Sample records for geothermal hydrogen sulfide

  1. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  2. Updated cost estimates of meeting geothermal hydrogen sulfide emission regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Weakley, S.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1981-08-01

    A means of estimating the cost of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emission control was investigated. This study was designed to derive H/sub 2/S emission abatement cost functions and illustrate the cost of H/sub 2/S emission abatement at a hydrothermal site. Four tasks were undertaken: document the release of H/sub 2/S associated with geothermal development; review H/sub 2/S environmental standards; develop functional relationships that may be used to estimate the most cose-effective available H/sub 2/S abatement process; and use the cost functions to generate abatement cost estimates for a specific site. The conclusions and recommendations derived from the research are presented. The definition of the term impacts as used in this research is discussed and current estimates of the highest expected H/sub 2/S concentrations of in geothermal reservoirs are provided. Regulations governing H/sub 2/S emissions are reviewed and a review of H/sub 2/S control technology and a summary of the control cost functions are included. A case study is presented to illustrate H/sub 2/S abatement costs at the Baca KGRA in New Mexico.

  3. State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

  4. Spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide from two geothermal power plants in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsdottir, S.; Gardarsson, S. M.; Andradottir, H. O.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have arisen about the health impact and odor annoyance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions associated with geothermal power production. Measurements have been made at stationary measuring stations in inhabited areas but little is known about the spatial behavior of the H2S plumes. This study presents field measurements of the spatial distribution of the ground concentration of H2S within a 30 km radius of two geothermal power plants during 20 distinct events spanning one year. The results showed that high H2S concentration was correlated with high air stability, low wind speed and absence of precipitation. The odor threshold (11 ?g m-3) was exceeded in all events. The instantaneous measurements exceeded the 24-h average national health limit (50 ?g m-3) up to 26 km from the power plants. The shape of the measured plumes at the same location was similar between events, indicating repeated patterns in plume distribution. Convergence of plumes was observed due to spatial variability in wind direction. Plumes were found to follow mountain passes and accumulate alongside a mountain range. AERMOD modeling demonstrated that narrower plumes with higher concentration can be expected for smoother terrain, such as lakes, consistent with measurements.

  5. Impacts of meteorological factors on hydrogen sulfide concentration downwind of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsdottir, S.; Gardarsson, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration in the city of Reykjavik, downwind of geothermal power plants has been studied with respect to meteorological factors as the odor and other effects are starting to become a nuisance. The main sources of H2S in Reykjavik City were the Nesjavellir and Hellisheidi Geothermal Power Plants, which are both less than 35 km east of the city. The H2S concentration in Reykjavik was correlated with the H2S emissions from the power plants but was also heavily influenced by weather conditions. The results showed that the H2S concentration at the Grensasvegur Measuring Station was elevated when the wind direction was from 54° to 125°, especially when the wind direction was stable for several hours. The H2S concentration in Reykjavik was highest when the wind speed in the city was between 1.5 and 4 m s-1, and decreased rapidly with higher wind speeds. H2S concentration showed correlation with the air temperature in the city below 3 °C and the concentration rose as the temperature decreased, and the air became more stable and was highest when there was a temperature inversion. The quantitative effects of precipitation on H2S concentration could not be determined in this study although the events with the highest H2S concentration occurred when there was no precipitation. The results showed that favorable conditions for high H2S events can be expected in Reykjavik 2-6 times per year and events with H2S concentration exceeding 50 ?g m-3 might be expected on average about 2 times per year. The results also indicate that events with high H2S concentration can be predicted by using a current weather forecast.

  6. Natural near field sinks of hydrogen sulfide from two geothermal power plants in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsdottir, S.; Gardarsson, S. M.; Andradottir, H. O.

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions have been growing with the increasing utilization of geothermal resources. Atmospheric H2S concentration has been measured and studied but less is known about the natural sinks of the chemical. This study investigates the atmospheric depletion of H2S within a 35 km distance from two Icelandic power plants. The results showed that atmospheric oxidation by the OH radical was the largest sink in the area. The second largest sink was H2S uptake in surface water, in a neighboring lake, but it was, however, small compared to the reported difference of sulfur amount in the lake in- and outflow. Sulfur was found to accumulate in moss close to the power plants at a maximum rate of about 1500 mg S/kg moss per year and decreased exponentially from the source, being negligible at a distance of a few kilometers. Soil uptake was limited by diffusion of H2S into the porous media and was thus much smaller than the estimated soil uptake potential. Washout with precipitation was estimated to be the smallest sink due to the low H2S reactivity in the precipitation (pH = 5.6), compared to the surface water (pH ˜8). Depletion of H2S from the atmosphere in the study area was estimated to be about 1.2% of the 2012 power plants emissions of over 20,000 tons. Although the uncertainties in the depletion estimates were considerable, most of the H2S emitted from the power plants was strongly indicated to be transported out of the study area as H2S.

  7. A bench scale test for hydrogen sulfide oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ivester; S. Attiga; M. Castillo; E. Goldman

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in geothermal steam condensate by hydrogen peroxide was tested in a specially designed, continuous flow bench scale treatment system. The effectiveness of the treatment was monitored using a silver\\/sulfide specific ion electrode in a technique developed specially for this study. The effects of pH, treatment ratio, and catalyst on the oxidation reaction were studied. The

  8. Cost of meeting geothermal hydrogen sulfide emission regulations. [DOW, EIC, Stretford, and iron catalyst processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Weakley, S.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1980-01-01

    H{sub 2}S emission abatement processes considered feasible for control of airborne emissions included two upstream and two downstream treatment techniques. From literature describing the technical aspects of the processes, individual treatment cost functions were developed. These functions were then used to estimate the range of costs that may be encountered when controlling H{sub 2}S emissions to meet given standards. Treatment costs include estimates of certain fixed charges and overheads that normally apply to long lived capital investment projects of similar nature. Continuing experience with control technology for H{sub 2}S abatement indicates process application may have a significant impact on the total cost of geothermal electricity at sites with H{sub 2}S concentrations in excess of 50 ppM{sub w}. Approximately four sites of the 38 USGS high temperature hydrothermal systems fall into this category. At Baca, New Mexico the cost of controlling H{sub 2}S emissions was estimated to be 5.5 mills per kWh. Calculations were based on a 50 MWe flashed steam plant using the Stretford-Peroxide combination of processes to achieve 99% abatement.

  9. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250...Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

  10. Hydrogen sulfide detectors and determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is measured in the natural gas industry for three main reasons: (1) personal safety, (2) corrosion control and (3) contractual obligations. Corrosion control and contractual obligations are interrelated. Contractual limits on the hydrogen sulfide concentration in natural gas exist to prevent excessive corrosion on a pipeline thus protecting the economic investment of the transmission company. Detection methods fo

  11. Molecular Structure of Hydrogen Sulfide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-04

    Hydrogen Sulfide occurs naturally in crude petroleum, natural gas, volcanic gases, and hot springs. It can also result from bacterial breakdown of organic matter and it is responsible for the smell of rotten eggs. It is also produced by human and animal wastes. Although hydrogen sulfide is a toxic pollutant gas generally occurring in wastewater, it has been used to precipitate metals in wastewater treatment reactors. It has been proposed for stabilization of metals in soils and for formation of metal sulfide "quantum" particles for microelectronics applications.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AlDhowalia

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (HâS) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SOâ). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is

  13. Endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide in mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kamoun

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Hydrogen sulfide is one of three gases involved in biological functions and synthesized in vivo. Like NO and CO, it seems to act as a neuromodulator: it modulates NMDA glutamate receptor function. CBS seems to be the only source of hydrogen sulfide in the brain, whereas the liver synthesizes hydrogen sulfide via cystathionase. In the heart, the third pathway

  14. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250...Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

  15. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250...Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion...is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) or in zones...

  16. Demonstration of EIC's copper sulfate process for removal of hydrogen sulfide and other trace contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine inlet temperatures and pressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results obtained during the operation of an integrated, one-tenth commercial scale pilot plant using EIC's copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions are discussed. The tests took place over a six month period at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Unit No. 7 at The Geysers Power Plant. These tests were the final phase of a development effort which included the laboratory research and engineering design work which led to the design of the pilot plant. Broadly, the objectives of operating the pilot plant were to confirm the preliminary design criteria which had been developed, and provide data for their revisions, if appropriate, in a plant which contained all the elements of a commercial process using equipment of a size sufficient to provide valid scale-up data. The test campaign was carried out in four phases: water testing; open circuit, i.e., non integrated scrubbing, liquid-solid separation and regeneration testing; closed circuit short term; and closed circuit long term testing.

  17. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from gas-streams

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.H.; Lieder, C.A.

    1982-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide are removed from a gas stream in a staged procedure characterized by conversion of the hydrogen sulfide to produce sulfur in aqueous solution, hydrolysis of the carbonyl sulfide remaining in the gas stream to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, and removal of the hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream.

  18. Arsenic speciation in natural sulfidic geothermal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Nicole S.; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

    2014-10-01

    The speciation of arsenic in natural sulfidic geothermal waters was studied using chemical analyses and thermodynamic aqueous speciation calculations. Samples were collected in three geothermal systems in Iceland, having contrasting H2S concentrations in the reservoir (high vs. low). The sampled waters contained 7-116 ppb As and <0.01-77.6 ppm H2S with pH of 8.56-9.60. The analytical setup used for the determination of arsenic species (Ion Chromatography-Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry, IC-HG-AFS) was field-deployed and the samples analyzed within ?5 min of sampling in order to prevent changes upon storage, which were shown to be considerable regardless of the sample storage method used. Nine aqueous arsenic species were detected, among others arsenite (HnAsO3n-3), thioarsenite (HnAsS3n-3), arsenate (HnAsO4n-3), monothioarsenate (HnAsSO3n-3), dithioarsenate (HnAsS2O2n-3), trithioarsenate (HnAsS3O) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAsS4n-3). The results of the measured aqueous arsenic speciation in the natural geothermal waters and comparison with thermodynamic calculations reveal that the predominant factors determining the species distribution are sulfide concentration and pH. In alkaline waters with low sulfide concentrations the predominant species are AsIII oxyanions. This can be seen in samples from a liquid-only well, tapping water that is H2S-poor and free of oxygen. At intermediate sulfide concentration AsIII and AsV thio species become important and predominate at high sulfide concentration, as seen in two-phase well waters, which have high H2S concentrations in the reservoir. Upon oxidation, for instance due to mixing of the reservoir fluid with oxygenated water upon ascent to the surface, AsV oxyanions form, as well as AsV thio complexes if the sulfide concentration is intermediate to high. This oxidation process can be seen in samples from hot springs in the Geysir geothermal area. While the thermodynamic modeling allows for a first-order estimation of the dominant species, discrepancies between the model results and the field data highlight the fact that for such dynamic chemical systems the exact speciation cannot be calculated, thus on-site and preferentially in-situ analysis is of crucial importance.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide as a neuromodulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Kimura

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known toxic gas with the smell of rotten eggs. Since the first description of the toxicity of H2S in 1713, most studies about H2S have been devoted to its toxic effects. Recently, H2S has been proposed as a physiologically active messenger. Three groups discovered that the brain contains relatively high\\u000a concentrations of endogenous H2S. This

  20. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    AlDhowalia, K.H. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  1. Investigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Lung Function, Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Geothermal Area of New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Michael N.; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John R.; Garrett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background Results have been conflicting whether long-term ambient hydrogen sulfide (H2S) affects lung function or is a risk factor for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the world’s largest population exposed to ambient H2S—from geothermal sources. Objectives We investigated associations of H2S with lung function, COPD and asthma in this population. Methods 1,204 of 1,639 study participants, aged 18–65 years during 2008–2010, provided satisfactory spirometry results. Residences, workplaces and schools over the last 30 years were geocoded. Exposures were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua. Four metrics for H2S exposure, representing both current and long-term (last 30 years) exposure, and also time-weighted average and peak exposures, were calculated. Departures from expected values for pre-bronchodilator lung function, calculated from prediction equations, were outcomes for linear regression models using quartiles of the H2S exposure metrics. Separate models examined participants with and without evidence of asthma or COPD, and never- and ever-smokers. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations of COPD (a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% of expected) and asthma (doctor-diagnosed or by FEV1 response to bronchodilator) with H2S exposure quartiles. Results None of the exposure metrics produced evidence of lung function decrement. The logistic regression analysis showed no evidence that long-term H2S exposure at Rotorua levels was associated with either increased COPD or asthma risk. Some results suggested that recent ambient H2S exposures were beneficially associated with lung function parameters. Conclusions The study found no evidence of reductions in lung function, or increased risk of COPD or asthma, from recent or long-term H2S exposure at the relatively high ambient concentrations found in Rotorua. Suggestions of improved lung function associated with recent ambient H2S exposures require confirmation in other studies. PMID:25822819

  2. Hydrogen sulfide and the liver.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sarathi; Cao, Wei; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui

    2014-09-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter that regulates numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes in our body. Enzymatic production of H2S is catalyzed by cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST). All these three enzymes present in the liver and via H2S production regulate liver functions. The liver is the hub for metabolism of glucose and lipids, and maintains the level of circulatory lipids through lipoprotein metabolism. Hepatic H2S metabolism affects glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein synthesis, mitochondrial biogenetics and biogenesis. Malfunction of hepatic H2S metabolism may be involved in many liver diseases, such as hepatic fibrosis and hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:24582857

  3. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  4. Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes

    E-print Network

    Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

    as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular...

  5. Ridding Groundwater of Hydrogen Sulfide. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochrane, Thomas G.

    1979-01-01

    This article is the first in a series reviewing the problems associated with hydrogen sulfide in drinking water sources. Discussion centers on identification of a cost-effective balance between aeration and chlorination treatment operations. (AS)

  6. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, D.J.

    1983-10-03

    Hydrogen sulfide is removed from a gas stream by contacting the gas stream with an aqueous alkanolamine solution in a high surface area rotor. The solution is subjected to an acceleration greater than that due to gravity. 16 claims.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of solid hydrogen sulfide and deuterium sulfide.

    PubMed

    Fathe, Kristin; Holt, Jennifer S; Oxley, Susan P; Pursell, Christopher J

    2006-09-21

    The infrared spectra of solid hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and deuterium sulfide (D2S) were collected at very low temperatures. Vapor deposition of thin films at the lowest temperature of 10 K produced amorphous solids while deposition at 70 K yielded the crystalline phase III. Infrared interference fringe patterns produced by the films during deposition were used to determine the film thickness. Careful measurement of the integrated absorbance peaks, along with the film thickness, allowed determination of the integrated band intensities. This report represents the first complete presentation of the infrared spectra of the amorphous solids. Observations of peaks near 3.915 and 1.982 microm (ca. 2554 and 5045 cm(-1), respectively) may be helpful in the conclusive identification of solid hydrogen sulfide on the surface of Io, a moon of Jupiter. PMID:16970373

  8. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits amyloid formation.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Alomar, Manuel F; Quiñones-Ruiz, Tatiana; Kurouski, Dmitry; Sereda, Valentin; Ferreira, Eduardo B; Jesús-Kim, Lorraine De; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel; Zagorevski, Dmitri V; López-Garriga, Juan; Lednev, Igor K

    2015-01-29

    Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of misfolded proteins, which are often associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and vascular dementia. The amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to be significantly reduced in the brain tissue of people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease relative to that of healthy individuals. These findings prompted us to investigate the effects of H2S on the formation of amyloids in vitro using a model fibrillogenic protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). HEWL forms typical ?-sheet rich fibrils during the course of 70 min at low pH and high temperatures. The addition of H2S completely inhibits the formation of ?-sheet and amyloid fibrils, as revealed by deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectroscopy and ThT fluorescence. Nonresonance Raman spectroscopy shows that disulfide bonds undergo significant rearrangements in the presence of H2S. Raman bands corresponding to disulfide (RSSR) vibrational modes in the 550-500 cm(-1) spectral range decrease in intensity and are accompanied by the appearance of a new 490 cm(-1) band assigned to the trisulfide group (RSSSR) based on the comparison with model compounds. The formation of RSSSR was proven further using a reaction with TCEP reduction agent and LC-MS analysis of the products. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence study shows a strong denaturation of HEWL containing trisulfide bonds. The presented evidence indicates that H2S causes the formation of trisulfide bridges, which destabilizes HEWL structure, preventing protein fibrillation. As a result, small spherical aggregates of unordered protein form, which exhibit no cytotoxicity by contrast with HEWL fibrils. PMID:25545790

  9. Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes 

    E-print Network

    Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best...

  10. Cardioprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Gábor; Veres, Gábor; Radovits, Tamás; Ger?, Domokos; Modis, Katalin; Miesel-Gröschel, Christiane; Horkay, Ferenc; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    The gaseous mediator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is synthesized mainly by cystathionine gamma-lyase in the heart and plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Here we first overview the state of the art in the literature on the cardioprotective effects of H2S in various models of cardiac injury. Subsequently, we present original data showing the beneficial effects of parenteral administration of a donor of H2S on myocardial and endothelial function during reperfusion in a canine experimental model of cardiopulmonary bypass. Overview of the literature demonstrates that various formulations of H2S exert cardioprotective effects in cultured cells, isolated hearts and various rodent and large animal models of regional or global myocardial ischemia and heart failure. In addition, the production of H2S plays a role in myocardial pre- and post-conditioning responses. The pathways implicated in the cardioprotective action of H2S are multiple and involve KATP channels, regulation of mitochondrial respiration, and regulation of cytoprotective genes such as Nrf-2. In the experimental part of the current article, we demonstrate the cardioprotective effects of H2S in a canine model of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Anesthetized dogs were subjected hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with 60 minutes of hypothermic cardiac arrest in the presence of either saline (control, n=8), or H2S infusion (1 mg/kg/h for 2 h). Left ventricular hemodynamic variables (via combined pressure-volume-conductance catheter) as well as coronary blood flow, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent vasodilatation to sodium nitroprusside were measured at baseline and after 60 minutes of reperfusion. Ex vivo vascular function and high-energy phosphate contents were also measured. H2S led to a significantly better recovery of preload recruitable stroke work (p<0.05) after 60 minutes of reperfusion. Coronary blood flow was also significantly higher in the H2S group (p<0.05). While the vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside was similar in both groups, acetylcholine resulted in a significantly higher increase in coronary blood flow in the H2S-treated group (p<0.05) both in vivo and ex vivo. Furthermore, high-energy phosphate contents were better preserved in the H2S group. Additionally, the cytoprotective effects of H2S were confirmed also using in vitro cell culture experiments in H9c2 cardiac myocytes exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation or to the cytotoxic oxidant hydrogen peroxide. Thus, therapeutic administration of H2S exerts cardioprotective effects in a variety of experimental models, including a significant improvement of the recovery of myocardial and endothelial function in a canine model of cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermic cardiac arrest. PMID:21094267

  11. CODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    sulfide containing materials (e.g. materials from upstream oil and gas operations) are present. The Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health concentration of 100 ppm has been established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Table 1: Health Affects from Short-Term Exposure

  12. Comparison of Hydrogen Sulfide Analysis Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    A summary and critique of common methods of hydrogen sulfide analysis is presented. Procedures described are: reflectance from silver plates and lead acetate-coated tiles, lead acetate and mercuric chloride paper tapes, sodium nitroprusside and methylene blue wet chemical methods, infrared spectrophotometry, and gas chromatography. (BL)

  13. Plasma assisted dissociation of hydrogen sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gutsol; T. Nunnally; A. Rabinovich; A. Fridman; A. Starikovskiy; A. Gutsol; A. Kemoun

    Dissociation of hydrogen sulfide has been studied in four different discharges: AC corona, dielectric barrier, streamer, and contracted glow discharge. All experiments were done in a single geometry, close to a plug flow reactor, with the goal of fair comparison. The performance of corona discharge and DBD was studied in the initial gas temperature range of 300–1200 K. A specific energy

  14. Redetermination of piperidinium hydrogen sulfide structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andras, Maria T.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Duraj, Stan A.; Gordon, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of adventitious water in a reaction between dicyclopentamethylene thiuram-disulfide (C5H10NCS2)(sub 2) and a picoline solution of tricyclopentadienyl indium(III) (C5H5)(sub 3). It resulted in the formation of piperidinium hydrogen sulfide (C5H13NS). The piperidinium hydrogen sulfide produced in this way was unambiguously characterized by X-ray crystallography. The structure determination showed that the piperidinium hydrogen sulfide crystal (MW = 119.23 g/mol) has an orthorhombic (Pbcm) unit cell whose parameters are: a = 9.818(2), b = 7.3720(1), c = 9.754(1) A, V = 706.0(3) A(exp 3), Z=4. D(sub chi) = 1.122 g cm(exp -3), Mo K(alpha) (lamda = 0.71073), mu= 3.36 cm(exp -1), F(000) = 264.0, T =293 K, R = 0.036 for 343 reflections with F(sub O)(sup 2) greater than 3 sigma (F(sub O)(sup 2)) and 65 variables. The compound consists of (C5H10NH2)(+) cations and (SH)(-) anions with both species residing on crystallographic mirror planes. N-H -- S hydrogen bonding contributes to the interconnection of neighboring piperidinium components of the compound.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide: its production, release and functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Kimura

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is a well-known toxic gas, has been recognized as a signal molecule as well as a cytoprotectant. It is produced\\u000a by three enzymes, cystathionine ?-synthase, cystathionine ?-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase along with cysteine\\u000a aminotransferase. In addition to an immediate release of H2S from producing enzymes, it can be stored as bound sulfane sulfur, which may release

  16. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the renal fibrosis of obstructive nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Wang, Fen; Li, Qian; Shi, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Hui-Fen; Peng, Hanjing; Shen, Hua-Ying; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has recently been found decreased in chronic kidney disease. Here we determined the effect and underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide on a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Compared with normal rats, obstructive injury decreased the plasma hydrogen sulfide level. Cystathionine-?-synthase, a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme, was dramatically reduced in the ureteral obstructed kidney, but another enzyme cystathionine-?-lyase was increased. A hydrogen sulfide donor (sodium hydrogen sulfide) inhibited renal fibrosis by attenuating the production of collagen, extracellular matrix, and the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin. Meanwhile, the infiltration of macrophages and the expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the kidney were also decreased. In cultured kidney fibroblasts, a hydrogen sulfide donor inhibited the cell proliferation by reducing DNA synthesis and downregulating the expressions of proliferation-related proteins including proliferating cell nuclear antigen and c-Myc. Further, the hydrogen sulfide donor blocked the differentiation of quiescent renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts by inhibiting the transforming growth factor-?1-Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Thus, low doses of hydrogen sulfide or its releasing compounds may have therapeutic potentials in treating chronic kidney disease. PMID:24284510

  17. Structure of 4-methylpyridinium Hydrogen Sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andras, Maria T.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Martuch, Robert A.; Duraj, Stan A.; Gordon, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    4-Methylpyridinium hydrogen sulfide, (C6H7NH)HS, M(sub r) = 127.21, consists of C6H7NH(+) cations and HS(-) anions. Z = 2 for the crystal with monoclinic space group Cm (#8), dimensions of a = 8.679(2) A, b = 7.964(1) A, and c = 4.860(2) A, an angle beta of 101.10(2) degrees, and a volume of V = 329.6(3) A(exp 3). R = 0.039 and R(sub w) = 0.048 for 385 reflections with F(sub o)(exp 2) greater than 3 sigma(F(sub o)(exp 2)) and 59 variables. Both the C6H7NH(+) cation and the HS(-) anion lie on crystallographic mirror planes with the N,S, two carbon atoms, and two hydrogen atoms positioned in the planes. The hydrogen atom of the HS(-) anion was not located.

  18. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, Robert J. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  19. RESEARCH Open Access Effects of hydrogen sulfide on hemodynamics,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Effects of hydrogen sulfide on hemodynamics, inflammatory response Introduction: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to improve survival in rodent models of lethal hemorrhage received either an intravenous bolus of NaHS (0.2 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl). At the end

  20. Hydrogen sulfide removal with sulfur-containing esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, B.W.; Huxley, E.E.

    1982-09-07

    Sulfur-containing esters, such as dimethyldithiodipropionate, are excellent solvents for hydrogen sulfide and can be used for the purification of gas streams containing hydrogen sulfide. The obtained solution can be stored and used as H/sub 2/S source.

  1. Japanese experience of hydrogen sulfide: the suicide craze in 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daiichi Morii; Yasusuke Miyagatani; Naohisa Nakamae; Masaki Murao; Kiyomi Taniyama

    2010-01-01

    Most of hydrogen sulfide poisoning has been reported as industrial accidents in Japan. However, since January 2008, a burgeoning of suicide attempts using homemade hydrogen sulfide gas has become evident. By April 2008, the fad escalated into a chain reaction nationwide. Mortality of the poisoning was very high. There were 220 cases of attempted gas suicides during the period of

  2. First detection of doubly deuterated hydrogen sulfide

    E-print Network

    C. Vastel; T. G. Phillips; C. Ceccarelli; J. Pearson

    2003-07-10

    This work was carried out with using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and presents the observational study of HDS and D2S towards a sample of Class 0 sources, and dense cores. We report the first detection of doubly deuterated hydrogen sulfide (D2S) in two dense cores and analyze the chemistry of these molecules aiming to help understand the deuteration processes in the interstellar medium. The observed values of the D2S/HDS ratio, and upper limits, require an atomic D/H ratio in the accreting gas of 0.1-1. The study presented in this Letter supports the hypothesis that formaldehyde, methanol and hydrogen sulfide are formed on the grain surfaces, during the cold pre-stellar core phase, where the CO depleted gas has large atomic D/H ratios. The high values for the D/H ratios are consistent with the predictions of a recent gas-phase chemical model that includes H3+ and its deuterated isotopomers, H2D+, D2H+ and D3+ (Roberts et al. 2003).

  3. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  4. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by human liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Nada; Prip-Buus, Carina; Vons, Corinne; Lenoir, Véronique; Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Guedouari-Bounihi, Hala; Lombès, Anne; Bouillaud, Frédéric

    2014-09-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gasotransmitter discovered. Sulfide shares with the two others (NO and CO) the same inhibiting properties towards mitochondrial respiration. However, in contrast with NO or CO, sulfide at concentrations lower than the toxic (?M) level is an hydrogen donor and a substrate for mitochondrial respiration. This is due to the activity of a sulfide quinone reductase found in a large majority of mitochondria. An ongoing study of the metabolic state of liver in obese patients allowed us to evaluate the sulfide oxidation capacity with twelve preparations of human liver mitochondria. The results indicate relatively high rates of sulfide oxidation with a large variability between individuals. These observations made with isolated mitochondria appear in agreement with the main characteristics of sulfide oxidation as established before with the help of cellular models. PMID:24928562

  5. Hydrogen sulfide, trace element and sulfur hexafluoride tracer treatment from the Geysers-Calistoga Geothermal Resource Area based on aircraft and surface sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Orgill, M.M.; Lee, R.N.; Nickola, P.W.; Schreck, R.C.

    1983-05-01

    This four-day study has provided initial data regarding the short-range transport of pollutants from The Geysers geothermal operations. The initial analysis of the data has shown that a measureable plume of gaseous sulfur (H{sub 2}S) is emitted from the Geysers and transported by surface and upper-level winds to distances beyond 20 km. Only one day had concentrations above 30 ppB and on this day H{sub 2}S was detected as a distinct odor at 1500 m (m.s.1.) at 4 km or more from the Geysers. The initial data analysis of the H{sub 2}S and SF{sub 6} plume data have revealed the important role that vertical wind shear plays in changing plume trajectories with height and enhancing diffusion of pollutants. Surface and aircraft sampling of aerosols indicate that small quantities of trace elements such as As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr and Br may be transported from the area.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as biological mediators.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a biological mediator with various roles such as neuromodulation, regulation of the vascular tone, cytoprotection, anti-inflammation, oxygen sensing, angiogenesis, and generation of mitochondrial energy. It is produced by cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). The activity of CBS is enhanced by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and glutathionylation, while it is inhibited by nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The activity of CSE and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), which produces the 3MST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP), is regulated by Ca2+. H2S is oxidized to thiosulfate in mitochondria through the sequential action of sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), sulfur dioxygenase, and rhodanese. The rates of the production and clearance of H2S determine its cellular concentration. Polysulfides (H2Sn) have been found to occur in the brain and activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels, facilitate the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the nucleus, and suppress the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by sulfurating (sulfhydrating) the target cysteine residues. A cross talk between H2S and NO also plays an important role in cardioprotection as well as regulation of the vascular tone. H2S, polysulfides, and their cross talk with NO may mediate various physiological and pathophysiological responses. PMID:25302704

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide: Redox Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The recognition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an endogenously produced gas with signaling potential has stimulated research on a multitude of physiological effects mediated in the cardiovascular, immune, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, and central nervous systems. The heightened activity in the area of H2S biology led to convening of the first international conference on H2S in Shanghai in the summer of 2009 and to two Forum issues published in 2010 by Antioxidants & Redox Signaling on the physiological effects of H2S. Yet, fundamental questions regarding the biogenesis and regulation of H2S, the bioenergetics of its catabolism, its tissue concentrations, and elucidation of its molecular targets remain. Some of these issues are the subject of the current Forum on H2S. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 339–341. PMID:21275829

  8. Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a familiar toxic gas that smells of rotten eggs. After the identification of endogenous H2S in the mammalian brain two decades ago, studies of this molecule uncovered physiological roles in processes such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection against oxidative stress, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and oxygen sensing. Enzymes that produce H2S, such as cystathionine ?-synthase, cystathionine ?-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase have been studied intensively and well characterized. Polysulfides, which have a higher number of inner sulfur atoms than that in H2S, were recently identified as potential signaling molecules that can activate ion channels, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors with greater potency than that of H2S. This article focuses on our contribution to the discovery of these molecules and their metabolic pathways and mechanisms of action. PMID:25864468

  9. Chemical Foundations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Following nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (or its newer systematic name sulfane, H2S) became the third small molecule that can be both toxic and beneficial depending on the concentration. In spite of its impressive therapeutic potential, the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects remain unclear. Any novel mechanism has to obey fundamental chemical principles. H2S chemistry was studied long before its biological relevance was discovered, however, with a few exceptions, these past works have received relatively little attention in the path of exploring the mechanistic conundrum of H2S biological functions. This review calls attention to the basic physical and chemical properties of H2S, focuses on the chemistry between H2S and its three potential biological targets: oxidants, metals and thiol derivatives, discusses the applications of these basics into H2S biology and methodology, and introduces the standard terminology to this youthful field. PMID:23850631

  10. NEAR-CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE BY AN AUTOMATIC GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automatic gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector that samples and analyzes hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide at 30-s intervals is described. Temperature programming was used to elute trace amounts of carbon disulfide present in each injection from a Supelpak-S...

  11. A new process for removing hydrogen sulfide from gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, K.; Allford, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    A novel, patented sour gas sweetening process was introduced to the gas processing industry in September, 1984. This new process is referred to as the one-step process in this paper. The one-step process selectively removes hydrogen sulfide from sour gases and converts dissolved hydrogen sulfide directly to sulfur in a bubble tower filled with the sweetener solution. The sweetener, a proprietary formulation, is an alkaline solution of oxidizing and buffering agents. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur is achieved by a liquid phase oxidation technique.

  12. Process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, I.

    1981-01-20

    A process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases utilizes iron oxide particles of unique chemical and physical properties. These particles have large surface area, and are comprised substantially of amorphous Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ containing a crystalline phase of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and combinations thereof. In scavenging hydrogen sulfide, the iron oxide particles are suspended in a liquid which enters into intimate mixing contact with hydrocarbon gases; the hydrogen sulfide is reacted at an exceptional rate and only acid-stable reaction products are formed. Thereafter, the sweetened hydrocarbon gases are collected.

  13. Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanapong Duangmanee

    2009-01-01

    The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used

  14. Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.

    1985-05-21

    An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

  15. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m.

    PubMed Central

    Kanagawa, T; Mikami, E

    1989-01-01

    Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day. PMID:2930168

  16. An Experiment in Autotrophic Fermentation: Microbial Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublette, Kerry L.

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment which uses an autotrophic bacterium to anaerobically oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfate in a batch-stirred tank reactor. Discusses background information, experimental procedure, and sample results of this activity. (CW)

  17. Evaluation of hydrogen sulfide concentrations in Norwegian reservoir fluids 

    E-print Network

    Haland, Kjersti

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the hydrogen sulfide content in produced hics. petroleum fluids is important for planning of [HaS] control measures and for material selection. The Norwegian Continental Shelf is known for producing sweet crude ...

  18. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  19. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  20. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 31 -February 2, 2011

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University of geothermal utilization. Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless flammable and toxic gas with the characteristic odor

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide in Biochemistry and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Benjamin Lee; Lefer, David Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: An abundance of experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a prominent role in physiology and pathophysiology. Many targets exist for H2S therapy. The molecular targets of H2S include proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, and membrane ion channels. Recent Advances: Novel H2S precursors are being synthesized and discovered that are capable of releasing H2S in a slow and sustained manner. This presents a novel and advantageous approach to H2S therapy for treatment of chronic conditions associated with a decline in endogenous H2S, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Critical Issues: While H2S is cytoprotective at physiological concentrations, it is not universally cytoprotective, as it appears to have pro-apoptotic actions in cancer cells and is well known to be toxic at supraphysiological concentrations. Many of the pleiotropic effects of H2S on health are associated with the inhibition of inflammation and upregulation of prosurvival pathways. The powerful anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, immunomodulating, and trophic effects of H2S on the vast majority of normal cells seem to be mediated mainly by its actions as an extremely versatile direct and indirect antioxidant and free radical scavenger. While the overall effects of H2S on transformed (i.e., malignant) cells can be characterized as pro-oxidant and pro-apoptotic, they contrast sharply with the cytoprotective effects on most normal cells. Future Directions: H2S has become a molecule of great interest, and several slow-releasing H2S prodrugs are currently under development. We believe that additional agents regulating H2S bioavailability will be developed during the next 10 years. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 119–140. PMID:22432697

  2. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure...648 Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure...principle, this method consists of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a gas sample directly...

  3. Identification of Genes Affecting Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela L. Linderholm; Carrie L. Findleton; Gagandeep Kumar; Yeun Hong; Linda F. Bisson

    2008-01-01

    A screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strain set was performed to identify genes affecting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Mutants were screened using two assays: colony color on BiGGY agar, which detects the basal level of sulfite reductase activity, and production of H2S in a synthetic juice medium using lead acetate detection of free sulfide in the headspace. A total

  4. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  5. Hydrogen sulfide measurement using sulfide dibimane: critical evaluation with electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinggui; Chakraborty, Sourav; Dugas, Tammy R; Kevil, Christopher G

    2014-09-15

    Accurate measurement of hydrogen sulfide bioavailability remains a technical challenge due to numerous issues involving sample processing, detection methods used, and actual biochemical products measured. Our group and others have reported that reverse phase HPLC detection of sulfide dibimane (SDB) product from the reaction of H2S/HS(-) with monobromobimane allows for analytical detection of hydrogen sulfide bioavailability in free and other biochemical forms. However, it remains unclear whether possible interfering contaminants may contribute to HPLC SDB peak readings that may result in inaccurate measurements of bioavailable sulfide. In this study, we critically compared hydrogen sulfide dependent SDB detection using reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) versus quantitative SRM electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) to obtain greater clarity into the validity of the reverse phase HPLC method for analytical measurement of hydrogen sulfide. Using an LCQ-Deca ion-trap mass spectrometer, SDB was identified by ESI/MS positive ion mode, and quantified by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) using hydrocortisone as an internal standard. Collision induced dissociation (CID) parameters were optimized at MS2 level for SDB and hydrocortisone. ESI/MS detection of SDB standard was found to be a log order more sensitive than RP-HPLC with a lower limit of 0.25 nM. Direct comparison of tissue and plasma SDB levels using RP-HPLC and ESI/MS methods revealed comparable sulfide levels in plasma, aorta, heart, lung and brain. Together, these data confirm the use of SDB as valid indicator of H2S bioavailability and highlights differences between analytical detection methods. PMID:24932544

  6. Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duangmanee, Thanapong

    The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used an innovative, low-maintenance, low-cost biological sulfide removal technology to remove sulfides simultaneously from both gas and liquid phase. ORP (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential) was used as the controlling parameter to precisely regulate air injection to the sulfide oxidizing unit (SOU). The microaeration technique provided just enough oxygen to partially oxidize sulfides to elemental sulfur without inhibiting methanogenesis. The SOU was equipped with a diffuser at the bottom for the dispersion of sulfide-laden biogas and injected air throughout the column. The SOU can be operated as a standalone unit or coupled with an anaerobic digester to simultaneously remove sulfide from the biogas and effluent. The integrated system was capable of reducing hydrogen sulfide in biogas from 2,450 to less than 2 ppmV with minimal sulfate production at the highest available sulfide loading rate of 0.24 kg/m3-day. More than 98% of sulfide removed was recovered as elemental sulfur. However, the standalone SOU was able to operate at high hydrogen sulfide loading of 1.46 kg/m 3-day at inlet sulfide concentration of 3000 ppmV and reduce the off-gas hydrogen sulfide concentrations to less than 10 ppmV. The experiment also revealed that the ORP controlled aeration was sensitive enough to prevent oxygen overdosing (dampening effect) during unexpected surges of aeration. Using generalized linear regression, a model predicting output H2S concentration based on input H2S concentrations, SOU medium heights, and biogas flow rates, was derived. With 95% confidence, output H2S concentration was affected by changes in liquid heights the most, followed by changes in flow rates. Feasibility studies for H2S removal from biogas by micro-aeration were conducted at the Ames Water Pollution Control Facility (AWPCF) by using different types of liquid media available at the plant, i.e. plant effluent, mixed liquor, and digester supernatant. From the experiment at AWPCF, it was found that operating pHs were affected by the amount of alkalinity in the liquid media and that the removal efficiencies were affected by the operating pH. Among all the liquid media tested, digester supernatant showed the greatest potential with more than 99% H2S removal at an operating pH of 7.0 and volumetric biogas flow rate of 21.6 m3/m 3-hr. By increasing trace metal contents and temperature of the medium, the hydrogen sulfide removal rate was greatly improved. The operating cost of the full-scale system was estimated to be approximately $2/kg-S-removed. In addition, it was also revealed that abiotic sulfide oxidation accounted for 95% of overall sulfide oxidation. This technology is expected to widen the use of biogas as a renewable fuel since the maintenance requirements of biogas handling equipment, the methane purification costs, and the emissions of SOx will dramatically be reduced. Importantly, the technology does not require inoculation of special bacteria, addition of nutrients and trace elements, or chemicals for pH control.

  7. Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.

    1982-08-03

    An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide in Drinking Water: Causes and Treatment Alternatives 

    E-print Network

    McFarland, Mark L.; Provin, Tony

    1999-06-15

    Dosage for Oxidation of Selected Minerals Based on Concentration (mg/l). Manganese 1.3 times Mn concentration (mg/l) Iron 0.64 times Fe concentration (mg/l) Hydrogen Sulfide 2.2 times H 2 S concentration (mg/l) single high dose of chlorine placed... tank (Fig. 2). A second pump is needed to re-pressurize the water. The storage tank provides 6 to 8 hours holding time for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide, iron and manganese. The storage tank and aerator must remain secure to prevent contamination...

  9. Dynamic viscosity estimation of hydrogen sulfide using a predictive scheme based on molecular dynamics.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Dynamic viscosity estimation of hydrogen sulfide using a predictive scheme based on molecular on molecular dynamics results on Lennard-Jones spheres is proposed to model the viscosity of hydrogen sulfide is appropriate for the other species of the mixtures. Keywords: Hydrogen sulfide; Viscosity; Molecular Dynamics

  10. Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 ?g/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

  11. Sulfide scaling in low enthalpy geothermal environments; A survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Criaud; C. Fouillac

    1989-01-01

    A review of the sulfide scaling phenomena in low-temperature environments is presented. While high-temperature fluids tend to deposit metal sulfides because of their high concentrations of dissolved metals and variations of temperature, pressure and fluid chemistry, low temperature media are characterized by very low metal content but much higher dissolved sulfide. In the case of the goethermal wells of the

  12. Hydrogen evolution from water through metal sulfide reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2013-11-01

    Transition metal sulfides play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal sulfide cluster anions M2SX- (M = Mo and W, X = 4-6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal sulfide anions have ground state isomers with two bridging sulfide bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal sulfide anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo2S4- isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W2S4- and M2S5- isomers. In all the lowest energy H2 elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H2 elimination step involve a thiol (-SH) and a hydroxyl (-OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo sulfide reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M2S4- and M2S5- clusters with water to liberate H2 are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M2S6- is highly endothermic with a considerable barrier due to saturation of the local bonding environment.

  13. Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide onto Activated Carbon Fibers: Effect of

    E-print Network

    Borguet, Eric

    . These processes include natural gas processing, petroleum refining, petrochemical plants, Kraft mills, coke ovens is used to control gas streams with high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide. Since it can only recover pollution. Typical tail gas from Claus plant is at 100-315 °C and still contains about 0.8% to 1.5% H2S

  14. L-Cysteine, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Insulin Signaling in Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    L-Cysteine, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Insulin Signaling in Diabetes Prasenjit Manna LSU Health Sciences Center Diabetes has become an epidemic and remains a major public health issue worldwide. of L in diabetic animal studies. However, the molecular mechanism by which LC increases glucose utilization

  15. Study of plasma dissociation mechanism of hydrogen sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gutsol; A. Rabinovich; A. Starikovskiy; A. Fridman; A. Gutsol; R. W. Potter

    2009-01-01

    Summary form only given: Hydrogen sulfide plasma dissociation is a promising method for H2S utilization. The conventional method based on multi-stage Claus Process is currently considered the industry standard. The Claus Process is based on partial oxidation of H2S, which results in the production of sulfur and water. Plasma dissociation of H2S follows direct dissociation path producing sulfur and hydrogen.

  16. Solubility and Permeation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Denicola, Ana; Alvarez, Beatriz; Möller, Matías N.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is mainly known for its toxicity but has recently been shown to be produced endogenously in mammalian tissues and to be associated with physiological regulatory functions. To better understand the role of biomembranes in modulating its biological distribution and effects; we measured the partition coefficient of H2S in models of biological membranes. The partition coefficients were found to be 2.1±0.2, 1.9±0.5 and 2.0±0.6 in n-octanol, hexane and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine liposome membranes relative to water, respectively (25°C). This two-fold higher concentration of H2S in the membrane translates into a rapid membrane permeability, Pm?=?3 cm s?1. We used a mathematical model in three dimensions to gain insight into the diffusion of total sulfide in tissues. This model shows that the sphere of action of sulfide produced by a single cell expands to involve more than 200 neighboring cells, and that the resistance imposed by lipid membranes has a significant effect on the diffusional spread of sulfide at pH 7.4, increasing local concentrations. These results support the role of hydrogen sulfide as a paracrine signaling molecule and reveal advantageous pharmacokinetic properties for its therapeutic applications. PMID:22509322

  17. Non-oxidative removal of hydrogen sulfide from gaseous, petrochemical, and other streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, J.C.; Imai, T.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a method of reducing the hydrogen sulfide level in streams containing hydrogen sulfide at concentrations from about 2 ppm up to about 1,000 ppm. It comprises reacting the hydrogen sulfide with an unsaturated hydrocarbon in the presence of an acidic solid catalyst selected from the group consisting of polymeric sulfonic acid resins, solid polyphosphoric acid, supported sulfuric acid, supported boric acid, silica-aluminas, clays, faujasite, mordenite, and L, omega, X or Y zeolites at mercaptan-forming concentrations, and recovering a stream having a reduced hydrogen sulfide concentration and containing no more than 5 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Sulfide scaling in low enthalpy geothermal environments; A survey

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C. (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France))

    1989-01-01

    A review of the sulfide scaling phenomena in low-temperature environments is presented. While high-temperature fluids tend to deposit metal sulfides because of their high concentrations of dissolved metals and variations of temperature, pressure and fluid chemistry, low temperature media are characterized by very low metal content but much higher dissolved sulfide. In the case of the goethermal wells of the Paris Basin, detailed studies demonstrate that the relatively large concentrations of chloride and dissolved sulfide are responsible for corrosion and consequent formation of iron sulfide scale composed of mackinawite, pyrite and pyrrhotite. The effects of the exploitation schemes are far less important than the corrosion of the casings. The low-enthalpy fluids that do not originate from sedimentary aquifers (such as in Iceland and Bulgaria), have a limited corrosion potential, and the thin sulfide film that appears may prevent the progress of corrosion.

  19. Biology and therapeutic potential of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen sulfide-releasing chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, Khosrow; Olson, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a colorless gas with a strong odor that until recently was only considered to be a toxic environmental pollutant with little or no physiological significance. However, the past few years have demonstrated its role in many biological systems and it is becoming increasingly clear that H2S is likely to join nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) as a major player in mammalian biology. In this review, we have provided an overview of the chemistry and biology of H2S and have summarized the chemistry and biological activity of some natural and synthetic H2S-donating compounds. The naturally occurring compounds discussed include, garlic, sulforaphane, erucin, and iberin. The synthetic H2S donors reviewed include, GYY4137; cysteine analogs; S-propyl cysteine, S-allyl cysteine, S-propargyl cysteine, and N-acetyl cysteine. Dithiolethione and its NSAID and other chimeras such as, L-DOPA, sildenafil, aspirin, diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and mesalamine have also been reviewed in detail. The newly reported NOSH-aspirin that releases both NO and H2S has also been discussed. PMID:23103569

  20. Adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on montmorillonites modified with iron.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Thanh, Danh; Block, Karin; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2005-04-01

    Sodium-rich montmorillonite was modified with iron in order to introduce active centers for hydrogen sulfide adsorption. In the first modification, interlayer sodium cations were exchanged with iron. In another modification, iron oxocations were introduced to the clay surface. The most elaborated modification was based on doping of iron within the interlayer space of aluminum-pillared clay. The modified clay samples were tested as hydrogen sulfide adsorbents. Iron-doped samples showed a significant improvement in the capacity for H2S removal, despite of a noticeable decrease in microporosity compared to the initial pillared clay. The smallest capacity was obtained for the clay modified with iron oxocations. Variations in adsorption capacity are likely due to differences in the chemistry of iron species, degree of their dispersion on the surface, and accessibility of small pores for H2S molecule. The results suggest that on the surface of iron-modified clay hydrogen sulfide reacts with Fe(+3) forming sulfides or it is catalytically oxidized to SO2 on iron (hydro)oxides. Subsequent oxidation may lead to sulfate formation. PMID:15763087

  1. MODELING OF SYNGAS REACTIONS AND HYDROGEN GENERATION OVER SULFIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Kamil Klier; Jeffery A. Spirko; Michael L. Neiman

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the research is to analyze pathways of reactions of hydrogen with oxides of carbon over sulfides, and to predict which characteristics of the sulfide catalyst (nature of metal, defect structure) give rise to the lowest barriers toward oxygenated hydrocarbon product. Reversal of these pathways entails the generation of hydrogen, which is also proposed for study. During this study, adsorption reactions of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules with MoS{sub 2}, both in molecular and solid form, have been modeled using high-level density functional theory. The relative stabilities of pure MoS{sub 2} edges were calculated and small clusters exhibiting properties of the edges were modeled. The results were finalized and published in the journal ''Surface Science''. Hydrogen adsorption energies on both the edges and the clusters were calculated, and the thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption on both systems were evaluated. The adsorption locations and vibrational frequencies were also determined. These additional results were published in a second paper in ''Surface Science''. Most recently, the bonding and effect of alkali and transition metal ions was investigated on the MoS{sub 2} clusters. Potassium atoms bind to the clusters and increase the binding of hydrogen to the clusters while reducing the activation barriers for hydrogen adsorption. Silver attaches to the Mo7S14 cluster and donates its odd electron to the nearby Mo atoms and should have a similar effect to hydrogen as potassium does.

  2. Transition metal sulfide hydrogen evolution catalysts for hydrobromic acid electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ivanovskaya, Anna; Singh, Nirala; Liu, Ru-Fen; Kreutzer, Haley; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Nguyen, Trung Van; Metiu, Horia; McFarland, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Mixed metal sulfides containing combinations of W, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Ru were synthesized and screened for activity and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in aqueous hydrobromic acid (HBr). Co- and Ni-substituted RuS(2) were identified as potentially active HER electrocatalysts by high-throughput screening (HTS), and the specific compositions Co(0.4)Ru(0.6)S(2) and Ni(0.6)Ru(0.4)S(2) were identified by optimization. Hydrogen evolution activity of Co(0.4)Ru(0.6)S(2) in HBr is greater than RuS(2) or CoS(2) and comparable to Pt and commercial Rh(x)S(y). Structural and morphological characterizations of the Co-substituted RuS(2) suggest that the nanoparticulate solids are a homogeneous solid solution with a pyrite crystal structure. No phase separation is detected for Co substitutions below 30% by X-ray diffraction. In 0.5 M HBr electrolyte, the Co-Ru electrode material synthesized with 30% Co rapidly lost approximately 34% of the initial loading of Co; thereafter, it was observed to exhibit stable activity for HER with no further loss of Co. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the S(2)(2-) sites are the most important for HER and the presence of Co influences the S(2)(2-) sites such that the hydrogen binding energy at sufficiently high hydrogen coverage is decreased compared to ruthenium sulfide. Although showing high HER activity in a flow cell, the reverse reaction of hydrogen oxidation is slow on the RuS(2) catalysts tested when compared to platinum and rhodium sulfide, leaving rhodium sulfide as the only suitable tested material for a regenerative HBr cell due its stability compared to platinum. PMID:23205859

  3. Quantitative evaluation of hydrogen sulfide at 0.3 M and 1.0 M-hydrogen-ion concentration

    E-print Network

    Machel, Albert R.

    1958-01-01

    . A Quantitative Evaluation of the Results Obtained Based on Per Cent Recovery and Solubility Product Calculations CONCLUSIONS. SUMMARY. . . BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX . . 46 54 57 58 61 v O??L kY LGEOF? Page I. Data Pertaining to the Per Gent.... The groups designated by von Liebig were: A. Sulfides insoluble in dilute acids. B. Sulfides soluble in dilute acids but insoluble in the presence of alkalies. C. Sulfides not precipitated by hydrogen sulfide. The metallic ions forming sulfides...

  4. Health assessment document for hydrogen sulfide: review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Ammann, H.M.; Bradow, F.; Fennell, D.; Griffin, R.; Kearney, B.

    1986-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas which is immediately lethal in concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. The toxic end-point is due to anoxia to brain and heart tissues which results from its interaction with the celluar enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of the enzyme halts oxidative metabolism which is the primary energy source for cells. A second toxic end-point is the irritative effect of hydrogen sulfide on mucous membranes, particularly edema at sublethal doses (250 to 500 ppm) in which sufficient exposure occurs before conciousness is lost. Recovered victims of exposure report neurologic symptoms such as headache, fatigue, irritability, vertigo, and loss of libido. Long-term effects are similar to those caused by anoxia due to other toxic agents like CO, and probably are not due to specific H/sub 2/S effects. H/sub 2/S is not a cumulative poison. No mutagenic, carcinogenic, reproductive, or teratogenic effects have been reported in the literature.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Scavenges the Cytotoxic Lipid Oxidation Product 4-HNE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine M. Schreier; Markus K. Muellner; Hannes Steinkellner; Marcela Hermann; Harald Esterbauer; Markus Exner; Bernhard M. K. Gmeiner; Stylianos Kapiotis; Hilde Laggner

    2010-01-01

    Highly reactive ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes like 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), generated from oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty\\u000a acids, can bind to proteins, polynucleotides and exert cytotoxicity. 4-HNE is known to react readily with thiol and amino\\u000a groups on free or bound amino acids. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an endogenous vascular gasotransmitter and neuromodulator which can reach up to 160 ?mol\\/l in

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Induces Cyclic AMP and Modulates the NMDA Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Kimura

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced endogenously from l-cysteine in mammalian tissues, and may function as a neuromodulator in the brain as well as a tone regulator in smooth muscle. H2S is present at relatively high levels in the brain, and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), which is highly expressed in the hippocampus, is involved in the production of brain H2S. Physiological concentrations

  7. Corrosion of Iron in Acid Solutions with Hydrogen Sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Cheng; H. Y. Ma; X. L. Chen; H. Q. Yang; S. H. Chen; J. P. Zhang

    1998-01-01

    The influence of pH and the concentration of hydrogen sulfide (HâS) on corrosion of iron in acid solutions was studied using a potentiostatic polarization method. The alternating current (AC) impedance technique also was used to characterize the active dissolution process of iron. Results showed the dissolution process was accelerated by HâS. The anodic dissolution current (i{sub a}) increased with pH

  8. The selective adsorption of hydrogen sulfide from natural gas streams 

    E-print Network

    Fails, James Clayton

    1959-01-01

    possible commercial application of the molecular sieves in sweetening sour natural gas streams' 50 COHCIiUSIOHS CONCLUSIONS The molecular sieves show a decided selectivity in adsorbing hydrogen sulfide from natural ges streamers This seleotivity... capaoity that may be expected decreases as the concentration of carbon dioxide increases' The selectivity shown by the molecular sieves ind1cates a possible commercial application in "sweetening" sour natural gas streams' 52 BIBLIOGRAPHY...

  9. Control of malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds using microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Eaktasang, Numfon; Min, Hyeong-Sik; Kang, Christina; Kim, Han S

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used to control malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from domestic wastewaters. The electricity production demonstrated a distinct pattern of a two-step increase during 170 h of system run: the first maximum current density was 118.6 ± 7.2 mA m?² followed by a rebound of current density increase, reaching the second maximum of 176.8 ± 9.4 mA m?². The behaviors of the redox potential and the sulfate level in the anode compartment indicated that the microbial production of hydrogen sulfide compounds was suppressed in the first stage, and the hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from the system were removed effectively as a result of their electrochemical oxidation, which contributed to the additional electricity production in the second stage. This was also directly supported by sulfur deposits formed on the anode surface, which was confirmed by analyses on those solids using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as an elemental analyzer. To this end, the overall reduction efficiencies for HS? and H?S(g) were as high as 67.5 and 96.4 %, respectively. The correlations among current density, redox potential, and sulfate level supported the idea that the electricity signal generated in the MFC can be utilized as a potential indicator of malodor control for the domestic wastewater system. PMID:23297068

  10. Molecularly engineered quantum dots for visualization of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yehan; Yu, Huan; Zhang, Yajiao; Zhang, Kui; Zhu, Houjuan; Yu, Tao; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Suhua

    2015-02-18

    Among various fluorescence nanomaterials, the II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals (usually called quantum dots, QDs) should be very promising in sensing application because of their high quantum yields, capability for surface property manipulation, and unlimited possible chemical reactions. Herein, we present a fluorescence probe for hydrogen sulfide, which was prepared by first encapsulating inorganic cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs in silica nanospheres, and subsequently engineering the silica surface with functional molecules azidocoumarin-4-acetic acid reactive to hydrogen sulfide. The nanohybrid probe exhibited two fluorescence bands centered at 452 and 657 nm, respectively. The red fluorescence at 657 nm of the nanohybrid probe is stable against H2S, while the blue fluorescence is specifically sensitive to H2S. The probe showed a distinct fluorescence color evolution from light magenta to blue upon exposure to different amounts of H2S, and a detection limit of 7.0 nM was estimated in aqueous solution. We further applied the nanohybrid probe for visual detection of gaseous H2S with a low concentration of 0.5 ppm using glass indicating spots sensors, suggesting its potential application for gaseous H2S sensing. Such an efficient on-site visual determination of gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is highly demanded in on-site environmental monitoring and protection. PMID:25615270

  11. Experimental study of polysulfane stability in gaseous hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Migdisov, A.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences] [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Suleimenov, O.M. [ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie] [ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie; Alekhin, Yu.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)] [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The solubility of sulfur in gaseous hydrogen sulfide has been studied in the H{sub 2}S-S system. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 50 and 290 C and pressures up to 200 bars. The experimentally determined concentrations of sulfur in the gas phase are 6--7 orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding concentrations calculated for a system free of hydrogen sulfide. The results of experiments show significant interaction between S and H{sub 2}S. These interactions can be of two kind: solvation by hydrogen sulfide (solubility), as with formation of new stable gaseous chemical compounds, like polysulfanes (chemical reaction). The data obtained can be reasonably well described by the formation of a H{sub 2}S {center_dot} S compound. Thermodynamic parameters for polysulfanes and equilibrium compositions of the S-H{sub 2}S system have been calculated ab initio for the experimental conditions. At temperatures above 170 C, results (of calculations) are in good agreement with experimental data, although the difference between the calculated and experimental mole fraction of the sulfur in the gas phase reaches 2 orders of magnitude at 125--170 C. It is theorized that sulfur solubility in gaseous H{sub 2}S is related to two main chemical reactions, dominated in the different temperature ranges: sulfur solvation by H{sub 2}S (125--170C) and polysulfane formation (200--290 C).

  12. Hydrogen evolution from water through metal sulfide reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2013-11-28

    Transition metal sulfides play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal sulfide cluster anions M{sub 2}S{sub X}{sup ?} (M = Mo and W, X = 4–6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal sulfide anions have ground state isomers with two bridging sulfide bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal sulfide anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup ?} isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup ?} and M{sub 2}S{sub 5}{sup ?} isomers. In all the lowest energy H{sub 2} elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H{sub 2} elimination step involve a thiol (–SH) and a hydroxyl (–OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo sulfide reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup ?} and M{sub 2}S{sub 5}{sup ?} clusters with water to liberate H{sub 2} are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M{sub 2}S{sub 6}{sup ?} is highly endothermic with a considerable barrier due to saturation of the local bonding environment.

  13. Hydrogen and bioenergetics in the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; McCollom, Thomas M.; Pace, Norman R.

