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Sample records for gerais brazil rochas

  1. [Aquatic heteroptera from Mariana County, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Marco A A; de Melo, Alan L; Vianna, Gustavo J C

    2006-01-01

    In surveys carried out in lotic and lentic environments in Mariana County, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, 35 genera and 64 species of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera were recorded, distributed in 13 families. Thirty four species were collected in lentic environments, while in lotic environments 48 species were collected, some of them common to both environments. Nepomorpha presented the greatest number of species (45), markedly for the family Naucoridae, represented by 12 species. Among the 19 Gerromorpha species collected, eight were Veliidae and six were Gerridae. PMID:17273712

  2. PKU in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, L L; Castro-Magalhães, M; Fonseca, C G; Starling, A L P; Januário, J N; Aguiar, M J B; Carvalho, M R S

    2008-11-01

    This work was undertaken in order to ascertain the PKU mutational spectrum in Minas Gerais, Brazil, the relative frequency of the mutations in the State and the origin of these mutations by haplotype determination. Minas Gerais is a trihybrid population formed by miscegenation from Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. All 13 exons of the PAH gene from 78 PKU patients were analyzed, including splicing sites and the promoter region. We identified 30 different mutations and 98% of the PAH alleles were established. A new mutation (Q267X) was identified as well. The most common mutations found were V388M (21.2), R261Q (16.0%), IVS10-11G>A (15.3%), I65T (5.8%), IVS2+5G>C (5.8%), R252W (5.1%), IVS2+5G>A (4.5%), P281L (3.8%) and L348V (3.2%). These nine mutations correspond to 80% of the PKU alleles in the state. Haplotypes were determined to characterize the origin of the PAH alleles. The majority of the mutations found, with respective haplotypes, are frequent in the Iberian Peninsula. However, there were some mutations that are rare in Europe and four previously unreported mutation-haplotype associations. I65T and Q267X were found in association with haplotype 38 and may be African in origin or the result of miscegenation in the Brazilian population. PMID:18798839

  3. Henrique da Rocha Lima.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión's disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  4. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  5. Monitoring Genotoxicity Potential in the Mumbuca Stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Rivers are sites for water catchment to supply metropolitan areas but also serve as receptors for discharge of urban sewage, wastewater, and agri-industrial effluents. Bioindicators or sentinel organisms are widely used as markers of pollution in various environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential and consequent quality of the water from the Mumbuca stream, which supplies the city of Monte Carmelo, located in the Minas Triangle region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was achieved using two variable response bioindicators (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis), the micronucleus (MN) test, and determining the presence of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that site 3 water (region of residential flow and intense industrial pottery activity) presented a greater possibility for induction of genotoxic activity, as evidenced by the increase in the MN frequency in Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis in comparison with the reference-site water. The water of the Mumbuca stream was influenced by genotoxic agents, especially lead and chromium, assessed by the rise in MN rate. Data suggested that discharge of industrial effluents in a specific stretch of the stream interfered with biota functions. PMID:26503827

  6. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists. PMID:18670694

  7. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  8. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Capelari, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24031432

  9. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Capelari, Marina

    2009-10-01

    Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24031432

  10. Photovoltaic energy program in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, A.S.A.C.; Prado, A.E.; Mendonca, M.S.C.C.; Almeida, F.Q.; Alvarenga, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the work done over the last years in the field of photovoltaic technology in the State of Minas Gerais, from its R and D to the Rural Electrification Program. The analysis of the global solar radiation data (over 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day) has shown that photovoltaic systems can perform well all over the State, mainly in the north and Northeast regions of the state. The potential for the utilization of PV systems in Minas Gerais is large, mainly when considering the high number of consumers in rural remote areas that are not and cannot be supplied from CEMIG`s grid in the immediate future or in the long term. As a consequence of the demonstration projects, which have shown that photovoltaics can perform well and be cost effective in rural areas, a Rural Electrification Program was launched. To support it a training program has been set up.

  11. [Minas Gerais Radium Institute: at the forefront of radiotherapy in Brazil, 1923-1935.

    PubMed

    Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy; Martins, Maria do Carmo Salazar

    2014-11-01

    This article proposes to study the first 12 years of the Minas Gerais Radium Institute, founded in 1922. Its work in the fight against cancer in Brazil, albeit still little known, is coming to light as its institutional documents are studied. A database has been prepared using information from its patient register, based on which statistical analyses have been done to identify the types of cancer and treatments available there between 1923 and 1935. This register is one of five recently unearthed at the Medicine Memory Center of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Through them, the earliest experiments in radiotherapy in Brazil can be reconstituted, and its development and the influence of this model hospital can be mapped out. PMID:25388445

  12. [Minas Gerais Radium Institute: at the forefront of radiotherapy in Brazil, 1923-1935].

    PubMed

    Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy; Martins, Maria do Carmo Salazar

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes to study the first 12 years of the Minas Gerais Radium Institute, founded in 1922. Its work in the fight against cancer in Brazil, albeit still little known, is coming to light as its institutional documents are studied. A database has been prepared using information from its patient register, based on which statistical analyses have been done to identify the types of cancer and treatments available there between 1923 and 1935. This register is one of five recently unearthed at the Medicine Memory Center of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Through them, the earliest experiments in radiotherapy in Brazil can be reconstituted, and its development and the influence of this model hospital can be mapped out. PMID:25606726

  13. Composition of monazites from pegmatites in eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Dutra, C.V.; da Costa, M.T.; Branco, J.J.R.

    1959-01-01

    Two zoned pegmatites in south-eastern Minas Gerais were sampled in detail for their content of monazite and xenotime and the monazite was analysed for certain of the rare-earth elements and thorium. The ratio of xenotime to monazite increases in both pegmatites from the wall toward the quartz core. The content of the less basic rare-earth elements and of thorium in monazite rises in the same direction. These variation trends suggest that during the crystallization of these pegmatites there was a fractionation of the elements leading to a more or less steady enrichment of the less basic rare-earth elements and of thorium in the residual fluids. One mode of explaining these observed effects postulates that the rare-earth elements and thorium were present in pegmatitic fluids as co-ordination complexes rather than as simple cations. ?? 1959.

  14. Genetic divergence of sugarcane varieties collected in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesar, L E V; Bruzi, A T; Nunes, J A R; Andrade, L A de B; Lopes, M F; Sales, L R; Mourão, M M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity among local accessions and varieties subsidize plant breeding programs, allowing the utilization of existing variability in plants that have already adapted to local climate conditions. An alternative to studying genetic variability is the study of diversity. The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity among sugarcane accessions and varieties used for the production of craft-distilled cachaça (distilled sugarcane alcohol) in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using a one-way design, an experiment was conducted in the municipality of Perdões, Minas Gerais to evaluate 35 regional accessions derived from germplasm collection expeditions and four varieties. Using morphological descriptions of 46 multicategorical sugarcane characteristics, dissimilarity and Tocher cluster method analyses were performed. Based on the results, it was concluded that genetic diversity exists among the accessions evaluated for the target traits. PMID:26535718

  15. [Labor process and workers' health in charcoal production in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias, Elizabeth Costa; Assuncao, Ada Avila; Guerra, Cláudio Bueno; Cano Prais, Hugo Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    This study is a tentative approach to the relationship between environmental and occupational health and development in a specific situation: charcoal production in the Jequitinhonha Valley, the poorest region in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study focuses on the labor process, involving heavy exploitation, hazardous working conditions, and extremely precarious living conditions. Working conditions and activities are described and related to the workers' health situation. Social policies and decisive participation by the various social stakeholders are necessary to change this reality. PMID:11910445

  16. [Schistosomiasis mansoni in the southwest of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, O dos S; Massara, C L; Rocha, R S; Katz, N

    1989-08-01

    A new focus of schistosomiasis mansoni at Passos, a town in the Southwest of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil), region until now considered free of the disease is reported. Malacological surveys showed Biophalaria glabrata naturally infected with Schistosoma mansoni in a country club near Passos. All B. straminea captured at the pisciculture station of the Furnas hydroelectric dam were negative. Six out of seven individuals living in the country club were found to be infected with S. mansoni, including four children who had never been out of Passos. The epidemiological importance of these findings is discussed. PMID:2517153

  17. Two new species of Xestoblatta Hebard, 1916 from Brazil, a redescription of Xestoblatta roppai Rocha e Silva Albuquerque & Fraga, 1975 and a key for the species of the buscki group (Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Blattellinae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva-da-Silva, Luiz Rafael; Lopes, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Xestoblatta from northern Brazil are described, Xestoblatta buhrnheimi sp. n. and Xestoblatta rondonensis sp. n., included in the buscki group Gurney (1939), and new characters are added to the description of Xestoblatta mamorensis Lopes & Oliveira, 2006. Xestoblatta roppai Rocha e Albuquerque-Silva & Fraga, 1975, from midwestern Brazil is redescribed, including its genital characters which were not previously described. Additionally, a key for the species of this group is provided, and photographs are given of the species in the habitus, of tergal modifications, and of the genitalia. PMID:26487828

  18. Superficial and subsuperficial features in the Karst Region of Cordisburgo, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. The region of Cordisburgo, in the State of Minas Gerais, is developed on the metasediments of the Bambui Group, Lagoa do Jacare Formation (Upper Proterozoic). Its karst is considered to be one of the most significant regions in Minas Gerais State, although less prominent than the features of the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. The region of Cordisburgo, however, presents excellent examples of karst geomorphology. It is distinguished for both the magnificent potential of its endokarst and the important archaeological, paleontological, historical and tourist sites it offers. The region is also of chief historical importance: it is where Paleontology, Archaeology and Speleology were developed together for the first time in the Americas. This was done by the Danish naturalist Peter W. Lund (1801-1880). Like other karst scenarios, the exokarst evolved from the primitive endokarst favoring the development of expressive outcrops, dolines, uvalas and poljes. The third largest cave of the State of Minas Gerais is located in Cordisburgo with 4,620 meters. Other 15 caves, some of them which were studied by Lund in the 19th century, complete the intricate endokarst in this region. The importance of the cave Lapa Nova do Maquiné is reinforced by the State Decree n° 44120 (2005), which creates the Peter Lund Natural Monument as a Conservation Unit. It was created in order to protect the historical-scientific site of the Maquiné Cave and its surroundings. There is little research on the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, especially regarding the amount of CaCO3in comparison to the phyllites, quartz veins, etc. It is possible that pure limestone sites associated to non-carbonatic layers can be found there. Studies about the magnitude and the direction of underground water are still insufficient

  19. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation. PMID:26371876

  20. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae). PMID:24696361

  1. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil’s Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation. PMID:26371876

  2. Dosimetry and image quality in digital mammography facilities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Sabrina Donato; Joana, Geórgia Santos; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-11-01

    According to the National Register of Health Care Facilities (CNES), there are approximately 477 mammography systems operating in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, of which an estimated 200 are digital apparatus using mainly computerized radiography (CR) or direct radiography (DR) systems. Mammography is irreplaceable in the diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. A high standard of image quality alongside smaller doses and optimization of procedures are essential if early detection is to occur. This study aimed to determine dosimetry and image quality in 68 mammography services in Minas Gerais using CR or DR systems. The data of this study were collected between the years of 2011 and 2013. The contrast-to-noise ratio proved to be a critical point in the image production chain in digital systems, since 90% of services were not compliant in this regard, mainly for larger PMMA thicknesses (60 and 70 mm). Regarding the image noise, only 31% of these were compliant. The average glandular dose found is of concern, since more than half of the services presented doses above acceptable limits. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of using CR and DR systems, the employment of this technology has to be revised and optimized to achieve better quality image and reduce radiation dose as much as possible.

  3. PREVALENCE OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS INFECTION BY INTRADERMAL REACTION IN RURAL AREAS IN ALFENAS, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Evandro Monteiro de Sá; Ribeiro, Carla de Fátima; Dâmaso, Carla Silva; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro; Ferreira, Eric Batista; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Velloso, Tânia Regina Grão; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of paracoccidioidal infection by intradermal reaction (Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity, DTH) to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in rural areas in Alfenas, Southern Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil, and to assess risk factors (gender, occupation, age, alcohol intake and smoking) associated with infection. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using intradermal tests with gp 43 paracoccidioidin in 542 participants, who were previously contacted by local health agents and so spontaneously attended the test. Participants underwent an interview by filling out a registration form with epidemiological data and were tested with an intradermal administration of 0.1 mL of paracoccidioidin in the left forearm. The test was read 48 hours after injection and was considered positive if induration was greater than or equal to 5 mm. Out of 542 participants, 46.67% were positive to the skin test. Prevalence increased in accordance with an increase of age. There was statistical significance only for males. Occupation, alcohol intake and smoking habits were not significantly associated with the risk of paracoccidioidomycosis infection. There is relevance of paracoccidioidomycosis infection in such rural areas, which suggests that further epidemiological and clinical studies on this mycosis should be done in the southern part of Minas Gerais State. PMID:25076426

  4. Molecular typing of canine Giardia duodenalis isolates from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fava, Natália M N; Soares, Rodrigo M; Scalia, Luana A M; Cunha, Maria Júlia Rodrigues da; Faria, Elaine S M; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread intestinal parasite in mammals, including humans and pets worldwide. It should be considered a species complex and comprises eight assemblage (A-H). This works aimed to determine the genotypic variability among G. duodenalis isolates from dogs from Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Fecal samples of 97 dogs, from 1-to-10 months old from 15 commercial kennels, were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique, to determine their positivity for G. duodenalis cysts. Cysts pellets were stored and submitted to PCR and nested-PCR reactions with gdh and tpi primers, and then sequencing. Among positive samples (n = 19), fragment amplifications of gdh and tpi genes was observed in 16 (84,2%) and 14 (73,6%), respectively. In total, 30 sequences were obtained. Sequencing analysis showed that for gdh, all isolates were identified as host-specific genotype D, and for tpi, besides host-specific genotype C, were also observed zoonotic genotypes A and B. This study provides, for the first time, current information about genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates found in dogs in Minas Gerais state. PMID:26704664

  5. Genetic variability in five populations of Partamona helleri (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Partamona is a Neotropical genus of stingless bees that comprises 33 species distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. These bees are well-adapted to anthropic environments and build their nests in several substrates. In this study, 66 colonies of Partamona helleri from five localities in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (São Miguel do Anta, Teixeiras, Porto Firme, Viçosa and Rio Vermelho) were analyzed using nine microsatellite loci in order to assess their genetic variability. Low levels of observed (Ho = 0.099-0.137) and expected (H e = 0.128-0.145) heterozygosity were encountered and revealed discrete genetic differentiation among the populations (F ST = 0.025). AMOVA further showed that most of the total genetic variation (94.24%) in P. helleri was explained by the variability within local populations. PMID:21637591

  6. Genetic diversity in populations of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) in the northern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D A; Melo Júnior, A F; Brandão, M M; Rodrigues, L A; Menezes, E V; Ferreira, P R B

    2012-01-01

    Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm of economic importance, widely distributed in natural forests from Mexico to Uruguay. We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of macaúba (A. aculeata) in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Young leaves from 10 macaúba individuals encompassing 49 genotypes of macaúba were collected from Montes Claros, Itacambira, Brasília de Minas, Mirabela, and Grão Mogol. After extraction and amplification of samples, the amplified fragments were separated by electrophoresis. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the populations. Genetic diversity indices were high, except in the Itacambira and Mirabela populations. Results show that Mirabela and Itacambira populations can require conservation strategies because they present lower values of genetic diversity. PMID:22535388

  7. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19th century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  8. Recognition features of felsic pyroclastics of Serra do Tombo formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Paes, Vinícius José; Ozanam Raposo, Frederico; Chaves Sgarbi, Geraldo Norberto; Schiazza, Mariangela; Stoppa, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution we report a study of poorly exposed, rhyodacitic welded-ignimbrite deposit from Minas Gerais. A petrographic study of textures indicate high temperature of emplacement. Key features include eutaxitic texture, flattened and agglutinated lapilli and glass menisci. Most of the feldspar minerals and glass are extensively altered to clay minerals, which pseudomorph the original volcanic textures. Glass menisci and spherules suggest a possible process of liquid immiscibility. Immobile trace element distribution indicates a possible link with other post-Palaeozoic felsic volcanic rocks in Brazil, a magmatism interpreted as due to basaltic underplating and partial melting of a hydrous continental crust. A peculiar feature is a high Light REE/Heavy REE ratio. Depletion in heavy rare earth elements is possibly due to a residual HREE-bearing phase in the source. The geologic context of these rocks suggests a Lower Cretaceous age and a tectonic relationship with a continental rifting event.

  9. Populational dynamics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linneaus) (Diptera: Muscidae) in three biocenosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Batista, Z; Leite, R C; Oliveira, P R; Lopes, C M L; Borges, L M F

    2005-06-30

    Populational flux of the adult phase of Stomoxys calcitrans was observed in the municipal district of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three biocenoses were selected for the study: stable agrobiocenosis, pastural agrobiocenosis and eubiocenosis. The occurrence and the populational flux of the insects, using the Magoon trap for their capture, were established. For each trap located in different biocenoses, a crossbred calf (Bos taurusxBos indicus) approximately 6-month-old was used as "live bait," exposed weekly for 48h in the traps. Of the three agrobiocenoses studied, the stable agrobiocenosis contributed the greatest number of specimens of. S. calcitrans captured, corresponding to 96.9% of the total flies of this species collected. S. calcitrans shows seasonal behavior for approximately 6 months (spring and summer being the rainiest months of the year). The population peaked during the months of November and December. During the months of July and August, there was no capture of flies. PMID:15908125

  10. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19(th) century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  11. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  12. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  13. In vitro antimalarial activity of six Aspidosperma species from the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Dolabela, Maria Fâni; Oliveira, Salma G; Peres, José M; Nascimento, José M S; Póvoa, Marinete M; Oliveira, Alaide B

    2012-12-01

    Ethnomedicinal informations point to some Aspidosperma species (Apocynaceae) as antimalarial plants in Brazil and have motivated the evaluation of six species which were collected in the state of Minas Gerais: A. cylindrocarpon Müll. Arg., A. parvifolium A. DC., A. olivaceum Müll. Arg., A. ramiflorum Müll. Arg., A. spruceanum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. and A. tomentosum Mart.. A total of 23 extracts of different plant parts in different solvents were assayed in vitro against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. All the extracts were shown to be active with IC50 values in the range of 5.0 ± 0 2.8 µg/mL to 65.0 ± 4.2 µg/mL. TLC profile of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids in the six species assayed. These results seem to confirm the popular use of Aspidosperma species to treat human malaria in Brazil and seem point to alkaloids as the putative active compounds of the assayed species. PMID:23207699

  14. Variability of Meloidogyne exigua on Coffee in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D. S.; Oliveira, R. D. L.; Freitas, L. G.; Silva, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard. PMID:19262880

  15. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected on tomato plants in lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, C H; Silva, C G; Lobo, A P

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21 degrees 14'43"S; 44 degrees 59'59"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae), one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae), and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae). The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil. PMID:15622852

  16. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers. PMID:26578019

  17. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects. PMID:25791252

  18. The impact of diamond extraction on natural denudation rates in the Diamantina Plateau (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 10Be method was used to investigate the effect of mining activities on the natural denudation rates in alluvial sediments from catchments of the Southern Espinhaço Range (SER) in Minas Gerais State (Brazil). In this region, which is predominantly composed of quartzites, the 10Be concentrations were measured in alluvial sediments from catchments in a preserved natural area of the Serra do Cipó National Park and on the Diamantina Plateau, which was subjected to diamond extraction from beginnings of XVIII century until the end of the XX. Two types of drainage were identified in the Diamantina Plateau area: (i) reworked drainage (alluvial sediments reworked by panning) and (ii) overloaded drainage (alluvial sediments originating from panning processes on saprolites located upstream). The mean denudation value for the natural drainages (˜4.4 m.My-1) is similar to that of the reworked drainages (˜4.3 m.My-1) However, the denudation rates obtained for eleven samples from three sites in overloaded basins range from ˜6.4 m My-1 to ˜22.8 m My-1 and are thus higher than those determined for the reworked and natural basins. These results show that despite the alluvium deposits have been intensely reworked by panning, the values of denudation rates were not changed, they are similar to denudation rates from the natural drainages. However, the natural rates are lower than those affected by panning processes on saprolites.

  19. Evaluating karst geotechnical risk in the urbanized area of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Paulo; Halihan, Todd; Hirata, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    An increase in groundwater consumption in the municipality of Sete Lagoas (Minas Gerais, Brazil) has induced subsidence and collapse in the last three decades. The area is associated with natural karst conditions. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate and identify the potential subsidence or collapse risk zones. Aerial photographs, lithologic well profiles, optical well logs, and geologic mapping were utilized to categorize risk factors influencing karst subsidence and collapse, which were then applied to an index system. The study showed that the majority of the urbanized area overlies mantled limestone from the Sete Lagoas Formation covered with unconsolidated sediments, contained within a graben, resulting in barrier boundaries for groundwater flow. This structure, together with natural karst processes, explains the location of solutionally enlarged bedding-plane conduits and high hydraulic conductivity in the limestone. Five risks zones in the municipality were identified (negligible, low, moderate, considerable, and high risks) related to geologic and hydrologic risk factors. The urbanized area is located largely in the high risk zone where the majority of the collapse features are located. Additional intensive groundwater extraction in that area will likely generate additional events.

  20. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Patrícia da Silva; RAMOS, Eliezer Lucas Pires; GÓMEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, César; FERREIRA, Gabriela Lícia Santos; REZENDE-OLIVEIRA, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  1. Minasgeraisite, a new member of the gadolinite group from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Gaines, R.V.; Crock, J.G.; Simmons, W.B., Jr.; Barbosa, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Minasgeraisite, Y2CaBe2Si2O10, a 9.833(2), b 7.562(1), c 4.702(1) A, beta 90.46(6)o, P21/a, Z = 2, is a new member of the gadolinite group. Found in quantities of only several hundred mg in the Jaguaracu pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil, it occurs as 0.2 to 1.0 mm-diameter rosettes, coating and intergrown with milarite, albite, quartz and muscovite. The mineral is lavender to lilac purple and has a sheaf-like habit, with a grain size of 4.25, D(calc.) 4.90 g/cm3, lustre is earthy to subvitreous and the streak is pale purple. Minasgeraisite is slowly soluble in common acids. The mineral has one excellent cleavage, (100) by analogy with gadolinite, and another good cleavage (001). Minasgeraisite is biaxial positive with alpha (colourless) 1.740(4), beta (pale greyish yellow) 1.754(4), gamma (lavender purple) 1.786(4), 2Vgamma 68o. Strongest powder XRD lines include 3.11(100), 2.830(100), 2.540(90), 1.768(35) A.-J.A.Z.

  2. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; da Silva Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1–4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  5. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    PubMed

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

  6. A Pedagogical approach of schistosomiasis -- an experience in health education in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Schall, Virgínia Torres

    2004-01-01

    The experience described here is part of an extensive program that aims to stimulate schools to develop health integrated projects from theme generators, i.e., themes that have a meaning for the community. It was developed in Jaboticatubas, a town in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the focus was schistosomiasis. The selection was based on the expressive and historical prevalence of this disease in the county, which has been known as the "capital of schistosomiasis", in a national press release since the 1960's. Schistosomiasis is also a theme pointed out by teachers as requiring more information and methodologies to work with their students, most of them living in areas of high risk of transmission. In addition, during the last years, this disease has been transmitted silently through an increasing rural tourism in that region, requiring integrated and effective control actions. The developed strategy included four schools, whose teachers, students, and families took part in the process. It emphasizes in a critical pedagogy approach, which focuses on health issues as themes that may mobilize the school community and awake the population to a work which integrates environment, health, and citizenship. The results demonstrate that teachers and students not only acquired new knowledge and methodological skills, but also gained confidence in their ability to improve their health conditions. Thus, the project promotes a critical education that can result a more permanent effect on the control of schistosomiasis as well as other benefits for the schools and for the population. PMID:15486647

  7. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk. PMID:15486645

  8. Water balance indicators from MODIS images and agrometeorological data in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; da Silva, Gustavo B. S.

    2015-10-01

    Minas Gerais state, Brazil, has experienced severe water scarcity in some areas, demanding large-scale water balance studies to subsidize water policies. The reflectance bands from the MOD13Q1 MODIS product were used together with gridded agrometeorological data in the state, during the year 2014, later extracting the main agriculture growing regions, North, Northwest and Minas Triangle, for analyzes. Precipitation (Prec) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data from 36 weather stations were interpolated, while for actual evapotranspiration (ET), the SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm was used. Two climatic water balance indicators were applied, the Water Balance Ratio (WBr = Prec/ET) and the Water Balance Difference (WDd = Prec - ET). The daily net radiation (Rn) was retrieved from surface albedo (α0), air temperature (Ta) and shortwave atmospheric transmissivity (τsw), while the ground heat flux (G) was estimated as a fraction of Rn. For surface moisture, the evapotranspiration ratio (ETr = ET/ET0) and the evaporative fraction [Ef = λE/(Rn - G)] were used, with the latent heat flux (λE) obtained by transforming ET into energy units. Analyzing WDr and WDd, the most water scarcity critical MODIS 16-day periods, reaching to minimum values lower than 1.0 and -10 mm, respectively, were from the end of April to the middle of October. Higher water availability, detected by these indicators larger than 1.5 and 10 mm, respectively, were from the middle of October to the end of December. The maximums WDr and WDd of 7.0 and 158 mm happened from the middle of November to the start of December in the Northwest agricultural growing region. However, according to the ETr and Ef values, after this period, the soil moisture storage showed a gap, increasing only in the second half of December, when they reached to averages of 0.63. The largest values of these last soil moisture indicators, above 0.70 in May, did not coincided with the period

  9. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving. PMID:23370024

  10. Cranial bones and atlas of titanosaurs (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Marinho, Thiago da Silva; Filippi, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Borges; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2015-08-01

    Isolated left prefrontal, left squamosal and atlas of titanosaur dinosaurs are described and compared. They come from the Late Cretaceous Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation at the Serra do Veadinho region, Peirópolis (Uberaba County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Due to the sparse cranial elements of titanosaurs already known from Brazil, these specimens are noticeable to be presented. In addition, the atlas vertebra is described for the first time for Brazilian titanosaurs. The morphology of the cranial bones closely resembles lithostratian titanosaurs, such as Rapetosaurus, rather than basal titanosaurs. The atlas is similar to that of other titanosaurs, suggesting that the anatomy of this element seems to be more conservative than other vertebral elements, in which vertebral laminae play an important rule in titanosaur taxonomy.

