a reaction order of 0.8. The effect of air-flow on hydrogen sulfide adsorption and oxidation kinetics was quantified by a simple empirical equation. PMID:22755494

Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

2012-03-01

206

PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17671774 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated  

E-print Network

PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 1767­1774 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon II. Effects of gas temperature, gas pressure and sorbent regeneration 1 2 3 *M.P. Cal , B of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for removal of H S at high temperatures (400­6008C) in an2

Cal, Mark P.

207

Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on the Performance of a PEMFC R. Mohtadi,a,  

E-print Network

Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on the Performance of a PEMFC R. Mohtadi,a, * W.-k. Lee,a, ** S. Cowan exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs consisting of Pt and Pt-Ru alloy electrodes is presented. Steady PEMFCs is produced mainly from reformed hydrocarbons. Thus the anode may be exposed to undesir- able by

Van Zee, John W.

208

Assessment of Hydrogen Sulfide Minimum Detection Limits of an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser  

EPA Science Inventory

During June 2007, U.S. EPA conducted a feasibility study to determine whether the EPA OTM 10 measurement approach, also known as radial plume mapping (RPM), was feasible. A Boreal open-path tunable diode laser (OP-TDL) to collect path-integrated hydrogen sulfide measurements alon...

209

Hydrogen sulfide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from broiler houses in the Southeastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from two mechanically ventilated commercial broiler houses located in the Southeastern United States were continuously monitored over 12 flocks during the one-year period of 2006-2007 as a joint effort between Iowa State University a...

210

Hydrogen sulfide oxidation and the arterial chemoreflex: effect of methemoglobin.  

PubMed

Endogenous H(2)S has been proposed to transduce the effects of hypoxia in the carotid bodies (CB). To test this hypothesis, we created a sink for endogenously produced H(2)S by inducing ?10% methemoglobinemia via the injection of 250 mg of sodium nitrite in spontaneously breathing anaesthetized sheep. Methemoglobinemia has been shown to catalyze the oxidation of large quantities of sulfide in the blood and tissues. We found that the presence of metHb completely abolished the ventilatory stimulation induced by 10 mg NaHS (i.v.), which in control conditions mimicked the effects of breathing 6-7 tidal volumes of nitrogen, confirming the dramatic increase in the oxidative power of the blood for sulfide. The ventilatory responses to hypoxia (10% O(2)), nitrogen and hyperoxia were in no way depressed by the metHb. Our results demonstrate that the ventilatory chemoreflex is not depressed in the presence of a high oxidative capacity for sulfide and challenge the view that H(2)S transduces the effects of hypoxia in the CB. PMID:21569867

Haouzi, Philippe; Bell, Harold; Philmon, Maeve

2011-08-15

211

Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991December 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research

J. B. L. Harkness; R. D

1993-01-01

212

HSLA steels with improved hydrogen sulfide cracking resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both hydrogeninduced cracking (HIC) and sulfidestress cracking (SSC) in sour environments are examined in this paper. A preliminary\\u000a background section reviews the important features of hydrogen embrittlement (HE), of which HIC and SSC are examples. In particular,\\u000a the fundamental concepts of hydrogen trapping and of a critical concentration (CK) for hydrogen crack initiation are defined.\\u000a \\u000a The main crack initiation sites

G. M. Pressouyre; R. Blondeau; L. Cadiou

1984-01-01

213

Hydrogen sulfide, bacteria, and fish: a unique, subterranean food chain.  

PubMed

Photoautotrophs are generally considered to be the base of food webs, and habitats that lack light, such as caves, frequently rely on surface-derived carbon. Here we show, based on analysis of gut contents and stable isotope ratios of tissues (13C:12C and 15N:14N), that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are directly consumed and assimilated by the fish Poecilia mexicana in a sulfide-rich cave stream in Tabasco state, Mexico. Our results provide evidence of a vertebrate deriving most of its organic carbon and nitrogen from in situ chemoautotrophic production, and reveals the importance of alternative energy production sources supporting animals in extreme environments. PMID:22164830

Roach, Katherine A; Tobler, Michael; Winemiller, Kirk O

2011-11-01

214

Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent  

DOEpatents

A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA); Frost, David G. (Maynard, MA)

1984-01-01

215

Fluorescence chemosensors for hydrogen sulfide detection in biological systems.  

PubMed

A comprehensive review of the development of H2S fluorescence-sensing strategies, including sensors based on chemical reactions and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of fluorescence-sensing strategies are compared with those of traditional methods. Fluorescence chemosensors, especially those used in FRET sensing, are highly promising because of their low cost, technical simplicity, and their use in real-time sulfide imaging in living cells. Potential applications based on sulfate reduction to H2S, the relationship between sulfate-reducing bacteria activity and H2S yield, and real-time detection of sulfate-reducing bacteria activity using fluorescence sensors are described. The current challenges, such as low sensitivity and poor stability, are discussed. PMID:25529122

Guo, Zhi; Chen, Guiqiu; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhongwu; Chen, Anwei; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Longbo

2015-03-01

216

Involvement of ERK in NMDA receptor-independent cortical neurotoxicity of hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen sulfide causes NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity in mouse fetal cortical neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of ERK mediates the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptotic mechanisms are involved in the hydrogen-induced cell death. -- Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a gasotransmitter, exerts both neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, and targets multiple molecules including NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NO synthase (NOS) that might affect neuronal viability. Here, we determined and characterized effects of NaHS, an H{sub 2}S donor, on cell viability in the primary cultures of mouse fetal cortical neurons. NaHS caused neuronal death, as assessed by LDH release and trypan blue staining, but did not significantly reduce the glutamate toxicity. The neurotoxicity of NaHS was resistant to inhibitors of NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NOS, and was blocked by inhibitors of MEK, but not JNK, p38 MAP kinase, PKC and Src. NaHS caused prompt phosphorylation of ERK and upregulation of Bad, followed by translocation of Bax to mitochondria and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, leading to the nuclear condensation/fragmentation. These effects of NaHS were suppressed by the MEK inhibitor. Our data suggest that the NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity of H{sub 2}S involves activation of the MEK/ERK pathway and some apoptotic mechanisms.

Kurokawa, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kubo, Satoko; Yamasaki, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Sachi; Okamoto, Yukari; Sekimoto, Teruki; Fukatsu, Anna; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki [Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Kume, Toshiaki [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Sciences, Kinki University School of Science and Engineering, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Sciences, Kinki University School of Science and Engineering, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Akaike, Akinori [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawabata, Atsufumi, E-mail: kawabata@phar.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

2011-11-04

217

Elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide in homes with 'Chinese Drywall'.  

PubMed

In December 2008, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) began receiving reports about odors, corrosion, and health concerns related to drywall originating from China. In response, a detailed environmental health and engineering evaluation was conducted of 41 complaint and 10 non-complaint homes in the Southeast U.S. Each home investigation included characterization of: 1) drywall composition; 2) indoor and outdoor air quality; 3) temperature, moisture, and building ventilation; and 4) copper and silver corrosion rates. Complaint homes had significantly higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations (mean 0.82 vs. sulfide and silver sulfide corrosion compared to non-complaint homes (Cu(2)S: 476 vs. <32 Å/30 d, p<0.01; Ag(2)S: 1472 vs. 389 Å/30 d, p<0.01). The abundance of carbonate and strontium in drywall was also elevated in complaint homes, and appears to be useful objective marker of problematic drywall in homes that meet other screening criteria (e.g., constructed or renovated in 2006-2007, reports of malodor and accelerated corrosion). This research provides empirical evidence of the direct association between homes constructed with 'Chinese Drywall' in 2006-2007 and elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in indoor air. PMID:22525559

Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L; Saltzman, Lori E; Baker, Brian J; Matheson, Joanna M; Recht, Joel R; Minegishi, Taeko; Fragala, Matt A; Myatt, Theodore A; Spengler, John D; Stewart, James H; McCarthy, John F

2012-06-01

218

PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 31 -February 2, 2011  

E-print Network

problems associated with geothermal utilization. Hellisheiði Power Plant annually emits around 13000 tons of 2011. H2S will be separated from other geothermal gases at a pilot gas separation plant, dissolved The emission of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal power plants is one of the main environmental concerns

Stanford University

219

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOEpatents

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1997-01-01

220

Use of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as recognition elements in hydrogen sulfide biosensing system.  

PubMed

Four sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus thioparus, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans PTCC1717, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans PTCC1646, and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans PTCC1647) were used as biorecognition elements in a hydrogen sulfide biosensing system. All the experiments were performed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution containing 1-20 ppm H2 S with optimum pH and temperature for each species. Although H2 S was applied to the biosensing system, the dissolved O2 content decreased. Dissolved O2 consumed by cells in both free and immobilized forms was measured using a dissolved oxygen sensor. Free bacterial cells exhibit fast response (<200 Sec). Immobilization of the cells on polyvinyl alcohol was optimized using an analytical software. Immobilized A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans retained more than 50% of activity after 30 days of immobilization. According to the data, A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans are appropriate species for hydrogen sulfide biosensor. PMID:25158614

Janfada, Behdokht; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Rahaie, Mahdi

2014-08-26

221

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOEpatents

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1999-02-02

222

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas  

DOEpatents

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1999-01-01

223

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide on Activated Carbons Impregnated with Sodium Hydroxide  

SciTech Connect

Two activated carbons of different origin were impregnated with the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of various concentrations up to 10 wt %, and the effect of impregnation on the catalytic performance of the carbons was evaluated. The catalytic activity was analyzed in terms of the capacity of carbons for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conversion and removal from hydrogen-rich fuel streams and the emission times of H2S and the products of its oxidation [e.g., sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS)]. The results of impregnation showed a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of both carbons proportional to the amount of NaOH introduced. NaOH introduces hydroxyl groups (OH-) on the surface of the activated carbon that increase its surface reactivity and its interaction with sulfur-containing compounds.

Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Baskova, Svetlana [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

2009-01-01

224

Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous modulator of leukocyte-mediated inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increasingly recognized as an important signaling molecule in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Recently, H2S do- nors were reported to induce neutrophil apoptosis and to suppress expression of some leukocyte and endothe- lial adhesion molecules. Using rats, we examined the possibility that H2S is an endogenous regulator of key inflammatory events at the leukocyte-endothelial inter- face.

Renata C. O. Zanardo; Vincenzo Brancaleone; Eleonora Distrutti; Stefano Fiorucci; Giuseppe Cirino; John L. Wallace

2006-01-01

225

Control of hydrogen sulfide emissions using autotrophic denitrification landfill biocovers: engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from construction and demolition waste landfills has received increasing attention. Besides its unpleasant odor,\\u000a longterm exposure to a very low concentration of H2S can cause a public health issue. In the case of construction and demolition (C&D) waste landfills, where gas collection\\u000a systems are not normally required, the generated H2S is typically not controlled and the

Daoroong Sungthong; Debra R. Reinhart

2011-01-01

226

Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates vascular calcification induced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To investigate the role of the endogenous cystathionine ?-synthase (CSE)\\/ hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pathway in vascular calcification in vivo.Methods:A rat vascular calcification model was established by administration of vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN). The amount of CSE and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA was determined by using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The calcium content, 45Ca2+ accumulation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity

Sheng-ying Wu; Chun-shui Pan; Bin Geng; Jing Zhao; Fang Yu; Yong-zheng Pang; Chao-shu Tang; Yong-fen Qi

2006-01-01

227

The solubility of elemental sulfur in methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gas  

E-print Network

.80 251.40 313.50 818.30 4000 394.00 157.60 196.20 516.70 3000 119.00 84.40 101.80 254.00 2000 30.80 48.10 46.70 81.60 1000 9.20 26.10 30.00 40.20 50 PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE bCompressibility factors TABLE 2 100_______160______ 220...

Wieland, Denton R.

1958-01-01

228

The sorption of hydrogen sulfide from hot syngas by metal oxides over supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six 5wt.% metal sorbents including Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, Ce and Zn supported on ?-Al2O3, prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method with calcination at 700°C for 2h, have been investigated for sorption of hydrogen sulfide in the temperature range of 500–700°C. The sorption experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed reactor in terms of breakthrough curves and characterized by X-ray

Tzu-Hsing Ko; Hsin Chu; Lung-Kai Chaung

2005-01-01

229

A model for transport of hydrogen sulfide in oil- and water-saturated porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several oilfields, reservoir souring by generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) occurs in secondary recovery during which seawater is injected into originally sweet reservoirs. At the production site,\\u000a high concentrations of H2S can cause severe damage to both equipment and human personnel. Proper modeling of H2S concentration in produced fluids can be useful for decision-making during field development design. We

Inge Skjælaaen; Anozie Ebigbo; Magne Espedal; Rainer Helmig

2010-01-01

230

Role of hydrogen sulfide in acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a naturally occurring gas with potent vasodilator activity. Cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) utilize L-cysteine as substrate to form H2S. Of these two enzymes, cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) is believed to be the key enzyme that forms H2S in the cardiovascular system. Whilst H2S has been reported to relax precontracted rat arteries in vitro and to lower blood

Madhav Bhatia; Fei Ling Wong; Di Fu; Hon Yen Lau; Shabbir M. Moochhala; Philip K. Moore

2005-01-01

231

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes  

E-print Network

of temperature may be found in Fig. 8 through 10. Since H' is not dimensionless, the equation is valid ~onl for geo- metrical factors expressed in the following units of measurement: v = velocity in feet per second d tube diameter in inches x = tube length...HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF SULFUR AND OF SULFUR DILUTED WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE FLOWING THROUGH CIRCULAR TUBES A Thesis By Porter Walwyn Stone Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas...

Stone, Porter Walwyn

1960-01-01

232

Computational prediction of hydrogen sulfide and methane separation at room temperature by anatase titanium dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key step for biogas purification. Herein, the adsorption of H2S and methane (CH4) on anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been studied by first principle calculations. It is found that TiO2 offers excellent capacity for the H2S/CH4 separation. Using force-field molecular dynamics, this high separation capacity has been examined at room temperature.

Sun, Chenghua

2013-02-01

233

Unmodified versus caustics-impregnated carbons for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions from sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmodified and caustic-impregnated carbons were compared as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide in the North River Water Pollution Control Plant in New York City over a period of 2 years. The carbons were characterized using accelerated HâS breakthrough capacity tests, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, and thermal analysis. The accelerated laboratory tests indicate that the initial capacity of caustic-impregnated carbons exceeds

Teresa J. Bandosz; Andrey Bagreev; Foad Adib; Amos Turk

2000-01-01

234

REMOVAL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE, AMMONIA AND NITRITE IONS FROM WATER SOLUTIONS USING MODIFIED ACTIVE CARBONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified active carbons were used for removal of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and nitrite ions from water solutions. Obtained\\u000a results demonstrate that active carbon oxidized with H2O2 following impregnation with Co(II) possesses higher adsorption capacity for NH4\\u000a + compared with unimpregnated samples. It was established that active carbon obtained from nut shells has better oxidation\\u000a properties compared with active carbons obtained

T. LUPASCU; RAISA NASTAS; M. CIOBANU; TATIANA ARAPU; V. RUSU

235

Proceedings of the Hydrogen Sulfide Health Research and Risk Assessment Symposium October 31-November 2, 2000.  

PubMed

The Hydrogen Sulfide Health Research and Risk Assessment Symposium came about for several reasons: (1) increased interest by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and several state agencies in regulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S); (2) uncertainty about ambient exposure to H2S; (3) confusion and disagreement in the literature about possible health effects at low-level exposures; and (4) presentation of results of a series of recent animal bioassays. The American Petroleum Institute (API) proposed this symposium and the EPA became an early co-sponsor, with the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) and the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) contributing expertise and funding assistance. The topics covered in this symposium included Animal Research, Human Research, Mode-of-Action and Dosimetry Issues, Environmental Exposure and Monitoring, Assessment and Regulatory Issues, and closed with a panel discussion. The overall goals of the symposium were to: gather together experts in H2S health effects research and individuals from governmental agencies charged with protecting the public health, provide a venue for reporting of recent research findings, identify gaps in the current information, and outline new research directions and promote research collaboration. During the course of the symposium, presenters provided comprehensive reviews of the state of knowledge for each topic. Several new research proposals discussed at the symposium have subsequently been initiated. This report provides a summary of the talks, poster presentations, and panel discussions that occurred at the Hydrogen Sulfide Health and Risk Assessment Symposium. PMID:16033755

Woodall, George M; Smith, Roy L; Granville, Geoff C

2005-10-01

236

Effect of surface characteristics of wood-based activated carbons on adsorption of hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Three wood-based commercial activated carbons supplied by Westvaco were studied as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide. The initial materials were characterized using sorption of nitrogen, Boehm titration, potentiometric titration, water sorption, thermal analysis, and temperature-programmed desorption. The breakthrough tests were done at low concentrations of H{sub 2}S in the input gas to simulate conditions in water pollution control plants where carbon beds are used as odor adsorbents. In spite of apparent general similarities in the origin of the materials, method of activation, surface chemistry, and porosity, significant differences in their performance as hydrogen sulfide adsorbents were observed. Results show that the combined effect of the presence of pores large enough to accommodate surface functional groups and small enough to have the film of water at relatively low pressure contributes to oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. Moreover, there are features of activated carbon surfaces such as local environment of acidic/basic groups along with the presence of alkali metals which are important to the oxidation process.

Adib, F.; Bagreev, A.; Bandosz, T.J. [City Coll. of New York, NY (United States)] [City Coll. of New York, NY (United States)

1999-06-15

237

The study of an intermediate temperature solid state fuel cell utilizing hydrogen sulfide as the fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuel cell using hydrogen sulfide as the fuel and consisting of a solid electrolyte, which conducts ions at intermediate temperatures (500-800sp°C), was studied. Utilization of this pollutant in this manner would produce clean electrical energy, as opposed to heat which is generated in conventional Hsb2S processing via the Claus process, and simultaneously convert a highly toxic gas into benign raw materials. The primary concern was to find a suitable electrolyte. This material must be stable to hydrogen sulfide and preferably be strictly a proton conductor since oxide conduction could lead to SOsb2 generation. The electrolytes examined include samaria-doped ceria, ytterbia-doped strontium cerate, samaria-doped barium cerate, lithium sulfate, and lithium sulfate-alumina composites. Fuel cell experimental run results acquired using these five electrolytes, with platinum for the electrodes, are discussed. The fabrication and characterization of the electrolyte membranes and powders are also addressed. The most success was obtained with samaria-doped ceria. High power densities (9.8 mW/cmsp2 at 654sp°C), low anode overpotentials, relatively high exchange current densities, and the apparent stability of this material to hydrogen sulfide all indicate the significant potential of this electrolyte in a Hsb2S fuel cell.

Peterson, David Ross

238

Giant Hydrogen Sulfide Plume in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru Supports Chemolithoautotrophy  

PubMed Central

In Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems nutrient-rich waters are transported to the ocean surface, fuelling high photoautotrophic primary production. Subsequent heterotrophic decomposition of the produced biomass increases the oxygen-depletion at intermediate water depths, which can result in the formation of oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). OMZs can sporadically accumulate hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is toxic to most multicellular organisms and has been implicated in massive fish kills. During a cruise to the OMZ off Peru in January 2009 we found a sulfidic plume in continental shelf waters, covering an area >5500 km2, which contained ?2.2×104 tons of H2S. This was the first time that H2S was measured in the Peruvian OMZ and with ?440 km3 the largest plume ever reported for oceanic waters. We assessed the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the inhabiting microbial community by high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA, while its metabolic activity was determined with rate measurements of carbon fixation and nitrogen transformation processes. The waters were dominated by several distinct ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacterial taxa associated with either sulfur oxidation or sulfate reduction. Our results suggest that these chemolithoautotrophic bacteria utilized several oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide) to detoxify the sulfidic waters well below the oxic surface. The chemolithoautotrophic activity at our sampling site led to high rates of dark carbon fixation. Assuming that these chemolithoautotrophic rates were maintained throughout the sulfidic waters, they could be representing as much as ?30% of the photoautotrophic carbon fixation. Postulated changes such as eutrophication and global warming, which lead to an expansion and intensification of OMZs, might also increase the frequency of sulfidic waters. We suggest that the chemolithoautotrophically fixed carbon may be involved in a negative feedback loop that could fuel further sulfate reduction and potentially stabilize the sulfidic OMZ waters. PMID:23990875

Großkopf, Tobias; Kalvelage, Tim; Löscher, Carolin R.; Paulmier, Aurélien; Contreras, Sergio; Siegel, Herbert; Holtappels, Moritz; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schilhabel, Markus B.; Graco, Michelle; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; LaRoche, Julie

2013-01-01

239

Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-05-01

240

Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs and a smaller overall footprint than what could be achieved by utilizing separate components for each required unit process/operation in conventional coal-to-hydrogen systems. Specifically, this project was to develop a novel membrane reactor process that combines hydrogen sulfide removal, hydrogen separation, carbon dioxide separation and water-gas shift reaction into a single membrane configuration. The carbon monoxide conversion of the water-gas-shift reaction from the coal-derived syngas stream is enhanced by the complementary use of two membranes within a single reactor to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Consequently, hydrogen production efficiency is increased. The single membrane reactor configuration produces a pure H{sub 2} product and a pure CO{sub 2} permeate stream that is ready for sequestration. This project focused on developing a new class of CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for this new process concept. Several approaches to make CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for high-temperature applications have been tested. Membrane disks using the technique of powder pressing and high temperature sintering were successfully fabricated. The powders were either metal oxide or metal carbonate materials. Experiments on CO{sub 2} permeation testing were also performed in the temperature range of 790 to 940 C for the metal carbonate membrane disks. However, no CO{sub 2} permeation rate could be measured, probably due to very slow CO{sub 2} diffusion in the solid state carbonates. To improve the permeation of CO{sub 2}, one approach is to make membranes containing liquid or molten carbonates. Several different types of dual-phase membranes were fabricated and tested for their CO{sub 2} permeation in reducing conditions without the presence of oxygen. Although the flux was quite low, on the order of 0.01-0.001 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min, the selectivity of CO{sub 2}/He was almost infinite at temperatures of about 800 C. A different type of dual-phase membrane prepared by Arizona State University (ASU) was also tested at GTI for CO{sub 2} permeation. The measured CO{sub 2} fluxes were 0.015 and 0.02 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min at 750 and 830 C, respectively. These fluxes were higher than the previous flux obtained ({approx}0.01 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min) using the dual-phase membranes prepared by GTI. Further development in membrane development should be conducted to improve the CO{sub 2} flux. ASU has also focused on high temperature permeation/separation experiments to confirm the carbon dioxide separation capabilities of the dual-phase membranes with La{sup 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF6482) supports infiltrated with a Li/Na/K molten carbonate mixture (42.5/32.5/25.0 mole %). The permeation experiments indicated that the addition of O{sub 2} does improve the permeance of CO{sub 2} through the membrane. A simplified membrane reactor model was developed to evaluate the performance of the process. However, the simplified model did not allow the estimation of membrane transport area, an important parameter for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed membrane reactor technology. As a result, an improved model was developed. Results of the improved membrane reactor model show that the membrane shift reaction has promise as a means to simplify the production of a clean stream of hydrogen and a clean stream of carbon dioxide. The focus of additional development work should address the large area required for the CO{sub 2} membrane as identified in the modeling calculations. Also, a more detailed process flow diagram should be developed that includes integration of cooling and preheating feed streams as well as particulate removal so that stea

Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

2008-05-31

241

A simple method to compute hydrogen chloride abatement in geothermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important problems affecting geothermal fields is the abatement of hydrogen chloride contained in the vapor phase. If the chloride concentration exceeds a few ppmw, steam scrubbing must be provided in order to prevent corrosion of the gathering system and turbine failure. In some fields at Larderello, one of the most important geothermal areas in Italy, steam

Alessandro Paglianti; Elena Vivianvi; Elisabetta Brunazzi; Fabio Sabatelli

1996-01-01

242

Electrochemical separation and concentration of hydrogen sulfide from gas mixtures  

DOEpatents

A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

Winnick, Jack (Atlanta, GA); Sather, Norman F. (Naperville, IL); Huang, Hann S. (Darian, IL)

1984-10-30

243

Redox biology of hydrogen sulfide: Implications for physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology?  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a critical mediator of multiple physiological processes in mammalian systems. The pathways involved in the production, consumption, and mechanism of action of H2S appear to be sensitive to alterations in the cellular redox state and O2 tension. Indeed, the catabolism of H2S through a putative oxidation pathway, the sulfide quinone oxido-reductase system, is highly dependent on O2 tension. Dysregulation of H2S homeostasis has also been implicated in numerous pathological conditions and diseases. In this review, the chemistry and the main physiological actions of H2S are presented. Some examples highlighting the cytoprotective actions of H2S within the context of cardiovascular disease are also reported. Elucidation of the redox biology of H2S will enable the development of new pharmacological agents based on this intriguing new redox cellular signal. PMID:23795345

Stein, Asaf; Bailey, Shannon M.

2013-01-01

244

Susceptibility of Conventional Pressure Vessel Steel to Hydrogen-Induced Cracking and Stress Oriented Hydrogen-Induced Cracking in Hydrogen Sulfide-Containing Diglycolamine Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC) tests were conducted on a conventional type A516-70 (UNS K02700) pressure vessel steel exposed to hydrogen sulfide (HâS)-containing diglycolamine (DGA) gas-sweetening environments. Base-line HIC and SOHIC tests were conducted in NACE TM0284-96 Solution A. For the SOHIC tests, four-point double-beam specimens were stressed to 60%, 80%, or 100% of the yield strength

M. A. Al-Anezi; A. K. Agrawal; G. S. Frankel

1999-01-01

245

Hydrogen evolution using palladium sulfide (PdS) nanocorals as photoanodes in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Palladium sulfide (PdS) nanostructures are proposed to be used as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) for hydrogen evolution due to their adequate transport and optical properties shown in previous works. Here, a complete morphological and electrochemical characterization of PdS films has been performed by different techniques. PdS flatband potential (Vfb=-0.65±0.05 V vs NHE) was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in aqueous Na2SO3 electrolyte, providing a description of the energy levels scheme at the electrolyte-semiconductor interface. This energy levels scheme confirms PdS as a compound able to photogenerate hydrogen in a PEC. At last, photogenerated hydrogen rates are measured continuously by mass spectrometry as a function of the external bias potential under illumination, reaching values up to 4.4 ?molH2/h at 0.3 V vs Ag/AgCl. PMID:25340641

Barawi, M; Ferrer, I J; Ares, J R; Sánchez, C

2014-11-26

246

Endurance materials for hydrogen sulfide splitting in electrolytic cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the development of a novel thin membrane exchange assembly (MEA) from a solid acid material, cesium hydrogen sulfate (CsHSO 4), and from a composite anode electrocatalyst for electrolytic splitting of (100%) H2S feed content gas operating at 135 kPa and 150°C. A new class of anode electrocatalyst with the general composition, RuO 2/CoS2, and an improved proton conductor, CsHSO4, have shown great stability and desired properties at typical operating conditions. This configuration demonstrated stable electrochemical operation for 24 h with a (100%) H2S fuel stream at 423 K. This same system showed a maximum current density of (19 mA/cm2) at 900 mV. The performance of this new anode electrocatalyst when compared to that of Pt black investigated in a previous study showed an overall superiority in application. We have achieved a 30% reduction in the overall system performance by fabricating a thin (200 microm) CsHSO4 electrolyte, which reduced the whole MEA thickness from 2.3 mm to 500 microm. The result of permeability measurements proved that this thin solid electrolyte is impermeable to H 2S gas and physical integrity was preserved throughout the experimental period. Further resistance losses were compensated by using a high energy planetary milling system to enhance the ionic conductivity of CsHSO4 . The difference in stability and electrochemical performance of these cells compared to that of Pt anode based systems is directly attributable to the anode materials developed in this project. Factorial experiments were used to characterize the effect of controllable process variables (electrolyte thickness, time, age of the electrolyte) on the cell current density and interfacial polarization resistances. As expected, cell current density and interfacial polarization resistances were a function of electrolyte thickness and age. Nevertheless, the effect of electrolyte thickness has a more prominent effect on the measured parameters. In addition, these experiments were used to identify regions of optimum system performance. Tafel plots were constructed to investigate the kinetic behavior of various anode based electrocatalysts. Exchange current densities, which are directly a measure of the electrochemical reaction, increased with RuO2/CoS 2-based anodes. These experiments also suggested that high levels of feed utilization were possible using these materials. This was an impressive result considering the drastic improvement in electrochemical performance, current density, and sulfur tolerance compared to the other anode configurations.

Mbah, Jonathan Chinwendu

247

High temperature electrochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from synthetic coal gas streams: Material issues  

SciTech Connect

An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is presently being perfected. Hydrogen sulfide is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen (enriching the exiting syn-gas) and sulfur (condensed from an inert sweep gas stream). The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream or incurring pressure loss through the separator. The high operating temperature, flow through design, and capability of selective H{sub 2}S removal and direct production of elemental sulfur offered by this process provide several advantages over existing and development H{sub 2}S removal technologies. The electrochemical membrane process for H{sub 2}S removal from coal gas has proven successful, showing effective removal of H{sub 2}S down to 100 ppm and for polishing to less than 1 ppm, which is the upper limit for the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) to operate efficiently. 90% removal has been evidenced with an inlet concentration of 20 ppm, testing the most stringent application of this concept; however, some materials problems remain.