    2005-01-01

    The geochemical energy budgets for high-temperature microbial ecosystems such as occur at Yellowstone National Park have been unclear. To address the relative contributions of different geochemistries to the energy demands of these ecosystems, we draw together three lines of inference. We studied the phylogenetic compositions of high-temperature (>70°C) communities in Yellowstone hot springs with distinct chemistries, conducted parallel chemical analyses, and carried out thermodynamic modeling. Results of extensive molecular analyses, taken with previous results, show that most microbial biomass in these systems, as reflected by rRNA gene abundance, is comprised of organisms of the kinds that derive energy for primary productivity from the oxidation of molecular hydrogen, H2. The apparent dominance by H2-metabolizing organisms indicates that H2 is the main source of energy for primary production in the Yellowstone high-temperature ecosystem. Hydrogen concentrations in the hot springs were measured and found to range up to >300 nM, consistent with this hypothesis. Thermodynamic modeling with environmental concentrations of potential energy sources also is consistent with the proposed microaerophilic, hydrogen-based energy economy for this geothermal ecosystem, even in the presence of high concentrations of sulfide. PMID:15671178

  14. Modelling studies for hydrogen sulfide fuelled SOFCs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dayadeep Monder

    2008-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high temperature, ceramic electrolyte fuel cells. Unlike most other fuel cells, which require high purity hydrogen to generate electricity, SOFCs can utilize a variety of fuels, including hydrocarbons. This work presents modelling and experimental work performed on a laboratory scale H2S-fuelled SOFC equipped with a novel anode that can electro-oxidize H2S into water vapour

  15. ISE Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofeng; Polk, Brian J.; Meazell, Liz A.; Hatchett, David W.

    2000-08-01

    Many advanced undergraduate analytical laboratory courses focus on exposing students to various modern instruments. However, students rarely have the opportunity to construct their own analytical tools for solving practical problems. We designed an experiment in which students are required to build their own analytical module, a potentiometric device composed of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Ag/Ag2S ion selective electrode (ISE), and a pH meter used as voltmeter, to determine the amount of hydrogen sulfide in cigarette smoke. Very simple techniques were developed for constructing these electrodes. Cigarette smoke is collected by a gas washing bottle into a 0.1 M NaOH solution. The amount of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution is analyzed by standard addition of sulfide solution while monitoring the response of the Ag/Ag2S ISE. The collected data are further evaluated using the Gran plot technique to determine the concentration of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution. The experiment has been successfully incorporated into the lab course Instrumental Analysis at Georgia Institute of Technology. Students enjoy the idea of constructing an analytical tool themselves and applying their classroom knowledge to solve real-life problems. And while learning electrochemistry they also get a chance to visualize the health hazard imposed by cigarette smoking.

  16. Process for removing hydrogen sulfide from gases particularly coal pyrolysis gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, H.; Herpers, E.T.

    1985-02-12

    Hydrogen sulfide is first removed by ammoniacal liquor from coke oven gas in the bottom part of a gas scrubber. In the top part of the scrubber, two consecutively-arranged fine scrubbing stages remove hydrogen sulfide by treating the gases, in the upper stage, with a caustic soda solution or a caustic potash solution. Beneath the upper scrubbing stage is the second fine scrubbing stage fed with a subflow of an aqueous carbonate solution collecting at the outlet of the upper fine scrubbing stage and a subflow of cooled, regenerated carbonate solution discharged from the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper. From the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper, a second subflow is admixed with coal liquor for removing fixed ammonia therefrom in a separator. The separator produces water vapor with carbon dioxide vapors that are delivered to the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper for regenerating the aqueous carbonate washing solution.

  17. Identification of Genes Affecting Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Linderholm, Angela L.; Findleton, Carrie L.; Kumar, Gagandeep; Hong, Yeun; Bisson, Linda F.

    2008-01-01

    A screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strain set was performed to identify genes affecting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Mutants were screened using two assays: colony color on BiGGY agar, which detects the basal level of sulfite reductase activity, and production of H2S in a synthetic juice medium using lead acetate detection of free sulfide in the headspace. A total of 88 mutants produced darker colony colors than the parental strain, and 4 produced colonies significantly lighter in color. There was no correlation between the appearance of a dark colony color on BiGGY agar and H2S production in synthetic juice media. Sixteen null mutations were identified as leading to the production of increased levels of H2S in synthetic juice using the headspace analysis assay. All 16 mutants also produced H2S in actual juices. Five of these genes encode proteins involved in sulfur containing amino acid or precursor biosynthesis and are directly associated with the sulfate assimilation pathway. The remaining genes encode proteins involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell membrane integrity, cell energy regulation and balance, or other metabolic functions. The levels of hydrogen sulfide production of each of the 16 strains varied in response to nutritional conditions. In most cases, creation of multiple deletions of the 16 mutations in the same strain did not lead to a further increase in H2S production, instead often resulting in decreased levels. PMID:18192430

  18. Corrosion of concrete sewers--the kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide absorption and oxidation by corroding concrete surfaces was quantified in a test rig consisting of 6 concrete pipes operated under sewer conditions. The test rig was placed in an underground sewer monitoring station with access to fresh wastewater. Hydrogen sulfide gas was injected into the pipe every 2nd hour to peak concentrations around 1000 ppm. After some months of operation, the hydrogen sulfide became rapidly oxidized by the corroding concrete surfaces. At hydrogen sulfide concentrations of 1000 ppm, oxidation rates as high as 1 mg S m(-2) s(-1) were observed. The oxidation process followed simple nth order kinetics with a process order of 0.45-0.75. Extrapolating the results to gravity sewer systems showed that hydrogen sulfide oxidation by corroding concrete is a fast process compared to the release of hydrogen sulfide from the bulk water, resulting in low gas concentrations compared with equilibrium. Balancing hydrogen sulfide release with hydrogen sulfide oxidation at steady state conditions demonstrated that significant corrosion rates--several millimeters of concrete per year--can potentially occur at hydrogen sulfide gas phase concentrations well below 5-10 ppm. The results obtained in the study advances the knowledge on prediction of sewer concrete corrosion and the extent of odor problems. PMID:18281080

  19. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on bacterial inactivation in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.E.; Ferin, J.

    1981-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a low concentration of hydrogen sulfide on the rat antibacterial defense system. Rats exposed to 45 ppm hydrogen sulfide (threshold limit value for hydrogen sulfide = 10 ppm) for 4 or 6 hr exhibited a significant (p < .01) reduction in the inactivation of viable staphylococci deposited in the lungs during a bacterial aerosol challenge. Pre-exposure of rats to 46 ppm hydrogen sulfide for 2 hr, however, did not alter intrapulmonary staphylococcal inactivation. We hypothesize that impairment of the alveolar macrophage is the basis of these findings.

  20. Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on the Performance of a PEMFC R. Mohtadi,a,

    E-print Network

    Van Zee, John W.

    Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on the Performance of a PEMFC R. Mohtadi,a, * W.-k. Lee,a, ** S. Cowan-products, such as carbon monoxide, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide. While it is well known that H2S severely poisons Pt sulfur when a Pt electrode was sulfided with H2S in aqueous medium.2,8 The effect of gaseous phase H2S

  1. Production of hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide assisted by dielectric barrier discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Linga Reddy; V. M. Biju; Ch. Subrahmanyam

    Hydrogen production by non-thermal plasma (NTP) assisted direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with stainless steel inner electrode and copper wire as the outer electrode. The specific advantage of the present process is the direct decomposition of H2S in to H2 and S and the novelty of the present study

  2. HYDROGEN SULFIDE KINETICS ON PEM FUEL CELL ELECTRODES V. A. Sethuramana

    E-print Network

    Sethuraman, Vijay A.

    HYDROGEN SULFIDE KINETICS ON PEM FUEL CELL ELECTRODES V. A. Sethuramana , L. A. Wiseb , S for the poisoning kinetics of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on composite solid polymer electrolyte Pt (SPE-Pt) electrode) fuel cells, there is much less in the literature on H2S poisoning. Uribe et al showed

  3. Disequilibrium of hydrogen sulfide in ground water by aeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchey, J.D.

    1981-04-24

    This study examines removal of hydrogen sulfide gas by aeration as a result of bubbling air through water in the well before it is pumped out of the ground. The field study demonstrated that a substantial amount of hydrogen sulfide gas could be successfully removed by the method tested. Evaluation of water analyses indicated three processes that caused reduction in the concentration of hydrogen sulfide gas: (1) hydrogen sulfide gas was released from water to air by gas transfer--indicated by a strong 'rotten egg odor,' characteristic of hydrogen sulfide gas that was emitted from the wellhead; (2) hydrogen sulfide gas was oxidized to elemental sulfur--evidenced by an increase in dissolved oxygen measured in water samples and by clouding of pumped water; and (3) hydrogen sulfide gas was partially ionized--indicated by an increase in the pH and the redox potential of water samples. This field study demonstrates that in-well aeration is an effective method of hydrogen sulfide gas removal in domestic wells with potential application in larger installations.

  4. 30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 250... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? The...

  5. A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

  6. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henriette Stokbro Jensen; Piet N. L. Lens; Jeppe L. Nielsen; Kai Bester; Asbjørn Haaning Nielsen; Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen; Jes Vollertsen

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was

  7. Use of AERMOD to determine a hydrogen sulfide emission factor for swine operations by inverse modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick T. O’Shaughnessy; Ralph Altmaier

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine both optimal settings applied to the plume dispersion model, AERMOD, and a scalable emission factor for accurately determining the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the vicinity of swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations emit hydrogen sulfide from both housing structures and waste lagoons. With ambient measurements made at 4 stations

  8. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  9. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  10. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Thornton, Donald C.; Johnson, James E.; Bandy, Alan R.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Barrick, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports results of NASA's Chemical Instrumentation and Test Evaluation (CITE 3) during which airborne measurements for carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were intercompared. Instrumentation included a gas chromatograph using flame photometric detection (COS, H2S, and CS2), a gas chromatograph using mass spectrometric detection (COS) and CS2), a gas chromatograph using fluorination and subsequent SF6 detection via electron capture (COS and CS2), and the Natusch technique (H2S). The measurements were made over the Atlantic Ocean east of North and South America during flights from NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, in August/September 1989. Most of the intercomparisons for H2S and CS2 were at mixing ratios less than 25 pptv and less than 10 pptv, respectively, with a maximum mixing ratio of about 100 pptv and 50 pptv, respectively. Carbonyl sulfide intercomparisons were at mixing ratios between 400 and 600 pptv. Measurements were intercompared from data bases constructed from time periods of simultaneous or overlapping measurements. Agreement among the COS techniques averaged about 5%, and individual measurements were generally within 10%. For H2S and at mixing ratio greater than 25 pptv, the instruments agreed on average to about 15%. At mixing ratios less than 25 pptv the agreement was about 5 pptv. For CS2 (mixing ratios less than 50 pptv), two techniques agreed on average to about 4 pptv, and the third exhibited a bias (relative to the other two) that varied in the range of 3-7 pptv. CS2 mixing ratios over the ocean east of Natal as measured by the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique were only a few pptv and were below the detection limits of the other two techniques. The CITE 3 data are used to estimate the current uncertainty associated with aircraft measurements of COS, H2S, and CS2 in the remote troposphere.

  11. Carbonyl sulfide removal with compost and wood chip biofilters, and in the presence of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melanie L; Garrepalli, Divya R; Nawal, Chandraprakash S

    2009-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an odor-causing compound and hazardous air pollutant emitted frequently from wastewater treatment facilities and chemical and primary metals industries. This study examined the effectiveness of biofiltration in removing COS. Specific objectives were to compare COS removal efficiency for various biofilter media; to determine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is frequently produced along with COS under anaerobic conditions, adversely impacts COS removal; and to determine the maximum elimination capacity of COS for use in biofilter design. Three laboratory-scale polyvinyl chloride biofilter columns were filled with up to 28 in. of biofilter media (aged compost, fresh compost, wood chips, or a compost/wood chip mixture). Inlet COS ranged from 5 to 46 parts per million (ppm) (0.10-9.0 g/m3 hr). Compost and the compost/wood chip mixture produced higher COS removal efficiencies than wood chips alone. The compost and compost/wood chip mixture had a shorter stabilization times compared with wood chips alone. Fresh versus aged compost did not impact COS removal efficiency. The presence of H2S did not adversely impact COS removal for the concentration ratios tested. The maximum elimination capacity is at least 9 g/m3 hr for COS with compost media. PMID:20066911

  12. The determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A. [ITT Barton, City of Industry, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Producers, processors, pipelines and distribution companies measure both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and total sulfur for compliance with purchase contracts, which generally contain sulfur quality clauses relating to those two parameters. A quarter grain of H2S per one hundred standard cubic feet (0.25 gr H2S/100 SCF) and one grain of total sulfur (1 gr S/100 SCF) are common contract limits. To ensure that both buyer and seller are dealing with gas within these limits, it is common to monitor both parameters, as well as others, on both sides of the custody transfer point. More often, sulfur monitoring entails measuring total sulfur, mercaptans, and sulfides to assure the gas is odorized at the desired level. Odorant is a combination of mercaptans and sulfides added to the gas to alert users of any leaks. Odorization at the proper level is important since over-odorization is an waste of costly chemicals resulting in excess leak calls, and under-odorization is a safety hazard for the customer which in the worst case could result in an explosion with great personal injury and property damage. Odorant monitoring should also be used in conjunction with olfactory readings as an archival record in the event of litigation. There are several means of measuring these parameters, using either manual methods or instrument techniques. The manual methods involve wet chemistry, including collecting the desired sulfur compounds in an absorbing solution and then titrating the solution with a second reactive solution of known concentration. These methods are described in detail in ASTM and the Gas Processors. In this treatment we will discuss only the instrumental means, the most common of which are gas chromatography, lead acetate tape methods. and electrolytic titration.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide and cardioprotection - Mechanistic insights and clinical translatability.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Fadi N

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been long recognized as a highly poisonous gas that is rapidly lethal in intoxicating dosage. However, discoveries during the last decade on the endogenous synthesis of H2S in the mammalian system and its protective role in combating cellular necrosis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation as well as promoting angiogenesis and modulation of mitochondrial respiration in the setting of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury have prompted vast interest in the possibility of developing new therapies based around mimicry or facilitation of endogenous H2S for cardioprotection. These observations have inspired rapid development of H2S-releasing drugs in hopes of swift clinical translation in patients with cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss our current understanding of the protective signaling pathways elicited by H2S in the heart with an emphasis on the versatile benefits of this gasotransmitter and its potential for clinical translation in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:25913517

  14. Release and control of hydrogen sulfide during sludge thermal drying.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huanxin; Dai, Zhixi; Ji, Zhongqiang; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Chongxuan

    2015-10-15

    The release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during sludge drying is a major environmental problem because of its toxicity to human health. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms and factors controlling the H2S release. Results of this study show that: (1) the biomass and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sludge were the major factors controlling the amount of H2S release, (2) the sludge drying temperature had an important effect on both the extent and the timing of H2S release from the sludge, and (3) decreasing sludge pH increased the H2S release. Based on the findings from this study, a new system that integrates sludge drying and H2S gas treatment was developed, by which 97.5% of H2S and 99.7% of smoke released from sludge treatments was eliminated. PMID:25913672

  15. Pressure-induced decomposition of solid hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Defang; Huang, Xiaoli; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Yu, Hongyu; Liu, Yunxian; Ma, Yanbin; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2015-05-01

    Solid hydrogen sulfide is a typical molecular crystal, but its stability under pressure remains controversial. In particular, the recent experimental discovery of high-pressure superconductivity at 190 K in an H2S sample (arXiv:1412.0460) inspired efforts to revalidate this controversial issue, the pressure at which H2S decomposes and the resultant decomposition products urgent need to be evaluated. In this paper we performed an extensive structural study on different stoichiometries of HnS with n >1 under high pressure using ab initio calculations. Our results show that H2S is stable below 43 GPa and at elevated pressure it decomposes into H3S and sulfur. H3S is stable at least up to 300 GPa, while other H-rich compounds, including H4S , H5S , and H6S , are unstable in the pressure range of this study.

  16. Recent advances in fluorescent probes for monitoring of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Duan, Cun-Xian; Liu, Yu-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H?S), known for its unpleasant rotten egg smell and its high toxicity, has recently emerged as an important mediator of human physiological and pathological processes, such as the regulation of cell growth, cardiovascular protection, the stimulation of angiogenesis, gastric mucosal injury and Alzheimer's disease. Due to its significant actions in the physiology, H?S has attracted the abundant concern of numerous researchers in the cutting edge of chemistry, biology and medicine. Recently, several fluorescent probes have been developed for detecting and elucidating the role played by H?S in biological systems. This review highlights recent advances that have been made on the mechanism and applications of fluorescent probes for the detection of H?S, demonstrating a new field in which remarkable improvements have been accomplished over the last two years. PMID:23651306

  17. Hydrogen sulfide as a potential biomarker of asthma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kian F

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gas characterized by the odor of rotten eggs, is produced by many cells in the airways and lungs, and may regulate physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. It plays a role in cellular signaling, and represents the third gasotransmitter after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Endogenous and exogenous H?S have anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects, with inhibitory effects in models of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Under certain conditions, H?S may also be proinflammatory. It is generally a vasodilator and relaxant of airway and vascular smooth muscle cells. It acts as a reducing agent, being able to scavenge superoxide and peroxynitrite. H?S is detectable in serum and in sputum supernatants with raised levels observed in asthmatics. The sputum levels correlated inversely with lung function. H?S may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:24308655

  18. Lifelines Episode 10: Hydrogen Sulfide- What a Gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2008-06-05

    This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking "collections" tab in the left hand column. Segment 1: What a Gas. University of Alabama Â? Birmingham researchers Jeannette Doeller and David Kraus talk about the amazing properties of hydrogen sulfide gas. Although itÂ?s lethal in even minute quantities, our bodies produce it and use it to good effect. Episode 10 graphic courtesy of David Kraus. Begins at 1:15. Segment 2: Research Progress on Colon Cancer. John Carethers of the University of California San Diego explains his research findings on colon cancer and the role that the DNA mismatch repair system plays. Begins at 15:24.

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shufang; Pan, Chuli; Zhou, Feifei; Yuan, Zhi; Wang, Huiying; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Gensheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced endogenously by the activation of two major H2S-generating enzymes (cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase), plays important regulatory roles in different physiologic and pathologic conditions. The abnormal metabolism of H2S is associated with fibrosis pathogenesis, causing damage in structure and function of different organs. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that both endogenous H2S level and the expressions of H2S-generating enzymes in plasma and tissues are significantly downregulated during fibrosis. Supplement with exogenous H2S mitigates the severity of fibrosis in various experimental animal models. The protective role of H2S in the development of fibrosis is primarily attributed to its antioxidation, antiapoptosis, anti-inflammation, proangiogenesis, and inhibition of fibroblasts activities. Future studies might focus on the potential to intervene fibrosis by targeting the pathway of endogenous H2S-producing enzymes and H2S itself.

  20. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongdong; Wang, Jun; Li, Hui; Xue, Mengzhou; Ji, Ailing; Li, Yanzhang

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the major causes of high morbidity, disability, and mortality in the world. I/R injury remains a complicated and unresolved situation in clinical practice, especially in the field of solid organ transplantation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gaseous signaling molecule and plays a broad range of physiological and pathophysiological roles in mammals. H2S could protect against I/R injury in many organs and tissues, such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, intestine, stomach, hind-limb, lung, and retina. The goal of this review is to highlight recent findings regarding the role of H2S in I/R injury. In this review, we present the production and metabolism of H2S and further discuss the effect and mechanism of H2S in I/R injury. PMID:26064416

  1. Volatilization of hydrogen sulfide from a quiescent surface.

    PubMed

    de Cassia Feroni, Rita; Santos, Jane Meri; Reis, Neyval Costa

    2012-01-01

    Air-water mass transfer of hydrogen sulfide from a shallow tank with a quiescent surface under the influence of weak wind stress on the water surface was studied numerically using a two-dimensional model. The flow field in the tank was investigated using a computational code based on a finite volume, which is used to numerically solve momentum, mass and continuity conservation equations. The results show that water phase flow field is strongly dependent on the wind-induced surface velocity and the aspect ratio of the tank. Based on the numerical study, the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient is correlated with Reynolds number (R(e)), tank aspect ratio (AR) and Schmidt number (S(c)). Overall mass transfer coefficient (K(L)) values extend further downstream as the R(e) number increases. PMID:22925874

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Is a Signaling Molecule and a Cytoprotectant

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Norihiro; Kimura, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide may function as a signaling molecule in processes such as neuromodulation in the brain and smooth muscle relaxation in the vascular system. It also has a cytoprotective effect, since it can protect neurons and cardiac muscle from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide can also modulate inflammation, insulin release, and angiogenesis. Recent Advances: The regulation of the activity of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), one of the H2S producing pathways, has been demonstrated. The production of H2S by the pathway, which is regulated by Ca2+ and facilitated by thioredoxin and dihydrolipoic acid, is also involved in H2S signaling as well as cytoprotection. Sulfur hydration of proteins by H2S has been proposed to modulate protein functions. H2S-sensitive fluorescent probes, which enable us to measure the localization of H2S in real time, have been developed. Critical Issues: The basal concentrations of H2S have recently been measured and found to be much lower than those initially reported. However, the concentration of H2S reached in stimulated cells, as well as the regulation of H2S producing enzymes is not well understood. It has been proposed that some of the effects of H2S on the regulation of enzymes and receptors might be explained through the properties of sulfane sulfur (S0), another form of active sulfur. Future Directions: The determination of H2S concentrations in activated cells using new methods including H2S-sensitive fluorescent probes, as well as the investigation of the effects of H2S using specific inhibitors, may provide better understanding of the physiological function of this molecule. Clarifying mechanisms of H2S activity may also facilitate the development of new therapeutic compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 45–57. PMID:22229673

  3. Methods for producing hydrogen (BI) sulfide and/or removing metals

    DOEpatents

    Truex, Michael J [Richland, WA; Peyton, Brent M [Pullman, WA; Toth, James J [Kennewick, WA

    2002-05-14

    The present invention is a process wherein sulfide production by bacteria is efficiently turned on and off, using pH adjustment. The adjustment of pH impacts sulfide production by bacteria by altering the relative amounts of H.sub.2 S and HS-- in solution and thereby control the inhibition of the bacterial metabolism that produces sulfide. This process can be used to make a bioreactor produce sulfide "on-demand" so that the production of sulfide can be matched to its use as a metal precipitation reagent. The present invention is of significance because it enables the use of a biological reactor, a cost effective sulfide production system, by making the biological reactor produce hydrogen sulfide "on demand", and therefore responsive to production schedules, waste stream generation rate, and health and safety requirements/goals.

  4. A multidimensional gas chromatography method for the analysis of hydrogen sulfide in crude oil and crude oil headspace.

    PubMed

    Heshka, Nicole E; Hager, Darcy B

    2014-12-01

    Two-dimensional heart-cutting gas chromatography is used to analyze dissolved hydrogen sulfide in crude samples. Liquid samples are separated first on an HP-PONA column, and the light sulfur gases are heart-cut to a GasPro column, where hydrogen sulfide is separated from other light sulfur gases and detected with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector. Heart-cutting is accomplished with the use of a Deans switch. Backflushing the columns after hydrogen sulfide detection eliminates any problems caused by high-boiling hydrocarbons in the samples. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide is quantified in 14 crude oil samples, and the results are shown in this work. The method is also applicable to the analysis of headspace hydrogen sulfide over crude oil samples. Gas hydrogen sulfide measurements are compared to liquid hydrogen sulfide measurements for the same sample set. The chromatographic system design is discussed, and chromatograms of representative gas and liquid measurements are shown. PMID:25311312

  5. Metal?organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Phoebe K.; Wheatley, Paul S.; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M. Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A.; Megson, Ian L.; Chapman, Karena W.; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E. (St Andrews)

    2012-04-02

    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  6. The Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Stack Gases, Iodometric Titration After Sulfite Removal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, E. G.

    The determination of hydrogen sulfide in effluents from coal-fired furnaces and incinerators is complicated by the presence of sulfur oxides (which form acids). Organic compounds also may interfere with or prevent the formation of the cadmium sulfide precipitate or give false positive results because of reaction with iodine. The report presents a…

  7. Mitigation of hydrogen sulfide emissions in The Geysers KGRA

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, R.

    1981-07-01

    Violations of the ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) are currently being experienced in The Geysers KGRA and could significantly increase in the future. Attainment and maintenance of the H/sub 2/S AAQS is a potential constraint to optimum development of this resource. The availability of reliable H/sub 2/S controls and the development of a validated air dispersion model are critical to alleviating this constraint. The purpose of this report is to assess the performance capabilities for state-of-the-art controls, to identify potential cost-effective alternative controls, and to identify the California Energy Commission (CEC) staff's efforts to develop a validated air dispersion model. Currently available controls (Stretford, Hydrogen Peroxide, and EIC) are capable of abating H/sub 2/S emissions from a proposed facility to five lbs/hr. Alternative controls, such as condensate stripping and condensate pH control, appear to be promising, cost-effective control options.

  8. No facilitator required for membrane transport of hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, John C.; Missner, Andreas; Kügler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Lee, John K.; Pohl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a new and important member in the group of gaseous signaling molecules. However, the molecular transport mechanism has not yet been identified. Because of structural similarities with H2O, it was hypothesized that aquaporins may facilitate H2S transport across cell membranes. We tested this hypothesis by reconstituting the archeal aquaporin AfAQP from sulfide reducing bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus into planar membranes and by monitoring the resulting facilitation of osmotic water flow and H2S flux. To measure H2O and H2S fluxes, respectively, sodium ion dilution and buffer acidification by proton release (H2S ? H+ + HS?) were recorded in the immediate membrane vicinity. Both sodium ion concentration and pH were measured by scanning ion-selective microelectrodes. A lower limit of lipid bilayer permeability to H2S, PM,H2S ? 0.5 ± 0.4 cm/s was calculated by numerically solving the complete system of differential reaction diffusion equations and fitting the theoretical pH distribution to experimental pH profiles. Even though reconstitution of AfAQP significantly increased water permeability through planar lipid bilayers, PM,H2S remained unchanged. These results indicate that lipid membranes may well act as a barrier to water transport although they do not oppose a significant resistance to H2S diffusion. The fact that cholesterol and sphingomyelin reconstitution did not turn these membranes into an H2S barrier indicates that H2S transport through epithelial barriers, endothelial barriers, and membrane rafts also occurs by simple diffusion and does not require facilitation by membrane channels. PMID:19805349

  9. Hydrogen sulfide-powered solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Man

    2004-12-01

    The potential utilization of hydrogen sulfide as fuel in solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated using an oxide-ion conducting YSZ electrolyte and different kinds of anode catalysts at operating temperatures in the range of 700--900°C and at atmospheric pressure. This technology offers an economically attractive alternative to present methods for removing toxic and corrosive H2S gas from sour gas streams and a promising approach for cogenerating electrical energy and useful chemicals. The primary objective of the present research was to find active and stable anode materials. Fuel cell experimental results showed that platinum was a good electrocatalyst for the conversion of H2S, but the Pt/YSZ interface was physically unstable due to the reversible formation and decomposition of PtS in H 2S streams at elevated temperatures. Moreover, instability of the Pt/YSZ interface was accelerated significantly by electrochemical reactions, and ultimately led to the detachment of the Pt anode from the electrolyte. It has been shown that an interlayer of TiO2 stabilized the Pt anode on YSZ electrolyte, thereby prolonging cell lifetime. However, the current output for a fuel cell using Pt/TiO2 as anode was not improved compared to using Pt alone. It was therefore necessary to investigate novel anode systems for H 2S-air SOFCs. New anode catalysts comprising composite metal sulfides were developed. These catalysts exhibited good electrical conductivity and better catalytic activity than Pt. In contrast to MoS2 alone, composite catalysts (M-Mo-S, M = Fe, Co, Ni) were not volatile and had superior stability. However, when used for extended periods of time, detachment of Pt current collecting film from anodes comprising metal sulfides alone resulted in a large increase in contact resistance and reduction in cell performance. Consequently, a systematic investigation was conducted to identify alternative electronic conductors for use with M-Mo-S catalysts. Anode catalysts comprising Co-Mo-S admixed with up to 10% Ag powder were found to have excellent performance and longevity, as well as improved electrical contact when compared with Pt/M-Mo-S anode systems. The highest current density of 450 mA/cm2 and power density of 115 mW/cm2 were achieved with an anode that consisted of 95% (Co-Mo-S) and 5% Ag.

  10. 76 FR 69136 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...CFR Part 372 [EPA-HQ-TRI-2009-0844; FRL-9488-5] RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for...

  11. VERIFICATION OF AMBIENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES FOR AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing concentration of livestock agriculture into animal feeding operations (AFOs) has raised concerns about the environmental and potential health impact of the emissions from AFOs into the atmosphere. Gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2...

  12. EMERSION IN THE MANGROVE FOREST FISH 'RIVULUS MARMORATUS': A UNIQUE RESPONSE TO HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae) has frequently been observed out of water, a phenomenon generally attributed to habitat drying. The authors tested the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide, a substance characteristically found in their environment, can se...

  13. A turn-on fluorescent probe for selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Sun, Mingtai; Zhang, Kui; Yu, Huan; Wang, Zhenyang; Wang, Suhua

    2015-06-16

    An imidazolethione based turn-on fluorescent probe was synthesized for the detection of hydrogen sulfide, a biologically relevant molecule and an important air pollutant. The probe rapidly and selectively reacted with hydrogen sulfide to produce a strongly fluorescent product, resulting in the fluorescence enhancement of the system. The detection limit was determined to be 30nM at the probe concentration of 1.0?M. An indicating paper for visual detection of hydrogen sulfide gas has been fabricated by immobilizing the probe on a piece of appropriate paper substrate, and the detection limit of the visual method reached as low as 0.7ppm. Moreover, the fluorescence turn-on/off of the system showed good reversibility when exposed alternately to hydrogen sulfide and mercuric ion, which was utilized to make an INHIBIT logic circuit for the presence of the two species. PMID:26002484

  14. Ways to improve the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coke-oven gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Kuznetsov; Lyannaya; E. P. Ignatova; I. I. Zbykovskii; Ya. I. Shukh; I. M. Andreiko; I. Ya. Garkushenko

    1979-01-01

    Our calculations showed that, if the gas temperatures ahead of the scrubbers were reuced to 30°C and 300 to 400 liters\\/h of concentrated ammonia water were added to the circuit, the degree of hydrogen sulfide absorption could be brought to 58 to 65%, i.e., the hydrogen sulfide content in the return gas would be less than 2.5 g\\/m³. All the

  15. The solubility of elemental sulfur in methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gas

    E-print Network

    Wieland, Denton R.

    1958-01-01

    THE SOLUBILITY OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR IN METHANE, CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS By Denton R. Wieland A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY January 1958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE SOLUBILITY OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR IN METHANE, CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS A Dissertation By DENTON R. WlELAND Library A * "COLLEGE...

  16. Biogenesis of reactive sulfur species for signaling by hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways.

    PubMed

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Libiad, Marouane; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-07-01

    The chemical species involved in H2S signaling remain elusive despite the profound and pleiotropic physiological effects elicited by this molecule. The dominant candidate mechanism for sulfide signaling is persulfidation of target proteins. However, the relatively poor reactivity of H2S toward oxidized thiols, such as disulfides, the low concentration of disulfides in the reducing milieu of the cell and the low steady-state concentration of H2S raise questions about the plausibility of persulfide formation via reaction between an oxidized thiol and a sulfide anion or a reduced thiol and oxidized hydrogen disulfide. In contrast, sulfide oxidation pathways, considered to be primarily mechanisms for disposing of excess sulfide, generate a series of reactive sulfur species, including persulfides, polysulfides and thiosulfate, that could modify target proteins. We posit that sulfide oxidation pathways mediate sulfide signaling and that sulfurtransferases ensure target specificity. PMID:26083070

  17. Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Systemic Inflammation and Improves Survival by Altering Sulfide Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Kentaro; Kida, Kotaro; Marutani, Eizo; Crimi, Ettore; Bougaki, Masahiko; Khatri, Ashok; Kimura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced inflammation is incompletely understood. We examined the impact of H2S breathing on LPS-induced changes in sulfide metabolism, systemic inflammation, and survival in mice. Results: Mice that breathed air alone exhibited decreased plasma sulfide levels and poor survival rate at 72?h after LPS challenge. Endotoxemia markedly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels in plasma and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice that breathed air. In contrast, breathing air supplemented with 80?ppm of H2S for 6?h after LPS challenge markedly improved survival rate compared to mice that breathed air alone (p<0.05). H2S breathing attenuated LPS-induced increase of plasma ALT activity and NOx levels and lung MPO activity. Inhaled H2S suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, while it markedly induced anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 in the liver. Beneficial effects of H2S inhalation after LPS challenge were associated with restored sulfide levels and markedly increased thiosulfate levels in plasma. Increased thiosulfate levels after LPS challenge were associated with upregulation of rhodanese, but not cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), in the liver. Administration of sodium thiosulfate dose-dependently improved survival after LPS challenge in mice. Innovation: By measuring changes in plasma levels of sulfide and sulfide metabolites using an advanced analytical method, this study revealed a critical role of thiosulfate in the protective effects of H2S breathing during endotoxemia. Conclusion: These observations suggest that H2S breathing prevents inflammation and improves survival after LPS challenge by altering sulfide metabolism in mice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 11—21. PMID:22221071

  18. Increasing prevalence of hydrogen sulfide negative Salmonella in retail meats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dachuan; Yan, Meiying; Lin, Song; Chen, Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production is considered a typical characteristic of Salmonella and an important marker for Salmonella isolation. In this study, a total of 82 (26%) Salmonella strains were isolated from 113 chicken and 204 pork samples, within which 49 Salmonella strains were H2S positive and 33 were H2S negative. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was most prevalent in both pork and chicken followed by S. Typhimurium in pork and S. Heidelberg in chicken. Salmonella isolated from pork exhibited a much higher H2S positive rate than those from chicken (68% versus 31%). The most prevalent H2S negative serotypes were S. Derby (40%) and S. Heidelberg (30%) in chicken, and S. Typhimurium (23%) and S. Enteritidis (23%) in pork. spvC, a plasmid-encoded virulence marker, was detected in 51% and 42% of the H2S positive and negative Salmonella respectively. The presence of the two most important serotypes, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, as well as a virulence plasmid in H2S negative Salmonella suggested that H2S negative Salmonella is also a significant public health concern. Such finding warrants the development of an improved method for effective coverage of H2S negative Salmonella. PMID:24929875

  19. Physiological and pharmacological features of the novel gasotransmitter: Hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Mancardi, Daniele; Penna, Claudia; Merlino, Annalisa; Del Soldato, Piero; Wink, David A.; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been known for hundreds of years because of its poisoning effect. Once the basal bio-production became evident its pathophysiological role started to be investigated in depth. H2S is a gas that can be formed by the action of two enzymes, cystathionine gamma-lyase and cystathionine beta-synthase, both involved in the metabolism of cysteine. It has several features in common with the other two well known “gasotransmitters” (nitric oxide and carbon monoxide) in the biological systems. These three gasses share some biological targets; however, they also have dissimilarities. For instance, the three gases target heme-proteins and open KATP channels; H2S as NO is an antioxidant, but in contrast to the latter molecule, H2S does not directly form radicals. In the last years H2S has been implicated in several physiological and pathophysiological processes such as long term synaptic potentiation, vasorelaxation, pro- and anti-inflammatory conditions, cardiac inotropism regulation, cardioprotection, and several other physiological mechanisms. We will focus on the biological role of H2S as a molecule able to trigger cell signaling. Our attention will be particularly devoted on the effects in cardiovascular system and in cardioprotection. We will also provide available information on H2S-donating drugs which have so far been tested in order to conjugate the beneficial effect of H2S with other pharmaceutical properties. PMID:19285949

  20. Hydrogen sulfide gas has cell growth regulatory role.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Rajamanickam; Bian, Jinsong

    2011-04-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been classified as a third novel gasotransmitter signaling molecule alongside nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. H(2)S rapidly travels through the cell membranes without using any specific receptors/transporters and signaling intracellular proteins. Recently, it has been shown that H(2)S induces DNA damage and alter cell cycle in various mammalian cells. Endogenously produced or exogenously treated H(2)S has a role in the accumulation or proliferation of cells and further may provide for development of a novel therapeutic approach in conditions associated with uncontrolled cell growth. However, the potential biological and clinical significance of H(2)S are subject of intense debate in recent years and despite considerable progress in our understanding about H(2)S, much still needs to be learned about their production at the site of tissue injury and its downstream signaling pathways on cell growth. Here, we provide an overview of the recent findings on its role in DNA damage/repair and cell growth followed by its potential translational implications. PMID:21300051

  1. Hydrogen sulfide as a potent cardiovascular protective agent.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Hua; Cui, Li-Bao; Wu, Kai; Zheng, Xi-Long; Cayabyab, Francisco S; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known toxic gas with the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. It is synthesized endogenously in mammals from the sulfur-containing amino acid l-cysteine by the action of several distinct enzymes: cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). In particular, CSE is considered to be the major H2S-producing enzyme in the cardiovascular system. As the third gasotransmitter next to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), H2S plays an important role in the regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Growing evidence has demonstrated that this gas exerts a significant protective effect against the progression of cardiovascular diseases by a number of mechanisms such as vasorelaxation, inhibition of cardiovascular remodeling and resistance to form foam cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological functions of H2S and its protection against several major cardiovascular diseases, and to explore its potential health and therapeutic benefits. A better understanding will help develop novel H2S-based therapeutic interventions for these diseases. PMID:25058799

  2. Fatal accidental hydrogen sulfide poisoning: a domestic case.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Caroline; Baillif-Couniou, Valérie; Kintz, Pascal; Cirimele, Vincent; Bartoli, Christophe; Christia-Lotter, Marie-Amandine; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Leonetti, Georges; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) poisonings are classically reported in occupational settings. We describe an unusual domestic case of fatal acute poisoning by H(2)S inhalation. A mother and her infant daughter were found dead in the kitchen of their home. The emergency medical team described a strong smell of rotten eggs, suggesting acute H(2)S poisoning. Autopsies revealed only multiorgan congestion. H(2) S was measured in blood and lung tissue samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Body fluids were negative, but H(2) S was found in the lungs of both the mother and the child at concentrations of 1.46 and 1.92 mg/kg, respectively, concentrations described in the literature as potentially lethal. Expert surveys of the premises suggested a complex mechanism involving both defective maintenance of the pipes and drains of the building and faulty assembly of the sink siphon, which led to stagnation of waste water and formation of a pocket of H(2)S. PMID:23126240

  3. [Severe hydrogen sulfide intoxication: a pediatric case of survival].

    PubMed

    Claudet, I; Marcoux, M-O; Karsenty, C; Rittié, J-L; Honorat, R; Lelong-Tissier, M-C

    2012-03-01

    We report a paediatric case of survival following severe hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas intoxication. A 13-year-old boy was found submerged to the neck in a manure tank. He was hypothermic, unresponsive with bilateral mydriasis, and had poor oxygen saturation. After intubation, he was transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring high frequency percussive ventilation. Cardiac evaluation was significant for myocardial infarction and left ventricular function impairment. He completely recovered from the respiratory and cardiac failure. Neurological examinations showed abnormal signals on MRI in the semi-oval center and in the frontal cortex. Follow-up detected partial impairment of axonal fibers of the right external popliteal sciatic nerve. Paediatric cases of survival after H2S intoxication have been rarely reported. Such exposures can evolve to severe ARDS and benefit from high frequency percussive ventilation. Hypothermia and other metabolic abnormalities are now better explained thanks to actual knowledge about endogenous H2S function. Lessons learned from paediatric accidents should result in better information about this threat for farmers and families living in houses with septic tanks, reducing the risk to their own and their children's safety. PMID:22305402

  4. An inhibitory enzyme electrode for hydrogen sulfide detection.

    PubMed

    poor, Neda Zia Mottalebi; Baniasadi, Ladan; Omidi, Maysam; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Attar, Hossein; Heydarzadeh, Ali; Zarami, Ashraf Sadat Hatamian; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-09-01

    An enzymatic biosensing system has been developed to study the capability of ascorbate oxidase (AOx), EC (1.10.3.3), in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection, based on the inhibition of AOx activity. The immobilization parameters including glutaraldehyde (GA) concentration and pH were optimized using experimental design. The optimized values of GA concentration and pH were found to be 12.5% (w/w) and 7, respectively, where the enzymatic reaction reached the steady-state level within 55 s. A linear relationship was observed between the decrease in the oxygen concentration and H2S concentration, where H2S concentration is in the range of 1-15 mg/L. Moreover, to investigate the selectivity of the biosensor, a certain H2S concentration (9 mg/L) was used against different ions. The results indicated that Fe(3+) and SO4(-2) ions had no significant (11% error) effect on the H2S detection. The operational stability of the biosensing system was determined in terms of response to H2S concentration, at optimal working conditions. The enzyme electrode could retain 73% of its original sensitivity after this period, which has made it possible for the system to measure H2S with concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/L. PMID:25039053

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Donor GYY4137 Protects against Myocardial Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Guoliang; Zhu, Jinbiao; Xiao, Yujiao; Huang, Zhengrong; Zhang, Yuqing; Tang, Xin; Xie, Liping; Chen, Yu; Shao, Yongfeng; Ferro, Albert; Wang, Rui; Moore, Philip K.; Ji, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter which regulates multiple cardiovascular functions. However, the precise roles of H2S in modulating myocardial fibrosis in vivo and cardiac fibroblast proliferation in vitro remain unclear. We investigated the effect of GYY4137, a slow-releasing H2S donor, on myocardial fibrosis. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were administrated with GYY4137 by intraperitoneal injection daily for 4 weeks. GYY4137 decreased systolic blood pressure and inhibited myocardial fibrosis in SHR as evidenced by improved cardiac collagen volume fraction (CVF) in the left ventricle (LV), ratio of perivascular collagen area (PVCA) to lumen area (LA) in perivascular regions, reduced hydroxyproline concentration, collagen I and III mRNA expression, and cross-linked collagen. GYY4137 also inhibited angiotensin II- (Ang II-) induced neonatal rat cardiac fibroblast proliferation, reduced the number of fibroblasts in S phase, decreased collagen I and III mRNA expression and protein synthesis, attenuated oxidative stress, and suppressed ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) expression as well as Smad2 phosphorylation. These results indicate that GYY4137 improves myocardial fibrosis perhaps by a mechanism involving inhibition of oxidative stress, blockade of the TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling pathway, and decrease in ?-SMA expression in cardiac fibroblasts.

  6. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a third gaseous signaling molecule behind nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In pancreatic beta-cells, H2S inhibits glucose-induced insulin release. There are multiple underlying mechanisms for this inhibitory process. Apart from these inhibitory effects, H2S also protects pancreatic islets from apoptotic cell death induced by high glucose. Moreover, expression of the H2S-producing enzyme, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), is induced by glucose stimulation. These observations suggest that H2S is produced in an inducible manner, as are the other two gaseous signaling molecules, NO and CO. We recently reported that a lack of CSE induces apoptotic beta-cell death and promotes the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. These findings tempt us to suggest that H2S produced by CSE is part of a homeostatic mechanism used by pancreatic beta-cells to inhibit insulin release and reduce cellular stress evoked by glucose, possibly via the anti-oxidant properties of H2S. PMID:25461273

  7. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Pathology of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Madhav

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known toxic gas that is synthesized in the human body from the amino acids cystathionine, homocysteine, and cysteine by the action of at least two distinct enzymes: cystathionine-?-lyase and cystathionine-?-synthase. In the past few years, H2S has emerged as a novel and increasingly important biological mediator. Imbalances in H2S have also been shown to be associated with various disease conditions. However, defining the precise pathophysiology of H2S is proving to be a complex challenge. Recent research in our laboratory has shown H2S as a novel mediator of inflammation and work in several groups worldwide is currently focused on determining the role of H2S in inflammation. H2S has been implicated in different inflammatory conditions, such as acute pancreatitis, sepsis, joint inflammation, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Active research on the role of H2S in inflammation will unravel the pathophysiology of its actions in inflammatory conditions and may help develop novel therapeutic approaches for several, as yet incurable, disease conditions. PMID:24278674

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide: A Therapeutic Candidate for Fibrotic Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Li, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Lu, Ying; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Fibrotic diseases including chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic disease account for 45% mortality in the developed countries and pose a great threat to the global health. Many great targets and molecules have been reported to be involved in the initiation and/or progression of fibrosis, among which inflammation and oxidative stress are well-recognized modulation targets. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gasotransmitter with potent properties in inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in various organs. Recent evidence suggests that plasma H2S level is decreased in various animal models of fibrotic diseases and supplement of exogenous H2S is able to ameliorate fibrosis in the kidney, lung, liver, and heart. This leads us to propose that modulation of H2S production may represent a promising therapeutic venue for the treatment of a variety of fibrotic diseases. Here, we summarize and discuss the current data on the role and underlying mechanisms of H2S in fibrosis diseases related to heart, liver, kidney, and other organs.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide gas emission under turbulent conditions - an experimental approach for free-fall drops.

    PubMed

    Matias, N M; Matos, J S; Ferreira, F

    2014-01-01

    Odor nuisance and sulfide corrosion in sewers carrying septic wastewater are accelerated at points of turbulence such as drops in manholes, but accurate methods or empirical expressions to evaluate the gas stripping rate at those particular sites are still missing. With the aim of improving the current knowledge on the influence of free-fall drops on the release of hydrogen sulfide gas, an experimental set-up was built allowing different free-fall drops heights and flows. Three types of experiments were carried out: reaeration tests without sulfide; sulfide oxidation tests; and hydrogen sulfide release tests. With the increase of the free-fall drop height or of the flow, a higher rate of air-to-water mass oxygen transfer was observed. Results regarding sulfide oxidation tests with reaeration through the free-fall have shown that the oxidation rate was correlated with flow. In the hydrogen sulfide release tests, the maximum concentration in the atmosphere reached 500 ppm. Results also showed that increasing the flow rate decreased the time at which the maximum concentrations in the atmosphere were observed. PMID:24473293

  10. Chromium(VI) Reduction by Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous

    E-print Network

    Deng, Baolin

    (VI) and sulfide as well as pH values controlled by HEPES, phosphate, and borate buffers. Results showed of fully protonated sulfide (H2S) in the pH range of 6.5-10. The nature of buffers did not influence seawater conditions could be described by and according to their experiments, the reaction was pseudo

  11. Development of novel and sensitive methods for the determination of sulfide in aqueous samples by hydrogen sulfide generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Colon; J. L. Todolí; M. Hidalgo; M. Iglesias

    2008-01-01

    Two new, simple and accurate methods for the determination of sulfide (S2?) at low levels (?gL?1) in aqueous samples were developed. The generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) took place in a coil where sulfide reacted with hydrochloric acid. The resulting H2S was then introduced as a vapor into an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and sulfur emission intensity was

  12. Modeling of the occurrence of hydrogen sulfide in coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Gillies, A.D.S.; Kizil, M.S.; Wu, H.W.; Harvey, T.J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Hydrogen Sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has been encountered within a number of Bowen Basin collieries, Central Queensland, Australia. High concentration occurrence during mining of a longwall panel raises a number of potential problems, which demand greater understanding to allow efficient mining while maintaining safe and healthy environmental conditions. Longwall panels at Mine A and Mine B have recently mined through H{sub 2}S zones. The high H{sub 2}S zone mined through at Mine A was wide and covering the whole length of the face comparing to the narrow H{sub 2}S zone which was cutting the panel at 45{degree} at Mine B. Longwall panels had been sampled for H{sub 2}S in pre-mining phases with vertical and inseam exploration boreholes and rib sampling of gateroad development headings. During mining face coal samples were collected in an intensive program and tested in a drum tumbler to determine an indicated seam concentration level through contouring that could be used to calculate the concentrations of H{sub 2}S liberated to the atmosphere. Data were analyzed to determine a geostatistical method, which would best represent the indicated seam concentration level from the given data and the block dimension of the data set. This study discusses the different sampling methods used, selection of the most suitable geostatistical method and the impact of grid size on results of data analysis. Some general observations are made correlating indicated seam H{sub 2}S concentrations from production face sampling with both predictions made from exploration and liberation rates during mining of the longwall panel.

  13. MET17 and hydrogen sulfide formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Spiropoulos, A; Bisson, L F

    2000-10-01

    Commercial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in the production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) during fermentation, which has been attributed to variation in the ability to incorporate reduced sulfur into organic compounds. We transformed two commercial strains (UCD522 and UCD713) with a plasmid overexpressing the MET17 gene, which encodes the bifunctional O-acetylserine/O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH SHLase), to test the hypothesis that the level of activity of this enzyme limits reduced sulfur incorporation, leading to H(2)S release. Overexpression of MET17 resulted in a 10- to 70-fold increase in OAS/OAH SHLase activity in UCD522 but had no impact on the level of H(2)S produced. In contrast, OAS/OAH SHLase activity was not as highly expressed in transformants of UCD713 (0.5- to 10-fold) but resulted in greatly reduced H(2)S formation. Overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity was greater in UCD713 when grown under low-nitrogen conditions, but the impact on reduction of H(2)S was greater under high-nitrogen conditions. Thus, there was not a good correlation between the level of enzyme activity and H(2)S production. We measured cellular levels of cysteine to determine the impact of overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity on sulfur incorporation. While Met17p activity was not correlated with increased cysteine production, conditions that led to elevated cytoplasmic levels of cysteine also reduced H(2)S formation. Our data do not support the simple hypothesis that variation in OAS/OAH SHLase activity is correlated with H(2)S production and release. PMID:11010893

  14. MET17 and Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Spiropoulos, Apostolos; Bisson, Linda F.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during fermentation, which has been attributed to variation in the ability to incorporate reduced sulfur into organic compounds. We transformed two commercial strains (UCD522 and UCD713) with a plasmid overexpressing the MET17 gene, which encodes the bifunctional O-acetylserine/O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH SHLase), to test the hypothesis that the level of activity of this enzyme limits reduced sulfur incorporation, leading to H2S release. Overexpression of MET17 resulted in a 10- to 70-fold increase in OAS/OAH SHLase activity in UCD522 but had no impact on the level of H2S produced. In contrast, OAS/OAH SHLase activity was not as highly expressed in transformants of UCD713 (0.5- to 10-fold) but resulted in greatly reduced H2S formation. Overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity was greater in UCD713 when grown under low-nitrogen conditions, but the impact on reduction of H2S was greater under high-nitrogen conditions. Thus, there was not a good correlation between the level of enzyme activity and H2S production. We measured cellular levels of cysteine to determine the impact of overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity on sulfur incorporation. While Met17p activity was not correlated with increased cysteine production, conditions that led to elevated cytoplasmic levels of cysteine also reduced H2S formation. Our data do not support the simple hypothesis that variation in OAS/OAH SHLase activity is correlated with H2S production and release. PMID:11010893

  15. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates aluminum toxicity in germinating wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Tan, Zhu-Qin; Hu, Lan-Ying; Wang, Song-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping; Jones, Russell L

    2010-06-01

    Protective role of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) on seed germination and seedling growth was studied in wheat (Triticum) seeds subjected to aluminum (Al(3+)) stress. We show that germination and seedling growth of wheat is inhibited by high concentrations of AlCl(3). At 30 mmol/L AlCl(3) germination is reduced by about 50% and seedling growth is more dramatically inhibited by this treatment. Pre-incubation of wheat seeds in the H(2)S donor NaHS alleviates AlCl(3)-induced stress in a dose-dependant manner at an optimal concentration of 0.3 mmol/L. We verified that the role of NaHS in alleviating Al(3+) stress could be attributed to H(2)S/HS(-) by showing that the level of endogenous H(2)S increased following NaHS treatment. Furthermore, other sodium salts containing sulfur were ineffective in alleviating Al(3+) stress. NaHS pretreatment significantly increased the activities of amylases and esterases and sustained much lower levels of MDA and H(2)O(2) in germinating seeds under Al(3+) stress. Moreover, NaHS pretreatment increased the activities of guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase and decreased that of lipoxygenase. NaHS pretreatment also decreased the uptake of Al(3+) in AlCl(3)-treated seed. Taken together these results suggest that H(2)S could increase antioxidant capability in wheat seeds leading to the alleviation of Al(3+) stress. PMID:20590986

  16. Hydrogen sulfide promotes calcium uptake in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Perry, Steve F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can act as a signaling molecule for various ion channels and/or transporters; however, little is known about its potential involvement in Ca(2+) balance. Using developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an in vivo model system, the present study demonstrated that acute exposure to H2S donors increased Ca(2+) influx at 4 days postfertilization, while chronic (3-day) exposure caused a rise in whole body Ca(2+) levels. The mRNA expression of Ca(2+)-transport-related genes was unaffected by H2S exposure, suggesting that posttranscriptional modifications were responsible for the altered rates of Ca(2+) uptake. Indeed, treatment of fish with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 abolished the H2S-mediated stimulation of Ca(2+) influx, suggesting that H2S increased Ca(2+) influx by activating cAMP-protein kinase A pathways. Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) are two key enzymes in the endogenous synthesis of H2S. Using an antisense morpholino knockdown approach, we demonstrated that Ca(2+) influx was reduced in CBS isoform b (CBSb)- but not in CSE-deficient fish. Interestingly, the reduction in Ca(2+) influx in CBSb-deficient fish was observed only in fish that were acclimated to low-Ca(2+) water (i.e., 25 ?M Ca(2+); control: 250 ?M Ca(2+)). Similarly, mRNA expression of cbsb but not cse was increased in fish acclimated to low-Ca(2+) water. Results from whole-mount immunohistochemistry further revealed that CBSb was expressed in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-rich cells, which are implicated in Ca(2+) uptake in zebrafish larvae. Collectively, the present study suggests a novel role for H2S in promoting Ca(2+) influx, particularly in a low-Ca(2+) environment. PMID:25948733

  17. Design and synthesis of polymeric hydrogen sulfide donors.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Urara; van der Vlies, André J

    2014-07-16

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that has several important biological functions in the human body. Because of the difficulties of handling H2S gas, small organic compounds that release H2S under physiological conditions have been developed. The observed bioactivities of these H2S donors have generally been directly correlated with their H2S release properties. However, apart from H2S release, these H2S donors also exert biological effects by direct interaction with intracellular components within the cytoplasm after passive diffusion across cellular membranes. Here we report polymeric H2S donors based on ADT-OH which would alter cellular trafficking of ADT-OH to minimize the unfavorable interactions with intracellular components. We designed and synthesized a poly(ethylene glycol)-ADT (PEG-ADT) conjugate having ADT linked via an ether bond. Whereas ADT-OH significantly reduced cell viability in murine macrophages, the PEG-ADT conjugate did not show obvious cytotoxicity. The PEG-ADT conjugate released H2S in murine macrophages but not in the presence of serum proteins. The PEG-ADT conjugate was taken up by the cell through the endocytic pathway and stayed inside endolysosomes, which is different from the small amphiphilic donor ADT-OH that can directly enter the cytoplasm. Furthermore, PEG-ADT was capable of potentiating LPS-induced inflammation. This polymeric H2S donor approach may help to better understand the H2S bioactivities of the H2S donor ADT-OH. PMID:24942989

  18. MET2 affects production of hydrogen sulfide during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien; Roncoroni, Miguel; Gardner, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    The production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during yeast fermentation contributes negatively to wine aroma. We have mapped naturally occurring mutations in commercial wine strains that affect production of H2S. A dominant R310G mutant allele of MET2, which encodes homoserine O-acetyltransferase, is present in several wine yeast strains as well as in the main lab strain S288c. Reciprocal hemizygosity and allele swap experiments demonstrated that the MET2 R310G allele confers reduced H2S production. Mutations were also identified in genes encoding the two subunits of sulfite reductase, MET5 and MET10, which were associated with reduced H2S production. The most severe of these, an allele of MET10, showed five additional phenotypes: reduced growth rate on sulfate, elevated secretion of sulfite, and reduced production in wine of three volatile sulfur compounds: methionol, carbon disulfide and methylthioacetate. Alleles of MET5 and MET10, but not MET2, affected H2S production measured by colour assays on BiGGY indicator agar, but MET2 effects were seen when bismuth was added to agar plates made with Sauvignon blanc grape juice. Collectively, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that H2S production during wine fermentation results predominantly from enzyme activity in the sulfur assimilation pathway. Lower H2S production results from mutations that reduce the activity of sulfite reductase, the enzyme that produces H2S, or that increase the activity of L-homoserine-O-acetyltransferase, which produces substrate for the next step in the sulfur assimilation pathway. PMID:24841117

  19. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide and health in Rotorua, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1984-02-15

    Rotorua, New Zealand, lies inside a volcanic caldera. Natural steam is extensively used for space and water heating, and electric power generation. This report presents results of a preliminary reconnaissance survey of atmospheric H/sub 2/S levels in the area and attempts to relate these levels to health statistics in the region. 5 refs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

  20. Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Carbon Dioxide-Saturated Solutions Containing Small Amounts of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Videm; J. Kvarekvaal

    1995-01-01

    Carbon steel specimens were exposed in carbon dioxide (COâ)-containing brine with different amounts of hydrogen sulfide (HâS) at 70 C and 80 C. The addition of 0.02 mmol\\/L sulfide, corresponding to 45 Pa HâS partial pressure (P{sub HâS}), to brine with 70 kPa COâ at pH 4.2 caused rapid formation of a protective corrosion film. After â¼ 15 min, the

  1. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (HâS) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (Hâ) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys),

  2. NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (HâS) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (Hâ) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys),

  3. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (HâS) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (Hâ) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys),

  4. A Novel Hydrogen Sulfide Prodrug, SG1002, Promotes Hydrogen Sulfide and Nitric Oxide Bioavailability in Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Polhemus, David J; Li, Zhen; Pattillo, Christopher B; Gojon, Gabriel; Gojon, Gabriel; Giordano, Tony; Krum, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrate robust molecular cross talk and signaling between hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and nitric oxide (NO). Heart failure (HF) patients are deficient in both H2 S and NO, two molecules that are critical for cardiovascular homeostasis. A phase I clinical trial of a novel H2 S prodrug (SG1002) was designed to assess safety and changes in H2 S and NO bioavailability in healthy and HF subjects. Healthy subjects (n = 7) and heart failure patients (n = 8) received oral SG1002 treatment in escalating dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg twice daily for 7 days for each dose. Safety and tolerability were assessed by physical examination, vital signs, and ECG analysis. Plasma samples were collected during a 24-h period each week for H2 S and NO analysis. BNP and glutathione levels were analyzed as markers of cardiac health and redox status. Administration of SG1002 resulted in increased H2 S levels in healthy subjects. We also observed increased H2 S levels in HF subjects following 400 mg SG1002. Nitrite, a metabolite of NO, was increased in both healthy and HF patients receiving 400 mg and 800 mg SG1002. HF subjects treated with SG1002 displayed stable drug levels over the course of the trial. SG1002 was safe and well tolerated at all doses in both healthy and HF subjects. These data suggest that SG1002 increases blood H2 S levels and circulating NO bioavailability. The finding that SG1002 attenuates increases in BNP in HF patients suggests that this novel agent warrants further study in a larger clinical study. PMID:25930144

  5. Mechanisms of non-equilibrium dissociation of hydrogen sulfide in low-temperature plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gutsol; T. Nunnally; A. Rabinovich; A. Fridman; A. Starikovsky; A. Gutsol; R. W. Potter

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a byproduct of oil refinement and comprises a significant portion of natural gas deposits. Therefore, efficient H2S treatment and utilization are crucial to the oil and gas industry. The minimum dissociation energy of H2S (into hydrogen and sulfur) is only 0.2 eV\\/molecule. Such low energy requirement of dissociation of H2S into sulfur and hydrogen is important

  6. Gas-sensitive properties of thin tin dioxide films under the influence of hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevast'yanov, E. Yu.; Maksimova, N. K.; Chernikov, E. V.; Firsov, A. A.