  11. First report on the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in the municipality of Jaboticatubas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Schall, Virgínia Torres

    2002-01-01

    This is the first report on occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea in the district of São José de Almeida (municipality of Jaboticatubas) State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The presence of B. glabrata and B. tenagophila had already been reported in this area. Such municipality is part of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte and comprises 60% of the Tourist Complex of Serra do Cipó. Since the 1950s throughout the 1990s, a schistosomiasis prevalence ranging from 15 to 40% has been observed. Although no B. straminea specimen has been found naturally infected in the region, descendants of these snails collected in the area, showed to be experimentally susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni infection reaching rates from 14.6 to 28.6%. Even not being found naturally infected, in the State of Minas Gerais, the possibility that the species B. straminea may keep endemicity foci of schistosomiasis should be regarded, as in the Northeastern region of Brazil where the high density of this planorbid and the social-economic and sanitary conditions enable to the transmission. PMID:12426590

  12. Epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the endemic area of Montes Claros Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França-Silva, João C; da Costa, Roberto T; Siqueira, Ari M; Machado-Coelho, George L L; da Costa, Carlos A; Mayrink, Wilson; Vieira, Edva P; Costa, Jaime S; Genaro, Odair; Nascimento, Evaldo

    2003-02-13

    The Montes Claros City is located in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniosis in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. With the implementation of a program for the control of visceral leishmaniosis in 1994, a sectional study was carried out to evaluate the infection by viscerotropic Leishmania in the population of dogs from Montes Claros, basically using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Blood samples were collected on filter paper from 33,937 dogs, representing 96.1% of the canine local population. The prevalence for visceral leishmaniosis was found to be 9.7% in the municipality, being 9.9% in the urban area and 8.8% in the rural area. The annual incidence showed to be 64.3/1000 dogs. Prevalence of infection was not correlated with dogs age. The most affected breeds were: Boxer (24.6%) and Cocker (26.9%); Mongrel dogs had a prevalence of 7.8%. Short-hair animals had a prevalence of 11.9%, while long-furred animals had a prevalence of 8.9%. The isoenzymatic profile indicated that Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi was the visceral leishmaniosis etiological agent in Montes Claros City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main geographical areas for the parasite transmission were identified, and control measures were immediately started. The role of the dog as a reservoir for L. chagasi was confirmed. It was demonstrated that short-furred animals are at a higher risk of acquiring visceral leishmaniosis than the long-furred dogs. PMID:12531292

  13. Low occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes on bovine hides and carcasses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lafisca, Andrea; Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Dias, Mariane Rezende; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgio; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2014-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes occurrence was assessed in three slaughterhouses located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by analysis of 209 bovine carcasses. Four sponge samples were obtained from each carcass in different steps (A, from hide, before bleeding; B, after hide removal; C, after evisceration; and D, after end washing), resulting in a total of 836 samples. The samples were tested for the presence of L. monocytogenes according to the International Organization for Standardization 11290-1, and positive results were recorded in steps A (1 of 209) and D (1 of 209) from slaughterhouse 03. L. monocytogenes isolates (n = 5) were identified by multiplex PCR as belonging to serogroup IIc (representing serotypes 1/2c or 3c) and presented identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles; in addition, the isolates harbored the virulence genes inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, plcA, hlyA, actA, and iap and were sensitive to ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, tetracycline, rifampin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole. The obtained data indicated a low occurrence of L. monocytogenes on bovine hides and carcasses from slaughterhouses located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and the presence of distinct virulence makers and susceptibility to a variety of antimicrobials by the obtained isolates. PMID:24988021

  14. Macromorphologic analysis of paleosols in the Campina Verde and Uberaba regions - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doce, Rafael; Ladeira, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The Bauru Basin is a Cretaceous inner basin with 370.000 square kilometers, situated inside the Parana's Basin and deposited on the basalt of the Serra Geral Formation. The Bauru Basin is characterized by its alluvial fans and different formations of Bauru and Caiuá Group, which according to Fernandes (1992), join to form the Bauru Basin, but according to Barcelos (1984), the Caiuá Formation fits in the same group of Bauru, and doesn't form another group apart. Among the Bauru Group formations (Adamantina, Araçatuba, Uberaba and Marília - Fernandes and Coimbra, 1996), this study focuses on the Marilia Formation, the last to be deposited and therefore, the one that occupies the highest part of the stratigraphic column of the Bauru Group. According to Suguio (1975), the Marilia Formation sedimentation has occurred in a restricted fogging, under torrential regimes of alluvial fans with deposition associated to detrital floors, during the progressive installation of a semi-arid environment, which has provided the carbonate cementing of its detritus and the development of the caliche and calcrete. This formation is divided into three members (Ponte Alta, Serra da Galga and Echaporã), and consists of coarse to conglomeratic sandstones with a large number of paleosols along its entire thickness. These paleosols are the research object of this study, which aims to study their macromorphology and search for information about the paleogeography and the evolution of the landscape of the Campina Verde and Uberaba regions (Minas Gerais - Brazil), when the pedogenesis of these profiles has developed, in other words, during the Upper Cretaceous (Maasthichtian). This study has resulted in descriptions and analyzes of four different outcrops that contribute to the study of paleosols in the region, whose main feature is the abundance of bioturbation, besides the existence of different levels of calcrete, nodules and carbonate cement, what are the clear evidence of lack of water

  15. Hepatic photosensitization in buffaloes intoxicated by Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, C H S; Barbosa, J D; Oliveira, C M C; Bastianetto, E; Melo, M M; Haraguchi, M; Freitas, L G L; Silva, M X; Leite, R C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the study of hepatogenous photosensitization in buffaloes during two outbreaks provoked by ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten young buffaloes in outbreak 1 and seven buffaloes in outbreak 2 were intoxicated by B. decumbens. Nine clinically healthy buffaloes raised under the same conditions as the sick animals served as the control group. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, and serum was collected to measure gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB) and total bilirubin (TB) as indicators of liver function and urea and creatinine as indicators of renal function. Histopathology of liver fragments from five different animals was carried out. During the outbreaks and every two months for one year, samples of grass from paddocks where the animals got sick were collected for quantitative evaluation of the saponin protodioscin, combined with observations of pasture characteristics and daily rainfall. Clinical signs included apathy, weight loss, restlessness, scar retraction of the ears and intense itching at the skin lesions, mainly on the rump, the tail head, neck and hindlimbs, similar to the signs observed in other ruminants. Only the GGT enzyme presented significantly different (P < 0.01) serum levels between intoxicated animals (n = 17) and healthy animals (n = 9), indicating liver damage in buffaloes bred in B. decumbens pastures. Microscopy of the liver showed foamy macrophages and lesions of liver disease associated with the presence of crystals in the bile ducts, which have also been found in sheep and cattle poisoned by grasses of the genus Brachiaria. During the outbreaks, protodioscin levels were higher than 3%, and shortly after, these levels were reduced to less than 0.80%, suggesting a hepatic injury etiology. The outbreaks took place at the beginning of the rainy season, and there was a positive

  16. Analysis of the Representation of Cretaceous Period in Textbooks Used in Schools in the Western Region of the City of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the geography textbooks, which are being used in the public schools of the city of Ituiutaba, Depth of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research also seeks to address the ways and methods being employed by the teachers of these schools for studies that include the teaching of Geology and Geosciences. In this study, survey…

  17. Two new species of Dicranocentrus Schött, 1893 (Collembola:Entomobryidae) from Serra do Gandarela, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xisto, Thiago; Mendonça, Maria Cleide De

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Dicranocentrus from Southeastern Brazil are described: D. melinus sp. nov. and D. cuprum sp. nov., both from "Parque Nacional da Serra do Gandarela" (Minas Gerais State), Brazil. These species can be included to gracilis-group due to the absence of chaeta A1, S2, Ps and up to 6+6 chaetae P on dorsal head. A male genital plate is for the first time illustrated for the genus. PMID:27396001

  18. Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Alessandra S; Costa, Érica A; Rajão, Daniela S; Guedes, Roberto M C; Ciacci Zanella, Janice R; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2015-01-01

    Background Swine influenza virus (SIV) is the cause of an acute respiratory disease that affects swine worldwide. In Brazil, SIV has been identified in pigs since 1978. After the emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 (H1N1pdm09), few studies reported the presence of influenza virus in Brazilian herds. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the serological profile for influenza virus in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods Thirty farms with no SIV vaccination history were selected from the four larger pig production areas in Minas Gerais state (Zona da Mata, Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, South/Southwest and the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area). At each farm, blood samples were randomly collected from 20 animals in each production cycle category: breeding animals (sows and gilts), farrowing crate (2–3 weeks), nursery (4–7 weeks), grower pigs (8–14 weeks), and finishing pigs (15–16 weeks), with 100 samples per farm and a total of 3000 animals in this study. The samples were tested for hemagglutination inhibition activity against H1N1 pandemic strain (A/swine/Brazil/11/2009) and H3N2 SIV (A/swine/Iowa/8548-2/98) reference strain. Results The percentages of seropositive animals for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were 26·23% and 1·57%, respectively, and the percentages of seropositive herds for both viruses were 96·6% and 13·2%, respectively. Conclusions The serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks. PMID:25648743

  19. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

  20. A SIMPLE HYDROLOGIC MODEL FOR WATER RESOURCES SIMULATION ON GRANDE RIVER BASIN, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrological simulation on watersheds is one of the most important tools for water resources management due to possibility of flow regime prediction. Grande River Basin is located in south of Minas Gerais State, and the Rio Grande is the main tributary of basin which has 2080 km2 draining into t...

  1. Synonymy of Crossodactylus bokermanni Caramaschi & Sazima, 1985 with Crossodactylus trachystomus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and description of a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil (Anura: Hylodidae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Bruno V S; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the external morphology variation in Crossodactylus bokermanni, C. trachystomus, and in unidentified specimens from 14 localities along the southern region of the Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, revealed that all of these forms belong to the same taxon. Crossodactylus bokermanni is considered a junior synonym of C. trachystomus, whose holotype is redescribed and figured. The population from Serra da Canastra, western Minas Gerais, previously referred to as Crossodactylus cf. trachystomus, is herein described and figured as Crossodactylus franciscanus. Its advertisement call is redescribed and compared to those known for the genus. PMID:25947837

  2. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2009-03-01

    Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais. PMID:19046937

  3. Stratigraphic relations, kimberlite emplacement and lithospheric thermal evolution, Quiricó Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George; Grutter, Herman; Winter, Stewart; Luckman, Nigel; Gaunt, Frank; Thomsen, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The Quiricó Basin covers an area of 10,000 km 2 and is situated to the west of the conventionally defined southwestern margin of the Archean São Francisco craton in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sedimentary infill of the Quiricó Basin consists of lightly metamorphosed shallow marine clastic bedrock sediments of the Bambuı´ Group (˜650±15 Ma), unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous terrigenous lacustrine (Quiricó Formation), alluvial fan (Abaeté Formation) and fluvial/aeolian (Três Barras Formation) deposits of the Areado Group. Rare kimberlites and ubiquitous kamafugites of the Alto Paranaı´ba Igneous Province (APIP) erupted through the recently deposited sediments of the Quiricó Basin in the time period 95-61 Ma. The 120-m-thick Mata da Corda Group overlies the Late Cretaceous Areado Group over an area of 8000 km 2 and is composed largely of extrusive kamafugite and related volcanosedimentary material. Unusually large diamonds with proximal surface features and population characteristics are well known to occur in rivers and streams that drain the stratigraphic succession in the Quiricó Basin, prompting the search for their presumably local primary source(s) and a possibly associated Archean basement or cratonic root. Conceptual exploration models for this setting may in part be based on the diamondiferous 120 Ma Canastra and 95 Ma Três Ranchos kimberlites, but require reconciliation with the observed abundance of 85-61 Ma old diamond-free kamafugites. Field relations and carefully controlled stratigraphic samples show that a distinctive mantle-derived indicator mineral suite occurs in the Maxixe Member, a volcaniclastic breccia unit that occurs at the base of the Mata da Corda Group. A detailed thermobarometric comparison of mantle-derived xenocrystic clinopyroxene compositions from this member with clinopyroxene populations derived from kimberlites and kamafugites situated in the Quiricó Basin shows a distinct and abrupt change in

  4. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  5. How Stakeholder Engagement is Evolving at the Caldas Uranium Mining Site in Minas Gerais, Brazil - 13223

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Peter M.; Da Silva, Nivaldo Carlos; Pereira de Oliveira, Alexandre; Cioffi Batagini, Regina Maria; Rangel, Heraldo Junior; Da Conceicao Estrella Abad, Maria

    2013-07-01

    The Caldas site is located in the Federal State of Minas Gerais in Brazil about 25 km from the city of Pocos de Caldas. While the city itself has 150,000 inhabitants there is a total population of around 0.5 million people living in an area that could potentially be influenced by the site. Uranium ore was mined and milled here between the years of 1982 and 1995, with ore extraction taking place from an open pit. Of the material removed, aside from that extracted for uranium, some was used on-site for road construction and building embankments while the remainder was disposed of onto two major rock piles. There are a number of potential historical and current environmental impacts to groundwater as a consequence of discharges into streams which then flow off site. The site is now undergoing a phase of decommissioning which includes the formulation and substantiation of a site remediation strategy. As part of a wider International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Project aimed at providing practical guidance for implementing a decommissioning and remediation plan at the site, WSP E and E were invited to lead a mission in order to provide advice on the importance and merits of stakeholder engagement and how to ultimately build an engagement program. In November 2011, WSP E and E met with personnel from the site operators, the Brazilian regulatory bodies and representatives from the local stakeholder community and explained the principles of stakeholder engagement and how the process had internationally evolved principally from a decide-announce-defend approach to a more formal two way mechanism of engagement. Historically there had been insufficient liaison between the site operator, the nuclear regulator and the environmental regulator. All parties had recognized that greater interaction was necessary. There had also been very little engagement with local stakeholders about the various activities on the site and the potential implications of these

  6. Transfusion Practices Committee of a public blood bank network in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Results Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. Conclusion The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required. PMID:23323064

  7. Evaluation of a program to overcome vitamin A and iron deficiencies in areas of poverty in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Machado, R D; Braga, A A; Leite, B V; Oliveira, J R

    1987-03-01

    Randon samples of children from both sexes from Belo Horizonte, the capital City, and from Turmalina, Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were submitted to nutritional evaluation before and after the intervention "Program to Overcome Vitamin A and Iron Deficiencies in Areas of Poverty in Minas Gerais, Brazil". After the first examination, all the children received, with an interval of 180 days, a single oral dose of vitamin A, oral iron sulfate during 50 days, and 200 mg of Mebendazol/day for three days. Thirty days after ending administration of the third dose of medicine, the children were subjected to a new evaluation. In Belo Horizonte, the first evaluation revealed a high prevalence of deficient and low values of vitamin A in preschool children (21.5%) and school children (21.7%). A small prevalence of low hematocrit values was also observed in both groups. Deficient and low values of hemoglobin were found as well in 21.5% of preschool children and in 17.5% of school children. The second evaluation, practiced 30 days after the third dose of medicine, showed a small incidence of low vitamin A values (4.3% in preschool children and 2.9% in school children) and low hemoglobin values (6.5% in preschool children and 2.9% in school children). No deficient values of hemoglobin and vitamin A were observed. Concerning the hematocrit value, only one school child presented a low value at the second evaluation. On the other hand, in Jequitinhonha Valley, five cases of Bitot spot with conjunctival xerosis, two cases of corneal xerosis, and one case of keratomalacia were detected at the first examination. Thirty days after ending the third dose of medicine, only one corneal scar was observed. Only a small number of children with deficient and low levels of vitamin A and hemoglobin was found in the final evaluation (less than 8%), while this number was high at the first evaluation (above 38 and 12%, respectively). These results show the efficiency of the intervention

  8. Larval ecomorphology of 13 Libellulidae (Anisoptera, Odonata) of the Middle Rio Doce Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, H C; De Marco Jr, P

    2008-02-01

    In the lakes of the Middle Rio Doce, Minas Gerais (MG), two groups of larval Libellulidae are distinguished by preferences of habitat use: one uses mainly aquatic macrophytes and the other uses the bottom substrate. The goal of this work was to verify if there is a morphological distinction between the two groups of species. Thirteen body measures were taken from the larvae and analyzed. No difference was found between the two groups of species regarding the body size, but shape differences were observed for two morphological variables. The species that use mainly macrophytes tend to have larger relative measures of the labium and smaller measures of the abdomen width. Advantages in resource obtainment and in vulnerability to predation are probably the explanations for the morphological divergence among these larval groups. PMID:18470400

  9. Utilizing environmental, socioeconomic data and GIS techniques to estimate the risk for ascariasis and trichuriasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Guimaraes, Ricardo J P S; Drummond, Sandra C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-02-01

    The impact of intestinal helminths on human health is well known among the population and health authorities because of their wide geographic distribution and the serious problems they cause. Geohelminths are highly prevalent and have a big impact on public health, mainly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Geohelminths are responsible for the high levels of debility found in the younger population and are often related to cases of chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, which put the physical and intellectual development of children at risk. These geohelminths have not been sufficiently studied. One obstacle in implementing a control program is the lack of knowledge of the prevalence and geographical distribution. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) have been utilized to improve understanding of infectious disease distribution and climatic patterns. In this study, GIS and RS technologies, as well as meteorological, social, and environmental variables were utilized for the modeling and prediction of ascariasis and trichuriasis. The GIS and RS technologies specifically used were those produced by orbital sensing including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The results of this study demonstrated important factors related to the transmission of ascariasis and trichuriasis and confirmed the key association between environmental variables and the poverty index, which enabled us to identify priority areas for intervention planning in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. PMID:22041638

  10. Evaluation of schistosomiasis control activities in the Family Health Strategy in municipalities in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quites, Humberto Ferreira de Oliveira; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Observational study that examined the quality of the preventive actions for schistosomiasis control in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy (FHS) in an endemic area. Structured questionnaires were used to interview 97 health professionals of the FHS and the Secretary of Health of 25 municipalities belonging to the State Health Department of Pedra Azul, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Models of latent variables were used to define a score to evaluate the quality of the process. The results showed that 57.8% of the FHS teams' actions were unsatisfactory or critical. The professionals did not perform effective activities for the control of the infection and 8.1% did not use the diagnostic methods required by the government. Similarly, the professionals did not receive adequate training for the development of schistosomiasis prevention and control. There was a lack of educational materials to carry out health education activities, and the FHS teams conducted educational activities in only 48% of the schools of municipalities. Less than half of the professionals interviewed knew about the Schistosomiasis Control Program. We concluded that it is necessary to integrate this Program's practices to the FHS, and seek a suitable support of municipal management through pacts and social control. PMID:27532760

  11. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  12. [Adherence to standard precautions by the public pre-hospital health team in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Silva, Jussara Teixeira; Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2008-06-01

    This was a cross-sectional study of workers in the pre-hospital care team in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aimed at evaluating adherence to precautions. The study instrument included questions on knowledge, attitudes, and facilitating factors for adherence to standard precautions. Adherence was verified by percentage of adequacy: > 75% correct answers. Drivers showed the lowest degree of knowledge and physicians the highest. In self-reported answers, none of the workers demonstrated adequate use of face masks, goggles, or personal protective equipment (PPE), and drivers reported inadequate attitudes on all the items. In the univariate analysis, job position, gender, and specific rescue unit were associated with adoption of precautions. Meanwhile, in the multivariate analysis, only job position was related (drivers and nurse technicians/aides). The most frequently cited facilitating factors for improvement of adherence were: training focusing on infections, occupational risks, and use of PPE; periodic team meetings; and creation of a central unit for cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing equipment and materials. Workers in the pre-hospital care service demonstrated attitudes that were compatible with knowledge, but professional class affected knowledge on standard precautions and self-reported adequate attitudes. PMID:18545764

  13. Iron-containing pigment from an archaeological rupestrian painting of the Planalto Tradition in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floresta, D. L.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Ardisson, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    Archaeological rupestrian arts of the Planalto Tradition are of relatively widespread occurrence all over the land area of the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. They are typically composed by monochromic zoomorphic figures, especially of cervids, mainly in red or orange color. A fragment of a rock wall containing an archaeological painting was collected at the Itanguá site, in the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves (geographical coordinates, 17° 56' 51″ S 43° 13' 22″ W), MG. The rock piece was covered with an archaeological painting with pigments of two different hues of red. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed only a slight difference in Fe and P content for the two different color zones. The pigment materials on this small fragment of rock were analyzed by X-ray diffraction on the conventional incidence mode (XRD) and on grazing incidence X-ray mode (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray detector (SEM/EDS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) at room temperature. Results indicated the occurrence of mainly hematite but also of diopside in the pigment. CEMS at RT reveal the presence of hematite and (super)paramagnetic ferric components. In order to confirm these results a small amount of powder from the painting pigments was also analyzed by transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 20 K.

  14. Quality assessment of sulfurous thermal waters in the city of Poços de caldas, Minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Adriana Moneira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the quality of the water consumed by the population, and also the water used for both leisure and therapeutic bathing, are known. In the city of Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, the population has two sources of sulfurous thermal water, with free access for various purposes, including drinking. Since 1882, the system has retained the same structural characteristics, and at this time, there appears to be a risk of anthropogenic contamination due to population increase near the springs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the sulfurous hot springs distributed in Pedro Botelho fountain, located in Thermas Antônio Carlos, and Monkey fountain, located in Mario Mourao bathhouse, for microbiological and bacteriological components, physical and chemical composition, and radionuclides for a period of 12 months and to compare their quality with Brazilian water quality laws. The results showed that all the values are within the prescribed water quality parameters, except fluoride and sodium, whose levels are above those permitted by law. Excess fluoride in consumed water can cause dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. As for sodium, which exceeded the permissible limits by 20 to 25 %, it can be detrimental to hypertensive individuals. An important fact to consider is that water from sulfurous hot springs cannot be consumed without medical supervision because its chemical characteristics may cause damage to health, and it should only be used as medicinal mineral water. PMID:26255269

  15. Binding intensity and metal partitioning in soils affected by mining and smelting activities in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Costa, E T S; Penido, E S; Sparks, D L; Guilherme, L R G

    2015-09-01

    Mining and smelting activities are potential sources of heavy metal contamination, which pose a threat to human health and ecological systems. This study investigated single and sequential extractions of Zn, Pb, and Cd in Brazilian soils affected by mining and smelting activities. Soils from a Zn mining area (soils A, B, C, D, E, and the control soil) and a tailing from a smelting area were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The samples were subjected to single (using Mehlich I solution) and sequential extractions. The risk assessment code (RAC), the redistribution index (U ts ), and the reduced partition index (I R ) have been applied to the sequential extraction data. Zinc and Cd, in soil samples from the mining area, were found mainly associated with carbonate forms. This same pattern did not occur for Pb. Moreover, the Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions had important contributions for Zn and Pb in those soils. For the tailing, more than 70 % of Zn and Cd were released in the exchangeable fraction, showing a much higher mobility and availability of these metals at this site, which was also supported by results of RAC and I R . These differences in terms of mobility might be due to different chemical forms of the metals in the two sites, which are attributable to natural occurrence as well as ore processing. PMID:25940493

  16. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Andréa O; Passamani, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a context, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors) using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments). PMID:23025102

  17. [Access to medicines for Alzheimer's disease provided by the Brazilian Unified National Health System in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida-Brasil, Celline Cardoso; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Aguiar, Viviane Celestino Ferreira Dos Santos; Moreira, Daniela Pena; Moraes, Edgar Nunes de; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Álvares, Juliana

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated barriers to access to treatment for Alzheimer's disease based on administrative cases involving cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and submitted to the Minas Gerais State Health Secretariat in Brazil in 2012 and 2013. Drawing on data from 165 randomly selected cases, the study addressed the following dimensions of access: geographic accessibility, accommodation, acceptability, availability, and affordability. The administrative processing to supply ChEIs took an average of 39 days and was influenced by characteristics of the path taken by the user. The majority of the prescribers met less than 80% of the required criteria in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines (CPTG) for Alzheimer's disease. As a result, 38% of requests for medication were denied. Private treatment with ChEIs cost the equivalent of 21 days of the monthly minimum wage. In conclusion, bureaucratic administrative procedures and prescribers' difficulty in following the CPTG hindered access to treatment of Alzheimer's disease and imposed a heavy burden on patients' pockets. PMID:27505179

  18. Traditional knowledge and uses of the Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Pequi) by "quilombolas" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: subsidies for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, L C L; Morais, L M O; Guimarães, A Q; Almada, E D; Barbosa, P M; Drumond, M A

    2016-06-01

    Local knowledge of biodiversity has been applied in support of research focused on utilizing and management of natural resources and promotion of conservation. Among these resources, Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.) is important as a source of income and food for communities living in the Cerrado biome. In Pontinha, a "quilombola" community, which is located in the central region of State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an ethnoecological study about Pequi was conducted to support initiatives for generating income for this community. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and crossing. The most relevant uses of Pequi were family food (97%), soap production (67%), oil production (37%), medical treatments (17%), and trade (3%). Bees were the floral visitors with the highest Salience Index (S=0.639). Among frugivores that feed on unfallen fruits, birds showed a higher Salience (S=0.359) and among frugivores who use fallen fruits insects were the most important (S=0.574). Borers (folivorous caterpillars) that attack trunks and roots were the most common pests cited. According to the respondents, young individuals of Pequi are the most affected by fire due to their smaller size and thinner bark. Recognition of the cultural and ecological importance of Pequi has mobilized the community, which has shown interest in incorporating this species as an alternative source of income. PMID:27058602

  19. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Parachromis managuensis (Cichlidae): A Threat to Native Fishes of the Doce River in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Lucas C.; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José C.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The middle section of the lake basin of the Doce River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil is plagued by grave environmental problems, including the introduction of non-native fish, which reduces the biodiversity of this region. This study reports the presence of two newly-detected non-native species in the Doce River Basin. Sampling efforts included gill nets with mesh size of 3 to 12 mm (measured diagonally) and trawling nets, both of which were used in independent field campaigns in 2002 and 2011. The two new invasive Perciform fishes, Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) and Parachromis managuensis (Günther 1867) were collected in Caratinga and Rio Doce municipalities. These records and other reports on non-native fishes suggest favorable environmental conditions for the establishment of invasive species in this drainage. These invasive species have behavior and diet observed in other wide distribution exotic fish of Rio Doce Basin representing a threat to the 77 native fishes of this region, 37 of which are endangered. PMID:22720053

  20. Pollen grain morphology of Fabaceae in the Special Protection Area (SPA) Pau-de-Fruta, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Maki, Erica S; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper considered the pollen morphology of thirteen species belonging to seven genera of the Fabaceae family occurring in the Pau-de-Fruta Special Protection Area (SPA), Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollen grains of six species of Chamaecrista [C. cathartica (Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. debilis Vogel, C. flexuosa (L.) Greene, C. hedysaroides (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. glandulosa (L.) Greene, and C. papillata H.S. Irwin & Barneby] have a similar morphology, characterized by three long colporated apertures with a central constriction. The species share specific morphological features regarding pollen size, endoaperture type (circular, lalongate or lolongate) and SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (rugulate with perforations or perforate). Andira fraxinifolia Benth., Dalbergia miscolobium Benth, Galactia martii DC, Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub., Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S. Irwin & Barneby and Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers showed different pollen types in small to large size; oblate spheroidal to prolate form; colpus or colporus apertures; circular, lalongate or lolongate endoapertures and distinctive SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (perforate, microreticulate, reticulate or rugulate with perforations). Only Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville presents polyads. The pollen morphology variation of these species allowed the Fabaceae family to be characterized as eurypalynous in the SPA Pau-de-Fruta. PMID:24346795

  1. Epidemiological aspects of lice (Menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, L Do Carmo; Martins, N R Da Silva; Teixeira, C M; Oliveira, P R De; Cunha, L M

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation. PMID:26642864

  2. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  3. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.; Mello, J.W.V.

    1999-07-01

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.