Robinson, J.S.; Winnick, J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31

248

Deaths in Rotorua's geothermal hot pools: hydrogen sulphide poisoning.  

PubMed

In late 2007 and early 2008 two gentlemen were found dead in, or near to, enclosed hot pools fed with Rotorua's geothermal waters. Amidst much publicity the Coroner has ruled that the deaths were related to hydrogen sulphide poisoning. Following post mortem examinations, blood and urine samples were frozen and sent to the Toxicology Unit of ESR. These were then stored frozen until analysis. Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a potentially deadly gas at elevated levels, but is rapidly eliminated from the body and is unstable post mortem. Thiosulphate is a marker for the exposure to H(2)S, and as it is stable post mortem the samples were analysed to determine the thiosulphate levels present. The urine thiosulphate levels detected were above those seen in the urine samples measured from the only previous study of people exposed to the Rotorua thermal area and the blood levels were similar to literature values from fatalities exposed in workplaces such as sewage treatment plants. PMID:21183297

Bassindale, T; Hosking, M

2011-04-15

249

Attenuation of Inflammatory Responses by Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.  

PubMed

Cellular and tissue injury induced by ischemia is often exacerbated by restoring perfusion to the affected organ system. The injury, termed ischemia-reperfusion injury, is mediated in large part by the inflammatory response generated in the setting of reperfusion. Recent research has demonstrated that the administration of hydrogen sulfide as a therapeutic agent in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion can markedly attenuate the inflammatory response with subsequent mitigation of tissue injury and improved function. This beneficial anti-inflammatory effect has been observed in multiple organ systems, subject to ischemia-reperfusion injury, the details of which are the subject of this chapter. PMID:25747478

Sodha, Neel R; Sellke, Frank W

2015-01-01

250

Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in solutions saturated with different H2S partial pressures. The partial pressure was selected so that the concentration of H2S in the solution saturated with the gas would be the same as that reached in the surface of steel freely corroding in the thiosulfate solution. For solutions obtained by bubbling H2S, the rate of hydrogen absorption increased with the partial pressure of the gas, but the rate of hydrogen absorption reached a maximum at 10-3 M S2O3 2-, despite the surface concentration of H2S increased with the concentration of S2O32-. This effect was associated with the formation of thicker films, which inhibited the absorption of hydrogen. FCGR were evaluated at constant stress intensity factor range. Crack length was monitored in-situ by the direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. FCGR increased with the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen. FCGR was controlled not only by the amount of hydrogen present in the steel, but also by inhibiting contributions like crack closure and crack tip blunting. FCGR in dilute thiosulfate solutions was near that measured in a solution saturated with a partial pressure of H2S equal to 0.56 kPa, in accord with hydrogen permeation results.

Kappes, Mariano Alberto

251

Molybdenum sulfide/N-doped CNT forest hybrid catalysts for high-performance hydrogen evolution reaction.  

PubMed

Cost effective hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst without using precious metallic elements is a crucial demand for environment-benign energy production. Molybdenum sulfide is one of the promising candidates for such purpose, particularly in acidic condition, but its catalytic performance is inherently limited by the sparse catalytic edge sites and poor electrical conductivity. We report synthesis and HER catalysis of hybrid catalysts composed of amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) layer directly bound at vertical N-doped carbon nanotube (NCNT) forest surface. Owing to the high wettability of N-doped graphitic surface and electrostatic attraction between thiomolybdate precursor anion and N-doped sites, ?2 nm scale thick amorphous MoSx layers are specifically deposited at NCNT surface under low-temperature wet chemical process. The synergistic effect from the dense catalytic sites at amorphous MoSx surface and fluent charge transport along NCNT forest attains the excellent HER catalysis with onset overpotential as low as ?75 mV and small potential of 110 mV for 10 mA/cm(2) current density, which is the highest HER activity of molybdenum sulfide-based catalyst ever reported thus far. PMID:24502837

Li, Dong Jun; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Lim, Joonwon; Choi, Dong Sung; Lee, Won Jun; Oh, Youngtak; Lee, Gil Yong; Kim, Sang Ouk

2014-03-12

252

Seasonal and influent characteristic effects on hydrogen sulfide generation at a water reclamation plant.  

PubMed

Correlations between sulfide generation and seasonal influent wastewater characteristics were identified based on a long-term monitoring program in summer and winter at a water reclamation plant. During summer, the emission rates of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from the liquid treatment processes increased substantially compared to those during winter due to the increased wastewater temperature. The open tanks/clarifiers were the least significant H2S emission contributors throughout the year. For solids-handling processes, the H2S emission rates did not change during the year due to similar sludge characteristics in the different seasons. The fate of sulfide in liquid treatment processes was investigated as an alternative to estimation of H2S emissions. H2S emission from the wet well and screens was proven to be robustly associated with the wastewater temperature, flow rate, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and total Kjeldahl nitrogen levels. However, the correlation between influent parameters and H2S emission from aerated grit chambers was not statistically significant. PMID:25353935

Zhang, Yanming; Moschandreas, Demetrios; Pagilla, Krishna

2014-01-01

253

Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the disulfide-bond reducing potential of hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

The significance of persulfide species in hydrogen sulfide biology is increasingly recognized. However, the molecular mechanisms of their formation remain largely elusive. The obvious pathway of the reduction of biologically abundant disulfide moieties by sulfide was challenged on both thermodynamic and kinetic grounds. Using DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), also known as Ellman's reagent) as a model disulfide we conducted a comprehensive kinetic study for its reaction with sulfide. The bimolecular reaction is relatively fast with a second-order rate constant of 889?±?12?M(-1)s(-1) at pH?=?7.4. pH dependence of the rate law revealed that the reaction proceeds via the bisulfide anion species with an initial nucleophilic thiol-disulfide exchange reaction to give 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) and TNB-persulfide with a pH independent second-order rate constant of 1090?±?12?M(-1)s(-1). However, kinetic studies and stoichiometric analyses in a wide range of reactant ratios together with kinetic simulations revealed that it is a multistep process that proceeds via kinetically driven, practically irreversible reactions along the disulfide ? persulfide ? inorganic polysulfides axis. The kinetic model postulated here, which is fully consistent with the experimental data, suggests that the TNB-persulfide is further reduced by sulfide with a second-order rate constant in the range of 5?×?10(3)?-?5?×?10(4)?M(-1)s(-1) at pH?7.4 and eventually yields inorganic polysulfides and TNB. The reactions of cystine and GSSG with sulfide were found to be significantly slower and to occur via more complicated reaction schemes. (1)H NMR studies suggest that these reactions also generate Cys-persulfide and inorganic polysulfide species, but in contrast with DTNB, in consecutive equilibrium processes that are sensitive to changes in the reactant and product ratios. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the reaction of disulfides with sulfide is a highly system specific process from both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, which together with the considerable steady-state concentrations of the reactants in biological systems signifies physiological relevance. PMID:25512332

Vasas, Anita; Dóka, Éva; Fábián, István; Nagy, Péter

2015-04-30

254

Effects of infusion of human methemoglobin solution following hydrogen sulfide poisoning.  

PubMed

Abstract Rationale. We have recently reported that infusion of a solution containing methemoglobin (MetHb) during exposure to hydrogen sulfide results in a rapid and large decrease in the concentration of the pool of soluble/diffusible H2S in the blood. However, since the pool of dissolved H2S disappears very quickly after H2S exposure, it is unclear if the ability of MetHb to "trap" sulfide in the blood has any clinical interest and relevance in the treatment of sulfide poisoning. Methods. In anesthetized rats, repetition of short bouts of high level of H2S infusions was applied to allow the rapid development of an oxygen deficit. A solution containing MetHb (600 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered 1 min and a half after the end of H2S intoxication. Results. The injection of MetHb solution increased methemoglobinemia to about 6%, almost instantly, but was unable to affect the blood concentration of soluble H2S, which had already vanished at the time of infusion, or to increase combined H2S. In addition, H2S-induced O2 deficit and lactate production as well as the recovery of carotid blood flow and blood pressure were similar in treated and control animals. Conclusion. Our results do not support the view that administration of MetHb or drugs-induced methemoglobinemia during the recovery phase following severe H2S intoxication in sedated rats can restore cellular oxidative metabolism, as the pool of diffusible sulfide, accessible to MetHb, disappears rapidly from the blood after H2S exposure. PMID:25634666

Chenuel, B; Sonobe, T; Haouzi, P

2015-02-01

255

Occurrence and distribution of color and hydrogen sulfide in water of the principal artesian aquifers in the Valdosta area, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogen sulfide and color occur in objectionable amounts in ground water from the principal artesian aquifer in the Valdosta , Ga., area. Generally, water from wells south of Valdosta is high in hydrogen sulfide; water from wells north of the city is high in color. Water with high sulfate is likely to be a problem in wells deeper than about 540 ft. Heavy pumpage concentrated in a small area may cause high-sulfate water to migrate vertically upward into shallower wells. (Woodard-USGS)

Krause, Richard E.

1976-01-01

256

Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates the kidney dysfunction and damage in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) prevents and treats a variety of disorders via its cytoprotective effects. However, the effects of H2S on rats with cisplatin (CP) nephrotoxicity are unclear. The aim was to study the effects of H2S on rats with CP nephrotoxicity. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group, nephrotoxic group received single dose of CP (6 mg kg-1) and nephrotoxic groups that received single dose 100 µmol kg-1 NaHS. On fifth day after injection, urine of each rat was collected over a 24-hr period. Animals were sacrificed 6 days after CP (or vehicle) treatment, and blood, urine, and kidneys were obtained, prepared for light microscopy evaluation, lipid peroxidation content and laboratory analysis. The results showed that plasma urea (226%), creatinine (271%), renal lipid peroxidation content (151%), Na and K fractional excretion, urine protein, volume and kidney weight in CP nephrotoxic rats were significantly higher and urine osmolarity and creatinine clearance lower than in controls. Increases of the proximal tubular cells apoptosis and mesangial matrix in CP nephrotoxicity group rats were observed. Hydrogen sulfide reversed the CP-induced changes in the experimental rats H2S prevented the progression of CP nephrotoxicity in rats possibly through its cytoprotective effects such as antioxidant properties. PMID:25568705

Ahangarpour, Akram; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin; Gharibnaseri, Mohammad Kazem; Jalali, Taha; Rashidi, Iran

2014-01-01

257

Unmodified versus caustics-impregnated carbons for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions from sewage treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

Unmodified and caustic-impregnated carbons were compared as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide in the North River Water Pollution Control Plant in New York City over a period of 2 years. The carbons were characterized using accelerated H{sub 2}S breakthrough capacity tests, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, and thermal analysis. The accelerated laboratory tests indicate that the initial capacity of caustic-impregnated carbons exceeds that of unmodified carbon, but the nature of real-life challenge streams, particularly their lower H{sub 2}S concentrations, nullifies this advantage. As the caustic content of the impregnated carbon is consumed, the situation reverses, and the unmodified carbon becomes more effective. When the concentration of H{sub 2}S is low, the developed surface area and pore volume along with the affinity to retain water create a favorable environment for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen sulfide and its oxidation to elemental sulfur, S{sup 4+}, and S{sup 6+}. In the case of the caustic carbon, the catalytic impact of the carbon surface is limited, and its good performance lasts only while active base is present. The results also show the significant differences in performance of unmodified carbons due to combined effects of their porosity and surface chemistry.

Bandosz, T.J.; Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Turk, A.

2000-03-15

258

Insights into the mechanism of the reaction between hydrogen sulfide and peroxynitrite.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide and peroxynitrite are endogenously generated molecules that participate in biologically relevant pathways. A revision of the kinetic features of the reaction between peroxynitrite and hydrogen sulfide revealed a complex process. The rate constant of peroxynitrite decay, (6.65 ± 0.08) × 10(3)M(-1)s(-1) in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 37°C), was affected by the concentration of buffer. Theoretical modeling suggested that, as in the case of thiols, the reaction is initiated by the nucleophilic attack of HS(-) on the peroxide group of ONOOH by a typical bimolecular nucleophilic substitution, yielding HSOH and NO2(-). In contrast to thiols, the reaction then proceeds to the formation of distinct products that absorb near 408nm. Experiments in the presence of scavengers and carbon dioxide showed that free radicals are unlikely to be involved in the formation of these products. The results are consistent with product formation involving the reactive intermediate HSSH and its fast reaction with a second peroxynitrite molecule. Mass spectrometry and UV-Vis absorption spectra predictions suggest that at least one of the products is HSNO2 or its isomer HSONO. PMID:25555671

Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Zeida, Ari; Carballal, Sebastián; Wedmann, Rudolf; Morzan, Uriel N; Trujillo, Madia; Radi, Rafael; Estrin, Darío A; Filipovic, Milos R; Alvarez, Beatriz

2015-03-01

259

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the calcification and osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gas endogenously produced by cystathionine ?-lyase in VSMC. Here we determined whether H(2)S plays a role in phosphate-induced osteoblastic transformation and mineralization of VSMC. Hydrogen sulfide was found to inhibit calcium deposition in the extracellular matrix and to suppress the induction of the genes involved in osteoblastic transformation of VSMC: alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Cbfa1. Moreover, phosphate uptake and phosphate-triggered upregulation of the sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (Pit-1) were also prevented by H(2)S. Reduction of endogenous production of H(2)S by inhibition of cystathionine ?-lyase activity resulted in increased osteoblastic transformation and mineralization. Low plasma levels of H(2)S, associated with decreased cystathionine ?-lyase enzyme activity, were found in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis. Thus, H(2)S is a potent inhibitor of phosphate-induced calcification and osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC. This mechanism might contribute to accelerated vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. PMID:21716261

Zavaczki, Erzsébet; Jeney, Viktória; Agarwal, Anupam; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Oros, Melinda; Katkó, Mónika; Varga, Zsuzsa; Balla, György; Balla, József

2011-10-01

260

Dual-emissive nanohybrid for ratiometric luminescence and lifetime imaging of intracellular hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

We design a nanohybrid for the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). A phosphorescent iridium(III) complex and a specific H2S-sensitive merocyanine derivative are embedded into the nanohybrid. It exhibits a unique dual emission that is ascribed to the iridium(III) complex and the merocyanine derivative, respectively. Upon addition of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), the emission from the merocyanine derivative is quenched, while the emission from the iridium(III) complex is almost unchanged, which enables the ratiometric detection of H2S. Additionally, the nanohybrid has a long luminescence lifetime and displays a significant change in luminescence lifetime in response to H2S. Intracellular detection of H2S is performed via ratiometric imaging and photoluminescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Compared with the intensity-based method, the lifetime-based detection is independent of the probe concentration and can efficiently distinguish the signals of the probe from the autofluorescence in complex biological samples. PMID:25692496

Yu, Qi; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Liang, Hua; Zhao, Qiang; Yang, Tianshe; Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Chuanqi; Shi, Zhengjian; Xu, Wenjuan; Huang, Wei

2015-03-11

261

Matrix metalloproteinases in atherosclerosis: role of nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, homocysteine, and polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that involves activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); MMPs degrade collagen and allow for smooth-muscle cell migration within a vessel. Moreover, this begets an accumulation of other cellular material, resulting in occlusion of the vessel and ischemic events to tissues in need of nutrients. Homocysteine has been shown to activate MMPs via an increase in oxidative stress and acting as a signaling molecule on receptors like the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Nitric oxide has been shown to be beneficial in some cases of deactivating MMPs. However, in other cases, it has been shown to be harmful. Further studies are warranted on the scenarios that are beneficial versus destructive. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to decrease MMP activities in all cases in the literature by acting as an antioxidant and vasodilator. Various MMP-knockout and gene-silencing models have been used to determine the function of the many different MMPs. This has allowed us to discern the role that each MMP has in promoting or alleviating pathological conditions. Furthermore, there has been some study into the MMP polymorphisms that exist in the population. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of MMPs and their polymorphisms on the development of atherosclerosis, with emphasis placed on pathways that involve nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, and homocysteine.

Vacek, Thomas P; Rehman, Shahnaz; Neamtu, Diana; Yu, Shipeng; Givimani, Srikanth; Tyagi, Suresh C

2015-01-01

262

Hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide-improved heat tolerance in maize and involvement of proline.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered as a phytotoxin, but nowadays as a cell signal molecule involved in growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance in higher plants. In the present study, hydrogen sulfide donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), pretreatment markedly improved germination percentage of seeds and survival percentage of seedlings of maize under heat stress, and alleviated an increase in electrolyte leakage of roots, a decrease in tissue vitality and an accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in coleoptiles of maize seedlings. In addition, pretreatment of NaHS could improve the activity of ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and lower proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activity, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous proline in maize seedlings. Also, application of proline could enhance endogenous proline content, followed by mitigated accumulation of MDA and increased survival percentage of maize seedlings under heat stress. These results suggest that sodium hydrosulfide pretreatment could improve heat tolerance of maize and the acquisition of this heat tolerance may be involved in proline. PMID:23523123

Li, Zhong-Guang; Ding, Xiao-Jiao; Du, Pei-Fang

2013-05-15

263

Reaction-based epoxide fluorescent probe for in vivo visualization of hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as the most important biosynthetic gasotransmitters along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In this study, we report the design and the synthesis of a new epoxide fluorescent probe 7-glycidyloxy-9-(2-glycidyloxycarbonylphenyl)-2-xanthone (FEPO) for use in in vivo visualization of hydrogen sulfide. The probe employs a fluorescein as a fluorophore, and is equipped with an operating epoxide unit. FEPO functions via epoxide ring opening upon nucleophilic attack of H2S. This ring opening strategy may open a new avenue for the development of various H2S fluorescent sensors. FEPO showed high selectivity and high sensitivity for H2S. FEPO's cytotoxicity was tested using MTT (2-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-3,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Furthermore, the use of confocal imaging of H2S and in vivo imaging in live zebra fish demonstrated FEPO's potential biological applications. We anticipate that, owing to their ideal properties, probes of this type will find great uses in exploring the role of H2S in biology. PMID:25660659

Sathyadevi, Palanisamy; Chen, Yu-Jen; Wu, Shou-Cheng; Chen, Yen-Hao; Wang, Yun-Ming

2015-06-15

264

Bacillus tusciae , a new species of thermoacidophilic, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic hydrogen oxidizing sporeformer from a geothermal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing sporeformer has been isolated from ponds in a solfatara in the geothermal area of Tuscany (Italy). Some physicochemical parameters of the habitat were determined. The habitat was characterized by the presence of molecular hydrogen in the escaping gases, a very low content of phosphate and organic matter. Temperature and water level in the ponds varied widely.

Fabienne Bonjour; Michel Aragno

1984-01-01

265

Drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells in an H/sub 2/S environment  

SciTech Connect

The following subjects are covered: facts about hydrogen sulfides; drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells; detection devices and protective equipment; hazard levels and safety procedures; first aid; and H/sub 2/S in California oil, gas, and geothermal fields. (MHR)

Dosch, M.W.; Hodgson, S.F.

1981-01-01

266

Solutions to a combined problem of excessive hydrogen sulfide in biogas and struvite scaling.  

PubMed

The Woodman Point Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Western Australia has experienced two separate problems causing avoidable maintenance costs: the build-up of massive struvite (MgNH4PO4. 6H2O) scaling downstream of the anaerobic digester and the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in the digester gas to levels that compromised gas engine operation and caused high operating costs on the gas scrubber. As both problems hang together with a chemical imbalance in the anaerobic digester, we decided to investigate whether both problems could be (feasibly and economically) addressed by a common solution (such as dosing of iron solutions to precipitate both sulfide and phosphate), or by using separate approaches. Laboratory results showed that, the hydrogen sulfide emission in digesters could be effectively and economically controlled by the addition of iron dosing. Slightly higher than the theoretical value of 1.5 mol of FeCl3 was required to precipitate 1 mol of dissolved sulfide inside the digester. Due to the high concentration of PO4(3-) in the digested sludge liquor, significantly higher iron is required for struvite precipitation. Iron dosing did not appear an economic solution for struvite control via iron phosphate formation. By taking advantage of the natural tendency of struvite formation in the digester liquid, it is possible to reduce the risk of struvite precipitation in and around the sludge-dewatering centrifuge by increasing the pH to precipitate struvite out before passing through the centrifuge. However, as the Mg2+/PO4(3-) molar ratio in digested sludge was low, by increasing the pH alone (using NaOH) the precipitation of PO4(3-) was limited by the amount of cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) available in the sludge. Although this would reduce struvite precipitation in the centrifuge, it could not significantly reduce PO4(3-) recycling back to the plant. For long-term operation, maximum PO4(3-) reduction should be the ultimate aim to minimise PO4(3-) accumulation in the plant. Magnesium hydroxide liquid (MHL) was found to be the most cost-effective chemical to achieve this goal. It enhanced struvite precipitation from both, digested sludge and centrate to the point where more than 95% PO4(3-) reduction in the digested sludge was achieved. PMID:16749459

Charles, W; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Ho, G; Costa, M; Spencer, P

2006-01-01

267

Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs

Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

2008-01-01

268

Electrically Conducting Polymer-Copper Sulphide Composite Films, Preparation by Treatment of Polymer-Copper (2) Acetate Composites with Hydrogen Sulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymer copper sulfide composite films were prepared by treatment of polymer poly(vinyl chloride), poly(acrylonitrile), copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate (90:10), and ABS resin copper (2) acetate composites with hydrogen sulfide. The films showed electrical conductivity higher than 0.015 S/cm when they contained more than 20 wt percent of copper sulfide. A poly(acrylonitrile)-copper sulfide composite film containing 40 to 50 wt percent of copper sulfide showed electrical conductivity of 10 to 150.0 S/cm and had relatively high mechanical strength to be used in practical purposes.

Yamamoto, Takakazu; Kamigaki, Takahira; Kubota, Etsuo

1988-01-01

269

Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins on Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Populations and Hydrogen Sulfide Production from Swine Manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Odorous compounds and emissions associated with consolidated storage of swine manure are produced as a result of anaerobic microbial digestion of materials present in the manure. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such offensive and toxic odorant that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and...

270

Fabrication of Polyaniline-Based Gas Sensors Using Piezoelectric Inkjet and Screen Printing for the Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a fully printable polyaniline-copper (II) chloride sensor for the detection of hydrogen sulfide gas. The sensing device is composed of screen printed silver interdigitated electrode (IDE) on a flexible PET substrate with inkjet printed layers of polyaniline and copper (II) chloride. The sensor is employed as a chemiresistor with changes in measured current being correlated with concentration.

Karl Crowley; Aoife Morrin; Roderick L. Shepherd; Marc in het Panhuis; Gordon G. Wallace; Malcolm R. Smyth; Anthony J. Killard

2010-01-01

271

DECHLORINATION OF CHLOROPICRIN AND 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE BY HYDROGEN SULFIDE SPECIES: REDOX AND NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chlorinated fumigants chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) are extensively used in agricultural production for the control of soil-borne pests. Reaction of these two fumigants with hydrogen sulfide species (H2S and HS ) was examined in well-defined anoxic aqueous solutions. Chloropicrin ...

272

Gas phase recovery of hydrogen sulfide contaminated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the anode of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the gas phase recovery of the contaminated PEMFC using ozone (O3) were studied. Experiments were performed on fuel cell electrodes both in an aqueous electrolyte and within an operating fuel cell. The ex-situ analyses of a fresh electrode; a H2S contaminated electrode (23 ?molH2S cm-2); and the contaminated electrode cleaned with O3 shows that all sulfide can be removed within 900 s at room temperature. Online gas analysis of the recovery process confirms the recovery time required as around 720 s. Similarly, performance studies of an H2S contaminated PEMFC shows that complete rejuvenation occurs following 600-900 s O3 treatment at room temperature. The cleaning process involves both electrochemical oxidation (facilitated by the high equilibrium potential of the O3 reduction process) and direct chemical oxidation of the contaminant. The O3 cleaning process is more efficient than the external polarization of the single cell at 1.6 V. Application of O3 at room temperature limits the amount of carbon corrosion. Room temperature O3 treatment of poisoned fuel cell stacks may offer an efficient and quick remediation method to recover otherwise inoperable systems.

Kakati, Biraj Kumar; Kucernak, Anthony R. J.

2014-04-01

273

The effect of hydrogen sulfide donors on lipopolysaccharide-induced formation of inflammatory mediators in macrophages.  

PubMed

The role of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in inflammation is controversial, with both pro- and antiinflammatory effects documented. Many studies have used simple sulfide salts as the source of H(2)S, which give a rapid bolus of H(2)S in aqueous solutions and thus do not accurately reflect the enzymatic generation of H(2)S. We therefore compared the effects of sodium hydrosulfide and a novel slow-releasing H(2)S donor (GYY4137) on the release of pro- and antiinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW264.7 macrophages. For the first time, we show that GYY4137 significantly and concentration-dependently inhibits LPS-induced release of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, nitric oxide (*NO), and PGE(2) but increased the synthesis of the antiinflammatory chemokine IL-10 through NF-kappaB/ATF-2/HSP-27-dependent pathways. In contrast, NaHS elicited a biphasic effect on proinflammatory mediators and, at high concentrations, increased the synthesis of IL-1beta, IL-6, NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha. This study clearly shows that the effects of H(2)S on the inflammatory process are complex and dependent not only on H(2)S concentration but also on the rate of H(2)S generation. This study may also explain some of the apparent discrepancies in the literature regarding the pro- versus antiinflammatory role of H(2)S. PMID:19769459

Whiteman, Matthew; Li, Ling; Rose, Peter; Tan, Choon-Hong; Parkinson, David B; Moore, Philip K

2010-05-15

274

Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats  

SciTech Connect

Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-09-01

275

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide--Systems Analysis for IGCC Applications  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) has been evaluated conceptually for IGCC applications, and the theoretical limits of reaction performance, process performance, and economic potential in IGCC have been estimated. Syngas conditions that have high partial pressures of total sulfur result in substantial liquid sulfur retention within the catalyst bed, with relatively complex processing being required. Applications that have much lower total sulfur partial pressure in the process gas might permit SCOHS operation under conditions where little liquid sulfur is retained in the catalyst, reducing the processing complexity and possibly improving the desulfurization performance. The results from our recent IGCC process evaluations using the SCOHS technology and conventional syngas cleaning are presented, and alternative SCOHS process configurations and applications that provide greater performance and cost potential are identified.

Newby, R.A.; Keairns, D.L.; Alvin, M.A.

2006-09-01

276

["Waste gas is not waste": advance in the research of hydrogen sulfide].  