    2012-11-01

    In order to develop sensors for selective detection of hydrogen sulfide in the air, the characteristics of thin SnO2 films with various additives (Au, Pt) in the volume and deposited catalysts (Pt / Pd, Au) are studied. The films were obtained by magnetron sputtering. The sensor response to H2S (the ratio of the sensor conductivity G1 in the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the gas to the conductivity G0 in the clean air) is studied as a function of the operating temperature and gas concentration in the range 0.1-70 ppm. It is shown that the sensors with the addition of gold in the volume can be used to detect maximum permissible concentrations (7 ppm) of hydrogen sulfide in the working area after stabilization of the characteristics during long-term tests.

  7. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from waste treatment plant biogas using the apollo scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.W.; Burrowes, P.A.; Gupta, A.; Walton, P.S.; Meffe, S.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide and other sulphur compounds from anaerobic digester gas streams prior to their use as fuel for boilers, stationary engines, and cogeneration units minimizes corrosion problems and reduces sulfur emission loadings. A research program at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto in the 1980`s demonstrated the use of a modified flotation cell for the absorption of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream and its catalytic oxidation to sulfur. The essence of the technology was a proprietary gas liquid contactor which provided very high mass transfer rates at the interface. A bench scale contactor developed at the university achieved hydrogen sulfide removal efficiencies of over 99.9% at atmospheric pressure. A demonstration unit for digester gas scrubbing applications was designed, fabricated, and then installed and evaluated at the Metropolitan Toronto Works Department - Main Treatment Plant (MTP).

  8. A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide and natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yixin; Schaefer, Laura

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) occurs naturally in crude petroleum, natural gas, volcanic gases, hot springs, and some lakes. Hydrogen sulfide can also result as a by-product from industrial activities, such as food processing, coke ovens, paper mills, tanneries, and petroleum refineries. Sometimes, it is considered to be an industrial pollutant. However, hydrogen can be decomposed from H 2S and then used as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents an examination of a simple hydrogen sulfide and natural gas-fed solid oxide fuel cell system. The possibility of utilization of hydrogen sulfide as a feedstock in a solid oxide fuel cell is discussed. A system configuration of an SOFC combined with an external H 2S decomposition device is proposed, where a certain amount of natural gas is supplied to the SOFC. The exhaust fuel gas of the SOFC is after-burned with exhaust air from the SOFC, and the heat of the combustion gas is utilized in the decomposition of H 2S in a decomposition reactor (DR) to produce hydrogen to feed the SOFC. The products are electricity and industry-usable sulfur. Through a mass and energy balance, a preliminary thermodynamic analysis of this system is performed, and the system efficiency is calculated. Also in this paper, the challenges in creating the proposed configuration are discussed, and the direction of future work is presented.

  9. HYDROGEN SULFIDE MODULATES CONTRACTILE FUNCTION IN RAT JEJUNUM

    PubMed Central

    Kasparek, Michael S.; Linden, David R.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Sarr, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a third gasotransmitter of the gut, are not well understood. Aim To determine effects/mechanisms of H2S action on contractile function in rat jejunal muscle. Methods Transmural strips of longitudinal muscle were evaluated. Response to sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, H2S donor; 10?5-10?3M) was studied on spontaneous contractile activity and after precontraction (bethanechol, 3×10?6M). Atropine, propranolol, and phentolamine, tetrodotoxin, capsaicin, L-NG-nitro arginine (L-NNA), and glibenclamide were used to determine mechanisms. L-cysteine (10?4-10?2M; substrate for H2S production) and aminooxyacetic acid and DL-propargylglycine (inhibitors of enzymes generating H2S endogenously) were used to study endogenous production. Aminooxyacetic acid, DL-propargylglycine, L-NNA, and VIP antagonist [D-p-Cl-Phe6,Leu17]-VIP were used to study H2S release during electrical field stimulation (EFS) and interaction with VIP and nitric oxide. Immunohistofluorescence of ileal whole mounts was performed for endogenous H2S-producing enzymes. Results Cystathionine-?-synthase and cystathionine-?-lyase were expressed only in myenteric plexus. NaHS suppressed spontaneous and stimulated contractile activity (p<0.01). Glibenclamide prevented some suppression by NaHS (p=0.01) of stimulated contractile activity but did not prevent suppression of spontaneous contractile activity. Other drugs had no effect on spontaneous contractile activity but increased inhibitory effects of NaHS on spontaneous and stimulated contractile activity (p<0.05). L-cysteine had no effects on contractile activity. Inhibitors altered basal and stimulated activity suggesting endogenous release of H2S. Conclusions H2S presumably suppresses contractile activity in jejunum by direct effects on smooth muscle. Mechanism(s) of inhibition remains unclear, because blocking known neurotransmitters enhanced H2S-induced suppression, while blocking ATP-sensitive K+-channels did not block H2S-induced inhibition. PMID:21571312

  10. Methanol and hydrogen sulfide in comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, P.; Meier, R.; Krankowsky, D.; Hodges, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Giotto spacecraft measured the gas and ion composition in the coma of comet P/Halley. A detailed model of the ion chemistry inside the contact surface located at 4660 km is used to interpret the measured ion desnity profiles in the 32 to 35 amu/e mass range. The masses 33 and 35 amu/e are dominated by the protonated methanol and hydrogen sulfide ions CH3OH2(+) and H3S(+). Both profiles are essentially compatible with CH3OH and H2S originating from the nucleus only. The production rates relative to water are Y(CH3OH) = Q(CH3OH)/Q(H2O) = 1.7% and Y(H2S) = 0.41%. Our Y(CH3OH) agrees well with a determination from IR spectra obtained about 6 weeks after the Giotto encounter with P/Halley. In 7 other comets IR and microwave observations give Y(CH3OH) values between about 0.7 and 6%, indicating that the methanol abundance shows a strong variability from comet to comet. In three other comets Y(H2S) values between 0.2 and 0.5% have been reported. In addition to H2S(+), only ions containing minor isotopes of H, C, O and S contribute to mass 34 amu/e (e.g. (34)S(+), (13)CH3OH2(+), CH4DO(+)). These contributions can be calculated from the measured densities of the ions containing the major isotopes and the H2S(+) contribution from the measured H3S(+) density. From mass 34 amu/e we can also derive an upper limit of 1% for the abundance of deuterated methanol. This limit is at most marginally compatible with a direct interstellar origin of the CH3OH in P/Halley as the measured interstellar abundance of deuterated methanol is 1 to 6%.

  11. Evaluation of feed COD\\/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Velasco; Martha Ram ´ õrez; Tania Volke-Sep ´ ulveda; Armando Gonzalez-S; Sergio Revah

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD\\/SO42? ratio. This work

  12. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides and sulfones with 30% hydrogen peroxide under organic solvent- and halogen-free conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Sato; Mamoru Hyodo; Masao Aoki; Xiao-Qi Zheng; Ryoji Noyori

    2001-01-01

    Aromatic and aliphatic sulfides are oxidized to sulfoxides or sulfones in high yield with 30% hydrogen peroxide under organic solvent- and halogen-free conditions. Dialkyl and alkyl aryl sulfides are cleanly oxidized to sulfoxides using aqueous hydrogen peroxide without catalysts. The best catalyst for the sulfone synthesis consists of sodium tungstate, phenylphosphonic acid, and methyltrioctylammonium hydrogensulfate. Co-existing primary or secondary alcohol

  13. 30 CFR 250.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD...Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or...

  14. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monaem Zytoon, Mohamed; Ahmad AlZahrani, Abdulraheem; Hamed Noweir, Madbuli; Ahmed El-Marakby, Fadia

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008?ppm and 31,215?ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113?g?H2S?m?3?h?1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2?mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500?mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5. PMID:25147857

  15. Chemical and biological technologies for hydrogen sulfide emission control in sewer systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lehua; De Schryver, Peter; De Gusseme, Bart; De Muynck, Willem; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic corrosion of sewers represents a cost of about 10% of total sewage treatment cost in Flanders (Belgium) and is further increasing. In the past, research has resulted in a number of prevention methods, such as injection of air, oxygen, H(2)O(2), NaClO, FeCl(3) and FeSO(4). The possibility of biological oxidation of sulfide using nitrate as the electron acceptor has also been explored in sewer systems. However, all of these methods have a problem with the high cost (euro 1.9-7.2 kg(-1)S removal). In this review, new approaches for hydrogen sulfide emission control in sewer systems are discussed. The control of hydrogen sulfide emission by using a microbial fuel cell (MFC) can be cost-effective while the BOD is removed partially. The use of phages that target sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can possibly inhibit sulfide formation. Novel inhibitors, such as slow release solid-phase oxygen (MgO(2)/CaO(2)) and formaldehyde, warrant further study to control hydrogen sulfide emission in sewer systems. PMID:17692889

  16. Associations of Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure with Self-Reported Asthma and Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Michael N; Garrett, Nick; Crane, Julian; Balmes, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether long-term, low-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is a cause of health effects, including asthma, is uncertain. Rotorua city, New Zealand, has the largest population exposed, from geothermal sources, to relatively high ambient levels of H2S. In a cross-sectional study, the authors investigated associations with asthma in this population. Methods A total of 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years, were enrolled during 2008-2010. Residences and workplaces were geocoded. H2S exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated using city-wide networks of passive H2S samplers and kriging to create exposure surfaces. Exposure metrics were based on (1) time-weighted exposures at home and work; and (2) the maximum exposure (home or work). Exposure estimates were entered as quartiles into log-binomial regression models, with covariate data. Results Neither exposure metric showed evidence of increased asthma risk from H2S. However, some suggestion of exposure-related reduced risks for diagnosed asthma and asthma symptoms, particularly wheezing during the last 12 months, emerged. With the maximum exposure metric, the prevalence ratio for wheeze in the highest exposure quartile was 0.80 (0.65, 0.99) and, for current asthma treatment, 0.75 (0.52, 1.08). There was no evidence that this was caused by a “survivor effect”. Conclusions The study provided no evidence that asthma risk increases with H2S exposure. Suggestions of a reduced risk in the higher exposure areas are consistent with recent evidence that H2S has signaling functions in the body, including induction of smooth muscle relaxation and reduction of inflammation. Study limitations, including possible confounding, preclude definitive conclusions. PMID:23453847

  17. PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES OF POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides preliminary cost estimates of air and water pollution control technologies for geothermal energy conversion facilities. Costs for solid waste disposal are also estimated. The technologies examined include those for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions and fo...

  18. Application of biofiltration to the degradation of hydrogen sulfide in gas effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Elías; Astrid Barona; F. Javier Ríos; Anje Arreguy; Miguel Munguira; Javier Peñas; J. Luis Sanz

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory scale bioreactor has been designed and set up in order to degrade hydrogen sulfide from an air stream. The reactor is a vertical column of 7 litre capacity and 1 meter in height. It is divided into three modules and each module is filled with pellets of agricultural residues as packing bed material. The gas stream fed into

  19. Hydrogen sulfide: from the smell of the past to the mediator of the future?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip K Moore; Madhav Bhatia; Shabbir Moochhala

    2003-01-01

    Gases such as nitric oxide and carbon monoxide play important roles both in normal physiology and in disease. In recent years, interest has been directed towards other naturally occurring gases, notably hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is both a potent vasodilator and a mediator of long-term potentiation in the brain. This article focuses on recent work that suggests a role for

  20. The regulatory effect of hydrogen sulfide on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Chunyu; Du Junbao; Bu Dingfang; Yan Hui; Tang Xiuying; Tang Chaoshu

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is an important pathophysiological process. The mechanism of HPH is still not fully understood. Recent studies showed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could relax vascular smooth muscles and inhibit the proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Our study showed that both the gene expression of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), one of the H2S generating enzymes, and the

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide, a Toxic Gas with Cardiovascular Properties in Uremia: How Harmful Is It?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra F. Perna; Diana Lanza; Immacolata Sepe; Ilaria Raiola; Rosanna Capasso; Natale G. De Santo; Diego Ingrosso

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a poisonous gas which can be lethal. However, it is also produced endogenously, thus belonging to the family of gasotransmitters along with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. H2S is in fact involved in mediating several signaling and cytoprotective functions, for example in the nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems, such as neuronal transmission, blood pressure regulation and

  2. Rates and mechanisms of reaction of hydrogen sulfide with iron chelates. Topical report, April 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DeBerry

    1993-01-01

    Chelated iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes hold promise for providing economical removal of hydrogen sulfide from natural gas with conversion to solid sulfur. They are complex chemical systems. An objective of this project is to identify and characterize the chemical interactions occurring in these liquid redox systems and determine which process parameters impact performance. This report presents the results

  3. VERIFICATION OF AMBIENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES FOR AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of two hydrogen sulfide and seven ambient ammonia monitoring technologies was recently verified by the U.S. EPA ETV Program’s AMS Center. The nine technologies verified by the AMS Center could be used to enhance the scientific understanding of the environmental effects that emissions...

  4. Hot Gas Removal of Tars, Ammonia, and Hydrogen Sulfide from Biomass Gasification Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Torres; Sourabh S. Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of biomass is a promising source of fuels and other chemical products. However, the removal of tars, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and other byproducts from the raw gas is required. The gas clean?up technology that offers more advantages is hot catalytic gas conditioning downstream of the gasifier reactor. Here, we review the applications of basic, acidic, metallic, and redox catalysts

  5. Performance of non-thermal DBD plasma reactor during the removal of hydrogen sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Jun Liang; Hong-Ping Fang; Jian Li; Feng Zheng; Jing-Xin Li; Yu-Quan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Destruction of hydrogen sulfide using dielectric barrier discharge plasma in a coaxial cylindrical reactor was carried out at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Three types of DBD reactor were compared in terms of specific energy density (SED), equivalent capacitances of the gap (Cg) and the dielectric barrier (Cd), energy yield (EY), and H2S decomposition. In addition, byproducts during the decomposition

  6. PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17571765 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated

    E-print Network

    Cal, Mark P.

    2000-01-01

    temperature was examined as a2 function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metalPERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 1757­1765 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated gas stream2 at a temperature of 5508C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H S at elevated

  7. PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17671774 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated

    E-print Network

    Cal, Mark P.

    2000-01-01

    PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 1767­1774 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon II. Effects of gas temperature, gas pressure and sorbent regeneration 1 2 3 *M.P. Cal , B of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for removal of H S at high temperatures (400­6008C) in an2

  8. SUMMERTIME CONCENTRATIONS AND EMISSIONS OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT A MECHANICALLY VENTILATED SWINE FINISHING BUILDING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-Q. Ni; A. J. Heber; C. A. Diehl; T. T. Lim; R. K. Duggirala; B. L. Haymore

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration and emission at a modern mechanically ventilated swine finishing building with a deep pit were continuously measured for three summer months. Ventilation rates, temperatures, and pig inventory in the building were also continuously measured or recorded. A total of 88 d of valid data were obtained between 26 June and 25 September, during which the average

  9. Removal of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide using biochar produced from pyrolyzing animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. The emission of these gases can be substantially reduced using adsorption filters filled with biochar produced from pyrolysis of livestock residuals such as c...

  10. Photocatalytic hydrogen production by direct sun light from sulfide\\/sulfite solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atif Koca; Musa ?ahin

    2002-01-01

    The photocatalytic hydrogen production from a sulfide\\/sulfite solution is one of the photocatalytic processes that have been of interest recently for hydrogen production. Different types of semiconductor photocatalysts have been prepared and tested for this purpose. In this paper, photocatalysts CdS\\/ZnS that were prepared by a different coprecipitation technique was studied with and without n-Si in sulphide\\/sulphite solution irradiated with

  11. Hydrogen sulfide corrosion in low-no x combustion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Chou; P. L. Daniel; A. J. Blazewicz; R. F. Dudek

    1986-01-01

    Under lowNOx substoichiometric combustion conditions, sulfur in coal is released mostly as H2S gas, which will sulfidize boiler tubes at furnacewall temperatures. The corrosion rates of various alloys and coatings in\\u000a simulated substoichiometric combustion gas were studied. Carbon steel and Type 304 stainless steel have reasonably good corrosion\\u000a resistance up to 700 °F (371 °C) and 900 °F (482 °C),

  12. Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991December 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. L. Harkness; R. D

    1993-01-01

    A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research

  13. Precipitation of heavy metals from coal ash leachate using biogenic hydrogen sulfide generated from FGD gypsum.

    PubMed

    Jayaranjan, Madawala Liyanage Duminda; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to utilize flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum for the treatment of leachate from the coal ash (CA) dump sites. Bench-scale investigations consisted of three main steps namely hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) production by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) using sulfate from solubilized FGD gypsum as the electron acceptor, followed by leaching of heavy metals (HMs) from coal bottom ash (CBA) and subsequent precipitation of HMs using biologically produced sulfide. Leaching tests of CBA carried out at acidic pH revealed the existence of several HMs such as Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn. Molasses was used as the electron donor for the biological sulfate reduction (BSR) process which produced sulfide rich effluent with concentration up to 150 mg/L. Sulfide rich effluent from the sulfate reduction process was used to precipitate HMs as metal sulfides from CBA leachate. HM removal in the range from 40 to 100% was obtained through sulfide precipitation. PMID:23168629

  14. Use of AERMOD to Determine a Hydrogen Sulfide Emission Factor for Swine Operations by Inverse Modeling.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Altmaier, Ralph

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine both optimal settings applied to the plume dispersion model, AERMOD, and a scalable emission factor for accurately determining the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the vicinity of swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations emit hydrogen sulfide from both housing structures and waste lagoons. With ambient measurements made at 4 stations within 1 km of large swine CAFOs in Iowa, an inverse-modeling approach applied to AERMOD was used to determine hydrogen sulfide emission rates. CAFO buildings were treated as volume sources whereas nearby lagoons were modeled as area sources. The robust highest concentration (RHC), calculated for both measured and modeled concentrations, was used as the metric for adjusting the emission rate until the ratio of the two RHC levels was unity. Utilizing this approach, an average emission flux rate of 0.57 µg/m(2)-s was determined for swine CAFO lagoons. Using the average total animal weight (kg) of each CAFO, an average emission factor of 6.06 × 10(-7) µg/yr-m(2)-kg was calculated. From studies that measured either building or lagoon emission flux rates, building fluxes, on a floor area basis, were considered equal to lagoon flux rates. The emission factor was applied to all CAFOs surrounding the original 4 sites and surrounding an additional 6 sites in Iowa, producing an average modeled-to-measured RHC ratio of 1.24. When the emission factor was applied to AERMOD to simulate the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide around a hypothetical large swine CAFO (1M kg), concentrations 0.5 km from the CAFO were 35 ppb and dropped to 2 ppb within 6 km of the CAFO. These values compare to a level of 30 ppb that has been determined by the State of Iowa as a threshold level for ambient hydrogen sulfide levels. PMID:21804761

  15. Use of AERMOD to determine a hydrogen sulfide emission factor for swine operations by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Altmaier, Ralph

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine both optimal settings applied to the plume dispersion model, AERMOD, and a scalable emission factor for accurately determining the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the vicinity of swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations emit hydrogen sulfide from both housing structures and waste lagoons. With ambient measurements made at 4 stations within 1 km of large swine CAFOs in Iowa, an inverse-modeling approach applied to AERMOD was used to determine hydrogen sulfide emission rates. CAFO buildings were treated as volume sources whereas nearby lagoons were modeled as area sources. The robust highest concentration (RHC), calculated for both measured and modeled concentrations, was used as the metric for adjusting the emission rate until the ratio of the two RHC levels was unity. Utilizing this approach, an average emission flux rate of 0.57 ?g m -2 s -1 was determined for swine CAFO lagoons. Using the average total animal weight (kg) of each CAFO, an average emission factor of 6.06 × 10 -7 ?g yr -1 m -2 kg -1 was calculated. From studies that measured either building or lagoon emission flux rates, building fluxes, on a floor area basis, were considered equal to lagoon flux rates. The emission factor was applied to all CAFOs surrounding the original 4 sites and surrounding an additional 6 sites in Iowa, producing an average modeled-to-measured RHC ratio of 1.24. When the emission factor was applied to AERMOD to simulate the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide around a hypothetical large swine CAFO (1 M kg), concentrations within 0.5 km from the CAFO exceeded 25 ppb and dropped to 2 ppb within 6 km of the CAFO. These values compare to a level of 30 ppb that has been determined by the State of Iowa as a threshold level for ambient hydrogen sulfide levels.

  16. GC–MS Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbonyl Sulfide, Methanethiol, Carbon Disulfide, Methyl Thiocyanate and Methyl Disulfide in Mainstream Vapor Phase Cigarette Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Zhou Dong; Samuel M. DeBusk

    2010-01-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous analysis of hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol, carbon disulfide,\\u000a methyl thiocyanate and methyl disulfide in mainstream vapor phase (MVP) cigarette smoke by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.\\u000a The fresh MVP smoke was collected in a gas bag, followed by injection of a 50 ?L gas sample into the GC inlet via an automatic\\u000a six-port valve. The

  17. Hydrogen sulfide, bacteria, and fish: a unique, subterranean food chain.

    PubMed

    Roach, Katherine A; Tobler, Michael; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2011-11-01

    Photoautotrophs are generally considered to be the base of food webs, and habitats that lack light, such as caves, frequently rely on surface-derived carbon. Here we show, based on analysis of gut contents and stable isotope ratios of tissues (13C:12C and 15N:14N), that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are directly consumed and assimilated by the fish Poecilia mexicana in a sulfide-rich cave stream in Tabasco state, Mexico. Our results provide evidence of a vertebrate deriving most of its organic carbon and nitrogen from in situ chemoautotrophic production, and reveals the importance of alternative energy production sources supporting animals in extreme environments. PMID:22164830

  18. Human sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase catalyzes the first step in hydrogen sulfide metabolism and produces a sulfane sulfur metabolite.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael R; Melideo, Scott L; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman

    2012-08-28

    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR) is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the mitochondrial metabolism of H(2)S. Human SQOR is successfully expressed at low temperature in Escherichia coli by using an optimized synthetic gene and cold-adapted chaperonins. Recombinant SQOR contains noncovalently bound FAD and catalyzes the two-electron oxidation of H(2)S to S(0) (sulfane sulfur) using CoQ(1) as an electron acceptor. The prosthetic group is reduced upon anaerobic addition of H(2)S in a reaction that proceeds via a long-wavelength-absorbing intermediate (?(max) = 673 nm). Cyanide, sulfite, or sulfide can act as the sulfane sulfur acceptor in reactions that (i) exhibit pH optima at 8.5, 7.5, or 7.0, respectively, and (ii) produce thiocyanate, thiosulfate, or a putative sulfur analogue of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)S(2)), respectively. Importantly, thiosulfate is a known intermediate in the oxidation of H(2)S by intact animals and the major product formed in glutathione-depleted cells or mitochondria. Oxidation of H(2)S by SQOR with sulfite as the sulfane sulfur acceptor is rapid and highly efficient at physiological pH (k(cat)/K(m,H(2)S) = 2.9 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). A similar efficiency is observed with cyanide, a clearly artificial acceptor, at pH 8.5, whereas a 100-fold lower value is seen with sulfide as the acceptor at pH 7.0. The latter reaction is unlikely to occur in healthy individuals but may become significant under certain pathological conditions. We propose that sulfite is the physiological acceptor of the sulfane sulfur and that the SQOR reaction is the predominant source of the thiosulfate produced during H(2)S oxidation by mammalian tissues. PMID:22852582

  19. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA); Frost, David G. (Maynard, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  20. Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide

    E-print Network

    2004-01-01

    , such as food processing, coke ovens, paper mills, tanneries, and petroleum refineries. Sometimes sulfide and natural gas Yixin Lu, Laura Schaefer1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) occurs naturally in crude petroleum, natural gas, volcanic gases, hot

  1. Involvement of ERK in NMDA receptor-independent cortical neurotoxicity of hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kubo, Satoko; Yamasaki, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Sachi; Okamoto, Yukari; Sekimoto, Teruki; Fukatsu, Anna; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki [Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Kume, Toshiaki [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Sciences, Kinki University School of Science and Engineering, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Sciences, Kinki University School of Science and Engineering, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Akaike, Akinori [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawabata, Atsufumi, E-mail: kawabata@phar.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen sulfide causes NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity in mouse fetal cortical neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of ERK mediates the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptotic mechanisms are involved in the hydrogen-induced cell death. -- Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a gasotransmitter, exerts both neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, and targets multiple molecules including NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NO synthase (NOS) that might affect neuronal viability. Here, we determined and characterized effects of NaHS, an H{sub 2}S donor, on cell viability in the primary cultures of mouse fetal cortical neurons. NaHS caused neuronal death, as assessed by LDH release and trypan blue staining, but did not significantly reduce the glutamate toxicity. The neurotoxicity of NaHS was resistant to inhibitors of NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NOS, and was blocked by inhibitors of MEK, but not JNK, p38 MAP kinase, PKC and Src. NaHS caused prompt phosphorylation of ERK and upregulation of Bad, followed by translocation of Bax to mitochondria and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, leading to the nuclear condensation/fragmentation. These effects of NaHS were suppressed by the MEK inhibitor. Our data suggest that the NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity of H{sub 2}S involves activation of the MEK/ERK pathway and some apoptotic mechanisms.

  2. Fluorescence chemosensors for hydrogen sulfide detection in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi; Chen, Guiqiu; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhongwu; Chen, Anwei; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Longbo

    2015-03-21

    A comprehensive review of the development of H2S fluorescence-sensing strategies, including sensors based on chemical reactions and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of fluorescence-sensing strategies are compared with those of traditional methods. Fluorescence chemosensors, especially those used in FRET sensing, are highly promising because of their low cost, technical simplicity, and their use in real-time sulfide imaging in living cells. Potential applications based on sulfate reduction to H2S, the relationship between sulfate-reducing bacteria activity and H2S yield, and real-time detection of sulfate-reducing bacteria activity using fluorescence sensors are described. The current challenges, such as low sensitivity and poor stability, are discussed. PMID:25529122

  3. Elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide in homes with 'Chinese Drywall'.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L; Saltzman, Lori E; Baker, Brian J; Matheson, Joanna M; Recht, Joel R; Minegishi, Taeko; Fragala, Matt A; Myatt, Theodore A; Spengler, John D; Stewart, James H; McCarthy, John F

    2012-06-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) began receiving reports about odors, corrosion, and health concerns related to drywall originating from China. In response, a detailed environmental health and engineering evaluation was conducted of 41 complaint and 10 non-complaint homes in the Southeast U.S. Each home investigation included characterization of: 1) drywall composition; 2) indoor and outdoor air quality; 3) temperature, moisture, and building ventilation; and 4) copper and silver corrosion rates. Complaint homes had significantly higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations (mean 0.82 vs. sulfide and silver sulfide corrosion compared to non-complaint homes (Cu(2)S: 476 vs. <32 Å/30 d, p<0.01; Ag(2)S: 1472 vs. 389 Å/30 d, p<0.01). The abundance of carbonate and strontium in drywall was also elevated in complaint homes, and appears to be useful objective marker of problematic drywall in homes that meet other screening criteria (e.g., constructed or renovated in 2006-2007, reports of malodor and accelerated corrosion). This research provides empirical evidence of the direct association between homes constructed with 'Chinese Drywall' in 2006-2007 and elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in indoor air. PMID:22525559

  4. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension...Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, and Toxic chemicals. Dated: April 7, 2010....

  5. A theoretical analysis of the role of defects in the adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos Águila, J. E.; Cocoletzi, H. Hernández; Cocoletzi, G. Hernández

    2013-03-01

    Density functional theory studies are reported to analyze the interaction between hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and graphene. The electron-ion interactions have been modeled using ultrasoft pseudopotentials and the exchange-correlation energies have been approximated by the method of the generalized gradient approximation in the parameterization of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof. Three graphene structures, one intrinsic and two with defects (vacancy and sustitution), and four H2S concentrations have been studied. The optimal geometries, binding energies, density of states (DOS) and charge density were obtained. In order to study the adsorption process three high symmetry sites were considered, namely, top, bridge, and center. The preferential adsorption structure corresponds to the center site in a physical way. The DOS of graphene-H2S systems shows a metallic behavior which coincides with the behavior of the isolated graphene. The geometrical structure of the graphene and the hydrogen sulfide remains unchanged.

  6. Use of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as recognition elements in hydrogen sulfide biosensing system.

    PubMed

    Janfada, Behdokht; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2014-08-26

    Four sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus thioparus, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans PTCC1717, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans PTCC1646, and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans PTCC1647) were used as biorecognition elements in a hydrogen sulfide biosensing system. All the experiments were performed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution containing 1-20 ppm H2 S with optimum pH and temperature for each species. Although H2 S was applied to the biosensing system, the dissolved O2 content decreased. Dissolved O2 consumed by cells in both free and immobilized forms was measured using a dissolved oxygen sensor. Free bacterial cells exhibit fast response (<200 Sec). Immobilization of the cells on polyvinyl alcohol was optimized using an analytical software. Immobilized A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans retained more than 50% of activity after 30 days of immobilization. According to the data, A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans are appropriate species for hydrogen sulfide biosensor. PMID:25158614

  7. Factors contributing to the ability of Acrolein to scavenge corrosive hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, C.L.; Brady, J.L.; Clifton, N.; Meshishnek, M.J.; Preus, M.W.

    1983-03-01

    Acrolein can function under a variety of conditions as an effective hydrogen sulfide scavenger in oil field water flood systems. The scavenging ability is maximized in waters having a pH range of 6-8, a total dissolved solids level below 1 percent, and temperatures less than 65/sup 0/C. At least 4 ppm acrolein is necessary to achieve sufficient reaction of each original 1 ppm hydrogen sulfide. This reaction requires about 2-20 minutes, depending on the nature of the system. Although sand, garnet, or diatomaceous earth filters do not affect the scavenging ability of acrolein, charcoal filters, large tanks, long pipelines, high temperature Wemcos, and reboilers can produce diminished effects. Further diminished effects can also be produced when incompatible chemicals are used concurrently with acrolein. Some application techniques are presented which can lessen or eliminate these adverse conditions.

  8. Factors contributing to the ability of acrolein to scavenge corrosive hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, C.L.; Brady, J.L.; Gottry, N.; Meshishnek, M.J.; Preus, M.W.

    1985-10-01

    Acrolein can function under a variety of conditions as an effective hydrogen sulfide scavenger in oilfield waterflood systems. The scavenging ability is maximized in waters having a pH range of 6 through 8, a total dissolved solids level below 1%, and temperatures less than 149/sup 0/F (65/sup 0/C). At least 4 ppm acrolein is necessary to achieve sufficient reaction of each original 1 ppm hydrogen sulfide. This reaction requires about 2 to 20 minutes, depending on the nature of the system. Although sand, garnet, or diatomaceous earth filters do not affect the scavenging ability of acrolein, charcoal filters, large tanks, long pipelines, high-temperature Wemcos, and reboilers can produce diminished effects. Further diminished effects also can be produced when incompatible chemicals are used concurrently with acrolein. Some application techniques that can lessen or eliminate these adverse conditions are presented.

  9. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  10. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  11. The distribution of oxygen and hydrogen sulfide in Black Sea waters during winter-spring period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Eremeev; S. K. Konovalov; A. S. Romanov

    1998-01-01

    Regularities of oxygen and hydrogen sulfide are examined, using the method of spatial isopycnic analysis. The contribution\\u000a that ventilation of winter-time surface waters over the domes of cyclonic gyres makes to the transfer of O2 towards the upper boundary of the constant pycnocline and to the oxicline layer is demonstrated. The paper provides spatial\\u000a scales of this phenomenon and indicates

  12. Time and concentration-dependent activation of TRPA1 by hydrogen sulfide in rat DRG neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Miyamoto; Ken-ichi Otsuguro; Shigeo Ito

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is considered as a gasotransmitter. Although several reports have shown that H2S stimulates sensory neurons, the primary targets of H2S remain controversial. We investigated the effects of H2S on cultured sensory neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using Ca2+ imaging and whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. Brief (2min) application of NaHS (1mM), a donor of H2S, evoked

  13. Hydrogen sulfide on Io - Evidence from telescopic and laboratory infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.; Howell, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence is reported for hydrogen sulfide on Io's surface. An infrared band at 3.915 (+ or - 0.015) micrometers in several ground-based spectra of Io can be accounted for by reflectance from H2S frost deposited on or cocondensed with sulfur dioxide frost. Temporal variation in the occurrence and intensity of the band suggests that condensed H2S on Io's surface is transient, implying a similar variation of H2S abundance in Io's atmosphere.

  14. Molecular simulation of the solubility and diffusion of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in polyethylene melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Faure; Bernard Rousseau; V ´ eronique Lachet; Philippe Ungerer

    2007-01-01

    We present molecular simulation results of solubility and self-diffusion of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in linear polyethylene melts. Simulations were carried out at 433?K and pressures in the range 0.1–10?MPa. Solubilities were computed using Monte Carlo simulations in the osmotic ensemble, with constant number of polymer chains, pressure, temperature and gases chemical potential. Diffusion coefficients were obtained from equilibrium

  15. Hydrogen sulfide protects soybean seedlings against drought-induced oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Zhang; Hao Jiao; Cheng-Xi Jiang; Song-Hua Wang; Zhao-Jun Wei; Jian-Ping Luo; Russell L. Jones

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third “gas signal molecule” after NO and CO in animal. In the present study, we found that soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings sprayed with exogenous H2S donor NaHS prolonged the longer survival time of life, and enlarged higher biomass of both leaf and root than in non-sprayed\\u000a controls under continuous drought

  16. The vasorelaxant effect of hydrogen sulfide is enhanced in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merve Denizalti; Turgut Emrah Bozkurt; U?ur Akpulat; Inci Sahin-Erdemli; Nurettin Abac?o?lu

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gas which has potent relaxant effect in vascular and nonvascular smooth muscles. In the present study,\\u000a we have investigated how streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes affected the relaxant effect of H2S in rat isolated thoracic aorta and mesenteric and pulmonary arteries. Diabetes was induced by IV injection of STZ (35 mg\\/kg).\\u000a Insulin treatment was applied by using

  17. Fluorescence signaling of hydrogen sulfide in broad pH range using a copper complex based on BINOL-benzimidazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingtai; Yu, Huan; Li, Huihui; Xu, Hongda; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Suhua

    2015-04-20

    A weakly fluorescent complex derived from a binaphthol-benzimidazole ligand was designed and synthesized for hydrogen sulfide at different pH conditions. It was demonstrated that the probe showed the same reactivity to various hydrogen sulfide species in a broad range of pH values to generate highly fluorescent product through a displacement reaction mechanism, whereas the product's fluorescence spectrum exhibited a hypsochromic shift of ?73 nm (2393 cm(-1)) as pH increased from neutral to basic, which can be used for distinguishing the various species of hydrogen sulfide. This turn-on fluorescence probe was highly selective and sensitive to hydrogen sulfide with a detection limit of 0.11 ?M. It was then applied for evaluating the total content of sulfide (including hydrogen sulfide, hydrosulfide, and sulfide) as well as for the visual detection of gaseous H2S in air using a simple test paper strip. PMID:25839192

  18. Proceedings of the Hydrogen Sulfide Health Research and Risk Assessment Symposium October 31-November 2, 2000.

    PubMed

    Woodall, George M; Smith, Roy L; Granville, Geoff C

    2005-10-01

    The Hydrogen Sulfide Health Research and Risk Assessment Symposium came about for several reasons: (1) increased interest by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and several state agencies in regulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S); (2) uncertainty about ambient exposure to H2S; (3) confusion and disagreement in the literature about possible health effects at low-level exposures; and (4) presentation of results of a series of recent animal bioassays. The American Petroleum Institute (API) proposed this symposium and the EPA became an early co-sponsor, with the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) and the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) contributing expertise and funding assistance. The topics covered in this symposium included Animal Research, Human Research, Mode-of-Action and Dosimetry Issues, Environmental Exposure and Monitoring, Assessment and Regulatory Issues, and closed with a panel discussion. The overall goals of the symposium were to: gather together experts in H2S health effects research and individuals from governmental agencies charged with protecting the public health, provide a venue for reporting of recent research findings, identify gaps in the current information, and outline new research directions and promote research collaboration. During the course of the symposium, presenters provided comprehensive reviews of the state of knowledge for each topic. Several new research proposals discussed at the symposium have subsequently been initiated. This report provides a summary of the talks, poster presentations, and panel discussions that occurred at the Hydrogen Sulfide Health and Risk Assessment Symposium. PMID:16033755

  19. Giant Hydrogen Sulfide Plume in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru Supports Chemolithoautotrophy

    PubMed Central

    Großkopf, Tobias; Kalvelage, Tim; Löscher, Carolin R.; Paulmier, Aurélien; Contreras, Sergio; Siegel, Herbert; Holtappels, Moritz; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schilhabel, Markus B.; Graco, Michelle; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; LaRoche, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems nutrient-rich waters are transported to the ocean surface, fuelling high photoautotrophic primary production. Subsequent heterotrophic decomposition of the produced biomass increases the oxygen-depletion at intermediate water depths, which can result in the formation of oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). OMZs can sporadically accumulate hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is toxic to most multicellular organisms and has been implicated in massive fish kills. During a cruise to the OMZ off Peru in January 2009 we found a sulfidic plume in continental shelf waters, covering an area >5500 km2, which contained ?2.2×104 tons of H2S. This was the first time that H2S was measured in the Peruvian OMZ and with ?440 km3 the largest plume ever reported for oceanic waters. We assessed the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the inhabiting microbial community by high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA, while its metabolic activity was determined with rate measurements of carbon fixation and nitrogen transformation processes. The waters were dominated by several distinct ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacterial taxa associated with either sulfur oxidation or sulfate reduction. Our results suggest that these chemolithoautotrophic bacteria utilized several oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide) to detoxify the sulfidic waters well below the oxic surface. The chemolithoautotrophic activity at our sampling site led to high rates of dark carbon fixation. Assuming that these chemolithoautotrophic rates were maintained throughout the sulfidic waters, they could be representing as much as ?30% of the photoautotrophic carbon fixation. Postulated changes such as eutrophication and global warming, which lead to an expansion and intensification of OMZs, might also increase the frequency of sulfidic waters. We suggest that the chemolithoautotrophically fixed carbon may be involved in a negative feedback loop that could fuel further sulfate reduction and potentially stabilize the sulfidic OMZ waters. PMID:23990875

  20. The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

  1. Use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Popov, A.A.; Rezunenko, Yu.I.

    1983-01-01

    The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution which show that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be recovered in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

  2. Biological hydrogen sulfide production in an ethanol–lactate fed fluidized-bed bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura M. Nevatalo; Annukka E. Mäkinen; Anna H. Kaksonen; Jaakko A. Puhakka

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) fed with ethanol–lactate mixture was operated at 35°C for 540days to assess mine wastewater treatment, biological hydrogen sulfide production capacity and acetate oxidation kinetics. During the mine wastewater treatment period with synthetic wastewater, the sulfate reduction rate was 62mmol SO42-L?1d?1 and Fe and Zn precipitation rates were 11mmol FeL?1d?1 and 1mmol ZnL?1d?1. After this, the hydrogen

  3. Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

  4. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of New Zealand geothermal gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, G. L.; Hulston, J. R.

    1984-06-01

    Carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions are reported for methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide from four New Zealand geothermal areas: Ngawha, Wairakei, Broadlands and Tikitere. Carbon-13 contents are between -24.4 and -29.5%. (PDB) for methane, and between -3.2 and -9.1%. for carbon dioxide. Deuterium contents are between -142 and -197%. (SMOW) for methane and between -310 and -600%. for hydrogen. The different areas have different isotopic compositions with some general relationships to reservoir temperature. The isotopic exchange of hydrogen with water indicates acceptable reservoir temperatures of 180-260°C from most spring samples but often higher than measured temperatures in well samples. Indicated temperatures assuming 13C equilibria between CH 4 and CO 2 are 100-200°C higher than measured maxima. This difference may be due to partial isotopic equilibration or may reflect the origin of the methane. Present evidence cannot identify whether the methane is primordial, or from decomposing sediments or from reduction of magmatic CO 2. The isotopic equilibria between CH 4, CO 2, H 2 and H 2O are reviewed and a new semi-empirical temperature scale proposed for deuterium exchange between methane and water.

  5. Rates and mechanisms of reaction of hydrogen sulfide with iron chelates. Topical report, April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    DeBerry, D.W.

    1993-04-01

    Chelated iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes hold promise for providing economical removal of hydrogen sulfide from natural gas with conversion to solid sulfur. They are complex chemical systems. An objective of this project is to identify and characterize the chemical interactions occurring in these liquid redox systems and determine which process parameters impact performance. This report presents the results of this project concerning the mechanism of oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by iron-based compounds in the liquid phase. The rates of reactions of chelated iron sorbing reagents with reduced sulfur species were measured over a wide range of conditions. The effects of relative reactant concentrations, pH, and ionic strength on these rates have been determined using a number of different methods. Effects of temperature and chelate type on the reaction of chelate iron with sulfide are also presented here. A kinetic model was developed to interpret these results and provide an overall framework for the reaction mechanism. This model has proven to be useful for integrating and explaining the results of the kinetics measurements. In addition, the model may become a useful tool for optimizing process chemistry and a key component of a general chemical process model. Details of the model and verification runs are given in this report.

  6. Abundances of hydrogen sulfide in star-forming regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Ziurys, L. M.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.

    1991-01-01

    Interstellar H2S and its isotopic variant H2(S-34) have been observed toward several star-forming regions via their 1(10)-1(01) transitions at 2 mm, using the FCRAO telescope. In sources where both isotopic species were observed, column densities of about 10 to the 16th/sq cm were measured. Column density lower limits of about 10 to the 14th/sq cm for H2S were found for other sources, where only the main isotopic line was observed. The fractional abundances of H2S relative to molecular hydrogen appear to be enhanced by at least an order of magnitude relative to quiescent cloud values (about 10 to the -9th) for many of the observed sources.

  7. Hydrogen evolution using palladium sulfide (PdS) nanocorals as photoanodes in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Barawi, M; Ferrer, I J; Ares, J R; Sánchez, C

    2014-11-26

    Palladium sulfide (PdS) nanostructures are proposed to be used as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) for hydrogen evolution due to their adequate transport and optical properties shown in previous works. Here, a complete morphological and electrochemical characterization of PdS films has been performed by different techniques. PdS flatband potential (Vfb=-0.65±0.05 V vs NHE) was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in aqueous Na2SO3 electrolyte, providing a description of the energy levels scheme at the electrolyte-semiconductor interface. This energy levels scheme confirms PdS as a compound able to photogenerate hydrogen in a PEC. At last, photogenerated hydrogen rates are measured continuously by mass spectrometry as a function of the external bias potential under illumination, reaching values up to 4.4 ?molH2/h at 0.3 V vs Ag/AgCl. PMID:25340641

  8. Corrosion in the divisions for vacuum-carbonate removal of hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stetsenko, E.Y.; Gutman, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    A description was given of the factors effecting the corrosion of equipment involved in the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas. It was noted that heat exchangers with water as the cooling agent were particularly susceptible to corrosion. The factors effecting the corrosiveness of this water were detailed. These included the oxygen given off during heating, the pH of the water, the velocity of the water in the exchanger, and the material of construction of the exchanger. Also, a discussion of the effect of the design of the exchanger on its ease of corrosion was given. In particular, the location of inlets and outlets was discussed.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide-based therapeutics: exploiting a unique but ubiquitous gasotransmitter.

    PubMed

    Wallace, John L; Wang, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has become recognized as an important signalling molecule throughout the body, contributing to many physiological and pathological processes. In recent years, improved methods for measuring H2S levels and the availability of a wider range of H2S donors and more selective inhibitors of H2S synthesis have helped to more accurately identify the many biological effects of this highly reactive gaseous mediator. Animal studies of several H2S-releasing drugs have demonstrated considerable promise for the safe treatment of a wide range of disorders. Several such drugs are now in clinical trials. PMID:25849904

  10. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOEpatents

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  11. Amorphous nickel/cobalt tungsten sulfide electrocatalysts for high-efficiency hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lun; Wu, Xinglong; Zhu, Xiaoshu; He, Chengyu; Meng, Ming; Gan, Zhixing; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-06-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), an appealing solution for future energy supply, requires efficient and inexpensive electrocatalysts with abundant active surface sites. Although crystalline MoS2 and WS2 are promising candidates, their activity is dominated by edge sites. Amorphous tungsten sulfide prepared so far lacks the required active sites and its application has thus been hampered. In this work, nickel and cobalt incorporated amorphous tungsten sulfide synthesized by a thermolytic process is demonstrated to enhance the HER efficiency dramatically. The amorphous nickel tungsten sulfide (amorphous NiWS) annealed at 210 °C delivers the best HER performance in this system boasting a Tafel slope of 55 mV per decade and current density of 8.6 mA cm-2 at 250 mV overpotential in a sustained test for 24 h. The introduction of Ni or Co into the catalyst and subsequent thermal treatment alters the porous structure and chemical bonding states thereby increasing the density of active sites on the surface.

  12. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the disulfide-bond reducing potential of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Vasas, Anita; Dóka, Éva; Fábián, István; Nagy, Péter

    2015-04-30

    The significance of persulfide species in hydrogen sulfide biology is increasingly recognized. However, the molecular mechanisms of their formation remain largely elusive. The obvious pathway of the reduction of biologically abundant disulfide moieties by sulfide was challenged on both thermodynamic and kinetic grounds. Using DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), also known as Ellman's reagent) as a model disulfide we conducted a comprehensive kinetic study for its reaction with sulfide. The bimolecular reaction is relatively fast with a second-order rate constant of 889 ± 12 M(-1)s(-1) at pH = 7.4. pH dependence of the rate law revealed that the reaction proceeds via the bisulfide anion species with an initial nucleophilic thiol-disulfide exchange reaction to give 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) and TNB-persulfide with a pH independent second-order rate constant of 1090 ± 12 M(-1)s(-1). However, kinetic studies and stoichiometric analyses in a wide range of reactant ratios together with kinetic simulations revealed that it is a multistep process that proceeds via kinetically driven, practically irreversible reactions along the disulfide ? persulfide ? inorganic polysulfides axis. The kinetic model postulated here, which is fully consistent with the experimental data, suggests that the TNB-persulfide is further reduced by sulfide with a second-order rate constant in the range of 5 × 10(3)?- 5 × 10(4) M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.4 and eventually yields inorganic polysulfides and TNB. The reactions of cystine and GSSG with sulfide were found to be significantly slower and to occur via more complicated reaction schemes. (1)H NMR studies suggest that these reactions also generate Cys-persulfide and inorganic polysulfide species, but in contrast with DTNB, in consecutive equilibrium processes that are sensitive to changes in the reactant and product ratios. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the reaction of disulfides with sulfide is a highly system specific process from both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, which together with the considerable steady-state concentrations of the reactants in biological systems signifies physiological relevance. PMID:25512332

  13. Role of ryanodine receptors in the effects of hydrogen sulfide on transmitter release from the frog motor nerve ending.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, E V; Yakovleva, O V; Zefirov, A L; Sitdikova, G F

    2013-05-01

    We studied the role of ryanodine receptors in the effects of hydrogen sulfide on transmitter release from frog motor nerve ending. Sodium hydrosulfide (300 ?M), a donor of hydrogen sulfide, reversibly increased the frequency of miniature endplate current without changes in its amplitude-time parameters. These effects were associated with reversible increase in endplate current amplitude, which was abolished by activation of ryanodine receptors of intracellular Ca(2+)stores with caffeine (3 mM) and ryanodine (0.5 ?M). Under conditions of ryanodine receptors blockade with ryanodine (10 ?M), sodium hydrosulfide had no effect on induced transmitter release, but its effects remained unchanged during ryanodine receptors blockade with dantrolene (25 ?M). We concluded that an enhanced acetylcholine release induced by hydrogen sulfide is related to an increase of intracellular Ca(2+)concentration due to activation of ryanodine receptors for intracellular Ca(2+)-pool. PMID:23667860

  14. Measurement, analysis, and modeling of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a swine facility in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunden, Jessica

    Annual global source contributions of sulfur compounds to the natural atmospheric environment are estimated to be 142 x 106 tons. Although not quantified, volatilization from animal wastes may be an important source of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas emitted during decomposition of hog manure that produces an offensive "rotten egg" odor. Once released into the atmosphere, H 2S is oxidized and the eventual byproduct, sulfuric acid, may combine with other atmospheric constituents to form aerosol products such as ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate. In recent years, confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have increased in size, resulting in more geographically concentrated areas of animals and, subsequently, animal waste. In North Carolina and across the southeastern United States anaerobic waste treatment lagoons are traditionally used to store and treat hog excreta at commercial hog farms. Currently, no state regulations exist for H2S gaseous emissions from animal production facilities in North Carolina and the amount of H2S being emitted into the atmosphere from these potential sources is widely unknown. In response to the need for data, this research initiative has been undertaken in an effort to quantify emissions of H2S from swine CAFOs. An experimental study was conducted at a commercial swine farm in eastern North Carolina to measure hydrogen sulfide emissions from a hog housing unit utilizing a mechanical fan ventilation system and from an on-site waste storage treatment lagoon. A dynamic flow-through chamber system was employed to make lagoon flux measurements. Semi-continuous measurements were made over a one-year period (2004-2005) for a few days during each of the four predominant seasons in order to assess diurnal and temporal variability in emissions. Fan rpm from the barn was continuously measured and flow rates were calculated in order to accurately assess gaseous emissions from the system. Temperature at the fan outlet and static pressure inside the barn were measured. Lagoon samples were collected daily and analyzed for sulfide content. Lagoon parameters, temperature and pH; and atmospheric environmental parameters, ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and ambient hydrogen sulfide concentration were concurrently monitored on-site. The highest barn emissions were measured during the winter and appeared to be related to the age and weight of the animals housed inside the barn. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Physiological Implications of Hydrogen Sulfide in Plants: Pleasant Exploration behind Its Unpleasant Odour

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhuping

    2015-01-01

    Recently, overwhelming evidence has proven that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which was identified as a gasotransmitter in animals, plays important roles in diverse physiological processes in plants as well. With the discovery and systematic classification of the enzymes producing H2S in vivo, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which H2S influences plant responses to various stimuli was reached. There are many functions of H2S, including the modulation of defense responses and plant growth and development, as well as the regulation of senescence and maturation. Additionally, mounting evidence indicates that H2S signaling interacts with plant hormones, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and other molecules in signaling pathways.

  16. Occurrence and distribution of color and hydrogen sulfide in water of the principal artesian aquifers in the Valdosta area, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krause, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and color occur in objectionable amounts in ground water from the principal artesian aquifer in the Valdosta , Ga., area. Generally, water from wells south of Valdosta is high in hydrogen sulfide; water from wells north of the city is high in color. Water with high sulfate is likely to be a problem in wells deeper than about 540 ft. Heavy pumpage concentrated in a small area may cause high-sulfate water to migrate vertically upward into shallower wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. [Hydrogen sulfide removal by the combination of non-thermal plasma and biological process].

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Qin; He, Jue-Cong; Chen, Zhou-Yang; Li, Bao-Ren; Huang, Qian-Ru; Zhang, Zai-Li; Wei, Zai-Shan

    2014-04-01

    A bench scale system integrating a non-thermal plasma (NTP) unit with a biotricking filtration (BTF) unit for the treatment of gases containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was investigated. The additional use of the biotrickling filter to NTP reactor not only leads to the enhancement of hydrogen sulfide removal efficiency up from 83.4% to 90.1%, but also eliminates gas-phase intermediate products from NTP degradation of H2S to produce sulfate and H2O. The dynamic changes of microbial community in BTF influenced by ozone from NTP were assessed by PCR-DGGE. Results show that the microbial community was affected by ozone. After the integration, a part of microorganisms disappeared, and meanwhile some new microorganisms appeared. The microbial community structure in BTF changed from eight bands to nine bands; three bands which have the functions of desulfurization disappeared and four bands which have the functions of desulfurization appeared; five bands which have the functions of desulfurization and sulfate reduction were unchanged. The bacterial groups in the BTF unit of NTP-BTF system include Uncultured Thiobacillus sp., Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain dfI, Uncultured Thiobacillus sp., Uncultured Acidiphilium sp., Uncultured Xanthomonadaceae bacterium clone SBLE6C12, Uncultured 8-Proteobacterium and Paracraurococcus sp. 1PNM-27. PMID:24946573

  18. Effect of swine manure dilution on ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide releases.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Sutton, Alan L; Kelly, Dan T; Patterson, John A; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2010-11-01

    Animal manure is a significant source of environmental pollution and manure dilution in barn cleaning and slurry storage is a common practice in animal agriculture. The effect of swine manure dilution on releases of four pollutant gases was studied in a 30-day experiment using eight manure reactors divided into two groups. One group was treated with swine manure of 6.71% dry matter and another with manure diluted with water to 3.73% dry matter. Ammonia release from the diluted manure was 3.32 mg min(-1)m(-2) and was 71.0% of the 4.67 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Because the ammonia release reduction ratio was lower than the manure dilution ratio, dilution could increase the total ammonia emissions from swine manure, especially in lagoons with large liquid surface areas. Carbon dioxide release of 87.3 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the diluted manure was 56.4% of the 154.8 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Manure dry matter was an important factor for carbon dioxide release from manure. No differences were observed between the treatments (P>0.05) for both hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide releases. Therefore, dilution could also significantly increase the total releases of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide to the environment because dilution adds to the total manure volume and usually also increases the total gas release surface area. PMID:20850169

  19. Hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide-improved heat tolerance in maize and involvement of proline.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Ding, Xiao-Jiao; Du, Pei-Fang

    2013-05-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered as a phytotoxin, but nowadays as a cell signal molecule involved in growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance in higher plants. In the present study, hydrogen sulfide donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), pretreatment markedly improved germination percentage of seeds and survival percentage of seedlings of maize under heat stress, and alleviated an increase in electrolyte leakage of roots, a decrease in tissue vitality and an accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in coleoptiles of maize seedlings. In addition, pretreatment of NaHS could improve the activity of ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and lower proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activity, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous proline in maize seedlings. Also, application of proline could enhance endogenous proline content, followed by mitigated accumulation of MDA and increased survival percentage of maize seedlings under heat stress. These results suggest that sodium hydrosulfide pretreatment could improve heat tolerance of maize and the acquisition of this heat tolerance may be involved in proline. PMID:23523123

  20. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates the kidney dysfunction and damage in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin; Gharibnaseri, Mohammad Kazem; Jalali, Taha; Rashidi, Iran

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) prevents and treats a variety of disorders via its cytoprotective effects. However, the effects of H2S on rats with cisplatin (CP) nephrotoxicity are unclear. The aim was to study the effects of H2S on rats with CP nephrotoxicity. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group, nephrotoxic group received single dose of CP (6 mg kg(-1)) and nephrotoxic groups that received single dose 100 µmol kg(-1) NaHS. On fifth day after injection, urine of each rat was collected over a 24-hr period. Animals were sacrificed 6 days after CP (or vehicle) treatment, and blood, urine, and kidneys were obtained, prepared for light microscopy evaluation, lipid peroxidation content and laboratory analysis. The results showed that plasma urea (226%), creatinine (271%), renal lipid peroxidation content (151%), Na and K fractional excretion, urine protein, volume and kidney weight in CP nephrotoxic rats were significantly higher and urine osmolarity and creatinine clearance lower than in controls. Increases of the proximal tubular cells apoptosis and mesangial matrix in CP nephrotoxicity group rats were observed. Hydrogen sulfide reversed the CP-induced changes in the experimental rats H2S prevented the progression of CP nephrotoxicity in rats possibly through its cytoprotective effects such as antioxidant properties. PMID:25568705

  1. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide associations with regional bacterial diversity patterns in microbially induced concrete corrosion.