  4. [Water quality evaluation in rural areas of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1999-2000].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Rodrigues, Luciano Dos Santos; Costa, Claudionor C; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; da Silva, Israel José; de Jesus, Eder Ferreira Moraes; Rolim, Renata G

    2006-09-01

    In addition to personal interviews, laboratory analyses were performed using 80 water samples from 45 rural areas that are crossed by the Agua Limpa and Santa Cruz streams close to the city of Lavras, southern Minas Gerais State. The results allowed comparing the quality of water used for agriculture and the identification of determinant factors. The Agua Limpa stream mostly crosses an area used primarily for housing and characterized by low schooling. Many houses are supplied by shallow water wells and have ordinary cesspits for human waste disposal. All springs are polluted. The Santa Cruz stream displays a different scenario. The land is used mostly for agricultural purposes. Most owners live in town, with widely varied levels of school, from none to university. The houses are supplied by surface water. Most of the springs are polluted. The perception by both home and land owners concerning quality of the drinking water is determined solely by the water's physical and organoleptic characteristics. Sanitary parameters are not taken into account. Moreover, there is no relationship between fecal contamination and the type of spring. Land use and anthropic activity are far more important than the type of spring for water quality. PMID:16917594

  5. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Bastos, Rita Maria; Campos, Estela Márcia Saraiva; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Bastos, Mauro Gomes; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze hospitalization rates and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations and to characterize them according to coverage by the Family Health Strategy, a primary health care guidance program. METHODS An ecological study comprising 853 municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, under the purview of 28 regional health care units, was conducted. We used data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations in 2000 and 2010 were compared. Population data were obtained from the demographic censuses. RESULTS The number of ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations declined from 20.75/1,000 inhabitants [standard deviation (SD) = 10.42) in 2000 to 14.92/thousand inhabitants (SD = 10.04) in 2010 Heart failure was the most frequent cause in both years. Hospitalizations rates for hypertension, asthma, and diabetes mellitus, decreased, whereas those for angina pectoris, prenatal and birth disorders, kidney and urinary tract infections, and other acute infections increased. Hospitalization durations and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS Mean hospitalization rates for sensitive conditions were significantly lower in 2010 than in 2000, but no correlation was found with regard to the expansion of the population coverage of the Family Health Strategy. Hospitalization rates and proportion of deaths were different between the various health care regions in the years evaluated, indicating a need to prioritize the primary health care with high efficiency and quality. PMID:26039399

  6. Isoenzyme variation in Melipona rufiventris (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponina) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ronaldo Guimarães; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Dias, Luiz Antonio dos Santos; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2005-02-01

    The stingless bee Melipona rufiventris is an important pollinator in several Brazilian ecosystems. Originally widely distributed in Minas Gerais (MG) state, this species is becoming very rare. Therefore this species was included in the endangered species list of MG. We used isoenzyme data for a better understanding of the genetic structure of several M. rufiventris colonies. Samples of 35 colonies were collected from 12 localities and evaluated by nine enzymatic systems, which yielded 17 loci. M. rufiventris genetic variation was found to be low, typical of an endangered species. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 5.88% in both ecosystems. Only Est-4 was polymorphic in colonies from the Forest and Mdh-1 in colonies from the Cerrado. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.0068 in the Cerrado to 0.0078 in the Forest. Despite this, enzyme electrophoretic analyses provided a good idea of the diversity between samples from Cerrado and Forest which reinforce the existence of two different "forms" of M. rufiventris in MG, one present in the Cerrado and the other in Forest. This information is of great importance for the conservation of M. rufiventris in MG. PMID:15859519

  7. Analysis of time series of cattle rabies cases in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Edna; Sáfadi, Thelma; Da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhaes; Cardoso, Denis Lucio

    2015-04-01

    Vampire bats are potential transmitters of rabies in rural areas. Cattle rabies is relevant in the state of Minas Gerais due to the increasing cattle herds and geographical features of the area, which are favorable to bat populations. This study evaluated the occurrence of rabies in state cattle by analyzing the time series of monthly values, 2006-2012, describing some aspects of the areas and species affected. The study also pointed out the disease prediction for January-December 2013. We used monthly data of cases reported to the Continental Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVCONT) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply (MAPA), January 2006-March 2013. We also collected data on municipalities and other animal species affected by rabies for a descriptive analysis of the disease. The results indicate that cattle rabies is endemic in the State, with different intensities in different regions. The variables frequency of notifications and bat shelters had a positive and regular correlation (P = 0.035; r = 0.567) between them. With respect to data series, there was a fluctuation of the number of cases (5 to 29 cases per month) over 2006 and 2013, without trend or seasonality, although there would visually appear to be a downward trend. The results also suggest that the forecasting method is suitable for predicting future cases. Bovine species had the highest number of reporting, with 1007 cases (88.88 %), followed by equine species with 112 (9.89 %). The information provided by this study may help understand disease occurrence and find the most effective measures for rabies control in endemic areas. PMID:25698529

  8. Insects breeding in pig carrion in two environments of a rural area of the state of minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, L S; Paseto, M L; Franco, F T; Perdigão, V C; Capel, G; Mendes, J

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify potential forensic indicators in the insect fauna associated with pig carrion and the pattern of insect succession during the decomposition process in two environments of a rural area in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study was conducted at two locations: in a pasture and in a fragment of a semi-deciduous forest (vegetation profile of the Cerrado biome) in two different seasons (rainy and dry) of 2010. The decomposition process was more rapid in the rainy season. More than 32,000 insects belonging to 17 species of 6 families of Diptera and 2 species of Coleoptera bred in the carcasses. The majority of Diptera bred in the first three stages of decomposition. However, Phoridae and Coleoptera bred mainly in the last two stages. The insects bred more abundantly in the pasture and in the humid season. The exceptions were the Fanniidae (Diptera), which bred more abundantly in the forest and the Dermestidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera), which did not demonstrate any preference in terms of environments and were more abundant in the dry season, respectively. Species such as Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Peckia (Patonella) intermutans (Walker), Necrobia rufipes (De Geer), and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) may be potential indicators of post-mortem interval. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius) and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann) may be indicators of localization of the natural environment, while Musca domestica Linnaeus may be an indicator of the anthropic environment. The study thus presented many species of potential forensic indicators in rural areas of this region. PMID:23949758

  9. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets. PMID:26273278

  10. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets. PMID:26273278

  11. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinário, Estefânia Conceição; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araújo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992 dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

  12. Associated factors of overweight in adolescents from public schools in Northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Pinho, Lucinéia; Botelho, Ana Cristina de C.; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to support plans and actions that combat the local increasing overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents, the factors associated to weight excess in public school students from Montes Claros, MG, Southeast Brazil, were studied. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of adolescents from the public schools of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated and an inquiry was carried out in the schools to determine food consumption and practice of physical activities. Factors associated to weight excess were assessed by bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Weight excess prevalence was detected in 18.5% of the 535 adolescents evaluated. The factors associated to weight excess were: per capita income above half minimum wage (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.01-3.93), candy consumption above two daily portions (OR 1.94; 95%CI 1.13-3.32) and absence of sport activity during leisure time (OR 2.54; 95%CI 1.15-5.59). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of weight excess in adolescents from public schools is relevant and associated with socioeconomic condition of the family, bad eating habits and sedentary life. PMID:25119756

  13. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  14. Characterization and origin of spongillite-hosting sediment from João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, A. C. S.; Varajão, A. F. D. C.; Gomes, N. S.; Varajão, C. A. C.; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C.

    2010-03-01

    Spongillite from João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil is mainly known for its use in brick production and in the refractory industry. Very few studies have focused on its geological context. Spongillite-rich deposits occur in shallow ponds on a karstic planation surface developed on rocks of the Neoproterozoic São Francisco Supergroup. Cenozoic siliciclastic sediments are related to this surface. A field study of these deposits and analysis of multispectral images showed a SE-NW preferential drainage system at SE, suggesting that Mesozoic Areado Group sandstones were the source area of the spongillite-hosting sediments. Mineralogical and textural characterization by optical microscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential and gravimetric thermal analysis (DTA-GTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of seven open-pit spongillite-rich deposits (Avião, Carvoeiro, Vânio, Preguiça, Divisa, Severino, Feijão) showed a sedimentological similarity between the deposits. They are lens-shaped and are characterized at the bottom by sand facies, in the middle by spicules-rich muddy-sand facies and at the top by organic matter-rich muddy-sand facies. Petrographically, the spongillite-hosting sediments and the siliclastic sediments of the Areado Group show detrital phases with similar mineralogical and textural features, such as the presence of well-sorted quartz grains and surface features of abrasion typical of aeolian reworking that occurred in the depositional environment in which the sandstones of the Areado Group were formed. Detrital heavy minerals, such as staurolite, zircon, tourmaline, and clay minerals, such as kaolinite, low amounts of illite, scarce chlorite and mixed-layer chlorite/smectite and illite/smectite occur in the spongillite-hosting sediments and in sandstones from the Areado Group. In both formations, staurolite has similar chemical composition. These mineralogical and textural features show that the

  15. Water Erosion Distribution in the Itutinga/Camargos Hydroelectric Plant Watershed (Minas Gerais, Brazil) using Distributed Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping and assessment of erosion risk is an important tool for planning of natural resources management, allowing researchers to modify land-use properly and implement management strategies more sustainable in the long-term. The Grande River Basin (GRB), located in Minas Gerais State, is one of the...

  16. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. among horses in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Manoel Junqueira Maciel; Rosa, Marina Helena Figueredo; Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Garcia, Adriana de Mello; Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2016-06-01

    The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%); and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%), 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8%) and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%), respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4%) were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2%) for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8%) for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE). The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections. PMID:27334814

  17. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. among horses in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Manoel Junqueira Maciel; Rosa, Marina Helena Figueredo; Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Garcia, Adriana de Mello; Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2016-06-01

    The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%); and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%), 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8%) and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%), respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4%) were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2%) for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8%) for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE). The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections. PMID:27276662

  18. Evapotranspiration and energy balance components spatial distribution in the north region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using the SEBAL model and Landsat 5 TM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomide, Reinaldo L.; de Paula Boratto, Isa Maria

    2014-10-01

    The determination of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values is very useful information for planning irrigation, water supply estimation, regulation of water rights and river basins hydrologic studies. Values of ETc in the North region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were estimated in this research from the multispectral images of the Landsat 5 TM by means of the model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land- SEBAL, based on the simplified energy balance equation of a surface covered by vegetation, using a few daily surface climatological parameters (wind speed, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation). The aim of this study was to estimate the regional spatial distribution of the energy balance components and evapotranspiration in the study area, covering the irrigated perimeter of Gorutuba, involving the cities of Nova Porteirinha, Janaúba, Porteirinha, Verdelândia and Pai Pedro. Thematic maps of regional evapotranspiration and energy balance components were generated from spectral analyzes of the images obtained, associated with the used weather data. The ability of SEBAL to provide the spatial variability of energy balance components, including evapotranspiration, demonstrated its sensitivity to different occupation of the soil surface vegetation, and to high data temporal and spatial resolutions data, indicating that the SEBAL model can be used in scales and operational routine for north region of Minas Gerais.

  19. Evaluation of the CCA Immuno-Chromatographic Test to Diagnose Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Alda Maria Soares; Costa, Emanuele Gama Dutra; Ray, Debalina; Suzuki, Brian M.; Hsieh, Michael H.; Fraga, Lucia Alves de Oliveira; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz (KK) stool smear is the standard test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, but suffers from low sensitivity when infections intensities are moderate to low. Thus, misdiagnosed individuals remain untreated and contribute to the disease transmission, thereby forestalling public health efforts to move from a modality of disease control to one of elimination. As an alternative, the urine-based diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni via the circulating cathodic antigen immuno-chromatographic test (CCA-ICT) has been extensively evaluated in Africa with the conclusion that it may replace the KK test in areas where prevalences are moderate or high. Methods and Findings The objective was to measure the performance of the CCA-ICT in a sample study population composed of residents from non-endemic and endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni in two municipalities of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Volunteers (130) were classified into three infection status groups based on duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample (2KK test): 41 negative individuals from non-endemic areas, 41 negative individuals from endemic areas and 48 infected individuals from endemic areas. Infection status was also determined by the CCA-ICT and infection exposure by antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and soluble (adult) worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sensitivity and specificity were influenced by whether the trace score visually adjudicated in the CCA-ICT was characterized as positive or negative for S. mansoni infection. An analysis of a two-graph receiver operating characteristic was performed to change the cutoff point. When the trace score was interpreted as a positive rather than as a negative result, the specificity decreased from 97.6% to 78.0% whereas sensitivity increased from 68.7% to 85.4%. A significantly positive correlation between the CCA-ICT scores and egg counts was identified (r

  20. [Prevalence of frailty and associated factors in community-dwelling elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: data from the FIBRA study].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Renata Alvarenga; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Vasconcelos, Karina Simone de Souza; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of frailty varies greatly and has received insufficient attention in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among the elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical, functional, and socio-demographic factors were analyzed. An ordinal regression model was used to verify conditions associated with frailty and to determine odds ratios ( α= 0.05). Prevalence rates were 46.3% for pre-frailty was 8.7% for weakness. Pre-frail and frail elderly, respectively, showed higher and increasing odds ratios for dependency in instrumental activities of daily living; restrictions in advanced activities of daily living; use of walking aids; comorbidities; falls; depressive symptoms; lower self-efficacy in preventing falls; hospitalization; and advanced age. The study identified a high percentage of frail states associated with higher odds of adverse health conditions, especially related to disability. PMID:24005928

  1. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G

    2006-05-01

    The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning. PMID:16862307

  2. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999.

    PubMed

    Souza Lima, S; Marun, B; Alves, P V; Bain, O

    2012-11-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  3. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Souza Lima, S.; Marun, B.; Alves, P.V.; Bain, O.

    2012-01-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  4. [Chagas disease epidemiological surveillance in a decentralized program: evaluation of practice and knowledge among municipal health agents in an endemic region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Villela, Marcos Marreiro; Souza, Janice Maria Borba de; Melo, Vicente de Paula; Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the central-western region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, based on knowledge and practice among municipal health agents working in the Chagas Disease Control Program. Thirty-five municipalities (counties) were visited, with meetings and application of a questionnaire on knowledge, practice, and difficulties in conducting the surveillance work. Twenty-six agents were on temporary (annual) contracts, and only two had job stability. 77.1% of the agents commented that the local population had difficulty identifying the vector insects (triatomines). Twenty-three employees stated that the municipal governments provided adequate conditions for conducting the surveillance program, although 27 made suggestions, particularly requesting more educational materials, better wages, and greater appreciation of their work by the municipal governments. Such suggestions are crucial to the consolidation of the program's results. PMID:17891303

  5. Description of evandromyia spelunca, a new phlebotomine species of the cortelezzii complex, from a cave in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cave fauna of the Brazil is poorly documented, and among the insects those live or frequent caves and their adjacent environments phlebotomine sand flies call for special attention because several species are vectors of pathogens among vertebrates hosts. A new species of sand fly from Minas Gerais is described based in females and males collected in a cave of the municipality of Lassance. Results The morphological characters of the new species permit to include in the Evandromyia genus, cortelezzii complex. This complex consists of three species: Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989), Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brethes, 1923) and Evandromyia sallesi (Galvao & Coutinho, 1940). Conclusions The new species can be separate from the others of the cortelezzii complex through morphological characters of the male terminalia and female spermathecae. PMID:21827682

  6. [Working conditions on public buses and common mental disorders among drivers and fare collectors: Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2012].

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Silva, Luiz Sérgio da

    2013-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) contribute to overall burden of disease. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of CMD among a sample of bus drivers and fare collectors in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigate whether traffic conditions and conditions inside buses were associated with the outcome. This non-probabilistic sample of 1,607 workers was estimated from the size of the effective workforce (n = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews used a digital questionnaire with online data processing. Overall prevalence of CMD was 23.6%. Bad traffic conditions lost statistical significance in the multivariate analysis, while higher income and adverse working conditions and inadequate safety remained associated with the outcome. Harmful behavior and vulnerable health situations were associated with CMD. This study of urban bus workers' health is a unique contribution that can provide backing for public policies targeting metropolitan populations. PMID:24356693

  7. Clinical-epidemiologic study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ponte do Pasmado, a village in the municipality of Itinga, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1992.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, R N; Murta, C; Teixeira Júnior, M A; Cury, G C; Rocha, M O

    1995-01-01

    A clinical-epidemiologic study of schistosomiasis mansoni was conducted in the population of Ponte do Pasmado, a village in the municipality of Itinga, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Faecal parasitology by the Kato-Katz method and clinical examination were performed in 93.8% and 82.8% of the local population, respectively. A socioeconomic survey was also made and the signs and symptoms presented by the patients were recorded, as well as their contacts with natural waters. The rate of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 50.3%; the peak of infection occurred during the second decade of life; there was a predominance of low egg counts in faeces (85.89% of positive patients eliminated less than 500 eggs per gram of faeces); the splenomegaly rate was 1.23%. When the risk factors for S. mansoni infection were studied, significant risks were detected in activities such as fetching water, washing dishes, bathing, and crossing streams. PMID:7569646

  8. Adverse Socioeconomic Conditions and Oocyst-Related Factors Are Associated with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Population-Based Study in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carellos, Ericka Viana Machado; de Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; da Silva, Fabiana Maria; Loures, Ivy Rosa Coelho; de Andrade, Juliana Queiroz; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Objective Congenital toxoplasmosis is a public health problem in Brazil. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais which is the second largest Brazilian State based on number of inhabitants, and its territorial extension is larger than that of France. Methods: Population-based case-control study to assess the association between congenital toxoplasmosis and maternal exposure to infection risk factors. The study included mothers/children participating in the Minas Gerais Newborn Screening Program. The cases consisted of 175 mothers of infected children, and the controls consisted of 278 mothers of children without suspected infection. The associations were assessed through binomial logistic regression with p≤0.05. Results The variables associated with lower probability of toxoplasmosis were: older mother age (OR = 0.89; CI95% = 0.85–0.93), higher level of education (OR = 0.85; CI95% = 0.78–0.92), access to potable water (OR = 0.21; CI95% = 0.08–0.51), and home with flush toilet (OR = 0.18; CI95% = 0.04–078). The variables associated with higher probability of infection were: cats in the neighborhood (OR = 2.27; CI95% = 1.27–4.06), owning or visiting homes with domestic cats (OR = 1.90; CI95% = 1.09–3.31), handling the soil (OR = 2.29; CI95% = 1.32–3.96), and eating fresh meat not previously frozen (OR = 3.97; CI95% = 2.17–7.25). After stratification according region of residence (rural or urban/peri-urban), home with flush toilet and consumption of treated water were protective against the disease only in the rural stratum. Conclusions In Minas Gerais, congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with poor socioeconomic conditions. Considering maternal exposure to sources of Toxoplasma gondii, the predominating risk factors were those related to the ingestion of oocysts. It is expected that these results will contribute to

  9. EVIDENCE OF Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum INFECTION IN DOGS FROM JUIZ DE FORA, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL, BASED ON IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC DUAL-PATH PLATFORM (DPP®) AND PCR ASSAYS

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Júnior, José Geraldo; Freire, Mariana Lourenço; Campos, Samantha Priscila Silva; Scopel, Kezia K.G.; Porrozzi, Renato; Da Silva, Edimilson Domingos; Colombo, Fabio A.; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Viveiros; Marques, Marcos José; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, domestic dogs are branded as the primary reservoir for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, due to the clear positive correlation observed between human and canine infection rates. This study aimed to carry out a serological survey of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in dogs housed at a public kennel in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the immunochromatographic TR DPP® CVL rapid test. Additionally, conventional and/or real time PCR assay was used to detect and confirm L. infantum infection in the DPP positive dogs only. Of the 400 dogs studied, most did not present clinical signs for CVL (p < 0.05), and fifteen (3.8%) were seropositive in the DPP test. There was no statistically significant difference between the DPP seropositive dogs and the clinical signs of the disease (p > 0.05). Both conventional and real time PCR tests confirmed L. infantum infection in nine (75.0%) of the twelve DPP seropositive dogs that remained alive during the follow-up period. This study is the first seroepidemiologic survey of CVL held in the city of Juiz de Fora, and the results reinforce the idea that this disease is currently in a process of expansion and urbanization in Brazil. Furthermore, this study highlights the use of the DPP test as an alternative for diagnosing CVL in large and mid-sized cities, due to its ease of implementation. PMID:24879001

  10. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matioli, André L; Pallini, Angelo; Tavares, Mara G

    2009-01-01

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifi cations were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute (+/- 360 microm long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the first molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. PMID:19488517

  11. Endoparasites of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Buzzulini, Carolina; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Costa, Alvimar José da

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais. PMID:25517536

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence

  13. Prevalence and Morbidity Data on Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Two Rural Areas of Jequitinhonha and Rio Doce Valleys in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Maria José; Carlôto, Aline Eduardo; de Melo, Eric Vinaud; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and morbidity data on Schistosoma mansoni infection in two rural areas: the Jequitinhonha valley (area 1) and the Rio Doce valley (area 2) in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, covering the period from 2007 to 2010. Material and Methods. The parasitological stool tests were based on the quantitative method of Kato modified by Katz et al. Three clinical forms were considered: type I—schistosomiasis infection, type II—hepatointestinal form, and type III—hepatosplenic form. Results. The prevalence of infection among inhabitants of area 1 was 22.9%, with 2.1% presenting the hepatosplenic form and two cases of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy. The infection prevalence rate in area 2 was 20.2%, with 3.3% presenting the hepatosplenic form. Conclusion and Recommendation. There was no difference in the prevalence and in the morbidity of Schistosoma mansoni infection between the two areas, but it was predominant in young men with a low intensity of infection. The cases of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy in area 1 can be highlighted: these emphasize that schistosomiasis should not be neglected in Brazil. The lack of infection control in both areas may be related to the poor sanitation system, the absence of previous treatment, and the reinfection process. PMID:27335859

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in ovines from Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salaberry, Sandra R.S.; Castro, Vanessa; Nassar, Alessandra F.C.; Castro, Jacqueline R.; Guimarães, Ednaldo C.; Lima-Ribeiro, Anna M.C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to verify the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies, identify the most frequent serovars and the risk factors associated with the infection in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 334 ovines blood samples were collected in 12 farms from Uberlândia municipality to be evaluated by means the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) against 22 serovars of Leptospira spp. and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of leptospirosis: sex, age and breed as well as contact with cattle, contact with dogs and presence of rodents. The prevalence of seropositive to MAT was found in seventy four ovines (22.2%; CI 95% 17.6–26.4%), with titers ranging from 100 to 3200. The most frequent serovars identified were: Hardjo, Autumnalis, Hardjo and Wolffi association and Grippotyphosa. Statistically significant differences were found in males, pure breeds and presence of rodents (p<0.05). The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies found in the present study demonstrated that this bacterium occurs in ovines of Uberlândia municipality, MG, Brazil. The need for the adoption of efficient management for the control of rodents and infection in ovines in order to avoid leptospirosis in the local flocks and future transmission to humans. PMID:24031773

  15. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-01-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range).  PMID:25277590

  16. Texture development during progressive deformation of hematite aggregates: Constraints from VPSC models and naturally deformed iron oxides from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Filippe; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Oliveira, Claudinei G. de; Barbosa, Paola; Ávila, Carlos; Cavalcante, Geane C. G.

    2016-09-01

    We show that naturally-deformed hematite from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Province, Minas Gerais, Brazil, develops CPOs by dislocation creep, strongly influenced by basal plane parallel glide, even when this is not the favored slip system. Characterization of microstructure and texture, particularly intragranular misorientations, of naturally deformed hematite aggregates by EBSD allowed us to determine the importance of different slip systems, and confirm dislocation creep as the dominant deformation mechanism. Viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) models were constructed to constrain the slip systems required to operate for the observed CPO to develop, and its rheological implications. Changes in the CRSS ratio of hematite prism and basal slip systems and deformation regime lead to the development of distinct patterns of hematite crystallographic orientations. The basal slip-dominated simple shear model is the only one that can develop quasi-single-crystal CPO of the kind observed in highly deformed rocks from Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Comparison between naturally deformed hematite aggregates and VPSC models shows that CPO development of hematite is strongly influenced by a highly viscoplastic anisotropy through dislocation creep on hematite basal plane. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that even the unfavorable slip systems should be regarded when the bulk rheology of mineral aggregates is evaluated.

  17. [Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães; Sakurai, Emília

    2007-12-01

    Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business re-engineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also analyzes absenteeism rates from 1998 to 2003, when there was an increase in diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI)/work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) and mental/behavioral disorders, accounting for 56% and 19% of sick leaves. The process has continued to the present, with a restrictive recruitment policy. Further study is needed to confirm the results. PMID:18157337

  18. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts. PMID:26375655

  19. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Kloos, Helmut; Passos, Liana Kanovaloff Janotti; Loverde, Philip; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Gazzinelli, Andréa

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines the distribution and infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni in all aquatic snail habitats in a rural area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to physico/biotic and behavioral factors. Snail and environmental surveys were carried out semi-annually between July 2001 and November 2002 at 106 sites. Collected snails were examined in the laboratory for infection. B. glabrata densities were highest in overflow ponds, irrigation ponds, springs, canals and wells, and lowest in fishponds and water tanks. Snail densities were higher during the hot, rainy season except for streams and canals and were statistically associated with the presence of fish, pollution, and vegetation density. Tilapia fish and an unidentified Diptera larva were found to be predators of B. glabrata but ducks were not. Twenty-four of the 25 infected snails were collected in 2001(1.4% infection rate) and only one in 2002, after mass chemotherapy. The occurrence of B. glabrata in all 11 snail habitats both at and away from water contact sites studied indicates widespread risk of human infection in the study area. In spite of the strong association between B. glabrata and tilapia in fishponds we do not recommend its use in schistosomiasis control for ecological reasons and its relative inefficiency in streams and dams. PMID:15654420

  20. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in small rodents from areas of low endemicity for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Milagres, Bruno S; Padilha, Amanda F; Montandon, Carlos E; Freitas, Renata N; Pacheco, Richard; Walker, David H; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mafra, Cláudio L; Galvão, Márcio A M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the humoral immune response against different species of Rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from Rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. Titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. In Santa Cruz do Escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples collected from Rattus rattus, 22% (5 of 23) from Nectomys squamipes, and 80% (4 of 5) from Akodon sp., reacted by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Rickettsia antigens of the spotted fever group. In the municipality of Pingo D'Água, 84% (26 of 31) of the samples collected from R. rattus, 86% (6 of 7) of the samples from Oryzomys subflavus, 86% (6 of 7) from N. squamipes, and 100% (1 of 1) from Bolomys sp. contained antibodies that reacted with rickettsial antigens of the spotted fever group. These results demonstrated the previous exposure of small rodents to spotted fever group Rickettsia, suggesting the participation of these animals in the natural history of these rickettsiae in this region. PMID:23509125

  1. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in Small Rodents from Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Freitas, Renata N.; Pacheco, Richard; Walker, David H.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvão, Márcio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the humoral immune response against different species of Rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from Rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. Titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. In Santa Cruz do Escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples collected from Rattus rattus, 22% (5 of 23) from Nectomys squamipes, and 80% (4 of 5) from Akodon sp., reacted by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Rickettsia antigens of the spotted fever group. In the municipality of Pingo D'Água, 84% (26 of 31) of the samples collected from R. rattus, 86% (6 of 7) of the samples from Oryzomys subflavus, 86% (6 of 7) from N. squamipes, and 100% (1 of 1) from Bolomys sp. contained antibodies that reacted with rickettsial antigens of the spotted fever group. These results demonstrated the previous exposure of small rodents to spotted fever group Rickettsia, suggesting the participation of these animals in the natural history of these rickettsiae in this region. PMID:23509125

  2. Biomonitoring air quality during and after a public transportation strike in the center of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; de Campos, Edimar Olegário; de Lima, Euclides Antônio Pereira; Barrozo, Marcos Antonio Souza; Morelli, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to address the lack of information concerning the air quality in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this study, we conducted an unprecedented experiment involving the in situ biomonitoring of air genotoxicity in the city center during and after a public transportation strike using the Tradescantia micronucleus test. The frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher in the city center compared with the reference site (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05), with the highest MN levels being observed during public transport stoppage (Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn p < 0.01). In addition, the multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the low circulation of buses during public transport stoppage and the increase in the concentration of particulate matter from the increased flow of vehicles in the city center during the strike positively influenced the MN frequency. The climatic factors did not change during the biomonitoring period, reflecting the fact that climatic factors did not influence the MN frequency. PMID:24277431

  3. [Risk factors for weaning among users of a primary health care unit in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1980 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Alves, Claudia Regina Lindgren; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade; Colosimo, Enrico Antônio; Goulart, Lúcia Maria Horta Figueiredo

    2008-06-01

    This study was a comparative analysis of factors affecting duration of breastfeeding among users of the São Marcos primary care clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, and 2004. Five retrospective longitudinal studies (historical cohorts) were performed with the same questionnaire, and 790 mothers of children less than 24 months of age were interviewed. The statistical analysis was conducted year-by-year using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox model. From 1980 to 2004, conditions significantly associated with risk of weaning were: primiparity; difficulty in postpartum breastfeeding; belief in ideal breastfeeding duration of less than six months; start of breastfeeding after discharge from the maternity hospital, non-recognition of the advantages of breastfeeding for the child; and unfavorable, unknown, or indifferent paternal opinion concerning breastfeeding. In four of the five studies, difficulty in breastfeeding (RR: 1.70-3.97) and belief in ideal breastfeeding duration of less than six months (RR: 1.67-3.27) were risk factors for weaning. Median duration of breastfeeding was five months in 1980 and 11 months in 2004. PMID:18545761

  4. [The influence of structural and organizational factors on the performance of primary health care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to nurses and managers].