PubMed

The discovery of endogenous gasotransmitters puts forwards a new concept, "waste gas is not waste". Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is considered as a new member of gasotransmitter family, following nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Recently, the understanding of H(2)S biological effect and its mechanisms has been deepened, especially the pathophysiological significance of H(2)S in the various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, respiratory diseases, endocrine diseases, etc. This article reviews recent progress of basic, clinical and pharmacological researches related to endogenous H(2)S, including the regulatory effects of H(2)S on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and ion channels, the role of endogenous H(2)S pathway in the pathogenesis of various diseases, as well as the study of the H(2)S donor and H(2)S-related drugs. PMID:21170494

Jin, Hong-Fang; DU, Jun-Bao; Tang, Chao-Shu

2010-12-25

277

Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Hypometabolism Prevents Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can induce a hypometabolic, hibernation-like state in mammals when given in subtoxic concentrations. Pharmacologically reducing the demand for oxygen is a promising strategy to minimize unavoidable hypoxia-induced injury such as ischemia/reperfusion injury during renal transplantation. Here we show that H2S reduces metabolism in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate the beneficial effects of H2S-induced hypometabolism in a model of bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury using three different treatment strategies. The results demonstrate striking protective effects on survival, renal function, apoptosis, and inflammation. A hypometabolic state induced by H2S might have therapeutic potential to protect kidneys that suffer from hypoxia. PMID:19628669

Leuvenink, Henri G.D.; Snijder, Pauline M.; Kloosterhuis, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Florquin, Sandrine; van Goor, Harry

2009-01-01

278

Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin inhibits the growth of leukemic Jurkat cells and modulates ?-catenin expression.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin (HS-ASA) is a novel compound with potential against cancer. It inhibited the growth of Jurkat T-leukemia cells with an IC?? of 1.9 ± 0.2 ?M whereas that of ASA was >5000 ?M. It dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells, causing a G?/G? cell cycle arrest. HS-ASA down-regulated ?-catenin protein levels and reduced mRNA and protein expression of ?-catenin/TCF downstream target genes cyclinD1 and c-myc. Aspirin up to 5 mM had no effect on ?-catenin expression. HS-ASA also increased caspase-3 protein levels and dose-dependently increased its activity. These effects were substantially blocked by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor. PMID:23896061

Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Nath, Niharika; Kodela, Ravinder; Sobocki, Tomasz; Metkar, Shalaka; Gan, Zong Yuan; Kashfi, Khosrow

2013-10-01

279

Intravital Microscopic Methods to Evaluate Anti-inflammatory Effects and Signaling Mechanisms Evoked by Hydrogen Sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Exogenous application of H2S donors, administered either acutely during an inflammatory response or as an antecedent preconditioning intervention that invokes the activation of anti-inflammatory cell survival programs, effectively limits leukocyte rolling, adhesion and emigration, generation of reactive oxygen species, chemokine and cell adhesion molecule expression, endothelial barrier disruption, capillary perfusion deficits, and parenchymal cell dysfunction and injury. This chapter focuses on intravital microscopic methods that can be used to assess the anti-inflammatory effects exerted by H2S, as well as to explore the cellular signaling mechanisms by which this gaseous molecule limits the aforementioned inflammatory responses. Recent advances include use of intravital multiphoton microscopy and optical biosensor technology to explore signaling mechanisms in vivo. PMID:25747477

Zuidema, Mozow Y; Korthuis, Ronald J

2015-01-01

280

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility of human pregnant myometrium.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a novel endogenous gaseous signaling transmitter in mammalian tissues including smooth muscle tissues. We investigated the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H(2)S donor, on the contractility of isolated human myometrium strips from term pregnant women who were undergoing labor. Cumulative effects of NaHS on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility were evaluated by using isometric tension recordings. NaHS (0.1 ?M-1 mM) concentration dependently inhibited spontaneous contractility of laboring myometrium, with a decrease in amplitude and frequency. NaHS (0.1 ?M-1 mM) decreased the frequency but not the amplitude of oxytocin (1 ?M)-induced contractions. NaHS-induced relaxation could be prevented by pretreatment with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K(+)(ATP) channels. Thus, NaHS evokes relaxation of human pregnant myometrium, suggesting a possible role of H(2)S during human pregnancy. PMID:21284492

Hu, Rong; Lu, Jianqiang; You, Xingji; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Hui, Ning; Ni, Xin

2011-11-01

281

Sensitive absorption measurements of hydrogen sulfide at 1.578 ?m using wavelength modulation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been performed by means of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) near 1.578 ?m. With the scan amplitude and the stability of the background baseline taken into account, the response time is 4 s for a 0.8 L multi-pass cell with a 56.7 m effective optical path length. Moreover, the linearity has been tested in the 0–50 ppmv range. The detection limit achievable by the Allan variance is 224 ppb within 24 s under room temperature and ambient pressure conditions. This tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system for H2S detection has the feasibility of real-time online monitoring in many applications. Project supported by the Special Fund for Basic Research on Scientific Instruments of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. YZ201315) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204320, 41405034, and 11204319).

Xia, Hua; Dong, Feng-Zhong; Wu, Bian; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Pang, Tao; Sun, Peng-Shuai; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Han, Luo; Wang, Yu

2015-03-01

282

Cobalt sulfide nanosheet/graphene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites as flexible electrodes for hydrogen evolution.  

PubMed

Flexible three-dimensional (3D) nanoarchitectures have received tremendous interest recently because of their potential applications in wearable electronics, roll-up displays, and other devices. The design and fabrication of a flexible and robust electrode based on cobalt sulfide/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (CoS2 /RGO-CNT) nanocomposites are reported. An efficient hydrothermal process combined with vacuum filtration was used to synthesize such composite architecture, which was then embedded in a porous CNT network. This conductive and robust film is evaluated as electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The synergistic effect of CoS2 , graphene, and CNTs leads to unique CoS2 /RGO-CNT nanoarchitectures, the HER activity of which is among the highest for non-noble metal electrocatalysts, showing 10?mA?cm(-2) current density at about 142?mV overpotentials and a high electrochemical stability. PMID:25297454

Peng, Shengjie; Li, Linlin; Han, Xiaopeng; Sun, Wenping; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Cheng, Fangyi; Yan, Qingyu; Chen, Jun; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2014-11-10

283

Systematization of published spectral data on deuterated isotopologues of hydrogen sulfide molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report presents a description of properties of published data on spectral lines parameters of deuterated isotopologues of hydrogen sulfide - HDS, HD34S, D2S, D2 34S. Properties values characterizing data quality are calculated taking into account the validity criteria and credit estimation according to publishing criteria. Formalized criteria of data check based on the constraints and selection rules known from the vibrational-rotational theory, as well as an expert evaluation are utilized for validation of the original experimental transitions and energy levels. The consistent and accurate set of the vibration - rotation (VR) energy levels is derived based on the cleaned transitions. Published vibrational-rotational transitions and energy levels of considered molecules as well as the knowledge base are available in the Internet in W@DIS information system (IS).

Voronina, S. S.; Naumenko, O. V.; Polovtseva, E. R.; Fazliev, A. Z.

2014-11-01

284

Assessment of ruminal hydrogen sulfide or urine thiosulfate as diagnostic tools for sulfur induced polioencephalomalacia in cattle.  

PubMed

To determine if ruminal hydrogen sulfide, urine thiosulfate, or blood sulfhemoglobin could be used as diagnostic indicators for sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia, 16 steers (8 cannulated, 368 ± 12 kg; 8 unmodified, 388 ± 10 kg; mean ± standard error) were fed 1 of 2 dietary treatments. Diets consisted of a low sulfate (0.24% S; control) wheat midd-based pellet or the control pellet with sodium sulfate added to achieve a high-sulfate (0.68% S) pellet. As designed, intake did not differ (P = 0.80) between treatments. At 8 hr postfeeding, ruminal hydrogen sulfide was not affected by cannulation (P = 0.35) but was greater (P < 0.01) in high S (6,005 ± 475 mg/l) than control (1,639 ± 472 mg/l) steers. Time of day of sampling affected (P = 0.01) ruminal hydrogen sulfide, with peak concentrations occurring 4-12 hr after feeding. Urine was collected prefeeding (AM) and 7-9 hr postfeeding (PM). Urine thiosulfate concentrations of high S steers sampled in the PM were greater (P > 0.01) than in the AM. However, there was no difference due to time of sampling for control. In both the AM and PM, urine thiosulfate concentrations of high S were greater (P > 0.01) than control. Although hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate were elevated by increased dietary S intake, a concentration at which polioencephalomalacia is likely to occur could not be determined. Sampling urine for thiosulfate or rumen gas for hydrogen sulfide of nonsymptomatic pen mates 4-8 hr after feeding may be useful to assess sulfur exposure and differentiate between causes of polioencephalomalacia. PMID:22643342

Drewnoski, Mary E; Ensley, Steve M; Beitz, Don C; Schoonmaker, Jon P; Loy, Dan D; Imerman, Paula M; Rathje, John A; Hansen, Stephanie L

2012-07-01

285

Hydrogen sulfide causes vanilloid receptor 1-mediated neurogenic inflammation in the airways  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is described as a mediator of diverse biological effects, and is known to produce irritation and injury in the lung following inhalation. Recently, H2S has been found to cause contraction in the rat urinary bladder via a neurogenic mechanism. Here, we studied whether sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), used as donor of H2S, produces responses mediated by sensory nerve activation in the guinea-pig airways. NaHS evoked an increase in neuropeptide release in the airways that was significantly attenuated by capsaicin desensitization and by the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. In addition, NaHS caused an atropine-resistant contraction of isolated airways, which was completely prevented by capsaicin desensitization. Furthermore, NaHS-induced contraction was reduced by TRPV1 antagonism (ruthenium red, capsazepine and SB366791), and was abolished by pretreatment with the combination of tachykinin NK1 (SR140333) and NK2 (SR48968) receptor antagonists. In anesthetized guinea-pigs, intratracheal instillation of NaHS increased the total lung resistance and airway plasma protein extravasation. These two effects were reduced by TRPV1 antagonism (capsazepine) and tachykinin receptors (SR140333 and SR48968) blockade. Our results provide the first pharmacological evidence that H2S provokes tachykinin-mediated neurogenic inflammatory responses in guinea-pig airways, and that this effect is mediated by stimulation of TRPV1 receptors on sensory nerves endings. This novel mechanism may contribute to the irritative action of H2S in the respiratory system. PMID:15937520

Trevisani, Marcello; Patacchini, Riccardo; Nicoletti, Paola; Gatti, Raffaele; Gazzieri, David; Lissi, Nicola; Zagli, Giovanni; Creminon, Christophe; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Harrison, Selena

2005-01-01

286

Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Early Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia.  

PubMed

We determined the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H?S) in cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and early BBB disruption following ischemic stroke. A cranial window was prepared over the left frontal, parietal and temporal cortex in mice. Transient focal cerebral Ischemia was induced by directly ligating the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for two hours. Regional vascular response and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during ischemia and reperfusion were measured in real time. Early BBB disruption was assessed by Evans Blue (EB) and sodium fluorescein (Na-F) extravasation at 3 hours of reperfusion. Topical treatment with DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an inhibitor for cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE)) and aspartate (ASP, inhibitor for cysteine aminotransferase/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (CAT/3-MST)), but not O-(Carboxymethyl)hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (CHH, an inhibitor for cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS)), abolished postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and prevented EB and Na-F extravasation. CSE knockout (CSE-/-) reduced postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia but only inhibited Na-F extravasation. An upregulated CBS was found in cerebral cortex of CSE-/- mice. Topical treatment with CHH didn't further alter postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia, but prevented EB extravasation in CSE-/- mice. In addition, L-cysteine-induced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production similarly increased in ischemic side cerebral cortex of control and CSE-/- mice. Our findings suggest that endogenous production of H2S by CSE and CAT/3-MST during reperfusion may be involved in postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and play an important role in early BBB disruption following transient focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:25695633

Jiang, Zheng; Li, Chun; Manuel, Morganne L; Yuan, Shuai; Kevil, Christopher G; McCarter, Kimberly D; Lu, Wei; Sun, Hong

2015-01-01

287

Hydrogen sulfide mitigates matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neurovascular permeability in hyperhomocysteinemic mice.  

PubMed

An elevated level of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), was associated with neurovascular diseases. At physiological levels, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) protected the neurovascular system. Because Hcy was also a precursor of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), we sought to test whether the H(2)S protected the brain during HHcy. Cystathionine-beta-synthase heterozygous (CBS+/-) and wild type (WT) mice were supplemented with or without NaHS (30 microM/L, H(2)S donor) in drinking water. Blood flow and cerebral microvascular permeability in pial vessels were measured by intravital microscopy in WT, WT+NaHS, CBS-/+ and (CBS-/+)+NaHS-treated mice. The brain tissues were analyzed for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) by Western blot and RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of CBS and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE, enzyme responsible for conversion of Hcy to H(2)S) genes were measured by RT-PCR. The results showed a significant increase in MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-3 protein and mRNA in CBS (-/+) mice, while H(2)S treatment mitigated this increase. Interstitial localization of MMPs was also apparent through immunohistochemistry. A decrease in protein and mRNA expression of TIMP-4 was observed in CBS (-/+) mice. Microscopy data revealed increase in permeability in CBS (-/+) mice. These effects were ameliorated by H(2)S and suggested that physiological levels of H(2)S supplementation may have therapeutic potential against HHcy-induced microvascular permeability, in part, by normalizing the MMP/TIMP ratio in the brain. PMID:19913585

Tyagi, Neetu; Givvimani, Srikanth; Qipshidze, Natia; Kundu, Soumi; Kapoor, Shray; Vacek, Jonathan C; Tyagi, Suresh C

2010-01-01

288

Contribution of cysteine aminotransferase and mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase to hydrogen sulfide production in peripheral neurons.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous neuromodulator produced from L-cysteine. H2 S is generated by three distinct enzymatic pathways mediated by cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), and mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) coupled with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). This study investigated the relative contributions of these three pathways to H2 S production in PC12 cells (rat pheochromocytoma-derived cells) and the rat dorsal root ganglion. CBS, CAT, and MPST, but not CSE, were expressed in the cells and tissues, and appreciable amounts of H2 S were produced from L-cysteine in the presence of ?-ketoglutarate, together with dithiothreitol. The production of H2 S was inhibited by a CAT inhibitor (aminooxyacetic acid), competitive CAT substrates (L-aspartate and oxaloacetate), and RNA interference (RNAi) against MPST. Immunocytochemistry revealed a mitochondrial localization of MPST in PC12 cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons, and the amount of H2 S produced by CAT/MPST at pH 8.0, a physiological mitochondrial matrix pH, was comparable to that produced by CSE and CBS in the liver and the brain, respectively. Furthermore, H2 S production was markedly increased by alkalization. These results indicate that CAT and MPST are primarily responsible for H2 S production in peripheral neurons, and that the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism may influence neuronal H2 S generation. In the peripheral nervous system, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been implicated in neurogenic pain or hyperalgesia. This study provides evidence that H2 S is synthesized in peripheral neurons through two mitochondrial enzymes, cysteine aminotransferase (CAT) and mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST). We propose that mitochondrial metabolism plays key roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of the peripheral nervous system via regulation of neuronal H2 S production. PMID:24611772

Miyamoto, Ryo; Otsuguro, Ken-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Ito, Shigeo

2014-07-01

289

Evidence that hydrogen sulfide exerts antinociceptive effects in the gastrointestinal tract by activating KATP channels.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) functions as a neuromodulator, but whether it modulates visceral perception and pain is unknown. Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) mediate enzymatic generation of H(2)S in mammalian cells. Here we have investigated the role of H(2)S in modulating nociception to colorectal distension, a model that mimics some features of the irritable bowel syndrome. Four graded (0.4-1.6 ml of water) colorectal distensions (CRDs) were produced in conscious rats (healthy and postcolitic), and rectal nociception was assessed by measuring the behavioral response during CRD. Healthy rats were administered with sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) (as a source of H(2)S), L-cysteine, or vehicle. In a second model, we investigated nociception to CRD in rats recovering from a chemically induced acute colitis. We found that CBS and CSE are expressed in the colon and spinal cord. Treating rats with NaHS resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation of CRD-induced nociception with the maximal effect at 60 micromol/kg (p < 0.05). Administration of L-cysteine, a CSE/CBS substrate, reduced rectal sensitivity to CRD (p < 0.05). NaHS-induced antinociception was reversed by glibenclamide, a ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor, and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), a nitric-oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor. The antinociceptive effect of NaHS was maintained during the resolution of colon inflammation induced by intrarectal administration of a chemical irritant. In summary, these data show that H(2)S inhibits nociception induced by CRD in both healthy and postcolitic rats. This effect is mediated by K(ATP) channels and NO. H(2)S-releasing drugs might be beneficial in treating painful intestinal disorders. PMID:16192316

Distrutti, Eleonora; Sediari, Luca; Mencarelli, Andrea; Renga, Barbara; Orlandi, Stefano; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Roviezzo, Fiorenza; Morelli, Antonio; Cirino, Giuseppe; Wallace, John L; Fiorucci, Stefano

2006-01-01

290

Hydrogen sulfide mitigates cardiac remodeling during myocardial infarction via improvement of angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) leads to down-regulation of inflammatory responses and provides myocardial protection during acute ischemia/reperfusion injury; however its role during chronic heart failure (CHF) due to myocardial infarction (MI) is yet to be unveiled. We previously reported that H2S inhibits antiangiogenic factors such, as endostatin and angiostatin, but a little is known about its effect on parstatin (a fragment of proteinase-activated receptor-1, PAR-1). We hypothesize that H2S inhibits parstatin formation and promotes VEGF activation, thus promoting angiogenesis and significantly limiting the extent of MI injury. To verify this hypothesis MI was created in 12 week-old male mice by ligation of left anterior descending artery (LAD). Sham surgery was performed except LAD ligation. After the surgery mice were treated with sodium hydrogen sulfide (30 ?mol/l NaHS, a donor for H2S, in drinking water) for 4 weeks. The LV tissue was analyzed for VEGF, flk-1 and flt-1, endostatin, angiostatin and parstatin. The expression of VEGF, flk-1 and flt-1 were significantly increased in treated mice while the level of endostatin, angiostatin and parstatin were decreased compared to in untreated mice. The echocardiography in mice treated with H2S showed the improvement of heart function compared to in untreated mice. The X-ray and Doppler blood flow measurements showed enhancement of cardiac-angiogenesis in mice treated with H2S. This observed cytoprotection was associated with an inhibition of anti-angiogenic proteins and stimulation of angiogenic factors. We established that administration of H2S at the time of MI ameliorated infarct size and preserved LV function during development of MI in mice. These results suggest that H2S is cytoprotective and angioprotective during evolution of MI. PMID:22419888

Qipshidze, Natia; Metreveli, Naira; Mishra, Paras K; Lominadze, David; Tyagi, Suresh C

2012-01-01

291

Hydrogenation reactions of ethylene on neutral vanadium sulfide clusters: experimental and theoretical studies.  

PubMed

The reactions of C(2)H(4) with H(2) on neutral vanadium sulfide clusters in a fast flow reactor are investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometry employing 118 nm (10.5 eV) single photon ionization. The experimental products of these reactions are V(m)S(n)C(2)H(x) (m=1, n=1-3; m=2, n=1-5, and x=4-6). Observation of these products indicates that these V(m)S(n) clusters have high catalytic activity for hydrogenation reactions of C(2)H(4). Density functional theory calculations at the BPW91/TZVP level are carried out to explore the geometric and electronic structures of the V(m)S(n) clusters and to determine reaction intermediates and transition states, as well as reaction mechanisms. All reactions are estimated as overall barrierless or with only a small barrier (0.1 eV), and are thermodynamically favorable processes at room temperature. The ethylene molecule is predicted to connect with active V atoms through its ?-orbital or form a ?-bond with active V atoms of catalytic V(m)S(n) clusters. The S atoms bonding with active V atoms play an important role in the dissociation of the H(2) molecule; H atoms transfer to the C(2)H(4) (one after another) following breaking of the H-H bond. A catalytic cycle for C(2)H(4) hydrogenation reactions on a vanadium sulfide catalyst surface is suggested based on our experimental and theoretical investigations. PMID:21838236

Yin, Shi; Xie, Yan; Bernstein, Elliot R

2011-09-22

292

Hydrogen sulfide is essential for Schwann cell responses to peripheral nerve injury.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) functions as a physiological gas transmitter in both normal and pathophysiological cellular events. H2 S is produced from substances by three enzymes: cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST). In human tissues, these enzymes are involved in tissue-specific biochemical pathways for H2 S production. For example, CBS and cysteine aminotransferase/MST are present in the brain, but CSE is not. Thus, we examined the expression of H2 S production-related enzymes in peripheral nerves. Here, we found that CSE and MST/cysteine aminotransferase, but not CBS, were present in normal peripheral nerves. In addition, injured sciatic nerves in vivo up-regulated CSE in Schwann cells during Wallerian degeneration (WD); however, CSE was not up-regulated in peripheral axons. Using an ex vivo sciatic nerve explant culture, we found that the inhibition of H2 S production broadly prevented the process of nerve degeneration, including myelin fragmentation, axonal degradation, Schwann cell dedifferentiation, and Schwann cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, these results indicate that H2 S signaling is essential for Schwann cell responses to peripheral nerve injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) functions as a physiological gas transmitter in both normal and pathophysiological cellular events. H2 S is produced from cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (MST). Here, we found that CSE and MST/CAT were present in normal peripheral nerves. Injured static nerves in vivo up-regulated CSE in Schwann cells during Wallerian degeneration, but CSE was not up-regulated in peripheral axons. PMID:25123509

Park, Byung Sun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Rhyu, Im Joo; Park, Chan; Yeo, Seung Geun; Huh, Youngbuhm; Jeong, Na Young; Jung, Junyang

2015-01-01

293

Design of a sorbent to enhance reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

A series of novel zinc oxide-silica composites with three-dimensionally ordered macropores (3DOM) structure were synthesized via colloidal crystal template method and used as sorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal at room temperature for the first time. The performances of the prepared sorbents were evaluated by dynamic breakthrough testing. The materials were characterized before and after adsorption using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the composite with 3DOM structure exhibited remarkable desulfurization performance at room temperature and the enhancement of reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulfide was attributed to the unique structure features of 3DOM composites; high surface areas, nanocrystalline ZnO and the well-ordered interconnected macroporous with abundant mesopores. The introduction of silica could be conducive to support the 3DOM structure and the high dispersion of zinc oxide. Moisture in the H2S stream plays a crucial role in the removal process. The effects of Zn/Si ratio and the calcination temperature of 3DOM composites on H2S removal were studied. It demonstrated that the highest content of ZnO could reach up to 73 wt % and the optimum calcination temperature was 500 °C. The multiple adsorption/regeneration cycles showed that the 3DOM ZnO-SiO2 sorbent is stable and the sulfur capacity can still reach 67.4% of that of the fresh sorbent at the fifth cycle. These results indicate that 3DOM ZnO-SiO2 composites will be a promising sorbent for H2S removal at room temperature. PMID:25382853

Wang, Long-Jiang; Fan, Hui-Ling; Shangguan, Ju; Croiset, Eric; Chen, Zhongwei; Wang, Hui; Mi, Jie

2014-12-10

294

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot fuel gas using an electrochemical membrane system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur is a natural contaminant in nearly all fossil fuel supplies. When a fuel stream is gasified or reformed, the sulfur manifests itself in the form of hydrogen sulfide, H2S. Extraordinary effort is put forth to remove H2S to at least ppm levels before the fuel can be used for power generation. To compete with current methods, an electrochemical membrane system (EMS) is now being studied to remove H2S in one step at high temperature. This process offers continuous H2S removal at an estimated operating cost of $0.32/kg H2S removed and a capital cost that is roughly half that of a Claus plant with tail-gas clean-up. Other advantages are the considerable savings in energy and space compared to current methods. A bench scale set-up was constructed to test the cell performance at 600-700°C and 1 atm. The typical fuel stream inlet proportions were 34% CO, 22% CO2, 35% H2, 8% H2O, and 450-2000 ppm H2S. The fundamental transport restrictions for sulfur species in an electrochemical cell were examined. Temperature and membrane thickness were varied to examine how these parameters affect the maximum flux of H 2S removal. It was found that higher temperature allows more sulfide species to enter the electrolyte, thus increasing the sulfide flux across the membrane and raising the maximum flux of H2S removal. Also, membrane thickness was found to be a critical parameter in cell design. A thinner membrane decreases the distance that sulfide ions must travel to be oxidized at the anode. These results identify sulfide diffusion across the membrane as the rate-limiting step in H2S removal. The maximum H2S removal flux of 1.1 x 10-6 gmol H2S min-1 cm-2 (or 3.5 mA cm-2) was obtained at 650°C, with a membrane that was 0.9 mm thick, 36% porous, and had an estimated tortuosity of 3.6. Another focus of this thesis was to examine the stability of cathode materials in full cell trials. A major hurdle that remains in process scale-up is cathode selection, as the lifetime of the cell will depend heavily on the lifetime of the cathode material, which is exposed to very sour gas. Materials that showed success in the past (i.e cobalt sulfides and Y0.9Ca 0.1FeO3) were examined but were seen to have limitations in operating environment and temperature. Therefore, other novel metal oxide compounds were studied to find possible candidates for full cell trials. Gd2TiMoO7 and La0.7Sr0.3VO 3 were the compounds that retained their structure best even when exposed to high H2S, CO2, and H2O concentrations. They also showed no sign of melting at operating temperatures. But Gd 2TiMoO7 was seen to have better stability with electrolyte present, whereas La0.7Sr0.3VO3 was seen to have better stability in the pure sour gas stream without electrolyte present. A layered electrode that could help preserve a stable environment for each of these compounds should be explored in future research.

Burke, Adrian Alan

295

Hydrogen sulfide oxidation is coupled to oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of Solemya reidi  

SciTech Connect

Solemya reidi, a gutless clam found in sulfide-rich habitats, contains within its gills bacterial symbionts thought to oxidize sulfur compounds and provide a reduced carbon food source to the clam. However, the initial step or steps in sulfide oxidation occur in the animal tissue, and mitochondria isolated from both gill and symbiont-free foot tissue of the clam coupled the oxidation of sulfide to oxidative phosphorylation (adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis). The ability of Solemya reidi to exploit directly the energy in sulfide for ATP synthesis is unprecedented, and suggests that sulfide-habitat animals that lack bacterial symbionts may also use sulfide as an inorganic energy source.

Powell, M.A.; Somero, G.N.

1986-08-01

296

Reactions of ti, zr, and hf atoms with hydrogen sulfide: argon matrix infrared spectra and theoretical calculations.  

PubMed

Laser-ablated Ti, Zr, and Hf atoms have been codeposited at 4 K with hydrogen sulfide in excess argon. The metal atoms insert into the S-H bond of hydrogen sulfide to form the HMSH, H2MS, and H2M(SH)2 molecules (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), which were identified on the basis of the D2S and H2(34)S isotopic substitutions. The observed vibrational frequencies of these species were reproduced by B3LYP functional calculations. The reaction mechanisms have been proposed on the potential energy surface of the studied system to account for the formation of these molecules. We have made a theoretical prediction about the H2MS complexes dehydrogenation, which can provide a novel proposal for generating hydrogen from H2S. PMID:25000436

Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Xuefeng

2015-03-19

297

ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT CARBON NANOTUBE MODIFIED ELECTRODES. (R830900)  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibiting a strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards sulfide are described. A substantial (400 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the sulfide oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is...

298

A study of the reactions of arsinic and arsonic acids with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen selenide  

E-print Network

of phenylcarboxymethylarsinic acid with hydrogen selenide produced 1, 4-diphenyl-1, 4-diarsa-2, 3, 5-triselenacyclopentane. The structure of this compound was determined by single crystal x-ray crystallography. The reactions of a series of arsonic acids including phenyl, p-methyl... OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Page Synthesis of 1, 4-Diphenyl-1, 4-diarsa-2, 3, 5-triselenacyclopentane Synthesis of 1, 4-Diphenyl-1, 4-diarsa-2, 3, 5-trithiacyclopentane Reaction of Phenylcarboxymethylarsinic Acid with Benzenethiol Synthesis of Phenyl Di...

Applegate, Cynthia Annette

1986-01-01

299

Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide on oxidative stress and fibrosis in hepatic stellate cells.  

PubMed

In hepatic fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are activated and change into myofibroblast-like cells which are characterized by increased proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on hepatic fibrosis. We detected the proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free calcium levels in ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-activated HSCs treated with sodium hydrogen sulphide (NaHS), an H2S-releasing molecule. We also evaluated the effects of NaHS on fibrosis and ECM synthesis in rats with hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). MTT assay revealed that NaHS (500 µmol/l) suppressed the Fe-NTA-induced proliferation of HSC-T6 cells in a dose-dependent manner. NaHS induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the Fe-NTA-treated HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, in the Fe-NTA-treated HSC-T6 cells, NaHS reduced intracellular levels of ROS at 1, 3 and 6 h and reduced intracellular free calcium levels at 3 and 6 h. H2S administration attenuated hepatic fibrosis and collagen ? protein expression in the rats with CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, exogenous H2S inhibits proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in activated HSCs and attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and ECM expression. PMID:23129058

Fan, Hai-Ning; Wang, Hai-Jiu; Yang-Dan, Cai-Rang; Ren, Li; Wang, Cong; Li, Yan-Fei; Deng, Yong

2013-01-01

300

Kinetics and mechanisms of iron sulfide reductions in hydrogen and in carbon monoxide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reduction of iron sulfides by hydrogen and by carbon monoxide has been studied using plug flow and thermogravimetric methods. The reactions were studied in the 523-723??K temperature range and were found to be first-order processes. Plug flow studies were used to correlate reaction rates between pyrite and the gases as a function of the surface area of the pyrite. The rate of H2S formation increases with the surface area of the pyrite sample. The results of thermogravimetric experiments indicate that the reactions consist of several steps. Rate constants for the pyrite reduction by H2 and by CO were obtained. The activation energies increased with degree of reduction. Values of Ea were 113.2 (step I) and 122.5 kJ/mole (step II) for pyrite reduction with CO and 99.4 (step I), 122.4 (step II), 125.2 (step III), and 142.6 kJ/mole (step IV) for pyrite reduction with hydrogen. ?? 1987.

Wiltowski, T.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, G.V.; Nishizawa, T.; Saporoschenko, M.; Shiley, R.H.; Webster, J.R.

1987-01-01

301

Mobile measurement of methane and hydrogen sulfide at natural gas production site fence lines in the Texas Barnett Shale.  