    PubMed

    Ling, Alison L; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Frank, Daniel N; Kotter, Cassandra V; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R; Hernandez, Mark T

    2014-07-01

    The microbial communities associated with deteriorating concrete corrosion fronts were characterized in 35 samples taken from wastewater collection and treatment systems in ten utilities. Bacterial communities were described using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V1V2 region of the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU-rRNA) gene recovered from fresh corrosion products. Headspace gas concentrations (hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and methane), pore water pH, moisture content, and select mineralogy were tested for correlation to community outcomes and corrosion extent using pairwise linear regressions and canonical correspondence analysis. Corroding concrete was most commonly characterized by moisture contents greater than 10%, pore water pH below one, and limited richness (<10 taxa). Bacterial community composition was not correlated to geographic location when considered independently from other environmental factors. Corrosion was most severe in sites with high levels of hydrogen sulfide (>100 ppm) and carbon dioxide (>1%) gases, conditions which also were associated with low diversity biofilms dominated by members of the acidophilic sulfur-oxidizer genus Acidithiobacillus. PMID:24842376

  2. Stable Isotope Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak-Lovato, K.

    2014-12-01

    Seepage from enhanced oil recovery, carbon storage, and natural gas sites can emit trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen sulfide. Trace gas emission at these locations demonstrate unique light stable isotope signatures that provide information to enable source identification of the material. Light stable isotope detection through surface monitoring, offers the ability to distinguish between trace gases emitted from sources such as, biological (fertilizers and wastes), mineral (coal or seams), or liquid organic systems (oil and gas reservoirs). To make light stable isotope measurements, we employ the ultra-sensitive technique, frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS). FMS is an absorption technique with sensitivity enhancements approximately 100-1000x more than standard absorption spectroscopy with the advantage of providing stable isotope signature information. We have developed an integrated in situ (point source) system that measures carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulfide with isotopic resolution and enhanced sensitivity. The in situ instrument involves the continuous collection of air and records the stable isotope ratio for the gas being detected. We have included in-line flask collection points to obtain gas samples for validation of isotopic concentrations using our in-house isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS). We present calibration curves for each species addressed above to demonstrate the sensitivity and accuracy of the system. We also show field deployment data demonstrating the capabilities of the system in making live dynamic measurements from an active source.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the calcification and osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Zavaczki, Erzsébet; Jeney, Viktória; Agarwal, Anupam; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Oros, Melinda; Katkó, Mónika; Varga, Zsuzsa; Balla, György; Balla, József

    2011-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas endogenously produced by cystathionine ?-lyase in VSMC. Here we determined whether H2S plays a role in phosphate-induced osteoblastic transformation and mineralization of VSMC. Hydrogen sulfide was found to inhibit calcium deposition in the extracellular matrix and to suppress the induction of the genes involved in osteoblastic transformation of VSMC: alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Cbfa1. Moreover, phosphate uptake and phosphate-triggered upregulation of the sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (Pit-1) were also prevented by H2S. Reduction of endogenous production of H2S by inhibition of cystathionine ?-lyase activity resulted in increased osteoblastic transformation and mineralization. Low plasma levels of H2S, associated with decreased cystathionine ?-lyase enzyme activity, were found in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis. Thus, H2S is a potent inhibitor of phosphate-induced calcification and osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC. This mechanism might contribute to accelerated vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. PMID:21716261

  4. Hydrogen sulfide removal from sediment and water in box culverts/storm drains by iron-based granules.

    PubMed

    Sun, J L; Shang, C; Kikkert, G A

    2013-01-01

    A renewable granular iron-based technology for hydrogen sulfide removal from sediment and water in box culverts and storm drains is discussed. Iron granules, including granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), granular ferric oxide (GFO) and rusted waste iron crusts (RWIC) embedded in the sediment phase removed aqueous hydrogen sulfide formed from sedimentary biological sulfate reduction. The exhausted iron granules were exposed to dissolved oxygen and this regeneration process recovered the sulfide removal capacities of the granules. The recovery is likely attributable to the oxidation of the ferrous iron precipitates film and the formation of new reactive ferric iron surface sites on the iron granules and sand particles. GFH and RWIC showed larger sulfide removal capacities in the sediment phase than GFO, likely due to the less ordered crystal structures on their surfaces. This study demonstrates that the iron granules are able to remove hydrogen sulfide from sediment and water in box culverts and storm drains and they have the potential to be regenerated and reused by contacting with dissolved oxygen. PMID:24355850

  5. Solutions to a combined problem of excessive hydrogen sulfide in biogas and struvite scaling.

    PubMed

    Charles, W; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Ho, G; Costa, M; Spencer, P

    2006-01-01

    The Woodman Point Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Western Australia has experienced two separate problems causing avoidable maintenance costs: the build-up of massive struvite (MgNH4PO4. 6H2O) scaling downstream of the anaerobic digester and the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in the digester gas to levels that compromised gas engine operation and caused high operating costs on the gas scrubber. As both problems hang together with a chemical imbalance in the anaerobic digester, we decided to investigate whether both problems could be (feasibly and economically) addressed by a common solution (such as dosing of iron solutions to precipitate both sulfide and phosphate), or by using separate approaches. Laboratory results showed that, the hydrogen sulfide emission in digesters could be effectively and economically controlled by the addition of iron dosing. Slightly higher than the theoretical value of 1.5 mol of FeCl3 was required to precipitate 1 mol of dissolved sulfide inside the digester. Due to the high concentration of PO4(3-) in the digested sludge liquor, significantly higher iron is required for struvite precipitation. Iron dosing did not appear an economic solution for struvite control via iron phosphate formation. By taking advantage of the natural tendency of struvite formation in the digester liquid, it is possible to reduce the risk of struvite precipitation in and around the sludge-dewatering centrifuge by increasing the pH to precipitate struvite out before passing through the centrifuge. However, as the Mg2+/PO4(3-) molar ratio in digested sludge was low, by increasing the pH alone (using NaOH) the precipitation of PO4(3-) was limited by the amount of cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) available in the sludge. Although this would reduce struvite precipitation in the centrifuge, it could not significantly reduce PO4(3-) recycling back to the plant. For long-term operation, maximum PO4(3-) reduction should be the ultimate aim to minimise PO4(3-) accumulation in the plant. Magnesium hydroxide liquid (MHL) was found to be the most cost-effective chemical to achieve this goal. It enhanced struvite precipitation from both, digested sludge and centrate to the point where more than 95% PO4(3-) reduction in the digested sludge was achieved. PMID:16749459

  6. A study of the reactions of arsinic and arsonic acids with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen selenide 

    E-print Network

    Applegate, Cynthia Annette

    1986-01-01

    (Figure 5) showed an absorption present at 370 cm ' which can be attributed to the presence of an arsenic-sulfur single bond [43]. A peak at 400 in the mass spectrum corresponds to the molecular ion of the molecule. The calculated value...-diarsa-2, 3, 5-triselenacyclopentane 35 Bond angles in 1, 4&ipheny1-1, 4-diarsa-2, 3, 5-triselenacyclopentane 79 80 INTRODUCTION Many arsenic sulfides occur naturally in the form of minerals due to the natural affinity of arsenic and sulfur for one...

  7. AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE FLUX AND DRY DEPOSITION VELOCITY ESTIMATES USING VERTICAL GRADIENT METHOD AT A COMMERCIAL BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide flux and dry deposition velocity were estimated using micrometeorological vertical gradient flux method at a commercial cattle feedyard of approximately 50,000 head of beef cattle and average 14.4 m2/head (150 ft2/head) stocking density. During summertime, NH3-N emission...

  8. Reducing Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Concentrations at Wastewater Collection Systems and Treatment Facilities using Chemical Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dornelle S. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater collection systems and treatment facilities are known for emitting offensive odors that cause neighboring residents to complain. One of the main odor compound contributors is hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Presently, H2S removal from wastewater facilities is mainly being accomplished by biological means relying heavily on the use of microorganisms. However, the use of microorganisms requires a more consistent and stable

  9. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  10. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  11. Industrial Sources Influence Air Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide and Sulfur Dioxide in Rural Areas of Western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Burstyn; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan; Hyang-Mi Kim; Nicola M. Cherry; Elise Pietroniro; Cheryl Waldner; George Hidy; Paul Lioy; Herbert McKee; David Mobley; Yasuko Yoshida; Azusa Ito; Masashi Murakami; Takayuki Murakami; Hideharu Fujimoto; Kikuo Takeda; Shigeru Suzuki; Masahiro Hori; Huan Liu; Kebin He; Qidong Wang; Hong Huo; James Lents; Nicole Davis; Nick Nikkila; Changhong Chen; Mauricio Osses; Chunyu He; Thomas Hilber; Michalis Agraniotis; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras; Thomas Glorius; Uwe Becker; Willy Derichs; Hans-Peter Schiffer; Martin Jong; Lucia Torri; Glynis Lough; Charles Christensen; James Schauer; James Tortorelli; Erin Mani; Douglas Lawson; Nigel Clark; Peter Gabele; Aki Virkkula; Timo; Risto Hillamo; Tarja Yli-Tuomi; Anne Hirsikko; Ismo Koponen; Nicholas Doll; John Reisel; Aro´n Jazcilevich; Alejandro Garcý´a-Fragoso; Agustý´n Reynoso; Michel Grutter; Ulises Diego-Ayala; Delbert Eatough; Nolan Mangelson; Richard Anderson; Donald Martello; Natalie Pekney; Cliff Davidson; William Modey

    2007-01-01

    A survey of monthly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at rural locations in western Canada (provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan) was conducted in 2001– 2002, as part of an epidemiological study of the effects of oil and gas industry emissions on the health of cattle. Repeated measurements were obtained at some months and

  12. Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. McKee; I. M. Pritts

    1981-01-01

    Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an 8-h period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their threshold limit values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NHâ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (COâ), hydrogen sulfide (HâS), nitrogen dioxide

  13. Distribution and Function of the Hydrogen Sulfide–Sensitive TRPA1 Ion Channel in Rat Urinary Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi Streng; Helena E. Axelsson; Petter Hedlund; David A. Andersson; Sven-Eric Jordt; Stuart Bevan; Karl-Erik Andersson; Edward D. Högestätt; Peter M. Zygmunt

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesTo investigate the distribution of the transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 ion channel in the rat urinary bladder, and to study the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and known TRPA1 activators on micturition in conscious rats and on heterologously expressed ion channels.

  14. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol to thiosulfate by rat tissues: a specialized function of the colonic mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Furne; John Springfield; Thomas Koenig; Eugene DeMaster; Michael D Levitt

    2001-01-01

    Colonic bacteria release large quantities of the highly toxic thiols hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methanethiol (CH3SH). These gases rapidly permeate the colonic mucosa, and tissue damage would be expected if the mucosa could not detoxify these compounds rapidly. We previously showed that rat cecal mucosa metabolizes these thiols via conversion to thiosulfate. The purpose of the present study in rats

  15. Specific features of the gas-chromatographic determination of the reaction products in the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Zheivot; V. N. Krivoruchko; A. S. Medvedev; O. V. Voroshina

    2006-01-01

    Specific features of the determination of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of hydrogen were studied by gas chromatography\\u000a with the use of a thermal conductivity detector and argon as the carrier gas. A chromatographic column with HayeSep A modified\\u000a with 10 wt % H3PO4 was proposed for the simultaneous determination of both components. It was demonstrated that the elution curve

  16. Gas phase recovery of hydrogen sulfide contaminated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakati, Biraj Kumar; Kucernak, Anthony R. J.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the anode of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the gas phase recovery of the contaminated PEMFC using ozone (O3) were studied. Experiments were performed on fuel cell electrodes both in an aqueous electrolyte and within an operating fuel cell. The ex-situ analyses of a fresh electrode; a H2S contaminated electrode (23 ?molH2S cm-2); and the contaminated electrode cleaned with O3 shows that all sulfide can be removed within 900 s at room temperature. Online gas analysis of the recovery process confirms the recovery time required as around 720 s. Similarly, performance studies of an H2S contaminated PEMFC shows that complete rejuvenation occurs following 600-900 s O3 treatment at room temperature. The cleaning process involves both electrochemical oxidation (facilitated by the high equilibrium potential of the O3 reduction process) and direct chemical oxidation of the contaminant. The O3 cleaning process is more efficient than the external polarization of the single cell at 1.6 V. Application of O3 at room temperature limits the amount of carbon corrosion. Room temperature O3 treatment of poisoned fuel cell stacks may offer an efficient and quick remediation method to recover otherwise inoperable systems.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates sFlt1-induced hypertension and renal damage by upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Holwerda, Kim M; Burke, Suzanne D; Faas, Marijke M; Zsengeller, Zsuzsanna; Stillman, Isaac E; Kang, Peter M; van Goor, Harry; McCurley, Amy; Jaffe, Iris Z; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Lely, A Titia

    2014-04-01

    Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), a circulating antiangiogenic protein, is elevated in kidney diseases and contributes to the development of preeclampsia. Hydrogen sulfide is a vasorelaxant and proangiogenic gas with therapeutic potential in several diseases. Therefore, we evaluated the potential therapeutic effect and mechanisms of action of hydrogen sulfide in an animal model of sFlt1-induced hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular endotheliosis created by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sFlt1 in Sprague-Dawley rats. We injected sFlt1-overexpressing animals intraperitoneally with the hydrogen sulfide-donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (50 µmol/kg, twice daily) or vehicle (n=7 per group). Treatment with NaHS for 8 days significantly reduced sFlt1-induced hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular endotheliosis. Measurement of plasma protein concentrations with ELISA revealed a reduction of free plasma sFlt1 and an increase of free plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after treatment with NaHS. Renal VEGF-A mRNA expression increased significantly with NaHS treatment. In vitro, NaHS was proangiogenic in an endothelial tube assay and attenuated the antiangiogenic effects of sFlt1. Stimulation of podocytes with NaHS resulted in both short-term VEGF release (120 minutes) and upregulation of VEGF-A mRNA levels (24 hours). Furthermore, pretreatment of mesenteric vessels with a VEGF receptor 2-neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated NaHS-induced vasodilation. These results suggest that hydrogen sulfide ameliorates sFlt1-induced hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular endotheliosis in rats by increasing VEGF expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the role of hydrogen sulfide as a novel therapeutic agent for vascular disorders such as preeclampsia. PMID:24335973

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates sFlt1-Induced Hypertension and Renal Damage by Upregulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Kim M.; Burke, Suzanne D.; Faas, Marijke M.; Zsengeller, Zsuzsanna; Stillman, Isaac E.; Kang, Peter M.; van Goor, Harry; McCurley, Amy; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), a circulating antiangiogenic protein, is elevated in kidney diseases and contributes to the development of preeclampsia. Hydrogen sulfide is a vasorelaxant and proangiogenic gas with therapeutic potential in several diseases. Therefore, we evaluated the potential therapeutic effect and mechanisms of action of hydrogen sulfide in an animal model of sFlt1-induced hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular endotheliosis created by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sFlt1 in Sprague-Dawley rats. We injected sFlt1-overexpressing animals intraperitoneally with the hydrogen sulfide–donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (50 µmol/kg, twice daily) or vehicle (n=7 per group). Treatment with NaHS for 8 days significantly reduced sFlt1-induced hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular endotheliosis. Measurement of plasma protein concentrations with ELISA revealed a reduction of free plasma sFlt1 and an increase of free plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after treatment with NaHS. Renal VEGF-A mRNA expression increased significantly with NaHS treatment. In vitro, NaHS was proangiogenic in an endothelial tube assay and attenuated the antiangiogenic effects of sFlt1. Stimulation of podocytes with NaHS resulted in both short-term VEGF release (120 minutes) and upregulation of VEGF-A mRNA levels (24 hours). Furthermore, pretreatment of mesenteric vessels with a VEGF receptor 2–neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated NaHS-induced vasodilation. These results suggest that hydrogen sulfide ameliorates sFlt1-induced hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular endotheliosis in rats by increasing VEGF expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the role of hydrogen sulfide as a novel therapeutic agent for vascular disorders such as preeclampsia. PMID:24335973

  19. Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases

    SciTech Connect

    Laufhutte, D.

    1985-04-30

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Inward-Rectifying K+ Channels in Conjunction with Stomatal Closure1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Scuffi, Denisse; Blatt, Michael R.; García-Mata, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third biological gasotransmitter, and in animals, it affects many physiological processes by modulating ion channels. H2S has been reported to protect plants from oxidative stress in diverse physiological responses. H2S closes stomata, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report the selective inactivation of current carried by inward-rectifying K+ channels of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) guard cells and show its close parallel with stomatal closure evoked by submicromolar concentrations of H2S. Experiments to scavenge H2S suggested an effect that is separable from that of abscisic acid, which is associated with water stress. Thus, H2S seems to define a unique and unresolved signaling pathway that selectively targets inward-rectifying K+ channels. PMID:25770153

  1. Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin inhibits the growth of leukemic Jurkat cells and modulates ?-catenin expression.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Nath, Niharika; Kodela, Ravinder; Sobocki, Tomasz; Metkar, Shalaka; Gan, Zong Yuan; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin (HS-ASA) is a novel compound with potential against cancer. It inhibited the growth of Jurkat T-leukemia cells with an IC?? of 1.9 ± 0.2 ?M whereas that of ASA was >5000 ?M. It dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells, causing a G?/G? cell cycle arrest. HS-ASA down-regulated ?-catenin protein levels and reduced mRNA and protein expression of ?-catenin/TCF downstream target genes cyclinD1 and c-myc. Aspirin up to 5 mM had no effect on ?-catenin expression. HS-ASA also increased caspase-3 protein levels and dose-dependently increased its activity. These effects were substantially blocked by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor. PMID:23896061

  2. Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin inhibits the growth of leukemic Jurkat cells and modulates ?-catenin expression

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Nath, Niharika; Kodela, Ravinder; Sobocki, Tomasz; Metkar, Shalaka; Gan, Zong Yuan; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin (HS-ASA) is a novel compound with potential against cancer. It inhibited the growth of Jurkat T-leukemia cells with an IC50 of 1.9 ± 0.2 µM whereas that of ASA was >5000 µM. It dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells, causing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. HS-ASA down-regulated ?-catenin protein levels and reduced mRNA and protein expression of ?-catenin/TCF downstream target genes cyclinD1 and c-myc. Aspirin up to 5 mM had no effect on ?-catenin expression. HS-ASA also increased caspase-3 protein levels and dose-dependently increased its activity. These effects were substantially blocked by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor. PMID:23896061

  3. Development of photo-controllable hydrogen sulfide donor applicable in live cells.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Naoki; Ieda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Sasakura, Kiyoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Miyata, Naoki; Nakagawa, Hidehiko

    2015-01-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has multiple physiological roles, for example, in vasodilation and inflammation. It is a highly reactive gas under ambient conditions, so controllable H2S donors are required for studying its biological functions. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and application of a H2S donor (SPD-2) that utilizes xanthone photochemistry to control H2S release. H2S generation from SPD-2 was completely dependent on UVA-irradiation (325-385nm), as confirmed by methylene blue assay and by the use of a H2S-selective fluorescent probe. SPD-2 was confirmed to provide controlled H2S delivery in live cells, and should be suitable for various biological applications. PMID:25499432

  4. ["Waste gas is not waste": advance in the research of hydrogen sulfide].

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Fang; DU, Jun-Bao; Tang, Chao-Shu

    2010-12-25

    The discovery of endogenous gasotransmitters puts forwards a new concept, "waste gas is not waste". Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is considered as a new member of gasotransmitter family, following nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Recently, the understanding of H(2)S biological effect and its mechanisms has been deepened, especially the pathophysiological significance of H(2)S in the various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, respiratory diseases, endocrine diseases, etc. This article reviews recent progress of basic, clinical and pharmacological researches related to endogenous H(2)S, including the regulatory effects of H(2)S on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and ion channels, the role of endogenous H(2)S pathway in the pathogenesis of various diseases, as well as the study of the H(2)S donor and H(2)S-related drugs. PMID:21170494

  5. Increased Growth and Germination Success in Plants following Hydrogen Sulfide Administration

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Frederick D.; Nair, Suven P.; Ward, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel way of enhancing plant growth through the use of a non-petroleum based product. We report here that exposing either roots or seeds of multicellular plants to extremely low concentrations of dissolved hydrogen sulfide at any stage of life causes statistically significant increases in biomass including higher fruit yield. Individual cells in treated plants were smaller (?13%) than those of controls. Germination success and seedling size increased in, bean, corn, wheat, and pea seeds while time to germination decreases. These findings indicated an important role of H2S as a signaling molecule that can increase the growth rate of all species yet tested. The increased crop yields reported here has the potential to effect the world's agricultural output. PMID:23614010

  6. An Anticancer Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qi; Yang, Jianqiang; Sun, Dongsheng; Li, Chunfeng; Xue, Yingwei; Jiang, Qiuying; Tian, Ye; Xu, Changqing; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can be synthesized in mammalian cells by cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and/or cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS). Both CSE and CBS are expressed in rat gastric tissues but their role in human gastric neoplasia has been unclear. The aims of the present study were to detect CSE and CBS proteins in human gastric cancer and determine the effect of exogenous NaHS on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. We found that both CSE and CBS proteins were expressed in human gastric cancer cells and upregulated in human gastric carcinoma mucosa compared with those in noncancerous gastric samples. NaHS induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by regulating apoptosis related proteins. Also, NaHS inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. An antigastric cancer role of H2S is thus indicated.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide, the Next Potent Preventive and Therapeutic Agent in Aging and Age-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Tang, Zhi-Han; Ren, Zhong; Qu, Shun-Lin; Liu, Mi-Hua; Liu, Lu-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. It is physiologically generated by cystathionine-?-lyase, cystathionine-?-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. H2S has been gaining increasing attention as an important endogenous signaling molecule because of its significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Substantial evidence shows that H2S is involved in aging by inhibiting free-radical reactions, activating SIRT1, and probably interacting with the age-related gene Klotho. Moreover, H2S has been shown to have therapeutic potential in age-associated diseases. This article provides an overview of the physiological functions and effects of H2S in aging and age-associated diseases, and proposes the potential health and therapeutic benefits of H2S. PMID:23297346

  8. Hydrogen sulfide regulates inward-rectifying k+ channels in conjunction with stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Scuffi, Denisse; Blatt, Michael R; García-Mata, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third biological gasotransmitter, and in animals, it affects many physiological processes by modulating ion channels. H2S has been reported to protect plants from oxidative stress in diverse physiological responses. H2S closes stomata, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report the selective inactivation of current carried by inward-rectifying K(+) channels of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) guard cells and show its close parallel with stomatal closure evoked by submicromolar concentrations of H2S. Experiments to scavenge H2S suggested an effect that is separable from that of abscisic acid, which is associated with water stress. Thus, H2S seems to define a unique and unresolved signaling pathway that selectively targets inward-rectifying K(+) channels. PMID:25770153

  9. Role of hydrogen sulfide in early blood-brain barrier disruption following transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zheng; Li, Chun; Manuel, Morganne L; Yuan, Shuai; Kevil, Christopher G; McCarter, Kimberly D; Lu, Wei; Sun, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We determined the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and early BBB disruption following ischemic stroke. A cranial window was prepared over the left frontal, parietal and temporal cortex in mice. Transient focal cerebral Ischemia was induced by directly ligating the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for two hours. Regional vascular response and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during ischemia and reperfusion were measured in real time. Early BBB disruption was assessed by Evans Blue (EB) and sodium fluorescein (Na-F) extravasation at 3 hours of reperfusion. Topical treatment with DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an inhibitor for cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE)) and aspartate (ASP, inhibitor for cysteine aminotransferase/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (CAT/3-MST)), but not O-(Carboxymethyl)hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (CHH, an inhibitor for cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS)), abolished postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and prevented EB and Na-F extravasation. CSE knockout (CSE-/-) reduced postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia but only inhibited Na-F extravasation. An upregulated CBS was found in cerebral cortex of CSE-/- mice. Topical treatment with CHH didn't further alter postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia, but prevented EB extravasation in CSE-/- mice. In addition, L-cysteine-induced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production similarly increased in ischemic side cerebral cortex of control and CSE-/- mice. Our findings suggest that endogenous production of H2S by CSE and CAT/3-MST during reperfusion may be involved in postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and play an important role in early BBB disruption following transient focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:25695633

  10. Physical solubility of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in alkanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Arabi, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The study was undertaken to develop a method that would make direct measurements of acid gases, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, physical solubilities in aqueous alkanolamine solutions possible. Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide physical solubilities in 20, 35, and 50% by weight diethanolamine aqueous solutions were measured. The solubility measurements were made at acid gas partial pressure up to 1000 psia and temperatures of 80, 150, 240 F. The solubility of nitrous oxide in water and in protonated diethanolamine solution was also determined at 80 F. A method that allows for direct measurements of acid gases physical solubilities has been developed. The method eliminates amines reactivity with acid gases by protonating the amines prior to their contact with acid gases. CO{sub 2} physical solubility in aqueous DEA solutions occurs mainly in the water portion of the solution. Therefore, the physical solubility of CO{sub 2} in an aqueous amine solution must be corrected based on the fraction of water in the solution. However, H{sub 2}S physical solubility in aqueous DEA solutions is the same as H{sub 2}S solubility in water. At any acid gas partial pressure, the physical solubility of H{sub 2}S is higher than that of CO{sub 2} for the same solution concentration and for the same temperature. This is also true for their solubilities is pure water. The ratio of CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S physical solubility to N{sub 2}O solubility in aqueous DEA solutions is not the same as their ratio in pure water.

  11. Design of a sorbent to enhance reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long-Jiang; Fan, Hui-Ling; Shangguan, Ju; Croiset, Eric; Chen, Zhongwei; Wang, Hui; Mi, Jie

    2014-12-10

    A series of novel zinc oxide-silica composites with three-dimensionally ordered macropores (3DOM) structure were synthesized via colloidal crystal template method and used as sorbents for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal at room temperature for the first time. The performances of the prepared sorbents were evaluated by dynamic breakthrough testing. The materials were characterized before and after adsorption using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the composite with 3DOM structure exhibited remarkable desulfurization performance at room temperature and the enhancement of reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulfide was attributed to the unique structure features of 3DOM composites; high surface areas, nanocrystalline ZnO and the well-ordered interconnected macroporous with abundant mesopores. The introduction of silica could be conducive to support the 3DOM structure and the high dispersion of zinc oxide. Moisture in the H2S stream plays a crucial role in the removal process. The effects of Zn/Si ratio and the calcination temperature of 3DOM composites on H2S removal were studied. It demonstrated that the highest content of ZnO could reach up to 73 wt % and the optimum calcination temperature was 500 °C. The multiple adsorption/regeneration cycles showed that the 3DOM ZnO-SiO2 sorbent is stable and the sulfur capacity can still reach 67.4% of that of the fresh sorbent at the fifth cycle. These results indicate that 3DOM ZnO-SiO2 composites will be a promising sorbent for H2S removal at room temperature. PMID:25382853

  12. Drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells in an HâS environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Dosch; S. F. Hodgson

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: facts about hydrogen sulfides; drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells; detection devices and protective equipment; hazard levels and safety procedures; first aid; and HâS in California oil, gas, and geothermal fields. (MHR)

  13. Drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells in an H/sub 2/S environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, M.W.; Hodgson, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: facts about hydrogen sulfides; drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells; detection devices and protective equipment; hazard levels and safety procedures; first aid; and H/sub 2/S in California oil, gas, and geothermal fields. (MHR)

  14. Quantitative evaluation of hydrogen sulfide at 0.3 M and 1.0 M-hydrogen-ion concentration 

    E-print Network

    Machel, Albert R.

    1958-01-01

    ....................... 21 8. Precipitation of Zinc (II) sulfide....................... 22 9* Bismuth (III) - Zinc (II) Separation................... 23 10. Bismuth (III) - Cobalt (II) Separation................... 25 11. Precipitation of Copper (II) sulfide.......................... 26 iv V. VI. VII. ? ???? 12. Copper (II) - Zinc (II) Separation ........ 13* Copper (II) - Nickel (II) Separation .......... 14. Precipitation of Cadmium (II) sulfide................. 15* Cadmium (II) - Nickel (II) Separation .......... C...

  15. Density functional theory studies of the adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on aluminum doped silicane.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ochoa, Francisco; Guerrero-Sánchez, Jonathan; Canto, Gabriel I; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2013-08-01

    First principles total energy calculations have been performed to study the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) adsorption on silicane, an unusual one monolayer of Si(111) surface hydrogenated on both sides. The H2S adsorption may take place in dissociative or non-dissociative forms. Silicane has been considered as: (A) non-doped with a hydrogen vacancy, and doped in two main configurations; (B) with an aluminum replacing a hydrogen atom and (C-n; n?=?1, 2, 3) with an aluminum replacing a silicon atom at a lattice site. In addition, three supercells; 4x4, 3x3 and 2x2 have been explored for both non-doped and doped silicane. The non-dissociative adsorption takes place in geometries (A), (C-1), (C-2) and (C-3) while the dissociative in (B). Adsorption energies of the dissociative case are larger than those corresponding to the non-dissociated cases. In the dissociative adsorption, the molecule is fragmented in a HS structure and a H atom which are bonded to the aluminum to form a H-S-Al-H structure. The presence of the doping produces some electronic changes as the periodicity varies. Calculations of the total density of states (DOS) indicate that in most cases the energy gap decreases as the periodicity changes from 4x4 to 2x2. The features of the total DOS are explained in terms of the partial DOS. The reported charge density plots explain quite well the chemisorptions and physisorptions of the molecule on silicane in agreement with adsorption energies. PMID:23695768

  16. Operational overview of the NASA GTE/CITE 3 airborne instrument intercomparisons for sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcneal, Robert J.; Bendura, Richard J.; Drewry, Joseph W.; Barrick, John D.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Motta, Adauto G.; Navarro, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the overall experimental design and gives a brief overview of results from the third airborne Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) mission conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment. The primary objective of CITE 3 was to evaluate the capability of instrumentation for airborne measurements of ambient concentrations of SO2, H2S, CS, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. Ancillary measurements augmented the intercomparison data in order to address the secondary objective of CITE 3 which was to address specific issues related to the budget and photochemistry of tropospheric sulfur species. The CITE 3 mission was conducted on NASA's Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft and included a ground-based intercomparison of sulfur standards and intercomparison/sulfur science flights conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, followed by flights from Natal, Brazil. Including the transit flights, CITE 3 included 16 flights encompassing approximately 96 flight hours.

  17. Mitigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions in the Geysers KGRA (Staff Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, Richard

    1981-07-01

    Violations of the ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are currently being experienced in The Geysers KGRA and could significantly increase in the future. Attainment and maintenance of the H2S AAQS is a potential constraint to optimum development of this resource. The availability of reliable H2S controls and the development of a validated air dispersion model are critical to alleviating this constraint. The purpose of this report is to assess the performance capabilities for state-of-the-art controls, to identify potential cost-effective alternative controls, and to identify the California Energy Commission (CEC) staffs efforts to develop a validated air dispersion model. Currently available controls (Stretford, Hydrogen Peroxide, and EIC) are capable of abating H2S emissions from a proposed facility to five lbs/hr. Alternative controls, such as condensate stripping and condensate pH control, appear to promising, cost-effective control option. The CEC staff is currently developing a validated air dispersion model for The Geysers KGRA. The CEC staff recommends investigation of retrofit control options for existing units, investigation of alternative control technologies, and dispersion analysis for optimum plant location in order to maximize the development potential of The Geysers KGRA. Energy cost studies suggest that the EIC process would be the most cost-effective for retrofits at The Geysers. (DJE-2005)

  18. Development of the Transferable Potentials for Phase Equilibria Model for Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mansi S; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2015-06-11

    The transferable potentials for phase equilibria force field is extended to hydrogen sulfide. The pure-component and binary vapor-liquid equilibria with methane and carbon dioxide and the liquid-phase relative permittivity are used for the parametrization of the Lennard-Jones (LJ) and Coulomb interactions, and models with three and four interaction sites are considered. For the three-site models, partial point charges are placed on the sites representing the three atoms, while the negative partial charge is moved to an off-atom site for the four-site models. The effect of molecular shape is probed using either only a single LJ interaction site on the sulfur atom or adding sites also on the hydrogen atoms. This procedure results in four distinct models, but only those with three LJ sites can accurately reproduce all properties considered for the parametrization. These two are further assessed for predictions of the liquid-phase structure, the lattice parameters and relative permittivity for the face-centered-cubic solid, and the triple point. An effective balance between LJ interactions and the dipolar and quadrupolar terms of the first-order electrostatic interactions is struck in order to obtain a four-site model that describes the condensed-phase properties and the phase equilibria with high accuracy. PMID:25981731

  19. Bile-acid-activated farnesoid X receptor regulates hydrogen sulfide production and hepatic microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Mencarelli, Andrea; Migliorati, Marco; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates expression of liver cystathionase (CSE), a gene involved in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation. METHODS: The regulation of CSE expression in response to FXR ligands was evaluated in HepG2 cells and in wild-type and FXR null mice treated with 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (6E-CDCA), a synthetic FXR ligand. The analysis demonstrated an FXR responsive element in the 5’-flanking region of the human CSE gene. The function of this site was investigated by luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Livers obtained from rats treated with carbon tetrachloride alone, or in combination with 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid, were studied for hydrogen sulphide generation and portal pressure measurement. RESULTS: Liver expression of CSE is regulated by bile acids by means of an FXR-mediated mechanism. Western blotting, qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as immunohistochemical analysis, showed that expression of CSE in HepG2 cells and in mice is induced by treatment with an FXR ligand. Administration of 6E-CDCA to carbon tetrachloride treated rats protected against the down-regulation of CSE expression, increased H2S generation, reduced portal pressure and attenuated the endothelial dysfunction of isolated and perfused cirrhotic rat livers. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that CSE is an FXR-regulated gene and provide a new molecular explanation for the pathophysiology of portal hypertension. PMID:19418582

  20. Comparative study of using different materials as bacterial carriers to treat hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Zhu, Nanwen; Cao, Xinde; Jia, Jinping

    2008-12-01

    The use of support media for the immobilization of microorganisms is widely known to provide a surface for microbial growth and protect the microorganisms from inhibitory compounds. In this study, molecular sieve, granular porous carbon, and ferric oxide desulfurizer, immobilized with autotrophic bacteria capable of oxidizing ferrous iron to ferric iron, were developed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Their corresponding bioreactors were referred to as BMS, BPC, and BFO, respectively. H(2)S loading, gas retention time, hydrogen ion, and aluminous, ferric, and ferrous iron concentrations of recycling effluents were evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis, Brauner-Emmett-Teller method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize packing materials. Results showed that the elimination capacity was in the order of BFO > BPC > BMS. This study suggested that the material characteristics progressively influenced the deodorization capacities of bioreactors. H(2)S was oxidized into elemental sulfur and oxidized sulfur species, according to differences of carriers. Furthermore, this study revealed the potential application of simultaneously treating of H(2)S under extremely acidic conditions. PMID:18949473

  1. Kinetics and mechanisms of iron sulfide reductions in hydrogen and in carbon monoxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiltowski, T.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, G.V.; Nishizawa, T.; Saporoschenko, M.; Shiley, R.H.; Webster, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The reduction of iron sulfides by hydrogen and by carbon monoxide has been studied using plug flow and thermogravimetric methods. The reactions were studied in the 523-723??K temperature range and were found to be first-order processes. Plug flow studies were used to correlate reaction rates between pyrite and the gases as a function of the surface area of the pyrite. The rate of H2S formation increases with the surface area of the pyrite sample. The results of thermogravimetric experiments indicate that the reactions consist of several steps. Rate constants for the pyrite reduction by H2 and by CO were obtained. The activation energies increased with degree of reduction. Values of Ea were 113.2 (step I) and 122.5 kJ/mole (step II) for pyrite reduction with CO and 99.4 (step I), 122.4 (step II), 125.2 (step III), and 142.6 kJ/mole (step IV) for pyrite reduction with hydrogen. ?? 1987.

  2. Vasoactivity of hydrogen sulfide in normoxic and anoxic turtles (Trachemys scripta).

    PubMed

    Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Skovgaard, Nini; Nilsson, Göran E; Wang, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    Systemic vascular resistance (R(sys)) of freshwater turtles increases substantially during anoxia, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), an endogenously produced metabolite believed to be an O(2) sensor/transducer of vasomotor tone, contributes to the increased R(sys) of anoxic red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta). Vascular infusion of the H(2)S donor NaHS in anesthetized turtles at 21 degrees C and fully recovered normoxic turtles at 5 degrees C and 21 degrees C revealed H(2)S to be a potent vasoconstrictor of the systemic circulation. Likewise, wire myography of isolated turtle mesenteric and pulmonary arteries demonstrated H(2)S to mediate an anoxia-induced constriction. Intriguingly, however, NaHS did not exert vasoconstrictory effects during anoxia (6 h at 21 degrees C; 14 days at 5 degrees C) when plasma H(2)S concentration, estimated from the colorimetric measurement of plasma acid-labile sulfide concentration, likely increased by approximately 3- and 4-fold during anoxia at 21 degrees C, and 5 degrees C, respectively. Yet, blockade of endogenous H(2)S production by DL-propargylglycine or hydroxylamine (0.44 mmol/kg) partially reversed the decreased systemic conductance (G(sys)) exhibited by 5 degrees C anoxic turtles. These findings suggest that the signal transduction pathway of H(2)S-mediated vasoactivity is either maximally activated in the systemic circulation of anoxic turtles and/or that it is oxygen dependent. PMID:20164201

  3. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part I. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Csaba; Ransy, Céline; Módis, Katalin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Murghes, Baptiste; Coletta, Ciro; Olah, Gabor; Yanagi, Kazunori; Bouillaud, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was exclusively viewed a toxic gas and an environmental hazard, with its toxicity primarily attributed to the inhibition of mitochondrial Complex IV, resulting in a shutdown of mitochondrial electron transport and cellular ATP generation. Work over the last decade established multiple biological regulatory roles of H2S, as an endogenous gaseous transmitter. H2S is produced by cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). In striking contrast to its inhibitory effect on Complex IV, recent studies showed that at lower concentrations, H2S serves as a stimulator of electron transport in mammalian cells, by acting as a mitochondrial electron donor. Endogenous H2S, produced by mitochondrially localized 3-MST, supports basal, physiological cellular bioenergetic functions; the activity of this metabolic support declines with physiological aging. In specialized conditions (calcium overload in vascular smooth muscle, colon cancer cells), CSE and CBS can also associate with the mitochondria; H2S produced by these enzymes, serves as an endogenous stimulator of cellular bioenergetics. The current article overviews the biochemical mechanisms underlying the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H2S on mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics and discusses the implication of these processes for normal cellular physiology. The relevance of H2S biology is also discussed in the context of colonic epithelial cell physiology: colonocytes are exposed to high levels of sulfide produced by enteric bacteria, and serve as a metabolic barrier to limit their entry into the mammalian host, while, at the same time, utilizing it as a metabolic ‘fuel’. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:23991830

  4. Physiological role of hydrogen sulfide and polysulfide in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known toxic gas that has the smell of rotten eggs. This pungent gas was considered as a physiological mediator, after the identification of endogenous sulfides in the mammalian brain. H2S is produced from L-cysteine by enzymes such as cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). We recently identified a fourth pathway, where H2S is produced from D-cysteine by the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) along with 3MST. We demonstrated that H2S is a neuromodulator that facilitates hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) by enhancing the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. It also induces Ca(2+) influx in the astrocytes by activating the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channels. In addition to being a signaling molecule, it also functions as a neuroprotective agent by enhancing the production of glutathione, a major intracellular antioxidant that scavenges the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria. H2S regulates the activity of the enzymes by incorporating the bound sulfane sulfur to cysteine residues. This modification is known as sulfhydration or sulfuration. The neuroprotective ubiquitin E3 ligase, parkin, enhances its neuroprotective activity by this modification. This review is focused on the functional role of H2S as a signaling molecule and as a cytoprotectant in the nervous system. In addition, this review shows the recent findings that indicate that the H2S-derived polysulfides found in the brain activate TRPA1 channels more potently than parental H2S. PMID:24036365

  5. Sulfur isotopic evidence of large release of hydrogen sulfide during P-T transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, V. K.; Mane, P.; Shukla, A. D.; Jackson, T. L.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Permo-Triassic mass extinction is the most devastating event in the history of life on Earth and occurred circa 251 Ma ago. The exact cause of extinction remains uncertain. In order to understand the cause of extinction, we studied the sulfur isotopes and redox sensitive elements from the P-T section of Spiti valley of Himalaya, India. In Spiti valley, 1-10 cm of ferruginous band of sediments separates the Permian shale from Triassic limestone. Analyses of redox sensitive elements such as As, Mo, As, Ni, Sb, Th, Mn and Fe show clear evidence of anoxia or euxinia. The total sulfur content of overlying Triassic limestones varies from 0.1 to 0.25% with ?34S values between -17.7 to -6.4 %. The underlying shales contains 0.2 to 0.4 wt% of sulfur with ?34S of sulfate ranging from -16 to -19.8 %. Whereas sulfate content from the boundary are an order of magnitude higher and varies from 1% to 2.5 wt % with ?34S ranging between -13 to -15.4 %. Both above and below the extinction boundary, the ?34S of pyrites are in general lighter than their sulfate counterpart and this most likely results from bacterial reduction of sulfate. The trend is reversed at the boundary where the pyrites are much heavier than sulfate. We believe that this heavy sulfur isotope composition is due to preferential loss of light sulfur isotope during hydrogen sulfide loss to atmosphere. This occurred when chemocline which separates sulfidic deep water from sulfate rich (oxygenated) water abruptly moved upward to the surface. This migration emits copious amounts of H2S to the atmosphere which may be an associated cause for the extinction.

  6. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

    2005-10-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

  7. Catalytic performance and deactivation of precipitated iron catalyst for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in the waste gas streams from coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas N. Mashapa; Johann D. Rademan; Matthys J. Janse van Vuuren

    2007-01-01

    The selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, using a commercial, precipitated silica promoted ferric oxide based catalyst, was investigated in laboratory and pilot-plant reactors. Low levels of hydrogen sulfide (1-3 vol%) can be readily removed, but a continuous slow decrease in catalyst activity was apparent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the loss of activity was due to the

  8. Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

    1983-01-01

    The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  9. Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and polymeric succinimide compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a process for making an additive for lubricants comprising co-reacting: (a) an olefin; (b) sulfur; (c) hydrogen sulfide; and (d) a polymeric succinimide selected from the group consisting of the reaction products of polymeric succinic anhydride with one or more reactants selected from the group consisting of: (a) polyethylene amines selected from the group consisting of diethylene triamines, treithylenetetramine, and tetraethylenepentamine; (b) hydroxyl containing amines, and; (c) polyols in conjunction with (a) or (b) selected from the group consisting of pentaerythritol, and trimethylol propane; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric succinimide, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of about 3 to about 0.5, about 0.001, to about 0.4, and about 0.5 to about 0.7, respectively.

  10. Phosphorylation of BK channels modulates the sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

    PubMed Central

    Sitdikova, Guzel F.; Fuchs, Roman; Kainz, Verena; Weiger, Thomas M.; Hermann, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gases, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), or hydrogen sulfide (H2S), termed gasotransmitters, play an increasingly important role in understanding of how electrical signaling of cells is modulated. H2S is well-known to act on various ion channels and receptors. In a previous study we reported that H2S increased calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel activity. Aims: The goal of the present study is to investigate the modulatory effect of BK channel phosphorylation on the action of H2S on the channel as well as to recalculate and determine the H2S concentrations in aqueous sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) solutions. Methods: Single channel recordings of GH3, GH4, and GH4 STREX cells were used to analyze channel open probability, amplitude, and open dwell times. H2S was measured with an anion selective electrode. Results: The concentration of H2S produced from NaHS was recalculated taking pH, temperature salinity of the perfusate, and evaporation of H2S into account. The results indicate that from a concentration of 300 ?M NaHS, only 11–13%, i.e., 34–41 ?M is effective as H2S in solution. GH3, GH4, and GH4 STREX cells respond differently to phosphorylation. BK channel open probability (Po) of all cells lines used was increased by H2S in ATP-containing solutions. PKA prevented the action of H2S on channel Po in GH4 and GH4 STREX, but not in GH3 cells. H2S, high significantly increased Po of all PKG pretreated cells. In the presence of PKC, which lowers channel activity, H2S increased channel Po of GH4 and GH4 STREX, but not those of GH3 cells. H2S increased open dwell times of GH3 cells in the absence of ATP significantly. A significant increase of dwell times with H2S was also observed in the presence of okadaic acid. Conclusions: Our results suggest that phosphorylation by PKG primes the channels for H2S activation and indicate that channel phosphorylation plays an important role in the response to H2S. PMID:25429270

  11. The influence of chemical composition and microstructure of API linepipe steels on hydrogen induced cracking and sulfide stress corrosion cracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogério Augusto Carneiro; Rajindra Clement Ratnapuli; Vanessa de Freitas Cunha Lins

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition and microstructure are known to have a significant effect on the resistance to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) of structural steels in wet H2S environments. In this paper, the influence of microstructure on HIC and SSCC behavior of two low C–Mn–Nb–Mo API linepipe steels has been investigated. Subjecting the steel to different

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of type 321 stainless steels in simulated petrochemical process environments containing hydrogen sulfide and chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Y. Chen; Y. M. Liou; H. C. Shih

    2005-01-01

    The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of type 321 stainless steel (type 321s) in a simulated petrochemical process environment containing hydrogen sulfide and chloride (20wt.% NaCl+0.01M Na2S2O3, pH 2) was assessed using the slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test and static load (U-bend) tests at the free corrosion potentials. In the SSRT, effects of environmental factors, such as chloride

  13. Concentrations of bioaerosols, odors, and hydrogen sulfide inside and downwind from two types of swine livestock operations.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Peter S; Ansley, Anne C; Perry, Sarah Spencer

    2009-04-01

    Few data on in-barn and downwind concentrations of endotoxin, bioaerosols, and odors from livestock facilities are available, and no studies have compared conventional confinement operations with the more animal-friendly hoop operations. Hoops are open to the environment and use a composted bedding system rather than housing pigs on slatted floors over pits holding manure slurry as in conventional confinements. We assessed airborne toxicants upwind, in barns, and downwind and evaluated determinants of exposure. Inhalable particulate matter, endotoxin, odor threshold, hydrogen sulfide, culturable mesophilic bacteria, culturable fungi, and total airborne microbes, along with wind speed, temperature, and humidity were measured at separate midsized livestock facilities (one hoop, one confinement) in Central Iowa on 10 occasions over 2 years. Significant differences in contaminants were observed between hoops and confinement buildings and across seasons for endotoxin, odors, airborne microorganisms, and hydrogen sulfide. For hoops and confinements, respectively, geometric mean in-barn concentrations were 3250 and 3100 EU/m(3) for endotoxin; 1400 and 1910 microg/m(3) for particulates; 19.6 and 146 ppb for hydrogen sulfide; 137 and 428 dilutions for odor threshold; and 3.0 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(6) organisms/m(3) for total microbes. Endotoxin, odor, and culturable microorganisms exceeded recommended exposure limits. Reduced analysis of variance models for these contaminants demonstrated differences by barn type, season, number of pigs, and, in some cases, temperature and humidity. Both types of swine operations produced high airborne concentrations of endotoxin, odor, hydrogen sulfide, bacteria, and fungi. Endotoxin and odors were found downwind at concentrations previously associated with adverse health effects. PMID:19177273

  14. Effect of Sulfide Removal on Sulfate Reduction at pH 5 in a Hydrogen fed Gas-Lift Bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn F. M. Bijmans; M. Dopson; P. N. L. Lens; C. J. N. Buisman

    2008-01-01

    UNCORRECTED PROOF J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2007), 17(4), ¿ Effect of Sulfide Removal on Sulfate Reduction at pH 5 in a Hydrogen fed Gas-Lift Bioreactor Bijmans, Martijn F. M.1*, Mark Dopson2, Frederick Ennin1, Piet N. L. Lens1, and Cees J. N. Buisman1 1Sub Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands 2Department

  15. The endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine-? synthase contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Yin Xu; John H Winston; Mohan Shenoy; Shufang Zhou; Jiande DZ Chen; Pankaj J Pasricha

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, a characteristic pathophysiological feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), remains elusive. Recent studies suggest a role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in pain signaling but this has not been well studied in visceral models of hyperalgesia. We therefore determined the role for the endogenous H2S producing enzyme cystathionine-?-synthetase (CBS) in a validated rat model of

  16. Kinetics of the absorption of hydrogen sulfide by high purity and doped high surface area zinc oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michael Davidson; Catriona H. Lawrie; Khalid Sohail

    1995-01-01

    Zinc oxide is used for removal of hydrogen sulfide from reformer feeds, synthesis gas, and natural gas before pipeline transmission. The stoichiometry and rate of the reaction of HâS (0.05--0.80% in Nâ) with high surface area ZnO have been studied at 273--318 K. Absorption of HâS by ZnO is not accompanied by evolution of the stoichiometric amount of HâO which

  17. Transient behavior of biofilter inoculated with Thiobacillus sp. IW to treat waste-air containing hydrogen sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang-Hee Lim; Sang-Won Park

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is heavier than air and is colorless, toxic and flammable, the gas odor threshold of which is about 0.47\\u000a ppbv, which causes nuisance odor at concentrations as low as about 8ppbv and corrosion problems in sewer systems. The transient\\u000a behavior of biofilter packed with mixed media (of granular activated carbon and compost) inoculated with a pure culture of

  18. Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Ammonia, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Sulfide, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL W. McCONNAUGHEY; ELMER S. McKEE; IRVIN M. PRITTS

    1985-01-01

    Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an eight-hour period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their Threshold Limit Values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide

  19. NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a residence time of 18.8 s with a flow rate of 39.4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s (5 ft{sup 3}/h) and a specific energy of 13,000 J/l using niobium and platinum coated stainless steel tubes as cathodes. Under these conditions, the First Law efficiency for the system was 8%. Under similar reaction conditions, methane conversions were {approx}50% higher with niobium and platinum coated stainless steel cathodes than with a stainless steel cathode.

  20. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability has not been observed. A new test cell specially designed to test the membranes has been constructed to provide basic science data on superpermeability.

  1. Laboratory tests of phenol removal and ammonia and hydrogen sulfide stripping from SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Chem-Pro Corporation conducted a laboratory testing program to evaluate the use of its proprietary dephenolization process on wastewater from the SRC-I direct coal-liquefaction process. A primary objective was to develop operating conditions for use of the process on water that had not been stripped of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Also evaluated were the steps following phenol removal: raffinate stripping (solvent removal), ammonia/hydrogen sulfide stripping, and solvent and phenol recovery distillation. With an overall throughput of 1000 gal/hr-ft/sup 2/ and a feed-to-solvent ratio of 8:1, the total phenolics concentration was successfully reduced during the extraction step below the 120-ppM specification. The presence of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ set an upper limit on the steam rate for solvent-stripping; exceeding this rate caused solids to precipitate. Ammonia can be stripped from dephenolized, solvent-stripped water to below 200 ppM and hydrogen sulfide to slightly above 10 ppM. 3 references, 1 figure, 8 tables.

  2. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based study on serum metabolomics in rats chronically poisoned with hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Mingjie; Zhang, Meiling; Huang, Xueli; Ma, Jianshe; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide poisoning is a common occupational hazard, whose mortality and incidence rates are first and second, respectively, among occupational poisoning incidents in China. The main target organs of its toxicity are in the central nervous system and respiratory system. However, there are currently no specific direct tests that can be used to diagnose poisoned patients. In this study, we developed a serum metabonomic method using orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA), based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to evaluate the effect of chronic poisoning by hydrogen sulfide in rats. The OPLS-DA data demonstrated that the model group (n = 60) differed significantly from the control group (n = 30), suggesting that the metabolic profiles of the two groups are markedly different. Alterations in the levels of some metabolites such as citrate, galactose, lactate, mannose, inositol, urea, phosphate, alanine and valine were detected by OPLS-DA analysis. We observed changes in metabolic pathways including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and amino metabolism in the model group. Our results indicate that GC/MS-based metabonomic methods may provide novel detection means for chronic hydrogen sulfide poisoning. PMID:25882152

  3. Immobilization of Thiobacillus Denitrificans for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in sour water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry L. Sublette

    1989-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that viable cells of the chemoautotroph and facultative anaerobeThiobacillus denitrificans can be used to remove soluble sulfides from sour water with anaerobic oxidation to sulfate. A packed bed of immobilized T.denitrificans was capable of removing all traces of sulfide from an aqueous feed stream containing 26 ppm sulfide during a continuous 12\\u000a day test. Calcium carbonate

  4. Endogenous generation of hydrogen sulfide and its regulation in Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Genfu; Li, Ning; Mao, Yinting; Zhou, Guangqi; Gao, Haichun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a physiological mediator with a variety of functions across all domains of life. In this study, mechanisms of endogenous H2S generation in Shewanella oneidensis were investigated. As a research model with highly diverse anaerobic respiratory pathways, the microorganism is able to produce H2S by respiring on a variety of sulfur-containing compounds with SirACD and PsrABC enzymatic complexes, as well as through cysteine degradation with three enzymes, MdeA, SO_1095, and SseA. We showed that the SirACD and PsrABC complexes, which are predominantly, if not exclusively, responsible for H2S generation via respiration of sulfur species, do not interplay with each other. Strikingly, a screen for regulators controlling endogenous H2S generation by transposon mutagenesis identified global regulator Crp to be essential to all H2S-generating processes. In contrast, Fnr and Arc, two other global regulators that have a role in respiration, are dispensable in regulating H2S generation via respiration of sulfur species. Interestingly, Arc is involved in the H2S generation through cysteine degradation by repressing expression of the mdeA gene. We further showed that expression of the sirA and psrABC operons is subjected to direct regulation of Crp, but the mechanisms underlying the requirement of Crp for H2S generation through cysteine degradation remain elusive. PMID:25972854

  5. Endogenous generation of hydrogen sulfide and its regulation in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Genfu; Li, Ning; Mao, Yinting; Zhou, Guangqi; Gao, Haichun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a physiological mediator with a variety of functions across all domains of life. In this study, mechanisms of endogenous H2S generation in Shewanella oneidensis were investigated. As a research model with highly diverse anaerobic respiratory pathways, the microorganism is able to produce H2S by respiring on a variety of sulfur-containing compounds with SirACD and PsrABC enzymatic complexes, as well as through cysteine degradation with three enzymes, MdeA, SO_1095, and SseA. We showed that the SirACD and PsrABC complexes, which are predominantly, if not exclusively, responsible for H2S generation via respiration of sulfur species, do not interplay with each other. Strikingly, a screen for regulators controlling endogenous H2S generation by transposon mutagenesis identified global regulator Crp to be essential to all H2S-generating processes. In contrast, Fnr and Arc, two other global regulators that have a role in respiration, are dispensable in regulating H2S generation via respiration of sulfur species. Interestingly, Arc is involved in the H2S generation through cysteine degradation by repressing expression of the mdeA gene. We further showed that expression of the sirA and psrABC operons is subjected to direct regulation of Crp, but the mechanisms underlying the requirement of Crp for H2S generation through cysteine degradation remain elusive. PMID:25972854

  6. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Jiao, Chengjin; Su, Miao; Yang, Tao; Zhou, Lina; Peng, Renyi; Wang, Ranran; Wang, Chongying

    2013-09-01

    Flooding of soils often results in hypoxic conditions surrounding plant roots, which is a harmful abiotic stress to crops. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly diffusible, gaseous molecule that modulates cell signaling and is involved in hypoxia signaling in animal cells. However, there have been no previous studies of H2S in plant cells in response to hypoxia. The effects of H2S on hypoxia-induced root tip death were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) via analysis of endogenous H2S and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The activities of key enzymes involved in antioxidative and H2S metabolic pathways were determined using spectrophotometric assays. Ethylene was measured by gas chromatography. We found that exogenous H2S pretreatment dramatically alleviated hypoxia-induced root tip death by protecting root tip cell membranes from ROS damage induced by hypoxia and by stimulating a quiescence strategy through inhibiting ethylene production. Conversely, root tip death induced by hypoxia was strongly enhanced by inhibition of the key enzymes responsible for endogenous H2S biosynthesis. Our results demonstrated that exogenous H2S pretreatment significantly alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in pea seedlings and, therefore, enhances the tolerance of the plant to hypoxic stress. PMID:23800663

  7. CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) IN HYPOXIC SENSING BY THE CAROTID BODY

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

    2012-01-01

    Carotid bodies are sensory organs for monitoring arterial blood oxygen (O2) levels, and the ensuing reflexes maintain cardio-respiratory homeostasis during hypoxia. This article provides a brief update of the role of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in hypoxic sensing by the carotid body. Glomus cells, the primary site of O2 sensing in the carotid body express heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), a CO catalyzing enzyme. HO-2 is a heme containing enzyme and has high affinity for O2. Hypoxia inhibits HO-2 activity and reduces CO generation. Pharmacological and genetic approaches suggest that CO inhibits carotid body sensory activity. Stimulation of carotid body activity by hypoxia may reflect reduced formation of CO. Glomus cells also express cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), an H2S generating enzyme. Exogenous application of H2S donors, like hypoxia, stimulate the carotid body activity and CSE knockout mice exhibit severely impaired sensory excitation by hypoxia, suggesting that CSE catalyzed H2S is an excitatory gas messenger. Hypoxia increases H2S generation in the carotid body, and this response was attenuated or absent in CSE knockout mice. HO inhibitor increased and CO donor inhibited H2S generation. It is proposed that carotid body response to hypoxia requires interactions between HO-2-CO and CSE-H2S systems. PMID:22664830

  8. Mitigation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions by stable aqueous foam-microbial media.

    PubMed

    Park, Jooyoung; Lee, Seung-Ryong; Han, Joon Kyoung; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2006-05-01

    Stable aqueous foam-microbial media consisting of protein-based foams and odor-degrading bacteria were developed to control the emissions of odorous compounds. The optimum foam formulation was determined based on foam characteristics including 50% drainage time, foam lifetime, and foam expansion ratio. When only the aqueous foam was applied onto the surface of a test odor source (i.e., swine manure), ammonia emission was completely suppressed for about 177, 225, 265, 297, and 471 min when the height of foam barrier was 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 30 cm, respectively. According to the increasing foam height, ammonia emission rates after breakthrough points decreased to 0.16, 0.13, 0.09, 0.07, and 0.02 mg/m3/min, and thus volatilized ammonia concentrations decreased significantly after 600 min. Hydrogen sulfide was similarly suppressed. Ammonia emission was better controlled by incorporating odor-degrading bacteria into the aqueous foam. The odor suppression capacity of the 5-cm foam barrier with microbes was more than eight times greater than that of the barrier only and was similar to that of 30-cm foam barrier without microbes after 1440 min. A significant amount of dinitrogen gas was evolved by the foam-microbial media, indicating a successful biological transformation of ammonia. PMID:16719107

  9. A Practical Look at the Chemistry and Biology of Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is garnering increasing interest as a biologically relevant signaling molecule. The effects of H2S have now been observed in virtually every organ system and numerous physiological processes. Recent Advances: These studies have not only opened a new field of “gasotransmitter” biology, they have also led to the development of synthetic H2S “donating” compounds with the potential to be parlayed into a variety of therapeutic applications. Critical Issues: Often lost in the exuberance of this new field is a critical examination or understanding of practical aspects of H2S chemistry and biology. This is especially notable in the areas of handling and measuring H2S, evaluating biosynthetic and metabolic pathways, and separating physiological from pharmacological responses. Future Directions: This brief review describes some of the pitfalls in H2S chemistry and biology that can lead or have already led to misleading or erroneous conclusions. The intent is to allow individuals entering or already in this burgeoning field to critically analyze the literature and to assist them in the design of future experiments. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 32–44. PMID:22074253

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Deactivates Common Nitrobenzofurazan-Based Fluorescent Thiol Labeling Reagents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including thiols and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), play important but differential roles in biological structure and function. One major challenge in separating the biological roles of thiols and H2S is developing tools to effectively separate the reactivity of these sulfhydryl-containing compounds. To address this challenge, we report the differential responses of common electrophilic fluorescent thiol labeling reagents, including nitrobenzofurazan-based scaffolds, maleimides, alkylating agents, and electrophilic aldehydes, toward cysteine and H2S. Although H2S reacted with all of the investigated scaffolds, the photophysical response to each scaffold was significantly different. Maleimide-based, alkylating, and aldehydic thiol labeling reagents provided a diminished fluorescence response when treated with H2S. By contrast, nitrobenzofurazan-based labeling reagents were deactivated by H2S addition. Furthermore, the addition of H2S to thiol-activated nitrobenzofurazan-based reagents reduced the fluorescence signal, thus establishing the incompatibility of nitrobenzofurazan-based thiol labeling reagents in the presence of H2S. Taken together, these studies highlight the differential reactivity of thiols and H2S toward common thiol-labeling reagents and suggest that sufficient care must be taken when labeling or measuring thiols in cellular environments that produce H2S due to the potential for both false-positive and eroded responses. PMID:24852143

  11. Emergence of Hydrogen Sulfide as an Endogenous Gaseous Signaling Molecule in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polhemus, David J.; Lefer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Long recognized as a malodorous and highly toxic gas, recent experimental studies have revealed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced enzymatically in all mammalian species including man and exerts a number of critical actions to promote cardiovascular homeostasis and health. During the past 15 years, scientists have determined that H2S is produced by three endogenous enzymes and exerts powerful effects on endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear transcription factors. These effects have been reported in multiple organ systems and the vast majority of data clearly indicate that H2S produced by the endogenous enzymes exerts cytoprotective actions. Recent preclinical studies investigating cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that the administration of physiological or pharmacological levels of H2S attenuates myocardial injury, protects blood vessels, limits inflammation, and regulates blood pressure. H2S has emerged as a critical cardiovascular signaling molecule similar to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) with a profound impact on the heart and circulation (Figure 1). Our improved understanding of how H2S elicits protective actions, coupled with the very rapid development of novel H2S releasing agents, has resulted in heightened enthusiasm for the clinical translation of this ephemeral gaseous molecule. This review will examine our current state of knowledge regarding the actions of H2S within the cardiovascular system with an emphasis on the therapeutic potential and molecular crosstalk between H2S, NO, and CO. PMID:24526678

  12. The Cardioprotective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in Heart Diseases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yaqi; Shen, Zhuqing; Luo, Shanshan; Guo, Wei; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as a third gaseous mediator along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), though it was originally considered as a malodorous and toxic gas. H2S is produced endogenously from cysteine by three enzymes in mammalian tissues. An increasing body of evidence suggests the involvement of H2S in different physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that H2S has the potential to protect the heart against myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, fibrosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure. Some mechanisms, such as antioxidative action, preservation of mitochondrial function, reduction of apoptosis, anti-inflammatory responses, angiogenic actions, regulation of ion channel, and interaction with NO, could be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of H2S. Although several mechanisms have been identified, there is a need for further research to identify the specific molecular mechanism of cardioprotection in different cardiac diseases. Therefore, insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying H2S action in the heart may promote the understanding of pathophysiology of cardiac diseases and lead to new therapeutic targets based on modulation of H2S production. PMID:26078822

  13. High-pressure hydrogen sulfide from first principles: a strongly anharmonic phonon-mediated superconductor.

    PubMed

    Errea, Ion; Calandra, Matteo; Pickard, Chris J; Nelson, Joseph; Needs, Richard J; Li, Yinwei; Liu, Hanyu; Zhang, Yunwei; Ma, Yanming; Mauri, Francesco

    2015-04-17

    We use first-principles calculations to study structural, vibrational, and superconducting properties of H_{2}S at pressures P?200??GPa. The inclusion of zero-point energy leads to two different possible dissociations of H2S, namely 3H2S?2H3S+S and 5H2S?3H3S+HS2, where both H3S and HS2 are metallic. For H3S, we perform nonperturbative calculations of anharmonic effects within the self-consistent harmonic approximation and show that the harmonic approximation strongly overestimates the electron-phonon interaction (??2.64 at 200 GPa) and Tc. Anharmonicity hardens H?S bond-stretching modes and softens H?S bond-bending modes. As a result, the electron-phonon coupling is suppressed by 30% (??1.84 at 200 GPa). Moreover, while at the harmonic level Tc decreases with increasing pressure, the inclusion of anharmonicity leads to a Tc that is almost independent of pressure. High-pressure hydrogen sulfide is a strongly anharmonic superconductor. PMID:25933334

  14. High-Pressure Hydrogen Sulfide from First Principles: A Strongly Anharmonic Phonon-Mediated Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, Ion; Calandra, Matteo; Pickard, Chris J.; Nelson, Joseph; Needs, Richard J.; Li, Yinwei; Liu, Hanyu; Zhang, Yunwei; Ma, Yanming; Mauri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    We use first-principles calculations to study structural, vibrational, and superconducting properties of H2S at pressures P ?200 GPa . The inclusion of zero-point energy leads to two different possible dissociations of H2S , namely 3 H2S ?2 H3S +S and 5 H2S ?3 H3S +HS2 , where both H3S and HS2 are metallic. For H3S , we perform nonperturbative calculations of anharmonic effects within the self-consistent harmonic approximation and show that the harmonic approximation strongly overestimates the electron-phonon interaction (? ?2.64 at 200 GPa) and Tc. Anharmonicity hardens H-S bond-stretching modes and softens H-S bond-bending modes. As a result, the electron-phonon coupling is suppressed by 30% (? ?1.84 at 200 GPa). Moreover, while at the harmonic level Tc decreases with increasing pressure, the inclusion of anharmonicity leads to a Tc that is almost independent of pressure. High-pressure hydrogen sulfide is a strongly anharmonic superconductor.