    PubMed

    Turci, Maria Aparecida; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Macinko, James

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of primary health care (PHC) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Portuguese-language version of the Primary Health Care Assessment Tool among nurses and managers of family health teams. Total PHC score was 0.75 (good). The dimensions first contact (0.95), longitudinality (0.83), comprehensiveness (0.83), and coordination (0.78) performed the best. Family approach, community orientation, and access received the lowest scores (0.68, 0.56, and 0.45, respectively). Better PHC performance was associated with the following factors (p < 0.05): availability of health care equipment and other inputs (adjusted PR = 1.57), education and training for family health teams (PR = 1.44), a physician on duty for more than 30 hours per week (PR = 1.42), and presence of four or more teams per primary care unit (PR = 1.09). The results show the importance of structural and organizational factors for PHC performance and suggest that permanent evaluation can identify aspects that require quality improvement. PMID:26578018

  5. Regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning in the auriferous Mariana anticline, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Strauss, Harald; Brätz, Helene; Kwitko-Ribeiro, Rogerio

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of mineral deposits, characterised as barite deposits, hematite-rich auriferous deposits and auriferous tourmaline-sulfide deposits, displays a regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning along the thrust-delineated limbs of the Mariana anticline, in the south-eastern part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cross-cut relationships of barite veins and sulfide lodes indicate that sulfidation occurred in a late-tectonic context, which is here attributed to the collapse of the ˜0.6-Ga Brasiliano thrust front. Reconnaissance S-isotopic data from barite and pyrite (Antônio Pereira barite deposit and its adjacent gold deposit, respectively), and arsenopyrite (Passagem de Mariana gold deposit), suggest a new interpretation for the hydrothermal fluid overprint in the Mariana anticline. The Antônio Pereira barite has Δ33S values that are near zero, constraining the sulfate source to rocks younger than 2.45 Ga. The barite-δ34S values are between +19.6 and +20.8 ‰. The Passagem arsenopyrite and tourmaline have Co/Ni ratios that define a positive linear trend with the Antônio Pereira pyrite. The latter has homogenous δ34S values, between +8.8 and +8.9 ‰, which are compatible with thermochemical reduction of aqueous sulfate with the S-isotopic composition of the Antônio Pereira barite.

  6. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers. PMID:21208512

  7. The inverted trophic cascade in tropical plankton communities: impacts of exotic fish in the Middle Rio Doce lake district, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Coelho, R M; Bezerra-Neto, J F; Miranda, F; Mota, T G; Resck, R; Santos, A M; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Mello, N A S T; Marques, M M; Campos, M O; Barbosa, F A R

    2008-11-01

    The present study deals with the ecological impacts of the introduction of two alien species of piscivorous fish in several lakes of the Middle Rio Doce lake district in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was demonstrated that these effects were not restricted only to the fish community. The introduction of the predatory red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri and the tucunaré Cichla cf. ocellaris caused not only a sharp decrease in the number of native fish species, but also major shifts in other trophic levels. Just after the fish were introduced, most lakes began to show conspicuous changes in phytoplankton species composition, in which Cyanophyceae gradually came to dominate. The zooplankton community lost several species, and in some cases, such as Lake Carioca, all the cladoceran species disappeared. On the other hand, invertebrate predators, represented by the dipteran Chaoboridae, boomed in the lake, with higher densities of exotic species, probably as a result of the 'ecological release' by reduction of the original fish fauna. There was a general trend of species loss in different trophic levels. All these changes are apparently associated with decreases in water quality. The present situation in these lakes demands new approaches to the management and conservation of these ecosystems. PMID:19197473

  8. Experimental benznidazole treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira-Silva, Jaquelline Carla Valamiel; Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Oliveira, Maykon Tavares; Paiva, Nívia Carolina Noguieira; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Martins, Helen Rodrigues; de Lana, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region. PMID:25742267

  9. Projeto Vida no Vale: universal access to water and sanitation in the North East of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauark-Leite, L.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Loireau, A.; Silveira, D.; Haddad, E.

    2008-08-01

    In the rural areas of the developing countries, the access to water supply and sanitation services is still largely inadequate. Poor governance of the water sector is frequently singled out as a cause and reforms are required. Studies analyzing the great diversity of restructuring efforts currently being undertaken in the water sector have not succeeded in determining the most appropriate institutional and economic framework for such reforms. Moreover they underline the lack of documentation on actual projects and call for concrete models and tools for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) and for adapting water utility practice to real conditions. In this context, the Vida no Vale (Life in the Valley) project is aimed at bringing universal access to WSS for all inhabitants of both urban and rural areas, in the north-eastern area of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The project takes sustainable development as its guiding principle, and relies on the joint implementation of an innovative technical design, a governance model involving public participation and subsidiarity, and an economic structure combining financial viability and social equity. Designed at a consistent geographical and hydrological scale, it includes the creation of a regional subsidiary of the existing state water company as a keystone element. The institutional organisation also relies on the creation of a public board consisting of the 92 municipalities of the project region and of the State of Minas Gerais. This board will be in charge of the system's governance. This paper presents the first step of the project (2006), consisting of a feasibility study and the implementation of 9 pilot sub-projects. During the feasibility study, the supply, demand and capacity to pay for water services were defined, existing infrastructure appraised, the necessary amount of investment assessed and an innovative operational model and a sustainable management system, including civil society

  10. Projeto Vida no Vale: universal access to water and sanitation in the North East of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauark-Leite, L.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Loireau, A.; Silveira, D.; Haddad, E.

    2007-08-01

    In the rural areas of the developing countries, the access to water supply and sanitation services is still largely inadequate. Poor governance of the water sector is frequently singled out as a cause and reforms are required. Studies analyzing the great diversity of restructuring efforts currently being undertaken in the water sector have not succeeded in determining the most appropriate institutional and economic framework for such reforms. Moreover they underline the lack of documentation on actual projects and call for concrete models and tools for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) and for adapting water utility practice to real conditions. In this context, the Vida no Vale (Life in the Valley) project is aimed at bringing universal access to WSS for all inhabitants of both urban and rural areas, in the north-eastern area of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The project takes sustainable development as its guiding principle, and relies on the joint implementation of an innovative technical design, a governance model involving public participation and subsidiarity, and an economic structure combining financial viability and social equity. Designed at a consistent geographical and hydrological scale, it includes the creation of a regional subsidiary of the existing state water company as a keystone element. The institutional organisation also relies on the creation of a public board consisting of the 92 municipalities of the project region and of the State of Minas Gerais. This board will be in charge of the system's governance. The paper will present the first step of the project (2006), consisting of a feasibility study and the implementation of 9 pilot sub-projects. During the feasibility study, the supply, demand and capacity to pay for water services were defined, existing infrastructure appraised, the necessary amount of investment assessed and an innovative operational model and a sustainable management system, including civil society

  11. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Clapp, Michelle Daniele; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    A total of 112 specimens of yellow peacock bass, Cichla kelberi, were collected in the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, between 2004 and 2005. Twelve species of parasites were collected: two species of ectoparasites (the monogenetic Gussevia sp. and the copepod Ergasilus sp.); and ten species of endoparasites, including four species of adult endoparasites: the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, and the nematodes: Capillostrongyloides sentinosa and Rhabdochona acuminata, and six species of larval endoparasites: the metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum and the nematodes: Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Spiroxys sp., and Goezia sp.. A significant positive correlation in the abundance of the two adult endoparasites species, P. macrophallus and P. microscopicus, may indicate that such associated species had the same ecological requirements. The positive correlations between the prevalence of the larval endoparasites, Hysterothylacium sp. and A. compactum, may indicate that there was opportunism for the two generalists species. Ergasilus sp., C. sentinosa, R. acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. were recorded for the first time in C. kelberi, and this increased their list of known hosts. In addition, both proteocephalid species and C. sentinosa can extend their known biogeographical distribution to the Três Marias Reservoir. PMID:25271458

  12. Petrographic and microthermometrical studies of emeralds in the `Garimpo' of Capoeirana, Nova Era, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, J. L.; Mendes, J. C.; da Silveira Bello, R. M.; Svisero, D. P.; Valarelli, J. V.

    1992-03-01

    Petrographic investigations in the area of the Capoeirana emerald deposit, Minas Gerais State, revealed two main lithostructural units. The first unit is comprised of gneissic rocks of granitic composition belonging to the basement complex, and the second is composed of a highly weathered metasedimentary-metavolcanic sequence represented by metapelitic schists, amphibolites, schists derived from ultramafic rocks, and quartzites. Quartz and pegmatoid veins appear near the contacts between the gneissic rocks and the mineralization metasedimentary-metavolcanic sequence. The emerald mineralization is dominantly concentrated within the intercalations of meta-ultramafic schists near the contact of the pegmatoid veins. Microthermometric studies of the fluid inclusions of the emerald grains indicate that crystallization occurred in the pressure and temperature ranges of 2000 to 2750 bar and 450 to 650 °C, respectively. These data suggest that the mineralizing solutions have had a late hydrothermal-pneumatolytic origin characterized by low pressures, suggestive of the paragenesis talc + tremolite + carbonate + biotite-phlogopite + chlorite of the emerald wall rocks.

  13. [Tooth decay and associated factors among adolescents in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil: a hierarchical analysis].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional population-based study (n = 763) conducted in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, which aimed to investigate the prevalence of tooth decay among adolescents and to identify the potential determinants of same. Probability sampling by conglomerates in multiple stages was used. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the data collection by means of intraoral examination and interviews in the previously selected households. In the analysis of the determinant factor for the presence of tooth decay, hierarchical binary logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of tooth decay, decayed, missing and filled teeth were 71.3%, 36.5%, 55.6% and 16%, respectively. The following averages were observed: DMFT (3.4 teeth), number of decayed (0.8 teeth), restored (2.4 teeth) and missing (0.2 teeth). The incidence of tooth decay was higher among adolescents who stated they were black/indigenous/brown (OR = 1.76), lived in crowded households (OR = 2.4), did not regularly visit or had never been to a dentist (OR = 1.9), used public or philanthropic services (OR = 1,8), had smoking habits (OR = 4.1), consumed alcohol (OR = 1.8), perceived their oral health negatively (OR = 5.9 and OR = 1.9) and had toothac in the last six months (OR = 2.0). PMID:26602713

  14. DETECTION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE TOWN OF DIAMANTINA , MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edvânia Beatriz Dos Santos; Rodrigues, Sâmara Lauren Cunha; Bahia-DE-Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2016-07-11

    Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a microscope slide and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40X objective from an optical microscope. Eleven sites were selected for sampling. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (50%), followed by Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (27.6%), Iodamoeba butschllii cysts (5.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (5.6%), Taenia species eggs (5.6%) and hookworm eggs (5.6%). The highest positivity rates were found in the samples drawn from the cafeteria's eating table. The results have indicated the need to improve the cleaning in the school environments, as well as the development of educational practices that may help in the preservation of public health. PMID:27410911

  15. DETECTION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE TOWN OF DIAMANTINA , MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Edvânia Beatriz dos Santos; RODRIGUES, Sâmara Lauren Cunha; BAHIA-DE-OLIVEIRA, Gustavo Henrique; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a microscope slide and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40X objective from an optical microscope. Eleven sites were selected for sampling. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (50%), followed by Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (27.6%), Iodamoeba butschllii cysts (5.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (5.6%), Taenia species eggs (5.6%) and hookworm eggs (5.6%). The highest positivity rates were found in the samples drawn from the cafeteria's eating table. The results have indicated the need to improve the cleaning in the school environments, as well as the development of educational practices that may help in the preservation of public health. PMID:27410911

  16. Levels of volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples commercialized in Belo Horizonte, Mina Gerais, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gloria, M.B.A. )

    1991-07-01

    Several reports have been published describing the occurrence of volatile N-nitrosamines in rubber products. The first evidence of the presence of these compounds in baby bottle nipples was published by Ireland et al. Their study showed the presence of N-nitrosamines in elastomers compounded with dialkylamine accelerators and stabilizers. Several countries, through active cooperation with industry, have made considerable progress in eliminating or significantly reducing the levels of N-nitrosamines in baby bottle nipples. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples in the market of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite--(Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-15

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm(-1) assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO4(2-) units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm(-1) are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν1PO4(3-) symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood. PMID:23434550

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite - (Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm-1 assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO42- units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm-1 are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm-1 are attributed to the ν1PO43- symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm-1 are assigned to the ν3PO43- antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm-1 are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood.

  19. The Natural History of Hb S/Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin in 13 Children from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belisário, André R; Sales, Rahyssa R; Silva, Célia M; Velloso-Rodrigues, Cibele; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2016-06-01

    Children with Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T)/hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (Hb S/HPFH) have a mild clinical phenotype, but some complications have been reported. The natural history of Hb S/HPFH in children from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil newborn cohort is described. Clinical and hematological data regarding participants' phenotypes were retrieved from medical records. The HPFH-1, HPFH-2, and HPFH-3 and α-thalassemia (α-thal) deletions were detected by gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR). Thirteen children were included, nine (69.2%) had the Hb S/HPFH-2 deletion, and four (30.8%) had Hb S/HPFH-1 deletion; 11 children (84.6%) had αα/αα, and two (15.4%) carried the αα/-α(3.7) (rightward) deletion. The mean concentration of total hemoglobin (Hb) and Hb F was 12.52 ± 0.56 g/dL and 42.31% ± 1.97%, respectively. Mild microcytosis and hypochromia were observed. We found acute clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease, such as acute chest syndrome (ACS) and acute pain crisis in four children; nine (69.2%) children were completely asymptomatic during the follow-up period. All children were classified as having low-risk transcranial Doppler (TDC). In conclusion, children with Hb S/HPFH have a mild clinical phenotype of sickle cell disease, although acute clinical manifestations may occur. High Hb F levels and absence of anemia are common hematological characteristics. PMID:27117574

  20. Oxidation states of iron as an indicator of the techniques used to burn clays and handcraft archaeological Tupiguarani ceramics by ancient human groups in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floresta, D. L.; Ardisson, J. D.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics of the Tupiguarani Tradition typically have in common the burning characteristics, their forms and decoration motifs. Dating such ceramic pieces with the radiocarbon method indicate that these artifacts were probably handcrafted between 1,500 and 500 years before the present. Fragments ceramic utensils were collected in the archaeological site of Beltrão, in the municipality of Corinto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A fragment of about 50 mm in diameter and 15 mm thick, with a color gradation across the ceramic wall ranging from red, on one side, grayish, in the middle, and orange, on the opposite side, was selected for a more detailed examination. The fragment was transversely cut and a series of subsamples were separated from different points along the piece wall, in layer segments of ~3 mm. All subsamples were analyzed with Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 80 K. Results reveal that hematite is the magnetically ordered phase. A Fe2 + component (relative spectral area, 50 %) appears for the grayish subsample. According to these first results, the red subsample seems to be the side that had direct contact with fire used to burn the precursor clay in air. The grayish middle layer is probably due to the clay mixed with some ashes. Mössbauer data reveal that the orange layer, corresponding to the opposite side of the ceramic relatively to the direct fire, does contain about the same Fe2 + :Fe3 + ratio but much lower proportion of α-Fe2O3 than the red layer.

  1. 1998-1999 rotavirus seasons in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil: detection of an unusual G3P[4] epidemic strain.

    PubMed

    Rosa E Silva, Maria Luzia; Pires De Carvalho, Iná; Gouvea, Vera

    2002-08-01

    An epidemiologic survey on the rotavirus strains causing gastroenteritis in young children was conducted in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, in Southern Brazil during two consecutive seasons. Rotavirus was detected in 94 of the 1,056 fecal specimens collected from January 1998 to December 1999. Among the 13 discernible long electrophoretic profiles found, one was highly prevalent (73.4%) and represented the rotavirus strain responsible for the May-August winter epidemic outbreak of 1998, as clearly shown in a three-dimensional graph. This epidemic strain, designated JF98, was characterized as subgroup II and genotype G3P[4] by the original reverse transcription-PCR typing assays. Besides the unusual combination of G and P types, this G3 strain lacked reactivity with anti-G3-specific monoclonal antibodies and presented an uncommon pattern upon digestion of its cDNA-copied VP7 gene with the BstYI restriction enzyme. Strain JF98 affected primarily 6- to 24-month-old children and accounted for 85.5% of the severe rotavirus-associated dehydrating diarrhea cases that required hospitalization. As in our previous studies in neighboring Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, a remarkably large proportion (44%) of mixed infections was detected, generating a complex set of circulating strains in the community, represented by the many distinct electropherotypes. Other common human types were detected as minor strains in single or in mixed infections, including the JF98 strain. Those were types G1, G4, G8, G9, P[8], and P[6], but not G2 or G5. One specimen contained a mixture of group A and C rotaviruses. PMID:12149339

  2. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption. PMID:24697652

  3. Tree Diversity and Dynamics of the Forest of Seu Nico, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand future changes in community composition due to global changes, the knowledge about forest community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our understanding about processes and patterns involved in maintaining species rich Neotropical ecosystems, we provide here a dataset from the one hectare Forest of Seu Nico (FSN) Dynamics Plot from Southeastern Brazil. New information We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 2868 trees and treelets identified from two census spanning over a nine-year period. Furthermore, soil properties and understory light availability of all 100 10 x 10m subplots from the one hectare FSN Dynamics Plot during the second census are given. PMID:26312053

  4. Current situation and perspectives regarding human Chagas disease in midwestern of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Christiane Santos; dos Santos, José Eloy; Medeiros, Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso; Furtado, Eliana; Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Recognising the importance of Chagas disease in Brazil, Bambuí set up epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease in 1974 and was the first municipality to do so. To ascertain the current epidemiology of Chagas disease in this municipality, 1.782 blood samples from the general population were analysed; 7.7% of samples were found to be seropositive for Chagas disease. A strong positive correlation between increasing age and Chagas disease was evident in both genders, with the highest prevalence in individuals aged over 60 years. Clinically, the cardiodigestive form of Chagas disease was the most common in these samples. These data confirm the interruption of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, in parallel with a still important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the county, thus supporting political decisions that will prioritise epidemiological surveillance and medical treatment of Chagas disease in the coming years. PMID:24831551

  5. Diversity of group A rotavirus genes detected in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dulgheroff, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Silva, George Allan Villarouco da; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves de; Domingues, André Luiz da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the main causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis. The segmented nature of the viral genome allows reassortment of genome segments, which can generate genetic variants. In this study, we characterized the diversity of the VP7, VP4 (VP8*), VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of the rotaviruses that circulated from 2005 to 2011 in the Triângulo Mineiro (TM) region of Brazil. Samples with genotypes G2 (sublineages IVa-1 and IVa-3), G1 (sublineage I-A), G9 (lineage III), G12 (lineages II and III), G8 (lineage II), G3 (lineage III), P[4] (sublineages IVa and IVb), P[8] (sublineages P[8]-3.6, P[8]-3.3, and P[8]-3.1), I2 (lineage VII), E2 (lineages VI, XII, and X), and H2 (lineage III) were identified. The associations found in the samples were G1, G9, or G12 with P[8]-I1-E1-H1; G2 or G8 with P[4]-I2-E2-H2; G12 with I3-E3-H6; and G3 with P[4]-I2-E3-H3 (previously unreported combination). Reassortment events in G2P[4] strains and an apparent pattern of temporal segregation within the lineages were observed. Five TM samples contained genes that exhibited high nucleotide and amino acid identities with strains of animal origin. The present study includes a period of pre- and post-introduction of rotavirus vaccination in all Brazilian territories, thereby serving as a basis for monitoring changes in the genetic constitution of rotaviruses. The results also contribute to the understanding of the diversity and evolution of rotaviruses in a global context. PMID:27266629

  6. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic pollution in watersheds influenced by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Ferreira, Marcos

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate total arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water (main pathway of human exposure) and its hydrogeochemical controls in the "Morro do Ouro" gold mine region, which is the largest gold mine in Brazil, characterized by gold-arsenopyrite association. Arsenic concentration was generally below the detection limit (LOD < 0.5 μg L(-1)). Thus, water ingestion may not be a significant exposure pathway to local population. Low groundwater As concentrations (<1 μg L(-1)) are likely due to ore body structural setting, which plunges from 10° to >20°, being readily covered by thick phyllites that are poor in As some hundreds of meters away from the mine. Thirty-five percent of As levels in superficial waters (<0.5 to 40 μg L(-1)) were >10 μg L(-1), which is the maximum permissible value for human ingestion. The highest concentrations were found nearby mine facilities and old artisanal mining areas surrounding the mine, decreasing downstream. Undisturbed watersheds showed As concentrations close to LOD. Hydrogeochemical data stress the sorption (adsorption and co-precipitation) of As role, mainly by Fe oxyhydroxides, as a geochemical filter that retains As, attenuating its concentration in both superficial and groundwater. Such minerals are abundant in the region oxisols, sediments, and phyllites and may form stable mineral complexes with As under the pH (mostly neutral) and Eh (reduced environment) conditions found in the field. It has been demonstrated that As(III) (more toxic) and As(V) co-exist in the analyzed waters and that As(V) predominates in superficial water. PMID:26797944

  7. Raising awareness about soil diversity: The Education Programme of the Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, C.

    2012-04-01

    Soils are usually overlooked as part of geodiversity and geoheritage. Increasing the public awareness about soils is a key issue in our changing world. Furthering public awareness involves developing a better understanding of soils, their functions, importance for environment and society, as well as a personal and collective commitment in the stewardship and protection from degradation and loss. This presentation describes the Soil and Environmental Education and Outreach Programme of the Alexis Dorofeef Earth Sciences Museum of the Soil University Department in Viçosa, Brazil. The program has developed different activities linked to formal and non formal education and its main audience are basic education teachers, school children and the general public. The museum acts in different and diverse fronts, supported on a pedagogical background based on Paulo Freire's educational approach, the social-constructivism, which considers social inclusion, knowledge building, horizontal learning and collective action. In its early years, the museum was mainly focused on formal education and this changed with time as our action was reshaped into a broader outreach action stimulated by the new Brazilian government. The museum's indoor activities consist of accompanied thematic visits, hands on experiments, basic school teacher's courses, development of learning materials and methods and professional training. Beyond of the Museum space local interdisciplinary projects with basic education schools are run along with temporary expositions coupled with short courses and workshops with farmers and social movements. We present the results of the changes in awareness about soils among three main groups: school teachers, basic education children and general public. After 10 years of activities, the Soil Education action of the Museum is recognized and well spread among school communities in the town and its neighbourhood. Many school teachers approach the contents and methodologies

  8. Fractionation and leachability of heavy metals from aged and recent Zn metallurgical leach residues from the Três Marias zinc plant (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sethurajan, Manivannan; Huguenot, David; Lens, Piet N L; Horn, Heinrich A; Figueiredo, Luiz H A; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-04-01

    Various mineral processing operations to produce pure metals from mineral ores generate sludges, residues, and other unwanted by-products/wastes. As a general practice, these wastes are either stored in a reservoir or disposed in the surrounding of mining/smelting areas, which might cause adverse environmental impacts. Therefore, it is important to understand the various characteristics like heavy metal leaching features and potential toxicity of these metallurgical wastes. In this study, zinc plant leach residues (ZLRs) were collected from a currently operating Zn metallurgical industry located in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and investigated for their potential toxicity, fractionation, and leachability. Three different ZLR samples (ZLR1, ZLR2, and ZLR3) were collected, based on their age of production and deposition. They mainly consisted of Fe (6-11.5 %), Zn (2.5 to 5.0 %), and Pb (1.5 to 2.5 %) and minor concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, and Mn, depending on the sample age. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results revealed that these wastes are hazardous for the environment. Accelerated Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction clearly showed that potentially toxic heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn can be released into the environment in high quantities under mild acidic conditions. The results of the liquid-solid partitioning as a function of pH showed that pH plays an important role in the leachability of metals from these residues. At low pH (pH 2.5), high concentrations of metals can be leached: 67, 25, and 7 % of Zn can be leached from leach residues ZLR1, ZLR2, and ZLR3, respectively. The release of metals decreased with increasing pH. Geochemical modeling of the pH-dependent leaching was also performed to determine which geochemical process controls the leachability/solubility of the heavy metals. This study showed that the studied ZLRs contain significant concentrations of non-residual extractable fractions of Zn and can

  9. Information system and geographic information system tools in the data analyses of the control program for visceral leishmaniases from 2006 to 2010 in the sanitary district of venda nova, belo horizonte, minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Fiúza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a brief history of control actions for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District (DS) of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, focusing on the use of information systems and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The analyses showed that the use of an automated database allied with geoprocessing tools may favor control measures of VL, especially with regard to the evaluation of control actions carried out. Descriptive analyses of control measures allowed to evaluating that the information system and GIS tools promoted greater efficiency in making decisions and planning activities. These analyses also pointed to the necessity of new approaches to the control of VL in large urban centers. PMID:22518168

  10. Information System and Geographic Information System Tools in the Data Analyses of the Control Program for Visceral Leishmaniases from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Fiúza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a brief history of control actions for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District (DS) of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, focusing on the use of information systems and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The analyses showed that the use of an automated database allied with geoprocessing tools may favor control measures of VL, especially with regard to the evaluation of control actions carried out. Descriptive analyses of control measures allowed to evaluating that the information system and GIS tools promoted greater efficiency in making decisions and planning activities. These analyses also pointed to the necessity of new approaches to the control of VL in large urban centers. PMID:22518168