PubMed

Production of natural gas from shale formations is bringing drilling and production operations to regions of the United States that have seen little or no similar activity in the past, which has generated considerable interest in potential environmental impacts. This study focused on the Barnett Shale Fort Worth Basin in Texas, which saw the number of gas-producing wells grow from 726 in 2001 to 15,870 in 2011. This study aimed to measure fence line concentrations of methane and hydrogen sulfide at natural gas production sites (wells, liquid storage tanks, and associated equipment) in the four core counties of the Barnett Shale (Denton, Johnson, Tarrant, and Wise). A mobile measurement survey was conducted in the vicinity of 4788 wells near 401 lease sites, representing 35% of gas production volume, 31% of wells, and 38% of condensate production volume in the four-county core area. Methane and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were measured using a Picarro G2204 cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS). Since the research team did not have access to lease site interiors, measurements were made by driving on roads on the exterior of the lease sites. Over 150 hr of data were collected from March to July 2012. During two sets of drive-by measurements, it was found that 66 sites (16.5%) had methane concentrations > 3 parts per million (ppm) just beyond the fence line. Thirty-two lease sites (8.0%) had hydrogen sulfide concentrations > 4.7 parts per billion (ppb) (odor recognition threshold) just beyond the fence line. Measured concentrations generally did not correlate well with site characteristics (natural gas production volume, number of wells, or condensate production). t tests showed that for two counties, methane concentrations for dry sites were higher than those for wet sites. Follow-up study is recommended to provide more information at sites identified with high levels of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Implications: Information regarding air emissions from shale gas production is important given the recent increase in number of wells in various regions in the United States. Methane, the primary natural gas constituent, is a greenhouse gas; hydrogen sulfide, which can be present in gas condensate, is an odor-causing compound. This study surveyed wells representing one-third of the natural gas production volume in the Texas Barnett Shale and identified the percent of sites that warrant further study due to their fence line methane and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. PMID:25185395

Eapi, Gautam R; Sabnis, Madhu S; Sattler, Melanie L

2014-08-01

302

Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part I. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Until recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was exclusively viewed a toxic gas and an environmental hazard, with its toxicity primarily attributed to the inhibition of mitochondrial Complex IV, resulting in a shutdown of mitochondrial electron transport and cellular ATP generation. Work over the last decade established multiple biological regulatory roles of H2S, as an endogenous gaseous transmitter. H2S is produced by cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). In striking contrast to its inhibitory effect on Complex IV, recent studies showed that at lower concentrations, H2S serves as a stimulator of electron transport in mammalian cells, by acting as a mitochondrial electron donor. Endogenous H2S, produced by mitochondrially localized 3-MST, supports basal, physiological cellular bioenergetic functions; the activity of this metabolic support declines with physiological aging. In specialized conditions (calcium overload in vascular smooth muscle, colon cancer cells), CSE and CBS can also associate with the mitochondria; H2S produced by these enzymes, serves as an endogenous stimulator of cellular bioenergetics. The current article overviews the biochemical mechanisms underlying the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H2S on mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics and discusses the implication of these processes for normal cellular physiology. The relevance of H2S biology is also discussed in the context of colonic epithelial cell physiology: colonocytes are exposed to high levels of sulfide produced by enteric bacteria, and serve as a metabolic barrier to limit their entry into the mammalian host, while, at the same time, utilizing it as a metabolic ‘fuel’. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:23991830

Szabo, Csaba; Ransy, Céline; Módis, Katalin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Murghes, Baptiste; Coletta, Ciro; Olah, Gabor; Yanagi, Kazunori; Bouillaud, Frédéric

2014-01-01

303

Regulation of hydrogen sulfide liberation in wine-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by assimilable nitrogen.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine-producing yeast cultures grown under model winemaking conditions could be induced to liberate hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by starvation for assimilable nitrogen. The amount of H2S produced was dependent on the yeast strain, the sulfur precursor compound, the culture growth rate, and the activity of the sulfite reductase enzyme (EC 1.8.1.2) immediately before nitrogen depletion. Increased H2S formation relative to its utilization by metabolism was not a consequence of a de novo synthesis of sulfite reductase. The greatest amount of H2S was produced when nitrogen became depleted during the exponential phase of growth or during growth on amino acids capable of supporting short doubling times. Both sulfate and sulfite were able to act as substrates for the generation of H2S in the absence of assimilable nitrogen; however, sulfate reduction was tightly regulated, leading to limited H2S liberation, whereas sulfite reduction appeared to be uncontrolled. In addition to ammonium, most amino acids were able to suppress the liberation of excess H2S when added as sole sources of nitrogen, particularly for one of the strains studied. Cysteine was the most notable exception, inducing the liberation of H2S at levels exceeding that of the nitrogen-depleted control. Threonine and proline also proved to be poor substitutes for ammonium. These data suggest that any compound that can efficiently generate sulfide-binding nitrogenous precursors of organic sulfur compounds will prevent the liberation of excess H2S. PMID:7574581

Jiranek, V; Langridge, P; Henschke, P A

1995-01-01

304

Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part I. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms.  

PubMed

Until recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) was exclusively viewed a toxic gas and an environmental hazard, with its toxicity primarily attributed to the inhibition of mitochondrial Complex IV, resulting in a shutdown of mitochondrial electron transport and cellular ATP generation. Work over the last decade established multiple biological regulatory roles of H2 S, as an endogenous gaseous transmitter. H2 S is produced by cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). In striking contrast to its inhibitory effect on Complex IV, recent studies showed that at lower concentrations, H2 S serves as a stimulator of electron transport in mammalian cells, by acting as a mitochondrial electron donor. Endogenous H2 S, produced by mitochondrially localized 3-MST, supports basal, physiological cellular bioenergetic functions; the activity of this metabolic support declines with physiological aging. In specialized conditions (calcium overload in vascular smooth muscle, colon cancer cells), CSE and CBS can also associate with the mitochondria; H2 S produced by these enzymes, serves as an endogenous stimulator of cellular bioenergetics. The current article overviews the biochemical mechanisms underlying the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H2 S on mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics and discusses the implication of these processes for normal cellular physiology. The relevance of H2 S biology is also discussed in the context of colonic epithelial cell physiology: colonocytes are exposed to high levels of sulfide produced by enteric bacteria, and serve as a metabolic barrier to limit their entry into the mammalian host, while, at the same time, utilizing it as a metabolic 'fuel'. PMID:23991830

Szabo, Csaba; Ransy, Céline; Módis, Katalin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Murghes, Baptiste; Coletta, Ciro; Olah, Gabor; Yanagi, Kazunori; Bouillaud, Frédéric

2014-04-01

305

Vasoactivity of hydrogen sulfide in normoxic and anoxic turtles (Trachemys scripta).  

PubMed

Systemic vascular resistance (R(sys)) of freshwater turtles increases substantially during anoxia, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), an endogenously produced metabolite believed to be an O(2) sensor/transducer of vasomotor tone, contributes to the increased R(sys) of anoxic red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta). Vascular infusion of the H(2)S donor NaHS in anesthetized turtles at 21 degrees C and fully recovered normoxic turtles at 5 degrees C and 21 degrees C revealed H(2)S to be a potent vasoconstrictor of the systemic circulation. Likewise, wire myography of isolated turtle mesenteric and pulmonary arteries demonstrated H(2)S to mediate an anoxia-induced constriction. Intriguingly, however, NaHS did not exert vasoconstrictory effects during anoxia (6 h at 21 degrees C; 14 days at 5 degrees C) when plasma H(2)S concentration, estimated from the colorimetric measurement of plasma acid-labile sulfide concentration, likely increased by approximately 3- and 4-fold during anoxia at 21 degrees C, and 5 degrees C, respectively. Yet, blockade of endogenous H(2)S production by DL-propargylglycine or hydroxylamine (0.44 mmol/kg) partially reversed the decreased systemic conductance (G(sys)) exhibited by 5 degrees C anoxic turtles. These findings suggest that the signal transduction pathway of H(2)S-mediated vasoactivity is either maximally activated in the systemic circulation of anoxic turtles and/or that it is oxygen dependent. PMID:20164201

Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Skovgaard, Nini; Nilsson, Göran E; Wang, Tobias

2010-05-01

306

Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

2005-10-01

307

Biochemical properties of nematode O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase paralogs imply their distinct roles in hydrogen sulfide homeostasis.  

PubMed

O-Acetylserine(thiol)lyases (OAS-TLs) play a pivotal role in a sulfur assimilation pathway incorporating sulfide into amino acids in microorganisms and plants, however, these enzymes have not been found in the animal kingdom. Interestingly, the genome of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans contains three expressed genes predicted to encode OAS-TL orthologs (cysl-1-cysl-3), and a related pseudogene (cysl-4); these genes play different roles in resistance to hypoxia, hydrogen sulfide and cyanide. To get an insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms we purified the three recombinant worm OAS-TL proteins, and we determined their enzymatic activities, substrate binding affinities, quaternary structures and the conformations of their active site shapes. We show that the nematode OAS-TL orthologs can bind O-acetylserine and catalyze the canonical reaction although this ligand may more likely serve as a competitive inhibitor to natural substrates instead of being a substrate for sulfur assimilation. In addition, we propose that S-sulfocysteine may be a novel endogenous substrate for these proteins. However, we observed that the three OAS-TL proteins are conformationally different and exhibit distinct substrate specificity. Based on the available evidences we propose the following model: CYSL-1 interacts with EGL-9 and activates HIF-1 that upregulates expression of genes detoxifying sulfide and cyanide, the CYSL-2 acts as a cyanoalanine synthase in the cyanide detoxification pathway and simultaneously produces hydrogen sulfide, while the role of CYSL-3 remains unclear although it exhibits sulfhydrylase activity in vitro. All these data indicate that C. elegans OAS-TL paralogs have distinct cellular functions and may play different roles in maintaining hydrogen sulfide homeostasis. PMID:24100226

Vozdek, Roman; Hnízda, Aleš; Krijt, Jakub; Será, Leona; Kožich, Viktor

2013-12-01

308

New spectrophotometric methods for the determinations of hydrogen sulfide present in the samples of lake water, industrial effluents, tender coconut, sugarcane juice and egg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new methods are working on the principle that iron(III) is reduced to iron(II) by hydrogen sulfide, catechol and p-toluidine the system 1/hydrogen sulfide the system 2, in acidic medium followed by the reduced iron forming complex with 1,10-phenanthroline with ?max 510 nm. The other two methods are based on redox reactions between electrolytically generated manganese(III) sulfate taken in excess and hydrogen sulfide followed by the unreacted oxidant oxidizing diphenylamine ?max 570 the system 3/barium diphenylamine sulphonate ?max 540 nm, the system 4. The increase/decrease in the color intensity of the dye products of the systems 1 and 2 or 3 and 4 are proportional to the concentration of hydrogen sulfide with its quantification range 0.035-1.40 ?g ml-1/0.14-1.40 ?g ml-1.

Shyla, B.; Nagendrappa, G.

2012-10-01

309

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30

310

Geothermal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does geothermal energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to heat within the Earth as an energy source. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and limitations of geothermal energy. Articles and information on places around the world that use geothermal energy and geothermal use by schools in Iowa are available from a sidebar. A link to a map of geothermal hotspots around the world is provided, along with a link to an ABC News article about geothermal power.

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

311

Microbiological removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas by means of a separate biofilter system: experience with technical operation.  

PubMed

The "BIO-Sulfex" biofilter of ATZ-EVUS removes hydrogen sulfide from biogas in a biological way. Hydrogen sulfide causes massive problems during power generation from biogas in a power plant, e.g. corrosion of engines and heat exchangers, and thus causes frequent and therefore expensive engine oil changes. The BIO-Sulfex module is placed between the digester and the power-plant and warrants a cost-effective, reliable and fully biological desulfurization. In the cleaned gas concentrations of less than 100 ppm can be achieved. Power-plant manufacturers usually demand less than 500 or less than 200 ppm. At present, several plants with biogas flow rates between 20 and 350 m3/h are in operation. PMID:14531443

Schieder, D; Quicker, P; Schneider, R; Winter, H; Prechtl, S; Faulstich, M

2003-01-01

312

Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process  

SciTech Connect

The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

1983-01-01

313

[Hydrogen sulfide inhibits Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in spontaneously hypertensive rats].  

PubMed

In experiments in vivo and in vitro on the mitochondria isolated from the control and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) hearts, we studied the effects of a donor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), NaHS, and H2S biosynthesis substrate, L-cysteine, on the sensitivity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening to its natural inductor, Ca2+. We found that NaHS (10(-4), 10(-5) and 5 10(-5) mol/l) influenced the mitochondrial swelling in a concentration-dependent manner in control and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The H2S donor NaHS used in physiological concentrations (10(-6), 10(-5) and 5 10(-5) mol/l) exerted the inhibiting effect on the Ca(2+)-induced mPTP opening in control hearts (corresponding values of such effect were 31, 76, and 100%, respectively), while in spontaneously hypertensive rats hearts the protector effect of NaHS was observed only at its concentration of 10(-5) - 10(-4) mol/l. In experiments in vivo, single intraperitoneal injections of L-cysteine (10(-3) mol/kg) resulted in a decrease in the sensitivity of mPTP to it's inductor Ca2+ in control rats and SHR. In experiments in vivo in which we used a specific blocker of cystathionine-gamma-lyase, propargylglycine (10(-4) mol/kg), with the further injections of L-cysteine we observed a decrease in the threshold Ca2+ concentration (that induce the mitochondrial swelling) by three orders of magnitude in SHR, but in control rats did not effect of L-cysteine. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous hydrogen sulfide inhibits Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, indicating its protective effect on pore formation in spontaneously hypertensive rats hearts. Therefore, our studies are indicative of the involvement of H2S in modulation of changes in the permeability of mitochondrial membranes, which can be an important regulatory factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23713344

Strutyns'ka, N A; Dorofeieva, N O; Vavilova, H L; Sahach, V F

2013-01-01

314

Proresolution effects of hydrogen sulfide during colitis are mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor-1?.  

PubMed

During a course of colitis, production of the gaseous mediator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is markedly up-regulated at sites of mucosal damage and contributes significantly to healing and resolution of inflammation. The signaling mechanisms through which H2S promotes resolution of colitis are unknown. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of H2S in experimental colitis are mediated via stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?. The hapten dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid was used to induce colitis in rats and mice. This resulted in an elevated expression of the H2S-producing enzyme, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and HIF-1? at sites of mucosal ulceration, and the expression of these 2 enzymes followed a similar pattern throughout the course of colitis. This represented a functionally important relationship because the loss of CSE-derived H2S production led to decreased HIF-1? stabilization and exacerbation of colitis. Furthermore, application of an H2S-releasing molecule, diallyl disulfide (DADS), stabilized colonic HIF-1? expression, up-regulated hypoxia-responsive genes, and reduced the severity of disease during peak inflammation. Importantly, the ability of DADS to promote the resolution of colitis was abolished when coadministered with an inhibitor of HIF-1? in vivo (PX-478). DADS was also able to maintain HIF-1? expression at a later point in colitis, when HIF-1? levels would have normally returned to control levels, and to enhance resolution. Finally, we found that HIF-1? stabilization inhibited colonic H2S production and may represent a negative feedback mechanism to prevent prolonged HIF-1? stabilization. Our findings demonstrate an important link between H2S and HIF-1? in the resolution of inflammation and injury during colitis and provide mechanistic insights into the therapeutic value of H2S donors.-Flannigan, K. L., Agbor, T. A., Motta, J. -P., Ferraz, J. G. P., Wang, R., Buret, A. G., Wallace, J. L. Proresolution effects of hydrogen sulfide during colitis are mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor-1?. PMID:25550470

Flannigan, Kyle L; Agbor, Terence A; Motta, Jean-Paul; Ferraz, José G P; Wang, Rui; Buret, Andre G; Wallace, John L

2015-04-01

315

Source Of Hydrogen Sulfide To Sulfidic Spring And Watershed Ecosystems In Northern Sierra De Chiapas, Mexico Based On Sulfur And Carbon Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least four watersheds in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico are fed by conspicuous karst sulfide-rich springs. The toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in these springs nurtures rich ecosystems including especially adapted microorganisms, invertebrates and fish. Sulfur and carbon isotopic analysis of various chemical species in the spring water are integrated within their hydrogeologic context to evaluate the hydrogen sulfide source. Constraining the H2S origin can also increase the understanding of this compound effect in the quality of the nearby hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the extent to which its oxidation to sulfuric acid increases carbonate dissolution and steel corrosion in surface structures. The SO42-/H2S ratio in the spring water varies from 70,000 to 2 meq/L thus sulfate is the dominant species in the groundwater system. This sulfate is mainly produced from anhydrite dissolution based on its isotopic signature. The ? SO42--H2S range of 16 spring water samples (30-50 ‰) is similar to the values determined by Goldhaber & Kaplan (1975) and Canfield (2001) for low rates of bacterial sulfate reduction suggesting that this is the most important mechanism producing H2S. Although the carbon isotopes do not constrain the nature of the organic matter participating in this reaction, this material likely comes from depth, perhaps as hydrocarbons, due to the apparent stability of the system. The organic matter availability and reactivity probably control the progress of sulfate reduction. The subsurface environments identified in the area also have different sulfur isotopic values. The heavier residual sulfate isotopic value in the Northern brackish springs (?34S SO42- ? 18 ‰) compared to the Southern springs (?34S SO42- ~18 ‰) suggests sulfate reduction is particularly enhanced in the former, probably by contribution of organic matter associated with oil produced water. In comparison, the composition of the Southern aquifer is mainly influenced by halite dissolution. Fresh water from the Local environment percolates into the Northern and the Southern environments. Mixing between these three aquifers may enhance bacterial sulfate reduction, thus increasing the H2S concentration in the sulfidic springs. The integration of the geochemical attributes and the aquatic communities at each watershed will produce a more comprehensive view of these spring ecosystems and their temporal and spatial evolution.

Rosales Lagarde, L.; Boston, P. J.; Campbell, A.

2013-12-01

316

Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability has not been observed. A new test cell specially designed to test the membranes has been constructed to provide basic science data on superpermeability.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

2006-09-30

317

NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a residence time of 18.8 s with a flow rate of 39.4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s (5 ft{sup 3}/h) and a specific energy of 13,000 J/l using niobium and platinum coated stainless steel tubes as cathodes. Under these conditions, the First Law efficiency for the system was 8%. Under similar reaction conditions, methane conversions were {approx}50% higher with niobium and platinum coated stainless steel cathodes than with a stainless steel cathode.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

2004-07-01

318

The influence of chemical composition and microstructure of API linepipe steels on hydrogen induced cracking and sulfide stress corrosion cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and microstructure are known to have a significant effect on the resistance to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) of structural steels in wet H2S environments. In this paper, the influence of microstructure on HIC and SSCC behavior of two low C–Mn–Nb–Mo API linepipe steels has been investigated. Subjecting the steel to different

Rogério Augusto Carneiro; Rajindra Clement Ratnapuli; Vanessa de Freitas Cunha Lins

2003-01-01

319

The Possible Role of Hydrogen Sulfide as an Endogenous Smooth Muscle Relaxant in Synergy with Nitric Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is well known as a toxic gas, is produced endogenously in mammalian tissues from L-cysteine mainly by two pyridoxal-5?-phosphate-dependent enzymes, cystathionine ?-synthetase and cystathionine ?-lyase. Recently, we showed that cystathionine ?-synthetase in the brain produces H2S, and that H2S facilitates the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation by enhancing NMDA receptor activity. Here we show that mRNA

Rumiko Hosoki; Norio Matsuki; Hideo Kimura

1997-01-01

320

Hydrogen sulfide inhalation decreases early blood-brain barrier permeability and brain edema induced by cardiac arrest and resuscitation.  

PubMed

The effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of exogenous 80-p.p.m. H2S gas on BBB, brain water content, neurologic outcome, and survival rate after CA and CPR. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation followed CA induced in rats by ventricular fibrillation for 6?minutes. Results show that inhalation of 80-p.p.m. H2S significantly reduced the permeability of the BBB in both in the cortex and hippocampus at 24?hours after resuscitation. Hydrogen sulfide also lessened brain edema in the cortex and hippocampus, ameliorated neurologic outcome as evaluated by neurologic deficit score and tape removal test, and improved the 14-day survival rate. Hydrogen sulfide also attenuated CA and CPR-induced increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and increased the expression of angiogenin-1 (Ang-1). These results indicate that inhalation of 80-p.p.m. H2S immediately after CPR attenuated BBB permeability and brain edema, and improved neurologic outcome and 14-day survival of rats after CA. The therapeutic benefits of H2S could be associated with suppression of MMP-9 and VEGF expression and increased expression of Ang-1. PMID:25492119

Geng, Yingjie; Li, Eerdunmutu; Mu, Qier; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Xia; Li, Hangbing; Cheng, Long; Zhang, Bing

2015-03-01

321

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based study on serum metabolomics in rats chronically poisoned with hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide poisoning is a common occupational hazard, whose mortality and incidence rates are first and second, respectively, among occupational poisoning incidents in China. The main target organs of its toxicity are in the central nervous system and respiratory system. However, there are currently no specific direct tests that can be used to diagnose poisoned patients. In this study, we developed a serum metabonomic method using orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to evaluate the effect of chronic poisoning by hydrogen sulfide in rats. The OPLS-DA data demonstrated that the model group (n = 60) differed significantly from the control group (n = 30), suggesting that the metabolic profiles of the two groups are markedly different. Alterations in the levels of some metabolites such as citrate, galactose, lactate, mannose, inositol, urea, phosphate, alanine and valine were detected by OPLS-DA analysis. We observed changes in metabolic pathways including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and amino metabolism in the model group. Our results indicate that GC/MS-based metabonomic methods may provide novel detection means for chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning. PMID:25882152

Deng, Mingjie; Zhang, Meiling; Huang, Xueli; Ma, Jianshe; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

2015-05-01

322

H sub 2 S abatement in geothermal steam during stacking operations  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of abating hydrogen sulfide in stacked geothermal steam. It comprises: injecting ferric chelating solution into a geothermal steam stacking line vented through a rock muffler directly to the atmosphere, sufficiently upstream from the rock muffler wherein the steam and injected chelating solution having a contact time of 0.2--1.0 seconds, and in an amount effective to abate hydrogen sulfide in the geothermal steam vented therethrough, whereby the hydrogen sulfide therein is substantially converted to elemental sulfur and the ferric chelate is reduced to ferrous chelate; collecting the chelating solution and the sulfur in a basin in the rock muffler; withdrawing the chelating solution from the basin; separating the sulfur from the chelating solution; and oxidizing the chelating solution to regenerate the ferrous chelate to ferric chelate for reuse in the injection step.

Bedell, S.A.; Hammond, C.A.; Kirby, L.H.

1990-10-02

323

Hydrogen sulfide induces apoptosis in epithelial cells derived from human gingiva.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is not only one of the main causes of halitosis but is also an agent of toxicity against periodontal cells and tissues in biofilm-related periodontal diseases. Also, apoptosis of gingival epithelial cells may play an important role in the onset and progress of periodontitis. We examined the effect of H(2)S on the induction of apoptosis, using human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and keratinocyte-like Ca9-22 cells derived from human gingiva. The cells were incubated with H(2)S (100 ng ml(-1)) for 24, 48 or 72 h by adding H(2)S to air containing 5% CO(2), supplied constantly to the culture environment during incubation. The incidence of apoptosis caused by H(2)S was determined with Annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The proportion of apoptotic cells was significantly increased by exposure to H(2)S for 48 h in comparison with the control in both Ca9-22 cells and HGF. A concentration of 100 ng ml(-1) H(2)S in air is possible in the gingival sulcus. This study indicates that apoptosis in gingival epithelial cells and HGF by H(2)S may occur in the oral cavity, which may cause a periodontal condition. PMID:21386151

Murata, T; Yaegaki, K; Qian, W; Herai, M; Calenic, B; Imai, T; Sato, T; Tanaka, T; Kamoda, T; Ii, H

2008-03-01

324

Hydrogen sulfide interacts with calcium signaling to enhance the chromium tolerance in Setaria italica.  

PubMed

The oscillation of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration is a primary event in numerous biological processes in plants, including stress response. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an emerging gasotransmitter, was found to have positive effects in plants responding to chromium (Cr(6+)) stress through interacting with Ca(2+) signaling. While Ca(2+) resemblances H2S in mediating biotic and abiotic stresses, crosstalk between the two pathways remains unclear. In this study, Ca(2+) signaling interacted with H2S to produce a complex physiological response, which enhanced the Cr(6+) tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Results indicate that Cr(6+) stress activated endogenous H2S synthesis as well as Ca(2+) signaling. Moreover, toxic symptoms caused by Cr(6+) stress were strongly moderated by 50?M H2S and 20mM Ca(2+). Conversely, treatments with H2S synthesis inhibitor and Ca(2+) chelators prior to Cr(6+)-exposure aggravated these toxic symptoms. Interestingly, Ca(2+) upregulated expression of two important factors in metal metabolism, MT3A and PCS, which participated in the biosynthesis of heavy metal chelators, in a H2S-dependent manner to cope with Cr(6+) stress. These findings also suggest that the H2S dependent pathway is a component of the Ca(2+) activating antioxidant system and H2S partially contributes Ca(2+)-activating antioxidant system. PMID:25459298

Fang, Huihui; Jing, Tao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Liping; Jin, Zhuping; Pei, Yanxi

2014-12-01

325

Hydrogen sulfide improves cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by cystanthionine-?-lysase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, is an endogenous gaseous mediator exerting pronounced physiological effects as the third gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Accumulating evidence indicated that H2S could mediate the cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia model. Ventricular arrhythmia is the most important risk factor for cardiac mortality and sudden death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The potential impact of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemic insult is not fully explored now. Present study investigated the role of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. H2S concentration was reduced and arrhythmia score was increased in this model. CSE mRNA level was also upregulated in the ischemic myocardium. Exposure to exogenous NaHS reduced the action potential duration (APD), inhibited L-type Ca2+ channels and activated KATP channels in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium Exogenous H2S application improves electrical remodeling in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium. These results indicated that reduced H2S level might be linked to ischemia/reperfusion induced arrhythmias. PMID:25755736

Sun, Ying-Gang; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xiu; Shen, Cheng-Xing; Li, Yi-Gang

2015-01-01

326

Emergence of Hydrogen Sulfide as an Endogenous Gaseous Signaling Molecule in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Long recognized as a malodorous and highly toxic gas, recent experimental studies have revealed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced enzymatically in all mammalian species including man and exerts a number of critical actions to promote cardiovascular homeostasis and health. During the past 15 years, scientists have determined that H2S is produced by three endogenous enzymes and exerts powerful effects on endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear transcription factors. These effects have been reported in multiple organ systems and the vast majority of data clearly indicate that H2S produced by the endogenous enzymes exerts cytoprotective actions. Recent preclinical studies investigating cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that the administration of physiological or pharmacological levels of H2S attenuates myocardial injury, protects blood vessels, limits inflammation, and regulates blood pressure. H2S has emerged as a critical cardiovascular signaling molecule similar to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) with a profound impact on the heart and circulation (Figure 1). Our improved understanding of how H2S elicits protective actions, coupled with the very rapid development of novel H2S releasing agents, has resulted in heightened enthusiasm for the clinical translation of this ephemeral gaseous molecule. This review will examine our current state of knowledge regarding the actions of H2S within the cardiovascular system with an emphasis on the therapeutic potential and molecular crosstalk between H2S, NO, and CO. PMID:24526678

Polhemus, David J.; Lefer, David J.

2014-01-01

327

Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H?S) gas sensors from viral-templated nanocrystalline gold nanowires.  

PubMed

A facile, site-specific viral-templated assembly method was used to fabricate sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors at room temperature. A gold-binding M13 bacteriophage served to organize gold nanoparticles into linear arrays which were used as seeds for subsequent nanowire formation through electroless deposition. Nanowire widths and densities within the sensors were modified by electroless deposition time and phage concentration, respectively, to tune device resistance. Chemiresistive H2S gas sensors with superior room temperature sensing performance were produced with sensitivity of 654%/ppm(v), theoretical lowest detection limit of 2 ppb(v), and 70% recovery within 9 min for 0.025 ppm(v). The role of the viral template and associated gold-binding peptide was elucidated by removing organics using a short O? plasma treatment followed by an ethanol dip. The template and gold-binding peptide were crucial to electrical and sensor performance. Without surface organics, the resistance fell by several orders of magnitude, the sensitivity dropped by more than a factor of 100 to 6%/ppm(v), the lower limit of detection increased, and no recovery was detected with dry air flow. Viral templates provide a novel, alternative fabrication route for highly sensitive, nanostructured H2S gas sensors. PMID:24598078

Moon, Chung Hee; Zhang, Miluo; Myung, Nosang V; Haberer, Elaine D

2014-04-01

328

Mitigation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions by stable aqueous foam-microbial media.  