  15. Performance of biotrickling filters for hydrogen sulfide removal under starvation and shock loads conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan-he; Meng, Xiu-li; Wang, Ying; Liu, Li-dan

    2009-01-01

    In the industrial operation of biotrickling filters for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal, shock loads or starvation was common due to process variations or equipment malfunctions. In this study, effects of starvation and shock loads on the performance of biotrickling filters for H2S removal were investigated. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the changes of biomass and viable bacteria numbers in the biotrickling filters during a 24-d starvation. Compared to biomass, viable bacteria numbers decreased significantly during the starvation, especially when airflow was maintained in the absence of spray liquid. During the subsequent re-acclimation, all the bioreactors could resume high removal efficiencies within 4 d regardless of the previous starvation conditions. The results show that the re-acclimation time, in the case of biotrickling filters for H2S removal, is mainly controlled by viable H2S oxidizing bacteria numbers. On the other hand, the biotrickling filters can protect against shock loads in inlet fluctuating H2S concentration after resuming normal operation. When the biotrickling filters were supplied with H2S at an input of lower than 1700 mg/m3, their removal efficiencies were nearly 98% regardless of previous H2S input. PMID:19650198

  16. The mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption on fine rubber particle media (FRPM).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Park, Jaeyoung; Ellis, Timothy G

    2013-09-15

    A commercial rubber waste product, fine rubber particle media (FRPM), was found to adsorb hydrogen sulfide (H?S) at 0.12 mg H?S/g FRPM of adsorption capacity. Since FRPM seems to be an attractive alternative to treat H?S owing to its economic advantages as well as its physicochemical characteristics, several analyses were conducted to investigate fundamental information, surface properties, and breakthrough characteristics of FRPM as adsorbent. The physical properties of FRPM including composition and surface chemistry were investigated to compare its performance with commonly available commercial H?S adsorbents such as activated carbon and assess the possible adsorption mechanism. The specific surface area of FRPM was less than 1% of activated carbon. FRPM does not have enough surface area supporting a pure physical adsorption of H?S because it is particulate in nature with limited porosity. The adsorption of FRPM to remove H?S was complex mechanism and involved a combination of zinc compounds and carbon black. PMID:23876257

  17. Measurements of atmospheric dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide during GTE/CITE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David J.; Saltzman, Eric S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were made over the North and South Atlantic Ocean as part of the Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) project. DMS and CS2 samples were collected and analyzed using an automated gas chromatography/flame photometric detection system with a sampling frequency of 10 min. H2S samples were collected using silver nitrate impregnated filters and analyzed by fluorescence quenching. The DMS data from both hemispheres have a bimodal distribution. Over the North Atlantic this reflects the difference between marine and continental air masses. Over the South Atlantic it may reflect differences in the sea surface source of DMS, corresponding to different air mass source regions. The median boundary layer H2S and CS2 levels were significantly higher in the northern hemisphere than the southern hemisphere, reflecting the higher frequency of samples influenced by pollutant and/or coastal emissions. Composite vertical profiles of DMS and H2S are similar to each other, are consistent with a sea surface source. Vertical profiles of CS2 have maxima in the free troposphere, implicating a continental source. The low levels of H2S and CS2 found in the southern hemisphere constrain the role of these compounds in global budgets to significantly less than previously estimated.

  18. Operando Spectroscopic Analysis of an Amorphous Cobalt Sulfide Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Nikolay; Resasco, Joaquin; Becknell, Nigel; Jiang, Chang-Ming; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Nie, Kaiqi; Sun, Xuhui; Guo, Jinghua; Leone, Stephen R; Yang, Peidong

    2015-06-17

    The generation of chemical fuel in the form of molecular H2 via the electrolysis of water is regarded to be a promising approach to convert incident solar power into an energy storage medium. Highly efficient and cost-effective catalysts are required to make such an approach practical on a large scale. Recently, a number of amorphous hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts have emerged that show promise in terms of scalability and reactivity, yet remain poorly understood. In this work, we utilize Raman spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a tool to elucidate the structure and function of an amorphous cobalt sulfide (CoSx) catalyst. Ex situ measurements reveal that the as-deposited CoSx catalyst is composed of small clusters in which the cobalt is surrounded by both sulfur and oxygen. Operando experiments, performed while the CoSx is catalyzing the HER, yield a molecular model in which cobalt is in an octahedral CoS2-like state where the cobalt center is predominantly surrounded by a first shell of sulfur atoms, which, in turn, are preferentially exposed to electrolyte relative to bulk CoS2. We surmise that these CoS2-like clusters form under cathodic polarization and expose a high density of catalytically active sulfur sites for the HER. PMID:26051104

  19. Hydrogen sulfide, a potential novel drug, attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ping; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Shen, Miao; Wang, Chengfen; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Li, Jingjing; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Junshan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to exert anti-inflammatory properties. Apoptosis and autophagy play important roles in concanavalin A (Con A)-induced acute hepatitis. The purpose of this study was to explore both the effect and mechanism of H2S on Con A-induced acute hepatitis. Methods BALB/c mice were randomized into sham group, Con A-injection group, and 14 ?mol/kg of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) pretreatment group. Results Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and pathological damage were significantly ameliorated by NaHS pretreatment. NaHS pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? compared with those of the Con A group. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3-2, which play important roles in the apoptosis and autophagy pathways, were also clearly affected by NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS affected the p-mTOR and p-AKT. Conclusion H2S attenuates Con A-induced acute hepatitis by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy, in part, through activation of the PtdIns3K-AKT1 signaling pathway. PMID:25246769

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ping; Wang, Fan; Chen, Kan; Shen, Miao; Dai, Weiqi; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chengfen; Li, Jingjing; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important clinical problem, and its consequences can seriously threaten human health. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule and is known to exert a protective effect against hepatic I/R injury. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect and mechanism of H2S on hepatic I/R injury. Methods. Balb/c mice were randomized into Sham, I/R, or two doses (14??mol/kg and 28??mol/kg) of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) preconditioning groups. Results. NaHS significantly reduced the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 at 12?h and 24?h after injection compared with ischemia/reperfusion challenge alone. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play important roles in the regulation of the apoptosis and autophagy pathways, was also clearly affected by NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS affected the p-JNK1, p-ERK1, and p-p38. Conclusion. Our results indicate that H2S attenuates hepatic I/R injury, at least in part, by regulating apoptosis through inhibiting JNK1 signaling. The autophagy agonist rapamycin potentiated this hepatoprotective effect by reversing the inhibition of autophagy by H2S. PMID:24966472

  1. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by regulating phenolic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Tao; Nie, Qixing; Zhang, Fengying; Zhu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    The effect of fumigation with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas on inhibiting enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices was investigated. Browning degree, changes in color, total phenol content, superoxide anion production rate (O2(-)), H2O2 content, antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS radical scavenging activity and the reducing power) and activities of the phenol metabolism-associated enzymes including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated. The results showed that treatment with 15 ?l L(-1) H2S significantly inhibited the browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices (P<0.05), reduced significantly O2(-) production rate and H2O2 content, and enhanced antioxidant capacities (P<0.05). PPO and POD activities in the fresh-cut lotus root slices were also significantly inhibited by treatment with H2S (P<0.05). This study suggested that treatment with exogenous H2S could inhibit the browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by enhancing antioxidant capacities to alleviate the oxidative damage. PMID:25660900

  2. Isolation of sulfite reductase variants of a commercial wine yeast with significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide production.

    PubMed

    Cordente, Antonio G; Heinrich, Anthony; Pretorius, Isak S; Swiegers, Jan H

    2009-05-01

    The production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) during fermentation is a common and significant problem in the global wine industry as it imparts undesirable off-flavors at low concentrations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a crucial role in the production of volatile sulfur compounds in wine. In this respect, H(2)S is a necessary intermediate in the assimilation of sulfur by yeast through the sulfate reduction sequence with the key enzyme being sulfite reductase. In this study, we used a classical mutagenesis method to develop and isolate a series of strains, derived from a commercial diploid wine yeast (PDM), which showed a drastic reduction in H(2)S production in both synthetic and grape juice fermentations. Specific mutations in the MET10 and MET5 genes, which encode the catalytic alpha- and beta-subunits of the sulfite reductase enzyme, respectively, were identified in six of the isolated strains. Fermentations with these strains indicated that, in comparison with the parent strain, H(2)S production was reduced by 50-99%, depending on the strain. Further analysis of the wines made with the selected strains indicated that basic chemical parameters were similar to the parent strain except for total sulfite production, which was much higher in some of the mutant strains. PMID:19236486

  3. Methylation reactions, the redox balance and atherothrombosis: the search for a link with hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Lupoli, Roberta; Di Minno, Alessandro; Spadarella, Gaia; Franchini, Massimo; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Cirino, Giuseppe; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    It is now clear that homocysteine (Hcy) is irreversibly degraded to hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gasotransmitter that causes in vivo platelet activation via upregulation of phospholipase A2 and downstream boost of the arachidonate cascade. This mechanism involves a transsulfuration pathway. Based on these new data, clinical and experimental models on the relationships between Hcy and folate pathways in vascular disease and information on the Hcy controversy have been reanalyzed in the present review. Most interventional trials focused on Hcy lowering by folate administration did not exclude patients routinely taking the arachidonate inhibitor aspirin. This may have influenced the results of some of these trials. It is also clear that nutritional intake of folate affects several enzymatic reactions of the methionine-Hcy cycle and associated one-carbon metabolism and, thereby, both methylation reactions and redox balance. Hence, it is conceivable that the abnormally high Hcy levels seen in pathologic states reflect a poorly elucidated perturbation of such reactions and of such balance. While it is unknown whether there is an interplay between H2S, methylation reactions, and redox balance, measuring the sole reduction of blood Hcy that follows folate administration may well be an oversimplified approach to a complex biologic perturbation. The need to investigate this complex framework is thoroughly discussed in this article. PMID:25973588

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuated Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Induced Inflammatory Signaling and Dysfunction in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qi-Hai; Wu, Dan; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2011-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third physiologically relevant gaseous molecule, is recognized increasingly as an anti-inflammatory mediator in various inflammatory conditions. Herein, we explored the effects and mechanisms of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) dysfunction. Methodology and Principal Findings Application of NaHS concentration-dependently suppressed TNF-?-induced mRNA and proteins expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), mRNA expression of P-selectin and E-selectin as well as U937 monocytes adhesion to HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of the cytoprotective enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was induced and coincident with the anti-inflammatory action of NaHS. Furthermore, TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation assessed by I?B? degradation and p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation and ROS production were diminished in cells subjected to treatment with NaHS. Significance H2S can exert an anti-inflammatory effect in endothelial cells through a mechanism that involves the up-regulation of HO-1. PMID:21572963

  5. New catalysts active for the mild oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Laperdrix, E.; Costentin, G.; Guyen, N.N.; Saur, O.; Lavalley, J.C.

    1999-10-25

    Nickel iron phosphates were studied for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. Nickel iron phosphate and Fe/Cr samples were more active than simple iron, chromium, and mixed iron-chromium oxides, which has been previously studied. Nickel iron phosphate catalyst prepared by solid-solid method with, consequently, a very low specific surface area was intrinsically active and selective to sulfur (conversion 17%, S{sub n} selectivity 97%); no rapid deactivation was observed. Even though higher specific surface area samples, prepared according to a solution method at various calcination temperatures, showed better performance (conversion 76%, S{sub n}selectivity {gt}90%), the specific activity depended on the crystallinity of the samples. The reaction is apparently structure sensitive. The structure of the catalytic material must facilitate electronic exchange, evidence by Moessbauer characterization. The establishment of the mixed valency Fe{sub 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} under catalytic feed was shown to be an essential factor in this reaction.

  6. Superoxide Mediates Depressive Effects Induced by Hydrogen Sulfide in Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyun; Xu, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaoni; Zhang, Nana; He, Anqi; Yu, Jerry; Lu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and oxidative stress. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that H2S exerts its cardiovascular effects by reducing oxidative stress via inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We examined cell distributions of cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) and effects of H2S on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We found that CBS was expressed in neurons of the RVLM, and the expression was lower in SHRs than in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Microinjection of NaHS (H2S donor), S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM, a CBS agonist), or Apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) into the RVLM reduced the ROS level, NADPH oxidase activity, and MAP, whereas microinjection of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA, a CBS inhibitor) increased MAP. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of NaHS inhibited phosphorylation of p47phox, a key step of NADPH oxidase activation. Since decreasing ROS level in the RVLM reduces MAP and heart rate and increasing H2S reduces ROS production, we conclude that H2S exerts an antihypertensive effect via suppressing ROS production. H2S, as an antioxidant, may be a potential target for cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide regulates abiotic stress tolerance and biotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Han, Ning; Bian, Hongwu; Liu, Xiaodong; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an important gaseous molecule in various plant developmental processes and plant stress responses. In this study, the transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with modulated expressions of two cysteine desulfhydrases, and exogenous H2 S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) and H2 S scavenger (hypotaurine, HT) pre-treated plants were used to dissect the involvement of H2 S in plant stress responses. The cysteine desulfhydrases overexpressing plants and NaHS pre-treated plants exhibited higher endogenous H2 S level and improved abiotic stress tolerance and biotic stress resistance, while cysteine desulfhydrases knockdown plants and HT pre-treated plants displayed lower endogenous H2 S level and decreased stress resistance. Moreover, H2 S upregulated the transcripts of multiple abiotic and biotic stress-related genes, and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Interestingly, MIR393-mediated auxin signaling including MIR393a/b and their target genes (TIR1, AFB1, AFB2, and AFB3) was transcriptionally regulated by H2 S, and was related with H2 S-induced antibacterial resistance. Moreover, H2 S regulated 50 carbon metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and aromatic amines. Taken together, these results indicated that cysteine desulfhydrase and H2 S conferred abiotic stress tolerance and biotic stress resistance, via affecting the stress-related gene expressions, ROS metabolism, metabolic homeostasis, and MIR393-targeted auxin receptors. PMID:25329496

  8. Geothermal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    What part does geothermal energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to heat within the Earth as an energy source. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and limitations of geothermal energy. Articles and information on places around the world that use geothermal energy and geothermal use by schools in Iowa are available from a sidebar. A link to a map of geothermal hotspots around the world is provided, along with a link to an ABC News article about geothermal power.

  9. Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on water intake and vasopressin and oxytocin secretion induced by fluid deprivation.

    PubMed

    Coletti, R; Almeida-Pereira, G; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2015-01-01

    During dehydration, responses of endocrine and autonomic control systems are triggered by central and peripheral osmoreceptors and peripheral baroreceptors to stimulate thirst and sodium appetite. Specifically, it is already clear that endocrine system acts by secreting vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT) and angiotensin II (ANG II), and that gaseous molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), play an important role in modulating the neurohypophyseal secretion as well as ANG II production and thirst. More recently, another gas-hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-has been studied as a neuronal modulator, which is involved in hypothalamic control of blood pressure, heart frequency and temperature. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether H2S and its interaction with NO system could participate in the modulatory responses of thirst and hormonal secretion induced by fluid deprivation. For this purpose, Wistar male rats were deprived of water for 12 and 24h, and the activity of sulfide-generating enzymes was measured. Surprisingly, 24-h water deprivation increased the activity of sulfide-generating enzymes in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). Furthermore, the icv injection of sodium sulfide (Na2S, 260nmol), a H2S donor, reduced water intake, increased AVP, OT and CORT plasma concentrations and decreased MBH nitrate/nitrite (NOX) content of 24-h water-deprived animals compared to controls. We thus suggest that H2S system has an important role in the modulation of hormonal and behavioral responses induced by 24-h fluid deprivation. PMID:25436932

  10. Solar light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over ZnIn2S4 loaded with transition-metal sulfides

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A series of Pt-loaded MS/ZnIn2S4 (MS = transition-metal sulfide: Ag2S, SnS, CoS, CuS, NiS, and MnS) photocatalysts was investigated to show various photocatalytic activities depending on different transition-metal sulfides. Thereinto, CoS, NiS, or MnS-loading lowered down the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn2S4, while Ag2S, SnS, or CuS loading enhanced the photocatalytic activity. After loading 1.0 wt.% CuS together with 1.0 wt.% Pt on ZnIn2S4, the activity for H2 evolution was increased by up to 1.6 times, compared to the ZnIn2S4 only loaded with 1.0 wt.% Pt. Here, transition-metal sulfides such as CuS, together with Pt, acted as the dual co-catalysts for the improved photocatalytic performance. This study indicated that the application of transition-metal sulfides as effective co-catalysts opened up a new way to design and prepare high-efficiency and low-cost photocatalysts for solar-hydrogen conversion. PMID:21711804

  11. The reduction of selenium(IV) by hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettine, Maurizio; Gennari, Francesca; Campanella, Luigi; Casentini, Barbara; Marani, Dario

    2012-04-01

    The rates for the reduction of Se(IV) by sulfides were measured in NaCl solutions as a function of pH (2-10), temperature (10-40 °C) and ionic strength (I = 0.01-1 M). The pseudo first-order rate constant (log k1) showed a complex dependence on pH with values decreasing from pH 2 to a minimum at pH 4.5, then increasing from pH 5.5 to a maximum near pH 8 and decreasing again at pH higher than 8. The values of the overall kinetic constant (k) calculated from the values of k1/[H2S]T can be determined from equations: logk=-0.15pH-1355.5/T+0.44I0.5+7.74 for the pH range 2-4.5 (? = ±0.16), logk=0.28pH-1090.9/T+0.60I0.5+4.68 for the pH range 5.5-7.6 (? = ±0.10) and logk=-0.50pH-1572.1/T+0.45I0.5+12.67 for the pH range 7.7-10 (? = ±0.05), from 10 to 40 °C and from 0.01 to 1 M ionic strength. The effect of pH and ionic strength on the reaction suggests that the reactions in natural waters are due to the following interactions: H2SeO3+H2S ? products HSeO3-+H2S ? products HSeO3-+HS ? products while under strong alkaline conditions (pH > 9) a fourth contribution by SeO32-+HS ? products is also possible. The overall rate expression over the entire pH range investigated can be determined from (H2A = H2SeO3; HA = HSeO3-; A = SeO32-) k=(kH2S-H2A[H]3+kH2S-HAKHA[H]2+kHS-HAKHAK1s[H]+kHS-AKHAKAK1s)/{([H]2+KHA[H]+KAKHA)([H]+K1s)} where kH2S-H2A=2409±566 M min, kH2S-HA=464±233 M min, kHS-HA = 4190 ± 573 M-1 min-1 and kHS-A = 650 ± 382 M-1 min-1 and KHA, KA and K1s are the dissociation constants of selenous acid and hydrogen sulfide. Kinetic runs in natural freshwater samples and natural seawater have confirmed results obtained in simple NaCl solutions suggesting that this reaction may play an important role under anoxic and hypoxic conditions. Sulfide concentrations under these conditions may range from micromolar to millimolar level and Se(IV) half times are in the order of a few hours to minutes, respectively.

  12. Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide-releasing l-DOPA Derivatives on Glial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moonhee; Tazzari, Valerio; Giustarini, Daniela; Rossi, Ranieri; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; McGeer, Edith; McGeer, Patrick L.

    2010-01-01

    The main lesion in Parkinson disease (PD) is loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. Levodopa (l-DOPA) is the most widely used therapy, but it does not arrest disease progression. Some possible contributing factors to the continuing neuronal loss are oxidative stress, including oxidation of l-DOPA, and neurotoxins generated by locally activated microglia and astrocytes. A possible method of reducing these factors is to produce l-DOPA hybrid compounds that have antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Here we demonstrate the properties of four such l-DOPA hybrids based on coupling l-DOPA to four different hydrogen sulfide-donating compounds. The donors themselves were shown to be capable of conversion by isolated mitochondria to H2S or equivalent SH? ions. This capability was confirmed by in vivo results, showing a large increase in intracerebral dopamine and glutathione after iv administration in rats. When human microglia, astrocytes, and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with these donating agents, they all accumulated H2S intracellularly as did their derivatives coupled to l-DOPA. The donating agents and the l-DOPA hybrids reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and nitric oxide from stimulated microglia, astrocytes as well as the THP-1 and U373 cell lines. They also demonstrated a neuroprotective effect by reducing the toxicity of supernatants from these stimulated cells to SH-SY5Y cells. l-DOPA itself was without effect in any of these assays. The H2S-releasing l-DOPA hybrid molecules also inhibited MAO B activity. They may be useful for the treatment of PD because of their significant antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. PMID:20368333

  13. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates cytokine production through the modulation of chromatin remodeling

    PubMed Central

    RIOS, ESTER C.S.; SZCZESNY, BARTOSZ; SORIANO, FRANCISCO G.; OLAH, GABOR; SZABO, CSABA

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous biological mediator, which regulates, among others, the oxidative balance of cells under normal physiological conditions, as well as in various diseases. Several previous studies have reported that H2S attenuates inflammatory mediator production. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in chromatin modulation in an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and evaluated its effects on inflammatory cytokine production. Tamm-Horsfall protein 1 (THP-1) differentiated macrophages were pre-treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (an H2S donor) at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 mM for 30 min. To stimulate cytokine production, the cells were challenged with bacterial LPS (1 ?g/ml) for 1, 4, 8 or 24 h. Histone H3 acetylation was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), cytokine production was measured by ELISA and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity was analyzed using a standard biochemical assay. H2S inhibited the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in a concentration-dependent manner; it was most effective at the two highest concentrations used. This effect was associated with a decrease in histone H3 acetylation at the IL-6 and TNF-? promoters in the cells exposed to H2S or H2S + LPS. The findings of the present study suggest that H2S suppresses histone acetylation, which, in turn, inhibits chromatin openness, leading to a decrease in the gene transcription of various pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, this mechanism may contribute to the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of H2S and various H2S donors. PMID:25873160

  14. Passive monitors to measure hydrogen sulfide near concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Pavilonis, Brian T.; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Altmaier, Ralph; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of many airborne pollutants emitted by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, few studies have characterized ambient H2S levels near these facilities, largely due to the lack of low-cost, reliable, and easily transportable instrumentation available to researchers. We determined intermediate environmental H2S exposure near CAFOs using Radiello passive monitors. First, a laboratory study was performed to determine the accuracy of the device. Next, a total of eight passive H2S monitors were deployed bi-weekly in close proximity (<40 m) to a medium-sized swine confinement for seven months in order to determine the temporal and spatial variability of H2S. Finally, we measured H2S concentrations across two rural Iowa counties to characterize ambient exposure near thirteen CAFOs and two schools. The value of the temperature-adjusted H2S passive diffusion rate provided by the supplier was 29% larger than the 24-hr rate determined experimentally. Concentrations of H2S measured near the medium-sized confinement were varied and ranged from 0.2 to 48.6 ppb depending on the sampling period and proximity to a lagoon on the property. Two-week concentrations near the schools were low (<1 ppb), while concentrations near the thirteen CAFOs ranged from 0.1 to 42.9 ppb. The passive monitors were effective in measuring H2S concentrations near a swine CAFO as long as they were exposed for a sufficient period of time (two weeks). Radiello passive monitors are a promising new device in measuring intermediate H2S exposure in rural populations. Measured values in excess of an Iowa state limit of 30 ppb (24-hr average) suggest that enforcement actions are needed to mitigate H2S migration from swine CAFOs. PMID:23681048

  15. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide restores normal breathing stability and improves autonomic control during experimental heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Marcus, Noah J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic imbalance and breathing instability are major contributors to the progression of heart failure (CHF). Potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemoreflex has been shown to contribute to these effects. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently has been proposed to mediate CB hypoxic chemoreception. We hypothesized that H2S synthesis inhibition should decrease CB chemoreflex activation and improve breathing stability and autonomic function in CHF rats. Using the irreversible inhibitor of cystathione ?-lyase dl-propargylglycine (PAG), we tested the effects of H2S inhibition on resting breathing patterns, the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and the hypoxic sensitivity of CB chemoreceptor afferents in rats with CHF. In addition, heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) were calculated as an index of autonomic function. CHF rats, compared with sham rats, exhibited increased breath interval variability and number of apneas, enhanced CB afferent discharge and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, decreased HRV, and increased low-frequency SBPV. Remarkably, PAG treatment reduced the apnea index by 90%, reduced breath interval variability by 40–60%, and reversed the enhanced hypoxic CB afferent and chemoreflex responses observed in CHF rats. Furthermore, PAG treatment partially reversed the alterations in HRV and SBPV in CHF rats. Our results show that PAG treatment restores breathing stability and cardiac autonomic function and reduces the enhanced ventilatory and CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia in CHF rats. These results support the idea that PAG treatment could potentially represent a novel pathway to control sympathetic outflow and breathing instability in CHF. PMID:23449938

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Is an Endogenous Regulator of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Qabazard, Bedoor; Li, Ling; Gruber, Jan; Peh, Meng Teng; Ng, Li Fang; Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh; Rose, Peter; Tan, Choon-Hong; Dymock, Brian W.; Wei, Feng; Swain, Suresh C.; Halliwell, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To investigate the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the control of aging and healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Results: We show that the model organism, C. elegans, synthesizes H2S. Three H2S-synthesizing enzymes are present in C. elegans, namely cystathionine ? lyase (CSE), cystathionine ? synthetase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate transferase (MPST or 3-MST). Genetic deficiency of mpst-1 (3-MST orthologue 1), but not cth-2 (CSE orthologue), reduced the lifespan of C. elegans. This effect was reversed by a pharmacological H2S donor (GYY4137). GYY4137 also reduced detrimental age-dependent changes in a range of physiological indices, including pharyngeal contraction and defecation. Treatment of C. elegans with GYY4137 increased the expression of several age-related, stress response, and antioxidant genes, whereas MitoSOX Red fluorescence, indicative of reactive oxygen species generation, was increased in mpst-1 knockouts and decreased by GYY4137 treatment. GYY4137 additionally increased the lifespan in short-lived mev-1 mutants with elevated oxidative stress and protected wild-type C. elegans against paraquat poisoning. The lifespan-prolonging and health-promoting effects of H2S in C. elegans are likely due to the antioxidant action of this highly cell-permeable gas. Innovation: The possibility that novel pharmacological agents based on the principle of H2S donation may be able to retard the onset of age-related disease by slowing the aging process warrants further study. Conclusion: Our results show that H2S is an endogenous regulator of oxidative damage, metabolism, and aging in C. elegans and provide new insight into the mechanisms, which control aging in this model organism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2621–2630. PMID:24093496

  17. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part II. Pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Módis, Katalin; Bos, Eelke M; Calzia, Enrico; van Goor, Harry; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Radermacher, Peter; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Emerging work demonstrates the dual regulation of mitochondrial function by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), including, at lower concentrations, a stimulatory effect as an electron donor, and, at higher concentrations, an inhibitory effect on cytochrome C oxidase. In the current article, we overview the pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of these processes. During cellular hypoxia/acidosis, the inhibitory effect of H2S on complex IV is enhanced, which may shift the balance of H2S from protective to deleterious. Several pathophysiological conditions are associated with an overproduction of H2S (e.g. sepsis), while in other disease states H2S levels and H2S bioavailability are reduced and its therapeutic replacement is warranted (e.g. diabetic vascular complications). Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells up-regulate the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), and utilize its product, H2S, as a metabolic fuel and tumour-cell survival factor; pharmacological CBS inhibition or genetic CBS silencing suppresses cancer cell bioenergetics and suppresses cell proliferation and cell chemotaxis. In the last chapter of the current article, we overview the field of H2S-induced therapeutic ‘suspended animation’, a concept in which a temporary pharmacological reduction in cell metabolism is achieved, producing a decreased oxygen demand for the experimental therapy of critical illness and/or organ transplantation. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:23991749

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates Neurodegeneration and Neurovascular Dysfunction Induced by Intracerebral Administered Homocysteine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Pradip K.; Kalani, Anuradha; Givvimani, Srikanth; Sathnur, PB; Tyagi, Suresh C.; Tyagi, Neetu

    2014-01-01

    High levels of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) are associated with neurovascular diseases. H2S, a metabolite of Hcy, has a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect of H2S has not been explored in Hcy (IC) induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction in mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of H2S on Hcy induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction. To test this hypothesis we employed wild type (WT) males ages 8–10 weeks, WT+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), WT+ Hcy (0.5?mol/?l) intracerebral injection (I.C., one time only prior to NaHS treatment), WT+Hcy +NaHS (sodium hydrogen sulfide, precursor of H2S, 30 ?mol/kg, body weight). NaHS was injected intra-peritoneally (I.P.) once daily for the period of 7 days after the Hcy (IC) injection. Hcy treatment significantly increased MDA, nitrite level, acetylcholinestrase activity, TNF?, IL1?, GFAP, iNOS, eNOS and decreased glutathione level indicating oxidative-nitrosative stress and neuroinflammation as compared to control and aCSF treated groups. Further, increased expression of NSE, S100B and decreased expression of (PSD95, SAP97) synaptic protein indicated neurodegeneration. Brain sections of Hcy treated mice showed damage in the cortical area and periventricular cells. TUNEL positive cells and Fluro Jade-C staining indicated apoptosis and neurodegeneration. The increased expression of MMP9, MMP2 and decreased expression of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, tight junction proteins (ZO1, Occuldin) in Hcy treated group indicate neurovascular remodeling. Interestingly, NaHS treatment significantly attenuated Hcy induced oxidative stress, memory deficit, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular remodeling. The results indicate that H2S is effective in providing protection against neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction. PMID:23912038

  19. Hydrogen sulfide treatment reduces blood pressure and oxidative stress in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Magableh, Mohammad R; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Hart, Joanne L

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increasingly recognized as a gasotransmitter with protective effects in the cardiovascular system. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of chronic NaHS treatment on blood pressure, vascular function and oxidative stress in an in vivo model of hypertension and oxidative stress. Male C57Bl6/J mice were rendered hypertensive with 0.7 mg kg(-1) per day angiotensin II (AngII) for 14 days administered via implanted mini-pumps. The mice were treated with NaHS (10 ?mol kg(-1) per day) to deliver H2S or an inhibitor of cystathionine-?-lyase, DL-propargylglycine (PPG 30 mg kg(-1) per day) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Systolic blood pressure was measured and vascular function examined by myography. Vascular superoxide production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. AngII infusion significantly increased systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). This increase was significantly attenuated by treatment with NaHS (P < 0.001). Both aortic endothelial function and NO bioavailability were significantly attenuated in the AngII group (P < 0.01) but this attenuation was reversed by NaHS treatment. Similarly, aortic superoxide anion production was significantly enhanced by AngII (P < 0.01), and this was reversed by NaHS treatment, and also exacerbated by PPG treatment (P < 0.001). These data show that in a mouse model of hypertension and oxidative stress induced by AngII, exogenous H2S treatment in vivo reduces blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress, while inhibiting endogenous H2S production in vivo is deleterious. This furthers the evidence that H2S is a vasoprotective molecule that may be a useful treatment target in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25099489

  20. Hydrogen sulfide regulates cardiovascular function by influencing the excitability of subfornical organ neurons.

    PubMed

    Kuksis, Markus; Smith, Pauline M; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter endogenously found in the central nervous system, has recently been suggested to act as a signalling molecule in the brain having beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the effect of NaHS (an H2S donor) in the subfornical organ (SFO), a central nervous system site important to blood pressure regulation. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We first used RT-PCR to confirm our previous microarray analyses showing that mRNAs for the enzymes required to produce H2S are expressed in the SFO. We then used microinjection techniques to investigate the physiological effects of NaHS in SFO, and found that NaHS microinjection (5 nmol) significantly increased blood pressure (mean AUC?=?853.5±105.7 mmHg*s, n?=?5). Further, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology and found that 97.8% (88 of 90) of neurons depolarized in response to NaHS. This response was found to be concentration dependent with an EC50 of 35.6 µM. Coupled with the depolarized membrane potential, we observed an overall increase in neuronal excitability using an analysis of rheobase and action potential firing patterns. This study has provided the first evidence of NaHS and thus H2S actions and their cellular correlates in SFO, implicating this brain area as a site where H2S may act to control blood pressure. PMID:25144759

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Cardiovascular Function by Influencing the Excitability of Subfornical Organ Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kuksis, Markus; Smith, Pauline M.; Ferguson, Alastair V.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter endogenously found in the central nervous system, has recently been suggested to act as a signalling molecule in the brain having beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the effect of NaHS (an H2S donor) in the subfornical organ (SFO), a central nervous system site important to blood pressure regulation. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We first used RT-PCR to confirm our previous microarray analyses showing that mRNAs for the enzymes required to produce H2S are expressed in the SFO. We then used microinjection techniques to investigate the physiological effects of NaHS in SFO, and found that NaHS microinjection (5 nmol) significantly increased blood pressure (mean AUC?=?853.5±105.7 mmHg*s, n?=?5). Further, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology and found that 97.8% (88 of 90) of neurons depolarized in response to NaHS. This response was found to be concentration dependent with an EC50 of 35.6 µM. Coupled with the depolarized membrane potential, we observed an overall increase in neuronal excitability using an analysis of rheobase and action potential firing patterns. This study has provided the first evidence of NaHS and thus H2S actions and their cellular correlates in SFO, implicating this brain area as a site where H2S may act to control blood pressure. PMID:25144759

  2. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the cardioprotective effects of gene therapy with PKG-I?.

    PubMed

    Das, Anindita; Samidurai, Arun; Hoke, Nicholas N; Kukreja, Rakesh C; Salloum, Fadi N

    2015-07-01

    Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is a serine-threonine kinase that mediates the cardioprotective effect of ischemic and pharmacologic preconditioning. Since hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in mediating the cardioprotective effects of the cGMP modulators tadalafil and cinaciguat, we tested the hypothesis that myocardial gene therapy with PKG exerts cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through a mechanism involving H2S. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were infected with adenoviral vector encoding PKGI? or inactive mutant PKGI?K390A (K390A) for 24 h. Necrosis and apoptosis (n = 6/group) were determined after 90 min of simulated ischemia and 1 or 18 h of reoxygenation, respectively. To study the effect of PKGI? in vivo, mice received intramyocardial injections of adenoviral PKGI? or K390A. Four days later, the hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The inhibitor of H2S-producing enzyme, cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg/kg, ip) was given 30 min before ischemia. PKGI? overexpression induced CSE expression, whereas cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase expression was not changed. PKGI? overexpression increased H2S in the heart and cardiomyocytes in relation to control and PKGI?K390A. Moreover, PAG abolished protection with PKGI? in vitro by increasing necrosis (35.2 ± 1.7 %, P < 0.05) and apoptosis (23.5 ± 1.8 %, P < 0.05) as compared to PKGI?-overexpressing cells (necrosis: 17.2 ± 0.9 % and apoptosis: 13.2 ± 0.8 %). In vivo, PKGI? overexpression reduced infarct size and preserved left ventricular fractional shortening as compared with K390A (P < 0.05) and PAG abolished the cardioprotective effect of PKGI?. The protective effect of myocardial gene therapy with PKGI? against I/R injury is mediated through a mechanism involving H2S signaling. PMID:26036467

  3. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates IL-1?-induced inflammatory signaling and dysfunction of osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chengzhi; Tian, Shaoqi; Sun, Kang; Wang, Dawei; Lv, Jiangtao; Wang, Yuanhe

    2015-06-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are crucial factors in the onset of osteoarthritis (OA). The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), is capable of stimulating a few cartilage degradation mediators and is of importance to the pathogenesis of OA. It has been demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammation. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of H2S in OA. For this purpose, an in vitro model of cartilage inflammation was created. Human OA chondrocytes were cultured and pre-treated with H2S (0.06-1.5 mM) with or without IL-1? (10 ng/ml) and then Griess reagent was used to quantify the production of nitric oxide (NO). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we quantified the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). In addition, we determined the gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and MMP-13 using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the expression of signaling molecules related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) by western blot analysis. Our results revealed that H2S markedly reversed the effects of IL-1? on the gene expression of COX-2, MMP-13 and iNOS and on the production of MMP-13, PGE2 and NO. In addition, H2S inhibited the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/I?B?/NF-?B pathway which was induced by IL-1?. On the whole, the results of the present study suggest that H2S exerts chondroprotective effects. Thus, H2S may have potential for use in the treatment of patients suffering from OA. PMID:25872797

  4. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates cytokine production through the modulation of chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Rios, Ester C S; Szczesny, Bartosz; Soriano, Francisco G; Olah, Gabor; Szabo, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous biological mediator, which regulates, among others, the oxidative balance of cells under normal physiological conditions, as well as in various diseases. Several previous studies have reported that H2S attenuates inflammatory mediator production. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in chromatin modulation in an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and evaluated its effects on inflammatory cytokine production. Tamm-Horsfall protein 1 (THP-1) differentiated macrophages were pre-treated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (an H2S donor) at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 mM for 30 min. To stimulate cytokine production, the cells were challenged with bacterial LPS (1 µg/ml) for 1, 4, 8 or 24 h. Histone H3 acetylation was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), cytokine production was measured by ELISA and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity was analyzed using a standard biochemical assay. H2S inhibited the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in a concentration-dependent manner; it was most effective at the two highest concentrations used. This effect was associated with a decrease in histone H3 acetylation at the IL-6 and TNF-? promoters in the cells exposed to H2S or H2S + LPS. The findings of the present study suggest that H2S suppresses histone acetylation, which, in turn, inhibits chromatin openness, leading to a decrease in the gene transcription of various pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, this mechanism may contribute to the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of H2S and various H2S donors. PMID:25873160

  5. Metabolic and cardiac signaling effects of inhaled hydrogen sulfide and low oxygen in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Asaf; Mao, Zhengkuan; Morrison, Joanna P.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Kraus, David W.; Doeller, Jeannette E.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of inhaled hydrogen sulfide (H2S) induce hypometabolism in mice. Biological effects of H2S in in vitro systems are augmented by lowering O2 tension. Based on this, we hypothesized that reduced O2 tension would increase H2S-mediated hypometabolism in vivo. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 80 ppm H2S at 21% O2 or 10.5% O2 for 6 h followed by 1 h recovery at room air. Rats exposed to H2S in 10.5% O2 had significantly decreased body temperature and respiration compared with preexposure levels. Heart rate was decreased by H2S administered under both O2 levels and did not return to preexposure levels after 1 h recovery. Inhaled H2S caused epithelial exfoliation in the lungs and increased plasma creatine kinase-MB activity. The effect of inhaled H2S on prosurvival signaling was also measured in heart and liver. H2S in 21% O2 increased Akt-PSer473 and GSK-3?-PSer9 in the heart whereas phosphorylation was decreased by H2S in 10.5% O2, indicating O2 dependence in regulating cardiac signaling pathways. Inhaled H2S and low O2 had no effect on liver Akt. In summary, we found that lower O2 was needed for H2S-dependent hypometabolism in rats compared with previous findings in mice. This highlights the possibility of species differences in physiological responses to H2S. Inhaled H2S exposure also caused tissue injury to the lung and heart, which raises concerns about the therapeutic safety of inhaled H2S. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of O2 in influencing physiological and signaling effects of H2S in mammalian systems. PMID:22403348

  6. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - the third gas of interest for pharmacologists.

    PubMed

    ?owicka, Ewelina; Be?towski, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthase and from heme by heme oxygenase, respectively, are the well-known neurotransmitters and are also involved in the regulation of vascular tone. Recent studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is the third gaseous mediator in mammals. H(2)S is synthesized from L-cysteine by either cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) or cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), both using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B(6)) as a cofactor. H(2)S stimulates ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) in the vascular smooth muscle cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic beta-cells. In addition, H(2)S may react with reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species limiting their toxic effects but also, attenuating their physiological functions, like nitric oxide does. In contrast to NO and CO, H(2)S does not stimulate soluble guanylate cyclase. H(2)S is involved in the regulation of vascular tone, myocardial contractility, neurotransmission, and insulin secretion. H(2)S deficiency was observed in various animal models of arterial and pulmonary hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, gastric mucosal injury and liver cirrhosis. Exogenous H(2)S ameliorates myocardial dysfunction associated with the ischemia/reperfusion injury and reduces the damage of gastric mucosa induced by anti-inflammatory drugs. On the other hand, excessive production of H(2)S may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, septic shock, cerebral stroke and mental retardation in patients with Down syndrome, and reduction of its production may be of potential therapeutic value in these states. PMID:17377202

  7. Relation between malodor, ambient hydrogen sulfide, and health in a community bordering a landfill

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Wing, Steve; Campbell, Robert L.; Caldwell, David; Hopkins, Barbara; Richardson, David; Yeatts, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Background Municipal solid waste landfills are sources of air pollution that may affect the health and quality of life of neighboring communities. Objectives To investigate health and quality of life concerns of neighbors related to landfill air pollution. Methods Landfill neighbors were enrolled and kept twice-daily diaries for 14 d about odor intensity, alteration of daily activities, mood states, and irritant and other physical symptoms between Jan–Nov, 2009. Concurrently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) air measurements were recorded every 15-min. Relationships between H2S, odor, and health outcomes were evaluated using conditional fixed effects regression models. Results Twenty-three participants enrolled and completed 878 twice-daily diary entries. H2S measurements were recorded over a period of 80 d and 1-hr average H2S = 0.22 ppb (SD = 0.27; range: 0–2.30 ppb). Landfill odor increased 0.63 points (on 5-point Likert-type scale) for every 1 ppb increase in hourly average H2S when the wind was blowing from the landfill towards the community (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29, 0.91). Odor was strongly associated with reports of alteration of daily activities (odds ratio (OR) = 9.0; 95% CI: 3.5, 23.5), negative mood states (OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.8, 9.6), mucosal irritation (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 2.0, 7.1) and upper respiratory symptoms (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.2, 7.0), but not positive mood states (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.5) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.4, 2.6). Conclusions Results suggest air pollutants from a regional landfill negatively impact the health and quality of life of neighbors. PMID:21679938

  8. Role of hydrogen sulfide in portal hypertension and esophagogastric junction vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Han, Juan; Xiao, Liang; Jin, Chang-E; Li, Dong-Jian; Yang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and portal hypertension as well as its effect on vascular smooth muscle cells. METHODS: Portal hypertension patients were categorized by Child-Pugh score based on bilirubin and albumin levels, prothrombin time, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. Plasma H2S concentrations and portal vein diameters (PVDs) were compared between portal hypertension patients and control participants, as well as between portal hypertension patients with varying degrees of severity. In addition, we established a rabbit hepatic schistosomiasis portal hypertension (SPH) model and analyzed liver morphology, fibrosis grade, plasma and liver tissue H2S concentrations, as well as cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2, B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-XL expression in portal vein smooth muscle cells, in addition to their H2S-induced apoptosis rates. RESULTS: In portal hypertension patients, endogenous H2S levels were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. The more severe the disease was, the lower were the H2S plasma levels, which were inversely correlated with PVD and Child-Pugh score. Liver tissue H2S concentrations and CSE expression were significantly lower in the SPH rabbit livers compared with the control animals, starting at 3 wk, whereas pERK 1/2 expressions gradually increased 12-20 wk after SPH model establishment. In portal vein smooth muscle cells, increasing H2S levels led to increased apoptosis, while Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression decreased. CONCLUSION: H2S prevents vascular restructuring caused by excessive proliferation of smooth muscle cells via apoptosis induction, which helps to maintain normal vascular structures. PMID:24574782

  9. Comparison of sewage sludge- and pig manure-derived biochars for hydrogen sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Sun, Tonghua

    2014-09-01

    Biochars derived from pig manure and sewage sludge were evaluated for their abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The pig manure biochar had higher capacities for H2S sorption than sewage sludge biochar in both dynamic and static systems, and moisture improves H2S removal. Increasing the biochar moisture to 25 wt% and 100 wt% in the static system increased the pig manure biochar removal capacities by 15.9% and 58.9%, respectively, compared to the dry biochar (0 wt% moisture). The sewage sludge biochar similarly increased the removal by 1.04 and 3.30 times for 25 wt% and 100 wt% moisture, respectively. The catalytic conversion to elemental S(0) and SO4(2)(-) was the main route of H2S removal. The complete oxidation of H2S into SO4(2)(-) mainly occurred on the biochar surface, while H2S underwent incomplete oxidation into elemental S(0) in the biochar pores. The SO4(2)(-) was the dominant form in both biochars, especially for the pig manure biochar which contained 53.9% of the total sulfur at 100 wt% moisture. The SO4(2)(-) was mainly present as CaSO4 precipitate in the sewage sludge biochar, while SO4(2)(-) in the pig manure biochar was mostly soluble (K, Na)2SO4. The results indicated the waste biomass can be converted into value-added biochar as a sorbent for H2S, especially at high moisture that promotes complete oxidation of H2S into SO4(2)(-). Strong alkalinity and rich inorganic minerals originated in the biochar play an important role in its high H2S sorption ability and the final sulfur forms. PMID:24997932

  10. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide mediates the cardioprotection induced by ischemic postconditioning in the early reperfusion phase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-E; Tang, Zhi-Han; Xie, Wei; Shen, Xin-Tian; Liu, Mi-Hua; Peng, Xiang-Ping; Zhao, Zhan-Zhi; Nie, DE-Bo; Liu, Lu-Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), produced by cystanthionine-?-lysase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, has been suggested to be the third gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The present study aimed to investigate the role of H(2)S in ischemic postconditioning (IPO) during the early period of reperfusion. IPO with 6 episodes of 10 sec reperfusion followed by 6 episodes of 10 sec ischemia (IPO 2') was administered when reperfusion was initiated. Cardiodynamics and the concentration of H(2)S were measured at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of reperfusion. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and infarct size were determined at the end of the reperfusion. The concentration of H(2)S was stable during the whole experiment in the control group, whereas it reached a peak at the first minute of reperfusion in the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group. The concentration of H(2)S at the first minute of reperfusion in the IPO 2' group was higher compared to that of the IR group, which correlated with cardioprotection including improved heart contractile function and reduced infarct size and LDH levels. However, the above effects of IPO 2' were attenuated by pre-treatment with blockade of endogenous H(2)S production with DL-propargylglycine for 20 min prior to global ischemia. Furthermore, we found that other forms of IPO, IPO commencing at 1 min after reperfusion (delayed IPO) or lasting only for 1 min (IPO 1'), failed to increase the concentration of H(2)S and protect the myocardium. We conclude that the peak of endogenous H(2)S in the early reperfusion phase is the key to cardioprotection induced by IPO. PMID:23226785

  11. Hydrogen sulfide mediates hypoxia-induced relaxation of trout urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Ryan A; Doellman, Meredith M; Head, Sally K; Olson, Kenneth R

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a recently identified gasotransmitter that may mediate hypoxic responses in vascular smooth muscle. H2S also appears to be a signaling molecule in mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle, but its existence and function in non-mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle have not been examined. In the present study we examined H2S production and its physiological effects in urinary bladder from steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and evaluated the relationship between H2S and hypoxia. H2S was produced by trout bladders, and its production was sensitive to inhibitors of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. H2S produced a dose-dependent relaxation in unstimulated and carbachol pre-contracted bladders and inhibited spontaneous contractions. Bladders pre-contracted with 80 mmol l(-1) KCl were less sensitive to H2S than bladders contracted with either 80 mmol l(-1) KC2H3O2 (KAc) or carbachol, suggesting that some of the H2S effects are mediated through an ion channel. However, H2S relaxation of bladders was not affected by the potassium channel inhibitors, apamin, charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, and glybenclamide, or by chloride channel/exchange inhibitors 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt, tamoxifen and glybenclamide, or by the presence or absence of extracellular HCO3-. Inhibitors of neuronal mechanisms, tetrodotoxin, strychnine and N-vanillylnonanamide were likewise ineffective. Hypoxia (aeration with N2) also relaxed bladders, was competitive with H2S for relaxation, and it was equally sensitive to KCl, and unaffected by neuronal blockade or the presence of extracellular HCO3-. Inhibitors of H2S synthesis also inhibited hypoxic relaxation. These experiments suggest that H2S is a phylogenetically ancient gasotransmitter in non-mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle and that it serves as an oxygen sensor/transducer, mediating the effects of hypoxia. PMID:16888071

  12. A critical review of pharmacological significance of Hydrogen Sulfide in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Khan, Safia Akhtar; Lazhari, M. I.; Afzal, Sheryar; Hashmi, F.; Abdullah, Nor A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    In the family of gas transmitters, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is yet not adequately researched. Known for its rotten egg smell and adverse effects on the brain, lungs, and kidneys for more than 300 years, the vasorelaxant effects of H2S on blood vessel was first observed in 1997. Since then, research continued to explore the possible therapeutic effects of H2S in hypertension, inflammation, pancreatitis, different types of shock, diabetes, and heart failure. However, a considerable amount of efforts are yet needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of H2S, such as nitric oxide-dependent or independent vasodilation in hypertension and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. More than a decade of good repute among researchers, H2S research has certain results that need to be clarified or reevaluated. H2S produces its response by multiple modes of action, such as opening the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and calcium channel blockade. H2S is endogenously produced from two sulfur-containing amino acids L-cysteine and L-methionine by the two enzymes cystathionine ? lyase and cystathionine ? synthase. Recently, the third enzyme, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase, along with cysteine aminotransferase, which is similar to aspartate aminotransferase, has been found to produce H2S in the brain. The H2S has interested researchers, and a great deal of information is being generated every year. This review aims to provide an update on the developments in the research of H2S in hypertension amid the ambiguity in defining the exact role of H2S in hypertension because of insufficient number of research results on this area. This critical review on the role of H2S in hypertension will clarify the gray areas and highlight its future prospects.

  13. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  14. Vascular complications of cystathionine ?-synthase deficiency: future directions for homocysteine-to-hydrogen sulfide research

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy), a cardiovascular and neurovascular disease risk factor, is converted to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) through the transsulfuration pathway. H2S has attracted considerable attention in recent years for many positive effects on vascular health and homeostasis. Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is the first, and rate-limiting, enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway. Mutations in the CBS gene decrease enzymatic activity, which increases the plasma Hcy concentration, a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). Animal models of CBS deficiency have provided invaluable insights into the pathological effects of transsulfuration impairment and of both mild and severe HHcy. However, studies have also highlighted the complexity of HHcy and the need to explore the specific details of Hcy metabolism in addition to Hcy levels per se. There has been a relative paucity of work addressing the dysfunctional H2S production in CBS deficiency that may contribute to, or even create, HHcy-associated pathologies. Experiments using CBS knockout mice, both homozygous (?/?) and heterozygous (+/?), have provided 15 years of new knowledge and are the focus of this review. These murine models present the opportunity to study a specific mechanism for HHcy that matches one of the etiologies in many human patients. Therefore, the goal of this review was to integrate and highlight the critical information gained thus far from models of CBS deficiency and draw attention to critical gaps in knowledge, with particular emphasis on the modulation of H2S metabolism. We include findings from human and animal studies to identify important opportunities for future investigation that should be aimed at generating new basic and clinical understanding of the role of CBS and transsulfuration in cardiovascular and neurovascular disease. PMID:20971760

  15. Vascular complications of cystathionine ?-synthase deficiency: future directions for homocysteine-to-hydrogen sulfide research.