  11. Use Of The Gpr To Characterize Sedimentary Structures Of Lakes In Sub-Humid Drainage System, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, P. A.; Augustin, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    PAULO ROBERTO ANTUNES ARANHA IGC - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - AV ANTONIO CARLOS 6.627 - CEP: 31270901-BELO HORIZONTE- MG - BRAZIL CRISTINA ROCHA AUGUSTIN - IGC - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - AV ANTONIO CARLOS 6.627 - CEP: 31270901-BELO HORIZONTE- MG - BRAZIL System of lakes located in the sandstones domains of Supergrupo Urucuia, in the State Park Veredas do Peruaçu, north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are common features in ecosystems of the Veredas, a biome of the Cerrado (Savanna-Open pasture). The linearity of these lakes suggests that they could have, in the past, belonged to the same drainage system, that would have been disconnected throughout the evolution of the Vereda system. The objective of this research is with the help of the GPR and using 100 MHz antennaes to obtain radargram images that could assist in the interpretation of the structures occurring at the bottom of these lakes. It is possible do identify on the radargrams reflectors that can be correlated with depositional system. These reflectore have the concave form. The results of these radargrames indicate great conformity between the concave form of the sediments and that of the bottom of the lake, allowing to assume that this deposition has been occurring since a long time ago. Therefore, if there was a connection between the study lake and those located in its proximity it has occurred a long time, before the deposition of the sedimentary sequences had been deposited. The thickness of the sediments, that varies since 2m until 5m, indicates that or either this deposition was either a very rapid one so that could generate a fast deposition, or it has been taking place during a considerable geologic long time.; Data acquisitiont;

  12. [Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of anemia in the elderly of the municipality of Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Milagres, Clarice Santana; de Moraes, Keila Bacelar Duarte; Franceschini, Sylvia Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira Rocha; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2015-12-01

    Anemia is the most common hematological problem encountered in the elderly population. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in the elderly in Viçosa (State of Minas Gerais). Data were collected by means of a household survey and conducting biochemical tests on 349 elderly between June and December 2009. The prevalence of anemia was 11.7% (95% CI 8.3% -15.1%) and was found to be higher among men (15.4%) among those aged 80 years and older (30%) and those who practiced polypharmacy (16.8%). The results obtained indicate anemia determinants similar to those observed in developed countries. The real need of polypharmacy should be evaluated in health care for the elderly, in order to prevent iatrogenic complications, of which anemia is one such complication. PMID:26691798

  13. Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika

    2013-11-01

    The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)∑1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)∑0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)∑4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22ṡ2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ν2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

  14. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite: isotopic and chemical evidence of arc-related magmatism in the central part of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avila, Ciro A; Teixeira, Wilson; Cordani, Umberto G; Barrueto, Héctor R; Pereira, Ronaldo M; Martins, Veridiana T S; Dunyi, Liu

    2006-09-01

    The Glória quartz-monzodiorite, one of the mafic plutons of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, is intrusive into banded gneisses, amphibolites, schists and phyllites of the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt, in the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 2188 +/- 29 Ma, suggesting a tectonic relationship with the pre-collisional phase of the Mineiro belt. According to the Nd isotopic evidence (epsilonNd(T) = -3.4; T DM = 2.68 Ga) the original magmas was formed by a mixture among Archean crustal material and Paleoproterozoic juvenile magma. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite shows metaluminous and calc-alkaline tendency with intermediate K content, comparable to that of volcanic-arc rocks. The primary mineralogical assemblage was partly modified by metamorphism, dated between 2131-2121 Ma in nearby coeval plutons. Such metamorphism is significantly older than the reported metamorphic episodes of the Mineiro belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region (2059-2041 Ma) in the eastern portion of the study area. This evidence, together with chemical and isotopic data from other mafic and felsic plutons coeval with the Glória quartz-monzodiorite, indicate a tectonic and magmatic migration within the Mineiro belt from west to east. PMID:16936942

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in three municipalities of Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil: risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; de Castro, Milton Ferreira; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Pires, Flávia Alves Condé; Abramo, Clarice; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-05-01

    Giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are parasitic diseases that are among the major health concerns observed in economically disadvantaged populations of developing countries, and have clear social and environmental bases. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiologic data concerning these infections in the study area, whose inhabitants have plenty of access to health care services, including good dwelling and adequate sanitary conditions. In this survey we investigated the risk factors for giardiasis and STH in three municipalities with good sanitation, situated in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the municipalities of Piau, Coronel Pacheco and Goianá, in both urban and rural areas. The fieldwork consisted of a questionnaire and the examination of 2,367 stool samples using the Hoffmann, Pons and Janer method. Of all individuals from the population sample, 6.1% were found infected with the parasitic diseases included in this work. Hookworm infection was the most prevalent disease, followed by giardiasis, trichuriasis and ascariasis. Infection was more prevalent in males (8.1%, p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.975) and in individuals living in rural areas (8.6%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.693). Multivariate analysis showed that variables such as inadequate sewage discharge (p < 0.001), drinking of unsafe water (p < 0.001), lack of sanitary infrastructure (p = 0.015), and host sex (p < 0.001) were the risk factors more strongly associated with infection status (95% confidence interval [CI]). In this study we demonstrate that giardiasis and STH still persist, infecting people who have good housing conditions and free access to public health care and education. PMID:21243507

  16. Assessing the relationship between the δ18O signatures of siliceous sponge spicules and water in a~tropical lacustrine environment (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteuzzo, M. C.; Alexandre, A.; Varajão, A. F. D. C.; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C.; Almeida, A. C. S.; Varajão, C. A. C.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Sonzogni, C.; Miche, H.

    2013-08-01

    Siliceous sponge spicules constitute an important siliceous component of lacustrine sediments, together with widespread diatom frustules. In contrast to diatom frustules, siliceous spicules are formed in sponges in an enzymatic way. Previous attempts to use their oxygen isotopic signature (δ18Osilica) as a paleoenvironmental proxy have led to contradictory conclusions. These attempts demonstrated the need to further assess whether sponges form their silica in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with water. For this reason, we measured the δ18O signature of sponge spicules from a single freshwater species (Metania spinata) grown on natural and artificial supports over nine months in a small Brazilian pond (Lagoa Verde, northwestern Minas Gerais). The δ18Osilica values were obtained using the infrared (IR) laser-heating fluorination technique following a controlled isotopic exchange (CIE). The δ18O values (δ18Owater) and temperature of the pond water were periodically measured and reconstructed over the course of the sponge growth. Assuming that silica may form continuously in the spicules, temperature and δ18Owater values over the months of growth were weighted using a sponge growth coefficient previously established for Metania spinata. The δ18Osilica values of sponges grown simultaneously and on similar substrates were scattered. No relationships were observed between the Δ18Osilica-water and water temperature when the reconstructed values were considered. Conversely, a positive correlation was obtained, with a coefficient of 0.3‰ °C-1 (R2 = 0.63), when δ18Owater values and water temperature at the time of sample collection were considered. Such a positive temperature coefficient clearly indicates that the freshwater sponge Metania spinata does not form its siliceous spicules in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the pond water. Instead, one or several biologically controlled kinetic fractionation mechanisms may be in play during the various steps of silica

  17. Civilise the People, Build the Nation: Scientific and Literary Association and Education in Minas Gerais (Brazil) at the Beginning of the Brazilian Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Luciano Mendes de Faria; Inacio, Marcilaine Soares

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 200 years in Brazil, the notion of "public" has been established to mean the same as the notion of "state". Sergio Buarque de Holanda and, more recently, Marilena Chaui point out that the very old tradition of the appropriation of public goods by the private sector has been updated. However, the understanding of what is considered…

  18. Irrigation canals in Melo creek basin (Rio Espera and Capela Nova municipalities, Minas Gerais, Brazil): habitats to Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and potential spread of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Leite, M G P; Pimenta, E C; Fujaco, M A G; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-04-19

    This study analyzed the presence of Biomphalaria in Melo creek basin, Minas Gerais state, and its relationship to irrigation canals. Seventeen of these canals were used to determine a limnological, morphological and hydrological characterization during an annual seasonal cycle. Biomphalaria samples were sent to René Rachou Research Center/FIOCRUZ for identification and parasitological examination. Six canals were identified as breeding areas for mollusks and in one of them it was registered the coexistence of B. tenagophila (first report to this basin) and B. glabrata species. Results indicated that the low flow rate and speed of water flow were the main characteristics that contributed to this specific growth of the mollusks in the area. These hydraulic characteristics were created due to anthropogenic action through the canalization of lotic areas in Melo creek, which allowed ideal ecological conditions to Biomphalaria outbreak. The results emphasize the need of adequate handling and constant monitoring of the hydrographic basin, subject to inadequate phytosanitary conditions, aiming to prevent the occurrence and propagation of schistosomiasis. PMID:27097093

  19. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6–71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2–40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2–12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7–22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8–26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions. PMID:26445270

  20. Highlights of the XXI annual meeting of the Brazilian Society of Protozoology, the XXXII annual meeting on Basic Research in Chagas' disease & an international symposium on vesicle trafficking in parasitic Protozoa – 7 to 9 November 2005, Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jeffrey; Schenkman, Sergio; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the 2005 Annual meeting held in Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was convened and organized by the Brazilian Society of Protozoology . This is an annual event and details of these meetings can be found on the Society's website. Within the space available it has been impossible to cover all the important and fascinating contributions and what is presented are our personal views of the meetings scientific highlights and new developments. The contents undoubtedly reflect each author's scientific interests and expertise. Fuller details of the round tables, seminars and posters can be consulted on line at . PMID:16916462

  1. The "Tuteo" of Rocha, Uruguay: A Study of Pride and Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the tuteo in Rocha, Uruguay, a unique situation in a country that is mostly "voseante." The study draws on speakers' attitudes toward "tú" and "vos" in Rocha, taken from informal interviews and from a linguistic attitude survey. The survey was conducted with 58 informants, most of whom were…

  2. Population dynamics and evaluation of the partial selective treatment of crossbreed steers naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a herd from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Melo, Daniel Pacheco; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Gonçalves Junior, Geraldo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over a period of 13 months on a rural property located in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Animals were treated for ticks indoors by whole body spraying when R. (B.) microplus had an average count equal or more than 30 ticks. The study also evaluated the possibility of a partial selective treatment for bovines to control R. (B.) microplus in which only a percentage of the population would be treated (specifically those bovines with tick counts of ≥20. Moreover, we examined the percentage of the population of R. (B.) microplus present on experimental bovines that did not come into contact with the chemical compounds used in the partial selective treatment. We concluded that in this particular region of Brazil, the crossbreed steers support up to five R. (B.) microplus generations per year and that the number of generations was primarily affected by the pluviometric precipitation. We sprayed the bovines with chemicals seven times during the course of the study. The results of the partial selective treatment method revealed that during the rainy and the dry periods, 42.1% to 60.0% and 61.9% to 79.2% of the animals, respectively, fulfilled the criteria to receive a chemical treatment to reduce the number of cattle ticks. In consideration of the need to slow the development of tick resistance with the chemical compounds used in the spraying treatment, the results showed that the percentage of animals that did not require treatment is not relevant. This was evidenced by the result that bovines that presented tick counts of ≥20 during the dry and rainy periods represented 91.5% and 90.6% of the total recorded R. (B.) microplus populations, respectively. Only 8.7% of the tick population remained free from exposure to acaricides during the 13 months of the study, which is an important point when considering the adoption of the partial selective treatment

  3. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  4. New records of two endemic troglobitic and threatened arachnids (Amblypygi and Opiliones) from limestone caves of Minas Gerais state, southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gallão, Jonas Eduardo; von Schimonsky, Diego M; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The endemic and threatened troglobites (organisms restricted to caves) Charinus eleonorae (Amblypygi) and Iandumoema uai (Opiliones), both from Olhos d’Água cave, located at Peruaçu Caves National Park (southeast Brazil), have their distribution expanded for a new locality inside of the National Park (Lapa do Cipó cave), extending their distribution at least in 9.5km2. New information This new data suggest that these arachnids can be in a differentiation process and/or there are several possibilities of dispersion in the karst of Peruaçu. Indeed, a revision of their categorical status at IUCN Red List is necessary. We herein report a new distribution range (Lapa do Cipó cave) of the troglobitic species I. uai and C. eleonorae, which are, to date, known to occur in the Olhos d’Água cave, located at the Peruaçu Caves National Park (PCNP). PMID:26696758

  5. Rickettsia in synanthropic and domestic animals and their hosts from two areas of low endemicity for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Milagres, Bruno S; Padilha, Amanda F; Barcelos, Rafael M; Gomes, Gabriel G; Montandon, Carlos E; Pena, Dárlen C H; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B; Bouyer, Donald H; Freitas, Renata N; Walker, David H; Mafra, Cláudio L; Galvao, Márcio A M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

  6. Rickettsia in Synanthropic and Domestic Animals and Their Hosts from Two Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Barcelos, Rafael M.; Gomes, Gabriel G.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Pena, Dárlen C. H.; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A.; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Freitas, Renata N.; Walker, David H.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvao, Márcio A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

  7. Didelphis marsupialis (common opossum): a potential reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Schallig, Henk D F H; da Silva, Eduardo S; van der Meide, Wendy F; Schoone, Gerard J; Gontijo, Celia M F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, an important focus of human leishmaniasis in Brazil, is reported. All animals were serologically tested with indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination tests (DAT) based on L. (L.) donovani or L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. A sub-population (n = 20) was analyzed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. For species identification, PCR-positive samples were subjected to restriction enzyme fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Depending on the sero-diagnostic test employed, the sero-prevalence varied between 8.1% (9/111 animals positive with DAT test based on L. braziliensis antigen) and 21.6% (24/111 animals positive with IFAT). Five out of 20 samples analyzed with PCR tested positive for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. RFLP analysis revealed that two samples contained L. braziliensis complex DNA, one contained L. donovani complex DNA, and two samples could not be typed with the methodology used. These data suggest a potential role for the opossum as a reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the region. PMID:17767408

  8. Biomonitoring of the environmental genotoxic potential of emissions from a complex of ceramic industries in Monte Carmelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using Tradescantia pallida.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos Fernando; Júnior, Edimar Olegário de Campos; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Sousa, Eduardo de Freitas; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) test and analysis of heavy metal biological accumulation in Tradescantia pallida (T. pallida) were bioassays used to assess the genotoxic potential of emissions from a complex of ceramic industries into the atmosphere in a city in Brazil that is considered a national reference source for roof tile production. The ceramic industry emission-exposed T. pallida plants were biomonitored during the dry season, in June, July, and August 2013. In addition to the contaminated monitoring site, a reference site in a peri-urban area was utilized, for comparative purposes. Genotoxicity assessments were determined monthly, while heavy metal bioaccumulation was measured at the end of the total exposure period. The MN frequency was significantly greater in T. pallida plants exposed in the ceramic industry emission monitored area compared to the reference site, and highest MN rates were observed in July and August. With respect to heavy metal bioaccumulation in T. pallida leaves, cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were significantly higher in plants at the ceramic industry emission monitoring site. Thus, in relation to the parameters assessed, T. pallida was found to be sensitive to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals attributed to ceramic products emissions generated by the ceramic industry, confirming that this plant species may be employed as a reference organism in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26818189

  9. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cláudia Silva; Dias, Maria Angélica Salles; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Viana, Thaís Claudino; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma. PMID:27420078

  10. Modeling of a Modified Rocha Slot Test in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, M.L.; Zimmerman, R.M.

    1987-12-31

    The design of nuclear waste repositories in hard rock underground requires an understanding of how the jointed rock mass responds to the various loads introduced. The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) is conducting a series of field tests in G-Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site to characterize the behavior of welded tuff. In particular, one of the ways its modulus of deformation is being measured in situ is by means of a slot loaded by a pressurized flatjack. This is called the Modified Rocha Slot Test, after Manuel Rocha who pioneered investigations using this type of test. Numerical calculations were undertaken using the stress-wave dynamic finite difference code STEALTH. Using dynamic relaxation, the code is able to follow the quasi-static loading curve quite closely, so that the path-dependent aspects of the solution are captured economically. The material model (CAVS) represents an elastic-plastic rock matrix with evenly-spaced joints in three mutually perpendicular planes. The joints have nonlinear normal compliance, shear cohesion, and shear strength that depend on the slip history. Slip-induced dilation of the joints is also taken into consideration. Results of the calculations are presented which illustrate the stresses, deformations, and joint slippages resulting from the application of pressure loading in the slot. The stress field is remarkably sensitive to joint orientation and cohension, but rather insensitive to the normal compliance. The effect of a confining in situ stress field is also examined.

  11. Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

    2013-06-01

    To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

  12. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Necchi-Júnior, O; Branco, L H Z; Branco, C C Z

    2003-11-01

    Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season) in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19 masculine 45'-21 masculine 25'S, 49 masculine 05'-51 masculine 30'W), situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40%) and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5%) and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%). Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta) and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta), were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta) and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta) were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%), free filaments (27%), gelatinous filaments (27%), crusts (7%), tufts (3%), and gelatinous colonies (3%). The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8%) with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species) were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity) were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems. PMID:15029374

  13. The Intracratonic Caraibas-Itacarambi Earthquake of December 9, 2007 (4.9 mb), Minas Gerais, Brazil: predominance of compressional stresses in the middle of the San Francisco craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimpliganond, C. N.; Franca, G. S.; Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M.; Carvalho, J.

    2008-05-01

    An earthquake with magnitude 4.9 mb, in the central part of the San Francisco craton, shook the village of Caraibas, Minas Gerais state, on December 9, 2007 at 00:03 (local time). The epicentral area is near the city of Itacarambi. This event was the first to cause a fatal victim in Brazil (a little girl 6 years old). The maximum intensity reached VII Modified Mercalli and the isoseismal of VI MM intensity comprise an area of about 100 square kilometers. Since May 25, 2007, when a 3.5 mb magnitude event was widely felt by the population, this region has been shaken by small earthquakes. A field campaign was taken during October 23-28 to implement a local seismographic network composed by 6 tri-axial broadband stations that is operating until now. A seismic gap was observed some days before the main shock of December 9. Two imminent foreshocks preceded the main shock by some minutes, and 162 aftershocks followed the main event during the first day. The earthquakes with clear onset times for P and S waves were located with Hypo71 using a local velocity model with a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.72, obtained with a composite Wadati diagram. The events show a trend in the NE-SW direction, with very shallow depths, less than about 2 kilometers. The aftershocks were distributed over an area about 3 kilometers long in the NE-SW direction. A composite focal mechanism, determined using P-wave polarities with the clearest waveforms at local stations, shows a reverse faulting mechanism. This solution, consistent with P-wave polarity data for the main shock recorded at regional and teleseismic stations, shows a near horizontal P-axis trending E- W, similar to an earthquake swarm occurred 50 km to the north in 1990. Stress inversion using five different focal mechanisms in this part of the San Francisco craton indicates compressional stresses with EW maximum compression (S1) and a NS intermediate compression (S2).

  14. Application of LANDSAT images in the Minas Gerais tectonic division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacunha, R. P.; Demattos, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT data for a regional geological investigation of Brazil is provided. Radar imagery, aerial photographs and aeromagnetic maps were also used. Automatic interpretation, using LANDSAT OCT's was carried out by the 1-100 equipment. As a primary result a tectonic map was obtained, at 1:1,000,000 scale, of an area of about 143,000 square kilometers, in the central portion of Minas Gerais and Eastern Goias States, known as regions potentially rich in mineral resources.

  15. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem. PMID:12178118

  16. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  17. "Tales from the Brazilian Jungle": Antonio Rocha, Storyteller. Cue Sheet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Elizabeth

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Tales from the Brazilian Jungle" with storyteller Antonio Rocha. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains four sheets for use in class. The first, "About the Performance," prepares students for understanding references to the Amazon rainforest,…

  18. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  19. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. Fleas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Riva P.; Mafra, Claudio L.; Chamone, Chequer B.; Calic, Simone B.; Silva, Sergio U.; Walker, David H.

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, suspected cases of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) occurred in Coronel Fabriciano Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pooled fleas collected near two fatal cases contained rickettsial DNA. The nucleotide sequence alignment of the 391-bp segment of the 17-kDa protein gene showed that the products were identical to each other and to the R. felis 17-kDa gene, confirming circulation of R. felis in Brazil. PMID:11927031

  20. A middle path: slavery and natural increase in nineteenth-century Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Paiva, C A; Libby, D C

    1993-01-01

    "This article challenges the conventional notion that all regions of Brazil...were entirely dependent upon the international slave trade for the maintenance or growth of their slave populations.... The arguments will be based on data relating to the nineteenth-century slave population of the province of Minas Gerais.... Despite the size of its slave contingent, Minas Gerais was at best weakly linked to the export sector.... In light of data from the 1830s it will be argued that this economic transformation away from the export sector had a profound impact on slave demography.... New evidence shows that the Mineiro slave population achieved a positive rate of natural increase within a single generation of the termination of the Atlantic slave trade." PMID:12286225

  1. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CABRINE-SANTOS, Marlene; CINTRA, Eduardo do Nascimento; do CARMO, Rafaela Andrade; NASCENTES, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; PEDROSA, André Luiz; CORREIA, Dalmo; de OLIVEIRA-SILVA, Márcia Benedita

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8%) and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%). The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001). The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides(0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%). The Ritchie’s method was more sensitive (92.8%) when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%), with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92). In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed. PMID:26200960

  2. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA. PMID:24216324

  3. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  4. Comparison Between Monteiro DA Rocha and Wilhelm Olbers' Methods for the Determination of the Orbits of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Fernando B.; Fernandes, João

    2006-08-01

    In 1797, under von Zach sponsoring, Wilhelm Olbers published his work on the determination of the parabolic orbits of the comets - "Abhandlung tiber die leichteste und bequemste Methode, die Bahn eines Cometen aus einigen Beobachtungen zu berechnen von Wilhelm Olbers". Over the next century, this method would become the main tool to determine comets' parabolic orbits. Two years later, in 1799, an article of Monteiro da Rocha entitled "Determinação das Orbitas dos Cometas" is published in Memórias da Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa. This study publishes a method to solve the problem of the determination of comets' orbits very similar with the one proposed by Olbers. In the current article we intend to provide some information about the method of Monteiro da Rocha, which in fact was formerly formulated circa 16-17 years in advance to Olbers method, and to present the results of the quantitative side-by-side comparison of methods.

  5. Efficacy of 1-methylcyclopropene on the mitigation of storage disorders of "Rocha" pear under normal refrigerated and controlled atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Domingos Pf; Carvalho, Rita; Dupille, Eve

    2016-07-01

    Alternatives are needed for long-term preservation of European pears (Pyrus communis L.) after the ban on diphenylamine. "Rocha" pear fruit harvested at commercial maturity were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-methylcyclopropene, SmartFresh™) and diphenylamine and stored at 0 ℃, 90-95% relative humidity, under normal atmosphere for up to six months or under controlled atmosphere (controlled atmosphere, 3 kPa O2 + 0.7 kPa CO2) for up to 9.4 months. At 312 nl l(-1), 1-methylcyclopropene reduced softening and yellowing, and increased soluble solids content during shelf life in comparison with fruit treated with diphenylamine. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 312 nl l(-1) was also more effective than diphenylamine in reducing superficial scald and internal browning disorders. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 150 nl l(-1) had little effect on ripening-related changes but was effective against physiological disorders of pears stored in regular atmosphere or under controlled atmosphere. Delayed controlled atmosphere slightly reduced internal browning disorders but increased superficial scald. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 312 nl l(-1) reduced physiological disorders in "Rocha" pear under refrigerated storage and delayed ripening-related softening and color changes during shelf life. At 150 nl l(-1), 1-methylcyclopropene is as effective as diphenylamine against storage disorders without ripening impairment. PMID:26437671

  6. The species of Colletinae (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Rafael R; Silveira, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian state of Minas Gerais is a species-rich territory about as large as France, which houses the headwaters of some of the most important rivers in Brazil, as well as a variety of phytogeographic domains, with a poorly known insect fauna. Here, a synopsis of the bee species included in the genera Colletes Latreille, 1802 and Rhynchocolletes Moure, 1943 (Colletidae: Colletinae) occurring in this state is presented, including synonymies, diagnoses, redescriptions and identification keys to females and males of the eight recognized species, including one described as new. These species are Rhynchocolletes albicinctus Moure, 1943; Colletes altimontanus Ferrari & Silveira sp. nov.; C. argentinus Friese, 1908 stat. rev., C. meridionalis Schrottky, 1902; C. ornatus Schrottky, 1902; C. petropolitanus Dalla Torre, 1896; C. rufipes Smith, 1879; and C. rugicollis Friese, 1900. Colletes extensicornis Vachal, 1909 is here proposed to be a junior synonym of C. meridionalis. PMID:25661943

  7. Propaganda and Philanthropy: The Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral, the Lisbon Site of Biochemistry (1925-1953).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Ana; Amaral, Isabel

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on the internal organization and dynamics of the Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral (IRC) in Lisbon, a privately-funded institution devoted to biomedical research, from the particular vantage point of its laboratory of biochemistry; in particular, the process through which the institution turned from medically-related to chemically-related research in the period spanning from 1925 to 1953. The history of the IRC raises interesting questions regarding the social politics of science as it materialized the desire of leading physicians of the Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon to create proper physical facilities for medically-related scientific research. We argue that the process which led to the creation of the IRC coincided with the gradual professional and political ascendance of physicians in Portuguese society initiated in the late nineteenth century, and is closely associated with Portuguese republicanism and the process of Lisbon becoming the scientific capital. PMID:26309197

  8. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  9. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  10. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  11. Schooling, Organisation of the Constitutional Monarchy and the Education of Citizens (Brazil, 1822-1889)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Cynthia Greive

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the process of institutionalisation of public elementary schooling associated with the political organisation of the constitutional monarchy and the legislation regarding citizen rights and prerogatives in Brazil, especially in the province of Minas Gerais, during the nineteenth century. During this…

  12. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garraffoni, André R S; Araujo, Thiago Q; Lourenço, Anete P; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought. PMID:21594197

  13. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garraffoni, André R. S.; Araujo, Thiago Q.; Lourenço, Anete P.; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought. PMID:21594197

  14. Biochemical Basis of CO2-Related Internal Browning Disorders in Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha) during Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Deuchande, Teresa; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Carvalho, Susana M P; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at understanding the biochemical basis of internal browning disorders (IBDs) in 'Rocha' pear. For this purpose, the effects of storage under normal controlled atmosphere (CA) (3 kPa of O2 + 0.5 kPa of CO2) and IBD-inducing CA (1 kPa of O2 + 10 kPa of CO2) on the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and phenolics concentration were studied. The higher IBD incidence in high CO2-stored fruits was positively correlated with fermentative metabolites and negatively with ascorbate and H2O2 concentrations, and it was linked to PPO activation. These results indicate that both the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms are involved in the occurrence of IBD in 'Rocha' pear. From the integration of the biochemical and enzymatic data, a schematic model illustrating the effects of high CO2 and low O2 in 'Rocha' pears during long-term storage was constructed. PMID:27118401

  15. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  16. [Iron ore, economic geology and networks of experts between Wisconsin and the state of Minas Gerais, 1881-1914].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the "discovery" of Brazilian iron ore from two perspectives. The first examines the increasing emphasis of the geosciences and their practical application and global reach since the second half of the nineteenth century. While in Brazil economic geology was integrated step by step into state institutions, at the global level it experienced its moment of triumph with the 11th International Geological Congress in 1910. The second deals with a specific social network with a decisive role in the race for Brazilian iron ore: with transnational experts juggling between the logic of the market and that of the academy. The article reveals the importance of local negotiations in the incorporation of the subsoil of Minas Gerais into the global space of mining. PMID:24554136

  17. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Raphael S; Alves, Priscila D D; Almeida, Gabriel M F; Silva, Juliana F M; Morais, Paula B; Corrêa, Ary; Rosa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  18. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  19. Echinostomes in Felid Coprolites from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sianto, L; Duarte, A N; Borba, V H; Magalhães, J G; de Souza, S M; Chame, M