PubMed

Stable aqueous foam-microbial media consisting of protein-based foams and odor-degrading bacteria were developed to control the emissions of odorous compounds. The optimum foam formulation was determined based on foam characteristics including 50% drainage time, foam lifetime, and foam expansion ratio. When only the aqueous foam was applied onto the surface of a test odor source (i.e., swine manure), ammonia emission was completely suppressed for about 177, 225, 265, 297, and 471 min when the height of foam barrier was 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 30 cm, respectively. According to the increasing foam height, ammonia emission rates after breakthrough points decreased to 0.16, 0.13, 0.09, 0.07, and 0.02 mg/m3/min, and thus volatilized ammonia concentrations decreased significantly after 600 min. Hydrogen sulfide was similarly suppressed. Ammonia emission was better controlled by incorporating odor-degrading bacteria into the aqueous foam. The odor suppression capacity of the 5-cm foam barrier with microbes was more than eight times greater than that of the barrier only and was similar to that of 30-cm foam barrier without microbes after 1440 min. A significant amount of dinitrogen gas was evolved by the foam-microbial media, indicating a successful biological transformation of ammonia. PMID:16719107

Park, Jooyoung; Lee, Seung-Ryong; Han, Joon Kyoung; Nam, Kyoungphile

2006-05-01

329

Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Adipogenesis in 3T3L1 Cells  

PubMed Central

The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on differentiation of 3T3L1-derived adipocytes was examined. Endogenous H2S was increased after 3T3L1 differentiation. The expression of the H2S-synthesising enzymes, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), was increased in a time-dependent manner during 3T3L1 differentiation. Expression of genes associated with adipogenesis related genes including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2), a key regulator of this process, was increased by GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor compound) and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a classical H2S donor) but not by ZYJ1122 or time-expired NaHS. Furthermore expression of these genes were reduced by aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, CBS inhibitor), DL-propargylglycine (PAG, CSE inhibitor) as well as by CSE small interference RNA (siCSE) and siCBS. The size and number of lipid droplets in mature adipocytes was significantly increased by both GYY4137 and NaHS, which also impaired the ability of CL316,243 (?3-agonist) to promote lipolysis in these cells. In contrast, AOAA and PAG had the opposite effect. Taken together, we show that the H2S-synthesising enzymes CBS, CSE and 3-MST are endogenously expressed during adipogenesis and that both endogenous and exogenous H2S modulate adipogenesis and adipocyte maturation. PMID:25822632

Tsai, Chin-Yi; Peh, Meng Teng; Feng, Wei; Dymock, Brian William; Moore, Philip Keith

2015-01-01

330

Controllable Hydrogen Sulfide Donors and the Activity Against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), known as an important cellular signaling molecule, plays critical roles in many physiological and/or pathological processes. Modulation of H2S levels could have tremendous therapeutic value. However, the study on H2S has been hindered due to the lack of controllable H2S releasing agents which could mimic the slow and moderate H2S release in vivo. In this work we report the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a new class of controllable H2S donors. Twenty five donors were prepared and tested. Their structures were based on a perthiol template, which was suggested to involve in H2S biosynthesis. H2S release mechanism from these donors was studied and proved to be thiol-dependent. We also developed a series of cell-based assays to access their H2S related activities. H9c2 cardiac myocytes were used in these experiments. We tested lead donors’ cytotoxicity and confirmed their H2S production in cells. Finally we demonstrated that selected donors showed potent protective effects in an in vivo murine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, through a H2S related mechanism. PMID:23547844

Zhao, Yu; Bhushan, Shashi; Yang, Chuntao; Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Stein, Jason D.; Pacheco, Armando; Peng, Bo; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lefer, David J.; Xian, Ming

2013-01-01

331

Detection of hydrogen sulfide through photoluminescence quenching of penicillamine-copper nanocluster aggregates.  

PubMed

We have developed a one-pot, inexpensive, simple and rapid method to synthesize photoluminescent copper nanocluster (Cu NC) aggregates from Cu(2+) ions in 65% (v v(-1)) dimethylformamide aqueous solution containing penicillamine (PA) as a capping and reducing agent. As-prepared PA-Cu NC aggregates emit at 580 nm when excited at 326 nm, with a quantum yield of 2.0%. The photoluminescence of PA-Cu NC aggregates originate from ligand-to-metal charge transfer, which is supported by a long lifetime (126.5 ns) and a large Stokes shift (254 nm). As-prepared PA-Cu NC aggregates have different emission wavelengths with the same excitation wavelength in various organic-aqueous solutions. The PA-Cu NC aggregates are highly selective and sensitive to the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H?S), based on analyte-induced photoluminescence quenching through the formation of CuS nanoparticles. The probe allows the detection of H?S, with a linear range of 1-100 ?M and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 500 nM. The practicality of this probe has been validated through the analysis of hot spring water samples. PMID:24762432

Ma, Jia-Ying; Chen, Po-Cheng; Chang, Huan-Tsung

2014-05-16

332

Prediction on the seasonal behavior of hydrogen sulfide using a neural network model.  

PubMed

Models to predict seasonal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations were constructed using neural networks. To this end, two types of generalized regression neural networks and radial basis function networks are considered and optimized. The input data for H2S were collected from August 2005 to Fall 2006 from a huge industrial complex located in Ansan City, Korea. Three types of seasonal groupings were prepared and one optimized model is built for each dataset. These optimized models were then used for the analysis of the sensitivity and main effect of the parameters. H2S was noted to be very sensitive to rainfall during the spring and summer. In the autumn, its sensitivity showed a strong dependency on wind speed and pressure. Pressure was identified as the most influential parameter during the spring and summer. In the autumn, relative humidity overwhelmingly affected H2S. It was noted that H2S maintained an inverse relationship with a number of parameters (e.g., radiation, wind speed, or dew-point temperature). In contrast, it exhibited a declining trend with a decrease in pressure. An increase in radiation was likely to decrease during spring and summer, but the opposite trend was predicted for the autumn. The overall results of this study thus suggest that the behavior of H2S can be accounted for by a diverse combination of meteorological parameters across seasons. PMID:21552763

Kim, Byungwhan; Lee, Joogong; Jang, Jungyoung; Han, Dongil; Kim, Ki-Hyun

2011-01-01

333

Ferric Iron and Cobalt (III) compounds to safely decrease hydrogen sulfide in the body?  

PubMed

To sort out the putative roles of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in clinical conditions wherein systemic inflammation or hypoxia is present, it becomes crucial to develop approaches capable of affecting H2S concentration that can be safely applied in humans. We have investigated a paradigm, which could achieve such a goal, using vitamin B12 (vit.B12), at the dose recommended in cyanide poisoning, and very low levels of methemoglobin (MetHb). Hydroxocobalamin in the plasma, supernatant of kidney, and heart tissue homogenates of rats that had received vit.B12 (140?mg.kg(-1) intravenous) was found in the ?M range. Exogenous H2S (100??M) added to the plasma or supernatants of these rats decreased at a significantly higher rate than in control rats. In the latter however a spontaneous oxidation of exogenous H2S occurred. In vitro, hydroxocobalamin solution (100??M) decreased, within <2?min, an equimolar concentration of H2S by 80%. Three to five percent MetHb prevented H2S induced hyperventilation in vivo and decreased exogenous H2S in vitro by 25-40??M within 30?s. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that innocuous levels of MetHb and vit.B12 could be a used as an effective and safe way to test the role of endogenous H2S in vivo. PMID:22233239

Van de Louw, Andry; Haouzi, Philippe

2013-08-10

334

Discrimination of the oral microbiota associated with high hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan production.  

PubMed

Both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH) are frequently detected in large amounts in malodorous mouth air. We investigated the bacterial composition of saliva of 30 subjects with severe oral malodor exhibiting extreme CH(3)SH/H(2)S ratios (high H(2)S but low CH(3)SH concentrations, n 5 14; high CH(3)SH but low H2S concentrations, n 5 16) and 13 subjects without malodor, using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic community analysis with the UniFrac distance metric revealed a distinct bacterial community structure in each malodor group. The H2S group showed higher proportions of the genera Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas and SR1 than the other two groups, whereas the CH(3)SH group had higher proportions of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella,Atopobium, Megasphaera, and Selenomonas. Our results suggested that distinct bacterial populations in the oral microbiota are involved in production of high levels of H2S and CH3SH in the oral cavity. PMID:22355729

Takeshita, Toru; Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Yasui, Masaki; Yoneda, Masahiro; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2012-01-01

335

Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Adipogenesis in 3T3L1 Cells.  

PubMed

The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on differentiation of 3T3L1-derived adipocytes was examined. Endogenous H2S was increased after 3T3L1 differentiation. The expression of the H2S-synthesising enzymes, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), was increased in a time-dependent manner during 3T3L1 differentiation. Expression of genes associated with adipogenesis related genes including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2), a key regulator of this process, was increased by GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor compound) and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a classical H2S donor) but not by ZYJ1122 or time-expired NaHS. Furthermore expression of these genes were reduced by aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, CBS inhibitor), DL-propargylglycine (PAG, CSE inhibitor) as well as by CSE small interference RNA (siCSE) and siCBS. The size and number of lipid droplets in mature adipocytes was significantly increased by both GYY4137 and NaHS, which also impaired the ability of CL316,243 (?3-agonist) to promote lipolysis in these cells. In contrast, AOAA and PAG had the opposite effect. Taken together, we show that the H2S-synthesising enzymes CBS, CSE and 3-MST are endogenously expressed during adipogenesis and that both endogenous and exogenous H2S modulate adipogenesis and adipocyte maturation. PMID:25822632

Tsai, Chin-Yi; Peh, Meng Teng; Feng, Wei; Dymock, Brian William; Moore, Philip Keith

2015-01-01

336

Hydrogen sulfide induces human colon cancer cell proliferation: role of Akt, ERK and p21.  

PubMed

H(2)S (hydrogen sulfide), regarded as the third gaseous transmitter, is implicated in ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancers. The present study investigates the effects of H(2)S on cell proliferation in human colon cancer HCT 116 cells and SW480 cells. We identified the two key enzymes, CBS and CSE, for H(2)S synthesis in HCT 116 cells. An exogenously administered H(2)S donor NaHS induced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, with optimal proliferative concentration at 200 micromol/l. NaHS administration increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Blockade of Akt and ERK activation attenuated NaHS-induced cell proliferation. Cell-cycle analysis showed that NaHS treatment for 6 h decreased the proportion of cells in G(0)-G(1) phase and increased the proportion of cells in S phase. Protein expressions of Cyclin D1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) were not altered, but the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1/Cip1) was inhibited significantly by NaHS treatment. NaHS significantly reduced NO metabolite levels. In conclusion, NaHS induced human colon cancer cell proliferation. This effect might be mediated by the increase of Akt and ERK phosphorylation and the decrease of p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression and NO production. The results suggested a role for H(2)S in human colonic cancer development. PMID:20184555

Cai, Wen-Jie; Wang, Ming-Jie; Ju, Li-Hua; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Yi-Chun

2010-06-01

337

Anti-Cancer Activity of New Designer Hydrogen Sulfide-Donating Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is likely to join nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) as the third gaseous transmitter, influencing an array of intracellular signaling cascades. Thus, H2S is implicated in numerous physiological processes and in the pathology of various diseases. Recent Advances: H2S-donating agents that liberate H2S slowly either alone or in combination with NO, the so-called NOSH compounds, are being synthesized, and these have been shown to have great potential against cancer. Critical Issues: An accurate determination of H2S levels is challenging. H2S and NO share many similar actions; do these similarities act to potentiate each other? Since many actions of H2S appear to be mediated through inhibition of inflammation and Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells is a central player in this scenario, does S-nitrosylation of this transcription factor by NO affect its S-sulfhydration by H2S and vice versa? Future Directions: Deciphering the molecular targets of these novel hybrid agents and having genetically engineered animals should help us move toward targeted therapeutic applications. Human safety data with these new hybrids is essential. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 831–846. PMID:23581880

2014-01-01

338

Hydrogen sulfide augments synaptic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

PubMed

Within the brain stem, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) serves as a principal central site for sensory afferent integration from the cardiovascular and respiratory reflexes. Neuronal activity and synaptic transmission in the NTS are highly pliable and subject to neuromodulation. In the central nervous system, hydrogen sulfide (H?S) is a gasotransmitter generated primarily by the enzyme cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS). We sought to determine the role of H?S, and its generation by CBS, in NTS excitability. Real-time RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry analysis identified the presence of CBS in the NTS. Patch-clamp electrophysiology in brain stem slices examined excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and membrane properties in monosynaptically driven NTS neurons. Confocal imaging of labeled afferent synaptic terminals in NTS slices monitored intracellular calcium. Exogenous H?S significantly increased the amplitude of evoked solitary tract (TS)-EPSCs, frequency of miniature (m)EPSCs, and presynaptic terminal calcium fluorescence in the NTS. H?S did not alter action potential discharge or postsynaptic properties. On the other hand, the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) significantly reduced the amplitude of TS-EPSCs and presynaptic terminal calcium fluorescence in the NTS without altering postsynaptic properties. Taken together, these data support a presynaptic role for endogenous H?S in modulation of excitatory neurotransmission in the NTS. PMID:21734104

Austgen, James R; Hermann, Gerlinda E; Dantzler, Heather A; Rogers, Richard C; Kline, David D

2011-10-01

339

Hydrogen sulfide, a potential novel drug, attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to exert anti-inflammatory properties. Apoptosis and autophagy play important roles in concanavalin A (Con A)-induced acute hepatitis. The purpose of this study was to explore both the effect and mechanism of H2S on Con A-induced acute hepatitis. Methods BALB/c mice were randomized into sham group, Con A-injection group, and 14 ?mol/kg of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) pretreatment group. Results Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and pathological damage were significantly ameliorated by NaHS pretreatment. NaHS pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? compared with those of the Con A group. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3-2, which play important roles in the apoptosis and autophagy pathways, were also clearly affected by NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS affected the p-mTOR and p-AKT. Conclusion H2S attenuates Con A-induced acute hepatitis by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy, in part, through activation of the PtdIns3K-AKT1 signaling pathway. PMID:25246769

Cheng, Ping; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Shen, Miao; Wang, Chengfen; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Li, Jingjing; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Junshan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

2014-01-01

340

Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) gas sensors from viral-templated nanocrystalline gold nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile, site-specific viral-templated assembly method was used to fabricate sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors at room temperature. A gold-binding M13 bacteriophage served to organize gold nanoparticles into linear arrays which were used as seeds for subsequent nanowire formation through electroless deposition. Nanowire widths and densities within the sensors were modified by electroless deposition time and phage concentration, respectively, to tune device resistance. Chemiresistive H2S gas sensors with superior room temperature sensing performance were produced with sensitivity of 654%/ppmv, theoretical lowest detection limit of 2 ppbv, and 70% recovery within 9 min for 0.025 ppmv. The role of the viral template and associated gold-binding peptide was elucidated by removing organics using a short O2 plasma treatment followed by an ethanol dip. The template and gold-binding peptide were crucial to electrical and sensor performance. Without surface organics, the resistance fell by several orders of magnitude, the sensitivity dropped by more than a factor of 100 to 6%/ppmv, the lower limit of detection increased, and no recovery was detected with dry air flow. Viral templates provide a novel, alternative fabrication route for highly sensitive, nanostructured H2S gas sensors.

Moon, Chung Hee; Zhang, Miluo; Myung, Nosang V.; Haberer, Elaine D.

2014-04-01

341

Case report: Profound neurobehavioral deficits in an oil field worker overcome by hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

A 24-year-old oil well tester was rendered semiconscious by hydrogen sulfide (H2S). He received oxygen and was hospitalized but released in 30 minutes. The next day, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and incontinence of urine and stool led to rehospitalization. These problems and leg shaking, dizziness, sweating, trouble sleeping, and nightmares prevented his return to work. A physical examination, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests were normal 39 months after the episode but vibration sense was diminished. Two choice visual reaction times were delayed. Balance was highly abnormal (5 to 6 cm/sec) with eyes closed. Blink reflex latency was slow (R-1 17.5 msec versus normal 14.3 msec). Numbers written on finger tips were not recognized. Verbal and visual recall were impaired but overlearned memory was intact. Cognitive functions measured by Culture Fair, block design, and digit symbol were impaired. Perceptual motor was slow. Scores for confusion, tension-anxiety, depression, and fatigue were elevated and vigor was reduced. Forty-nine months after exposure his reaction time, sway speed, and color vision had not improved. His recall and his cognitive, constructional, and psychomotor speeds had improved but remained abnormal. These deficits are most likely due to H2S. Similar testing of other survivors is recommended.

Kilburn, K.H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-11-01

342

Removal of hydrogen sulfide at ambient conditions on cadmium/GO-based composite adsorbents.  

PubMed

Cadmium-based materials with various hydroxide to carbonate ratios and their composites with graphite oxide were synthesized by a fast and simple precipitation procedure and then used as H2S adsorbents at ambient conditions in the dark or upon a visible light exposure. The structural properties and chemical features of the adsorbents were analyzed before and after hydrogen sulfide adsorption. The results showed that the high ratio of hydroxide to carbonate led to an improved H2S adsorption capacity. In moist conditions cadmium hydroxide was the best adsorbent. Moreover, it showed photoactive properties. While the incorporation of a graphene-based phase slightly decreased the extent of the improvement in the H2S adsorption capacity in moist conditions caused by photoactivity, its presence in the composites enhanced the performance in dry conditions. This was linked to photoactivity of CdS that can split H2S resulting in the formation of water in the system. The graphene-based phase enhanced the electron transfer and delayed the recombination of photoinduced charges. Carbonate-based materials showed a very good adsorption capacity in dark conditions in the presence of moisture. Upon the light exposure, CdS likely photocatalyzes the reduction of carbonate ions to formates/formaldehydes. Their deposition on the surface limits the number of sites available to H2S adsorption. PMID:25792480

Florent, Marc; Wallace, Rajiv; Bandosz, Teresa J

2015-06-15

343

Actions of Hydrogen Sulfide on Sodium Transport Processes across Native Distal Lung Epithelia (Xenopus laevis)  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is well known as a highly toxic environmental chemical threat. Prolonged exposure to H2S can lead to the formation of pulmonary edema. However, the mechanisms of how H2S facilitates edema formation are poorly understood. Since edema formation can be enhanced by an impaired clearance of electrolytes and, consequently, fluid across the alveolar epithelium, it was questioned whether H2S may interfere with transepithelial electrolyte absorption. Electrolyte absorption was electrophysiologically measured across native distal lung preparations (Xenopus laevis) in Ussing chambers. The exposure of lung epithelia to H2S decreased net transepithelial electrolyte absorption. This was due to an impairment of amiloride-sensitive sodium transport. H2S inhibited the activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase as well as lidocaine-sensitive potassium channels located in the basolateral membrane of the epithelium. Inhibition of these transport molecules diminishes the electrochemical gradient which is necessary for transepithelial sodium absorption. Since sodium absorption osmotically facilitates alveolar fluid clearance, interference of H2S with the epithelial transport machinery provides a mechanism which enhances edema formation in H2S-exposed lungs. PMID:24960042

Erb, Alexandra; Althaus, Mike

2014-01-01

344

Measurements of atmospheric dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide during GTE/CITE 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were made over the North and South Atlantic Ocean as part of the Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) project. DMS and CS2 samples were collected and analyzed using an automated gas chromatography/flame photometric detection system with a sampling frequency of 10 min. H2S samples were collected using silver nitrate impregnated filters and analyzed by fluorescence quenching. The DMS data from both hemispheres have a bimodal distribution. Over the North Atlantic this reflects the difference between marine and continental air masses. Over the South Atlantic it may reflect differences in the sea surface source of DMS, corresponding to different air mass source regions. The median boundary layer H2S and CS2 levels were significantly higher in the northern hemisphere than the southern hemisphere, reflecting the higher frequency of samples influenced by pollutant and/or coastal emissions. Composite vertical profiles of DMS and H2S are similar to each other, are consistent with a sea surface source. Vertical profiles of CS2 have maxima in the free troposphere, implicating a continental source. The low levels of H2S and CS2 found in the southern hemisphere constrain the role of these compounds in global budgets to significantly less than previously estimated.

Cooper, David J.; Saltzman, Eric S.

1993-01-01

345

Neuropsychological effects of occupational exposures to carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

In the framework of an extensive health survey of viscose rayon workers in Belgium, 187 workers underwent a neuropsychological examination. Of these, 120 had been exposed for at least a year to carbon disulfide (CS&inf2;) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and 67 served as a non-exposed control group. Measurements showed that many of the 17 jobs in the factory involved exposures to CS&inf2; ranging from 3 mg/m(3) (centrifuge operator) to 147 mg/m(3) (spinning cake regulator), far in excess of the threshold limit value (TLV) of 31 mg/m(3); H2S exposures remained below the recommended TLV of 14 mg/m(3). The neuropsychological investigation included subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the entire Wechsler Memory Scale, the Bourdon-Wiersma Test, the Santa Ana Dexterity Test, the Gibson Spiral Maze, and the Bimanual Sinusoidal Movement Test. Specific questions were included to account for the effects of age, educational level, eye complaints, alcohol consumption, medication intake, and test motivation. Only the group exposed to values exceeding three times the recommended TLV for CS2; had significant impairments in both the speed and the quality of psychomotor performance. Exposure to CS2; and H2S had no significant effect on memory and attention. Covariance analysis revealed the confounding influences of educational level and eye complaints for explaining observed "differences" in memory and attention tasks found by univariate analysis. PMID:10026474

De Fruyt, F; Thiery, E; De Bacquer, D; Vanhoorne, M

1998-01-01

346

Hydrogen sulfide alleviates lead-induced photosynthetic and ultrastructural changes in oilseed rape.  

PubMed

The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating lead (Pb) induced stress in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was studied under laboratory conditions. Plants were grown hydroponically in greenhouse conditions under three levels (0, 100, and 400 µM) of Pb and three levels (0, 100 and 200 µM) of H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Application of H2S significantly improved the plant growth, root morphology, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic activity in leaves of B. napus under Pb stress. Moreover, exogenously applied H2S significantly lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots of plants under Pb stress. The microscopic examination indicated that application of exogenous H2S enabled a clean mesophyll cell having a well developed chloroplast with thylakoid membranes and starch grains. A number of modifications could be observed in root tip cell i.e. mature mitochondria, long endoplasmic reticulum and golgibodies under combined application of H2S and Pb. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that application of exogenous H2S has a protective role on plant growth, net photosynthesis rate and ultrastructural changes in B. napus plants under high Pb exposures. PMID:24580818

Ali, B; Song, W J; Hu, W Z; Luo, X N; Gill, R A; Wang, J; Zhou, W J

2014-04-01

347

Effect of hydrogen sulfide on restenosis of peripheral arteries after angioplasty.  

PubMed

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) may lead to a poor quality of life. Although percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is widely used for the treatment of PAD, restenosis remains a major drawback. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays potential roles in many physiological processes, such as vasodilatation and inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, little is known regarding its role in arterial restenosis. In this study, we induced atherosclerotic-like lesions in rabbits, and we treated the rabbits with balloon angioplasty (BA) in a similar manner as PTA performed in the clinic. The rabbits were treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S) or DL-propargylglycine (PPG, an inhibitor of H2S synthase). Treatment with NaHS significantly inhibited arterial restenosis following BA by reducing the intimal area and the intima/media ratio, while PPG treatment had a tendency to result in more severe restenosis. NaHS treatment significantly reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and elevated SMC apoptosis in the neointima. In contrast, PPG induced a significant increase in SMC proliferation. In conclusion, H2S attenuates the progression of neointimal hyperplasia and inhibits restenosis after BA. This discovery may lead to potential novel therapies, which can improve the prognosis of PAD patients. PMID:22470131

Ma, Bingbing; Liang, Gangzhu; Zhang, Fuxian; Chen, Yizhi; Zhang, Huan

2012-06-01

348

An Antifungal Role of Hydrogen Sulfide on the Postharvest Pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum  

PubMed Central

In this research, the antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum growing on fruits and under culture conditions on defined media was investigated. Our results show that H2S, released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) effectively reduced the postharvest decay of fruits induced by A. niger and P. italicum. Furthermore, H2S inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and produced abnormal mycelial contractions when the fungi were grown on defined media in Petri plates. Further studies showed that H2S could cause an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. niger. In accordance with this observation we show that enzyme activities and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes in A. niger treated with H2S were lower than those in control. Moreover, H2S also significantly inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus oryzae, the human pathogen Candida albicans, and several food-borne bacteria. We also found that short time exposure of H2S showed a microbicidal role rather than just inhibiting the growth of microbes. Taken together, this study suggests the potential value of H2S in reducing postharvest loss and food spoilage caused by microbe propagation. PMID:25101960

Li, Yan-Hong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Yan, Hong; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

2014-01-01

349

Hydrogen sulfide improves cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by cystanthionine-?-lysase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, is an endogenous gaseous mediator exerting pronounced physiological effects as the third gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Accumulating evidence indicated that H2S could mediate the cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia model. Ventricular arrhythmia is the most important risk factor for cardiac mortality and sudden death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The potential impact of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemic insult is not fully explored now. Present study investigated the role of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. H2S concentration was reduced and arrhythmia score was increased in this model. CSE mRNA level was also upregulated in the ischemic myocardium. Exposure to exogenous NaHS reduced the action potential duration (APD), inhibited L-type Ca(2+) channels and activated KATP channels in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium Exogenous H2S application improves electrical remodeling in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium. These results indicated that reduced H2S level might be linked to ischemia/reperfusion induced arrhythmias. PMID:25755736

Sun, Ying-Gang; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xiu; Shen, Cheng-Xing; Li, Yi-Gang

2015-01-01

350

An iminocoumarin benzothiazole-based fluorescent probe for imaging hydrogen sulfide in living cells.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently been identified as the third gaseous signaling molecule that is involved in regulating many important cellular processes. We report herein a novel fluorescent probe for detecting H2S based on iminocoumarin benzothiazole scaffold. The probe displayed high sensitivity and around 80-fold increment in fluorescence signal after reacting with H2S under physiological condition. The fluorescent intensity of the probe was linearly related to H2S concentration in the range of 0-100?M with a detection limit of 0.15?M (3?/slope). The probe also showed excellent selectivity towards H2S over other biologically relevant species, including ROS, RSS and RNS. Its selectivity for H2S is 32 folds higher than other reactive sulfur species. Furthermore, the probe has been applied for imaging H2S in living cells. Cell imaging experiments demonstrated that the probe is cell-permeable and can be used to monitor the alteration of H2S concentrations in living cells. We envisage that this probe can provide useful tools to further elucidate the biological roles of H2S. PMID:25640139

Zhang, Huatang; Xie, Yusheng; Wang, Ping; Chen, Ganchao; Liu, Ruochuan; Lam, Yun-Wah; Hu, Yi; Zhu, Qing; Sun, Hongyan

2015-04-01

351

Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part II. Pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects.  

PubMed

Emerging work demonstrates the dual regulation of mitochondrial function by hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), including, at lower concentrations, a stimulatory effect as an electron donor, and, at higher concentrations, an inhibitory effect on cytochrome C oxidase. In the current article, we overview the pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of these processes. During cellular hypoxia/acidosis, the inhibitory effect of H2 S on complex IV is enhanced, which may shift the balance of H2 S from protective to deleterious. Several pathophysiological conditions are associated with an overproduction of H2 S (e.g. sepsis), while in other disease states H2 S levels and H2 S bioavailability are reduced and its therapeutic replacement is warranted (e.g. diabetic vascular complications). Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells up-regulate the H2 S-producing enzyme cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), and utilize its product, H2 S, as a metabolic fuel and tumour-cell survival factor; pharmacological CBS inhibition or genetic CBS silencing suppresses cancer cell bioenergetics and suppresses cell proliferation and cell chemotaxis. In the last chapter of the current article, we overview the field of H2 S-induced therapeutic 'suspended animation', a concept in which a temporary pharmacological reduction in cell metabolism is achieved, producing a decreased oxygen demand for the experimental therapy of critical illness and/or organ transplantation. PMID:23991749

Módis, Katalin; Bos, Eelke M; Calzia, Enrico; van Goor, Harry; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Radermacher, Peter; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Szabo, Csaba

2014-04-01

352

Inhibitory effect of hydrogen sulfide on ozone-induced airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.  