    PubMed

    Beard, Richard S; Bearden, Shawn E

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy), a cardiovascular and neurovascular disease risk factor, is converted to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) through the transsulfuration pathway. H(2)S has attracted considerable attention in recent years for many positive effects on vascular health and homeostasis. Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is the first, and rate-limiting, enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway. Mutations in the CBS gene decrease enzymatic activity, which increases the plasma Hcy concentration, a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). Animal models of CBS deficiency have provided invaluable insights into the pathological effects of transsulfuration impairment and of both mild and severe HHcy. However, studies have also highlighted the complexity of HHcy and the need to explore the specific details of Hcy metabolism in addition to Hcy levels per se. There has been a relative paucity of work addressing the dysfunctional H(2)S production in CBS deficiency that may contribute to, or even create, HHcy-associated pathologies. Experiments using CBS knockout mice, both homozygous (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-), have provided 15 years of new knowledge and are the focus of this review. These murine models present the opportunity to study a specific mechanism for HHcy that matches one of the etiologies in many human patients. Therefore, the goal of this review was to integrate and highlight the critical information gained thus far from models of CBS deficiency and draw attention to critical gaps in knowledge, with particular emphasis on the modulation of H(2)S metabolism. We include findings from human and animal studies to identify important opportunities for future investigation that should be aimed at generating new basic and clinical understanding of the role of CBS and transsulfuration in cardiovascular and neurovascular disease. PMID:20971760

  16. Systemic hydrogen sulfide administration partially restores normal alveolarization in an experimental animal model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Madurga, Alicia; Mižíková, Ivana; Ruiz-Camp, Jordi; Vadász, István; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Seeger, Werner; Morty, Rory E

    2014-04-01

    Arrested alveolarization is the pathological hallmark of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a complication of premature birth. Here, the impact of systemic application of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on postnatal alveolarization was assessed in a mouse BPD model. Exposure of newborn mice to 85% O2 for 10 days reduced the total lung alveoli number by 56% and increased alveolar septal wall thickness by 29%, as assessed by state-of-the-art stereological analysis. Systemic application of H2S via the slow-release H2S donor GYY4137 for 10 days resulted in pronounced improvement in lung alveolarization in pups breathing 85% O2, compared with vehicle-treated littermates. Although without impact on lung oxidative status, systemic H2S blunted leukocyte infiltration into alveolar air spaces provoked by hyperoxia, and restored normal lung interleukin 10 levels that were otherwise depressed by 85% O2. Treatment of primary mouse alveolar type II (ATII) cells with the rapid-release H2S donor NaHS had no impact on cell viability; however, NaHS promoted ATII cell migration. Although exposure of ATII cells to 85% O2 caused dramatic changes in mRNA expression, exposure to either GYY4137 or NaHS had no impact on ATII cell mRNA expression, as assessed by microarray, suggesting that the effects observed were independent of changes in gene expression. The impact of NaHS on ATII cell migration was attenuated by glibenclamide, implicating ion channels, and was accompanied by activation of Akt, hinting at two possible mechanisms of H2S action. These data support further investigation of H2S as a candidate interventional strategy to limit the arrested alveolarization associated with BPD. PMID:24508731

  17. Hydrogen sulfide is involved in dexamethasone-induced hypertension in rat.

    PubMed

    d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Mitidieri, Emma; Donnarumma, Erminia; Tramontano, Teresa; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2015-04-30

    Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced hypertension is a common clinical problem still poorly understood. The presence of GC receptor (GR) in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells suggests a direct role for GC in vasculature. In response to hemodynamic shear stress, endothelium tonically releases nitric oxide (NO), endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and prostacyclin contributing to vascular homeostasis. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been proposed as a candidate for EDHF. H2S is endogenously mainly formed from L-cysteine by the action of cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE). It plays many physiological roles and contributes to cardiovascular function. Here we have evaluated the role played by H2S in mesenteric arterial bed and in carotid artery harvested from rats treated with vehicle or dexamethasone (DEX; 1.5 mg/kg/day) for 8 days. During treatments systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in conscious rats. EDHF contribution was evaluated in ex-vivo by performing a concentration-response curve induced by acetylcholine (Ach) in presence of a combination of indomethacin and L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester in both vascular districts. EDHF-mediated relaxation was significantly reduced in DEX-treated group in both mesenteric bed and carotid artery. EDHF-mediated relaxation was abolished by pre-treatment with both apamin and charybdotoxin, inhibitors of small and big calcium-dependent potassium channels respectively, or with propargylglycine, inhibitor of CSE. Western blot analysis revealed a marked reduction in CBS and CSE expression as well as H2S production in homogenates of mesenteric arterial bed and carotid artery from DEX-treated rats. In parallel, H2S plasma levels were significantly reduced in DEX group compared with vehicle. In conclusion, an impairment in EDHF/H2S signaling occurs in earlier state of GC-induced hypertension in rats suggesting that counteracting this dysfunction may be beneficial to manage DEX-associated increase in blood pressure. PMID:25461303

  18. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide in the rostral ventrolateral medulla/Bötzinger complex downregulates ventilatory responses to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Donatti, Alberto F; Soriano, Renato N; Sabino, João P; Branco, Luiz G S

    2014-08-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as a new gaseous transmitter involved in several brain-mediated responses. The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)/Bötzinger complex is a region in the brainstem that is involved in cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Recently, it has been shown that exogenous H2S in the RVLM modulates autonomic function and thus blood pressure. In the present study, we investigated whether H2S, endogenously produced in the RVLM/Bötzinger complex, plays a role in the control of hypoxia-induced hyperventilation. Ventilation (VE) was measured before and after bilateral microinjection of Na2S (H2S donor, 0.04, 1 and 2 pmol/100 nl) or aminooxyacetate (AOA, 0.2, 1 and 2 pmol/100 nl, a cystathionine ?-synthase, CBS, inhibitor) into the RVLM/Bötzinger complex followed by a 60-min period of hypoxia (7% inspired O2) or normoxia exposure. Control rats received microinjection of vehicle. Microinjection of vehicle, AOA or Na2S did not change VE in normoxic conditions. Exposure to hypoxia evoked a typical increase in VE. Microinjection of Na2S (2 pmol) followed by hypoxia exposure attenuated the hyperventilation. Conversely, microinjection of AOA (2 pmol) into the RVLM/Bötzinger complex caused an increase in the hypoxia-induced hyperventilation. Thus, endogenous H2S in the RVLM/Bötzinger complex seems to play no role in the maintenance of basal pulmonary ventilation during normoxia whereas during hypoxia H2S has a downmodulatory function. Homogenates of RVLM/Bötzinger complex of animals previously exposed to hypoxia for 60 min exhibited a decreased rate of H2S production. Our data are consistent with the notion that the gaseous messenger H2S synthesis is downregulated in the RVLM/Bötzinger complex during hypoxia favoring hyperventilation. PMID:24953676

  19. Selenium inhibits root elongation by repressing the generation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Mo, Hai-Zhen; Zheng, Mei-Yu; Xian, Ming; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Li, You-Qin; Hu, Liang-Bin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been becoming an emerging pollutant causing severe phytotoxicity, which the biochemical mechanism is rarely known. Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been suggested as an important exogenous regulator modulating plant physiological adaptions in response to heavy metal stress, whether and how the endogenous H2S regulates Se-induce phytotoxicity remains unclear. In this work, a self-developed specific fluorescent probe (WSP-1) was applied to track endogenous H2S in situ in the roots of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced root growth stunt was closely correlated with the inhibition of endogenous H2S generation in root tips. Se(IV) stress dampened the expression of most LCD and DCD homologues in the roots of B. rapa. By using various specific fluorescent probes for bio-imaging root tips in situ, we found that the increase in endogenous H2S by the application of H2S donor NaHS could significantly alleviate Se(IV)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulation, oxidative impairment, and cell death in root tips, which further resulted in the recovery of root growth under Se(IV) stress. However, dampening the endogenous H2S could block the alleviated effect of NaHS on Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity. Finally, the increase in endogenous H2S resulted in the enhancement of glutathione (GSH) in Se(IV)-treated roots, which may share the similar molecular mechanism for the dominant role of H2S in removing ROS by activating GSH biosynthesis in mammals. Altogether, these data provide the first direct evidences confirming the pivotal role of endogenous H2S in modulating Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity in roots. PMID:25333279

  20. The Therapeutic Potential of Cystathionine ?-Synthetase/Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibition in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Mark R.; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cancer represents a major socioeconomic problem; there is a significant need for novel therapeutic approaches targeting tumor-specific pathways. Recent Advances: In colorectal and ovarian cancers, an increase in the intratumor production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) plays an important role in promoting the cellular bioenergetics, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. It also stimulates peritumor angiogenesis inhibition or genetic silencing of CBS exerts antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, and potentiates the antitumor efficacy of anticancer therapeutics. Critical Issues: Recently published studies are reviewed, implicating CBS overexpression and H2S overproduction in tumor cells as a tumor-growth promoting “bioenergetic fuel” and “survival factor,” followed by an overview of the experimental evidence demonstrating the anticancer effect of CBS inhibition. Next, the current state of the art of pharmacological CBS inhibitors is reviewed, with special reference to the complex pharmacological actions of aminooxyacetic acid. Finally, new experimental evidence is presented to reconcile a controversy in the literature regarding the effects of H2S donor on cancer cell proliferation and survival. Future Directions: From a basic science standpoint, future directions in the field include the delineation of the molecular mechanism of CBS up-regulation of cancer cells and the delineation of the interactions of H2S with other intracellular pathways of cancer cell metabolism and proliferation. From the translational science standpoint, future directions include the translation of the recently emerging roles of H2S in cancer into human diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 424–448. PMID:24730679

  1. Oxidative stress suppresses the cellular bioenergetic effect of the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase/hydrogen sulfide pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Módis, Katalin [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)] [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Asimakopoulou, Antonia [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece)] [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Coletta, Ciro [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)] [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Papapetropoulos, Andreas [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States) [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Szabo, Csaba, E-mail: szabocsaba@aol.com [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)] [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Oxidative stress impairs 3-MST-derived H{sub 2}S production in isolated enzyme and in isolated mitochondria. •This impairs the stimulatory bioenergetic effects of H{sub 2}S in hepatocytes. •This has implications for the pathophysiology of diseases with oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Recent data show that lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), as well as endogenous, intramitochondrial production of H{sub 2}S by the 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP)/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) pathway serves as an electron donor and inorganic source of energy to support mitochondrial electron transport and ATP generation in mammalian cells by donating electrons to Complex II. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress on the activity of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 100–500 ?M) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of recombinant mouse 3-MST enzyme. In mitochondria isolated from murine hepatoma cells, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50–500 ?M) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in production of H{sub 2}S from 3-MP. In cultured murine hepatoma cells H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (3–100 ?M), did not result in overall cytotoxicity, but caused a partial decrease in basal oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve rapacity. The positive bioenergetic effect of 3-MP (100–300 nM) was completely abolished by pre-treatment of the cells with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 ?M). The current findings demonstrate that oxidative stress inhibits 3-MST activity and interferes with the positive bioenergetic role of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of various conditions associated with increased oxidative stress, such as various forms of critical illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or physiological aging.

  2. Degradation of the pipe-steel structure upon long-term operation in contact with a hydrogen sulfide-containing medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Schastlivtsev; T. I. Tabatchnikova; N. A. Tereshchenko; I. L. Yakovleva

    2011-01-01

    The phase composition and structure of defect portions of pipelines after long-term service in contact with a hydrogen sulfide-containing\\u000a medium have been investigated. From structural changes, the process of the initiation of cracks and fracture of a low-carbon\\u000a ferritic-pearlitic steel containing slag-induced laminations and precipitates of sulfides of the (Fe,Mn)S type has been reconstructed.\\u000a The conditions under which a block

  3. Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.

    PubMed

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

  4. Keggin heteropolycompounds as catalysts for liquid-phase oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides\\/sulfones by hydrogen peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo P. Romanelli; Paula I. Villabrille; Cármen V. Cáceres; Patricia G. Vázquez; Pietro Tundo

    2011-01-01

    H4PMo11VO40, H5PMo10V2O40 and H9PMo6V6O40 acids and an acidic pyridinium salt of H4PMo11VO40 were synthesized. They were characterized by FT-IR and the variations of their acid properties were determined by titration with n-butylamine. They proved to be highly active and selective catalysts for the hydrogen peroxide oxidation of methyl phenyl sulfide to the corresponding sulfoxide or sulfone. The conversion and selectivity

  5. A tetraphenylimidazole-based fluorescent probe for the detection of hydrogen sulfide and its application in living cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Biao; Mi, Naxiu; Zhang, Youyu; Yin, Pen; Li, Haitao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-06-16

    A novel probe based on the fluorescence off-on strategy was prepared to optically detect hydrogen sulfide (H2S) via an excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism. The probe shows high sensitivity and excellent selectivity to H2S. It also displays a large Stokes shift (?140nm) and a remarkable quantum yield enhancement (?=0.412) after interaction with H2S. Moreover, the cellular imaging experiment demonstrated that it has potential utility for H2S sensing in biological sciences. PMID:26002481

  6. Clinical comparison of a new manual toothbrush on the level of hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria on the tongue.

    PubMed

    Williams, Malcolm I; Vazquez, Joe; Cummins, Diane

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effectiveness of a newly designed manual toothbrush (Colgate 360 degrees) to two commercially available manual toothbrushes (Oral-B Indicator and Oral-B CrossAction) and a battery-powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush PRO) for their ability to reduce hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria on the tongue. After a washout period, subjects arrived at the clinical site for baseline sampling without performing dental hygiene, eating, or drinking. Subjects sampled the left side of their tongue with a cotton swab. Subjects brushed for 1 minute with the assigned test toothbrush and regular fluoride toothpaste. Those using the Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush were instructed to clean their tongue with the implement on the back of the brush head for 10 seconds. After 2 hours, the subjects returned to the clinical site having refrained from dental hygiene, eating, and drinking for posttreatment sampling, this time sampling the right side of their tongue. After a minimum 2-day washout period, subjects repeated the same regimen using the other toothbrushes. Collected tongue samples were dispersed in sterile water, serially diluted in sterile phosphate-buffered saline, and plated in duplicate onto lead acetate agar. When plated on this medium, bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide appear as dark-pigmented colonies. After 72 hours of incubation, the dark colonies were counted, expressed as log colony-forming units/mL, and reduction from baseline was calculated. Thirty-one adult men and women completed the clinical study. There was no significant difference between baseline hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria levels. Posttreatment, the log reduction of bacteria was 0.80, 0.41, 0.33, and 0.44 for the Colgate 360 degrees, Oral-B Indicator, Crest SpinBrush PRO, and Oral-B CrossAction, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the Colgate 360 toothbrush was statistically significantly better (P < .05) than the 3 commercial toothbrushes in reducing the levels of hydrogen-sulfide-forming bacteria on the tongue. PMID:15789978

  7. (Sulfide-oxide-silicate phase equilibria and associated fluid inclusion properties in the Salton Sea geothermal system, California)

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    Our studies involved petrographic, fluid inclusion, geochemical and stable isotopic studies of drillcores and fluids from the Salton Sea geothermal system. Our initial studies revealed the presence of previously-unrecognized evaporitic anhydrite at depth throughout the geothermal system. The high salinity of the Salton Sea geothermal brines previously had been attributed to low-temperature dissolution of surficial evaporitic deposits by meteoric waters. Our microthermometric studies of halite--containing fluid inclusions in the meta-evaporites indicated that the high salinity of the geothermal brines is derived in part from the hydrothermal metamorphism of relatively deeply-buried salt and evaporites. In addition, our research concentrated on mineralized fractures in drillcores.

  8. Phylogenetic and physiological studies of four hydrogen-producing thermoanareobes from Icelandic geothermal areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHANN ORLYGSSON

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen production capacities of four new thermophilic bacteria (AK1, AK14, AK15 and AK17) isolated from Icelandic geothermal areas were investigated. All isolates were saccharolytic and degrading various mono- and disaccharides. One strain, AK17, degraded cellulose and pectin, at least partially, as well as the amino acids serine and threonine. Strain AK1 degraded pectin and xylan to some extent. Product formation

  9. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: life-history adaptations in a livebearing fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    Life-history traits are very sensitive to extreme environmental conditions, because resources that need to be invested in somatic maintenance cannot be invested in reproduction. Here we examined female life-history traits in the Mexican livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana from a variety of benign surface habitats, a creek with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a sulfidic cave, and a non-sulfidic cave. Previous studies revealed pronounced genetic and morphological divergence over very small geographic scales in this system despite the absence of physical barriers, suggesting that local adaptation to different combinations of two selection factors, toxicity (H2S) and darkness, is accompanied by very low rates of gene flow. Hence, we investigated life-history divergence between these populations in response to the selective pressures of darkness and/or toxicity. Our main results show that toxicity and darkness both select for (or impose constraints on) the same female trait dynamics: reduced fecundity and increased offspring size. Since reduced fecundity in the sulfur cave population was previously shown to be heritable, we discuss how divergent life-history evolution may promote further ecological divergence: for example, reduced fecundity and increased offspring autonomy are clearly beneficial in extreme environments, but fish with these traits are outcompeted in benign habitats. PMID:20503881

  10. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, FANG; LIU, GUANG-JIE; LIU, NA; ZHANG, GANG; ZHANG, JIAN-XIN; LI, LAN-FANG

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is believed to be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, and now it is recognized as the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide; however, the effects of H2S on inflammatory factors in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats have not been clarified. In the present study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as the H2S donor. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, ischemia, ischemia + low-dose (0.78 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + medium-dose (1.56 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + high-dose (3.12 mg/kg) NaHS and ischemia + propargylglycine (PPG) (30 mg/kg). The rats in each group were sacrificed 6 h after the surgery for sample collection. Compared with the ischemia group, the cardiac damage in the rats in the ischemia + NaHS groups was significantly reduced, particularly in the high-dose group; in the ischemia + PPG group, the myocardial injury was aggravated compared with that in the ischemia group. Compared with the ischemia group, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the serum of rats in the ischemia + medium- and high-dose NaHS groups were significantly reduced, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) protein in the myocardial tissues of rats was significantly reduced. In the ischemia + PPG group, the TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 levels in the serum were significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased, although without a significant difference, and the expression of NF-?B was increased. The findings of the present study provide novel evidence for the dual effects of H2S on acute myocardial ischemia injury via the modulation of inflammatory factors. PMID:25667680

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Plays a Key Role in the Inhibitory Neurotransmission to the Pig Intravesical Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Vítor S.; Ribeiro, Ana S. F.; Martínez, Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Barahona, María Victoria; Orensanz, Luis M.; Martínez-Sáenz, Ana; Recio, Paz; Benedito, Sara; Bustamante, Salvador; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernández, Medardo

    2014-01-01

    According to previous observations nitric oxide (NO), as well as an unknown nature mediator are involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission to the intravesical ureter. This study investigates the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) role in the neurogenic relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter. We have performed western blot and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of the H2S synthesis enzymes cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), measurement of enzymatic production of H2S and myographic studies for isometric force recording. Immunohistochemical assays showed a high CSE expression in the intravesical ureter muscular layer, as well as a strong CSE-immunoreactivity within nerve fibres distributed along smooth muscle bundles. CBS expression, however, was not consistently observed. On ureteral strips precontracted with thromboxane A2 analogue U46619, electrical field stimulation (EFS) and the H2S donor P-(4-methoxyphenyl)-P-4-morpholinylphosphinodithioic acid (GYY4137) evoked frequency- and concentration-dependent relaxations. CSE inhibition with DL-propargylglycine (PPG) reduced EFS-elicited responses and a combined blockade of both CSE and NO synthase (NOS) with, respectively, PPG and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), greatly reduced such relaxations. Endogenous H2S production rate was reduced by PPG, rescued by addition of GYY4137 and was not changed by L-NOARG. EFS and GYY4137 relaxations were also reduced by capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA) desensitization with capsaicin and blockade of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels, transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (VIP/PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors with glibenclamide, HC030031, AMG9810, PACAP6–38 and CGRP8–37, respectively. These results suggest that H2S, synthesized by CSE, is involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission to the pig intravesical ureter, through an NO-independent pathway, producing smooth muscle relaxation via KATP channel activation. H2S also promotes the release of inhibitory neuropeptides, as PACAP 38 and/or CGRP from CSPA through TRPA1, TRPV1 and related ion channel activation. PMID:25415381

  12. Enhanced reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on the composites of graphene/graphite oxide with copper (hydr)oxychlorides.

    PubMed

    Mabayoje, Oluwaniyi; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-06-27

    Composites of copper (hydr)oxychlorides with graphite oxide or graphene were synthesized and used as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide at dynamic conditions at ambient temperatures. The materials were extensively characterized before and after adsorption in order to link their performance to the surface features. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis, TEM, SEM/EDX, and adsorption of nitrogen were used. It was found that the composite with graphene has the most favorable surface features enhancing reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulfide. The presence of moisture in the H2S stream has a positive effect on the removal process owing to the dissociation process. H2S is retained on the surface via a direct replacement of OH groups and via acid-base reactions with the copper (hydr)oxide. Highly dispersed reduced copper species on the surface of the composite with graphene enhance activation of oxygen and cause formation of sulfites and sulfates. Higher conductivity of the graphene phase than that of graphite oxide helps in electron transfer in redox reactions. PMID:22667349

  13. Efficient hydrogen sulfide adsorbents obtained by pyrolysis of sewage sludge derived fertilizer modified with spent mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Bagreev, Andrey; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2004-01-01

    Terrene, sewage sludge derived granulated fertilizer, was impregnated with spent mineral oil and then pyrolyzed at 600, 800, and 950 degrees C. Materials obtained were characterized from the point of view of the pore structure and surface chemistry. Then the H2S breakthrough capacitywas measured using a lab designed test. The results showed that the new adsorbents over perform by 30% materials obtained by simple thermal treatment of Terrene and by 230% virgin coconut shell based activated carbon. The surface reaction products were evaluated using thermal analysis. On the surface of new adsorbents hydrogen sulfide is oxidized mainly to elemental sulfur which is then deposited within the pore system. The breakthrough occurs when all small pores available to promote catalytic oxidation (caused by the inorganic sludge component) are filled with sulfur. An increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an improvement in the performance of materials as hydrogen sulfide adsorbents. This is caused likely by changes in an inorganic phase and inorganic/carbonaceous phase interactions during pyrolysis. PMID:14740757

  14. Sulfur Dioxide Enhances Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Accumulation and Alleviates Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum Stress in Germinating Wheat Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dong-Bo; Hu, Kang-Di; Guo, Xi-Kai; Liu, Yong; Hu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yan-Hong; Wang, Song-Hua; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum ions are especially toxic to plants in acidic soils. Here we present evidences that SO2 protects germinating wheat grains against aluminum stress. SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3) pretreatment at 1.2?mM reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde, enhanced the activities of guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and decreased the activity of lipoxygenase in germinating wheat grains exposed to Al stress. We also observed higher accumulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in SO2-pretreated grain, suggesting the tight relation between sulfite and sulfide. Wheat grains geminated in water for 36?h were pretreated with or without 1?mM SO2 donor for 12?h prior to exposure to Al stress for 48?h and the ameliorating effects of SO2 on wheat radicles were studied. SO2 donor pretreatment reduced the content of reactive oxygen species, protected membrane integrity, and reduced Al accumulation in wheat radicles. Gene expression analysis showed that SO2 donor pretreatment decreased the expression of Al-responsive genes TaWali1, TaWali2, TaWali3, TaWali5, TaWali6, and TaALMT1 in radicles exposed to Al stress. These results suggested that SO2 could increase endogenous H2S accumulation and the antioxidant capability and decrease endogenous Al content in wheat grains to alleviate Al stress.

  15. Biotreatment of refinery spent sulfidic caustics

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Rajganesh, B.; Woolsey, M.; Plato, A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Caustics are used in petroleum refinering to remove hydrogen sulfide from various hydrocarbon streams. Spent sulfidic caustics from two Conoco refineries have been successfully biotreated on bench and pilot scale, resulting in neutralization and removal of active sulfides. Sulfides were completely oxidized to sulfate by Thiobacillus denitrificans. Microbial oxidation of sulfide produced acid, which at least partially neutralized the caustic.

  16. Effects of borax treatment on hydrogen sulfide emissions and sulfate reducing bacteria in stored swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malodorous compounds and emissions produced from stored swine manure can pose both environmental and health issues. These nuisance odors largely result from compounds such as sulfides, volatile fatty acids, and phenols, which are produced as a result of anaerobic digestion of materials present in t...

  17. Copper catalyzed oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides with aqueous hydrogen peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subbarayan Velusamy; Akkilagunta V. Kumar; Rakesh Saini; T. Punniyamurthy

    2005-01-01

    Copper(II) complex 1 catalyzes the oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides with 30% H2O2 in high yields. Addition of a catalytic amount of TEMPO to the reaction mixture enhances the conversion and selectivity. Complex 1 can be recycled without loss of activity.

  18. Modeling hydrogen sulfide emissions across the gas-liquid interface of an anaerobic swine waste treatment storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunden, Jessica; Aneja, Viney P.; Overton, John H.

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) is a colorless gas emitted during decomposition of hog manure that produces an offensive "rotten egg" smell and is considered a toxic manure gas. In the southeastern United States, anaerobic waste treatment lagoons are widely used to store and treat hog excreta at commercial hog farms. Hydrogen sulfide is produced as manure decomposes anaerobically, resulting from the mineralization of organic sulfur compounds as well as the reduction of oxidized inorganic sulfur compounds by sulfur-reducing bacteria. The process of H 2S emissions from anaerobic waste treatment lagoons are investigated utilizing a two-film model with three different modeling approaches: Coupled Mass Transfer with Chemical Reactions Model with the assumption (1) pH remains constant in the liquid film (MTCR Model I) and (2) pH may change throughout the liquid film due to diffusion processes that occur within the film (MTCR Model II); and (3) a Mass Transfer Model which neglects chemical reactions (MTNCR Model) in the gas and liquid films. Results of model predictions are consistent with previous works, which show that flux is largely dependent on the physicochemical lagoon properties including sulfide concentration, pH, and lagoon temperature. Air temperature and low wind velocities (e.g., <3.25 m s -1) have negligible impact on flux. Results also indicate that flux values decrease with increased film thickness. The flux was primarily influenced by variations in the liquid film thickness, signifying that the H 2S flux is driven by liquid-phase parameters. Model results were compared with H 2S flux measurements made at a swine waste treatment storage lagoon in North Carolina using a dynamic emission flux chamber system in order to evaluate model accuracy in calculating lagoon H 2S emissions. The MTCR Model II predicted the highest increase in emission rates as aqueous sulfide concentration was increased. The MTNCR Model showed the highest dependence on pH. All three models showed good agreement in diurnal comparison with flux measurements; however, each model significantly over predicted the measured flux rates. The MTNCR Model estimates were closest to experimental values, predicting 3-35 times the actual measured values.

  19. Microvolume turbidimetry for rapid and sensitive determination of the acid labile sulfide fraction in waters after headspace single-drop microextraction with in situ generation of volatile hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Lavilla, I; Pena-Pereira, F; Gil, S; Costas, M; Bendicho, C

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of applying headspace single-drop microextraction with in-drop precipitation for the quantitative determination of the acid labile sulfide fraction (H2S, HS-, and S2- (free sulfide), amorphous FeS and some metal sulfide complexes-clusters as ZnS) in aqueous samples by microvolume turbidimetry. The methodology lies in the in situ hydrogen sulfide generation and subsequent sequestration into an alkaline microdrop containing ZnO(2)(2-) and exposed to the headspace above the stirred aqueous sample. The ZnS formed in the drop was then determined by microvolume turbidimetry. The optimum experimental conditions of the proposed method were: 2 microL of a microdrop containing 750 mg L(-1) Zn(II) in 1 mol L(-1) NaOH exposed to the headspace of a 20-mL aqueous sample stirred at 1600 rpm during 80 s after derivatization with 1 mL of 6 mol L(-1) HCl. An enrichment factor of 1710 was achieved in only 80 s. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-100 microg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.5 microg L(-1). The repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 5.8% (N = 9). Finally, the proposed methodology was successfully applied to the determination of the acid labile sulfide fraction in different natural water samples. PMID:19576394

  20. [Exogenous hydrogen sulfide reduces vascular aging in D-galactose-induced subacute aging rats].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei-Li; Yang, Wen-Xue; Liu, Lei; Shi, Yue; Cui, Jie; Liu, Hong; Yan, Chang-Dong

    2014-06-25

    The present study was aimed to observe the protective effect of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H?S) on vascular structural and functional changes of aorta in D-galactose-induced subacute aging rats. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided to five groups: the vehicle group, the D-galactose (D-gal) group, and the three NaHS groups treated with low (1 ?mol·kg?¹·d?¹), middle (10 ?mol·kg?¹·d?¹) or high (100 ?mol·kg?¹·d?¹) dose of NaHS respectively. The D-gal group rats were given subcutaneously injection of 125 mg/kg D-gal per day for eight weeks to induce subacute aging model. In the NaHS group, D-gal was administered as above but with NaHS intraperitoneally injected at a dosage of 1, 10, 100 ?mol·kg?¹·d?¹ respectively. Equivalent volumes of saline were administered per day for eight weeks in vehicle group. Morphological changes of aorta were observed by HE and Masson staining. The level of H?S in serum, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as anti-superoxide anions in vascular tissue were determined by spectrophotometry. Angiotensin II (AngII) levels in plasma were measured using competitive enzyme immunoassay. The expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in aorta was determined by Western blot. The results showed that the aging aortic morphologic changes in model rats were ameliorated in NaHS groups. Decreased vascular endothelial exfoliative cells and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation were shown in NaHS groups by HE staining. Masson staining analysis showed reduced relative contents of collagen fibers (P < 0.05) and SMC (P < 0.05) in NaHS groups. Compared to vehicle group, serum concentration of H?S in D-gal group was decreased, while it was increased in NaHS groups after treatment with NaHS (P < 0.05). In the D-gal group, the concentration of AngII in plasma was significantly increased compared with that in vehicle group, while it was decreased in NaHS groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, levels of vascular tissue anti-superoxide anion and the activity of SOD were obviously higher, MDA was significantly lower in all NaHS treated groups than those in the D-gal group respectively (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the expression of AT1R was increased in D-gal group compared with that in vehicle group, while it was decreased after treatment with NaHS compared with that in D-gal group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that exogenous H?S can ameliorate the age-related changes of aortic morphology, decrease the concentration of AngII in plasma, down-regulate the expression of AT1R in vascular tissue, and mitigate the level of oxidative stress. These changes delay the vascular aging in aging rats ultimately. PMID:24964843

  1. A Process Based Approach to Modeling Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions Across the Air-Surface Interface of Manure from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. C. Rumsey; V. Aneja

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are an important concern due to their contribution to odor and their potential to form PMfine. CAFO manure surface emissions occur from barns floors, during waste storage and treatment, and following land application. There is a need for a process based model, which will provide a method for quantifying emissions

  2. Elements of the Factored Secular Equation for the Semi-Rigid Water Type Rotator, With Application to the Hydrogen Sulfide Band at 10,100A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryce L. Crawford; Paul C. Cross

    1937-01-01

    The necessary numerical coefficients of the molecular constants in the secular equation obtained in the previous paper are tabulated up to j=12. A rapid approximate procedure for obtaining the roots of the secular equation is described. The treatment is applied to the hydrogen sulfide band at 10,100A. A slight improvement is obtained over the previous analysis which used the Wang

  3. The vitamin B12 analog cobinamide is an effective hydrogen sulfide antidote in a lethal rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    BRENNER, M.; BENAVIDES, S.; MAHON, S. B.; LEE, J.; YOON, D.; MUKAI, D.; VISEROI, M.; CHAN, A.; JIANG, J.; NARULA, N.; AZER, S. M.; ALEXANDER, C.; BOSS, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas for which no effective antidotes exist. It acts, at least in part, by binding to cytochrome c oxidase, causing cellular asphyxiation and anoxia. We investigated the effects of three different ligand forms of cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, to reverse sulfide (NaHS) toxicity. Methods New Zealand white rabbits received a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of NaHS (3 mg/min) until expiration or a maximum 270 mg dose. Animals received six different treatments, administered at the time when they developed signs of severe toxicity: Group 1—saline (placebo group, N = 9); Group 2—IV hydroxocobalamin (N = 7); Group 3—IV aquohydroxocobinamide (N = 6); Group 4—IV sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); Group 5—intramuscular (IM) sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); and Group 6—IM dinitrocobinamide (N = 8). Blood was sampled intermittently, and systemic blood pressure and deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin were measured continuously in peripheral muscle and over the brain region; the latter were measured by diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS). Results Compared with the saline controls, all cobinamide derivatives significantly increased survival time and the amount of NaHS that was tolerated. Aquohydroxocobinamide was most effective (261.5 ± 2.4 mg NaHS tolerated vs. 93.8 ± 6.2 mg in controls, p < 0.0001). Dinitrocobinamide was more effective than sulfitocobinamide. Hydroxocobalamin was not significantly more effective than the saline control. Conclusions Cobinamide is an effective agent for inhibiting lethal sulfide exposure in this rabbit model. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose and form of cobinamide and route of administration. PMID:24716792

  4. Choice of ion-selective electrodes in potentiometric determination of mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide in condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyanskii, V.V.; Burakhta, V.A.

    1988-05-01

    Ion-selective electrodes for the potentiometric analysis of sulfur content of high-sulfur gas condensates from fields in the Caspian lowlands and West Siberia were evaluated. The membrane electrodes are based on silver sulfide in combination with tungsten, copper, cadmium, lead, zirconium, and platinum. Tests were also conducted for titrants that form stable compounds with mercaptans as well as for solvents that would be compatible with the condensates and not stratify when the titrants were added. Anion-selective electrodes included iodine-selective, sulfide-selective, and thiocyanate-selective; cation-selective electrodes were cadmium-selective, copper-selective, and lead-selective. The preferred titrant was found to be either a solution of ammoniacal silver nitrate in isopropanol or a solution of silver nitrate in DMFA. Reduction and poisoning behavior along with service life and sensitivity were assessed. The electrodes were field tested and the procedure has been implemented at the Karachaganak field.

  5. Sulfur isotopic fractionation in vacuum UV photodissociation of hydrogen sulfide and its potential relevance to meteorite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Jackson, Teresa L.; Ahmed, Musahid; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Select meteoritic classes possess mass-independent sulfur isotopic compositions in sulfide and organic phases. Photochemistry in the solar nebula has been attributed as a source of these anomalies. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the most abundant gas-phase species in the solar nebula, and hence, photodissociation of H2S by solar vacuum UV (VUV) photons (especially by Lyman-? radiation) is a relevant process. Because of experimental difficulties associated with accessing VUV radiation, there is a paucity of data and a lack of theoretical basis to test the hypothesis of a photochemical origin of mass-independent sulfur. Here, we present multiisotopic measurements of elemental sulfur produced during the VUV photolysis of H2S. Mass-independent sulfur isotopic compositions are observed. The observed isotopic fractionation patterns are wavelength-dependent. VUV photodissociation of H2S takes place through several predissociative channels, and the measured mass-independent fractionation is most likely a manifestation of these processes. Meteorite sulfur data are discussed in light of the present experiments, and suggestions are made to guide future experiments and models. PMID:23431159

  6. A study on the applicability of zinc acetate impregnated silica substrate in the collection of hydrogen sulfide by active sampling.

    PubMed

    Motta, Oriana; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Scicali, Claudio; Proto, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    A novel substrate for the hydrogen sulfide determination in air was developed based on zinc acetate impregnated silica in glass tubes. Collected H2S is quantified by ion chromatography after sulfide oxidation to sulfate in an alkaline solution of H2O2. Laboratory tests were conducted in controlled atmosphere to evaluate uptake rate, linearity, sample stability, influence of relative humidity and interfering gases. A pilot study was also conducted in the field in order to assess the applicability of the substrate and to understand the effect that gases such NO2 and CH4 can have on the efficiency of collection of H2S. The new substrate has shown to have several advantages with respect to the charcoal substrate, that is the one of choice as reported by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method. In particular it does not suffer from sulfur background and it is not influenced by interfering gases such as NO2 and CH4. PMID:25059159

  7. Effect of nitrogen supplementation and Saccharomyces species on hydrogen sulfide and other volatile sulfur compounds in shiraz fermentation and wine.

    PubMed

    Ugliano, Maurizio; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Siebert, Tracey; Travis, Brooke; Magno, Franco; Versini, Giuseppe; Henschke, Paul A

    2009-06-10

    A Shiraz must with low yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was supplemented with two increasing concentrations of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and fermented with one Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one Saccharomyces bayanus strain, with maceration on grape skins. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) was monitored throughout fermentation, and a total of 16 volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were quantified in the finished wines. For the S. cerevisiae yeast strain, addition of DAP to a final YAN of 250 or 400 mg/L resulted in an increased formation of H(2)S compared to nonsupplemented fermentations (100 mg/L YAN). For this yeast, DAP-supplemented fermentations also showed prolonged formation of H(2)S into the later stage of fermentation, which was associated with increased H(2)S in the final wines. The S. bayanus strain showed a different H(2)S production profile, in which production was inversely correlated to initial YAN. No correlation was found between total H(2)S produced by either yeast during fermentation and H(2)S concentration in the final wines. For both yeasts, DAP supplementation yielded higher concentrations of organic VSCs in the finished wines, including sulfides, disulfides, mercaptans, and mercaptoesters. PCA analysis indicated that nitrogen supplementation before fermentation determined a much clearer distinction between the VSC profiles of the two yeasts compared to nonsupplemented fermentations. These results raise questions concerning the widespread use of DAP in the management of low YAN fermentations with respect to the formation of reductive characters in wine. PMID:19391591

  8. The interaction of Ni and Fe with sulfur and molybdenum-sulfide surfaces: a TDS, XPS and hydrogen-chemisorption study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. A.; Li, S. Y.; Hrbek, J.; Huang, H. H.; Xu, G.-Q.

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur multilayers, containing S n species ( n = 2, 4, and 8), are very reactive toward admetals like nickel and iron. Ni and Fe atoms supported on sulfur films at 200-300 K exhibit core-level binding energies and band structures very similar to those of nickel and iron sulfides. In contrast, Ni atoms supported on molybdenum-sulfide surfaces remain in a metallic state. NiMoS and FeMoS films can be generated by heating Ni/S film/Mo(110) and Fe/S film/Mo(110) systems to high temperature. The behavior of the Ni/S film/Mo(110) and Fe/S film/Mo(110) systems indicates that Ni and Fe promote Mo?S interactions and the subsequent formation of molybdenum sulfides. On {TM}/{MoS x} and TM/S/Mo(110) surfaces (TM = Ni or Fe), the slow step in the D 2,gas + S solid ? D 2S gas reaction is the dissociation of molecular hydrogen. {Ni}/{MoSx} and {Fe}/{MoSx} surfaces interact strongly with atomic hydrogen (D), sorbing this element and forming gaseous hydrogen sulfide. The sorption of D produces uniform changes in the electronic properties of the MoS x substrate, with positive binding energy shifts (0.3-0.4 eV) in the core levels of molybdenum and sulfur. Most of the sorbed hydrogen evolves into gas phase as D 2 at temperatures between 350 and 500 K. Trends seen in the hydrodesulfurization activity of NiMoS and FeMoS catalysts are analyzed following our results for the sulfidation of Mo and the hydrogenation of S in NiMoS and FeMoS films.

  9. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, propane, and n-butane in poly(glycol ethers)

    SciTech Connect

    Sciamanna, S.F.; Lynn, S.

    1988-03-01

    Data on the solubility of acid and hydrocarbon gases for poly(glycol ethers) are necessary for the development of the University of California, Berkeley, Sulfur Removal Process. An automated gas solubility measurement system was used to collect data on the solubility of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, propane, and n-butane in a variety of these solvents. The partial pressure of solute gas in these experiments was between 3 and 100 kPa. Correlations for Henry's law coefficients are given as a function of temperature. Gas solubility in the organic solvents decreases when small amounts of water (<6 wt %) are also present. Gas solubility in solvent-water mixtures at the conditions tested is shown to follow a simple mixing rule. An improved correlation is presented for previously published solubility data for sulfur dioxide, which includes the effect of composition as well as temperature on the Henry's law coefficient.

  10. Microbial Mat Boundaries between Chemolithotrophs and Phototrophs in Geothermal Hot Spring Effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Kato; Takeshi Kobayashi; Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Takkou Nakagawa; Yonosuke Maki; Toshihiro Hoaki

    2004-01-01

    Among the various microbial mats that develop in geothermal hot springs in solfataric fields, colorless sulfur-turf (ST)—macroscopic white bundles consisting of large sickle-shaped bacteria belonging to Aquificales and elemental sulfur particles–develops in a limited environment of geothermal effluent containing hydrogen sulfide with neutral pH and low in oxygen. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mat (CY) often grow just downstream of chemolithotrophic ST, or

  11. Real-time instrument for ambient monitoring of hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and other reduced organosulfur species using ozone chemiluminescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.; Phillips, M.F.; Tanner, R.L.; Gaffney, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The chemiluminescent reactions of H/sup 2/S and other gaseous sulfides with ozone at 298/sup 0/K have been investigated, with the aim of developing a simple, selective, real-time monitor for these naturally emitted compounds. A commercial chemiluminescent ozone monitor has been adapted, for detection of the ozone/sulfide chemiluminescence between 300 and 400 nm wavelenght. Excess ozone was supplied to the reaction chamber from an electrical discharge ozone source. Response to dimethyl sulfide was enhanced by the use of air in the ozone source rather than oxygen. This effect was found to be caused by the presence of oxides of nitrogen produced in the ozonizer; a similar enhancement was not observed for the other sulfide compounds studied. Observed chemiluminescence signal decreased in the order CH/sub 3/SH > CH/sub 3/SCH/sub 3/ > H/sub 2/S > thiophene, with detection limits of 0.1, 0.3, 4, and 12 ppb respectively, at an instrument time constant of 60 sec. Calibration plots were linear at low sulfide concentrations, and showed less-than-first order dependence on sulfide at higher concentrations. A very small signal from ethylene was the only interference found from several compounds tested; sample air humidity has a small but significant effect on the instrument response.

  12. Chemical and biological technologies for hydrogen sulfide emission control in sewer systems: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lehua Zhang; Peter De Schryver; Bart De Gusseme; Willem De Muynck; Nico Boon; Willy Verstraete

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic corrosion of sewers represents a cost of about 10\\\\% of total\\u000a sewage treatment cost in Flanders (Belgium) and is further increasing.\\u000a In the past, research has resulted in a number of prevention methods,\\u000a such as injection of air, oxygen, H(2)O(2), NaClO, FeCl(3) and FeSO(4).\\u000a The possibility of biological oxidation of sulfide using nitrate as the\\u000a electron acceptor has also

  13. GlidArc-assisted removal and\\/or upgrading of Hydrogen Sulfide or MethylMercaptan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Czernichowski; P. Czernichowski; M. Czernichowski

    Diluted or concentrated (up to 100%) H2S and air-diluted (up to 0.1%) CH3SH are processed in various GlidArc discharge reactors at up to 70 m3\\/h flow rate and 5 kW scales. These powerful high-voltage discharges produce non-thermal plasma directly generated in the processed gases. They activate some oxidation reactions in the case of air-diluted sulfides. Concentrated H2S or H2S+CO2 mixtures

  14. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas.

    PubMed

    Krischan, J; Makaruk, A; Harasek, M

    2012-05-15

    Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H(2)S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H(2)S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H(2)S with H(2)O(2), high H(2)S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO(2) absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180m(3)/h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H(2)S contents in the crude gas. PMID:22440540

  15. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via the suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Barr, Larry A; Shimizu, Yuuki; Lambert, Jonathan P; Nicholson, Chad K; Calvert, John W

    2015-04-30

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a significant contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to its development have not been fully elucidated. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced signaling molecule that is critical for the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Recently, therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing its levels have proven cardioprotective in models of acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and heart failure. The precise role of H2S in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy has not yet been established. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to evaluate circulating and cardiac H2S levels in a murine model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was produced by feeding mice HFD (60% fat) chow for 24 weeks. HFD feeding reduced both circulating and cardiac H2S and induced hallmark features of type-2 diabetes. We also observed marked cardiac dysfunction, evidence of cardiac enlargement, cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis. H2S therapy (SG-1002, an orally active H2S donor) restored sulfide levels, improved some of the metabolic perturbations stemming from HFD feeding, and attenuated HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction. Additional analysis revealed that H2S therapy restored adiponectin levels and suppressed cardiac ER stress stemming from HFD feeding. These results suggest that diminished circulating and cardiac H2S levels play a role in the pathophysiology of HFD-induced cardiomyopathy. Additionally, these results suggest that H2S therapy may be of clinical importance in the treatment of cardiovascular complications stemming from diabetes. PMID:25575644

  16. Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jorand Sartoretti; M. Ulmann; J. Augustynski; C. A. Linkous

    2000-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10

  17. Removal of gas-phase ammonia and hydrogen sulfide using photocatalysis, nonthermal plasma, and combined plasma and photocatalysis at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Maxime, Guillerm; Amine, Assadi Aymen; Abdelkrim, Bouzaza; Dominique, Wolbert

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the removal of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in a continuous reactor. Photocatalysis and surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma are studied separately and combined. Though the removal of volatile organic compounds by coupling plasma and photocatalysis has been reported on a number of studies in laboratory scale, this is as far as we know the first time that it is used to remove inorganic malodorous pollutants. While each separate process is able to degrade ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, a synergetic effect appears when they are combined at a pilot scale, leading to removal capacity higher than the sum of each separate process. The removal capacity is higher when the gas circulates at a higher flow rate and when pollutant concentration is higher. The presence of water vapor in the gas is detrimental to the efficiency of the process. Operating conditions also influence the production of nitrogen oxides and ozone. PMID:24996941

  18. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on R E(R E = Sm, Y, La)–V–Sb catalysts: Effects of R E size and electronegativity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Tseng Li; Chen-Hwa Huang

    2011-01-01

    Three RE–V–Sb (RE was Sm, Y, and La) mixed-oxide catalysts were prepared for catalyzing the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. The multiphase RE–V–Sb catalysts were characterized by TPR, XRD, SEM and BET techniques. Synergistic phenomena in sulfur yield were observed with the solid-state reaction between REVO4 and ?-Sb2O4 (antimony oxide\\/REVO4 weight ratio=1\\/3), which was ascribed to the formation

  19. Influences of salinity and temperature on the stable isotopic composition of methane and hydrogen sulfide trapped in pressure-vessel hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal-Ortiz, Humberto; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-10-01

    The stable isotopic composition of carbon (?13CCH4) and hydrogen (?2HCH4) in methane and sulfur (?34SH2S) in hydrogen sulfide can be used to infer the source of volatile molecules encaged in gas hydrates. Differentiation of methane and hydrogen sulfide from microbial and thermal origins provides valuable information for hydrocarbon exploration and for climatic models assessing the role of gas hydrates during climate change. In astrobiological studies, ?13CCH4, ?2HCH4, and ?34SH2S values will be critical in deciphering the origin of methane and hydrogen sulfide molecules if gas hydrates are detected within the cryosphere of Mars or associated with ice-covered oceans on Europa or Enceladus. It is challenging, however, to apply isotope systematics to hydrate-forming systems due to complex influences on nucleation and decomposition under varying conditions of salinity, pressure, and temperature. Few laboratory studies have evaluated the effect of hydrate formation, on isotopic composition of free, encaged, and dissolved gas molecules. In this study, pressure-vessel hydrates were nucleated under conditions inferred for marine continental margins and terrestrial permafrost: low temperatures, moderate pressures, saturation of methane and/or hydrogen sulfide saturation, and varying concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O). Methane experiments show less than 1‰ differences in values of ?13CCH4 between free and encaged molecules and up to 6.5‰ variations in values of ?2HCH4 between free and encaged molecules. In hydrogen-sulfide hydrates, ?34SH2S values show less than 4‰ differences between free and encaged molecules, but up to 14‰ differences between dissolved and free molecules and between dissolved and encaged molecules. Results presented here indicate that shifts found for free and encaged values of ?13CCH4 and ?2HCH4 are small and do not complicate interpretation of gas provenance. Conversely, in hydrate systems containing H2S molecules values of ?34SH2S need to be interpreted with caution. Although isotopic fractionation between free- and encaged-sulfur molecules is mild during hydrate formation, values of dissolved ?34SH2S are substantially fractionated and necessitate careful examination of sulfur isotopic values. Because dissolved H2S could potentially be recycled by oxidation and reduction processes during hydrate formation events, use of ?34SH2S values might complicate assessment of biosignatures for other planetary bodies.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide capture by limestone and dolomite at elevated pressure. 2: Sorbent particle conversion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zevenhoven, C.A.P.; Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M.M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The physical structure of a limestone or dolomite to be used in in-bed sulfur capture in fluidized bed gasifiers has a great impact on the efficiency of sulfur capture and sorbent use. In this study an unreacted shrinking core model with variable effective diffusivity is applied to sulfidation test data from a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus (P-TGA) for a set of physically and chemically different limestone and dolomite samples. The particle size was 250--300 {micro}m for all sorbents, which were characterized by chemical composition analysis, particle density measurement, mercury porosimetry, and BET internal surface measurement. Tests were done under typical conditions for a pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier, i.e., 20% CO{sub 2}, 950 C, 20 bar. At these conditions the limestone remains uncalcined, while the dolomite is half-calcined. Additional tests were done at low CO{sub 2} partial pressures, yielding calcined limestone and fully calcined dolomite. The generalized model allows for determination of values for the initial reaction rate and product layer diffusivity.

  1. Photogeneration of hydrogen from water by hybrid molybdenum sulfide clusters immobilized on titania.

    PubMed

    Recatalá, David; Llusar, Rosa; Gushchin, Artem L; Kozlova, Ekaterina A; Laricheva, Yuliya A; Abramov, Pavel A; Sokolov, Maxim N; Gómez, Roberto; Lana-Villarreal, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Two new hybrid molybdenum(IV) Mo3 S7 cluster complexes derivatized with diimino ligands have been prepared by replacement of the two bromine atoms of [Mo3 S7 Br6 ](2-) by a substituted bipyridine ligand to afford heteroleptic molybdenum(IV) Mo3 S7 Br4 (diimino) complexes. Adsorption of the Mo3 S7 cores from sample solutions on TiO2 was only achieved from the diimino functionalized clusters. The adsorbed Mo3 S7 units were reduced on the TiO2 surface to generate an electrocatalyst that reduces the overpotential for the H2 evolution reaction by approximately 0.3?V (for 1?mA?cm(-2) ) with a turnover frequency as high as 1.4?s(-1) . The nature of the actual active molybdenum sulfide species has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In agreement with the electrochemical results, the modified TiO2 nanoparticles show a high photocatalytic activity for H2 production in the presence of Na2 S/Na2 SO3 as a sacrificial electron donor system. PMID:25359712

  2. Production of Hydrogen by Superadiabatic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide - Final Technical Report for the Period June 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Rachid B. Slimane; Francis S. Lau; Javad Abbasian

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an economical process for hydrogen production, with no additional carbon dioxide emission, through the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in H{sub 2}S-rich waste streams to high-purity hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The novel feature of the process being developed is the superadiabatic combustion (SAC) of part of the H{sub 2}S in the waste stream to provide the thermal energy required for the decomposition reaction such that no additional energy is required. The program is divided into two phases. In Phase 1, detailed thermochemical and kinetic modeling of the SAC reactor with H{sub 2}S-rich fuel gas and air/enriched air feeds is undertaken to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on exit gas products and conversion efficiency, and to identify key process parameters. Preliminary modeling results are used as a basis to conduct a thorough evaluation of SAC process design options, including reactor configuration, operating conditions, and productivity-product separation schemes, with respect to potential product yields, thermal efficiency, capital and operating costs, and reliability, ultimately leading to the preparation of a design package and cost estimate for a bench-scale reactor testing system to be assembled and tested in Phase 2 of the program. A detailed parametric testing plan was also developed for process design optimization and model verification in Phase 2. During Phase 2 of this program, IGT, UIC, and industry advisors UOP and BP Amoco will validate the SAC concept through construction of the bench-scale unit and parametric testing. The computer model developed in Phase 1 will be updated with the experimental data and used in future scale-up efforts. The process design will be refined and the cost estimate updated. Market survey and assessment will continue so that a commercial demonstration project can be identified.

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Cell Death through Restraining ROS Accumulation in Roots of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a cell signal molecule produced endogenously and involved in regulation of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this work, we used molecular biology, physiology, and histochemical methods to investigate the effects of H2S on cadmium- (Cd-) induced cell death in Chinese cabbage roots. Cd stress stimulated a rapid increase of endogenous H2S in roots. Additionally, root length was closely related to the cell death rate. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Cd in roots—this effect was more pronounced at 5??M NaHS. Cd-induced cell death in roots was significantly reduced by 5??M NaHS treatment. Under Cd stress, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly enhanced in roots. NaHS + Cd treatment made their activities increase further compared with Cd exposure alone. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity led to a decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, these effects were reversed by hydroxylamine, a H2S inhibitor. These results suggested that H2S alleviated the cell death caused by Cd via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities to remove excessive reactive oxygen species and reduce cell oxidative damage.

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Offers Neuroprotection on Traumatic Brain Injury in Parallel with Reduced Apoptosis and Autophagy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Dong, Wenwen; Chen, Xiping; Tao, Luyang

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous mediator, has been recognized as an important neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of exogenous H2S on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the underlying mechanisms. The effects of exogenous H2S on TBI were examined by using measurement of brain edema, behavior assessment, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blotting, respectively. Compared to TBI groups, H2S pretreatment had reduced brain edema, improved motor performance and ameliorated performance in Morris water maze test after TBI. Immunoblotting results showed that H2S pretreatment reversed TBI-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and decline of Bcl-2, suppressed LC3-II, Beclin-1 and Vps34 activation and maintained p62 level in injured cortex and hippocampus post TBI. The results suggest a protective effect and therapeutic potential of H2S in the treatment of brain injury and the protective effect against TBI may be associated with regulating apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24466346

  5. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates the aluminum-induced changes in Brassica napus as revealed by physiochemical and ultrastructural study of plant.

    PubMed

    Ali, Basharat; Qian, Ping; Sun, Rui; Farooq, Muhammad A; Gill, Rafaqat A; Wang, Jian; Azam, Muhammad; Zhou, Weijun

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, ameliorating role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was studied with or without application of H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (0.3 mM) in hydroponic conditions under three levels (0, 0.1 and 0.3 mM) of aluminum (Al). Results showed that addition of H2S significantly improved the plant growth, photosynthetic gas exchange, and nutrients concentration in the leaves and roots of B. napus plants under Al stress. Exogenously applied H2S significantly lowered the Al concentration in different plant parts, and reduced the production of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities in the leaves and roots under Al stress. Moreover, the present study indicated that exogenously applied H2S improved the cell structure and displayed clean mesophyll and root tip cells. The chloroplast with well-developed thylakoid membranes could be observed in the micrographs. Under the combined application of H2S and Al, a number of modifications could be observed in root tip cell, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi bodies. Thus, it can be concluded that exogenous application of H2S under Al stress improved the plant growth, photosynthetic parameters, elements concentration, and biochemical and ultrastructural changes in leaves and roots of B. napus. PMID:25231737

  6. The effects of hydrogen sulfide under sevoflurane administration against ischemia and reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Lim, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produces a protective effect against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Sevoflurane, which is used for anesthesia in cardiac problem patients, also has a protective effect. This study is designed to reveal the effects of H2S under sevoflurane using rat hearts. Methods The hearts were Langendorff-perfused, subjected to 30 minutes ischemia and 60 minutes reperfusion. Group I was a control group. The other groups were pretreated for 15 minutes before ischemia as follows: 1.6% sevoflurane for group S; 18.5 µM H2S S for group H; and 1.6% sevoflurane and 18.5 µM H2S simultaneously for group HS. Hemodynamics and the infarct size were measured. Results Group HS presented depressed hemodynamics during pretreatment. LV function in group HS achieved better recovery than group I after reperfusion. The infarct size of groups S, H and HS was smaller than group I, while there were no differences between groups S, H and HS. Conclusions Exogenous H2S did not enhance the preconditioning effects of sevoflurane. Rather, the results suggest that H2S under sevoflurane might depress hemodynamics. PMID:22679544

  7. Solubilities of mixtures of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in water + diethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Jane, I.S.; Li, M.H. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Chung Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Chung Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-01-01

    The removal of acidic gases such as CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and COS from gas streams is an important operation in the natural gas and synthetic ammonia industries, oil refineries, and petrochemical chemical plants. The solubilities of mixtures of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in water + diethanolamine (DEA) + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) have been measured at 40 C and 80 C and at partial pressures of acid gases ranging from 1.0 to 200 kPa. The ternary mixtures studied were 30 mass % AMP, 6 mass % DEA + 24 mass % AMP, 12 mass % DEA + 18 mass % AMP, 18 mass % DEA + 12 mass % AMP, 24 mass % DEA + 6 mass % AMP, and 30 mass % DEA aqueous solutions. The model of Deshmukh and Mather (1981) has been used to represent the solubility of mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S in the ternary solutions. The model reasonably reproduces the equilibrium partial pressures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S above the ternary solutions for the systems tested.