    2016-06-01

    The first record of Echinostoma (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in coprolites was from a mummified human body in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The finding raised questions on this parasite's incidence in prehistoric populations and the natural hosts of each species in remote times. Echinostomes occur worldwide and, despite the wide range of hosts, there is no record of Echinostomatidae in felines in Brazil. This study reports the finding of Echinostomatidae eggs in felid coprolites in the Furna do Estrago Archaeological Site, located in Pernambuco State in the Brazilian semiarid. Despite the possibility of false parasitism, the finding expands the distribution of this Digenea in remote times and raises the hypothesis of other cases of echinostomiasis in pre-Colombian populations. PMID:26761197

  20. Three new bee species of Rhophitulus Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Protandrenini) from Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Kelli S

    2014-01-01

    This work describes three newly discovered species of Rhophitulus Ducke, 1907: R. labiosus n. sp. from Minas Gerais (Brazil), R. mimus n. sp. from Salta (Argentina), and R. xenopalpus n. sp. from Catamarca and Tucumán (Argentina). Photographs of the holotype of Rhophitulus steinbachi (Friese, 1916) are provided, and modifications in the morphology of a female of R. xenopalpus n. sp. when parasitized by Strepsiptera are recorded for the first time for the genus.  PMID:25112357

  1. Biological variables of Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Itapecerica River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sales, Camila F; Domingos, Fabrício Flávio T; Brighenti, Ludmila S; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Santos, Hélio B; Thomé, Ralph G

    2016-07-11

    Herein we determine for the first time the reproduction parameters and population structure of Hypostomus francisci in the Itapecerica River, São Francisco Basin. A total of 250 specimens was captured quarterly between March 2010 and February 2012. Body weight, total length and weight of the gonads were obtained in the laboratory. Gonad samples were submitted to histological and histochemical techniques. Females with spawning capable ovaries were used to determine the fecundity and relative fecundity. Sex ratio with 1:1.01 (female:male) was observed. Males were more numerous than females for individuals smaller than 170 mm, however the number of females was significantly greater for specimens larger than 330 mm. The length-weight relationship estimated for H. francisci indicates negative-allometric growth. Females spawning capable were observed mostly in November-December-January. Two cohorts of oocytes at a determined time evidencing the development type group-synchronic. The eggs reaching 3.4 mm and the fecundity ranged from 312-1,460 oocytes with an average of 585.81 ± 337.43 oocytes per female. The reproductive parameters and population structure of H. francisci from Itapecerica River suggested that this species showed singular reproductive tactics among congeners. PMID:27411068

  2. Tunga penetrans and further parasites in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frank, Raphael; Melaun, Christian; Martins, Maria Marlene; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Heukelbach, Jörg; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-11-01

    The Brazilian savannah-like area, the Cerrado region, covers large areas of the country and provides a habitat for a multitude of different animal species. The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is geographically widespread and one of the typical inhabitants of the Cerrado. They are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. A population loss of at least 30 % over the past 10 years has been estimated based on local extinctions, habitat loss and deaths caused by fires, roadkills and hunting. Little is known about ecological and in particular parasitic conditions of this highly specialised insectivore species. During September and November 2010 we examined three roadkilled giant anteater for the presence of metazoan ecto- and endoparasites. Besides the cestode species Oochoristica tetragonocephala and the tick species Amblyomma nodosum, we found for the first time the flea Tunga penetrans. Beside morphological flea species identification, we compared a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of eggs, a molecular method utilised for the first time in this combination. The identification of T. penetrans in M. tridactyla represents a new host record and expands the host and distribution range of the zoonotic flea species. PMID:22814770

  3. Trends in Animal Rabies Surveillance in the Endemic State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael E.; Oliveira, Camila S. F.; Capanema, Renato O.; Nicolino, Rafael R.; Oviedo-Socarras, Teresa J.; Haddad, João Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012). The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006) and two in the second period (2007-2012), indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies. PMID:25774775

  4. Analysis of the Approach of Paleontology in Geography Textbooks in Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    The textbook is currently one of the driving instruments of teaching and learning. In the analysis of the contents of paleontology in geography textbooks, these books are important because they reveal problems embedded in these works and allow a more informed choice of books for the approach. In this work we performed an analysis of the approach…

  5. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care provided to this segment of the population, particularly among those of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:27143611

  6. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care provided to this segment of the population, particularly among those of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:27143611

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of Salmonella isolated from butcher shops in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Burin, Raquel Cristina Konrad; Lopes, Danilo Augusto; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto de; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can contaminate finished products of butcher shops, mainly through cross-contamination of utensils exposed to raw materials. To identify the main sources of contamination with this foodborne pathogen in four butcher shop environments, surface samples were obtained from employees' hands, cutting boards, knives, floor of the refrigeration room, meat grinders, and meat tenderizers (32 samples per area) and analyzed for Salmonella using the International Organization for Standardization method 6579, with modifications. Suspect isolates were identified by PCR (targeting ompC), and confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (after treatment with restriction enzyme XbaI), analyzed for the presence of virulence genes (invA, sefA, and spvC), and screened for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. Salmonella isolates was identified only on cutting boards (five samples) from three butcher shops. Fifteen isolates were confirmed as Salmonella belonging to four pulse types (similarity of 71.1 to 100%). The invA gene was detected in 13 isolates, and the sefA was found in 8 isolates; no isolate carried spvC. All tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxine, and all isolates were resistant to at least 3 of the 12 antimicrobials tested. The results indicate the importance of cutting boards as a source of Salmonella contamination in butcher shops. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains possessing virulence genes highlights the health risks for consumers. PMID:23992511

  8. Diffusion Pattern and Hotspot Detection of Dengue in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques Pessanha; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Brandão, Silvana Tecles; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the dengue occurrence in the city of Belo Horizonte over the last fifteen years. Approximately 186,000 cases registered from 1996 to 2011 were analyzed. The home address of individuals whose dengue case was notified was used as a proxy for exposure location. For determining possible outbreaks of disease and the specific patterns of dengue cases, spatial statistics used included Kernel's estimation. The occurrence of waves of dengue outbreaks was correlated with climatic and vector presence data. Outbreaks had different durations and intensities: case clustering, thinned out both spatially and temporally. These findings may be useful for public health professionals responsible for fighting the disease providing some tools for improving evaluation of interventions such as vector control and patient care, minimizing the collective and individual burden of the disease. PMID:22536269

  9. Schistosomiasis risk estimation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using environmental data and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2008-01-01

    The influence of climate and environmental variables to the distribution of schistosomiasis has been assessed in several previous studies. Also Geographical Information System (GIS), is a tool that has been recently tested for better understanding the spatial disease distribution. The objective of this paper is to further develop the GIS technology for modeling and control of schistosomiasis using meteorological and social variables and introducing new potential environmental-related variables, particularly those produced by recently launched orbital sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Three different scenarios have been analyzed, and despite of not quite large determination factor, the standard deviation of risk estimates was considered adequate for public health needs. The main variables selected as important for modeling purposes was topographic elevation, summer minimum temperature, the NDVI vegetation index, and the social index HDI91. PMID:18692017

  10. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  11. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  12. Archetype Development Process of Electronic Health Record of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Abreu Maia, Thais; Fernandes De Muylder, Cristiana; Mendonça Queiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The Electronic Health Record (EHR) supports health systems and aims to reduce fragmentation, which will enable continuity of patient care. The paper's main objective is to define the steps, roles and artifacts for an archetype development process (ADP) for the EHR at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). This study was conducted using qualitative analysis based upon an applied case. It had an exploratory purpose metodologically defined in four stages: literature review; descriptive comparison; proposition of an archetype development process and proof of concept. The proof of concept showed that the proposed ADP ensures the archetype quality and supports the semantic interoperability in SUS to improve clinical safety and the continuity of patient care. PMID:26262240

  13. [Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as vectors for bacteria in two hospitals in the municipality of Divinópolis, State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Fernandes dos; Fonseca, Alysson Rodrigo; Sanches, Newton Moreno

    2009-01-01

    The presence of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in hospital environments may constitute a public health problem, especially since they are mechanical vectors for pathogenic organisms. This study aimed to survey the ant populations and analyze the presence of bacteria associated with them in two medium-sized regional hospitals in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Specimens were collected every monthly over a six-month period. The following ant species were found: Pheidole sp1 and sp2, Linepithema humile, Wasmannia auropunctata, Camponotus sp1 and sp2, Odontomachus sp, Solenopsis sp, Acromyrmex sp and Tapinoma melenocephalum. It was observed that these ants mechanically transported Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and non-pathogenic and pathogenic Staphylococcus. These results show the propensity for occurrences of hospital infections at these sites caused by mechanical transmission of pathogens by ants. PMID:19967241

  14. Altération hydrothermale des monazites-(Ce) des pegmatites du district de Santa Maria de Itabira (Minas Gerais, Brésil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Essaïd; Marciano, Vitoria; Marques^Correia Neves, José; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Riffel, Bruno Fernando; Nalini, Herminio Arias; Fernandes, Maria Lourdes; Nasraoui, Mohamed

    1998-05-01

    Monazite-(Ce) is found in granitic pegmatites in the Santa Maria de Itabira pegmatite district (Minas Gerais, Brazil). During the magmatic stage, monazite-(Ce) seems to have had higher contents of cheralite and huttonite in the solid solution. The Th content in primary monazite-(Ce) is high and characteristic for each pegmatite body. During the late stage (albitization), the mean LREE content in the altered zone is slightly higher and Th content is very low. The accessory mineral assemblages changed; huttonite and cheralite crystallize together with Th-poor and La-rich monazite-(Ce) at the border of altered crystals. Nd/Sm and U/Pb ratios are also changed during the hydrothermal stage.

  15. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Ramírez Asquieri, E

    2012-01-01

    The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi. PMID:22732967

  16. Insecticidal activity of cerrado plant extracts on Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André A M; de Paula, José E; Espíndola, Laila S

    2006-01-01

    Chagas' disease is chiefly transmitted by feces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae) that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or animals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of triatomines. Insecticidal activity of 24 Cerrado plant extracts belonging to five species of four families were assayed on fourth instar nymphs of Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions. For the extract application on triatomines, 50 microg of the extract were topically applied in duplicate on dorsal tergites of ten insects. Insects topically treated with acetone, ethanol, as well as insects with no treatment were used as controls. Triatomines were observed over a 28-day period. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts of Simarouba versicolor, Guarea kunthiana, Guarea guidonia and Talauma ovata caused mortality between 20% and 95% of R. milesi in comparison with the controls, which showed no insect mortality. These preliminary data suggest that the ethanolic extract of the root bark of S. versicolor and the hexanic extract of the root of G. guidonia, responsible for a 95% and 75% insect mortality, respectively, should be chemically investigated and monitored through biological assays in order to determine their insecticidal components, that could be used as a molecular model or as biorational compounds for use in insect control programmes. PMID:17352079

  17. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  18. Legal and health variations in drug litigation injunctions granted in Minas Gerais

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago Lopes; Ferré, Felipe; Campos, Orozimbo Henriques; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the factors related to the granting of preliminary court orders [injunctions] in drug litigations. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study of drug lawsuits in the State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, was conducted from October 1999 to 2009. The database consists of 6,112 lawsuits, out of which 6,044 had motions for injunctions and 5,167 included the requisition of drugs. Those with more than one beneficiary were excluded, which totaled 5,072 examined suits. The variables for complete, partial, and suppressed motions were treated as dependent and assessed in relation to those that were independent – lawsuits (year, type, legal representation, defendant, court in which it was filed, adjudication time), drugs (level five of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification), and diseases (chapter of the International Classification of Diseases). Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test. RESULTS Out of the 5,072 lawsuits with injunctions, 4,184 (82.5%) had the injunctions granted. Granting varied from 95.8% of the total lawsuits in 2004 to 76.9% in 2008. Where there was legal representation, granting exceeded 80.0% and in lawsuits without representation, it did not exceed 66.9%. In public civil actions (89.1%), granting was higher relative to ordinary lawsuits (82.8%) and injunctions (80.1%). Federal courts granted only 68.6% of the injunctions, while the state courts granted 84.8%. Diseases of the digestive system and neoplasms received up to 87.0% in granting, while diseases of the nervous system, mental and behavioral disorders, and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue received granting below 78.6% and showed a high proportion of suspended injunctions (10.9%). Injunctions involving paroxetine, somatropin, and ferrous sulfate drugs were all granted, while less than 54.0% of those involving escitalopram, sodium diclofenac, and nortriptyline were granted. CONCLUSIONS There are significant differences in

  19. The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Thaís Aparecida Vieira; Assis, Andrêssa Silvino Ferreira; do Valle, Daniel Almeida; Barletta, Vívian Honorato; de Carvalho, Iná Pires; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; da Rosa e Silva, Maria Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world. Despite being the largest state in southeastern Brazil and having the second largest number of inhabitants, there is no information in the State of Minas Gerais regarding the role of HAdV-F in the etiology of ADD. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV) detected. A total of 377 diarrheal fecal samples were obtained between January 2007 and August 2011 from inpatient and outpatient children of age ranging from 0 to 12 years. All samples were previously tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus, and 314 of 377 were negative. The viral DNA was extracted, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and the HAdV-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (p < 0.05), considering two conditions: the total of samples tested (377) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (314). The overall prevalence of HAdV was 12.47% (47/377); and in 76.60% (36/47) of the positive samples, this virus was the only infectious agent detected. The phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of 32 positive samples revealed that they all clustered with the HAdV-F type 41. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients) in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p = 0.598) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p = 0.614). There was a significant association in the occurrence of infection in children aged 0–12 months for the condition 1 (p = 0.030) as well as condition 2 (p = 0.019). The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of seasonal

  20. First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia

    2010-05-01

    Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the São Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time. PMID:20163938

  1. A new species of Epicriopsis Berlese (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ameroseiidae) from Brazil, with a key to the world species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Narita, João Paulo Z; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-01-01

    Epicriopsis atuberculatus n. sp. is described, based on the morphology of adult females and males collected from macaúba palms (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.; Arecaceae) in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. This is the first species of the genus described from the American continent, from where it has been rarely reported. A key to the world species of Epicriopsis is provided. PMID:27395142

  2. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponini) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rogelio R; Arias, Maria C; Moretto, Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Brazilian endemic stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier ranges from Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais states. The objective of the present study was to verify mtDNA polymorphisms among samples of M. q. quadrifasciata collected in southern Brazil. Twenty nine colonies from three localities (Blumenau and Mafra/SC and Prudentópolis/ PR) were sampled. Seven mtDNA regions were amplified and further digested with 15 restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP). Five composite haplotypes were identified, with two unique to samples from Prudentópolis and the remaining three to samples from Mafra and/or Blumenau. PMID:19488509

  4. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Emília de Carvalho; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Navarro, Daniel Leal; Iani, Felipe Campos de Melo; Durães, Liliane Silva; Daemon, Erik; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles

    2015-12-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF group Rickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, is related to the species R. amblyommii. PMID:26676317

  5. Two ancient human genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Lao, Oscar; Schroeder, Hannes; Rasmussen, Morten; Raghavan, Maanasa; Moltke, Ida; Campos, Paula F; Sagredo, Francisca Santana; Rasmussen, Simon; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Albrechtsen, Anders; Allentoft, Morten E; Johnson, Philip L F; Li, Mingkun; Reis, Silvia; Bernardo, Danilo V; DeGiorgio, Michael; Duggan, Ana T; Bastos, Murilo; Wang, Yong; Stenderup, Jesper; Moreno-Mayar, J Victor; Brunak, Søren; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Hodges, Emily; Hannon, Gregory J; Orlando, Ludovic; Price, T Douglas; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Nielsen, Rasmus; Heinemeier, Jan; Olsen, Jesper; Rodrigues-Carvalho, Claudia; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Neves, Walter A; Kayser, Manfred; Higham, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Pena, Sergio D J; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the peopling of the Americas remains an important and challenging question. Here, we present (14)C dates, and morphological, isotopic and genomic sequence data from two human skulls from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, part of one of the indigenous groups known as 'Botocudos'. We find that their genomic ancestry is Polynesian, with no detectable Native American component. Radiocarbon analysis of the skulls shows that the individuals had died prior to the beginning of the 19th century. Our findings could either represent genomic evidence of Polynesians reaching South America during their Pacific expansion, or European-mediated transport. PMID:25455029

  6. First record of Segonalia Young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from Brazil including the description of S. machadoi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-01-01

    Segonalia, a previously monotypic genus known from Bolivia, is newly recorded from Brazil and Paraguay based on specimens of S. steinbachi Young, 1977 from Minas Gerais State, Brazil and Paraguay and a new species from Piauí and Pará States, Brazil. Segonalia machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CZMA: Brasil, Piauí State, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, 04˚5'57"S, 41˚42'34"W 193 m a.s.l., 12.II.2013, D.M. Takiya leg.) can be distinguished from the type species by its body length and shape of the male pygofer apex and aedeagus. A diagnosis of Segonalia and comparative notes and illustrations of the type species are given. PMID:27395968

  7. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  8. Recent studies on UV radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, M. P.; Ceballos, J. C.; Moregula, A.; Okuno, E.; Fausto, A.; Mol, A.; Santos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation shows a summary of UV index measurements performed in the last years in Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) Brazilian regions. Brazil has an area of 8.5 million km2 distributed between latitudes 5˚ N and 35˚ S and longitudes 5˚ W and 75˚ W. SE is the most important economic pole of South America and the NE coast is an important tourist region. This large area has a great diversity of climatic, atmospheric and geographical conditions in addition to very diverse social and cultural habits. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an epidemiological health problem with more than 120,000 new cases each year. The most of these cases are found in the South and Southeast regions, with about 70 new NMSC per 100,000 inhabitants. Solar Light UV501 biometers are installed in the SE cities of São Paulo (23.6˚ S, 46.7˚ W, 865 m ASL), Itajubá/Minas Gerais (22.4˚ S; 45.5˚ W, 846 m ASL) and the NE city of Ilhéus/Bahia (14.8˚ S; 39.3˚ W; 54 m ASL). First measurements began in 2005 in São Paulo city, while Itajubá and Ilhéus have regular measurements from the beginning of 2008. Other studies related to the UV radiation modeling and interactions with atmosphere components, as ozone, aerosols and clouds, have also been performed. For example: a) UVI modelling calculations performed by a multiple-scattering spectral models; b) studies on the aerosol radiative properties based on satellite (MODIS/Terra-Aqua) and ground-based (Aeronet) observation; c) ozone content variability from satellite (OMI/Aura) and ground-based (Microtops ozonometer) measurements; d) behavioral profile of the population, as regarding habits of solar exposure and sun protection measures. Results show that more than 75% of the measurements conducted in the summer (outside noon) can be classified as upper than high UVI according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended categories: Low (UVI < 2), Medium (3 ? UVI < 6), High (6 ? UVI < 8), Very High (8 ? UVI

  9. Isolation of Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus from a Horse with Neurological Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Roberta; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Marques, Rafael Elias; Oliveira, Taismara Simas; Furtini, Ronaldo; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2013-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil. PMID:24278489

  10. Overlapping Toxoplasma gondii Genotypes Circulating in Domestic Animals and Humans in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Letícia A.; Andrade, Renata O.; Carneiro, Ana Carolina A. V.; Vitor, Ricardo W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Although several Toxoplasma gondii genotyping studies have been performed in Brazil, studies of isolates from animals in the state of Minas Gerais are rare. The objective of this study was to conduct a genotypic characterization of T. gondii isolates obtained from dogs, free-range chickens, and humans in Minas Gerais and to verify whether the T. gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals correspond to the genotypes detected in humans. Genetic variability was assessed by restricted fragment length polymorphism at 11 loci (SAG1, 5′+3′SAG2, SAG2 alt, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Twelve different genotypes were identified among the 24 isolates studied, including 8 previously identified genotypes and 4 new genotypes. The genetic relationship of the 24 T. gondii isolates, together with the genotypes previously described from 24 human newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis, revealed a high degree of similarity among the genotypes circulating in humans and animals in Minas Gerais. The most common genotypes among these species were BrII, BrIII, ToxoDB #108, and ToxoDB #206. Restricted fragment length polymorphism at the CS3 locus of these 48 isolates showed that the majority of isolates presented alleles I (50%) or II (27%). Isolates harboring allele III at the CS3 locus presented low virulence for mice, whereas those harboring alleles I or II presented higher virulence. These results confirm the utility of marker CS3 for predicting the virulence of Brazilian isolates of T. gondii in mice. No association was found between the allele type and clinical manifestations of human congenital toxoplasmosis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotyping that verifies the overlapping genotypes of T. gondii from humans and animals in the same geographic region of Brazil. Our results suggest that there is a common source of infection to the species studied, most likely oocysts contaminating the environment. PMID:24587295

  11. New records and human parasitism by Ornithodoros mimon (Acari: Argasidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Fernandes, André A; Leite, Romario C; Venzal, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    The bat tick Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones is currently known by only few reports in Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, and the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. Here, we expand the distribution of O. mimon in Brazil to the states of Minas Gerais (southeastern region), Goiás (central-western), Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte (northeastern). Ticks were collected on human dwellings, where there had been repeated complains of tick bites on persons during the night. Tick bites were generally followed by intense inflammatory reactions that lasted for several weeks at the bite site. Bats and opossums were reported to inhabit the attic of the infested houses. In addition, a free-ranging opossum (Didelphis albiventris Lund) trapped in Rio Grande do Norte was found infested by argasid larvae. Based on morphological and/or molecular analysis, all ticks were identified as O. mimon. From one of the sites (Tiradentes, state of Minas Gerais), 20 field-collected nymphs were tested by a battery of polymerase chain reaction protocols targeting tick-borne microorganisms of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Rickettsia, Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Coxiella; no tick specimen was found infected by any of these microorganism genera. The current study expands northwards the distribution of O. mimon, which has been shown to be very harmful to humans because of the intense inflammatory response that usually occurs after tick bites. PMID:24605480

  12. [Purveyors of technology: provincial engineers and the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiany Silva

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by engineers in the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais between the 1840s and 1880s. Building and providing regular maintenance for roads and bridges was a task carried out by the Minas Gerais provincial government, which since the 1830s had a specific agency assigned to designing, building, and maintaining public communication routes. Engineers were part of the agency from its inception, playing a significant role in designing projects and in the actual execution of certain works. The current study is grounded in administrative documentation in which the details of work progress are reported to the provincial government. The gathered records provide technical, administrative, and financial information, along with data on labor power and the agents engaged in construction works. PMID:22012105

  13. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  14. Morbidity in users of family health teams in the northeast of Minas Gerais based on the International Classification of Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valquiria M; Pereira, Ivelisa V S; Rocha, Maria de Jesus L; Caldeira, Antônio P

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize the profile of morbidity among users of family health teams in the northeastern macroregion of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional population-based study, developed with the teams of the Family Health Strategy (FHS). It was conducted by data collection, using semi-structured questionnaires with specific instruments adjusted for three categories of professional teams of the FHS: physicians, nurses and community health agents (CHA). We used the International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2) to encode morbidity. Information was collected from 17,988 people, and 10,855 (60.3%) were females; 1,662 (9.2%) questionnaires were related to care by the physician; 2,530 (14.1%) were related to care by nurses and 13,796 (76.7%) corresponded to visits by and meetings with the CHA. The main health problems were: circulatory diseases (especially hypertension), musculoskeletal problems (especially back pain) and diseases of the digestive tract (especially intestinal parasites), which accounted for more than 40% of the medical consultations. Nonspecific complaints and visits related to women's health were the most prevalent in the care by nurses. In meetings with CHA, complaints about respiratory, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases were the most pointed. The morbidity profile observed does not differ substantially from the results of other studies. Small differences can be attributed to regional particularities. PMID:25388494

  15. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city. PMID:27384080

  16. Estimation of the degree of soil P saturation from Brazilian Mehlich-1 P data and field investigations on P losses from agricultural sites in Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Fischer, P; Pöthig, R; Gücker, B; Venohr, M

    2016-01-01

    The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) of agricultural soils is studied worldwide for risk assessment of phosphorus (P) losses. In previous studies, DPS could be reliably estimated from water-soluble P (WSP) for European and Brazilian soils. In the present study, we correlated measured WSP and Mehlich-1 P (M1P) from soils of Minas Gerais (MG) and Pernambuco (PE) (R(2) = 0.94, n = 59) to create a DPS map from monitoring data. The resulting DPS map showed high spatial variability and low values of DPS (54 ± 22%, mean and standard deviation; n = 1,827). Measured soil DPS values amounted to 63 ± 14% and resulted in relatively low dissolved P concentrations measured in a surface runoff study in MG. However, fertilizer grains on the soil surface led to high WSP values (>30 mg/kg) indicating high risks of dissolved P losses. We suppose that small Oxisol particles with Fe and Al hydroxides sorbed most of the dissolved fertilizer P in runoff so that P was mainly exported in particulate form. In soils with lower contents of P sorption and binding partners, e.g. Entisols in PE, this effect may be less dominant. Consequently, superficial fertilizer effects have to be considered in addition to DPS in risk assessment of P losses from agricultural areas in Brazil. PMID:27508374

  17. Acute schistosomiasis outbreak in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais: alert about the risk of unnoticed transmission increased by growing rural tourism.

    PubMed

    Enk, Martin J; Amorim, Amanda; Schall, Virginia T

    2003-09-01

    The present article describes the occurrence of 17 cases of acute schistosomiasis in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All individuals affected took a bath in a swimming pool of a holiday resort that was provided with water from a nearby brook. The apparently clean water and the absence of snails in the pool gave the wrong impression that there was no risk for infection. During a malacological survey at the site snails of the species Biomphalaria glabrata were found and tested positive for Schistosoma mansoni. All the patients live in the middle-class area of Barreiro, metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte and have medium grade school education. The difficulties in establishing the right diagnosis is expressed by the search for medical attention in 17 different medical facilities, the wide range of laboratory test and the inadequate treatment administration. A lack of knowledge about the disease was found in all groups studied. The booming rural tourism in endemic areas is identified as a probable risk factor for infection, especially for individuals of the non-immune middle and upper class parts of the society in urban centers. Special attention is given to a multidisciplinary approach to the complex issue of disease control and prevention. PMID:14595449

  18. A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics – dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238

  19. Seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Valdespino, Iván A.; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A. de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginella alstonii, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucronata, Selaginella mucugensis, Selaginella saltuicola, and Selaginella sematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginella alstonii and Selaginella saltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, and Selaginella mucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginella alstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginella mucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginella saltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginella sematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginella alstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucugensis, and Selaginella sematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginella mucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginella saltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginella sematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new

  20. Seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We describe seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaalstonii, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucronata, Selaginellamucugensis, Selaginellasaltuicola, and Selaginellasematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginellaalstonii and Selaginellasaltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, and Selaginellamucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginellaalstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginellamucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginellasaltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginellasematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginellaalstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucugensis, and Selaginellasematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginellamucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginellasaltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginellasematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new synonymy for Selaginellapalmiformis

  1. [Equity in the health sector: evaluation of public policy in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 1993-1997].