PubMed

Exposure to ozone has been associated with airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The goal of this study was to examine whether these adverse effects of ozone could be prevented or reversed by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a reducing agent. The H2S donor sodium (NaHS) (2 mg/kg) or vehicle (PBS) was intraperitoneally injected into mice 1 hour before and after 3-hour ozone (2.5 ppm) or air exposure, and the mice were studied 24 hours later. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with NaHS reduced the ozone-induced increases in the total cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; this treatment also reduced levels of cytokines, including TNF-?, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, IL-6, and IL-1? levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid; inhibited bronchial hyperresponsiveness; and attenuated ozone-induced increases in total malondialdehyde in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreases in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the lung. Ozone exposure led to decreases in the H2S production rate and in mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine-?-synthetase and cystathionine-?-lyase in the lung. These effects were prevented and reversed by NaHS treatment. Furthermore, NaHS prevented and reversed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and heat shock protein 27. H2S may have preventive and therapeutic value in the treatment of airway diseases that have an oxidative stress basis. PMID:25010831

Zhang, Pengyu; Li, Feng; Wiegman, Coen H; Zhang, Min; Hong, Yan; Gong, Jicheng; Chang, Yan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhou, Xin

2015-01-01

353

Penning ionization electron spectroscopy of hydrogen sulfide by metastable helium and neon atoms.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the Penning ionization of hydrogen sulfide molecules by collision with helium and metastable neon atoms, occurring in the thermal energy range, has been studied by analyzing the energy spectra of the emitted electrons obtained in our laboratory in a crossed beam experiment. These spectra are compared with the photoelectron spectra measured by using He(I) and Ne(I) photons under the same experimental conditions. In this way we obtained the negative energy shifts for the formation of H2S(+) ions in the first three accessible electronic states by He*(2(3,1)S1,0) and Ne*((3)P2,0) Penning ionization collisions: the 2b1 (X?(2)B1) fundamental one, the first 5a1 (Ã(2)A1), and the second 2b2 (B?(2)B2) excited states, respectively. The recorded energy shifts indicate that in the case of He* and Ne*-H2S the autoionization dynamics depends on the features of the collision complex and is mainly driven by an effective global attraction that comes from a balance among several non covalent intermolecular interaction components. This suggests that the Penning ionization should take place, in a specific range of intermolecular distances, as we have already observed in the case of Penning ionization of water molecules [Brunetti, B. G.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Pirani, F.; Vecchiocattivi, F. J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 139, 164305-1-164305-8]. PMID:24796487

Falcinelli, Stefano; Candori, Pietro; Bettoni, Marta; Pirani, Fernando; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

2014-08-21

354

Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important clinical problem, and its consequences can seriously threaten human health. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule and is known to exert a protective effect against hepatic I/R injury. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect and mechanism of H2S on hepatic I/R injury. Methods. Balb/c mice were randomized into Sham, I/R, or two doses (14??mol/kg and 28??mol/kg) of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) preconditioning groups. Results. NaHS significantly reduced the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 at 12?h and 24?h after injection compared with ischemia/reperfusion challenge alone. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play important roles in the regulation of the apoptosis and autophagy pathways, was also clearly affected by NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS affected the p-JNK1, p-ERK1, and p-p38. Conclusion. Our results indicate that H2S attenuates hepatic I/R injury, at least in part, by regulating apoptosis through inhibiting JNK1 signaling. The autophagy agonist rapamycin potentiated this hepatoprotective effect by reversing the inhibition of autophagy by H2S. PMID:24966472

Cheng, Ping; Wang, Fan; Chen, Kan; Shen, Miao; Dai, Weiqi; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chengfen; Li, Jingjing; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

2014-01-01

355

Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2)S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC) and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116) were exposed to H(2)S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2)S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2)S was accompanied by G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip). Moreover, exposure to H(2)S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+) autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2)S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2)S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2)S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2)S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway. PMID:22679478

Wu, Ya C; Wang, Xiao J; Yu, Le; Chan, Francis K L; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Wu, William K K; Cho, Chi H

2012-01-01

356

Middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiomonas sp. RAN5 strain for hydrogen sulfide removal.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the most toxic and offensively odorous gases and is generated in anaerobic bioreactors. A middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB), Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5, was isolated and applied for H2S removal from both artificial and anaerobically digested gas. When a bioreactor containing medium inoculated with RAN5 was aerated continuously with artificial gas (containing 100 ppm H2S) at 45 degrees C for 156 hr, the H2S concentration in the vented gas was reduced by 99%. This was not affected by the presence of other microbes in the bioreactor The H2S removal efficiency of the RAN5 bioreactor for anaerobically digested gas was greater than 99% at influent H2S concentrations ranging from 2 to 1800 ppm; the efficiency decreased to 90% at influent H2S concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 cannot survive at room temperature, and thus its leakage from a wastewater treatment plant would not damage sewage systems. These data suggest that Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 may be a useful microorganism for H2S removal. PMID:22393808

Asano, Ryoki; Hirooka, Kayako; Nakai, Yutaka

2012-01-01

357

Manure ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from a Western dairy storage basin.  

PubMed

The reporting of ammonia (NH) and hydrogen sulfide (HS) emissions from dairies to the federal government depends on the magnitude of the emissions. However, little is known about their daily NH and HS emissions and what influences those emissions. Emissions of NH and HS from two manure storage basins at a 4400-head western free-stall dairy were measured intermittently over 2 yr. Each basin went through stages of filling, drying, and then removal of the manure during the study period. Emissions were determined using backward Lagrangian Stochastic and vertical radial plume methods. Ammonia emissions ranged from 35 to 59 kg d in one basin and from 86 to 90 kg d in a second basin, corresponding to a range of 7 to 19 g d head. Basin NH emissions were highest during initial filling and when the manure was removed. Mean HS emissions ranged from 5 to 22 kg d (1.1-4.6 g d head). Basin HS emissions were highest when the basin was filling. Crusting of the basin surface reduced NH but not HS emissions. The cessation of basin filling reduced HS but not NH emissions. Air temperature and wind conditions were correlated with NH emissions. Barometric pressure decreases were correlated with episodic HS emissions. The variability in emissions with stage of manure handling and storage and meteorological conditions indicates that determining the maximum daily emissions and the annual emissions from such waste basins requires consideration of each stage in conjunction with the climatic conditions during the stage. PMID:25602327

Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T

2015-01-01

358

Discrimination of the oral microbiota associated with high hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan production  

PubMed Central

Both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) are frequently detected in large amounts in malodorous mouth air. We investigated the bacterial composition of saliva of 30 subjects with severe oral malodor exhibiting extreme CH3SH/H2S ratios (high H2S but low CH3SH concentrations, n = 14; high CH3SH but low H2S concentrations, n = 16) and 13 subjects without malodor, using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic community analysis with the UniFrac distance metric revealed a distinct bacterial community structure in each malodor group. The H2S group showed higher proportions of the genera Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas and SR1 than the other two groups, whereas the CH3SH group had higher proportions of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella, Atopobium, Megasphaera, and Selenomonas. Our results suggested that distinct bacterial populations in the oral microbiota are involved in production of high levels of H2S and CH3SH in the oral cavity. PMID:22355729

Takeshita, Toru; Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Yasui, Masaki; Yoneda, Masahiro; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2012-01-01

359

Emersion in the mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus: A unique response to hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae) has frequently been observed out of water, a phenomenon generally attributed to habitat drying. The hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide, a substance characteristically found in their environment, can serve as a stimulus for emersion, is tested in this study. In the field R. marmoratus was found in water with low to moderate level of H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, R marmora leaped from water contaminated with H{sub 2}S at ecologically relevant concentrations. Aquatic hypoxia did not induce emersion, but prey capture did. Oxygen consumption by both juveniles and adults decreased significantly in air. These results suggest that avoidance of H{sub 2}S and the ability to survive terrestrial conditions enable this species to permanently occupy an area of the forest unavailable to other fishes. Furthermore, because a variety of stimuli lead to emersion in R. marmoratus, terrestriality in this species is likely a generalized response to environmental stress as well as a means of exploiting terrestrial resources. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Abel, D.C.; Koenig, C.C.; Davis, W.P.

1987-01-01

360

Performance of biotrickling filters for hydrogen sulfide removal under starvation and shock loads conditions*  

PubMed Central

In the industrial operation of biotrickling filters for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal, shock loads or starvation was common due to process variations or equipment malfunctions. In this study, effects of starvation and shock loads on the performance of biotrickling filters for H2S removal were investigated. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the changes of biomass and viable bacteria numbers in the biotrickling filters during a 24-d starvation. Compared to biomass, viable bacteria numbers decreased significantly during the starvation, especially when airflow was maintained in the absence of spray liquid. During the subsequent re-acclimation, all the bioreactors could resume high removal efficiencies within 4 d regardless of the previous starvation conditions. The results show that the re-acclimation time, in the case of biotrickling filters for H2S removal, is mainly controlled by viable H2S oxidizing bacteria numbers. On the other hand, the biotrickling filters can protect against shock loads in inlet fluctuating H2S concentration after resuming normal operation. When the biotrickling filters were supplied with H2S at an input of lower than 1700 mg/m3, their removal efficiencies were nearly 98% regardless of previous H2S input. PMID:19650198

Zhang, Lan-he; Meng, Xiu-li; Wang, Ying; Liu, Li-dan

2009-01-01

361

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits rotenone-induced apoptosis via preservation of mitochondrial function.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator, which plays critical roles in the central nervous system affecting both neurons and glial cells. However, its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases is unexplored. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of H(2)S on cell injury induced by rotenone, a commonly used toxin in establishing in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease (PD) models, in human-derived dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). We report here that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H(2)S donor, concentration-dependently suppressed rotenone-induced cellular injury and apoptotic cell death. NaHS also prevented rotenone-induced p38- and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and rotenone-mediated changes in Bcl-2/Bax levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) dissipation, cytochrome c release, caspase-9/3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Furthermore, 5-hydroxydecanoate, a selective blocker of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel, attenuated the protective effects of NaHS against rotenone-induced cell apoptosis. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that H(2)S inhibited rotenone-induced cell apoptosis via regulation of mitoK(ATP) channel/p38- and JNK-MAPK pathway. Our data suggest that H(2)S may have potential therapeutic value for neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD. PMID:18832435

Hu, Li-Fang; Lu, Ming; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Wong, Peter T-H; Bian, Jin-Song

2009-01-01

362

Detection of hydrogen sulfide through photoluminescence quenching of penicillamine-copper nanocluster aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a one-pot, inexpensive, simple and rapid method to synthesize photoluminescent copper nanocluster (Cu NC) aggregates from Cu2+ ions in 65% (v v-1) dimethylformamide aqueous solution containing penicillamine (PA) as a capping and reducing agent. As-prepared PA-Cu NC aggregates emit at 580 nm when excited at 326 nm, with a quantum yield of 2.0%. The photoluminescence of PA-Cu NC aggregates originate from ligand-to-metal charge transfer, which is supported by a long lifetime (126.5 ns) and a large Stokes shift (254 nm). As-prepared PA-Cu NC aggregates have different emission wavelengths with the same excitation wavelength in various organic-aqueous solutions. The PA-Cu NC aggregates are highly selective and sensitive to the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), based on analyte-induced photoluminescence quenching through the formation of CuS nanoparticles. The probe allows the detection of H2S, with a linear range of 1-100 ?M and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 500 nM. The practicality of this probe has been validated through the analysis of hot spring water samples.

Ma, Jia-Ying; Chen, Po-Cheng; Chang, Huan-Tsung

2014-05-01

363

Solar light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over ZnIn2S4 loaded with transition-metal sulfides  

PubMed Central

A series of Pt-loaded MS/ZnIn2S4 (MS = transition-metal sulfide: Ag2S, SnS, CoS, CuS, NiS, and MnS) photocatalysts was investigated to show various photocatalytic activities depending on different transition-metal sulfides. Thereinto, CoS, NiS, or MnS-loading lowered down the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn2S4, while Ag2S, SnS, or CuS loading enhanced the photocatalytic activity. After loading 1.0 wt.% CuS together with 1.0 wt.% Pt on ZnIn2S4, the activity for H2 evolution was increased by up to 1.6 times, compared to the ZnIn2S4 only loaded with 1.0 wt.% Pt. Here, transition-metal sulfides such as CuS, together with Pt, acted as the dual co-catalysts for the improved photocatalytic performance. This study indicated that the application of transition-metal sulfides as effective co-catalysts opened up a new way to design and prepare high-efficiency and low-cost photocatalysts for solar-hydrogen conversion. PMID:21711804

2011-01-01

364

Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa  

SciTech Connect

New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

2000-04-01

365

Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an order of magnitude) less energy is required and that sunlight can be used directly. In the case of photoproduction of hydrogen, as compared to water splitting, feeding the anodic compartment of the PEC with an organic pollutant, instead of the usual supporting electrolyte, will bring about a substantial increase of the photocurrent at a given illumination. Thus, the replacement of the photo-oxidation of water by the photodegradation of organic waste will be accompanied by a gain in solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency and hence by a decrease in the cost of the photoproduced hydrogen. Taking into account the benefits and possible revenues obtainable by the waste degradation, this would seem to be a promising approach to the photoproduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is another waste effluent requiring extensive treatment, especially in petroleum refineries. The so-called Claus process is normally used to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. A sulfur recovery process developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described briefly in Chapter 4 by Dr. C. Linkous as a typical example of the photoproduction of hydrogen in a non oxygen-evolving system. The encouraging results obtained in these investigations of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production combined with organic waste degradation, have prompted a decision to continue the work under the new IEA Hydrogen Agreement Annex 14, Photoelectrolytic Hydrogen Production.

Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))

2000-01-01

366

Interaction between hydrogen sulfide-induced sulfhydration and tyrosine nitration in the KATP channel complex.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator affecting many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Enhanced expression of H2S and reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RNS/ROS) during inflammation alters cellular excitability via modulation of ion channel function. Sulfhydration of cysteine residues and tyrosine nitration are the posttranslational modifications induced by H2S and RNS, respectively. The objective of this study was to define the interaction between tyrosine nitration and cysteine sulfhydration within the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel complex, a significant target in experimental colitis. A modified biotin switch assay was performed to determine sulfhydration of the KATP channel subunits, Kir6.1, sulphonylurea 2B (SUR2B), and nitrotyrosine measured by immunoblot. NaHS (a donor of H2S) significantly enhanced sulfhydration of SUR2B but not Kir6.1 subunit. 3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (a donor of peroxynitrite) induced nitration of Kir6.1 subunit but not SUR2B. Pretreatment with NaHS reduced the nitration of Kir6.1 by SIN-1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells cotransfected with the two subunits, as well as in enteric glia. Two specific mutations within SUR2B, C24S, and C1455S prevented sulfhydration by NaHS, and these mutations prevented NaHS-induced reduction in tyrosine nitration of Kir6.1. NaHS also reversed peroxynitrite-induced inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. These studies suggest that posttranslational modifications of the two subunits of the KATP channel interact to alter channel function. The studies described herein demonstrate a unique mechanism by which sulfhydration of one subunit modifies tyrosine nitration of another subunit within the same channel complex. This interaction provides a mechanistic insight on the protective effects of H2S in inflammation. PMID:25552582

Kang, Minho; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Gade, Aravind; Akbarali, Hamid I

2015-03-15

367

The Therapeutic Potential of Cystathionine ?-Synthetase/Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibition in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Cancer represents a major socioeconomic problem; there is a significant need for novel therapeutic approaches targeting tumor-specific pathways. Recent Advances: In colorectal and ovarian cancers, an increase in the intratumor production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) plays an important role in promoting the cellular bioenergetics, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. It also stimulates peritumor angiogenesis inhibition or genetic silencing of CBS exerts antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, and potentiates the antitumor efficacy of anticancer therapeutics. Critical Issues: Recently published studies are reviewed, implicating CBS overexpression and H2S overproduction in tumor cells as a tumor-growth promoting “bioenergetic fuel” and “survival factor,” followed by an overview of the experimental evidence demonstrating the anticancer effect of CBS inhibition. Next, the current state of the art of pharmacological CBS inhibitors is reviewed, with special reference to the complex pharmacological actions of aminooxyacetic acid. Finally, new experimental evidence is presented to reconcile a controversy in the literature regarding the effects of H2S donor on cancer cell proliferation and survival. Future Directions: From a basic science standpoint, future directions in the field include the delineation of the molecular mechanism of CBS up-regulation of cancer cells and the delineation of the interactions of H2S with other intracellular pathways of cancer cell metabolism and proliferation. From the translational science standpoint, future directions include the translation of the recently emerging roles of H2S in cancer into human diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 424–448. PMID:24730679

Hellmich, Mark R.; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia

2015-01-01

368

Hydrogen sulfide deficiency and diabetic renal remodeling: role of matrix metalloproteinase-9  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) causes adverse remodeling, whereas hydrogen sulfide (H2S) rescues organs in vascular diseases. The involvement of MMP-9 and H2S in diabetic renovascular remodeling is, however, not well characterized. We determined whether MMP-9 regulates H2S generation and whether H2S modulates connexin through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R)-mediated pathway in the diabetic kidney. Wild-type (WT, C57BL/6J), diabetic (Akita, C57BL/6J-Ins2Akita), MMP-9?/? (M9KO), double knockout (DKO) of Akita/MMP-9?/? mice and in vitro cell culture were used in our study. Hyperglycemic Akita mice exhibited increased level of MMP-9 and decreased production of H2S. H2S-synthesizing enzymes cystathionine-?-synthase and cystathionine-?-lyase were also diminished. In addition, increased expressions of NMDA-R1 and connexin-40 and -43 were observed in diabetic kidney. As expected, MMP-9 mRNA was not detected in M9KO kidneys. However, very thin protein expression and activity were detected. No other changes were noticed in M9KO kidney. In DKO mice, all the above molecules showed a trend toward baseline despite hyperglycemia. In vitro, glomerular endothelial cells treated with high glucose showed induction of MMP-9, attenuated H2S production, NMDA-R1 induction, and dysregulated conexin-40 and -43 expressions. Silencing MMP-9 by siRNA or inhibition of NMDA-R1 by MK801 or H2S treatment preserved connexin-40 and -43. We conclude that in diabetic renovascular remodeling MMP-9 plays a major role and that H2S has therapeutic potential to prevent adverse diabetic renal remodeling. PMID:23632630

Kundu, Sourav; Pushpakumar, Sathnur B.; Tyagi, Aaron; Coley, Denise

2013-01-01

369

Metabolic and cardiac signaling effects of inhaled hydrogen sulfide and low oxygen in male rats  

PubMed Central

Low concentrations of inhaled hydrogen sulfide (H2S) induce hypometabolism in mice. Biological effects of H2S in in vitro systems are augmented by lowering O2 tension. Based on this, we hypothesized that reduced O2 tension would increase H2S-mediated hypometabolism in vivo. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 80 ppm H2S at 21% O2 or 10.5% O2 for 6 h followed by 1 h recovery at room air. Rats exposed to H2S in 10.5% O2 had significantly decreased body temperature and respiration compared with preexposure levels. Heart rate was decreased by H2S administered under both O2 levels and did not return to preexposure levels after 1 h recovery. Inhaled H2S caused epithelial exfoliation in the lungs and increased plasma creatine kinase-MB activity. The effect of inhaled H2S on prosurvival signaling was also measured in heart and liver. H2S in 21% O2 increased Akt-PSer473 and GSK-3?-PSer9 in the heart whereas phosphorylation was decreased by H2S in 10.5% O2, indicating O2 dependence in regulating cardiac signaling pathways. Inhaled H2S and low O2 had no effect on liver Akt. In summary, we found that lower O2 was needed for H2S-dependent hypometabolism in rats compared with previous findings in mice. This highlights the possibility of species differences in physiological responses to H2S. Inhaled H2S exposure also caused tissue injury to the lung and heart, which raises concerns about the therapeutic safety of inhaled H2S. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of O2 in influencing physiological and signaling effects of H2S in mammalian systems. PMID:22403348

Stein, Asaf; Mao, Zhengkuan; Morrison, Joanna P.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Kraus, David W.; Doeller, Jeannette E.

2012-01-01

370

Treatment with hydrogen sulfide alleviates streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Retinopathy, as a common complication of diabetes, is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness in the adult population. The aim of present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of hydrogen sulfide on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats. Experimental Approach Rats were injected with a single i.p. injection of STZ (60 mg·kg?1) to induce diabetic retinopathy. Two weeks later, the rats were treated with NaHS (i.p. injection of 0.1 mL·kg?1·d?1 of 0.28 mol·L?1 NaHS, a donor of H2S) for 14 weeks. Key Results Treatment with H2S had no significant effect on blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with exogenous H2S enhanced H2S levels in both plasma and retinas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with H2S in STZ-treated rats improved the retinal neuronal dysfunction marked by enhanced amplitudes of b-waves and oscillatory potentials and expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, alleviated retinal vascular abnormalities marked by reduced retinal vascular permeability and acellular capillary formation, decreased vitreous VEGF content, down-regulated expressions of HIF-1? and VEGFR2, and enhanced occludin expression, and attenuated retinal thickening and suppressed expression of extracellular matrix molecules including laminin ?1 and collagen IV?3 expression in retinas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with H2S in retinas of STZ-induced diabetic rats abated oxidative stress, alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction, suppressed NF-?B activation and attenuated inflammation. Conclusions and Implications Treatment with H2S alleviates STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats possibly through abating oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. PMID:23488985

Si, Yan-Fang; Wang, Jun; Guan, Juan; Zhou, Li; Sheng, Yu; Zhao, Juan

2013-01-01

371

A liquid crystal-based passive badge for personal monitoring of exposure to hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

A new liquid crystal (LC)-based passive dosimeter badge for personal monitoring of exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is reported. When a thin film of LC supported on a surface functionalized with lead perchlorate Pb(ClO4)2 (the LC sensor) is exposed to H2S, the orientation of LC molecules in the film changes from perpendicular to parallel. This reorientation induces a change in the appearance of the LC film when viewed between crossed polarizers. A H2S dosimeter was fabricated by pairing a LC sensor with a glass substrate forming a headspace between the two surfaces, to control diffusion of H2S across the LC film. When the dosimeter is exposed to H2S, a bright front appears as a function of exposure time. An algorithm has been developed to correlate this response length and exposure dose. The dosimeters are functionally stable when subjected to extreme temperature and humidity fluctuations, and are immune to a number of potentially interfering chemicals, except mercaptans. These dosimeters detect H2S at 0.2 ppm TWA (8 hr) with ±20% overall accuracy. The dosimeters were used to monitor the personal exposure of personnel working in an oil refinery. The TWA concentrations measured by the LC-based dosimeters correlate strongly with the NIOSH 1063 method that uses a sorbent tube and a pump followed by laboratory analysis. Thus, the LC-based dosimeters can provide a sensitive tool for on-site assessment of personal exposure to H2S in different environments. PMID:24766440

Robinson, Sheila E; Grinwald, Bart A; Bremer, Laura L; Kupcho, Kurt A; Acharya, Bharat R; Owens, Patrick D

2014-01-01

372

Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in Novel Rat Models of Non-Erosive Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Non-erosive esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus and is a form of gastroesophageal reflux disease. There are limited treatment options for non-erosive esophagitis, and it often progresses to Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. Hydrogen sulfide has been demonstrated to be a critical mediator of gastric and intestinal mucosal protection and repair. However, roles for H2S in esophageal mucosal defence, inflammation and responses to injury have not been reported. We therefore examined the effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S in rat models of non-erosive esophagitis. Mild- and moderate-severity non-erosive esophagitis was induced in rats through supplementation of drinking water with fructose, plus or minus exposure to water-immersion stress. The effects of inhibitors of H2S synthesis or of an H2S donor on severity of esophagitis was then examined, along with changes in serum levels of a pro- and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-17 and IL-10, respectively). Exposure to water-immersion stress after consumption of the fructose-supplemented water for 28 days resulted in submucosal esophageal edema and neutrophil infiltration and the development of lesions in the muscular lamina and basal cell hyperplasia. Inhibition of H2S synthesis resulted in significant exacerbation of inflammation and injury. Serum levels of IL-17 were significantly elevated, while serum IL-10 levels were reduced. Treatment with an H2S donor significantly reduced the severity of esophageal injury and inflammation and normalized the serum cytokine levels. The rat models used in this study provide novel tools for studying non-erosive esophagitis with a range of severity. H2S contributes significantly to mucosal defence in the esophagus, and H2S donors may have therapeutic value in treating esophageal inflammation and injury. PMID:25333941

Zayachkivska, Oksana; Havryluk, Olena; Hrycevych, Nazar; Bula, Nazar; Grushka, Oksana; Wallace, John L.

2014-01-01

373

Selenium inhibits root elongation by repressing the generation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide in Brassica rapa.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) has been becoming an emerging pollutant causing severe phytotoxicity, which the biochemical mechanism is rarely known. Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been suggested as an important exogenous regulator modulating plant physiological adaptions in response to heavy metal stress, whether and how the endogenous H2S regulates Se-induce phytotoxicity remains unclear. In this work, a self-developed specific fluorescent probe (WSP-1) was applied to track endogenous H2S in situ in the roots of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced root growth stunt was closely correlated with the inhibition of endogenous H2S generation in root tips. Se(IV) stress dampened the expression of most LCD and DCD homologues in the roots of B. rapa. By using various specific fluorescent probes for bio-imaging root tips in situ, we found that the increase in endogenous H2S by the application of H2S donor NaHS could significantly alleviate Se(IV)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulation, oxidative impairment, and cell death in root tips, which further resulted in the recovery of root growth under Se(IV) stress. However, dampening the endogenous H2S could block the alleviated effect of NaHS on Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity. Finally, the increase in endogenous H2S resulted in the enhancement of glutathione (GSH) in Se(IV)-treated roots, which may share the similar molecular mechanism for the dominant role of H2S in removing ROS by activating GSH biosynthesis in mammals. Altogether, these data provide the first direct evidences confirming the pivotal role of endogenous H2S in modulating Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity in roots. PMID:25333279

Chen, Yi; Mo, Hai-Zhen; Zheng, Mei-Yu; Xian, Ming; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Li, You-Qin; Hu, Liang-Bin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

2014-01-01

374

Hydrogen sulfide upregulates heme oxygenase-1 expression in rats with volume overload-induced heart failure  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous transmitter, in chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by left-to-right shunt, leading to volume overload. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: the shunt group, the sham group, the shunt + sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group and the sham + NaHS group. CHF was induced in the rats by abdominal aorta-inferior vena cava shunt operation. Rats in the shunt + NaHS and sham + NaHS groups were injected intraperitoneally with NaHS (H2S donor). Haemodynamic parameters were measured 8 weeks after surgery. In addition, left ventricular heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Protein expression of HO-1 was evaluated by western blot analysis. Eight weeks after surgery, compared to the sham group, the left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and left ventricular peak rate of contraction and relaxation (LV±dp/dtmax) were significantly reduced; the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was significantly increased in the shunt group (all P<0.05). However, NaHS increased LVSP and LV±dp/dtmax (all P<0.05) and decreased LVEDP (P<0.05). Protein expression of HO-1 was significantly decreased in the shunt group compared to that in the sham group (P<0.05). NaHS increased protein expression of HO-1 compared to that in the shunt group (P<0.05). HO-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the shunt + NaHS group compared to that in the shunt group (P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that H2S may play a protective role in volume overload-induced CHF by upregulating protein and mRNA expression of HO-1. PMID:24648967

ZHANG, CHAO-YING; LI, XIAO-HUI; ZHANG, TING; FU, JIN; CUI, XIAO-DAI

2013-01-01

375

Vascular complications of cystathionine ?-synthase deficiency: future directions for homocysteine-to-hydrogen sulfide research  

PubMed Central

Homocysteine (Hcy), a cardiovascular and neurovascular disease risk factor, is converted to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) through the transsulfuration pathway. H2S has attracted considerable attention in recent years for many positive effects on vascular health and homeostasis. Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is the first, and rate-limiting, enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway. Mutations in the CBS gene decrease enzymatic activity, which increases the plasma Hcy concentration, a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). Animal models of CBS deficiency have provided invaluable insights into the pathological effects of transsulfuration impairment and of both mild and severe HHcy. However, studies have also highlighted the complexity of HHcy and the need to explore the specific details of Hcy metabolism in addition to Hcy levels per se. There has been a relative paucity of work addressing the dysfunctional H2S production in CBS deficiency that may contribute to, or even create, HHcy-associated pathologies. Experiments using CBS knockout mice, both homozygous (?/?) and heterozygous (+/?), have provided 15 years of new knowledge and are the focus of this review. These murine models present the opportunity to study a specific mechanism for HHcy that matches one of the etiologies in many human patients. Therefore, the goal of this review was to integrate and highlight the critical information gained thus far from models of CBS deficiency and draw attention to critical gaps in knowledge, with particular emphasis on the modulation of H2S metabolism. We include findings from human and animal studies to identify important opportunities for future investigation that should be aimed at generating new basic and clinical understanding of the role of CBS and transsulfuration in cardiovascular and neurovascular disease. PMID:20971760

Beard, Richard S.

2011-01-01

376

Vascular complications of cystathionine ?-synthase deficiency: future directions for homocysteine-to-hydrogen sulfide research.  