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Cell Death through Restraining ROS Accumulation in Roots of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Pei, Yanxi; Wang, Hongjiao; Jin, Zhuping; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qiao, Zengjie; Fang, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a cell signal molecule produced endogenously and involved in regulation of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this work, we used molecular biology, physiology, and histochemical methods to investigate the effects of H2S on cadmium- (Cd-) induced cell death in Chinese cabbage roots. Cd stress stimulated a rapid increase of endogenous H2S in roots. Additionally, root length was closely related to the cell death rate. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Cd in roots-this effect was more pronounced at 5??M NaHS. Cd-induced cell death in roots was significantly reduced by 5??M NaHS treatment. Under Cd stress, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly enhanced in roots. NaHS + Cd treatment made their activities increase further compared with Cd exposure alone. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity led to a decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, these effects were reversed by hydroxylamine, a H2S inhibitor. These results suggested that H2S alleviated the cell death caused by Cd via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities to remove excessive reactive oxygen species and reduce cell oxidative damage. PMID:26078819

  9. Involvement of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in hypoxia-induced hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Donatti, Alberto F; Soriano, Renato N; Sabino, João P; Branco, Luiz G S

    2014-09-01

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in deep body temperature (Tb). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a signaling molecule that belongs to the gasotransmitter family, has been demonstrated to participate in several brain-mediated responses. Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a brainstem region involved in thermoregulation. Recently, it has been shown that exogenous H2S modulates RVLM activity. In the present study, we investigated whether endogenously produced H2S in the RVLM plays a role in the control of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Tb was measured before and after bilateral microinjection of aminooxyacetate (AOA, 0.2, 1 and 2 pmol/100 nl, a cystathionine ?-synthase, CBS, inhibitor) or vehicle into the RVLM followed by a 60-min normoxia (21% inspired O2) or hypoxia (7% inspired O2) exposure. Microinjection of AOA or vehicle did not change Tb during normoxia. Exposure to hypoxia evoked a typical decrease in Tb. Microinjection of AOA (2 pmol) into the RVLM followed by hypoxia significantly attenuated the decrease in Tb. Thus, endogenous H2S in the RVLM seems to play no role in the maintenance of basal Tb, whereas during hypoxia this gas plays a cryogenic role. Moreover, RVLM homogenates of rats exposed to hypoxia exhibited a decreased rate of H2S production. Our data are consistent with the notion that during hypoxia H2S synthesis is diminished in the RVLM facilitating hypothermia. PMID:25262576

  10. Multichannel RRKM-TST and direct-dynamics CVT study of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with ozone.

    PubMed

    Mousavipour, S Hosein; Mortazavi, Maryam; Hematti, Omid

    2013-08-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of ozone with hydrogen sulfide was studied theoretically. High-level ab initio calculations were carried out to build the potential energy surface. The mechanism of the title reaction was found to be much more complicated than what is reported in the literature to date. According to our results, six different chemically activated intermediates are involved along the proposed mechanism on its lowest singlet potential energy surface that play an important role in the kinetics of this system. Multichannel RRKM-TST and CVT calculations have been carried out to compute the temperature dependence of the individual rate constants for different channels and also the overall rate constant for the consumption of the reactants. The major products are sulfur dioxide and water at lower temperatures, in good agreement with experimental reports, while at higher temperatures, formation of the other products like O2, H2SO, and radicals like cis/trans-HOSO, SH, HO3, and OH also become important. PMID:23837601

  11. Heterogeneous nano metal-organic framework fluorescence probe for highly selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide in living cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu; Su, Hao; Kuang, Xuan; Li, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Tang, Bo

    2014-11-18

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been regarded as the third important gaseous signaling molecule involved in human physiological and pathological processes. Due to the high reactive and diffusible properties of H2S, real-time detection of H2S fluctuations in living biological specimens is crucial. Here, we present a Cu(II)-metalated 3D porous nanoscale metal-organic framework (nano-MOF) {CuL[AlOH]2}n (PAC; H6L = meso-tetrakis(4-carboxylphenyl)porphyrin) and successfully employ this nano-MOF as a novel heterogeneous fluorescence probe for H2S detection. As far as we know, nano-MOFs have never been used as selective fluorescence probes for H2S detection. On the basis of the advantages of nano-MOF materials, this biocompatible nano-MOF probe exhibits rapid response, excellent selectivity, and hypotoxicity in in situ detection of H2S and represents the most sensitive fluorescence probe for selective H2S detection under physiological pH. In addition, confocal imaging was achieved successfully in living cells. PMID:25342497

  12. Hydrogen sulfide adsorption on nano-sized zinc oxide/reduced graphite oxide composite at ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hoon Sub; Park, Moon Gyu; Kwon, Soon Jin; Yi, Kwang Bok; Croiset, Eric; Chen, Zhongwei; Nam, Sung Chan

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents new insights on the synthesis of nano-ZnO on reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite via a microwave-assisted route and its use as a potential sorbent to adsorb hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at ambient conditions. Depending on the synthesis methods, the nano-sized ZnO on rGO presents different characteristics, in particular the degree of nano-ZnO dispersion on the surface of the rGO. Microwave-assisted reduction was able to offer a mild reduction to the oxygen-containing functional groups attached on the surface of graphite oxide (GO). Those oxygen-containing functional groups provide the bridge and the terminal groups between zinc oxide and the rGO surface. Because those functional groups act as anchor sites for metal ions, it was possible to achieve uniformly distributed nano-sized ZnO particles on the surface of the rGO sheets. In addition, they accelerate oxygen activation for H2S adsorption. H2S adsorption tests at ambient conditions were conducted. The 1-D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) had been used for reference in order to investigate the functionality of 2-D rGO substrate. Also, the effects of the different synthesis methods (microwave vs. reflux) were evaluated for H2S adsorption. The adsorption capacity increased dramatically for the microwave-assisted composite compared to the composite manufactured using the reflux method.

  13. Neuronal regulation of expression of hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme cystathionine ?-synthase in rat spinal cord astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Ryo; Otsuguro, Ken-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Ito, Shigeo

    2015-08-01

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), expressed in astrocytes, generates a gaseous neuromodulator, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of astrocytic CBS expression and activity. This study evaluated the influence of neurons on astrocytic CBS expression by employing multiple culture systems. Substantial CBS expression was observed in the intact neonatal rat spinal cord, while CBS content was markedly reduced in an astrocyte-enriched culture prepared from the neonatal spinal cord. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the localization of spinal cord CBS in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Although CBS expression was weak in the embryonic rat spinal cord, enzyme levels were time-dependently increased in a neuron/astrocyte mixed culture originating from embryonic spinal cord. The reduced CBS expression in isolated neonatal astrocytes was restored by co-culture with embryonic neurons. Together with the observed CBS expression levels, H2S production was relatively low in astrocytes cultured alone, but was considerably higher in astrocytes cultured with neurons. These results indicate that neurons are essential for maintaining the expression and H2S-producing activity of astrocytic CBS in the rat spinal cord. PMID:25797494

  14. Hydrogen sulfide gas emissions in the human-occupied zone during disturbance and removal of stored spent mushroom compost.

    PubMed

    Velusami, B; Curran, T P; Grogan, H M

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas levels were monitored in the human-occupied zone at four spent mushroom compost (SMC) storage sites during removal of SMC for application on agricultural land. During SMC removal operations, H2S gas monitors were mounted on the outside of the tractor positioned at the SMC periphery, and worn by individual tractor drivers. The highest H2S concentrations (10 s average) detected outside the tractor, at the SMC periphery, and for the tractor driver were, respectively, 454, 249, and 100 ppm for the outdoor sites and 214, 75, and 51 ppm for the indoor sites. The highest short-term exposure values (STEV over a 15 min period) outside the tractor at the SMC periphery, and for the tractor driver were 147, 55, and 86 ppm for the outdoor sites and 19, 9, and 10 ppm for the indoor sites. The values exceeded the current maximum permissible concentration limit of 10 ppm for all the sites except for the SMC periphery and tractor driver at the indoor sites. Results suggest that H2S levels detected at indoor storage sites during SMC removal are lower compared to outdoor storage sites. Results indicate that there is a substantial health and safety risk associated with working in the vicinity of stored SMC when it is being disturbed and removed for land application, and that the risk is great for the tractor driver. This article discusses possible control measures and lists recommendations to reduce the risks. PMID:24673036

  15. Study and modeling of the evolution of gas-liquid partitioning of hydrogen sulfide in model solutions simulating winemaking fermentations.

    PubMed

    Mouret, Jean-Roch; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Farines, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of gas-liquid partitioning of aroma compounds during winemaking fermentation could allow optimization of fermentation management, maximizing concentrations of positive markers of aroma and minimizing formation of molecules, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), responsible for defects. In this study, the effect of the main fermentation parameters on the gas-liquid partition coefficients (Ki) of H2S was assessed. The Ki for this highly volatile sulfur compound was measured in water by an original semistatic method developed in this work for the determination of gas-liquid partitioning. This novel method was validated and then used to determine the Ki of H2S in synthetic media simulating must, fermenting musts at various steps of the fermentation process, and wine. Ki values were found to be mainly dependent on the temperature but also varied with the composition of the medium, especially with the glucose concentration. Finally, a model was developed to quantify the gas-liquid partitioning of H2S in synthetic media simulating must to wine. This model allowed a very accurate prediction of the partition coefficient of H2S: the difference between observed and predicted values never exceeded 4%. PMID:25763810

  16. In Site Bioimaging of Hydrogen Sulfide Uncovers Its Pivotal Role in Regulating Nitric Oxide-Induced Lateral Root Formation

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Ming; Zhou, Li-Gang; Han, Fengxiang X.; Gan, Li-Jun; Shi, Zhi-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gasotransmitter in mammals. Despite physiological changes induced by exogenous H2S donor NaHS to plants, whether and how H2S works as a true cellular signal in plants need to be examined. A self-developed specific fluorescent probe (WSP-1) was applied to track endogenous H2S in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots in site. Bioimaging combined with pharmacological and biochemical approaches were used to investigate the cross-talk among H2S, nitric oxide (NO), and Ca2+ in regulating lateral root formation. Endogenous H2S accumulation was clearly associated with primordium initiation and lateral root emergence. NO donor SNP stimulated the generation of endogenous H2S and the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme responsible for endogenous H2S synthesis. Scavenging H2S or inhibiting H2S synthesis partially blocked SNP-induced lateral root formation and the expression of lateral root-related genes. The stimulatory effect of SNP on Ca2+ accumulation and CaM1 (calmodulin 1) expression could be abolished by inhibiting H2S synthesis. Ca2+ chelator or Ca2+ channel blocker attenuated NaHS-induced lateral root formation. Our study confirmed the role of H2S as a cellular signal in plants being a mediator between NO and Ca2+ in regulating lateral root formation. PMID:24587333

  17. Hydrogen sulfide protects against apoptosis under oxidative stress through SIRT1 pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Hu, Qingxun; Liu, Xinhua; Pan, Lilong; Xiong, Qinghui; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2015-04-30

    Oxidative stress plays a great role in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). Oxidative stress results in apoptosis, which can cause the damage of cardiomyocytes. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter, is a good reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, which has protective effect against HF. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylase that plays a critical role in promoting cell survival under oxidative stress. The purpose of this article is to investigate the interaction between H2S and SIRT1 under oxidative stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Oxidative stress was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Treatment with NaSH (25-100 µmol/L) dose-dependently increased the cell viability and improved the cell apoptosis induced by H2O2 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The protective effect of NaSH against the apoptosis could be attenuated by SIRT1 inhibitor Ex 527 (10 µmol/L). Treatment with NaSH (100 µmol/L) could increase the expression of SIRT1 in time dependent manner, which decreased by different concentration of H2O2. NaSH (100 µmol/L) increased the cellular ATP level and the expression of ATPase. These effects were attenuated by Ex 527 (10 µmol/L). After NaSH (100 µmol/L) treatment, the decrease in ROS production and the enhancement in SOD, GPx and GST expression were observed. Ex 527 (10 µmol/L) reversed these effects. In conclusion, for the first time, this article can identify antioxidative effects of H2S under oxidative stress through SIRT1 pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. PMID:25461268

  18. Solvation of hydrogen sulfide in liquid water and at the water-vapor interface using a polarizable force field.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Saleh; Rowley, Christopher N

    2014-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the Drude polarizable force field are used to study the solution and interfacial properties of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in water. Pairwise H2O-H2S Lennard-Jones interactions were optimized to the experimental H2S gas solubility at 298 K. These parameters yield hydration free energies and diffusion coefficients for H2S that are in good agreement with the experiment over 273-323 K and 298-368 K, respectively. H2S is sparingly soluble in water, with a ?G(hydr)° of -0.5 kcal mol(-1). The free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations and analysis of the radial distribution functions show that H2S has limited hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions with the water solvent and generally behaves like a hydrophobic solute. These features were confirmed by ab initio MD simulations. Umbrella sampling simulations were used to calculate the free energy profile of the transition of H2S across the water-vapor interface, which showed that H2S has a sizable surface excess, with a ?G(surf) of 1.3 kcal mol(-1). This high surface excess is consistent with our calculations of the surface tension, which decreases to 20 dyn cm(-1) under high densities of H2S (g). The dipole moment of H2S increases from its gas phase value of 0.98 to 1.25 D in bulk water as it moves across the interface. Adsorbed H2S tends to be oriented perpendicular to the interface, with the sulfur atom pointing toward the vapor phase. PMID:24498909

  19. Development and introduction of methods for extracting hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, M.S.; Zaichenko, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    The progress between 1933 and the present in desulfurizing coal gas from coke ovens and making use of the by-products to produce sulfuric acid, thioyanates, etc. is described. The vacuum carbonate process and the monoethanolamine method are apparently now preferred, but some plants are still using modified arsenic-soda processes. More recently additional by-products have been thiocyanates (for producing acrylonitrile fiber) and hydrogen xanthanates. The production of other organic sulfur and cyanide compounds has been investigated for use as herbicides, corrosion inhibitors, etc. (LTN)

  20. Spectroscopic study on sorption of hydrogen sulfide by means of red soil.

    PubMed

    Ko, T H; Chu, H

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the characterization of red soils in relation to the sorption of H2S from coal gas at 500 degrees C by spectroscopic techniques in order to provide more information on red soils' structural change both before and after reaction. In addition, by-products analysis has also been studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Before and after the experiments the red soils were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersion spectrum (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR spectroscopy. XRPD results indicate that iron oxide species disappear from the original to reacted red soil. EDS analysis shows that a significant amount of sulfur is present in the reacted red soil, which is in agreement with the results of the elemental analysis and the calculated value based on breakthrough curve. XPS regression fitting results further indicate that sulfur retention may be associated with the iron oxides. S 2p XPS fittings point out that the major sulfur species present in the reacted red soil are composed of S(-2), elemental sulfur, polysulfide, sulfite and sulfate. Additionally, the binding energy of iron shifts to a lower position for the reacted red soil, which indicates that iron oxides in the original red soil have been converted into iron sulfide. Appreciable amounts of the by-products CO2, SO2 and COS are detected by on-line FTIR spectroscopy during the initial and later stages of the sorption process. The formation of CO2 is related to the water-shift reaction, and SO2 is probably attributable to the reaction of organic matters and H2S. The concentration of COS is quantified by GC/FPD and found it to be about 350 ppm, which is close to the equilibrium concentration of the reaction of inlet CO and H2S at a temperature of 500 degrees C. PMID:15911419

  1. Spectroscopic study on sorption of hydrogen sulfide by means of red soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, T. H.; Chu, H.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the characterization of red soils in relation to the sorption of H 2S from coal gas at 500 °C by spectroscopic techniques in order to provide more information on red soils' structural change both before and after reaction. In addition, by-products analysis has also been studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Before and after the experiments the red soils were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersion spectrum (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR spectroscopy. XRPD results indicate that iron oxide species disappear from the original to reacted red soil. EDS analysis shows that a significant amount of sulfur is present in the reacted red soil, which is in agreement with the results of the elemental analysis and the calculated value based on breakthrough curve. XPS regression fitting results further indicate that sulfur retention may be associated with the iron oxides. S 2p XPS fittings point out that the major sulfur species present in the reacted red soil are composed of S -2, elemental sulfur, polysulfide, sulfite and sulfate. Additionally, the binding energy of iron shifts to a lower position for the reacted red soil, which indicates that iron oxides in the original red soil have been converted into iron sulfide. Appreciable amounts of the by-products CO 2, SO 2 and COS are detected by on-line FTIR spectroscopy during the initial and later stages of the sorption process. The formation of CO 2 is related to the water-shift reaction, and SO 2 is probably attributable to the reaction of organic matters and H 2S. The concentration of COS is quantified by GC/FPD and found it to be about 350 ppm, which is close to the equilibrium concentration of the reaction of inlet CO and H 2S at a temperature of 500 °C.

  2. Inhibition of radiation induced dissolution of UO2 by sulfide - A comparison with the hydrogen effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Miao; Barreiro Fidalgo, Alexandre; Sundin, Sara; Jonsson, Mats

    2013-03-01

    In this work we have studied the influence of H2S on radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel using simple model systems. The reaction between H2O2 and H2S/HS- has been studied experimentally as well as the effect of H2S/HS- on ?-radiation induced dissolution of a UO2 pellet. The experiments clearly show that the reaction of H2O2 and H2S/HS- is fairly rapid and that H2O2 and H2S/HS- stoichiometry is favorable for inhibition. Radiolysis experiments show that H2S/HS- can effectively protect UO2 from oxidative dissolution. The effect depends on sulfide concentration in combination with dose rate. Autoclave experiments were also conducted to study the role of H2S/HS- in the reduction of U(VI) in the presence and absence of H2 and Pd particles in anoxic aqueous solution. The aqueous solutions were pressurized with H2 or N2 and two different concentrations of H2S/HS- were used in the presence and absence of Pd. No catalytic effect of Pd on the U(VI) reduction by H2S/HS- could be found in N2 atmosphere. U(VI) reduction was found to be proportional to H2S/HS- concentration in H2 and N2 atmosphere. It is clearly shown the Pd catalyzed H2 effect is more powerful than the effect of H2S/HS-. H2S/HS- poisoning of the Pd catalyst is not observed under the present conditions.

  3. In situ optimization of pH for parts-per-billion electrochemical detection of dissolved hydrogen sulfide using boron doped diamond flow electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bitziou, Eleni; Joseph, Maxim B; Read, Tania L; Palmer, Nicola; Mollart, Tim; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-11-01

    A novel electrochemical approach to the direct detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), in aqueous solutions, covering a wide pH range (acid to alkali), is described. In brief, a dual band electrode device is employed, in a hydrodynamic flow cell, where the upstream electrode is used to controllably generate hydroxide ions (OH(-)), which flood the downstream detector electrode and provide the correct pH environment for complete conversion of H2S to the electrochemically detectable, sulfide (HS(-)) ion. All-diamond, coplanar conducting diamond band electrodes, insulated in diamond, were used due to their exceptional stability and robustness when applying extreme potentials, essential attributes for both local OH(-) generation via the reduction of water, and for in situ cleaning of the electrode, post oxidation of sulfide. Using a galvanostatic approach, it was demonstrated the pH locally could be modified by over five pH units, depending on the initial pH of the mobile phase and the applied current. Electrochemical detection limits of 13.6 ppb sulfide were achieved using flow injection amperometry. This approach which offers local control of the pH of the detector electrode in a solution, which is far from ideal for optimized detection of the analyte of interest, enhances the capabilities of online electrochemical detection systems. PMID:25263331

  4. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  5. Hydrogen sulfide removal by Thiobacillus thioparus bacteria on seashell bed biofilters.

    PubMed

    Massoudinejad, M R; Manshouri, M; Khatibi, M; Adibzadeh, A; Amini, H

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this research is to achieve an efficient and cheap methods to remove H2S from the factories emissions. Four serial cylinders are designed, 40 cm in height and 15 cm in diameter each. They are filled with bivalve seashells with 63% porosity which contains Thiobacillus thioparus bacteria to the maximum height of 27.5 cm. By mixing phosphoric acid and sodium sulfide, H2S gas is released and its concentration is measured as mg m(-3) before injecting into the cylinders. A permanent measuring instrument is equipped to control the gas coming out of the cylinders. In order to prevent the outdoor environment from pollution, first the gas is sent through two activated carbon columns and then sent through a ferrous chloride scrubber. Finally it is burnt directly by flames. There were 550 sample readings in 15 weeks. The changes in the discharge of the air which carries the gas are considered between 1-12 L min(-1) and the concentration of the influent pollutant is considered between 1-140 mg m(-3). Also the humidity in the atmosphere is fixed between 77-93% and the optimum temperature required for growing of the microorganisms is retained between 20.5-30 degrees C. After feeding the system for three weeks the efficiency started to increase so that by the end of the final week of this research the efficiency reached to 90% with the discharge of 6 L min(-1) of the carrier gas. The results achieved from this research show that because of not using Filamentous bacteria, clogging did not occur in the biological system in biofilters. The amount of head loss in cylinder was only 2 mm water and during this research, head loss was the same due to unclogging of filter. On the other hand the traditional methods are expensive in terms of using chemicals, carbon recycling and using fuel and etc. Therefore researchers have started new studies in this field. The above mentioned method, according to high efficiency, inexpensiveness and easiness of control and maintenance is considered one of the best methods. PMID:18814657

  6. DETERMINING SULFIDE CONCENTRATIONS In measuring the sulfide concentrations in our Winogradsky columns, be aware that

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    DETERMINING SULFIDE CONCENTRATIONS In measuring the sulfide concentrations in our Winogradsky columns, be aware that hydrogen sulfide is quite volatile and readily oxidized. The zinc acetate, to which the sample is added, is reduced to zinc sulfide by H2S, which is more stable in the presence of oxygen. We

  7. A comparative evaluation of dried activated sludge and mixed dried activated sludge with rice husk silica to remove hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dried activated sludge (DAS) and mixed dried activated sludge with rice husk silica (DAS & RHS) for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Two laboratory-scale filter columns (packed one litter) were operated. Both systems were operated under different conditions of two parameters, namely different inlet gas concentrations and different inlet flow rates. The DAS & RHS packed filter showed more than 99.96% removal efficiency (RE) with empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 45 to 90 s and 300 mg/L inlet concentration of H2S. However, the RE decreased to 96.87% with the EBRT of 30 s. In the same condition, the DAS packed filter showed 99.37% RE. Nonetheless, the RE was shown to have dropped to 82.09% with the EBRT of 30 s. The maximum elimination capacity (EC) was obtained in the DAS & RHS packed filter up to 52.32 g/m3h, with the RE of 96.87% and H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. The maximum EC in the DAS packed filter was obtained up to 44.33 g/m3h with the RE of 82.09% and the H2S mass loading rate of 54 g/m3h. After 53 days of operating time and 54 g/m3h of loading rates, the maximum pressure drop reached to 3.0 and 8.0 (mm H2O) for the DAS & RHS packed and DAS packed filters, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, the DAS & RHS could be considered as a more suitable packing material to remove H2S. PMID:23497048

  8. ROLE OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AS A GASOTRANSMITTER IN MODULATING CONTRACTILE ACTIVITY OF CIRCULAR MUSCLE OF RAT JEJUNUM

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Munenori; Duenes, Judith A.; Sarr, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine mechanisms of action of the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on contractile activity in circular muscle of rat jejunum. METHODS Jejunal circular muscle strips were prepared to measure isometric contractions. Effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, were evaluated on spontaneous contractile activity and after precontraction with bethanechol. L-cysteine was evaluated as an endogenous H2S donor. We evaluated extrinsic nerves, enteric nervous system, visceral afferent nerves, nitric oxide, K+ATP and K+Ca channels, and myosin light chain phosphatase on action of H2S using non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic conditions, tetrodotoxin, capsaicin, L-NG-nitro arginine (L-NNA), glibenclamide, apamin, and calyculin A, respectively, and electrical field stimulation (EFS). RESULTS NaHS dose-dependently and reversibly inhibited spontaneous and bethanechol-stimulated contractile activity (p<0.05). L-cysteine had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. Non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic conditions, tetrodotoxin, capsaicin, L-NNA, or apamin had no effect on contractile inhibition by NaHS; in contrast, low dose glibenclamide and calyculin A prevented NaHS-induced inhibition. We could not demonstrate H2S release by EFS. CONCLUSIONS H2S inhibits contractile activity of jejunal circular muscle dose-dependently, in part by K+ATP channels and via myosin light chain phosphatase, but not via pathways mediated by the extrinsic or enteric nervous system, visceral afferent nerves, nitric oxide, or K+Ca channels. PMID:22058041

  9. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE GASOTRANSMITTER HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN MODULATING CONTRACTILE ACTIVITY OF LONGITUDINAL MUSCLE OF RAT ILEUM

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Munenori; Linden, David R.; Duenes, Judith A.; Sarr, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine mechanisms of action of the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on contractile activity in longitudinal muscle of rat ileum. METHODS Ileal longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to measure isometric contractions. Effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, were evaluated on spontaneous contractile activity and after enhanced contractile activity with bethanechol. L-cysteine was evaluated as a potential endogenous donor of H2S. We evaluated involvement of extrinsic nerves, enteric nervous system, visceral afferent nerves, nitric oxide, and K+ATP channel and K+Ca channel activity on the action of H2S using non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic conditions, tetrodotoxin, capsaicin, L-NG-nitro arginine (L-NNA), glibenclamide, and apamin, respectively, as well as electrical field stimulation. RESULT NaHS dose-dependently and reversibly inhibited spontaneous and bethanechol-stimulated contractile activity (p<0.05). L-cysteine had no inhibitory effect. Non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic conditions, tetrodotoxin, capsaicin, L-NNA, glibenclamide, or apamin had no major effect on total contractile activity by NaHS, although both tetrodotoxin and apamin decreased the frequency of bethanechol-enhanced contractile activity (p<0.05). We could not demonstrate H2S release by electrical field stimulation but did show that inhibition of cystathionine ? synthase, an endogenous source of H2S, augmented the inhibitory effect of low-frequency electrical field stimulation. CONCLUSION H2S inhibits contractile activity of ileal longitudinal muscle dose-dependently but not through pathways mediated by the extrinsic or enteric nervous system, visceral afferent nerves, nitric oxide, K+ATP channels, or K+Ca channels. PMID:21082276

  10. Evaluation of wood chip-based biofilters to reduce odor, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia from swine barn ventilation air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lide; Hoff, Steven; Cai, Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek; Zelle, Brian

    2009-05-01

    A pilot-scale biofilter was developed in which two types of wood chips (western cedar [WC] and 2-in. hardwood [HW]) were examined to treat odor emissions from a deep-pit swine finishing facility in central Iowa. The biofilters were operated continuously for 13 weeks at different airflow rates resulting in variable empty bed residence times (EBRTs) from 1.6 to 7.3 sec. The effects of three media moisture levels were also evaluated. A dynamic forced-choice olfactometer was used to evaluate odor concentrations from both the control (inlet) plenum and biofilter treatments (outlet). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations were also measured from these olfactometry samples. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/divinylbenzene (DVB) 65-microm fibers were used to extract volatile organic compounds from both the control plenum and biofilter treatments. Analyses of separated odors were carried out using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) system. Static sample results indicated that both types of chips achieved significant reductions in odor (average 70.1 and 82.3% for HW and WC, respectively), H2S (average 81.8 and 88.6% for HW and WC, respectively) and NH3 (average 43.4 and 74% for HW and WC, respectively) concentrations. GC-MS-O aromagram results showed both treatments reached high odor reduction efficiency (average 99.4 and 99.8% for HW and WC, respectively). The results also showed that maintaining proper moisture content and a minimum EBRT are critical to the success of wood chip-based biofilters. PMID:19583152

  11. Facile synthesis of titania nanowires via a hot filament method and conductometric measurement of their response to hydrogen sulfide gas.

    PubMed

    Munz, Martin; Langridge, Mark T; Devarepally, Kishore K; Cox, David C; Patel, Pravin; Martin, Nicholas A; Vargha, Gergely; Stolojan, Vlad; White, Sam; Curry, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    Titania nanostructures are of increasing interest for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, water splitting, and chemical sensing. Because of the photocatalytical properties of TiO?, chemical processes that occur at its surface can be exploited for highly efficient nanodevices. A facile and fast synthesis route has been explored that is free of catalysts or templates. An environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) system was employed to grow titania nanowires (NWs) in a water vapor atmosphere (?1 mbar) and to monitor the growth in situ. In addition, the growth process was also demonstrated using a simple vacuum chamber. In both processes, a titanium filament was heated via the Joule effect and NWs were found to grow on its surface, as a result of thermal oxidation processes. A variety of nanostructures were observed across the filament, with morphologies changing with the wire temperature from the center to the end points. The longest NWs were obtained for temperatures between ?730 °C and 810 °C. Typically, they have an approximate thickness of ?300 nm and lengths of up to a few micrometers. Cross sections prepared by focused-ion-beam milling revealed the presence of a porous layer beneath the NW clusters. This indicates that the growth of NWs is driven by oxidation-induced stresses in the subsurface region of the Ti filament and by enhanced diffusion along grain boundaries. To demonstrate the potential of titania NWs grown via the hot filament method, single NW devices were fabricated and used for conductometric sensing of hydrogen sulfide (H?S) gas. The NW electric resistance was found to decrease in the presence of H?S. Its variation can be explained in terms of the surface depletion model. PMID:23327919

  12. Induction of MicroRNA-21 with Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates Myocardial Ischemic and Inflammatory Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Toldo, Stefano; Das, Anindita; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Chau, Vinh Q.; Marchetti, Carlo; Durrant, David; Samidurai, Arun; Van Tassell, Benjamin W.; Yin, Chang; Ockaili, Ramzi A.; Vigneshwar, Navin; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.; Abbate, Antonio; Salloum, Fadi N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maintaining physiological levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during ischemia is necessary to limit injury to the heart. Due to the anti-inflammatory effects of H2S, we proposed that the H2S donor, Na2S, would attenuate myocardial injury through upregulation of ‘protective’ microRNA (miR)-21 and suppression of the inflammasome, a macromolecular structure that amplifies inflammation and mediates further injury. Methods and Results Na2S-induced miR-21 expression was measured by qPCR in adult primary rat cardiomyocytes and in the mouse heart. We measured inflammasome formation and activity in cardiomyocytes challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) or simulated ischemia/reoxygenation; and in the heart following regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), in the presence or absence of Na2S. To assess the direct anti-inflammatory effects of H2S in vivo, we utilized a peritonitis model by way of intraperitoneal injection of zymosan A. Na2S attenuated inflammasome formation and activity - measured by counting cytoplasmic aggregates of the scaffold protein Apoptosis Speck-like protein containing a Caspase-recruitment domain (ASC; ?57%) and caspase-1 activity (?50%) in isolated cardiomyocytes and in the mouse heart (all P<0.05). Na2S also inhibited apoptosis (?38%) and necrosis (?43%) in cardiomyocytes in vitro and reduced myocardial infarct size (?63%) following I/R injury in vivo (all P<0.05). These protective effects were absent in cells treated with antagomiR-21 and in miR-21 KO mice. Na2S also limited the severity of inflammasome-dependent inflammation in the model of peritonitis (P<0.05) in wild-type but not in miR-21 KO mice. Conclusions Na2S induces cardioprotective effects through miR-21-dependent attenuation of ischemic and inflammatory injury in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24825878

  13. Regulation of the Heme Oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide system by hydrogen sulfide in murine coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Wu, T; Xia, T; Rong, X; Wu, T; Chu, M; Wu, R

    2015-01-01

    To explore the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the heme oxygenase—1 (HO—1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system in coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)—induced myocarditis. A total of 80 Balb/c mice were divided randomly into four groups designated N, C, P and S. Group N served as the negative control while groups C, P, and S were infected with CVB3 to induce myocarditis. Group P was additionally treated with DL—propargylglycine (PAG) to inhibit the generation of H2S while Group S was treated with NaHS, an H2S donor. Ten days after infection, heart sections were scored for histopathology. We also measured carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in the blood and HO—1 expression by immunohistochemistry. 1. Each CVB3—infected group (C, P, and S) exhibited increased pathology, COHb levels, and HO—1 expression compared to uninfected controls. 2. Regarding histopathology, the score of group P was worse, while that of group S was better, than that of group C. 3. The P group COHb level was lower than group C, while the S group COHb level was higher than group C. 4. Positive HO—1 expression was seen in group C with reduced expression in group P and increased expression in group S. 5. A positive correlation was observed between the COHb concentration and HO—1expression; alternatively, a negative correlation was found between the histopathologic scores and both the concentration of COHb and the expression level of HO—1. Modulation of H2S can play a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of VMC by impacting the HO—1/CO pathway. PMID:26025406

  14. Fluorescent probes for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfane sulfur and their applications to biological studies.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Kazuhito; Hanaoka, Kenjiro

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a toxic gas with the smell of rotten eggs, plays key roles in many physiological processes, including relaxation of vascular smooth muscles, mediation of neurotransmission, inhibition of insulin signaling, and regulation of inflammation. The most commonly used methods or detecting H2S are the methylene blue method and the electrode method, but these methods require destructive sampling, e.g., homogenization of biological samples. On the other hand, the fluorescence detection method has been widely used in biological studies to study the physiological roles of H2S, because this technology provides real-time, easy-to-use, nondestructive detection in live cells or tissues. Many selective fluorescent probes for H2S have been reported. Sulfane sulfur compounds contain divalent sulfur atoms bonded to other sulfur atom(s), as in persulfides (R-S-SH) and polysulfides (R-S-Sn-S-R). They are currently attracting increasing interest because one of the mechanisms of activity regulation of proteins by H2S is sulfhydration of cysteine residues (RSH ? RSSH). Since H2S and sulfane sulfur are redox partners, they are very likely to coexist in biological systems, and from a reactivity point-of-view, sulfane sulfur seems likely to be much more effective than H2S in S-sulfhydration. Therefore, sulfane sulfur may be involved in mediating at least some of the biological activities of H2S. In this review, we summarize recent work on fluorescent probes selective for H2S and/or sulfane sulfur, and we briefly review their applications to biological studies. PMID:25461270

  15. Hydrogen sulfide induces hypersensitivity of rat capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal neurons: role of TRPA1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Chun; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Lee, Lu-Yuan; Lin, You Shuei

    2013-10-01

    The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal (CSLV) afferents by inflammatory mediators is important in the development of airway hypersensitivity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous mediator inducing hyperalgesia through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors located on nociceptors. We conducted this study to determine whether H2S elevates the sensitivity of rat CSLV afferents. In anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats, the inhalation of aerosolized sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) caused no significant changes in the baseline activity of CSLV afferents. However, the afferent responses to right atrial injection of capsaicin or phenylbiguanide and to lung inflation were all markedly potentiated after NaHS inhalation. By contrast, the inhalation of its vehicle or NaOH (with a similar pH to NaHS) failed to enhance the afferent responses. Additionally, the potentiating effect on the afferent responses was found in rats inhaling L-cysteine (a substrate of H2S synthase) that slowly releases H2S. The potentiating effect of NaHS on the sensitivity of CSLV afferents was completely blocked by pretreatment of HC-030031 (a TRPA1 receptor antagonist) but was unaffected by its vehicle. In isolated rat CSLV neurons, the perfusion of NaHS alone did not influence the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration but markedly potentiated the Ca(2+) transients evoked by capsaicin. The NaHS-caused effect was totally abolished by HC-030031 pretreatment. These results suggest that H2S induces a nonspecific sensitizing effect on CSLV fibers to both chemical and mechanical stimulation in rat lungs, which appears mediated through an action on the TRPA1 receptors expressed on the nerve endings of CSLV afferents. PMID:23842678

  16. Chemical probes for molecular imaging and detection of hydrogen sulfide and reactive sulfur species in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous species produced by both bacteria and higher eukaryotic organisms, including mammalian vertebrates, has attracted attention in recent years for its contributions to human health and disease. H2S has been proposed as a cytoprotectant and gasotransmitter in many tissue types, including mediating vascular tone in blood vessels as well as neuromodulation in the brain. The molecular mechanisms dictating how H2S affects cellular signaling and other physiological events remain insufficiently understood. Furthermore, the involvement of H2S in metal-binding interactions and formation of related RSS such as sulfane sulfur may contribute to other distinct signaling pathways. Owing to its widespread biological roles and unique chemical properties, H2S is an appealing target for chemical biology approaches to elucidate its production, trafficking, and downstream function. In this context, reaction-based fluorescent probes offer a versatile set of screening tools to visualize H2S pools in living systems. Three main strategies used in molecular probe development for H2S detection include azide and nitro group reduction, nucleophilic attack, and CuS precipitation. Each of these approaches exploits the strong nucleophilicity and reducing potency of H2S to achieve selectivity over other biothiols. In addition, a variety of methods have been developed for the detection of other reactive sulfur species (RSS), including sulfite and bisulfite, as well as sulfane sulfur species and related modifications such as S-nitrosothiols. Access to this growing chemical toolbox of new molecular probes for H2S and related RSS sets the stage for applying these developing technologies to probe reactive sulfur biology in living systems. PMID:25474627

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Formaldehyde-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in PC12 Cells by Upregulation of SIRT-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Chen, Li-Xun; Wang, Li; Xie, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde (FA), a well-known environmental pollutant, has been classified as a neurotoxic molecule. Our recent data demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous transmitter, has a protective effect on the neurotoxicity of FA. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of FA. Silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT-1), a histone deacetylases, has various biological activities, including the extension of lifespan, the modulation of ER stress, and the neuroprotective action. Objective We hypothesize that the protection of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity involves in inhibiting ER stress by upregulation of SIRT-1. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of H2S on FA-induced ER stress in PC12 cells and the contribution of SIRT-1 to the protection of H2S against FA-induced injuries, including ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Principal Findings We found that exogenous application of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; an H2S donor) significantly attenuated FA-induced ER stress responses, including the upregulated levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and cleaved caspase-12 expression. We showed that NaHS upregulates the expression of SIRT-1 in PC12 cells. Moreover, the protective effects of H2S on FA-elicited ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were reversed by Sirtinol, a specific inhibitor of SIRT-1. Conclusion/Significance These data indicate that H2S exerts its protection against the neurotoxicity of FA through overcoming ER stress via upregulation of SIRT-1. Our findings provide novel insights into the protective mechanisms of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24587076

  18. Hydrogen sulfide decreases ?-adrenergic agonist-stimulated lung liquid clearance by inhibiting ENaC-mediated transepithelial sodium absorption.

    PubMed

    Agné, Alisa M; Baldin, Jan-Peter; Benjamin, Audra R; Orogo-Wenn, Maria C; Wichmann, Lukas; Olson, Kenneth R; Walters, Dafydd V; Althaus, Mike

    2015-04-01

    In pulmonary epithelia, ?-adrenergic agonists regulate the membrane abundance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and, thereby, control the rate of transepithelial electrolyte absorption. This is a crucial regulatory mechanism for lung liquid clearance at birth and thereafter. This study investigated the influence of the gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on ?-adrenergic agonist-regulated pulmonary sodium and liquid absorption. Application of the H2S-liberating molecule Na2S (50 ?M) to the alveolar compartment of rat lungs in situ decreased baseline liquid absorption and abrogated the stimulation of liquid absorption by the ?-adrenergic agonist terbutaline. There was no additional effect of Na2S over that of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride. In electrophysiological Ussing chamber experiments with native lung epithelia (Xenopus laevis), Na2S inhibited the stimulation of amiloride-sensitive current by terbutaline. ?-adrenergic agonists generally increase ENaC abundance by cAMP formation and activation of PKA. Activation of this pathway by forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine increased amiloride-sensitive currents in H441 pulmonary epithelial cells. This effect was inhibited by Na2S in a dose-dependent manner (5-50 ?M). Na2S had no effect on cellular ATP concentration, cAMP formation, and activation of PKA. By contrast, Na2S prevented the cAMP-induced increase in ENaC activity in the apical membrane of H441 cells. H441 cells expressed the H2S-generating enzymes cystathionine-?-synthase, cystathionine-?-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, and they produced H2S amounts within the employed concentration range. These data demonstrate that H2S prevents the stimulation of ENaC by cAMP/PKA and, thereby, inhibits the proabsorptive effect of ?-adrenergic agonists on lung liquid clearance. PMID:25632025

  19. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide alleviates high glucose-induced cardiotoxicity via inhibition of leptin signaling in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiao-Dong; Hu, Xun; Long, Ming; Dong, Xiao-Bian; Liu, Dong-Hong; Liao, Xin-Xue

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H?S) protects cardiomyoblasts against high glucose (HG)-induced injury by inhibiting the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This study aims to determine whether the leptin-p38 MAPK pathway is involved in HG-induced injury and whether exogenous H2S prevents the HG-induced insult through inhibition of the leptin-p38 MAPK pathway in H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were treated with 35 mM glucose (HG) for 24 h to establish a HG-induced cardiomyocyte injury model. Cell viability; mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m); apoptosis; reactive oxygen species (ROS) level; and leptin, leptin receptor, and p38 MAPK expression level were measured by the methods indicated. The results showed pretreatment of H9c2 cells with NaHS before exposure to HG led to an increase in cell viability, decrease in apoptotic cells, ROS generation, and a loss of ?? m. Exposure of H9c2 cells to 35 mM glucose for 24 h significantly upregulated the expression levels of leptin and leptin receptors. The increased expression levels of leptin and leptin receptors were markedly attenuated by pretreatment with 400 ?M NaHS. In addition, the HG-induced increase in phosphorylated (p) p38 MAPK expression was ameliorated by pretreatment with 50 ng/ml leptin antagonist. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated for the first time that the leptin-p38 MAPK pathway contributes to the HG-induced injury in H9c2 cells and that exogenous H?S protects H9c2 cells against HG-induced injury at least in part by inhibiting the activation of leptin-p38 MAPK pathway. PMID:24687304

  20. Tumor-derived hydrogen sulfide, produced by cystathionine-?-synthase, stimulates bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Csaba; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia; Módis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The physiological functions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) include vasorelaxation, stimulation of cellular bioenergetics, and promotion of angiogenesis. Analysis of human colon cancer biopsies and patient-matched normal margin mucosa revealed the selective up-regulation of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) in colon cancer, resulting in an increased rate of H2S production. Similarly, colon cancer-derived epithelial cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, LoVo) exhibited selective CBS up-regulation and increased H2S production, compared with the nonmalignant colonic mucosa cells, NCM356. CBS localized to the cytosol, as well as the mitochondrial outer membrane. ShRNA-mediated silencing of CBS or its pharmacological inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid reduced HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; reduced endothelial cell migration in tumor/endothelial cell cocultures; and suppressed mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, ATP turnover, and respiratory reserve capacity), as well as glycolysis. Treatment of nude mice with aminooxyacetic acid attenuated the growth of patient-derived colon cancer xenografts and reduced tumor blood flow. Similarly, CBS silencing of the tumor cells decreased xenograft growth and suppressed neovessel density, suggesting a role for endogenous H2S in tumor angiogenesis. In contrast to CBS, silencing of cystathionine-?-lyase (the expression of which was unchanged in colon cancer) did not affect tumor growth or bioenergetics. In conclusion, H2S produced from CBS serves to (i) maintain colon cancer cellular bioenergetics, thereby supporting tumor growth and proliferation, and (ii) promote angiogenesis and vasorelaxation, consequently providing the tumor with blood and nutritients. The current findings identify CBS-derived H2S as a tumor growth factor and anticancer drug target. PMID:23836652

  1. Tumor-derived hydrogen sulfide, produced by cystathionine-?-synthase, stimulates bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Csaba; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia; Módis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R

    2013-07-23

    The physiological functions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) include vasorelaxation, stimulation of cellular bioenergetics, and promotion of angiogenesis. Analysis of human colon cancer biopsies and patient-matched normal margin mucosa revealed the selective up-regulation of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) in colon cancer, resulting in an increased rate of H2S production. Similarly, colon cancer-derived epithelial cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, LoVo) exhibited selective CBS up-regulation and increased H2S production, compared with the nonmalignant colonic mucosa cells, NCM356. CBS localized to the cytosol, as well as the mitochondrial outer membrane. ShRNA-mediated silencing of CBS or its pharmacological inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid reduced HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; reduced endothelial cell migration in tumor/endothelial cell cocultures; and suppressed mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, ATP turnover, and respiratory reserve capacity), as well as glycolysis. Treatment of nude mice with aminooxyacetic acid attenuated the growth of patient-derived colon cancer xenografts and reduced tumor blood flow. Similarly, CBS silencing of the tumor cells decreased xenograft growth and suppressed neovessel density, suggesting a role for endogenous H2S in tumor angiogenesis. In contrast to CBS, silencing of cystathionine-?-lyase (the expression of which was unchanged in colon cancer) did not affect tumor growth or bioenergetics. In conclusion, H2S produced from CBS serves to (i) maintain colon cancer cellular bioenergetics, thereby supporting tumor growth and proliferation, and (ii) promote angiogenesis and vasorelaxation, consequently providing the tumor with blood and nutritients. The current findings identify CBS-derived H2S as a tumor growth factor and anticancer drug target. PMID:23836652

  2. Estimation of hydrogen sulfide emission rates at several wastewater treatment plants through experimental concentration measurements and dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Llavador Colomer, Fernando; Espinós Morató, Héctor; Mantilla Iglesias, Enrique

    2012-07-01

    The management and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) usually involve the release into the atmosphere of malodorous substances with the potential to reduce the quality of life of people living nearby. In this type of facility, anaerobic degradation processes contribute to the generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), often at quite high concentrations; thus, the presence of this chemical compound in the atmosphere can be a good indicator of the occurrence and intensity of the olfactory impact in a specific area. The present paper describes the experimental and modelling work being carried out by CEAM-UMH in the surroundings of several wastewater treatment plants located in the Valencia Autonomous Community (Spain). This work has permitted the estimation of H2S emission rates at different WWTPs under different environmental and operating conditions. Our methodological approach for analyzing and describing the most relevant aspects of the olfactory impact consisted of several experimental campaigns involving intensive field measurements using passive samplers in the vicinity of several WWTPs, in combination with numerical simulation results from a diagnostic dispersion model. A meteorological tower at each WWTP provided the input values for the dispersion code, ensuring a good fit of the advective component and therefore more confidence in the modelled concentration field in response to environmental conditions. Then, comparisons between simulated and experimental H2S concentrations yielded estimates of the global emission rate for this substance at several WWTPs at different time periods. The results obtained show a certain degree of temporal and spatial (between-plant) variability (possibly due to both operational and environmental conditions). Nevertheless, and more importantly, the results show a high degree of uniformity in the estimates, which consistently stay within the same order of magnitude. PMID:22866577

  3. Effects of L-tryptophan, Fructan, and Casein on Reducing Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Skatole in Fermented Swine Manure.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Q K; Yang, Z J; Zhao, H B; Wang, X L; Guo, J F

    2015-08-01

    The effects of daily dietary Bacillus subtilis (Bs), and adding L-tryptophan, fructan, or casein to fecal fermentation broths were investigated as means to reduce the production of noxious gas during manure fermentation caused by ammonia, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and 3-methylindole (skatole). Eighty swine (50.0±0.5 kg) were equally apportioned to an experimental group given Bs in daily feed, or a control group without Bs. After 6 weeks, fresh manure was collected from both groups for fermentation studies using a 3×3 orthogonal array, in which tryptophan, casein, and fructan were added at various concentrations. After fermentation, the ammonia, H2S, L-tryptophan, skatole, and microflora were measured. In both groups, L-tryptophan was the principle additive increasing skatole production, with significant correlation (r = 0.9992). L-tryptophan had no effect on the production of ammonia, H2S, or skatole in animals fed Bs. In both groups, fructan was the principle additive that reduced H2S production (r = 0.9981). Fructan and Bs significantly interacted in H2S production (p = 0.014). Casein was the principle additive affecting the concentration of ammonia, only in the control group. Casein and Bs significantly interacted in ammonia production (p = 0.039). The predominant bacteria were Bacillus spp. CWBI B1434 (26%) in the control group, and Streptococcus alactolyticus AF201899 (36%) in the experimental group. In summary, daily dietary Bs reduced ammonia production during fecal fermentation. Lessening L-tryptophan and increasing fructan in the fermentation broth reduced skatole and H2S. PMID:26104530

  4. Monitoring of hydrogen sulfide via substrate-integrated hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensors in real-time.

    PubMed

    Petruci, João Flávio da Silveira; Fortes, Paula Regina; Kokoric, Vjekoslav; Wilk, Andreas; Raimundo, Ivo Milton; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a highly corrosive, harmful, and toxic gas produced under anaerobic conditions within industrial processes or in natural environments, and plays an important role in the sulfur cycle. According to the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the permissible exposure limit (during 8 hours) is 10 ppm. Concentrations of 20 ppm are the threshold for critical health issues. In workplace environments with human subjects frequently exposed to H2S, e.g., during petroleum extraction and refining, real-time monitoring of exposure levels is mandatory. Sensors based on electrochemical measurement principles, semiconducting metal-oxides, taking advantage of their optical properties, have been described for H2S monitoring. However, extended response times, limited selectivity, and bulkiness of the instrumentation are common disadvantages of the sensing techniques reported to date. Here, we describe for the first time usage of a new generation of compact gas cells, i.e., so-called substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWGs), combined with a compact Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for advanced gas sensing of H2S. The principle of detection is based on the immediate UV-assisted conversion of the rather weak IR-absorber H2S into much more pronounced and distinctively responding SO2. A calibration was established in the range of 10-100 ppm with a limit of detection (LOD) at 3 ppm, which is suitable for occupational health monitoring purposes. The developed sensing scheme provides an analytical response time of less than 60 seconds. Considering the substantial potential for miniaturization using e.g., a dedicated quantum cascade laser (QCL) in lieu of the FTIR spectrometer, the developed sensing approach may be evolved into a hand-held instrument, which may be tailored to a variety of applications ranging from environmental monitoring to workplace safety surveillance, process analysis and clinical diagnostics, e.g., breath analysis. PMID:24256718

  5. Impact of hydrogen and oxygen defects on the lattice parameter of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Wolf, Walter; Wimmer, Erich; Zelinski, Brian

    2013-01-09

    The lattice parameter of cubic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS with measured oxygen concentrations < 0.6 at.% and hydrogen impurities of < 0.015 at.% have been measured and found to vary between -0.10% and +0.09% relative to the reference lattice parameter (5.4093 Å) of oxygen-free cubic ZnS as reported in the literature. Defects other than substitutional O must be invoked to explain these observed volume changes. The structure and thermodynamic stability of a wide range of native and impurity induced defects in ZnS have been determined by Ab initio calculations. Lattice contraction is caused by S-vacancies, substitutional O on S sites, Zn vacancies, H in S vacancies, peroxy defects, and dissociated water in S-vacancies. The lattice is expanded by interstitial H, H in Zn vacancies, dihydroxy defects, interstitial oxygen, Zn and [ZnHn] complexes (n=1,…,4), interstitial Zn, and S2 dumbbells. Oxygen, though present, likely forms substitutional defects for sulfur resulting in lattice contraction rather than as interstitial oxygen resulting in lattice expansion. It is concluded based on measurement and calculations that excess zinc atoms either at anti-sites (i.e. Zn atoms on S-sites) or possibly as interstitial Zn are responsible for the relative increase of the lattice parameter of commercially produced CVD ZnS.

  6. Impact of hydrogen and oxygen defects on the lattice parameter of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloy, J. S.; Wolf, W.; Wimmer, E.; Zelinski, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The lattice parameter of cubic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS with measured oxygen concentrations <0.6 at. % and hydrogen impurities of <0.015 at. % has been measured and found to vary between -0.10% and +0.09% relative to the reference lattice parameter (5.4093 Å) of oxygen-free cubic ZnS as reported in the literature. Defects other than substitutional O must be invoked to explain these observed volume changes. The structure and thermodynamic stability of a wide range of native and impurity induced defects in ZnS have been determined by ab initio calculations. Lattice contraction is caused by S-vacancies, substitutional O on S sites, Zn vacancies, H in S vacancies, peroxy defects, and dissociated water in S-vacancies. The lattice is expanded by interstitial H, H in Zn vacancies, dihydroxy defects, interstitial oxygen, Zn and [ZnHn] complexes (n = 1,…,4), interstitial Zn, and S2 dumbbells. Oxygen, though present, likely forms substitutional defects for sulfur resulting in lattice contraction rather than as interstitial oxygen resulting in lattice expansion. It is concluded based on measurement and calculations that excess zinc atoms either at anti-sites (i.e., Zn atoms on S-sites) or possibly as interstitial Zn are responsible for the relative increase of the lattice parameter of commercially produced CVD ZnS.

  7. Analysis of mass transfer processes in geothermal power cycles utilizing direct contact heat exchange. Report of work, September 21, 1978 to September 30, 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Knight; J. J. Perona

    1979-01-01

    A computer program was developed which calculates the isobutane content of the spent brine and the liquid-vapor distribution of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide throughout the components of a geothermal power plant using direct contact heat exchange. The program model assumes separate boiler and preheater vessels, with the preheater being a spray tower. The condenser model is a horizontal tube

  8. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 mW.cm-2 (L4ST) to 161 mW.cm -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦O.cm 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM results showed that the L4ST particles were finely distributed into the anode structure in the presence of LDC when compared to the L4ST alone. The rate of electrochemical oxidation of H2 and CH4 feeds over L0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta and La0.4Ce0.6O1.8-La0.4Sr0.6 TiO3+/-delta impregnated solid oxide fuel cell anodes increased significantly when H2S (0.5%) was present. There was recovery of the fuel cell under galvanostatic conditions at 40 mA.cm -2 and 800 °C in both H2S (0.5%)-H2 and H2S (0.5%)-CH4 after switching to H2 as fuel. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed the effect of H2S (0.5%) on the enhancement of CH4 electrochemical oxidation.

  9. Diffuse helium and hydrogen degassing to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Dionis, Samara; López, Gabriel; Melián, Gladys V.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padilla, German; Barrancos, José; Marrero, Rayco; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    During geothermal exploration, the geochemical methods are extensively used and play a major role in both exploration and exploitation phases. They are particularly useful to assess the subsurface temperatures in the reservoir, the origin of the fluid, and flow directions within the reservoir. The geochemical exploration is based on the assumption that fluids on the surface reflect physico-chemical and thermal conditions in the geothermal reservoir at depth. However, in many occasions there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system. Discovery of new geothermal systems will therefore require exploration of areas where the resources are either hidden or lie at great depths. Geochemical methods for geothermal exploration at these areas must include soil gas surveys, based on the detection of anomalously high concentrations of some hydrothermal gases in the soil atmosphere, generally between 40 cm and 1 meter depth from the surface. Among soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. This is the case of helium (He) and hydrogen (H2), that have unique characteristics as a geochemical tracer, owing to their chemical and physical characteristics. Enrichments of He and H2 observed in the soil atmosphere can be attributed almost exclusively to migration of deep-seated gas toward the surface. In this work we show the results of soil gas geochemistry studies, focused mainly in non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases as He and H2, in five minning grids at Tenerife and Gran Canaria, Canay Islands, Spain, during 2011-2014. The primary objective was to use different geochemical evidences of deep-seated gas emission to sort the possible geothermal potential in five minning grids, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the area with the highest success in the selection of future exploratory wells. By combining the overall information obtained by statistical-graphical analysis of the soil He and H2 data, visual inspection of their spatial distribution and analysis of some interesting chemical ratios, two of the five minning licenses, located at the southern and western parts of Tenerife Islands, seemed to show the highest geothermal potential of the five mining grids studied. These results will be useful for future implementation and development of geothermal energy in the Canaries, the only Spanish territory with potential high enthalpy geothermal resources.

  10. Cost effective air pollution control for geothermal powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.

    1985-03-01

    Air pollution control technology developed and demonstrated at The Geysers by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company includes two different, but equally effective methods to reduce the emissions of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal power plants. These technologies may be used in other geothermal areas as well. Cost saving modifications and adaptations needed to apply these technologies in other geothermal areas with different steam composition are described. Cost estimates are presented for some typical cases. If a surface condenser gives poor H/sub 2/S partitioning with ammonia rich steam, neutralizing the ammonia with SO/sub 2/ is a cost effective alternative to secondary abatement with hydrogen peroxide. Nickel is a cost effective alternative to FeHEDTA when an oxidation catalyst is added to the cooling water of a power plant equipped with a contact condenser. 13 ref., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. In situ measurements of hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, and temperature in diffuse fluids of an ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal vent field (Logatchev, 14°45?N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge): Implications for chemosymbiotic bathymodiolin mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Frank U.; Gennerich, Hans-Hermann; Borowski, Christian; WenzhöFer, Frank; Dubilier, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    The Logatchev hydrothermal vent field (14°45'N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) is located in a ridge segment characterized by mantle-derived ultramafic outcrops. Compared to basalt-hosted vents, Logatchev high-temperature fluids are relatively low in sulfide indicating that the diffuse, low-temperature fluids of this vent field may not contain sufficient sulfide concentrations to support a chemosymbiotic invertebrate community. However, the high abundances of bathymodiolin mussels with bacterial symbionts related to free-living sulfur-oxidizing bacteria suggested that bioavailable sulfide is present at Logatchev. To clarify, if diffuse fluids above mussel beds of Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis provide the reductants and oxidants needed by their symbionts for aerobic sulfide oxidation, in situ microsensor measurements of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and oxygen were combined with simultaneous temperature measurements. High temporal fluctuations of all three parameters were measured above the mussel beds. H2S and O2 coexisted with mean concentrations between 9 and 31 ?M (H2S) and 216 and 228 ?M (O2). Temperature maxima (?7.4°C) were generally concurrent with H2S maxima (?156 ?M) and O2 minima (?142 ?M). Long-term measurements for 250 days using temperature as a proxy for oxygen and sulfide concentrations indicated that the mussels were neither oxygen limited nor sulfide limited. Our in situ measurements at Logatchev indicate that sulfide may also be bioavailable in diffuse fluids from other ultramafic-hosted vents along slow and ultraslow spreading ridges.