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Virginia; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Kayano, Jorge; Nascimento, Paulo Roberto; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Terence, Marcelo Fernando; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Heimann, Luiza Sterman

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates government measures to reduce inequity in the health sector in Belo Horizonte from 1993 to 1997. Our hypothesis is that a municipal administration committed to equity can reduce disparities in health with the support of the Unified National Health System (SUS). The methodology used an urban quality of life index in Belo Horizonte to detect social inequalities in living conditions, as well as differences between the component indices in the infant mortality rate. Other municipal measures were assessed according to the investment resulting from the implementation of a participatory local budget and open planning process. The urban quality of life index appeared to be an appropriate measure for orienting municipal administration. The infant mortality rate proved to be a good indicator for measuring inequality in health. There was a reduction in IMR and mortality reducing gaps in the districts studied. We observed greater investment of physical and financial resources in the districts with the lowest urban quality of life index, and it can thus be stated that the municipal administration reduced the prevailing inequalities. PMID:12118313

  2. Diamonds from the Espinhaço Range (Minas Gerais, Brazil) and their redistribution through the geologic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, M. L. S. C.; Karfunkel, J.; Hoppe, A.; Hoover, D. B.

    2001-07-01

    Diamond-bearing deposits from the Espinhaço Range are associated with three distinct periods in the geologic record. During a Precambrian magmatic period (≥1.75 Ga), diamondiferous rocks were introduced into the crust; the location of these rocks remains an enigma. During a second period, diamonds were eroded from the primary rocks and deposited in the Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço basin (≅1.75-1.70 Ga), where several generations of reworking and diagenisis are suggested. The third period is the Phanerozoic, during which several more episodes of reworking occurred. The first was during the Eocretaceous uplift of the range, when Precambrian conglomerates were partially eroded and diamonds redeposited in fluvial systems. These deposits have little economic significance because of overlying Tertiary laterites. Renewed upheaval at the Neogene formed diamondiferous fanglomeratic deposits as a result of the pronounced relief. Quaternary climate cycling developed colluvial deposits on earlier formed occurrences. Fanglomeratic and colluvial deposits are worked where the adjacent Proterozoic or Cretaceous sources produced widespread diamond-bearing gravels. Finally, recent river systems have reworked all the earlier sources to produce economic gravels in some places. Although these recent gravels are low grade, they are a major diamond source because of the large reserves. The mineralogical characteristics of these diamonds reflect the long history and repeated reworking of the source deposits, and the geologic history of the region points towards an extra-basinal source area, probably to the west within the São Francisco Craton. This repeated reworking has resulted in a natural selection of the diamonds that eliminated low-quality stones in the journey to their final resting place.

  3. The everyday health of the young individuals of a popular neighborhood of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horta, Natália de Cássia; Sena, Roseni Rosângela de

    2011-12-01

    The object of this study was the everyday health of young individuals considering that their experiences are not contemplated in the health actions. The objective is to analyze the juvenile lifestyles learning the meanings and senses of health in their everyday life. This is a qualitative investigation, founded on dialectics, based on everyday life sociology. This study was developed in a popular neighborhood of Belo Horizonte, and was structured into an exploratory and interpretative phase, with nineteen young individuals as subjects. Through hermeneutics and dialectics analysis, the thesis was confirmed. The health actions present in the young individuals' everyday life consider the resources and constitutive aspects of the juvenile condition, which is still poorly contemplated in the health area propositions. In the everyday life of the young indidivuals, there is an expressiveness of the lifestyles and juvenile condition in which health reveals for their well being and for the basic conditions to lead life. The prevalent health conception is centered on behaviors and corporeity. In order to promote juvenile health it is necessary to consider the juvenile lifestyles and interact with them on an everyday basis. Health care actions occupy a (in) visible space in the youngsters' lives and interact with their priorities in their experience of the juvenile condition. This study revealed the importance of proposing health care actions in the micro areas and in the territory in which this condition is expressed. PMID:22569653

  4. Factors associated with schistosomiasis mansoni in a population from the municipality of Jaboticatubas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Barros, Héliton da Silva; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Schall, Virgínia

    2004-01-01

    Jaboticatubas is a municipality in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte which has been a target of a wide media release as "the capital of schistosomiasis" since the 1960's. In order to give support to a work based on an integrated control, we sought to identify the disease determinants at the site. A transversal study was carried out aimed at identifying prevalence rates of the disease and factors associated with the infection in the district of São José de Almeida, and two close localities, Cipó Velho and São José da Serra, all of them located in the municipality of Jaboticatubas. A parasitological survey was performed, applying the Kato-Katz method with two slides per sample in 1186 schoolchildren which represents 77% of all registered pupils in four public schools in 2001. Among these schoolchildren a number of 101 (8.6%) proved positive for Schistosoma mansoni eggs in their stool samples. A total of 64 families, whose schoolchildren had shown to be positive for schistosomiasis, also undertook examinations. As negative control, a random sample was collected from the 206 families, whose children had proven negative for schistosomiasis. The prevalence among 270 families (1304 people) was 12%. To assess those who continued to have contact with possibly contaminated water, 1061 (81.4%) people of the 270 families were interviewed. A multivariate analysis identified the following factors associated with the infection: time of residence in the area (short period), garbage disposal (use of deserted areas), gender (male), age (from 10 to 29 years), and water contact (daily and weekly). Further analysis of these factors revealed a close correlation between water contact and the disease, with a positive significant frequency concerning almost all those items. Depending on gender and age significant variations of water contact patterns associated with leisure and professional activities were found. A malacological survey on water collections in the area identified snails of the species Biomphalaria straminea and B. glabrata. The latter showed 17 (0.6%) specimens positive for S. mansoni. Qualitative studies have complemented such evidences, which allowed us to design a reference picture and specific indicators of the disease for the local population. Those data provided the essential information to continue the development of an already ongoing educative process, as well as projects on environmental improvements. PMID:15486649

  5. Heavy Metals and Histopathological Alterations in Salminus franciscanus (Lima & Britski, 2007) (Pisces: Characiformes) in the Paraopeba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savassi, Lourenço Almeida; Arantes, Fabio Pereira; Gomes, Marcos Vinicius Teles; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2016-04-01

    Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Hg, and Fe in the liver, spleen and muscle, of the fish Salminus franciscanus, from two sections of Paraopeba River, highly affected by anthropogenic influences, was detected in levels above those recommended for human consumption. Positive correlations between fish size and levels of metals were detected for Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn. In the livers, areas with lipid accumulation and pigmented macrophages were also observed, as was fibrosis of the spleen in the parenchymal area through the presence of pigmented macrophages. The diameter of vitellogenic follicles was less and the frequency of atresia was higher in fish from section A. Thus, our study showed that beyond the risk to the population that eats S. franciscanus from the Paraopeba River, we should also consider the risk to the conservation of this species, since histopathological changes were detected in target organs and in some reproductive parameters. PMID:26781631

  6. Spatial and Temporal Soil Moisture Behavior in a Headwater Watershed of the Mantiqueira Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture is highly relevant in watersheds for understanding the many hydrological and erosion processes, to better model the processes and apply them to conservation planning. The goal of this study was to map soil moisture of the surf...

  7. [A study of the overall burden of oral disease in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: 2004-2006].

    PubMed

    da Mota, Jurema Corrêa; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade; Leite, Iuri da Costa

    2014-07-01

    Oral disease is a major public health problem due to its prevalence in practically all age groups. This is a study of the overall burden of dental caries, edentulism and periodontal disease. The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) indicator was used as it simultaneously measures the impact of mortality and of health problems that affect the quality of life. The overall burden of oral diseases was analyzed in absolute terms and in rates per 1000 inhabitants. The number of Years Lived with Disability (YLD) due to dental caries was 4,489. An estimated 33,888 YLD were lost due to edentulism, with a rate of 1.8/1000 (2.2/1000 among women). An estimated 3217 YLD were lost due to periodontal disease, with a rate of 0.2/1000 for both sexes. Edentulism was the condition that contributed most to the overall burden of oral diseases and is more frequent among women. Higher rates of edentulism and periodontal disease were found in persons aged 45-69 years, while dental caries was more frequent from 15-49 years. The overall burden of oral disease studies represent an important aspect of health diagnosis, integrating both fatal and non-fatal outcomes. Furthermore, these studies provide highly relevant information for preventive and therapeutic policy making. PMID:25014296

  8. Evaluation of MODIS-LAI products in the tropical dry secondary forest of Mata Seca, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamarte Loreto, Payri Alejandra

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) advances scientific knowledge of the role of secondary forests in forest area conservation. MODIS-LAI products provide an alternative, efficient and cost-effective method for measuring LAI in Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs). The performance of MODIS-LAI satellite products in a TDF was studied as a function of successional stages by (1) estimating seasonal LAI variations compared to in situ LAI values (2) using dry season MODIS-LAI products to estimate Woody Area Index (WAI) (3) estimating phenology changes through comparisons to in situ data. The study demonstrates (1) MODIS-LAI product showed agreement with in situ values with increasing successional stage. (2) MODIS-LAI product showed best agreement to in situ WAI values in the intermediate successional stage. (3) TIMESAT analysis indicated that MODIS-LAI products detected start-of-season 1-2 weeks before in situ values and end-of-season 20-30 days after in situ values, indicating that MODIS-LAI product captures canopy leafing, but is not suitable for detecting senescence. Keywords: Leaf Area Index, Validation, MODIS, Woody Area Index, Phenology, Tropical Secondary Forest Succession, Hemispherical Photography, LAI-2000,.

  9. Geological-structural interpretation using products of remote sensing in the region of Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of some criteria developed for the utilization of small scale and low resolution remote sensing products to map geological and structural features was demonstrated. Those criteria were adapted from the Logical Method of Photointerpretation which consists of textural qualitative analysis of landforms and drainage net patterns. LANDSAT images of channel 5 and 7, 4 LANDSAT-RBV scenes, and 1 radar mosiac were utilized. The region of study is characterized by supracrustal metassediments (quartzites and micaschist) folded according to a "zig-zag" pattern and gnaissic basement. Lithological-structural definition was considered outstanding when compared to data acquired during field work, bibliographic data and geologic maps acquired in larger scales.

  10. The Statherian itabirite-bearing sequence from the Morro Escuro Ridge, Santa Maria de Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira Braga, Flávia Cristina; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Queiroga, Gláucia Nascimento; Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal Jesse

    2015-03-01

    The itabirite-bearing metasedimentary sequence from Morro Escuro Ridge comprises the basal units of the Espinhaço Supergroup and makes up a small tectonic inlier developed during one of the Brasiliano orogenic events (800-500 Ma), amongst horses of the Archean TTG gneisses, including sheared granites of the anorogenic Borrachudos Suite (˜1700 Ma). The metasedimentary rocks are comprised of low-to intermediate-amphibolite facies schists, quartzites, conglomerates and banded iron formation (itabirite) correlatable with the sequences of the Serro Group, which underlies the metasedimentary rocks of the Espinhaço Supergroup in the Serra da Serpentina Ridge. A maximum Statherian deposition age (1668 Ma) was established using SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic constraints on zircon grains from conglomerate and quartzite units overlying the itabirite. The itabirite is predominantly hematitic and its geochemical characteristics are typical of a Lake Superior-type BIF deposited in a platformal, suboxic to anoxic environment distant from Fe-bearing hydrothermal vents. Close to the contact zone with amphibolites of the Early Neoproterozoic Pedro Lessa mafic suite, an increase of the magnetite content and crystallization of metasomatic Mg-hornblende and Ce-allanite can be observed. These mineralogical changes developed preferentially along the igneous contact zone but are probably co-genetic with the formation of alteration haloes in zircon grains during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny (506 ± 6 Ma).

  11. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  12. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  13. Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

  14. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  16. [Keys to families and genera of gerromorpha and nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) in the central Amazonia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Domingos L V; de Melo, Alan L; Hamada, Neusa

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have been done in Brazil on aquatic and semi-aquatic Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Heteroptera), Minas Gerais being the state where these insects have been studied the most. The present study presents keys for identification of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha adults, thus providing a tool for ecological studies on aquatic insects in Central Amazonia. The specimens used to elaborate the taxonomic keys were collected in Presidente Figueiredo county in streams and artificial lakes and in Manaus county in streams, white-water floodplain (várzea) lakes and Rio Negro black-water flooded forest (igapó). Specimens from the invertebrate collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA) were also examined and included in the keys. Thirty one genera from 13 families of the infra-orders mentioned. PMID:17607454

  17. Two new species of Ulmeritoides Traver (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souto, Paula Malaquias; Da-Sil, Elidiomar Ribeirova; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz; Gonçalves, Inês Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Ulmeritoides Traver, 1959 are described from Southeastern Brazil based on male and female imagos. Ulmeritoides angelus sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZRJ: Minas Gerais State) differs from all other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: forewings hyaline, base dark brown and purplish; veins R1 light brown; dark brown spots on bullae of veins Sc and R2; apex of penis lobes somewhat rounded, each with one central spine. Ulmeritoides tamoio sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZRJ: São Paulo State) differs from all other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: wings hyaline; veins C, Sc and R1 brownish; brownish spots on bullae of veins Sc and R2; apex of penis lobes straight, ending in rather acute apical and mesal projections. An updated key to the genera Ulmeritoides Traver, 1956 and Ulmeritus Traver, 1956 is also given. PMID:27395967

  18. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  19. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  20. FIRST CASE OF HUMAN INFECTION BY Bertiella studeri (Blanchard, 1891) Stunkard,1940 (Cestoda; Anoplocephalidae) IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Valeriana Valadares; dos SANTOS, Hudson Andrade; da SILVA, Amália Verônica Mendes; FONTES, Gilberto; VIEIRA, Gabriela Lisboa; FERREIRA, Arilton Carlos; da SILVA, Eduardo Sergio

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cestodes of the Bertiella genus are parasites of non-human primates found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Species Bertiella studeri and Bertiella mucronata could, accidentally, infect human beings. The infection occurs from ingestion of mites from the Oribatida order containing cysticercoid larvae of the parasite. The objective of this report is to register the first case of human infection by Bertiella studeri in Brazil. Proglottids of the parasite, found in the stool sample of a two-and-a-half-year-old child, were fixed, stained and microscopically observed to evaluate its morphological characteristics. Eggs obtained from the proglottids were also studied. The gravid proglottids examined matched the description of the genus Bertiella. The eggs presented a round shape, with the average diameter of 43.7 µm, clearly showing the typical pyriform apparatus of B. studeri. The authors concluded that the child was infected with Bertiella studeri, based on Stunkard's (1940) description of the species. This is the fifth case of human Bertiellosis described in Brazil through morphometric analysis of the parasite, the third in Minas Gerais State and the first diagnosed case of Bertiella studeri in Brazil. PMID:26603236

  1. Factors Associated with Providers' Perceptions of Mental Health Care in Santa Luzia's Family Health Strategy, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ghesquiere, Angela R; Pinto, Rogerio M; Rahman, Rahbel; Spector, Anya Y

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has a unique mental health care system, characterized by universal coverage delivered by interdisciplinary teams both in the community and in specialized centros de atenção psicossocial (CAPS-psychosocial care centers). Provision of patient-centered mental health care is an important principle of Brazilian mental health care, but this topic has not been well-studied. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 151 community health workers (CHWs), nurses, and physicians in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chi-squares, t-tests and multivariate regression analyses examined differences in socio-demographics, caseload, engagement in evidence-based practices (EBPs), and transdisciplinary collaboration between providers who reported providing high levels of patient-centered mental health care and those who did not. In multivariate regression models, components of transdisciplinary collaboration were significantly associated with providers' perceptions of patient-centered mental health care (p < 0.05). CHWs were also significantly more likely to report providing patient-centered care than physicians and nurses. EBP engagement and sociodemographics were not associated with perceptions. Results suggest that training efforts to improve patient-centered mental health care in Brazil could build upon CHWs' skills and focus on transdisciplinary collaboration. Findings may inform practice in other countries with similar health care systems. PMID:26703644

  2. Integrating three tools for the environmental assessment of the Pardo River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carolina S; Alves, Renato I S; Fregonesi, Brisa M; Beda, Cassio F; Suzuki, Meire N; Trevilato, Rudison B; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for strategic assessment of environmental conditions in river basins around the world. In spite of the considerable water resources, Brazil has been suffering from water quality decrease in recent years. Pardo River runs through Minas Gerais and São Paulo, two of the most economically important states in Brazil, and is being currently promoted as a future drinking water source. This study aimed at integrating three different tools to conduct a hydromorphological assessment focused on the spatial complexity, connectivity, and dynamism of the Pardo River, Brazil. Twelve sampling stretches were evaluated in four sampling campaigns, in dry and rainy seasons. In each stretch, permanent preservation areas (PPAs), hydromorphological integrity by rapid assessment protocol (RAP), and physicochemical parameters were qualified. The kappa coefficient was used to assess statistical agreement among monitoring tools. The PPA analysis showed that in all stretches, the vegetation was modified. RAP results revealed environmental deterioration in stretches located near human activities and less variability of substrates available for aquatic fauna and sediment deposition as well. Low values for dissolved oxygen in the river mouth were noted in the rainy season. Electrical conductivity was higher in stretches near sugarcane crops. The poor agreement (k<0.35) between the RAP and physicochemical parameters indicates that the tools generate different and complementary information, while they are not replaceable. Potential changes of the hydromorphological characteristics and variations in physicochemical indicators must be related to extensive PPA modification. PMID:26266898

  3. FIRST CASE OF HUMAN INFECTION BY Bertiella studeri (Blanchard, 1891) Stunkard,1940 (Cestoda; Anoplocephalidae) IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valeriana Valadares; dos Santos, Hudson Andrade; Silva, Amália Verônica Mendes da; Fontes, Gilberto; Vieira, Gabriela Lisboa; Ferreira, Arilton Carlos; da Silva, Eduardo Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cestodes of the Bertiella genus are parasites of non-human primates found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Species Bertiella studeri and Bertiella mucronata could, accidentally, infect human beings. The infection occurs from ingestion of mites from the Oribatida order containing cysticercoid larvae of the parasite. The objective of this report is to register the first case of human infection by Bertiella studeri in Brazil. Proglottids of the parasite, found in the stool sample of a two-and-a-half-year-old child, were fixed, stained and microscopically observed to evaluate its morphological characteristics. Eggs obtained from the proglottids were also studied. The gravid proglottids examined matched the description of the genus Bertiella. The eggs presented a round shape, with the average diameter of 43.7 µm, clearly showing the typical pyriform apparatus of B. studeri. The authors concluded that the child was infected with Bertiella studeri,based on Stunkard's (1940) description of the species. This is the fifth case of human Bertiellosis described in Brazil through morphometric analysis of the parasite, the third in Minas Gerais State and the first diagnosed case of Bertiella studeri in Brazil. PMID:26603236

  4. Landscape structure in the expansion area of deforestation of the Brazilian Cerrado in Minas Gerais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A. D.; Streher, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and is listed as one of the hotspots for biodiversity conservation priority. The biome provides important ecosystem services such as maintenance of the biodiversity, water cycle and carbon storage, and your preservation is essential to protecting the Amazon Rainforest. Although its importance, it was heavily affected by deforestation, with a loss of about 49% of its original native cover by the year of 2010. In Minas Gerais state, the remaining Cerrado original cover is very expressive, shaped by a mosaic of phytophysionomies, comprising grassland, savanna and forest. The great species diversity and endemism in these landscapes, associated with changes imposed by man over time, caused major environmental damage in this biome. Recently, new deforestation fronts have been identified throughout the Brazilian Cerrado, including Minas Gerais State. This study aimed to analyze the landscape structure in front of expansion in this state, as a subsidy for the establishment of guidelines for future biodiversity conservation and landscape planning. The study site comprised the sub basins of the Paracatú River (SF7) and Middle São Francisco (SF9). The analyses were performed based on land use, mapped through remote sensing techniques, resulting in 18 classes of land use. The most important results of the calculated indices showed that the study area is highly fragmented, with most of the remaining patches small, with large perimeter and strong edge effect, favoring biodiversity loss. Moreover, the biological flow in the study area is hindered by the presence of few fragments into a predetermined radius of 10 km. It has been found that less than 30% of the native vegetation remnant in the area, making all existing fragments relevant to conservation. Finally, the landscape metrics analyzed showed that there is a high level of environmental risk determining low support existing biodiversity in the landscape.

  5. FATAL OUTCOME OF INFECTION BY DENGUE 4 IN A PATIENT WITH THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA AS A COMORBID CONDITION IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Pereira, Maira Alves; Iani, Felipe Campos de Melo; D'anunciação, Lorena; de Almeida, Jorge Luís Carvalho; Soares, Janer Aparecida Silveira; Ferraz, Marcela Lencine; Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is currently a major public-health problem. Dengue virus (DENV) is classified into four distinct serotypes, DENV 1-4. After 28 years of absence, DENV-4 was again detected in Brazil in 2010 in Roraima State, and one year later, the virus was identified in the northern Brazilian states of Amazonas and Pará, followed by Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. In Minas Gerais, the first confirmed case of DENV-4 occurred in the municipality of Frutal in 2011 and has now been isolated from a growing number of patients. Although DENV-2 is associated with the highest risk of severe forms of the disease and death due to the infection, DENV-4 has also been associated with severe forms of the disease and an increasing risk of hemorrhagic manifestations. Herein, the first fatal case of confirmed DENV-4 in Brazil is reported. The patient was an 11-year-old girl from the municipality of Montes Claros in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. She had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura as a comorbid condition and presented with a fulminant course of infection, leading to death due to hemorrhagic complications. Diagnosis was confirmed by detection of Dengue-specific antibodies using IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and semi-nested RT-PCR. Primary care physicians and other health-care providers should bear in mind that DENV-4 can also result in severe forms of the disease and lead to hemorrhagic complications and death, mainly when dengue infection is associated with coexisting conditions. PMID:24879007

  6. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  7. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  8. Metacercarial Infection of Wild Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hudson A.; Mati, Vitor L. T.; Melo, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus collected in an artificial urban lake from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated for natural infection with trematodes. Morphological taxonomic identification of four fluke species was performed in O. niloticus examined, and the total prevalence of metacercariae was 60.7% (37/61). Centrocestus formosanus, a heterophyid found in the gills, was the species with the highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection (31.1% and 3.42 (1–42), resp.), followed by the diplostomid Austrodiplostomum compactum (29.5% and 1.27 (1-2)) recovered from the eyes. Metacercariae of Drepanocephalus sp. and Ribeiroia sp., both found in the oral cavity of the fish, were verified at low prevalences (8.2% and 1.6%, resp.) and intensities of infection (only one metacercaria of each of these species per fish). These species of trematodes are reported for the first time in O. niloticus from South America. The potential of occurrence of these parasites in tilapia farming and the control strategies are briefly discussed. PMID:25485302

  9. Characterization and Spectral Monitoring of Coffee Lands in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Maciel, D. A.; Gonçalves, T. G.; Dantas, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, coffee production has great economic and social importance. Despite this fact, there is still a shortage of information regarding its spatial distribution, crop management and environment. The aim of this study was to carry out spectral monitoring of coffee lands and to characterize their environments using geotechnologies. Coffee fields with contiguous areas over 0.01 km2 within a 488.5 km2 region in the south of Minas Gerais state were selected for the study. Spectral data from the sensors OLI/Landsat 8 and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission from 2014 to 2015 were obtained, as well as information on production areas, surface temperature, vegetation indexes, altitude and slope, were gathered and analyzed. The results indicate that there is great variation in the NDVI and NDWI values, with means ranging from 0.21 to 0.91 (NDVI) and 0.108 to 0.543 (NDWI). The altitude ranged from 803 to 1150 m, and the surface temperature from 20.9°C to 27.6°C. The altitude and the surface temperature distribution patterns were correlated with the vegetation indexes. The slope classes were very homogeneous, predominantly with declivities between 8 to 20 %, characterized as wavy relief. This study made possible the characterization and monitoring of coffee lands and its results may be instrumental in decision-making processes related to coffee management.

  10. Arsenic mobility in sediments from Paracatu River Basin, MG, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Patrícia Sueli; Costa, Letícia Malta; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2015-04-01

    Paracatu River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, houses long areas of irrigated agriculture and gold-, lead-, and zinc-mining activities. This region has a prevalence of sulfide minerals and a natural occurrence of high levels of arsenopyrite. In this work, surface water, groundwater, sediments and local vegetable samples were collected in October 2010 and November 2011 and were analyzed to evaluate arsenic (As) distribution, mobility, and transport in these environmental compartments. All sediment samples (738-2,750 mg kg(-1)) and 37 % of the water samples [less than the limit of detection (LOD) to 110 µg L(-1)] from the rivers and streams of Paracatu had As concentrations greater than the quality standards established by national and international environmental organizations (5.9 mg kg(-1) for sediments and 10 µg L(-1) for water). Most vegetable samples had As concentrations within the normal range for plants (lower than the LOD to 120 mg kg(-1)). A correlation among As concentrations in water, sediment, and vegetable samples was verified. PMID:25672271

  11. Sickle cell anemia in Brazil: personal, medical and endodontic patterns.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Shirlene Barbosa Pimentel; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Rosa, Marco Aurélio Camargo da; Brito, Luciana Carla Neves de; Vieira, Leda Quércia; Martelli, Hercílio; Ribeiro, Antônio Paulino

    2016-05-20

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most prevalent genetic disease worldwide. Recurrent vaso-occlusive infarcts predispose SCA patients to infections, which are the primary causes of morbidly and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SCA and endodontic diseases. Personal information, medical data (hematological indices, virologic testing, blood transfusions, medications received, splenectomy) and information on the need for endodontic treatment were obtained from SCA patients who were registered and followed up by the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.These data were compared with the need for root canal treatment in SCA patients. One hundred eight patients comprised the studied population, and the rate of the need for endodontic therapy was 10.2%. Among the medical data, a significant difference was observed for eosinophil (p = 0.045) counts and atypical lymphocyte counts (p = 0.036) when the groups (with and without the need for endodontic treatment) were compared. Statistical relevance was observed when comparing the patients with and without the need for root canal therapy concerned eosinophil counts and atypical lymphocyte counts. The differences in statistical medical data, observed between the groups suggest that both parameters are naturally connected to the stimulation of the immune system that can occur in the presence of root canal infections and that can be harmful to SCA individuals. PMID:27223130

  12. Endecous peruassuensis n. sp. (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae) from caves of Eastern Brazil: evidence of isolation in the subterranean realm and discussion about troglomorphisms.

    PubMed

    Bolfarini, Marcio P; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Endecous Saussure (1878), recorded at the Lapa do Cipó and Olhos d'Água caves, which are located in the Itacarambi municipality, Minas Gerais state, Eastern Brazil. Another species, E. aguassay Mews, 2008 was recordedin the surroundings of the caves. The genus Endecous corresponds to the most common cricket in Brazilian hypogean environments. In general, these crickets inhabit the areas around cave entrances up to the aphotic zones of caves. The genus Endecous is the only cave cricket to present troglobiomorphosis, i.e., an apterous condition. The distribution of the new species is limited to these two caves, which suggests an endemism in this karst system similar to the distribution of other endemic animals, such as harvestmen and amblypygid arachnids. This species is the sixth troglobitic one described for Olhos d'Água cave, which sets this cave as a spot of subterranean fauna in Brazil. PMID:26624364

  13. Brazil in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fabiola

    1993-10-01

    Brazil's National Space Research Institute (INPE) was born out of the desire of a number of Brazilians to see their country participating in the conquest of space. On 3 August 1961, President Janio Quadros signed a decree, creating the Organising Group for the National Space Commission (GOCNAE) as a part of the National Research Council (CNPq). CNAE, as the institution became known later gave birth to INPE. The present activities of INPE - concentrated in the areas of Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Observation, and Space Technology - and showing that space science and technology can exert an important influence on the quality of life of the general population, and on Brazil's future national development.