PubMed

Homocysteine (Hcy), a cardiovascular and neurovascular disease risk factor, is converted to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) through the transsulfuration pathway. H(2)S has attracted considerable attention in recent years for many positive effects on vascular health and homeostasis. Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is the first, and rate-limiting, enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway. Mutations in the CBS gene decrease enzymatic activity, which increases the plasma Hcy concentration, a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). Animal models of CBS deficiency have provided invaluable insights into the pathological effects of transsulfuration impairment and of both mild and severe HHcy. However, studies have also highlighted the complexity of HHcy and the need to explore the specific details of Hcy metabolism in addition to Hcy levels per se. There has been a relative paucity of work addressing the dysfunctional H(2)S production in CBS deficiency that may contribute to, or even create, HHcy-associated pathologies. Experiments using CBS knockout mice, both homozygous (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-), have provided 15 years of new knowledge and are the focus of this review. These murine models present the opportunity to study a specific mechanism for HHcy that matches one of the etiologies in many human patients. Therefore, the goal of this review was to integrate and highlight the critical information gained thus far from models of CBS deficiency and draw attention to critical gaps in knowledge, with particular emphasis on the modulation of H(2)S metabolism. We include findings from human and animal studies to identify important opportunities for future investigation that should be aimed at generating new basic and clinical understanding of the role of CBS and transsulfuration in cardiovascular and neurovascular disease. PMID:20971760

Beard, Richard S; Bearden, Shawn E

2011-01-01

377

Consecutive oxygen-for-sulfur exchange reactions between vanadium oxide cluster anions and hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

Vanadium oxide cluster anions Vm(16)On(-) and Vm(18)On(-) were prepared by laser ablation and reacted with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in a fast flow reactor under thermal collision conditions. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to detect the cluster distributions before and after the interactions with H2S. The experiments suggest that the oxygen-for-sulfur (O/S) exchange reaction to release water was evidenced in the reactor for most of the cluster anions: VmOn(-) + H2S ? VmOn-1S(-) + H2O. For reactions of clusters VO3(-) and VO4(-) with H2S, consecutive O/S exchange reactions led to the generation of sulfur containing vanadium oxide cluster anions VO3-kSk(-) (k = 1-3) and VO4-kSk(-) (k = 1-4). Density functional theory calculations were performed for the reactions of VO3-4(-) with H2S, and the results indicate that the O/S exchange reactions are both thermodynamically and kinetically favorable, which supports the experimental observations. The reactions of VmOn(+) cluster cations with H2S have been reported previously (Jia, M.-Y.; Xu, B.; Ding, X.-L.; Zhao, Y.-X.; He, S.-G.; Ge, M.-F. J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 9043), and this study of cluster anions provides further new insights into the transformations of H2S over vanadium oxides at the molecular level. PMID:24387129

Jia, Mei-Ye; Xu, Bo; Deng, Ke; He, Sheng-Gui; Ge, Mao-Fa

2014-09-18

378

Hydrogen sulfide alleviates cadmium-induced morpho-physiological and ultrastructural changes in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

In the present study, role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating cadmium (Cd) induced stress in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was studied under greenhouse conditions. Plants were grown hydroponically under three levels (0, 100, and 500µM) of Cd and three levels (0, 100 and 200µM) of H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Results showed that application of H2S significantly improved the plant growth, root morphology, chlorophyll contents, elements uptake and photosynthetic activity in B. napus plants under Cd stress. Moreover, addition of H2S reduced the Cd concentration in the leaves and roots of B. napus plants under Cd-toxicity. Exogenously applied H2S decreased the production of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in the leaves and roots by improving the enzymatic antioxidant activities under Cd stress conditions. The microscopic examination indicated that application of exogenous H2S improved the cell structures and enabled a clean mesophyll cell having a well developed chloroplast with thylakoid membranes, and a number of mitochondria could be observed in the micrographs. A number of modifications could be found in root tip cell i.e. mature mitochondria, long endoplasmic reticulum and golgibodies under combined application of H2S and Cd. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that application of exogenous H2S has a protective role on plant growth, photosynthetic parameters, elements uptake, antioxidants enzyme activities and ultrastructural changes in B. napus under high Cd stress conditions. PMID:25255479

Ali, Basharat; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Su; Gill, Muhammad B; Ali, Shafaqat; Rafiq, Muhammad T; Zhou, Weijun

2014-12-01

379

Ginkgolide B increases hydrogen sulfide and protects against endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Aim. To evaluate the effect of ginkgolide B treatment on vascular endothelial function in diabetic rats. Methods The study included four groups with 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats: control group; control group treated with ginkgolide B; diabetic group; and diabetic treated with ginkgolide B. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde content, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) protein expression were determined in aortic tissues. Vasoconstriction to phenylephrine (PHE) and vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were assessed in aortic rings. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured, as well as cystathionine ? lyase (CSE) and cystathionine ? synthetase (CBS) protein expression, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Results Diabetes significantly impaired PHE-induced vasoconstriction and Ach-induced vasorelaxation (P<0.001), reduced NO bioavailability and H2S production (P<0.001), SOD activity, and GPX1 protein expression (P<0.001), and increased malondialdehyde content and NADPH oxidase subunits, and CSE and CBS protein expression (P<0.001). Ginkgolide B treatment improved PHE vasoconstriction and Ach vasorelaxation (P<0.001), restored SOD (P=0.005) and eNOS (P<0.001) activities, H2S production (P=0.044) and decreased malondialdehyde content (P=0.014). Vasorelaxation to SNP was not signi?cantly different in control and diabetic rats with or without ginkgolide B treatment. Besides, ginkgolide B increased GPX1 protein expression and reduced NADPH oxidase subunits, CBS and CSE protein expression. Conclusion. Ginkgolide B alleviates endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress and elevating NO bioavailability and H2S production in diabetic rats. PMID:25727037

Wang, Guo-Guang; Chen, Qing-Ying; Li, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Xue

2015-02-28

380

Endogenous hydrogen sulfide in the rostral ventrolateral medulla/Bötzinger complex downregulates ventilatory responses to hypoxia.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as a new gaseous transmitter involved in several brain-mediated responses. The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)/Bötzinger complex is a region in the brainstem that is involved in cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Recently, it has been shown that exogenous H2S in the RVLM modulates autonomic function and thus blood pressure. In the present study, we investigated whether H2S, endogenously produced in the RVLM/Bötzinger complex, plays a role in the control of hypoxia-induced hyperventilation. Ventilation (VE) was measured before and after bilateral microinjection of Na2S (H2S donor, 0.04, 1 and 2 pmol/100 nl) or aminooxyacetate (AOA, 0.2, 1 and 2 pmol/100 nl, a cystathionine ?-synthase, CBS, inhibitor) into the RVLM/Bötzinger complex followed by a 60-min period of hypoxia (7% inspired O2) or normoxia exposure. Control rats received microinjection of vehicle. Microinjection of vehicle, AOA or Na2S did not change VE in normoxic conditions. Exposure to hypoxia evoked a typical increase in VE. Microinjection of Na2S (2 pmol) followed by hypoxia exposure attenuated the hyperventilation. Conversely, microinjection of AOA (2 pmol) into the RVLM/Bötzinger complex caused an increase in the hypoxia-induced hyperventilation. Thus, endogenous H2S in the RVLM/Bötzinger complex seems to play no role in the maintenance of basal pulmonary ventilation during normoxia whereas during hypoxia H2S has a downmodulatory function. Homogenates of RVLM/Bötzinger complex of animals previously exposed to hypoxia for 60 min exhibited a decreased rate of H2S production. Our data are consistent with the notion that the gaseous messenger H2S synthesis is downregulated in the RVLM/Bötzinger complex during hypoxia favoring hyperventilation. PMID:24953676

Donatti, Alberto F; Soriano, Renato N; Sabino, João P; Branco, Luiz G S

2014-08-15

381

Production and actions of hydrogen sulfide, a novel gaseous bioactive substance, in the kidneys.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a novel endogenous gaseous bioactive substance, has recently been implicated in the regulation of cardiovascular and neuronal functions. However, its role in the control of renal function is unknown. In the present study, incubation of renal tissue homogenates with L-cysteine (L-Cys) (as a substrate) produced H(2)S in a concentration-dependent manner. This H(2)S production was completely abolished by inhibition of both cystathionine beta-synthetase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL), two major enzymes for the production of H(2)S, using amino-oxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of CBS, and propargylglycine (PPG), an inhibitor of CGL. However, inhibition of CBS or CGL alone induced a small decrease in H(2)S production. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, intrarenal arterial infusion of an H(2)S donor (NaHS) increased renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary sodium (U(Na) x V), and potassium (U(K) x V) excretion. Consistently, infusion of both AOAA and PPG to inhibit the endogenous H(2)S production decreased GFR, U(Na) x V, and U(K) x V, and either one of these inhibitors alone had no significant effect on renal functions. Infusion of L-Cys into renal artery to increase the endogenous H(2)S production also increased GFR, U(Na) x V, and U(K) x V, which was blocked by AOAA plus PPG. It was shown that H(2)S had both vascular and tubular effects and that the tubular effect of H(2)S might be through inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter and Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase activity. These results suggest that H(2)S participates in the control of renal function and increases urinary sodium excretion via both vascular and tubular actions in the kidney. PMID:19246614

Xia, Min; Chen, Li; Muh, Rachel W; Li, Pin-Lan; Li, Ningjun

2009-06-01

382

Hydrogen sulfide contributes to hypoxia-induced radioresistance on hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

Growing evidence has demonstrated that, as an endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) plays an important role in regulating numerous biological functions. The role of H(2)S in hypoxia-induced radioresistance on hepatoma cells was investigated in the present work. Results showed that, when HepG2 cells were maintained in hypoxia circumstances for 4 h, the cellular radioresistance was extensively increased so that the oxygen enhancement ratio of the survival fraction approached 2.68. Under this hypoxic condition, when the cells were treated with DL-propargylglycine (PPG) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), a specific inhibitor of H(2)S synthase of cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) respectively, radiation responses including cell killing, micronuclei (MN) formation, and caspase-3 activity were significantly enhanced. However, treatment of cells with low concentrations of NaHS (? 100 µM) protected cells from these radiation damages. Western bolting assay showed that CSE and CBS were over-expressed in the irradiated hypoxic cells in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, when the hypoxic HepG2 cells were treated with NaHS together with glibenclamide, a specific inhibitor of K(+)(ATP) channels, the role of exogenous H(2)S in radioprotection was partly eliminated. This study demonstrated that H(2)S contributed to hypoxia-induced radioresistance probably via the opening of K(+)(ATP) channels, which suggests that the endogenous H(2)S synthase could be a potential radiotherapeutic target for a hypoxic tumor. PMID:21952317

Zhang, Jianghong; Xie, Yuexia; Xu, Yanwu; Pan, Yan; Shao, Chunlin

2011-01-01

383

Impaired hydrogen sulfide synthesis and IL-10 signaling underlie hyperhomocysteinemia-associated exacerbation of colitis  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B deficiencies, which can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy), are commonly reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and may be a causative underlying factor. However, the mechanism for this effect is not known. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous mediator that promotes tissue repair and resolution of inflammation. In experimental colitis, a marked increase in colonic H2S synthesis drives ulcer healing and resolution of inflammation. Because H2S synthesis is in part dependent upon enzymes that require vitamin B6 as a cofactor, we tested the hypothesis that Hhcy in rodent models would increase the susceptibility to colitis. In all three models tested, diet-induced Hhcy significantly exacerbated colitis. The usual elevation of colonic H2S synthesis after induction of colitis was absent in all three models of colitis. Administration of an H2S donor to Hhcy rats significantly decreased the severity of colitis. Compared with wild-type mice, interleukin (IL) 10-deficient mice on a normal diet had decreased levels of colonic H2S synthesis, a 40% increase in serum homocysteine, and a phenotype similar to wild-type mice with Hhcy. IL-10–deficient mice fed the vitamin B-deficient diet exhibited more severe colonic inflammation, but the normal elevation of colonic H2S synthesis was absent. Administration of IL-10 to the IL-10–deficient mice restored colonic H2S synthesis and significantly decreased serum homocysteine levels. These results suggest that the exacerbation of colitis in Hhcy is due in part to impaired colonic H2S synthesis. Moreover, IL-10 plays a novel role in promoting H2S production and homocysteine metabolism, which may have therapeutic value in conditions characterized by Hhcy. PMID:25187563

Flannigan, Kyle L.; Agbor, Terence A.; Blackler, Rory W.; Kim, Janice J.; Khan, Waliul I.; Verdu, Elena F.; Ferraz, Jose G. P.; Wallace, John L.

2014-01-01

384

Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part II. Pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects  

PubMed Central

Emerging work demonstrates the dual regulation of mitochondrial function by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), including, at lower concentrations, a stimulatory effect as an electron donor, and, at higher concentrations, an inhibitory effect on cytochrome C oxidase. In the current article, we overview the pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of these processes. During cellular hypoxia/acidosis, the inhibitory effect of H2S on complex IV is enhanced, which may shift the balance of H2S from protective to deleterious. Several pathophysiological conditions are associated with an overproduction of H2S (e.g. sepsis), while in other disease states H2S levels and H2S bioavailability are reduced and its therapeutic replacement is warranted (e.g. diabetic vascular complications). Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells up-regulate the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), and utilize its product, H2S, as a metabolic fuel and tumour-cell survival factor; pharmacological CBS inhibition or genetic CBS silencing suppresses cancer cell bioenergetics and suppresses cell proliferation and cell chemotaxis. In the last chapter of the current article, we overview the field of H2S-induced therapeutic ‘suspended animation’, a concept in which a temporary pharmacological reduction in cell metabolism is achieved, producing a decreased oxygen demand for the experimental therapy of critical illness and/or organ transplantation. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:23991749

Módis, Katalin; Bos, Eelke M; Calzia, Enrico; van Goor, Harry; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Radermacher, Peter; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Szabo, Csaba

2014-01-01

385

Effects of pH and lactate on hydrogen sulfide production by oral Veillonella spp.  

PubMed

Indigenous oral bacteria in the tongue coating such as Veillonella have been identified as the main producers of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), one of the major components of oral malodor. However, there is little information on the physiological properties of H2S production by oral Veillonella such as metabolic activity and oral environmental factors which may affect H2S production. Thus, in the present study, the H2S-producing activity of growing cells, resting cells, and cell extracts of oral Veillonella species and the effects of oral environmental factors, including pH and lactate, were investigated. Type strains of Veillonella atypica, Veillonella dispar, and Veillonella parvula were used. These Veillonella species produced H2S during growth in the presence of l-cysteine. Resting cells of these bacteria produced H2S from l-cysteine, and the cell extracts showed enzymatic activity to convert l-cysteine to H2S. H2S production by resting cells was higher at pH 6 to 7 and lower at pH 5. The presence of lactate markedly increased H2S production by resting cells (4.5- to 23.7-fold), while lactate had no effect on enzymatic activity in cell extracts. In addition to H2S, ammonia was produced in cell extracts of all the strains, indicating that H2S was produced by the catalysis of cystathionine ?-lyase (EC 4.4.1.1). Serine was also produced in cell extracts of V. atypica and V. parvula, suggesting the involvement of cystathionine ?-synthase lyase (EC 4.2.1.22) in these strains. This study indicates that Veillonella produce H2S from l-cysteine and that their H2S production can be regulated by oral environmental factors, namely, pH and lactate. PMID:24795374

Washio, Jumpei; Shimada, Yuko; Yamada, Masakazu; Sakamaki, Ryouichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

2014-07-01

386

Nitric oxide-releasing flurbiprofen reduces formation of proinflammatory hydrogen sulfide in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice and rats but their interaction in these models is not known. In this study we examined the effect of the NO donor, nitroflurbiprofen (and the parent molecule flurbiprofen) on NO and H2S metabolism in tissues from LPS-pretreated rats. Administration of LPS (10?mg?kg?1, i.p.; 6?h) resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in plasma TNF-?, IL-1? and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentrations, liver H2S synthesis (from added cysteine), CSE mRNA, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (marker for neutrophil infiltration) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. Nitroflurbiprofen (3–30?mg?kg?1, i.p.) administration resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the LPS-mediated increase in plasma TNF-?, IL-1? and NOx concentration, liver H2S synthesis (55.00±0.95?nmole?mg?protein?1, c.f. 62.38±0.47?nmole?mg?protein?1, n=5, P<0.05), CSE mRNA, iNOS, MPO activity and NF-?B activation. Flurbiprofen (21?mg?kg?1, i.p.) was without effect. These results show for the first time that nitroflurbiprofen downregulates the biosynthesis of proinflammatory H2S and suggest that such an effect may contribute to the augmented anti-inflammatory activity of this compound. These data also highlight the existence of ‘crosstalk' between NO and H2S in this model of endotoxic shock. PMID:16491094

Anuar, Farhana; Whiteman, Matthew; Siau, Jia Ling; Kwong, Shing Erl; Bhatia, Madhav; Moore, Philip K

2006-01-01

387

Effects of handling parameters on hydrogen sulfide emission from stored dairy manure.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emission from liquid manure in the process preceding field application is an important issue in fertigation systems. Given that H2S poses a significant health risk, it is important to determine the effects of different handling parameters on H2S emissions to prevent health risks to farmers. In this study, the effects of total solids (TS; 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11%) and mixing speed (100, 200, 300, and 400 rpm), duration (5, 15, 30, and 60 min), and frequency (one, two, three, and four times a day) on H2S emissions from two different dairy manures were investigated. The results indicate that the quantity of sulfur-containing substrate intake determines the potential of dairy manure to emit H2S because manure from cows fed with concentrate-based feed generates higher amounts of H2S than manure from cows fed with forage-based feed. The H2S concentration increased with TS concentration and reached a maximum of 1133 ppm at a TS of 9%; thereafter, it decreased with further increases in TS concentration. H2S emission increased with mixing speed with a peak concentration of 3996 ppm at 400 rpm. A similar trend was observed for mixing duration. However, there were no significant differences between the amounts H2S emitted at different frequencies of mixing (P > 0.05). The results indicate that mixing speed, duration, and TS are the major determinants of the quantity of H2S emitted from dairy manure. Therefore, to prevent health risks associated with H2S emission from dairy manure, it is recommended that the mixing speed and duration should be kept as low as possible, while a TS concentration of above 9% should be applied during the fertigation of dairy manure. PMID:25721978

Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Fetra J; Sakamoto, Yushi; Yamashiro, Takaki; Yasui, Seiichi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Ihara, Ikko; Tsuji, Osamu; Umetsu, Kazutaka

2015-05-01

388

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits oxidative stress in lungs from allergic mice in vivo.  

PubMed

Recent studies show that endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) plays an anti-inflammatory role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation. This study investigated whether exogenous H(2)S may counteract oxidative stress-mediated lung damage in allergic mice. Female BALB/c mice previously sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) were treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) 30 min before OVA challenge. Forty eight hours after antigen-challenge, the mice were killed and leukocyte counting as well as nitrite plus nitrate concentrations were determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue was analysed for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, iNOS expression, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins (3-NT). Pre-treatment of OVA-sensitized mice with NaHS resulted in significant reduction of both eosinophil and neutrophil migration to the lungs, and prevented the elevation of iNOS expression and activity observed in the lungs from the untreated allergic mice, although it did not affect 3-NT. NaHS treatment also abolished the increased lipid peroxidation present in the allergic mouse lungs and increased SOD, GPx and GR enzyme activities. These results show, for the first time, that the beneficial in vivo effects of the H(2)S-donor NaHS on allergic airway inflammation involve its inhibitory action on leukocyte recruitment and the prevention of lung damage by increasing endogenous antioxidant defenses. Thus, exogenous administration of H(2)S donors may be beneficial in reducing the deleterius impact of allergic pulmonary disease, and might represent an additional class of pharmacological agents for treatment of chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:23183109

Benetti, Leticia R; Campos, Daiana; Gurgueira, Sonia A; Vercesi, Anibal E; Guedes, Cristiane E V; Santos, Kleber L; Wallace, John L; Teixeira, Simone A; Florenzano, Juliana; Costa, Soraia K P; Muscará, Marcelo N; Ferreira, Heloisa H A

2013-01-01

389

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits proliferation and release of IL-8 from human airway smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is synthesized intracellularly by the enzymes cystathionine-?-lyase and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), and is proposed to be a gasotransmitter with effects in modulating inflammation and cellular proliferation. We determined a role of H(2)S in airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. ASM were removed from resection or transplant donor lungs and were placed in culture. Proliferation of ASM was induced by FCS and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1?. Proliferation of ASM and IL-8 release were measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and ELISA, respectively. Exposure of ASM to H(2)S "donors" inhibited this proliferation and IL-8 release. Methemoglobin, a scavenger of endogenous H(2)S, increased DNA synthesis induced by FCS and IL-1?. In addition, methemoglobin increased IL-8 release induced by FCS, but not by IL-1?, indicating a role for endogenous H(2)S in these systems. Inhibition of CBS, but not cystathionine-?-lyase, reversed the inhibitory effect of H(2)S on proliferation and IL-8 release, indicating that this is dependent on CBS. CBS mRNA and protein expression were inhibited by H(2)S donors, and were increased by methemoglobin, indicating that CBS is the main enzyme responsible for endogenous H(2)S production. Finally, we found that exogenous H(2)S inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and p38, which could represent a mechanism by which H(2)S inhibited cellular proliferation and IL-8 release. In summary, H(2)S production provides a novel mechanism for regulation of ASM proliferation and IL-8 release. Therefore, regulation of H(2)S may represent a novel approach to controlling ASM proliferation and cytokine release that is found in patients with asthma. PMID:21297080

Perry, Mark M; Hui, Christopher K; Whiteman, Matthew; Wood, Mark E; Adcock, Ian; Kirkham, Paul; Michaeloudes, Charalambos; Chung, Kian Fan

2011-10-01

390

Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates Neurodegeneration and Neurovascular Dysfunction Induced by Intracerebral Administered Homocysteine in Mice  

PubMed Central

High levels of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) are associated with neurovascular diseases. H2S, a metabolite of Hcy, has a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect of H2S has not been explored in Hcy (IC) induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction in mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of H2S on Hcy induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction. To test this hypothesis we employed wild type (WT) males ages 8–10 weeks, WT+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), WT+ Hcy (0.5?mol/?l) intracerebral injection (I.C., one time only prior to NaHS treatment), WT+Hcy +NaHS (sodium hydrogen sulfide, precursor of H2S, 30 ?mol/kg, body weight). NaHS was injected intra-peritoneally (I.P.) once daily for the period of 7 days after the Hcy (IC) injection. Hcy treatment significantly increased MDA, nitrite level, acetylcholinestrase activity, TNF?, IL1?, GFAP, iNOS, eNOS and decreased glutathione level indicating oxidative-nitrosative stress and neuroinflammation as compared to control and aCSF treated groups. Further, increased expression of NSE, S100B and decreased expression of (PSD95, SAP97) synaptic protein indicated neurodegeneration. Brain sections of Hcy treated mice showed damage in the cortical area and periventricular cells. TUNEL positive cells and Fluro Jade-C staining indicated apoptosis and neurodegeneration. The increased expression of MMP9, MMP2 and decreased expression of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, tight junction proteins (ZO1, Occuldin) in Hcy treated group indicate neurovascular remodeling. Interestingly, NaHS treatment significantly attenuated Hcy induced oxidative stress, memory deficit, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular remodeling. The results indicate that H2S is effective in providing protection against neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction. PMID:23912038

Kamat, Pradip K.; Kalani, Anuradha; Givvimani, Srikanth; Sathnur, PB; Tyagi, Suresh C.; Tyagi, Neetu

2014-01-01

391

Identification and molecular analysis of betaC-S lyase producing hydrogen sulfide in Streptococcus intermedius.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a toxic gas that induces the modification and release of haemoglobin in erythrocytes; however, it also functions in methionine biosynthesis in bacteria. betaC-S lyase, encoded by the lcd gene, is responsible for bacterial H(2)S production through the cleavage of l-cysteine. In this study, 26 of 29 crude extracts from reference and clinical strains of Streptococcus intermedius produced H(2)S from l-cysteine. The capacities in those strains were not higher than those in strains of the other anginosus group of streptococci, Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus, but were much greater than those in strains of Streptococcus gordonii, which is known to have an extremely low capacity for H(2)S production. Incubation of the remaining three extracts with l-cysteine did not result in H(2)S production. Sequence analysis revealed that the lcd genes from these three strains (S. intermedius strains ATCC 27335, IMU151 and IMU202) contained mutations or small deletions. H(2)S production in crude extracts prepared from S. intermedius ATCC 27335 was restored by repairing the lcd gene sequence in genomic DNA. The kinetic properties of the purified recombinant protein encoded by the repaired lcd gene were comparable to those of native proteins produced by H(2)S-producing strains, whereas the truncated protein produced by S. intermedius ATCC 27335 had no enzymic activity with l-cysteine or l-cystathionine. However, real-time PCR analysis indicated that the lcd gene in strains ATCC 27335, IMU151 and IMU202 is transcribed and regulated in a manner similar to that in the H(2)S-producing strain. PMID:18927421

Ito, Shuntaro; Nagamune, Hideaki; Tamura, Haruki; Yoshida, Yasuo

2008-11-01

392

Bench-to-bedside review: Hydrogen sulfide--the third gaseous transmitter: applications for critical care.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gas with the characteristic odor of rotten eggs, is known for its toxicity and as an environmental hazard, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration resulting from blockade of cytochrome c oxidase being the main toxic mechanism. Recently, however, H2S has been recognized as a signaling molecule of the cardiovascular, inflammatory and nervous systems, and therefore, alongside nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, is referred to as the third endogenous gaseous transmitter. Inhalation of gaseous H2S as well as administration of inhibitors of its endogenous production and compounds that donate H2S have been studied in various models of shock. Based on the concept that multiorgan failure secondary to shock, inflammation and sepsis may represent an adaptive hypometabolic response to preserve ATP homoeostasis, particular interest has focused on the induction of a hibernation-like suspended animation with H2S. It must be underscored that currently only a limited number of data are available from clinically relevant large animal models. Moreover, several crucial issues warrant further investigation before the clinical application of this concept. First, the impact of hypothermia for any H2S-related organ protection remains a matter of debate. Second, similar to the friend and foe character of nitric oxide, no definitive conclusions can be made as to whether H2S exerts proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, in addition to the question of dosing and timing (for example, bolus administration versus continuous intravenous infusion), the preferred route of H2S administration remains to be settled--that is, inhaling gaseous H2S versus intra-venous administration of injectable H2S preparations or H2S donors. To date, therefore, while H2S-induced suspended animation in humans may still be referred to as science fiction, there is ample promising preclinical data that this approach is a fascinating new therapeutic perspective for the management of shock states that merits further investigation. PMID:19519960

Wagner, Florian; Asfar, Pierre; Calzia, Enrico; Radermacher, Peter; Szabó, Csaba

2009-01-01

393

Effects of pH and Lactate on Hydrogen Sulfide Production by Oral Veillonella spp.  

PubMed Central

Indigenous oral bacteria in the tongue coating such as Veillonella have been identified as the main producers of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), one of the major components of oral malodor. However, there is little information on the physiological properties of H2S production by oral Veillonella such as metabolic activity and oral environmental factors which may affect H2S production. Thus, in the present study, the H2S-producing activity of growing cells, resting cells, and cell extracts of oral Veillonella species and the effects of oral environmental factors, including pH and lactate, were investigated. Type strains of Veillonella atypica, Veillonella dispar, and Veillonella parvula were used. These Veillonella species produced H2S during growth in the presence of l-cysteine. Resting cells of these bacteria produced H2S from l-cysteine, and the cell extracts showed enzymatic activity to convert l-cysteine to H2S. H2S production by resting cells was higher at pH 6 to 7 and lower at pH 5. The presence of lactate markedly increased H2S production by resting cells (4.5- to 23.7-fold), while lactate had no effect on enzymatic activity in cell extracts. In addition to H2S, ammonia was produced in cell extracts of all the strains, indicating that H2S was produced by the catalysis of cystathionine ?-lyase (EC 4.4.1.1). Serine was also produced in cell extracts of V. atypica and V. parvula, suggesting the involvement of cystathionine ?-synthase lyase (EC 4.2.1.22) in these strains. This study indicates that Veillonella produce H2S from l-cysteine and that their H2S production can be regulated by oral environmental factors, namely, pH and lactate. PMID:24795374

Washio, Jumpei; Shimada, Yuko; Yamada, Masakazu; Sakamaki, Ryouichi

2014-01-01

394

Ginkgolide B increases hydrogen sulfide and protects against endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the effect of ginkgolide B treatment on vascular endothelial function in diabetic rats. Methods The study included four groups with 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats: control group; control group treated with ginkgolide B; diabetic group; and diabetic treated with ginkgolide B. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde content, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) protein expression were determined in aortic tissues. Vasoconstriction to phenylephrine (PHE) and vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were assessed in aortic rings. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured, as well as cystathionine ? lyase (CSE) and cystathionine ? synthetase (CBS) protein expression, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Results Diabetes significantly impaired PHE-induced vasoconstriction and Ach-induced vasorelaxation (P?