  12. Concentrations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in the free upper troposphere and lower stratosphere deduced from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 infrared solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the volume mixing ratio profiles of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, deduced from the spectroscopic analysis of IR solar absorption spectra obtained in the occultation mode with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during its mission aboard Spacelab 3. A comparison of the ATMOS measurements for both northern and southern latitudes with previous field investigations at low midlatitudes shows a relatively good agreement. Southern Hemisphere volume mixing ratio profiles for both molecules were obtained for the first time, as were the profiles for the Northern Hemisphere covering the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere simultaneously.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirin, ACS14, attenuates high glucose-induced increased methylglyoxal and oxidative stress in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; Wu, Lingyun; Desai, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a gasotransmitter with vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Aspirin is an irreversible cyclooxygenase inhibitor anti-inflammatory drug. ACS14 is a novel synthetic hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirin which inhibits cyclooxygenase and has antioxidant effects. Methylglyoxal is a chemically active metabolite of glucose and fructose, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products formation. Methylglyoxal is harmful when produced in excess. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are significantly elevated in diabetic patients. Our aim was to investigate the effects of ACS14 on methylglyoxal levels in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. We used cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells for the study. Methylglyoxal was measured by HPLC after derivatization, and nitrite+nitrate with an assay kit. Western blotting was used to determine NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. Dicholorofluorescein assay was used to measure oxidative stress. ACS14 significantly attenuated elevation of intracellular methylglyoxal levels caused by incubating cultured vascular smooth muscle cells with methylglyoxal (30 µM) and high glucose (25 mM). ACS14, but not aspirin, caused a significant attenuation of increase in nitrite+nitrate levels caused by methylglyoxal or high glucose. ACS14, aspirin, and sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS, a hydrogen sulfide donor), all attenuated the increase in oxidative stress caused by methylglyoxal and high glucose in cultured cells. ACS14 prevented the increase in NOX4 expression caused by incubating the cultured VSMCs with MG (30 µM). ACS14, aspirin and NaHS attenuated the increase in iNOS expression caused by high glucose (25 mM). In conclusion, ACS14 has the novel ability to attenuate an increase in methylglyoxal levels which in turn can reduce oxidative stress, decrease the formation of advanced glycation end products and prevent many of the known deleterious effects of elevated methylglyoxal. Thus, ACS14 has the potential to be especially beneficial for diabetic patients pending further in vivo studies. PMID:24896242

  14. Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide metabolites in the blood of free-ranging brown bears and their potential roles in hibernation.

    PubMed

    Revsbech, Inge G; Shen, Xinggui; Chakravarti, Ritu; Jensen, Frank B; Thiel, Bonnie; Evans, Alina L; Kindberg, Jonas; Fröbert, Ole; Stuehr, Dennis J; Kevil, Christopher G; Fago, Angela

    2014-08-01

    During winter hibernation, brown bears (Ursus arctos) lie in dens for half a year without eating while their basal metabolism is largely suppressed. To understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic depression in hibernation, we measured type and content of blood metabolites of two ubiquitous inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO), in winter-hibernating and summer-active free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears. We found that levels of sulfide metabolites were overall similar in summer-active and hibernating bears but their composition in the plasma differed significantly, with a decrease in bound sulfane sulfur in hibernation. High levels of unbound free sulfide correlated with high levels of cysteine (Cys) and with low levels of bound sulfane sulfur, indicating that during hibernation H2S, in addition to being formed enzymatically from the substrate Cys, may also be regenerated from its oxidation products, including thiosulfate and polysulfides. In the absence of any dietary intake, this shift in the mode of H2S synthesis would help preserve free Cys for synthesis of glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant found at high levels in the red blood cells of hibernating bears. In contrast, circulating nitrite and erythrocytic S-nitrosation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, taken as markers of NO metabolism, did not change appreciably. Our findings reveal that remodeling of H2S metabolism and enhanced intracellular GSH levels are hallmarks of the aerobic metabolic suppression of hibernating bears. PMID:24909614

  15. Measurement and analysis of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from a mechanically ventilated swine confinement building in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunden, Jessica; Aneja, Viney P.; Westerman, Phillip W.

    Emissions of atmospheric ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3-N, where NH 3-N=( {14}/{17})NH 3) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) were measured from a finishing swine confinement house at a commercial pig farm in eastern North Carolina. Continuous simultaneous NH 3-N and H 2S emissions were made for ˜1-week period during four different seasons. The number of pigs contained in the house varied from ˜850 to 900 with average weights ranging from ˜38 to 88 kg. Average NH 3-N concentrations were highest during the winter and spring sampling periods, 8.91±4.61 and 8.44±2.40 ppm, respectively, and lower during the summer and fall, 2.45±1.14 and 4.27±0.71 ppm, respectively. Measured average H 2S concentrations were 673±282, 429±223, 47±18, and 304±88 ppb during winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively. Generally, the H 2S concentrations were approximately an order of magnitude less than NH 3-N during winter, spring, and fall, and two orders of magnitude smaller during the summer season. The average ambient temperature ranged from 5.5 to 22.3 °C while the average barn temperature measured at the outlet fans ranged from 19.0 to 26.0 °C in the winter and summer, respectively. The average fan ventilation rates varied from 253 m 3 min -1 during the fall sampling period to 1024 m 3 min -1 during summer. Calculated total emission rates for both NH 3-N and H 2S were highest during the spring, 4519±1639 g N day -1 and 481±142 g day -1, respectively. Emissions were lowest during the fall season for NH 3-N (904±568 g N day -1) and the summer season for H 2S (82±49 g day -1). Normalized NH 3-N emission rates were highest in winter and spring (33.6±21.9 and 30.6±11.1 g N day -1 AU -1, where 1 AU (animal unit)=500 kg) and lowest during summer and fall (24.3±12.4 and 11.8±7.4 g N day -1 AU -1). Normalized H 2S emissions were highest during the winter and spring seasons (4.2±2.1 and 3.3±1.0 g day -1 AU -1) and were lowest in summer and fall (1.2±0.7 and 1.7±0.5 g day -1 AU -1).

  16. Endogenous prostaglandins and afferent sensory nerves in gastroprotective effect of hydrogen sulfide against stress-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Surmiak, Marcin; Strzalka, Malgorzata; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Wallace, John L; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in human physiology, exerting vasodilatory, neuromodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. H2S has been implicated in the mechanism of gastrointestinal integrity but whether this gaseous mediator can affect hemorrhagic lesions induced by stress has been little elucidated. We studied the effect of the H2S precursor L-cysteine, H2S-donor NaHS, the H2S synthesizing enzyme (CSE) activity inhibitor- D,L-propargylglycine (PAG) and the gastric H2S production by CSE/CBS/3-MST activity in water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) ulcerogenesis and the accompanying changes in gastric blood flow (GBF). The role of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sensory afferent nerves releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the mechanism of gastroprotection induced by H2S was examined in capsaicin-denervated rats and those pretreated with capsazepine to inhibit activity of vanilloid receptors (VR-1). Rats were pretreated with vehicle, NaHS, the donor of H2S and or L-cysteine, the H2S precursor, with or without the concurrent treatment with 1) nonselective (indomethacin) and selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) or COX-2 (rofecoxib) inhibitors. The expression of mRNA and protein for COX-1 and COX-2 were analyzed in gastric mucosa pretreated with NaHS with or without PAG. Both NaHS and L-cysteine dose-dependently attenuated severity of WRS-induced gastric lesions and significantly increased GBF. These effects were significantly reduced by pretreatment with PAG and capsaicin denervation. NaHS increased gastric H2S production via CSE/CBS but not 3-MST activity. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity significantly diminished NaHS- and L-cysteine-induced protection and hyperemia. NaHS increased expression of COX-1, COX-2 mRNAs and proteins and raised CGRP mRNA expression. These effects of NaHS on COX-1 and COX-2 protein contents were reversed by PAG and capsaicin denervation. We conclude that H2S exerts gastroprotection against WRS-induced gastric lesions by the mechanism involving enhancement in gastric microcirculation mediated by endogenous PGs, sensory afferent nerves releasing CGRP and the activation of VR-1 receptors. PMID:25774496

  17. BDNF-TrkB Pathway Mediates Neuroprotection of Hydrogen Sulfide against Formaldehyde-Induced Toxicity to PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Sheng-Lan; Tian, Ying; Wang, Chun-Yan; Wang, Li; Gu, Hong-Feng; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a common environmental contaminant that has toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Our previous data demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third endogenous gaseous mediator, has protective effects against FA-induced neurotoxicity. As is known to all, Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin gene family, mediates its neuroprotective properties via various intracellular signaling pathways triggered by activating the tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB). Intriguingly, our previous data have illustrated the upregulatory role of H2S on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus of rats. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that H2S provides neuroprotection against FA toxicity by regulating BDNF-TrkB pathway. In the present study, we found that NaHS, a donor of H2S, upregulated the level of BDNF protein in PC12 cells, and significantly rescued FA-induced downregulation of BDNF levels. Furthermore, we found that pretreatment of PC12 cells with K252a, an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, markedly reversed the inhibition of NaHS on FA-induced cytotoxicity and ablated the protective effects of NaHS on FA-induced oxidative stress, including the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA). We also showed that K252a abolished the inhibition of NaHS on FA-induced apoptosis, as well as the activation of caspase-3 in PC12 cells. In addition, K252a reversed the protection of H2S against FA-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression and upregulation of Bax protein expression in PC12 cells. These data indicate that the BDNF-TrkB pathway mediates the neuroprotection of H2S against FA-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells. These findings provide a novel mechanism underlying the protection of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25749582

  18. Selenium Sulfide

    MedlinePLUS

    Selenium sulfide, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium sulfide comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...

  19. Laboratory evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide gas treatment approach for remediation of chromate-, uranium(VI)-, and nitrate-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.C.; Baechler, M.A.; Beck, M.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Amonette, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Bench-scale soil treatment tests were conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. In general, > 90% immobilization of chromium and > 50% immobilization of uranium was achieved. Leach test results indicate that the treatment process is irreversible for chromium but partially reversible for uranium indicates that immobilization for this contaminant is more readily achieved in organic rich soils. This observation is ascribed to the reducing nature of organic matter. Additional tests were also conducted with soils contaminated to the 5,000 ppm level with nitrate. Nitrate was not found to interfere significantly with treatment of the contaminants. Nitrite was observed in the leachate samples obtained from tests with an organic-rich soil containing clay, however. Leachate chemistries suggested that no other significantly hazardous byproducts were generated by the treatment process and that soil alteration effects were minimal. Test results also suggest that treatment effectiveness is somewhat lower in very dry soils but still able to immobilize chromium and uranium to an acceptable degree. Results of these testing activities indicate that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gas mixture is not a limited factor in treatment as long as a sufficient volume of the mixture is delivered to the soil to achieve a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to contaminant of at least 10.

  20. The effects of crystallographic texture and hydrogen on sulfide stress corrosion cracking behavior of a steel using slow strain rate test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Youl; Choi, Yong

    2014-12-01

    The effects of pre-charged hydrogen inside steel and the hydrogen ions on its surface on the sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) behavior was studied by slow strain rate tests. The specimen had an ASTM grain size number of about 11. Most of precipitates were 30-50 nm in size, and their distribution density was about 106 mm-2. The crystallographic texture consisted of major ?-fiber (<110>//RD) components with a maximum peak at {115}<110> relatively close to {001}<110>, and minor ?-fiber (<111>//ND) components with a peak slightly shifted from {111}<112> to {332}<113>. Hydrogen was pre-charged inside the steel by a high-temperature cathodic hydrogen charging (HTCHC) method. SSCC and corrosion tests were carried out in an electrolytic solution (NaCl: CH3COOH: H2O: FeCl2 = 50: 5: 944: 1, pH = 2.7). The corrosion potentials and the corrosion rates of the specimen without hydrogen charging for 24 hours were -490 mVSHE and 1.2 × 10-4 A cm-2, and those with charging were -520 mVSHE and 2.8 × 10-4 A cm-2, respectively. The corrosion resistance in the solution with 1000 ppm iron chloride added was decreased significantly, such that the corrosion potential and corrosion rate were -575 mVSHE and 3.5 × 10-4 A cm-2, respectively. Lower SSCC resistance of the pin-hole pre-notched specimen was observed at the open circuit potential than at the 100 mV cathodically polarized condition. Pre-charged hydrogen inside of the specimen had a greater influence on the SSCC behavior than hydrogen ions on the surface of the specimen during the slow strain rate test.

  1. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O'Banion, K.D.

    1981-12-04

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate could result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.

  2. Potential effects of hydrogen sulfide gas from geothermal energy conversion on two plant species native to northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.J.

    1984-02-01

    Dry weight of topgrowth, water content of topgrowth, leaf nitrogen content, and leaf chlorophyll content were measured in well-watered, field-exposed little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium Nash.) and mountain brome (Bromus marginatus Nees.) plants fumigated with various mean levels of H/sub 2/S ranging from 0.05 to 3.58 ppM. The youngest fully expanded leaves were sampled for chlorophyll content after 60, 80, 100, and 140 and 60, 80, 120, and 140 h total of fumigation for little bluestem and mountain brome, respectively. All other responses were measured after 140 h total of fumigation. The plants received a 7-day fumigation-free period prior to the seventh week (140 h) of fumigations. Dry weight of little bluestem plants which received low concentrations of H/sub 2/S (0.11 ppM) increased by 94% of the control. Dry weight of little bluestem plants which received higher concentrations of H/sub 2/S (0.12 to 0.48 ppM) was reduced to the control level. At the highest H/sub 2/S concentration (2.39 ppM) dry weight of little bluestem was reduced by 44% of the control. Mountain brome was relatively unaffected at the different concentrations of H/sub 2/S until 3.58 ppM H/sub 2/S was received where dry weight was reduced by 37% of the control.

  3. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: phenotypic and genetic divergence across two abiotic environmental gradients in Poecilia mexicana.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Dewitt, Thomas J; Schlupp, Ingo; García de León, Francisco J; Herrmann, Roger; Feulner, Philine G D; Tiedemann, Ralph; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Divergent natural selection drives evolutionary diversification. It creates phenotypic diversity by favoring developmental plasticity within populations or genetic differentiation and local adaptation among populations. We investigated phenotypic and genetic divergence in the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana along two abiotic environmental gradients. These fish typically inhabit nonsulfidic surface rivers, but also colonized sulfidic and cave habitats. We assessed phenotypic variation among a factorial combination of habitat types using geometric and traditional morphometrics, and genetic divergence using quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Fish in caves (sulfidic or not) exhibited reduced eyes and slender bodies. Fish from sulfidic habitats (surface or cave) exhibited larger heads and longer gill filaments. Common-garden rearing suggested that these morphological differences are partly heritable. Population genetic analyses using microsatellites as well as cytochrome b gene sequences indicate high population differentiation over small spatial scale and very low rates of gene flow, especially among different habitat types. This suggests that divergent environmental conditions constitute barriers to gene flow. Strong molecular divergence over short distances as well as phenotypic and quantitative genetic divergence across habitats in directions classic to fish ecomorphology suggest that divergent selection is structuring phenotypic variation in this system. PMID:18637957

  4. The effects of hydrogen sulfide on the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell anode catalyst: H2S-Pt/C interaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Thiago; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.

    2011-08-01

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operating on a simulated hydrocarbon reformate is described. The anode feed stream consisted of 80% H2, ?20% N2, and 8 ppm hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Cell performance losses are calculated by evaluating cell potential reduction due to H2S contamination through lifetime tests. It is found that potential, or power, loss under this condition is a result of platinum surface contamination with elemental sulfur. Electrochemical mass spectroscopy (EMS) and electrochemical techniques are employed, in order to show that elemental sulfur is adsorbed onto platinum, and that sulfur dioxide is one of the oxidation products. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a possible approach for mitigating H2S poisoning on the PEMFC anode catalyst is to inject low levels of air into the H2S-contaminated anode feeding stream.

  5. Inhibition of Hydrogen Sulfide-induced Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Vascular Endothelial Cells: Potential Mechanisms of Gastric Cancer Prevention by Korean Red Ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Song, Heup; Kim, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jae Hyung; Hong, Hua; Han, Young-Min; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer are closely associated with increased levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and that Korean red ginseng significantly reduced the severity of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases by attenuating H2S generation. Because the incubation of endothelial cells with H2S has been known to enhance their angiogenic activities, we hypothesized that the amelioration of H2S-induced gastric inflammation or angiogenesis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) might explain the preventive effect of Korean red ginseng on H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis. The expression of inflammatory mediators, angiogenic growth factors, and angiogenic activities in the absence or presence of Korean red ginseng extracts (KRGE) were evaluated in HUVECs stimulated with the H2S generator sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS). KRGE efficiently decreased the expression of cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase, enzymes that are essential for H2S synthesis. Concomitantly, a significant decrease in the expression of inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and several angiogenic factors, including interleukin (IL)-8, hypoxia inducible factor-1a, vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinases, was observed; all of these factors are normally induced after NaHS. An in vitro angiogenesis assay demonstrated that NaHS significantly increased tube formation in endothelial cells, whereas KRGE pretreatment significantly attenuated tube formation. NaHS activated p38 and Akt, increasing the expression of angiogenic factors and the proliferation of HUVECs, whereas KRGE effectively abrogated this H2S-activated angiogenesis and the increase in inflammatory mediators in vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, KRGE was able to mitigate H2S-induced angiogenesis, implying that antagonistic action against H2S-induced angiogenesis may be the mechanism underlying the gastric cancer preventive effects of KRGE in H. pylori infection. PMID:23717113

  6. Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on Bacterial Communities on the Surface of Galatheid Crab, Shinkaia crosnieri, and in a Bacterial Mat Cultured in Rearing Tanks

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Masaaki; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Hatada, Yuji; Takai, Ken; Toyofuku, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of H2S on the bacterial consortia on the galatheid crab, Shinkaia crosnieri, crabs of this species were cultivated in the laboratory under two different conditions, with and without hydrogen sulfide feeding. We developed a novel rearing tank system equipped with a feedback controller using a semiconductor sensor for hydrogen sulfide feeding. H2S aqueous concentration was successfully maintained between 5 to 40 ?M for 80 d with the exception of brief periods of mechanical issues. According to real-time PCR analysis, the numbers of copies of partial 16S rRNA gene of an episymbiont of the crabs with H2S feeding was three orders of magnitude larger than that without feeding. By phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene, we detected several clones related to symbionts of deep sea organisms in Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Flavobacteria, from a crab with H2S feeding. The symbiont-related clones were grouped into four different groups: Gammaproteobacteria in marine epibiont group I, Sulfurovum-affiliated Epsilonproteobacteria, Osedax mucofloris endosymbiont-affiliated Epsilonproteobacteria, and Flavobacteria closely related to CFB group bacterial epibiont of Rimicaris exoculata. The other phylotypes were related to Roseobacter, and some Flavobacteria, seemed to be free-living psychrophiles. Furthermore, white biofilm occurred on the surface of the rearing tank with H2S feeding. The biofilms contained various phylotypes of Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Flavobacteria, as determined by phylogenetic analysis. Interestingly, major clones were related to symbionts of Alviniconcha sp. type 2 and to endosymbionts of Osedax mucofloris, in Epsilonproteobacteria. PMID:23080406

  7. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, Dean H. (Lakewood, CO); Nelson, Art J. (Longmont, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  8. Life on the edge: hydrogen sulfide and the fish communities of a Mexican cave and surrounding waters.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo; Heubel, Katja U; Riesch, Rüdiger; de León, Francisco J García; Giere, Olav; Plath, Martin

    2006-12-01

    Most eucaryotic organisms classified as living in an extreme habitat are invertebrates. Here we report of a fish living in a Mexican cave (Cueva del Azufre) that is rich in highly toxic H(2)S. We compared the water chemistry and fish communities of the cave and several nearby surface streams. Our study revealed high concentrations of H(2)S in the cave and its outflow (El Azufre). The concentrations of H(2)S reach more than 300 muM inside the cave, which are acutely toxic for most fishes. In both sulfidic habitats, the diversity of fishes was heavily reduced, and Poecilia mexicana was the dominant species indicating that the presence of H(2)S has an all-or-none effect, permitting only few species to survive in sulfidic habitats. Compared to habitats without H(2)S, P. mexicana from the cave and the outflow have a significantly lower body condition. Although there are microhabitats with varying concentrations of H(2)S within the cave, we could not find a higher fish density in areas with lower concentrations of H(2)S. We discuss that P. mexicana is one of the few extremophile vertebrates. Our study supports the idea that extreme habitats lead to an impoverished species diversity. PMID:16788733

  9. Hydrogen sulphide stress corrosion cracking in materials for geothermal power. Final report, Phase I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Troiano; R. F. Hehemann; J. A. Peterson

    1979-01-01

    Two point bent beam, NACE tensile, C-Ring and DCB stress intensity type specimens were employed to examine a series of steels' SSC resistance in the standard NACE solution and in several modifications pertinent to geothermal environments. Where direct comparisons were possible, the different types of tests qualitatively ranked the alloys in the same order. Of the commercially available steels examined

  10. A novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist prevents ischemic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Marutani, Eizo; Kosugi, Shizuko; Tokuda, Kentaro; Khatri, Ashok; Nguyen, Rebecca; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Kida, Kotaro; Van Leyen, Klaus; Arai, Ken; Ichinose, Fumito

    2012-09-14

    Physiological levels of H(2)S exert neuroprotective effects, whereas high concentrations of H(2)S may cause neurotoxicity in part via activation of NMDAR. To characterize the neuroprotective effects of combination of exogenous H(2)S and NMDAR antagonism, we synthesized a novel H(2)S-releasing NMDAR antagonist N-((1r,3R,5S,7r)-3,5-dimethyladamantan-1-yl)-4-(3-thioxo-3H-1,2-dithiol-4-yl)-benzamide (S-memantine) and examined its effects in vitro and in vivo. S-memantine was synthesized by chemically combining a slow releasing H(2)S donor 4-(3-thioxo-3H-1,2-dithiol-4-yl)-benzoic acid (ACS48) with a NMDAR antagonist memantine. S-memantine increased intracellular sulfide levels in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) 10-fold as high as that was achieved by ACS48. Incubation with S-memantine after reoxygenation following oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) protected SH-SY5Y cells and murine primary cortical neurons more markedly than did ACS48 or memantine. Glutamate-induced intracellular calcium accumulation in primary cortical neurons were aggravated by sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) or ACS48, but suppressed by memantine and S-memantine. S-memantine prevented glutamate-induced glutathione depletion in SH-SY5Y cells more markedly than did Na(2)S or ACS48. Administration of S-memantine after global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion more robustly decreased cerebral infarct volume and improved survival and neurological function of mice than did ACS48 or memantine. These results suggest that an H(2)S-releasing NMDAR antagonist derivative S-memantine prevents ischemic neuronal death, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for ischemic brain injury. PMID:22815476

  11. Downhole geothermal well sensors comprising a hydrogen-resistant optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-02-08

    A new class of optical fiber based thermal sensors has been invented. The new sensors comprise hydrogen-resistant optical fibers which are able to withstand a hot, hydrogen-containing environment as is often found in the downhole well environment.

  12. Generation of DNA-Damaging Reactive Oxygen Species via the Autoxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide under Physiologically Relevant

    E-print Network

    Gates, Kent. S.

    indicate that this process involved autoxidation of H2S to generate superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and- ) likely undergo rapid autoxidation reactions that contribute to the generation of superoxide angiogenesis,15 cytoprotection,16 nociception,17 stimulation of ATP-sensitive potassium ion channels,18

  13. Study of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Solehudin, Agus, E-mail: asolehudin@upi.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Indonesia University of Education (UPI), Bandung, West Java (Indonesia); Nurdin, Isdiriayani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, West Java (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Corrosion and inhibition studies on API 5LX65 carbon steel in chloride solution containing various concentrations of benzotriazole has been conducted at temperature of 70°C using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corroded carbon steel surface with and without inhibitor have been observed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The objectives of this research are to study the performance of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors. The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H{sub 2}S at different BTAH concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of BTAH concentrations from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The inhibition efficiency of BTAH was found to be affected by its concentration. The optimum efficiency obtained of BTAH is 93% at concentration of 5 mmol/l. The result of XRD and EDS analysis reveal the iron sulfide (FeS) formation on corroded carbon steel surface without inhibitor. The EDS spectrum show the Nitrogen (N) bond on carbon steel surface inhibited by BTAH.

  14. Study of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solehudin, Agus; Nurdin, Isdiriayani

    2014-03-01

    Corrosion and inhibition studies on API 5LX65 carbon steel in chloride solution containing various concentrations of benzotriazole has been conducted at temperature of 70°C using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corroded carbon steel surface with and without inhibitor have been observed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The objectives of this research are to study the performance of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors. The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H2S at different BTAH concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of BTAH concentrations from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The inhibition efficiency of BTAH was found to be affected by its concentration. The optimum efficiency obtained of BTAH is 93% at concentration of 5 mmol/l. The result of XRD and EDS analysis reveal the iron sulfide (FeS) formation on corroded carbon steel surface without inhibitor. The EDS spectrum show the Nitrogen (N) bond on carbon steel surface inhibited by BTAH.

  15. Reduced cystathionine ?-lyase and increased miR-21 expression are associated with increased vascular resistance in growth-restricted pregnancies: hydrogen sulfide as a placental vasodilator.

    PubMed

    Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Herrera, Emilio A; Niu, Youguo; Kingdom, John; Giussani, Dino A; Burton, Graham J

    2013-04-01

    Increased vascular impedance in the fetoplacental circulation is associated with fetal hypoxia and growth restriction. We sought to investigate the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in regulating vasomotor tone in the fetoplacental vasculature. H2S is produced endogenously by catalytic activity of cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE). Immunohistochemical analysis localized CSE to smooth muscle cells encircling arteries in stem villi. Immunoreactivity was reduced in placentas from pregnancies with severe early-onset growth-restriction and preeclampsia displaying abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms compared with preeclamptic placentas with normal waveforms and controls. These findings were confirmed at the protein and mRNA levels. MicroRNA-21, which negatively regulates CSE expression, was increased in placentas with abnormal Doppler waveforms. Exposure of villus explants to hypoxia-reoxygenation significantly reduced CSE protein and mRNA and increased microRNA-21 expression. No changes were observed in cystathionine ?-synthase expression, immunolocalized principally to the trophoblast, in pathologic placentas or in vitro. Finally, perfusion of normal placentas with an H2S donor, after preconstriction with a thromboxane mimetic, resulted in dose-dependent vasorelaxation. Glibenclamide and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester partially blocked the effect, indicating that H2S acts through ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and nitric oxide synthesis. These results demonstrate that H2S is a powerful vasodilator of the placental vasculature and that expression of CSE is reduced in placentas associated with increased vascular resistance. PMID:23410520

  16. Cadmium-Induced Hydrogen Sulfide Synthesis Is Involved in Cadmium Tolerance in Medicago sativa by Reestablishment of Reduced (Homo)glutathione and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostases

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Weiti; Chen, Huiping; Zhu, Kaikai; Jin, Qijiang; Xie, Yanjie; Cui, Jin; Xia, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Until now, physiological mechanisms and downstream targets responsible for the cadmium (Cd) tolerance mediated by endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been elusive. To address this gap, a combination of pharmacological, histochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches was applied. The perturbation of reduced (homo)glutathione homeostasis and increased H2S production as well as the activation of two H2S-synthetic enzymes activities, including L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and D-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD), in alfalfa seedling roots were early responses to the exposure of Cd. The application of H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), not only mimicked intracellular H2S production triggered by Cd, but also alleviated Cd toxicity in a H2S-dependent fashion. By contrast, the inhibition of H2S production caused by the application of its synthetic inhibitor blocked NaHS-induced Cd tolerance, and destroyed reduced (homo)glutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostases. Above mentioned inhibitory responses were further rescued by exogenously applied glutathione (GSH). Meanwhile, NaHS responses were sensitive to a (homo)glutathione synthetic inhibitor, but reversed by the cotreatment with GSH. The possible involvement of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in NaHS responses was also suggested. In summary, LCD/DCD-mediated H2S might be an important signaling molecule in the enhancement of Cd toxicity in alfalfa seedlings mainly by governing reduced (homo)glutathione and ROS homeostases. PMID:25275379

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Donor NaHS Reduces Organ Injury in a Rat Model of Pneumococcal Pneumosepsis, Associated with Improved Bio-Energetic Status

    PubMed Central

    Aslami, Hamid; Pulskens, Wilco P.; Kuipers, Maria T.; Bos, Aafkeline P.; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Roelofsen, Jeroen; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Kerindongo, Raphaela P.; Beurskens, Charlotte J. P.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Kulik, Wim; Weber, Nina C.; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by a generalized inflammatory response and organ failure, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS has anti-inflammatory properties, is able to reduce metabolism and can preserve mitochondrial morphology and function. Rats were challenged with live Streptococcus pneumonia or saline and infused with NaHS (36 µmol/kg/h) or vehicle. Lung and kidney injury markers were measured as well as mitochondrial function, viability and biogenesis. Infusion of NaHS reduced heart rate and body temperature, indicative of a hypo–metabolic state. NaHS infusion reduced sepsis–related lung and kidney injury, while host defense remained intact, as reflected by unchanged bacterial outgrowth. The reduction in organ injury was associated with a reversal of a fall in active oxidative phosphorylation with a concomitant decrease in ATP levels and ATP/ADP ratio. Preservation of mitochondrial respiration was associated with increased mitochondrial expression of ?–tubulin and protein kinase C–?, which acts as regulators of respiration. Mitochondrial damage was decreased by NaHS, as suggested by a reduction in mitochondrial DNA leakage in the lung. Also, NaHS treatment was associated with upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor–? coactivator 1?, with a subsequent increase in transcription of mitochondrial respiratory subunits. These findings indicate that NaHS reduces organ injury in pneumosepsis, possibly via preservation of oxidative phosphorylation and thereby ATP synthesis as well as by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. Further studies on the involvement of mitochondria in sepsis are required. PMID:23717435

  18. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration.

    PubMed

    Dai, X R; Blanes-Vidal, V

    2013-01-30

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect on average NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S emissions both during the process and from stored slurry after venting treatments. During aeration treatment, the NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S release pattern observed was related to the liquid turbulence caused by the gas bubbles rather than to biological oxidation processes in this study. PMID:23246907

  19. Primary hepatocytes from mice lacking cysteine dioxygenase show increased cysteine concentrations and higher rates of metabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Jurkowska, Halina; Roman, Heather B; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Sasakura, Kiyoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Krijt, Jakub; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2014-05-01

    The oxidation of cysteine in mammalian cells occurs by two routes: a highly regulated direct oxidation pathway in which the first step is catalyzed by cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and by desulfhydration-oxidation pathways in which the sulfur is released in a reduced oxidation state. To assess the effect of a lack of CDO on production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and thiosulfate (an intermediate in the oxidation of H2S to sulfate) and to explore the roles of both cystathionine ?-lyase (CTH) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) in cysteine desulfhydration by liver, we investigated the metabolism of cysteine in hepatocytes isolated from Cdo1-null and wild-type mice. Hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice produced more H2S and thiosulfate than did hepatocytes from wild-type mice. The greater flux of cysteine through the cysteine desulfhydration reactions catalyzed by CTH and CBS in hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice appeared to be the consequence of their higher cysteine levels, which were due to the lack of CDO and hence lack of catabolism of cysteine by the cysteinesulfinate-dependent pathways. Both CBS and CTH appeared to contribute substantially to cysteine desulfhydration, with estimates of 56 % by CBS and 44 % by CTH in hepatocytes from wild-type mice, and 63 % by CBS and 37 % by CTH in hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice. PMID:24609271

  20. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a ?-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) ?, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways. PMID:24824948

  1. Antioxidant effects of hydrogen sulfide on left ventricular remodeling in smoking rats are mediated via PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Zhao, Liangping; Mao, Jinning; Huang, Jian; Chen, Jianchang

    2015-03-01

    There is growing evidence that oxidative stress plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling. In the present study, we established a rat model of passive smoking and investigated the antioxidant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling. Cardiac structure and function were evaluated using 2-dimensional echocardiography. Myocardial fibrosis was detected by Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and reactive oxygen species generation in the myocardium. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transfected with specific siRNA and exposed to cigarette smoke condensate and H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide were used to confirm the involvement of Nrf2 and PI3K/Akt signaling in the antioxidant effects of H2S. Our results indicated that H2S could protect against left ventricular remodeling in smoking rats via attenuation of oxidative stress. Moreover, H2S was also found to increase the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3? and decrease the nuclear expression of Fyn, which consequently leads to nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and elevated expression of HO-1 and NQO1. In conclusion, H2S may exert antioxidant effects on left ventricular remodeling in smoking rats via PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of Nrf2 signaling. PMID:25516494

  2. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of hydrogen sulfide in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through inhibition of hippocampal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhuo-Jun; Zou, Wei; Yuan, Juan; Zhang, Ping; Tian, Ying; Xiao, Zhi-Fang; Li, Mang-Hong; Wei, Hai-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-08-01

    Depression is highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes, and depressive symptoms are less responsive to current antidepressant therapies. Oxidative stress plays a major role both in the pathogenesis of diabetes and in major depression and anxiety disorders. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous mediator, is a novel signaling molecule in the brain that has both antioxidative activity and antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects. We hypothesized that H2S could produce antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects in diabetic patients through its antioxidative effect. To test this hypothesis, we generated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We found that H2S alleviated depressive-like behaviors of STZ-induced diabetic rats in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests and reduced their anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test. We also found that H2S significantly reduced levels of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal and elevated levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in the hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The results provide evidence for antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of H2S in STZ-induced diabetic rats and suggest that the therapeutic effects may result from inhibition of hippocampal oxidative stress. These findings suggest that elevating H2S signaling is a potential target for treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders related to diabetes. PMID:25932716

  3. Hydrogen sulfide potentiates interleukin-1{beta}-induced nitric oxide production via enhancement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sun-Oh [Medicinal Resources Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Chonbug 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Pae, Hyun-Ock [Medicinal Resources Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Chonbug 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Gi-Su [Medicinal Resources Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Chonbug 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gil-Saeng [Medicinal Resources Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Chonbug 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bok-Soo [Medicinal Resources Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Chonbug 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seoul [Department of Pharmacology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Chonbug 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Du Yong [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Kosin University, Busan 602-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhew, Hyun Yul [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Kosin University, Busan 602-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Min [Division of Biological Science, College of Natural Science, Chonbuk National University, Chonbug 570-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hun-Taeg [Medicinal Resources Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Chonbug 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: htchung@wonkwang.ac.kr

    2006-07-07

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and nitric oxide (NO) are endogenously synthesized from L-cysteine and L-arginine, respectively. They might constitute a cooperative network to regulate their effects. In this study, we investigated whether H{sub 2}S could affect NO production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}). Although H{sub 2}S by itself showed no effect on NO production, it augmented IL-{beta}-induced NO production and this effect was associated with increased expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. IL-1{beta} activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and this activation was also enhanced by H{sub 2}S. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by the selective inhibitor U0126 inhibited IL-1{beta}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation, iNOS expression, and NO production either in the absence or presence of H{sub 2}S. Our findings suggest that H{sub 2}S enhances NO production and iNOS expression by potentiating IL-1{beta}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation through a mechanism involving ERK1/2 signaling cascade in rat VSMCs.

  4. Hydride mobility in trinuclear sulfido clusters with the core [Rh3(?-H)(?3-S)2]: molecular models for hydrogen migration on metal sulfide hydrotreating catalysts.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M Victoria; Lahoz, Fernando J; Lukešová, Lenka; Miranda, José R; Modrego, Francisco J; Nguyen, Duc H; Oro, Luis A; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J

    2011-07-11

    The treatment of [{Rh(?-SH){P(OPh)(3)}(2)}(2)] with [{M(?-Cl)(diolef)}(2)] (diolef=diolefin) in the presence of NEt(3) affords the hydrido-sulfido clusters [Rh(3)(?-H)(?(3)-S)(2)(diolef){P(OPh)(3)}(4)] (diolef=1,5-cyclooctadiene (cod) for 1, 2,5-norbornadiene (nbd) for 2, and tetrafluorobenzo[5,6]bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5,7-triene (tfb) for 3) and [Rh(2)Ir(?-H)(?(3)-S)(2)(cod){P(OPh)(3)}(4)] (4). Cluster 1 can be also obtained by treating [{Rh(?-SH){P(OPh)(3)}(2)}(2)] with [{Rh(?-OMe)(cod)}(2)], although the main product of the reaction with [{Ir(?-OMe)(cod)}(2)] was [RhIr(2)(?-H)(?(3)-S)(2)(cod)(2){P(OPh)(3)}(2)] (5). The molecular structures of clusters 1 and 4 have been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The deprotonation of a hydrosulfido ligand in [{Rh(?-SH)(CO)(PPh(3))}(2)] by [M(acac)(diolef)] (acac=acetylacetonate) results in the formation of hydrido-sulfido clusters [Rh(3)(?-H)(?(3)-S)(2)(CO)(2) (diolef)(PPh(3))(2)] (diolef=cod for 6, nbd for 7) and [Rh(2)Ir(?-H)(?(3)-S)(2)(CO)(2)(cod)(PPh(3))(2)] (8). Clusters 1-3 and 5 exist in solution as two interconverting isomers with the bridging hydride ligand at different edges. Cluster 8 exists as three isomers that arise from the disposition of the PPh(3) ligands in the cluster (cis and trans) and the location of the hydride ligand. The dynamic behaviour of clusters with bulky triphenylphosphite ligands, which involves hydrogen migration from rhodium to sulfur with a switch from hydride to proton character, is significant to understand hydrogen diffusion on the surface of metal sulfide hydrotreating catalysts. PMID:21633978

  5. TOF electron drift measurements in xenon difluoride (XeF2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Denman; L. A. Schlie

    1989-01-01

    Sensitive, high-temporal-resolution, time-of-flight (TOF) drift measurements yielding the drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion, and a new, higher order diffusion coefficient have been obtained in the gases XeF2 and H2S. These gases are of interest because of their potential as lasing constituents when combined with the highly energetic (8.5 MJ\\/kg) hydrogen azide (HN3) gas. Kinetic studies indicate that a hybrid electrochemical laser

  6. Alkali promoted molybdenum (IV) sulfide based catalysts, development and characterization for alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Belinda Delilah

    For more than a century transition metal sulfides (TMS) have been the anchor of hydro-processing fuels and upgrading bitumen and coal in refineries worldwide. As oil supplies dwindle and environmental laws become more stringent, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels and/or synthetic fuels. The depletion of oil reserves and a rapidly increasing energy demand worldwide, together with the interest to reduce dependence on foreign oil makes alcohol production for fuels and chemicals via the Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) very attractive. The original Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction is the heart of all gas-to-liquid technologies; it creates higher alcohols and hydrocarbons from CO/H2 using a metal catalyst. This research focuses on the development of alkali promoted MoS2-based catalysts to investigate an optimal synthesis for their assistance in the production of long chain alcohols (via FTS) for their use as synthetic transportation liquid fuels. Properties of catalytic material are strongly affected by every step of the preparation together with the quality of the raw materials. The choice of a laboratory method for preparing a given catalyst depends on the physical and chemical characteristics desired in the final composition. Characterization methods of K0.3/Cs0.3-MoS2 and K0.3 /Cs0.3-Co0.5MoS2 catalysts have been carried out through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET porosity and surface analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Various characterization methods have been deployed to correlate FTS products versus crystal and morphological properties of these heterogeneous catalysts. A lab scale gas to liquid system has been developed to evaluate its efficiency in testing FT catalysts for their production of alcohols.

  7. Biosynthesis of a central intermediate in hydrogen sulfide metabolism by a novel human sulfurtransferase and its yeast ortholog.

    PubMed

    Melideo, Scott L; Jackson, Michael R; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman

    2014-07-22

    Human sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR) catalyzes the conversion of H2S to thiosulfate, the first step in mammalian H2S metabolism. SQOR's inability to produce the glutathione persulfide (GSS(-)) substrate for sulfur dioxygenase (SDO) suggested that a thiosulfate:glutathione sulfurtransferase (TST) was required to provide the missing link between the SQOR and SDO reactions. Although TST could be purified from yeast, attempts to isolate the mammalian enzyme were not successful. We used bioinformatic approaches to identify genes likely to encode human TST (TSTD1) and its yeast ortholog (RDL1). Recombinant TSTD1 and RDL1 catalyze a predicted thiosulfate-dependent conversion of glutathione to GSS(-). Both enzymes contain a rhodanese homology domain and a single catalytically essential cysteine, which is converted to cysteine persulfide upon reaction with thiosulfate. GSS(-) is a potent inhibitor of TSTD1 and RDL1, as judged by initial rate accelerations and ?25-fold lower Km values for glutathione observed in the presence of SDO. The combined action of GSS(-) and SDO is likely to regulate the biosynthesis of the reactive metabolite. SDO drives to completion p-toluenethiosulfonate:glutathione sulfurtransferase reactions catalyzed by TSTD1 and RDL1. The thermodynamic coupling of the irreversible SDO and reversible TST reactions provides a model for the physiologically relevant reaction with thiosulfate as the sulfane donor. The discovery of bacterial Rosetta Stone proteins that comprise fusions of SDO and TSTD1 provides phylogenetic evidence of the association of these enzymes. The presence of adjacent bacterial genes encoding SDO-TSTD1 fusion proteins and human-like SQORs suggests these prokaryotes and mammals exhibit strikingly similar pathways for H2S metabolism. PMID:24981631

  8. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

    2012-01-01

    Brimstone Basin, a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km east of the Yellowstone Caldera, is rarely studied and has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A field campaign in 2008 confirmed that gas emissions from the few small vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Geochemical and isotopic evidence from gas samples (3He/4He ~ 3RA, ?13C-CO2 ~ ? 3‰) however, indicate continuing magmatic gas input to the system. Accumulation chamber measurements revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 (~ 277 t d-1) and H2S (0.6 t d-1). The flux of CO2 reduces the 18O content of the overlying cold groundwater and related stream waters relative to normal meteoric waters. Simple isotopic modeling reveals that the CO2 likely originates from geothermal water at a temperature of 93 ± 19 °C. These results and the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons (C1:C2 ~ 100 and ?13C-CH4 = ? 46.4 to ? 42.8‰) in gases require some heat source at depth and refute the assumption that this is a “fossil” hydrothermal system.

  9. A Process Based Approach to Modeling Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions Across the Air-Surface Interface of Manure from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Aneja, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are an important concern due to their contribution to odor and their potential to form PMfine. CAFO manure surface emissions occur from barns floors, during waste storage and treatment, and following land application. There is a need for a process based model, which will provide a method for quantifying emissions in different production, management and environmental conditions. A process based air-surface interface mass transfer model with chemical reactions was developed based on theoretical principles and related published information on H2S emissions. Different approaches were used to calculate the three main components of the model: the dissociation constant, the Henry’s law constant, and the overall mass transport coefficient. The dissociation constant was calculated based on thermodynamic principles and was corrected for the ionic strength of the manure. Similarly, the Henry’s law constant was also calculated based on thermodynamic principles. The overall mass transfer coefficient was developed using a previously published air-surface interface mass transport model, which considered the most important properties affecting mass transport to be the diffusivity of H2S in air, the air viscosity, and the air density. These parameters were modeled using dimensional analysis, which identified the variables that needed to be measured to determine the relevant constant and exponents values. By using the previously published study’s model and their measured constant and exponent values, an appropriate overall mass transfer coefficient was developed. Sensitivity analysis of the process based air-surface interface mass transfer model showed predicted fluxes to be most dependent on manure sulfide concentration and manure pH, and to a smaller extent on wind speed and manure temperature. Model predicted fluxes were compared with measured H2S flux and meteorological and physiochemical measurements made from a swine waste anaerobic treatment lagoon using a dynamic flow-through chamber system. Measurements were conducted for all four seasonal periods. Model predicted fluxes were found to compare well to measured flux values. It is hypothesized that this model may be used to predict H2S emissions from a variety of manure surfaces, thus allowing a method for quantifying emissions in different production, management and environmental conditions.

  10. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira [Iwate Industrial Research Institute (Japan); Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi [Iwate Univ., Ueda (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  11. Selective chemical dissolution of sulfides: An evaluation of six methods applicable to assaying sulfide-bound nickel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klock, P.R.; Czamanske, G.K.; Foose, M.; Pesek, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six analytical techniques for the selective chemical dissolution of sulfides are compared with the purpose of defining the best method for accurately determining the concentration of sulfide-bound nickel. Synthesized sulfide phases of known elemental content, mixed with well-analyzed silicates, were used to determine the relative and absolute efficiency, based on Ni and Mg recovery, of the techniques. Tested leach-methods purported to dissolve sulfide from silicate phases include: brominated water, brominated water-carbon tetrachloride, nitric-hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide-ammonium citrate, bromine-methanol and hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid. Only the hydrogen peroxide-ammonium citrate method did not prove adequate in dissolving the sulfide phases. The remaining five methods dissolved the sulfide phases, but the indicated amount of attack on the silicate portion ranged from 3% to 100%. The bromine-methanol method is recommended for assaying sulfide-Ni deposits when Ni is also present in silicate phases. ?? 1986.

  12. Modifications for geothermal-heating system for Kingswood Apartments, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Kingswood Apartments, located on Eberlein Street in Klamath Falls, are currently heated by a geothermal well producing 118/sup 0/F water. Geothermal water from the well is piped directly through fan coil units in each of the 117 apartments and disposed of in the storm sewer system. Since the installation of the system in 1975, a large number of corrosion failures of the finned tube coils have occured with increasing frequency. This corrosion is probably the result of small concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) dissolved in the geothermal water. This constituent is not compatible with the copper of which the finned coils are made. The possibility of modifying the existing, open type piping system to a closed loop/heat exchanger design to minimize the current corrosion problems is explored.

  13. Uptake of Dissolved Sulfide by Spartina alterniflora: Evidence from Natural Sulfur Isotope Abundance Ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Carlson; Joseph Forrest

    1982-01-01

    The difference in the stable sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide in marsh pore water was used to verify the uptake of hydrogen sulfide by the salt marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora in a North Carolina salt marsh. Most of the plant sulfur derived from pore-water sulfide was recovered as sulfate, an indication that the sulfide had been oxidized within

  14. Chemistry, isotopic composition, and origin of a methane-hydrogen sulfide hydrate at the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kastner, M.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Although the presence of extensive gas hydrate on the Cascadia margin, offshore from the western U.S. and Canada, has been inferred from marine seismic records and pore water chemistry, solid gas hydrate has only been found at one location. At Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 892, offshore from central Oregon, gas hydrate was recovered close to the sediment - water interface at 2-19 m below the seafloor, (mbsf) at 670 m water depth. The gas hydrate occurs as elongated platy crystals or crystal aggregates, mostly disseminated irregularly, with higher concentrations occurring in discrete zones, thin layers, and/or veinlets parallel or oblique to the bedding. A 2-to 3-cm thick massive gas hydrate layer, parallel to bedding, was recovered at ???17 mbsf. Gas from a sample of this layer was composed of both CH4 and H2S. This sample is the first mixed-gas hydrate of CH4-H2S documented in ODP; it also contains ethane and minor amounts of CO2. Measured temperature of the recovered core ranged from 2 to - 18??C and are 6 to 8 degrees lower than in-situ temperatures. These temperature anomalies were caused by the partial dissociation of the CH4-H2S hydrate during recovery without a pressure core sampler. During this dissociation, toxic levels of H2S (??34S, +27.4???) were released. The ??13C values of the CH4 in the gas hydrate, -64.5 to -67.5???(PDB), together with ??D values of - 197 to - 199???(SMOW) indicate a primarily microbial source for the CH4. The ??18O value of the hydrate H2O is +2.9???(SMOW), comparable with the experimental fractionation factor for sea-ice. The unusual composition (CH4-H2S) and depth distribution (2-19 mbsf) of this gas hydrate indicate mixing between a methane-rich fluid with a pore fluid enriched in sulfide; at this site the former is advecting along an inclined fault into the active sulfate reduction zone. The facts that the CH4-H2S hydrate is primarily confined to the present day active sulfate reduction zone (2-19 mbsf), and that from here down to the BSR depth (19-68 mbsf) the gas hydrate inferred to exist is a ???99% CH4 hydrate, suggest that the mixing of CH4 and H2S is a geologically young process. Because the existence of a mixed CH4-H2S hydrate is indicative of moderate to intense advection of a methane-rich fluid into a near surface active sulfate reduction zone, technically active (faulted) margins with organic-rich sediments and moderate to high sedimentation rates are the most likely regions of occurrence. The extension of such a mixed hydrate below the sulfate reduction zone should reflect the time-span of methane advection into the sulfate reduction zone. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estrogen Replacement Therapy in Ovariectomized Nonpregnant Ewes Stimulates Uterine Artery Hydrogen Sulfide Biosynthesis by Selectively Up-Regulating Cystathionine ?-Synthase Expression.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Thomas J; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Sheibani, Lili; Karim, Muntarin; Jia, Jason; Magness, Ronald R; Rosenfeld, Charles R; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2015-06-01

    Estrogens dramatically dilate numerous vascular beds with the greatest response in the uterus. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent vasodilator and proangiogenic second messenger, which is synthesized from L-cysteine by cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE). We hypothesized that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) selectively stimulates H2S biosynthesis in uterine artery (UA) and other systemic arteries. Intact and endothelium-denuded UA, mesenteric artery (MA), and carotid artery (CA) were obtained from ovariectomized nonpregnant ewes (n = 5/group) receiving vehicle or estradiol-17? replacement therapy (ERT). Total RNA and protein were extracted for measuring CBS and CSE, and H2S production was determined by the methylene blue assay. Paraffin-embedded UA rings were used to localize CBS and CSE proteins by immunofluorescence microscopy. ERT significantly stimulated CBS mRNA and protein without altering CSE mRNA or protein in intact and denuded UA. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopic analyses showed CBS and CSE protein localization in endothelium and smooth muscle and confirmed that ERT stimulated CBS but not CSE protein expression in UA endothelium and smooth muscle. ERT also stimulated CBS, but not CSE, mRNA and protein expression in intact and denuded MA but not CA in ovariectomized ewes. Concomitantly, ERT stimulated UA and MA but not CA H2S production. ERT-stimulated UA H2S production was completely blocked by a specific CBS but not CSE inhibitor. Thus, ERT selectively stimulates UA and MA but not CA H2S biosynthesis by specifically up-regulating CBS expression, implicating a role of H2S in estrogen-induced vasodilation and postmenopausal women's health. PMID:25825818

  16. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampus via upregulation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hai-jun; Xu, Jin-hua; Li, Man-hong; Tang, Ji-ping; Zou, Wei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Li; Wang, Chun-yan; Tang, Xiao-qing

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Homocysteine (Hcy) can elicit neuronal cell death, and hyperhomocysteinemia is a strong independent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on Hcy-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampus. Methods: Adult male SD rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected with Hcy (0.6 ?mol/d) for 7 d. Before Hcy injection, the rats were treated with NaHS (30 or 100 ?mol·kg?1·d?1, ip) and/or k252a (1 ?g/d, icv) for 2 d. The apoptotic neurons were detected in hippocampal coronal slices with TUNEL staining. The expression of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase-12, and BDNF in the hippocampus were examined using Western blotting assays. The generation of H2S in the hippocampus was measured with the NNDPD method. Results: Hcy markedly inhibited the production of endogenous H2S and increased apoptotic neurons in the hippocampus. Furthermore, Hcy induced ER stress responses in the hippocampus, as indicated by the upregulation of GRP78, CHOP, and cleaved caspase-12. Treatment with the H2S donor NaHS increased the endogenous H2S production and BDNF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced Hcy-induced neuronal apoptosis and ER stress responses in the hippocampus. Treatment with k252a, a specific inhibitor of TrkB (the receptor of BDNF), abolished the protective effects of NaHS against Hcy-induced ER stress in the hippocampus. Conclusion: H2S attenuates ER stress and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of Hcy-treated rats via upregulating the BDNF-TrkB pathway. PMID:24747165

  17. Inducible hydrogen sulfide synthesis in chondrocytes and mesenchymal progenitor cells: is H2S a novel cytoprotective mediator in the inflamed joint?

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Bridget; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Haigh, Richard; Wood, Mark E; Moore, Phillip K; Viner, Nick; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Winyard, Paul G; Whiteman, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently been proposed as an endogenous mediator of inflammation and is present in human synovial fluid. This study determined whether primary human articular chondrocytes (HACs) and mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) could synthesize H2S in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines relevant to human arthropathies, and to determine the cellular responses to endogenous and pharmacological H2S. HACs and MPCs were exposed to IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The expression and enzymatic activity of the H2S synthesizing enzymes cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) were determined by Western blot and zinc-trap spectrophotometry, respectively. Cellular oxidative stress was induced by H2O2, the peroxynitrite donor SIN-1 and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Cell death was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Mitochondrial membrane potential (DCm) was determined in situ by flow cytometry. Endogenous H2S synthesis was inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of CSE and CBS and pharmacological inhibitors D,L-propargylglycine and aminoxyacetate, respectively. Exogenous H2S was generated using GYY4137. Under basal conditions HACs and MPCs expressed CBS and CSE and synthesized H2S in a CBS-dependent manner, whereas CSE expression and activity was induced by treatment of cells with IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6 or LPS. Oxidative stress-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by GYY4137 treatment but increased by pharmacological inhibition of H2S synthesis or by CBS/CSE-siRNA treatment. These data suggest CSE is an inducible source of H2S in cultured HACs and MPCs. H2S may represent a novel endogenous mechanism of cytoprotection in the inflamed joint, suggesting a potential opportunity for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21679296

  18. Novel mechanism of hydrogen sulfide-induced guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction: role of BK channels and cholinergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vítor S; Xin, Wenkuan; Petkov, Georgi V

    2015-07-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key signaling molecule regulating important physiological processes, including smooth muscle function. However, the mechanisms underlying H2S-induced detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractions are not well understood. This study investigates the cellular and tissue mechanisms by which H2S regulates DSM contractility, excitatory neurotransmission, and large-conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels in freshly isolated guinea pig DSM. We used a multidisciplinary experimental approach including isometric DSM tension recordings, colorimetric ACh measurement, Ca(2+) imaging, and patch-clamp electrophysiology. In isolated DSM strips, the novel slow release H2S donor, P-(4-methoxyphenyl)-p-4-morpholinylphosphinodithioic acid morpholine salt (GYY4137), significantly increased the spontaneous phasic and nerve-evoked DSM contractions. The blockade of neuronal voltage-gated Na(+) channels or muscarinic ACh receptors with tetrodotoxin or atropine, respectively, reduced the stimulatory effect of GYY4137 on DSM contractility. GYY4137 increased ACh release from bladder nerves, which was inhibited upon blockade of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels with nifedipine. Furthermore, GYY4137 increased the amplitude of the Ca(2+) transients and basal Ca(2+) levels in isolated DSM strips. GYY4137 reduced the DSM relaxation induced by the BK channel opener, NS11021. In freshly isolated DSM cells, GYY4137 decreased the amplitude and frequency of transient BK currents recorded in a perforated whole cell configuration and reduced the single BK channel open probability measured in excised inside-out patches. GYY4137 inhibited spontaneous transient hyperpolarizations and depolarized the DSM cell membrane potential. Our results reveal the novel findings that H2S increases spontaneous phasic and nerve-evoked DSM contractions by activating ACh release from bladder nerves in combination with a direct inhibition of DSM BK channels. PMID:25948731

  19. Investigation of Hydrogen Sulfide Gas as a Treatment against P. falciparum, Murine Cerebral Malaria, and the Importance of Thiolation State in the Development of Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Brian; Staalsoe, Trine; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Anders Lindholm; Hempel, Casper

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral malaria (CM) is a potentially fatal cerebrovascular disease of complex pathogenesis caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is a physiological gas, similar to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, involved in cellular metabolism, vascular tension, inflammation, and cell death. HS treatment has shown promising results as a therapy for cardio- and neuro- pathology. This study investigates the effects of fast (NaHS) and slow (GYY4137) HS-releasing drugs on the growth and metabolism of P. falciparum and the development of P. berghei ANKA CM. Moreover, we investigate the role of free plasma thiols and cell surface thiols in the pathogenesis of CM. Methods P. falciparum was cultured in vitro with varying doses of HS releasing drugs compared with artesunate. Growth and metabolism were quantified. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA and were treated with varying doses and regimes of HS-releasing drugs. Free plasma thiols and cell surface thiols were quantified in CM mice and age-matched healthy controls. Results HS-releasing drugs significantly and dose-dependently inhibited P. falciparum growth and metabolism. Treatment of CM did not affect P. berghei growth, or development of CM. Interestingly, CM was associated with lower free plasma thiols, reduced leukocyte+erythrocyte cell surface thiols (infection day 3), and markedly (5-fold) increased platelet cell surface thiols (infection day 7). Conclusions HS inhibits P. falciparum growth and metabolism in vitro. Reduction in free plasma thiols, cell surface thiols and a marked increase in platelet cell surface thiols are associated with development of CM. HS drugs were not effective in vivo against murine CM. PMID:23555646

  20. Hydrogen sulfide and hypoxia-induced changes in TASK (K2P3/9) activity and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in rat carotid body glomus cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghee; Kim, Insook; Wang, Jiaju; White, Carl; Carroll, John L

    2015-08-15

    Acute hypoxia depolarizes carotid body chemoreceptor (glomus) cells and elevates intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Recent studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may serve as an oxygen sensor/signal in the carotid body during acute hypoxia. To further test such a role for H2S, we studied the effects of H2S on the activity of TASK channel and [Ca(2+)]i, which are considered important for mediating the glomus cell response to hypoxia. Like hypoxia, NaHS (a H2S donor) inhibited TASK activity and elevated [Ca(2+)]i. To inhibit the production of H2S, glomus cells were incubated (3h) with inhibitors of cystathionine-?-synthase and cystathionine-?-lyase (dl-propargylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, ?-cyano-l-alanine; 0.3mM). SF7 fluorescence was used to assess the level of H2S production. The inhibitors blocked L-cysteine- and hypoxia-induced elevation of SF7 fluorescence intensity. In cells treated with the inhibitors, hypoxia produced an inhibition of TASK activity and a rise in [Ca(2+)]i, similar in magnitude to those observed in control cells. L-cysteine produced no effect on TASK activity or [Ca(2+)]i and did not affect hypoxia-induced inhibition of TASK and elevation of [Ca(2+)]i. These findings suggest that under normal conditions, H2S is not a major signal in hypoxia-induced modulation of TASK channels and [Ca(2+)]i in isolated glomus cells. PMID:25956223