Wang, Guo-Guang; Chen, Qing-Ying; Li, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Xue

2015-01-01

395

Hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria in tongue biofilm and their relationship with oral malodour.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to identify hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing bacteria among tongue biofilm microflora and to investigate the relationship between bacterial flora and H2S levels in mouth air. Oral malodour levels in 10 subjects (age 21-56 years) were assessed by gas chromatography, and Breathtron and organoleptic scores. Based on these assessments, subjects were divided into two groups: an odour group and a no/low odour group. Tongue coatings were sampled and spread onto Fastidious Anaerobe Agar plates containing 0.05% cysteine, 0.12% glutathione and 0.02% lead acetate, and were then incubated anaerobically at 37 degrees C for 2 weeks. Bacteria forming black or grey colonies were selected as H2S-producing phenotypes. The numbers of total bacteria (P<0.005) and H2S-producing bacteria (P<0.05) in the odour group were significantly larger than those in the no/low odour group. Bacteria forming black or grey colonies (126 isolates from the odour group; 242 isolates from the no/low odour group) were subcultured, confirmed as producing H2S and identified according to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Species of Veillonella (38.1% in odour group; 46.3% in no/low odour group), Actinomyces (25.4%; 17.7%) and Prevotella (10.3%; 7.8%) were the predominant H2S-producing bacteria in both the odour and no/low odour groups. These results suggest that an increase in the number of H2S-producing bacteria in the tongue biofilm is responsible for oral malodour, although the bacterial composition of tongue biofilm was similar between the two groups. PMID:16091443

Washio, Jumpei; Sato, Takuichi; Koseki, Takeyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

2005-09-01

396

Hydrogen sulfide is involved in dexamethasone-induced hypertension in rat.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced hypertension is a common clinical problem still poorly understood. The presence of GC receptor (GR) in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells suggests a direct role for GC in vasculature. In response to hemodynamic shear stress, endothelium tonically releases nitric oxide (NO), endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and prostacyclin contributing to vascular homeostasis. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been proposed as a candidate for EDHF. H2S is endogenously mainly formed from L-cysteine by the action of cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE). It plays many physiological roles and contributes to cardiovascular function. Here we have evaluated the role played by H2S in mesenteric arterial bed and in carotid artery harvested from rats treated with vehicle or dexamethasone (DEX; 1.5?mg/kg/day) for 8 days. During treatments systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in conscious rats. EDHF contribution was evaluated in ex-vivo by performing a concentration-response curve induced by acetylcholine (Ach) in presence of a combination of indomethacin and L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester in both vascular districts. EDHF-mediated relaxation was significantly reduced in DEX-treated group in both mesenteric bed and carotid artery. EDHF-mediated relaxation was abolished by pre-treatment with both apamin and charybdotoxin, inhibitors of small and big calcium-dependent potassium channels respectively, or with propargylglycine, inhibitor of CSE. Western blot analysis revealed a marked reduction in CBS and CSE expression as well as H2S production in homogenates of mesenteric arterial bed and carotid artery from DEX-treated rats. In parallel, H2S plasma levels were significantly reduced in DEX group compared with vehicle. In conclusion, an impairment in EDHF/H2S signaling occurs in earlier state of GC-induced hypertension in rats suggesting that counteracting this dysfunction may be beneficial to manage DEX-associated increase in blood pressure. PMID:25461303

d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Mitidieri, Emma; Donnarumma, Erminia; Tramontano, Teresa; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Sorrentino, Raffaella

2015-04-30

397

The possible role of hydrogen sulfide as a modulator of hemostatic parameters of plasma.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well known toxic gas at high levels. However, at physiological levels, H2S may play a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to study the effects of exogenous H2S on the hemostatic parameters (coagulation and fibrinolytic activity) of human plasma. Human plasma was incubated (5, 15 and 30 min) with NaHS as a H2S donor at the final concentration of 0.01-100 ?M. Hemostatic factors, such as maximum velocity of clot formation, fibrin lysis half-time, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) were estimated. Moreover, the aim of our study was to establish the influence of NaHS (10 ?M; 5, 15 and 30 min) on the clot formation using the purified fibrinogen. We demonstrated that coagulation/fibrinolytic properties of human plasma incubated with NaHS were changed. APPT, PT and TT of plasma treated with NaHS at tested concentrations--0.01-100 ?M were prolonged. We observed that NaHS (0.01-100 ?M) reduced fibrin polymerization in whole plasma and 10 ?M NaHS also reduced polymerization of purified fibrinogen. In the presence of NaHS (at the low tested concentration--1 ?M) the decrease was about 18% (in plasma, p<0.05). Our experiments also showed that NaHS (0.01-100 ?M) stimulated the fibrin lysis in whole plasma. However, the time-dependent (5, 15 and 30 min) reduction of fibrin/fibrinogen polymerization and stimulation of fibrin lysis by NaHS (10 ?M) was not observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the anticoagulant properties of exogenous H2S in vitro. PMID:24929049

Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

2014-09-01

398

Hydrogen sulfide regulates cardiovascular function by influencing the excitability of subfornical organ neurons.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter endogenously found in the central nervous system, has recently been suggested to act as a signalling molecule in the brain having beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the effect of NaHS (an H2S donor) in the subfornical organ (SFO), a central nervous system site important to blood pressure regulation. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We first used RT-PCR to confirm our previous microarray analyses showing that mRNAs for the enzymes required to produce H2S are expressed in the SFO. We then used microinjection techniques to investigate the physiological effects of NaHS in SFO, and found that NaHS microinjection (5 nmol) significantly increased blood pressure (mean AUC?=?853.5±105.7 mmHg*s, n?=?5). Further, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology and found that 97.8% (88 of 90) of neurons depolarized in response to NaHS. This response was found to be concentration dependent with an EC50 of 35.6 µM. Coupled with the depolarized membrane potential, we observed an overall increase in neuronal excitability using an analysis of rheobase and action potential firing patterns. This study has provided the first evidence of NaHS and thus H2S actions and their cellular correlates in SFO, implicating this brain area as a site where H2S may act to control blood pressure. PMID:25144759

Kuksis, Markus; Smith, Pauline M; Ferguson, Alastair V

2014-01-01

399

Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Cardiovascular Function by Influencing the Excitability of Subfornical Organ Neurons  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter endogenously found in the central nervous system, has recently been suggested to act as a signalling molecule in the brain having beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the effect of NaHS (an H2S donor) in the subfornical organ (SFO), a central nervous system site important to blood pressure regulation. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We first used RT-PCR to confirm our previous microarray analyses showing that mRNAs for the enzymes required to produce H2S are expressed in the SFO. We then used microinjection techniques to investigate the physiological effects of NaHS in SFO, and found that NaHS microinjection (5 nmol) significantly increased blood pressure (mean AUC?=?853.5±105.7 mmHg*s, n?=?5). Further, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology and found that 97.8% (88 of 90) of neurons depolarized in response to NaHS. This response was found to be concentration dependent with an EC50 of 35.6 µM. Coupled with the depolarized membrane potential, we observed an overall increase in neuronal excitability using an analysis of rheobase and action potential firing patterns. This study has provided the first evidence of NaHS and thus H2S actions and their cellular correlates in SFO, implicating this brain area as a site where H2S may act to control blood pressure. PMID:25144759

Kuksis, Markus; Smith, Pauline M.; Ferguson, Alastair V.

2014-01-01

400

?-ENaC, a therapeutic target of dexamethasone on hydrogen sulfide induced acute pulmonary edema.  

PubMed

Acute pulmonary edema (APE) is one of the fatal outcomes after exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), available evidence suggest that dexamethasone (DXM), a potent anti-inflammatory agent, has been widely used or proposed as a therapeutic approach for H2S-induced APE in clinical practice, however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Ample evidence suggest that epithelial Na(+) channel, especially for the subunit ?-epithelial Na(+) channel (?-ENaC) plays a critical role in alveolar fluid clearance. Therefore, the present study is undertaken to investigate the effects of DXM on ?-ENaC following H2S exposure. The Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to H2S to establish APE model, in parallel, A549 cells were treated with NaHS to establish cell model. In vivo study, we found that DXM significantly attenuated H2S-induced lung histopathological changes and alveolar fluid clearance decrement, however, these preventive effects of DXM can be obviously counteracted by the mifepristone (MIF), the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) blocker. Moreover, DXM markedly attenuated H2S-mediated ?-ENaC down-regulation, and similarly, the process can be partially retarded by MIF. Furthermore, DXM obviously prevented H2S-mediated ERK1/2 activation both in vitro and in vivo study. These results, taken together, suggested that DXM exerted protective effects on H2S-induced APE, and ?-ENaC might be a potential therapeutic target for APE induced by H2S. PMID:25195098

Jiang, Lei; Wang, Jun; Su, Chenglei; Qian, Wenyi; Chen, Junjie; Zhu, Baoli; Zhang, Hengdong; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Jinsong

2014-09-01

401

(Sulfide-oxide-silicate phase equilibria and associated fluid inclusion properties in the Salton Sea geothermal system, California)  

SciTech Connect

Our studies involved petrographic, fluid inclusion, geochemical and stable isotopic studies of drillcores and fluids from the Salton Sea geothermal system. Our initial studies revealed the presence of previously-unrecognized evaporitic anhydrite at depth throughout the geothermal system. The high salinity of the Salton Sea geothermal brines previously had been attributed to low-temperature dissolution of surficial evaporitic deposits by meteoric waters. Our microthermometric studies of halite--containing fluid inclusions in the meta-evaporites indicated that the high salinity of the geothermal brines is derived in part from the hydrothermal metamorphism of relatively deeply-buried salt and evaporites. In addition, our research concentrated on mineralized fractures in drillcores.

McKibben, M.A.

1988-06-01

402

Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate inhibition of SRB that was independent of hNRB or NR-SOB. Examination of corrosion coupons following bioreactor experiments revealed that nitrite inhibition was the only mechanism that prevented both souring and corrosion. Sulfide elimination by hNRB or NR-SOB resulted in increased pitting corrosion in the region of greatest microbial activity. These findings are instructive for designing souring control treatments and improve understanding of oil field microbial communities.

Hubert, Casey R. J.

403

Oxidative stress suppresses the cellular bioenergetic effect of the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase/hydrogen sulfide pathway  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Oxidative stress impairs 3-MST-derived H{sub 2}S production in isolated enzyme and in isolated mitochondria. •This impairs the stimulatory bioenergetic effects of H{sub 2}S in hepatocytes. •This has implications for the pathophysiology of diseases with oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Recent data show that lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), as well as endogenous, intramitochondrial production of H{sub 2}S by the 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP)/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) pathway serves as an electron donor and inorganic source of energy to support mitochondrial electron transport and ATP generation in mammalian cells by donating electrons to Complex II. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress on the activity of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 100–500 ?M) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of recombinant mouse 3-MST enzyme. In mitochondria isolated from murine hepatoma cells, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50–500 ?M) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in production of H{sub 2}S from 3-MP. In cultured murine hepatoma cells H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (3–100 ?M), did not result in overall cytotoxicity, but caused a partial decrease in basal oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve rapacity. The positive bioenergetic effect of 3-MP (100–300 nM) was completely abolished by pre-treatment of the cells with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 ?M). The current findings demonstrate that oxidative stress inhibits 3-MST activity and interferes with the positive bioenergetic role of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of various conditions associated with increased oxidative stress, such as various forms of critical illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or physiological aging.

Módis, Katalin [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)] [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Asimakopoulou, Antonia [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece)] [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Coletta, Ciro [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)] [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Papapetropoulos, Andreas [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States) [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Szabo, Csaba, E-mail: szabocsaba@aol.com [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)] [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)

2013-04-19

404

Study of oxide predecessors of active structures in Al-Ni-Mo hydrogenation catalysts by extractive separation of components. III. Catalytic activity of sulfidation products of structures strongly and weakly bound to the carrier in hydrogenation, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation reactions  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic activities of sulfidized Al-Ni-Mo catalysts, synthesized by different methods, were compared in the hydrogenation reaction of o-xylene, hydrodesulfurization of thiophene, and hydrodenitrogenation of piperidine. It was found that irrespective of the method of the preparation of the catalysts, the hydrogenation of the aromatic ring preferentially proceeds on the sulfidation products of Ni and Mo compounds, weakly bound to the carrier (nickel isopolymolybdates and aluminomolybdates), removable by aqueous extraction, while the hydrogenolysis reactions of thiophene and piperidine are preferentially carried on the sulfidation products of compounds which are strongly bound to the carrier (of the surface aluminum molybdate and nickel aluminate type).

Landav, M.V.; Agrevskii, D.A.; Alekseenko, L.N.; Chukin, G.D.; Kvashonkin, V.I.; Mikhailov, V.I.; Nefedov, B.K.

1986-10-01

405

Nile-red and Nile-blue-based near-infrared fluorescent probes for in-cellulo imaging of hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide has recently been identified as a biologically responsive species. The design and synthesis of fluorescence probes, which are constructed with Nile-red or Nile-blue fluorophores and a fluorescence-controllable dinitrophenyl group, for hydrogen sulfide are reported in this paper. The Nile-red-dinitrophenyl-ether-group-based probe (1a) is essentially non-fluorescent because of the inhibition of the photo-induced electron-transfer process; when the dinitrobenzene moiety is removed by nucleophilic substitution with the hydrosulfide anion, probe 1a is converted into hydroxy Nile red, eliciting a H2S-induced fluorescence turn-on signal. Furthermore, probe 1a has high selectivity and sensitivity for the hydrosulfide anion, and its potential for biological applications was confirmed by using it for real-time fluorescence imaging of hydrogen sulfide in live HeLa cells. The Nile-blue-dinitrobenzene-based probe (1b) has gradually diminishing brightness in the red-emission channel with increased hydrogen-sulfide concentration. Thus, this paper reports a comparative study of Nile-red and Nile-blue-based hydrogen-sulfide probes. PMID:25258280

Liu, Xiao-Dong; Fan, Chen; Sun, Ru; Xu, Yu-Jie; Ge, Jian-Feng

2014-11-01

406

Degradation of the pipe-steel structure upon long-term operation in contact with a hydrogen sulfide-containing medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase composition and structure of defect portions of pipelines after long-term service in contact with a hydrogen sulfide-containing\\u000a medium have been investigated. From structural changes, the process of the initiation of cracks and fracture of a low-carbon\\u000a ferritic-pearlitic steel containing slag-induced laminations and precipitates of sulfides of the (Fe,Mn)S type has been reconstructed.\\u000a The conditions under which a block

V. M. Schastlivtsev; T. I. Tabatchnikova; N. A. Tereshchenko; I. L. Yakovleva

2011-01-01

407

Increased thiol biosynthesis of transgenic poplar expressing a wheat O -acetylserine(thiol) lyase enhances resistance to hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase (OASTL), a key enzyme of the plant sulfur assimilatory pathway, catalyses the formation of cysteine\\u000a from sulfide and O-acetylserine. Transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldi × P. grandidentata ‘Y63’) plants expressing cys1, encoding a wheat cytosolic OASTL, were developed in order to examine the role of this enzyme in thiol production following\\u000a hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide exposure and in the

Michimi Nakamura; Masato Kuramata; Isao Kasugai; Midori Abe; Shohab Youssefian

2009-01-01

408

Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.  

PubMed

In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

2014-12-01

409

Mechanism of action of hydrogen sulfide on cyclic AMP formation in rat retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a colorless gas with the pungent odor of rotten eggs has been reported to produce pharmacological actions in ocular and non-ocular tissues. We have evidence that H(2)S, using sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) as donors can increase cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in neural retina. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of action of H(2)S on cyclic nucleotide production in rat retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE-J). Cultured RPE-J cells were incubated for 30 min in culture medium containing the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, IBMX (2 mM). Cells were exposed to varying concentrations of NaHS, the H(2)S substrate (L-cysteine), cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors or the diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin in the presence or absence of H(2)S biosynthetic enzymes or the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel antagonist, glibenclamide. Following drug-treatment at different time intervals, cell homogenates were prepared for cAMP assay using a well established methodology. In RPE-J cells, NaHS (10 nM-1 ?M) produced a time-dependent increase in cAMP concentrations over basal levels which reached a maximum at 20 min. At this time point, both NaHS (1 nM-100 ?M) and L-cysteine (1 nM-10 ?M) produced a concentration-dependent significant (p<0.05) increase in cAMP concentrations over basal level. The effects of NaHS on cAMP levels in RPE-J cells was enhanced significantly (p<0.01) in the presence of the COX inhibitors, indomethacin and flurbiprofen. In RPE-J cells, the effects caused by forskolin (10 ?M) on cAMP production were potentiated by addition of low concentrations of NaHS. Both the inhibitor of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, 1 mM) and the inhibitor of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), proparglyglycine (PAG, 1mM) significantly attenuated the increased effect of L-cysteine on cAMP production. The K(ATP) channel antagonist, glibenclamide (100 ?M) caused inhibition of NaHS induced-increase of cAMP formation in RPE-J cells. We conclude that, H(2)S (using H(2)S donor and substrate) can increase cAMP production in RPE-J cells, and removal of the apparent inhibitory effect of prostaglandins unmasks an excitatory activity of H(2)S on cAMP. Effects elicited by the H(2)S substrate on cAMP formation are dependent on biosynthesis of H(2)S catalyzed by the biosynthetic enzymes, CBS and CSE. In addition to the adenylyl cylcase pathway, K(ATP) channels are involved in mediating the observed effects of the H(2)S on cAMP production. PMID:22445555

Njie-Mbye, Ya Fatou; Kulkarni, Madhura; Opere, Catherine A; Ohia, Sunny E

2012-05-01

410

Clinical comparison of a new manual toothbrush on the level of hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria on the tongue.  

PubMed

The objective of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effectiveness of a newly designed manual toothbrush (Colgate 360 degrees) to two commercially available manual toothbrushes (Oral-B Indicator and Oral-B CrossAction) and a battery-powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush PRO) for their ability to reduce hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria on the tongue. After a washout period, subjects arrived at the clinical site for baseline sampling without performing dental hygiene, eating, or drinking. Subjects sampled the left side of their tongue with a cotton swab. Subjects brushed for 1 minute with the assigned test toothbrush and regular fluoride toothpaste. Those using the Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush were instructed to clean their tongue with the implement on the back of the brush head for 10 seconds. After 2 hours, the subjects returned to the clinical site having refrained from dental hygiene, eating, and drinking for posttreatment sampling, this time sampling the right side of their tongue. After a minimum 2-day washout period, subjects repeated the same regimen using the other toothbrushes. Collected tongue samples were dispersed in sterile water, serially diluted in sterile phosphate-buffered saline, and plated in duplicate onto lead acetate agar. When plated on this medium, bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide appear as dark-pigmented colonies. After 72 hours of incubation, the dark colonies were counted, expressed as log colony-forming units/mL, and reduction from baseline was calculated. Thirty-one adult men and women completed the clinical study. There was no significant difference between baseline hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria levels. Posttreatment, the log reduction of bacteria was 0.80, 0.41, 0.33, and 0.44 for the Colgate 360 degrees, Oral-B Indicator, Crest SpinBrush PRO, and Oral-B CrossAction, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the Colgate 360 toothbrush was statistically significantly better (P < .05) than the 3 commercial toothbrushes in reducing the levels of hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria on the tongue. PMID:15789978

Williams, Malcolm I; Vazquez, Joe; Cummins, Diane

2004-10-01

411

Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: life-history adaptations in a livebearing fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae).  

PubMed

Life-history traits are very sensitive to extreme environmental conditions, because resources that need to be invested in somatic maintenance cannot be invested in reproduction. Here we examined female life-history traits in the Mexican livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana from a variety of benign surface habitats, a creek with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a sulfidic cave, and a non-sulfidic cave. Previous studies revealed pronounced genetic and morphological divergence over very small geographic scales in this system despite the absence of physical barriers, suggesting that local adaptation to different combinations of two selection factors, toxicity (H2S) and darkness, is accompanied by very low rates of gene flow. Hence, we investigated life-history divergence between these populations in response to the selective pressures of darkness and/or toxicity. Our main results show that toxicity and darkness both select for (or impose constraints on) the same female trait dynamics: reduced fecundity and increased offspring size. Since reduced fecundity in the sulfur cave population was previously shown to be heritable, we discuss how divergent life-history evolution may promote further ecological divergence: for example, reduced fecundity and increased offspring autonomy are clearly beneficial in extreme environments, but fish with these traits are outcompeted in benign habitats. PMID:20503881

Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

2010-05-01

412

Hydrogen Sulfide Plays a Key Role in the Inhibitory Neurotransmission to the Pig Intravesical Ureter  

PubMed Central

According to previous observations nitric oxide (NO), as well as an unknown nature mediator are involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission to the intravesical ureter. This study investigates the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) role in the neurogenic relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter. We have performed western blot and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of the H2S synthesis enzymes cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), measurement of enzymatic production of H2S and myographic studies for isometric force recording. Immunohistochemical assays showed a high CSE expression in the intravesical ureter muscular layer, as well as a strong CSE-immunoreactivity within nerve fibres distributed along smooth muscle bundles. CBS expression, however, was not consistently observed. On ureteral strips precontracted with thromboxane A2 analogue U46619, electrical field stimulation (EFS) and the H2S donor P-(4-methoxyphenyl)-P-4-morpholinylphosphinodithioic acid (GYY4137) evoked frequency- and concentration-dependent relaxations. CSE inhibition with DL-propargylglycine (PPG) reduced EFS-elicited responses and a combined blockade of both CSE and NO synthase (NOS) with, respectively, PPG and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), greatly reduced such relaxations. Endogenous H2S production rate was reduced by PPG, rescued by addition of GYY4137 and was not changed by L-NOARG. EFS and GYY4137 relaxations were also reduced by capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA) desensitization with capsaicin and blockade of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels, transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (VIP/PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors with glibenclamide, HC030031, AMG9810, PACAP6–38 and CGRP8–37, respectively. These results suggest that H2S, synthesized by CSE, is involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission to the pig intravesical ureter, through an NO-independent pathway, producing smooth muscle relaxation via KATP channel activation. H2S also promotes the release of inhibitory neuropeptides, as PACAP 38 and/or CGRP from CSPA through TRPA1, TRPV1 and related ion channel activation. PMID:25415381

Fernandes, Vítor S.; Ribeiro, Ana S. F.; Martínez, Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Barahona, María Victoria; Orensanz, Luis M.; Martínez-Sáenz, Ana; Recio, Paz; Benedito, Sara; Bustamante, Salvador; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernández, Medardo

2014-01-01

413

Gaseous Hydrogen Sulfide Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice Partially Independent from Hypometabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of cardiac damage following various pathological processes. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is protective during IRI by inducing a hypometabolic state in mice which is associated with anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated whether gaseous H2S administration is protective in cardiac IRI and whether non-hypometabolic concentrations of H2S have similar protective properties. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice received a 0, 10, or 100 ppm H2S-N2 mixture starting 30 minutes prior to ischemia until 5 minutes pre-reperfusion. IRI was inflicted by temporary ligation of the left coronary artery for 30 minutes. High-resolution respirometry equipment was used to assess CO2-production and blood pressure was measured using internal transmitters. The effects of H2S were assessed by histological and molecular analysis. Results Treatment with 100 ppm H2S decreased CO2-production by 72%, blood pressure by 14% and heart rate by 25%, while treatment with 10 ppm H2S had no effects. At day 1 of reperfusion 10 ppm H2S showed no effect on necrosis, while treatment with 100 ppm H2S reduced necrosis by 62% (p<0.05). Seven days post-reperfusion, both 10 ppm (p<0.01) and 100 ppm (p<0.05) H2S showed a reduction in fibrosis compared to IRI animals. Both 10 ppm and 100 ppm H2S reduced granulocyte-influx by 43% (p<0.05) and 60% (p<0.001), respectively. At 7 days post-reperfusion both 10 and 100 ppm H2S reduced expression of fibronectin by 63% (p<0.05) and 67% (p<0.01) and ANP by 84% and 63% (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusions Gaseous administration of H2S is protective when administered during a cardiac ischemic insult. Although hypometabolism is restricted to small animals, we now showed that low non-hypometabolic concentrations of H2S also have protective properties in IRI. Since IRI is a frequent cause of myocardial damage during percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiac transplantation, H2S treatment might lead to novel therapeutical modalities. PMID:23675473

Snijder, Pauline M.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Bos, Eelke M.; van den Born, Joost C.; Ruifrok, Willem-Peter T.; Vreeswijk-Baudoin, Inge; van Dijk, Marcory C. R. F.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; van Goor, Harry

2013-01-01

414

Annexin A1 Mediates Hydrogen Sulfide Properties in the Control of InflammationS  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous mediator synthesized in mammalian tissues by three main enzymes—cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase—and its levels increase under inflammatory conditions or sepsis. Since H2S and H2S-releasing molecules afford inhibitory properties in leukocyte trafficking, we tested whether endogenous annexin A1 (AnxA1), a glucocorticoid-regulated inhibitor of inflammation acting through formylated-peptide receptor 2 (ALX), could display intermediary functions in the anti-inflammatory profile of H2S. We first investigated whether endogenous AnxA1 could modulate H2S biosynthesis. To this end, a marked increase in CBS and/or CSE gene products was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in aortas, kidneys, and spleens collected from AnxA1?/? mice, as compared with wild-type animals. When lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages were studied, H2S-donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) counteracted the increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA evoked by the endotoxin, yet it was inactive in macrophages harvested from AnxA1?/? mice. Next we studied the effect of in vivo administration of NaHS in a model of interleukin-1? (IL-1?)–induced mesenteric inflammation. AnxA1+/+ mice treated with NaHS (100 ?mol/kg) displayed inhibition of IL-1?-induced leukocyte adhesion/emigration in the inflamed microcirculation, not observed in AnxA1?/? animals. These results were translated by testing human neutrophils, where NaHS (10–100 ?M) prompted an intense mobilization (>50%) of AnxA1 from cytosol to cell surface, an event associated with inhibition of cell/endothelium interaction under flow. Taken together, these data strongly indicate the existence of a positive interlink between AnxA1 and H2S pathway, with nonredundant functions in the control of experimental inflammation. PMID:25077524

Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Mitidieri, Emma; Flower, Roderick J.; Cirino, Giuseppe; Perretti, Mauro

2014-01-01

415

Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates Opioid Dependence by Suppression of Adenylate Cyclase/cAMP Pathway  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: The best-established mechanism of opioid dependence is the up-regulation of adenylate cyclase (AC)/cAMP pathway, which was reported to be negatively regulated by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous neuromodulator. The present study was, therefore, designed to determine whether H2S is able to attenuate the development of opioid dependence via down-regulating AC/cAMP pathway. Results: We demonstrated that application of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) and GYY4137, two donors of H2S, significantly alleviated naloxone-induced robust withdrawal jumping (the most sensitive and reliable index of opioid physical dependence) in morphine-treated mice. Repeated treatment with NaHS inhibited the up-regulated protein expression of AC in the striatum of morphine-dependent mice. Furthermore, NaHS also attenuated morphine/naloxone-elevated mRNA levels of AC isoform 1 and 8, production of cAMP, and phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in mice striatum. These effects were mimicked by the application of exogenous H2S or over-expression of cystathione-?-synthase, an H2S -producing enzyme, in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on treatment with [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin, a selective ?-opioid receptor agonist. Blockade of extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) with its specific inhibitor attenuated naloxone-induced CREB phosphorylation. Pretreatment with NaHS or stimulation of endogenous H2S production also significantly suppressed opioid withdrawal-induced ERK1/2 activation in mice striatum or SH-SY5Y cells. Innovation: H2S treatment is important in prevention of the development of opioid dependence via suppression of cAMP pathway in both animal and cellular models. Conclusion: Our data suggest a potential role of H2S in attenuating the development of opioid dependence, and the underlying mechanism is closely related to the inhibition of AC/cAMP pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 31–41. PMID:23682813

Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Wood, Mark; Whiteman, Matthew

2014-01-01

416

Hydrogen sulfide as a cryogenic mediator of hypoxia-induced anapyrexia.  

PubMed

Hypoxia causes a regulated decrease in body temperature (Tb), a response that has been aptly called anapyrexia, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. The roles played by nitric oxide (NO) and other neurotransmitters have been documented during hypoxia-induced anapyrexia, but no information exists with respect to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a gaseous molecule endogenously produced by cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS). We tested the hypothesis that H(2)S production is enhanced during hypoxia and that the gas acts in the anteroventral preoptic region (AVPO; the most important thermosensitive and thermointegrative region of the CNS) modulating hypoxia-induced anapyrexia. Thus, we assessed CBS and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities [by means of H(2)S and nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)) production, respectively] as well as cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the anteroventral third ventricle region (AV3V; where the AVPO is located) during normoxia and hypoxia. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological modifiers of the H(2)S pathway given i.c.v. or intra-AVPO. I.c.v. or intra-AVPO microinjection of CBS inhibitor caused no change in Tb under normoxia but significantly attenuated hypoxia-induced anapyrexia. During hypoxia there were concurrent increases in H(2)S production, which could be prevented by CBS inhibitor, indicating the endogenous source of the gas. cAMP concentration, but not cGMP and NO(x), correlated with CBS activity. CBS inhibition increased NOS activity, whereas H(2)S donor decreased NO(x) production. In conclusion, hypoxia activates H(2)S endogenous production through the CBS-H(2)S pathway in the AVPO, having a cryogenic effect. Moreover, the present data are consistent with the notion that the two gaseous molecules, H(2)S and NO, play a key role in mediating the drop in Tb caused by hypoxia and that a fine-balanced interplay between NOS-NO and CBS-H(2)S pathways takes place in the AVPO of rats exposed to hypoxia. PMID:22120434

Kwiatkoski, M; Soriano, R N; Francescato, H D C; Batalhao, M E; Coimbra, T M; Carnio, E C;