  14. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    present in the area but infecting humans only rarely if at all. The virus occasionally leaves the cyclic emergence area and appears in the sporadic emergence area to the east, in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and, as a consequence, moving onto other hydraulic basins. The small river basins in Maranhão and NorthWest states, as well as in the northern part of the state of Roraima also form part of the sporadic emergence area. The epidemics that occur here are directly linked to the endemic area and are only preceded by sometimes indiscernible epizootics and can consequently not be foreseen. Again the virus appears to use privileged pathways to reach the sporadic emergence areas where human and monkey populations are generally only partially immunised against yellow fever and where contact with mosquitoes is intense despite the fact it is limited in space and time, being restricted to the often narrow strip of trees along the water courses. Other routes used by the virus may be the Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós rivers, the scene of outbreaks observed in the state of Rondônia and in the north of Mato Grosso, where ongoing environmental changes are likely to result in an increasing number of outbreaks in the coming years. Since the discovery of the sylvatic cycle of yellow fever in 1933, not only the extent of the epidemiological areas has changed, but also their limits. Ecological modifications that are currently taking place in the Amazon basin, which is an endemic reservoir of the virus, will inevitably facilitate an increase the contact between humans and vectors. While more and more urban areas harbour populations of Aedes aegypti, the domestic and urban vector of yellow fever, it is particularly important to try to protect human populations living in emergence zones and epidemic areas and thus to prevent the arrival of the virus in towns via humans with viremia--in other words the much feared urbanisation of yellow fever in Brazil. PMID:11681224

  15. A taxonomic synopsis of South American Cyanogomphini Carle with description of Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. from the Cerrado of Brazil (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Almeida, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira De

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of Cyanogomphini Carle, 1986 (sensu Belle 1996), including all species currently under the genera Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, and Tibiagomphus Belle, 1992, is provided. Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂ deposited in DZRJ: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Jaboticatubas municipality, Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, collecting site "Córrego das Pedras" 19°22'17"S, 43°36'03"W, 766 m a.s.l., 12.XII.2011, A.P.M. Santos & D.M. Takiya leg.) is described and illustrated based on four males and two females from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, southeastern Brazil. The new species is most similar to C. waltheri Selys, 1873, from which it can be distinguished by its smaller size; larger pale areas on mesepisternum; pale dorsal surface of metathoracic tibia; larger distal concavity on epiproct, with laterodistal projection, in lateral view forefinger-shaped; and occurrence in Cerrado province. Five species are recognized in Cyanogomphini, and for each one a synonymy, diagnoses, identification key and maps of distribution are presented. The status of sibling taxa Tibiagomphus uncatus (Fraser, 1947) and T. noval (Rodrigues Capítulo, 1985), as well as the Agriogomphus-complex of genera are also discussed. PMID:27395962

  16. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  17. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  18. Finding oil in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, C.W.M.; Delaney, P.J.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Although oil in fractures of bituminous shales of Early Cretaceous age had been known since 1858 in Bahia, oil production in Brazil was delayed for eight decades. There were two fundamental reasons for this belated development. First, the paucity of good oil and gas seeps like those found in other countries and second, Brazilian entrepreneurs did not have the financing or the tradition of risk taking and technology to plunge into oil exploration. Thus, the development of the oil industry in Brazil evolved along different lines than in other countries. Petrobras was the beginning of the modern period of oil exploration in Brazil. Utilizing seismic interpretation methods, oil was discovered onshore in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin in 1957, in the Espirito Santo basin in 1969, and in the Potiquar basin in 1979. After many years of frustration looking for commercial oil in the huge Amazon basin, Petrobras discovered gas in the Jurua River Valley in 1978. Although offshore drilling began with discovery of the Guaricema field in 1968, it was not until the advent of modern offshore drilling and seismic technology that the prolific Garoupa field was discovered in 1974 which opened up the Campos basin. Furthermore, identification of huge structures in deep water by 3D seismic mapping methods indicate a bright future for Petrobras in offshore Brazil.

  19. Human Pythiosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Araújo, João Pessoa; Candeias, João Manuel Grisi; Fabiano de Franco, Marcello; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Mendoza, Leonel; Pires de Camargo, Rosangela; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2005-01-01

    Pythiosis, caused by Pythium insidiosum, occurs in humans and animals and is acquired from aquatic environments that harbor the emerging pathogen. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical and histopathologic features are not pathognomonic. We report the first human case of pythiosis from Brazil, diagnosed by using culture and rDNA sequencing. PMID:15890126

  20. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  1. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  2. Chikungunya risk for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  3. Teacher Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines

    1999-01-01

    Discusses elementary teacher education in Brazil, examining problems teacher educators face (e.g., lack of direct communication between theoretical studies and the practical world and lack of inclusion of practical knowledge and expertise developed by successful teachers). Current educational policies are discussed, looking at: implementation of a…

  4. Leprosy situation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tomimori-Yamashita, Jane

    2006-09-01

    We present the situation of leprosy in Brazil, reporting about epidemiology, clinical criteria for classification, multidrugtherapy and special situations, as co-infection. This material was presented in the 79th Annual Meeting of Japanese Hansen's Disease Association in May 2006, during a discussion about the Japanese Guidelines for leprosy treatment. PMID:17037380

  5. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  6. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  7. IPPs in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Alqueres, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil offers a viable opportunity for independent power producers (IPPs). Four areas of the Brazilian power sector may be the potential starting points for an independent power industry. Recent legislation also has opened the doors for IPP activity by allowing companies to form consortia to generate power for their own needs. Another recent decree formed the basis for a grid system to which generators can sell power. This also has laid the groundwork for more clearly defined wheeling charges.

  8. Spiders in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S

    1988-01-01

    Descriptions of the principal venomous spiders in Brazil, of the genera Phoneutria, Loxosceles, Latrodectus and Scaptocosa, are given, together with a list of species and their geographical distribution. Detailed information on their habitat, behaviour and venom quantity, symptomatology of human accidents and epidemiology is given and recommendations are made for the prevention of accidents. General observations are made on the most common mygalomorph spiders. PMID:3059583

  9. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  10. Description of a new species of Pareiorhina (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we describe a new species of Pareiorhina from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the dorsal surface of caudal peduncle strongly concave, 30 vertebrae, bicuspid teeth, a conspicuous cylindrical shaped papilla between the oral valve and premaxilla, smaller odontodes along the snout margin, a small orbital diameter, a higher head width, a shorter interorbital width, a shorter predorsal length, a shorter cleithral width, and a shorter caudal peduncle depth. The new species is known from four small streams of the rio São Francisco basin: one tributary of the rio Maranhão, one tributary of the rio Paraopeba and two tributaries of the Rio das Velhas. This species is found in fast-flowing streams associated with rocks and sand in the bottom of the rivers. PMID:27394827

  11. Anurans in a forest remnant in the transition zone between cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest domains in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Renata M; Nascimento, Luciana B; Feio, Renato N

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the species richness, temporal distribution and reproductive activity of anurans from the Uaimií State Forest (Floresta Estadual do Uaimií - FLOE Uaimií), situated in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, municipality of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Field activities were performed monthly from September 2009 to August 2010. We recorded 36 anurans species, distributed in 10 families. The greatest richness of the sampled sites corresponds to a permanent rivulet in a secondary forest. The majority of anuran species presented seasonal vocalization activity pattern, mainly in the rainy season. The anuran species composition of FLOE Uaimií is similar to others studied areas from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region. PMID:24068093

  12. Short communication: detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction in bovine milk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, I A; Silva, A; Campos, V E B; Moreira, M A S

    2009-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects all ruminants worldwide. Since the isolation of MAP from intestinal tissue of human patients bearing Crohn's disease, there has been a debate on the possibility of this agent playing a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease. Milk could be the potential vehicle for transmission to humans. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis has already been detected in milk samples worldwide. In Brazil, detection of MAP is uncommon; however, it has already been detected by bacterial isolation and serological test. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MAP, by PCR, in raw milk samples in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Of 222 milk samples evaluated, 8 (3.6%) quarter milk samples amplified fragments of similar size to that expected of 626 bp. These fragments were cloned and sequenced. The genetic analysis revealed a 99% identity match between the sequences obtained in this study and the insertion sequence IS900 deposited in the GenBank. In the analyzed milk samples, MAP DNA was detected, confirming its presence in dairy cattle in the region of Viçosa. This is the first report of MAP presence in raw milk samples in Brazil. PMID:19841202

  13. Factors Associated with Providers’ Perceptions of Mental Health Care in Santa Luzia’s Family Health Strategy, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Pinto, Rogerio M.; Rahman, Rahbel; Spector, Anya Y.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has a unique mental health care system, characterized by universal coverage delivered by interdisciplinary teams both in the community and in specialized centros de atenção psicossocial (CAPS—psychosocial care centers). Provision of patient-centered mental health care is an important principle of Brazilian mental health care, but this topic has not been well-studied. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 151 community health workers (CHWs), nurses, and physicians in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chi-squares, t-tests and multivariate regression analyses examined differences in socio-demographics, caseload, engagement in evidence-based practices (EBPs), and transdisciplinary collaboration between providers who reported providing high levels of patient-centered mental health care and those who did not. In multivariate regression models, components of transdisciplinary collaboration were significantly associated with providers’ perceptions of patient-centered mental health care (p < 0.05). CHWs were also significantly more likely to report providing patient-centered care than physicians and nurses. EBP engagement and sociodemographics were not associated with perceptions. Results suggest that training efforts to improve patient-centered mental health care in Brazil could build upon CHWs’ skills and focus on transdisciplinary collaboration. Findings may inform practice in other countries with similar health care systems. PMID:26703644

  14. New host records of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zeringóta, Viviane; Maturano, Ralph; Santolin, Ísis Daniele Alves Costa; McIntosh, Douglas; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Daemon, Erik; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2016-05-01

    Birds are an important component of the life histories and bioecology of a number of tick species and of some tick associated pathogens. An examination of the data concerning bird/tick associations in the Neotropics, showed that the tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustrisis (Packard, 1869) was rarely recorded infesting birds. The current study reports parasitism by H. leporispalustris in wild birds collected from Atlantic rain forest environments in the states of Rio de Janeiro (4LL) and Minas Gerais (17LL, 1NN), Brazil. All ticks were identified morphologically to the genus level; total DNA was extracted from each Haemaphysalis tick and examined by PCR and nucleotide sequencing of fragments of the eukaryotic genes encoding 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA. The bird species Arremon semitorquatus, Corythopis delalandi, Fluvicola nengeta, Troglodytes musculus, and Volatinia jacarina were recorded as hosts for H. leporispalustris for the first time in South America, and Turdus rufiventris represented a new record for Brazil. PMID:26965425

  15. Genetic and phylogenetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from wildlife and livestock in Paraiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Sato, G; Gomes, A A B; Itou, T; Ito, F H; Sakai, T

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-four rabies virus (RV) isolates from foxes (8), insectivore bats (9), cattle (14), sheep (1), a goat (1) and a donkey (1) from Paraiba state, northeastern Brazil, were genetically characterized. Sequences of 890 nts of nucleoprotein (N) genes of these isolates were analyzed and compared with those of other Brazilian isolates characterized earlier. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three genetical lineages of RV co-existing in this region. Each lineage was found to be associated with particular host species and to circulate independently of each other. The first lineage was found in foxes (Dusicyon sp.) and could be discriminated from domestic carnivore isolates from Sao Paulo, Goias and Minas Gerais in the southern and central Brazil. The second lineage was associated with insectivorous bats (Molossus spp.) and differed from vampire bat-associated RV isolates. The third lineage was found in livestock and clustered with vampire bat-associated RV isolates from Sao Paulo, Tocantins, Goias and Matto Grosso. These results indicate that RV of these genetic lineages are cocirculating in the Paraiba state and that livestock in this region are infected with vampire bat-associated RV, suggesting that the vampire bat is the main reservoir of livestock rabies in this region. PMID:16599183

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Brazil: Case series and review of the Brazilian literature.

    PubMed

    Prado, Laura de Godoy Rousseff; Bicalho, Isabella Carolina Santos; Vidigal-Lopes, Mauro; Ferreira, Carla Juliana Araújo; Mageste Barbosa, Luiz Sérgio; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; De Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to systematically analyse the first series of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Minas Gerais and to review the Brazilian literature about clinical studies in ALS. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study of a consecutive series of patients with probable or defined sporadic ALS according to the Awaji criteria, followed at two referral centres of Belo Horizonte (South-east Brazil). Patients underwent full clinical assessment. Comparisons of patient subgroups according to disease duration and initial presentation were performed. A systematic review was performed about Brazilian clinical studies in ALS. Results showed that of the 61 enrolled patients the male/female ratio was 1.6:1. The mean age at onset of symptoms was 54.9 years (SD ± 11.4). Mean age at diagnosis was 56.3 years (SD ± 11.1). Regarding the initial form of presentation, 43 cases (70.5%) were spinal, 12 cases (19.7%) were generalized and six cases (9.8%) were bulbar. Eight studies were found in the systematic review. In conclusion, the profile of our sample was similar to other national and international series, except for fewer cases of bulbar ALS in our series. There are few clinical studies of ALS in Brazil. The national data of prevalence and incidence are still uncertain. PMID:26854959

  17. Six new species of Hylotribus Jekel, 1860 from Brazil (Coleoptera, Anthribidae, Anthribinae, Discotenini).

    PubMed

    De Quei, Fernando Luiz Cunha Avila Villar; Mermudes, José Ricardo M

    2014-01-01

    Hylotribus Jekel, 1860 is a distinct genus of South American Anthribidae characterized by a fragmented antebasal pronotal carina, and includes nine species, eight of which are endemic to Chile, and one species from Peru. We here describe and illustrate six new species from the Atlantic Rainforest biome in Brazil based on unidentified material deposited in various collections: Hylotribus fluminensis Queiroz & Mermudes sp. nov. (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State); Hylotribus sublimis Queiroz & Mermudes sp. nov. (Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State); Hylotribus plaumanni Queiroz & Mermudes sp. nov. (Seara, Santa Catarina State); Hylotribus frontispeltastes Queiroz & Mermudes sp. nov. (São José do Barreiro, Serra da Bocaina, São Paulo State and Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais State); Hylotribus gauchus Queiroz & Mermudes sp. nov. (Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State); and Hylotribus involucer Queiroz & Mermudes sp. nov. (São José do Barreiro, Serra da Bocaina, São Paulo State). A key is provided to the species of Hylotribus in Brazil. PMID:24943425

  18. Cost-effectiveness of Novel System of Mosquito Surveillance and Control, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, Kim M.; Marques-Toledo, Cecilia; Scherer, Luciano; Morais, Maira M.; Ellis, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Of all countries in the Western Hemisphere, Brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, Monitoramento Inteligente da Dengue (Intelligent Dengue Monitoring System [MID]), which was implemented in 21 cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. In cities that used MID, vector control was conducted specifically at high-risk sites (indicated through daily updates by MID). In control cities, vector control proceeded according to guidelines of the Brazilian government. We estimated that MID prevented 27,191 cases of dengue fever and saved an average of $227 (median $58) per case prevented, which saved approximately $364,517 in direct costs (health care and vector control) and $7,138,940 in lost wages (societal effect) annually. MID was more effective in cities with stronger economies and more cost-effective in cities with higher levels of mosquito infestation. PMID:23628282

  19. Going beyond the tip of the Drosophilidae iceberg: New Cladochaeta Coquillett, 1900 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Gabriela; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-01-01

    Drosophilidae comprises more than 4,000 described species worldwide. Despite the huge number of papers published on the genus Drosophila Fallén, 1823, large parts of the family are still poorly known. The drosophiline genus Cladochaeta Coquillet, 1900 has more than 100 Neotropical and several southern Nearctic described species, but there is quite a large number of undescribed species. The Brazilian fauna of the genus was studied and 12 new species are herein described-Cladochaeta armatopsis nov. sp., C. balbiae nov. sp., C. paraitinga nov. sp., C. asapha nov. sp., C.chauliodactyla nov. sp., C. conicophallus nov. sp., C. dicrophallus nov. sp., C.grimaldii nov. sp., C. atlantica nov. sp., C. periotoi nov. sp., C. phallotrixa nov. sp. and C. stigmata nov. sp. We set the first record of C. arthrostyla Grimaldi & Nguyen, 1999 for northeastern Brazil a species otherwise known from Costa Rica, and the first record of C. bomplandi (Malloch, 1934) for the state of Minas Gerais, a species known for northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil. The descriptions include photographs for each species and detailed illustrations of the male terminalia in different views. A synopsis on the taxonomy and natural history of the genus is provided, as well as comments about the relationships of species in the genus, a discussion on problems of male terminalia sclerite homology and the problem of association between males and females. PMID:27470807

  20. A Lagrangian identification of major sources of moisture for Southeastern Brazil during anomalous dry periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L. A.; Ambrizzi, T.; Gimeno, L.; Drumond, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil (SEB) comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. Its rainy season occurs in the Austral summer.. Although less rain is registered during the winter, spring and autumn, there are years that negative precipitation anomalies were recorded in these seasons. In preliminary studies, the SEB was divided into homogenous regions with respect to precipitation. Five regions were determined: R1 (south-central state of São Paulo), R2 (north of São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais), R3 (central Minas Gerais and south-central state of Rio de Janeiro), R4 (north of the state of Minas Gerais) and R5 (north of Rio de Janeiro, the central-eastern Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). For each region, extreme dry events were identified based on the method of consecutive dry periods. In this study, the method developed by Stohl and James (2004,2005), which use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al.,1998), was applied with the objective to calculate and track the air particles and the atmospheric moisture backward in time to produce information on the spatial distribution of moisture sources. In this approach, the atmosphere is divided homogeneously into a large number of particles that are transported by the model which register their positions and specific humidity (q) every 6h. Increases and decreases in moisture along the trajectory can be calculated through changes in (q) with time. Adding thes changes for all particles residing in the atmospheric column over an area, we obtain (E-P) (E is the evaporation an P the precipitation per unit area).Where (E-P) is positive, the particles gain humidity and these are sources regions. For (E-P) negative, the particles lose humidity and these are sink regions. We analyzed the winter, autumn and spring from 1982 to 2009. FLEXPART were forced by ERA Interim dataset available every 6h with a 1 degree resolution. For each homogenous region in SEB (E

  1. Evaluation of a 25-Year-Program for the Control of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in an Endemic Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sarvel, Ana K.; Oliveira, Áureo A.; Silva, Alexandre R.; Lima, Anna C. L.; Katz, Naftale

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies showed that chemotherapy can control schistosomiasis morbidity, but association of measures (water supply, sewage disposal and increase of socioeconomic conditions) is necessary for transmission control. Methodology/Principal Findings A survey dealing with socioeconomic conditions, snail survey, contact with natural waters, and clinical and stool examinations was undertaken at an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodology used was the same for both evaluations (1981 and 2005). Four hundred and seventy-five out of 1,474 individuals studied in 1981 could be contacted. From these, 358 were submitted to stool examination, and 231 of them were clinically examined. Patients eliminating S. mansoni eggs in their stools were treated. The results showed that the prevalence rate in Comercinho, a municipality of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was substantially reduced to 70.4% and 1.7% in 1981 and 2005, respectively, as well as the frequency of the hepatosplenic form (7% to 1.3%) after five treatments effectuated between 1981 and 1992. No other new case of this form was detected from 1981 onwards. Another important aspect to be considered was the improvement of people's living standard that occurred in the region after more than two decades' efforts (better housing, professional skill and adequate basic sanitation). Conclusion/Significance The control of morbidity and very significant decrease of schistosomiasis transmission in an area until then considered as hyperendemic was possible by means of association of successive specific treatments of the local population, together with the construction of privies, water supply in the houses and improvement of socioeconomic conditions. PMID:21423644

  2. A Comprehensive View of Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This student and teacher resource discusses the geography, history, and contemporary changes and achievements of Brazil. It is intended to complement textbooks and other teaching materials by serving as a resource for teachers, administrators, and students. The document is presented in three parts. Part I focuses on the geography of Brazil,…

  3. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  4. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  5. Astronomy in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  6. A review of paleogeographical and chronostratigraphical distribution of mesoeucrocodylian species from the upper Cretaceous beds from the Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Martinelli, Agustín G.

    2006-11-01

    This article offers a detailed overview of mesoeucrocodylian assemblages recovered from the Late Cretaceous southern South America Bauru and Neuquén groups as a result of extensive research during the past 110 years. The Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups yield numerous mesoeucrocodylian remains, mainly of Turonian-late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) age. The majority of the discoveries were made in the Adamantina and Marília formations of Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, Brazil, and Candeleros and Bajo de la Carpa formations of Neuquén and Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Sixty formally described species of mesoeucrocodylians are recognized on the basis of disarticulated materials; among them, notosuchians, sebecosuchians, and peirosaurids are the best represented. At least one species is common to the Bauru and Neuquén groups, and close phylogenetic affinities are postulated for the remaining taxa. The fossil record of these two South American units shows three main peaks of diversity: in the Cenomanian of Argentina, the Santonian of Argentina and Brazil, and the Maastrichtian of Brazil. The absence of notosuchians and sebecosuchians in the late Campanian-Maastrichtian of Patagonia is coincident with the paleoenvironmental changes in that landmass by that time, as well as with the increase in diversity of several groups of theropod dinosaurs. In contrast, highly specialized carnivorous mesoeucrocodylians are abundant in the Maastrichtian of the Bauru group of Brazil, whereas other tetrapod carnivorous groups are scarcely represented.

  7. Characterization of indoor dust from Brazil and evaluation of the cytotoxicity in A549 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, E; Weidler, P G; Friedrich, F; Weiss, C; Diabaté, S

    2014-04-01

    Over the past decade, ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been clearly associated with adverse health effects. In Brazil, small and poor communities are exposed to indoor dust derived from both natural sources, identified as blowing soil dust, and anthropogenic particles from mining activities. This study investigates the physicochemical and mineralogical composition of indoor PM10 dust samples collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and evaluates its cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential. The mean PM10 mass concentration was 206 μg/m(3). The high dust concentration in the interior of the residences is strongly related to blowing soil dust. The chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined by ICP-OES and XRD, and the most prominent minerals were clays, Fe-oxide, quartz, feldspars, Al(hydr)oxides, zeolites, and anatase, containing the transition metals Fe, Cr, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ti, and Mn as well as the metalloid As. The indoor dust samples presented a low water solubility of about 6 %. In vitro experiments were carried out with human lung alveolar carcinoma cells (A549) to study the toxicological effects. The influence of the PM10 dust samples on cell viability, intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was analysed. The indoor dust showed little effects on alamarBlue reduction indicating unaltered mitochondrial activity. However, significant cell membrane damage, ROS production, and IL-8 release were detected in dependence of dose and time. This study will support the implementation of mitigation actions in the investigated area in Brazil. PMID:23990125

  8. Diversity and population dynamics of Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in tropical flowers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Britto, Erika Pessoa Japhyassu; Finotti, Amanda Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-06-01

    Cultivation of tropical flowers has expanded considerably in Brazil, justifying efforts to determine the arthropods associated with it. Heliconia species are some of the most important tropical flowers in Brazil. Mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae are commonly found on those plants. They disperse from flower to flower on hummingbirds. The objective of this study was to identify the diversity of mites of this group in tropical flowers, with emphasis on Heliconia species, in Brazil and to determine the fluctuation of the population of these mites in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state. Specimens from Amazonas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and São Paulo States were examined. Mites of the genera Asca and Iphidozercon (Ascidae), Cheiroseius and Lasioseius (Blattisociidae), and Proctolaelaps and Tropicoseius (Melicharidae) were collected in flowers of four plant families, with Lasioseius being the most diverse genus. Overall, most specimens found belonged to Tropicoseius, especially Tropicoseius venezuelensis Baker & Yunker; this was the dominant species on five of 13 Heliconia species/hybrids considered in this study. Samples of panicles of Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pavón were collected every 2 weeks, in Piracicaba. Six species of those mite families were found, among which Tropicoseius heliconiae Baker & Yunker and T. venezuelensis were the most numerous. The highest population levels of mites of those three families occurred at the beginning and at the end of the year, coinciding with the highest levels of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, when plant flowers were most numerous and vigorous. Along each panicle, the highest mite densities were found in inflorescences of the three distal eighths of the panicles, where nectar and pollen were probably most abundant. PMID:25860858

  9. The Brazil nut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Dora; Ruiz-Suarez, Jesus

    2004-03-01

    The segregation of large intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed is studied. We measure rising times a function of density, diameter and depth; for two different sinusoidal excitations. Our results shed definitive light to explain the fundamental aspects of the fascinating Brazil nut problem. At low frequencies (high amplitudes), inertia and convection are the only mechanisms behind segregation. Inertia dominates when the relative density of the intruder is greater than one and convection when it is less than one. At high frequencies (small amplitudes), where convection is suppressed, segregation occurs by buoyancy or sinkage. Finally, when the diameter of the intruders is changed, the well known paradigm "larger intruders rise faster" fails if the mass of the intruders is kept constant (while their relative densities are greater than one).

  10. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  11. Space activities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  12. Familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, J E; Zago, M A

    2003-11-01

    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnic origins and is unevenly distributed in a country of continental dimensions. In addition to the Portuguese colonists until the end of the World War II Brazil received almost 5 million immigrants who settled mainly in the south and southeast. This features of the Brazilian population have two important consequences for the inherited diseases that are associated with an ethnic background: their frequencies are different in various regions of the country reflecting a variety of ethnic origins and variable degrees of admixtures. There was no report about the molecular basis of hypercholesterolemia in Brazil until our report in 1996 that the Lebanese allele is the most common cause of the disease in our country: 10 out of the 30 families were of Arab origin, and the Lebanese allele was detected in 9 of the 10 unrelated families of Arab origin. In addition, the abnormal gene is associated with the same haplotype at the LDL-R locus in all but one family, suggesting single origin for this mutation. Recently we described seven mutations in exons 4, 7, 12 and 14 and a new mutation in exon 15. In another region of our state, eight mutation already described and seven new mutations were described and interesting no common mutations were find. We can conclude that the complex history and structure of the Brazilian population, which was formed by the contribution of a large number of ethnic components that are in a state of increasing miscegenation, is reflected in the frequency and regional distribution of the more common hereditary diseases. PMID:14615271

  13. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gualco, Gabriela; Klumb, Claudete E; Barber, Glen N; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10‐year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non‐Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36%) and mature (64%) cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B‐cell phenotype and 19% of the T‐cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central‐west region. The distribution by age groups was 15–18 years old, 33%; 11–14 years old, 26%; 6–10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B‐cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%), followed by diffuse large B‐cell lymphomas (24%). In the mature T‐cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK‐positive was the most prevalent (57%), followed by peripheral T‐cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%). In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%). Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions. PMID:21340214

  14. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  15. First records of Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825 (Charadriidae) and Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin 1789 (Sternidae) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, P F A; Aguiar, J A B; Figueira, J E C

    2015-05-01

    Around forty bird species habitually reproduce in the Northern Hemisphere during summer, and migrate to the Southern Hemisphere during northern winter. These migrating birds fly together in large or small groups until they have reached the Caribbean, Central American, or Brazilian shores. Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825, is one of these migrating species that uses resting and feeding areas along eastern and western coasts of North and South America, with several records for the Brazilian coast, and very few for the inland country. On November 24, 2011, an individual of this species was observed on the banks of one of the lakes that compose a complex of about 40 temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa Environmental Protection Area. On October 29 and 30, 2012 a single individual of Gelochelidon nilotica, Gmelin 1789, was also observed in Sumidouro State Park. We suggest that these specimens have used the Atlantic Ocean migration route, following the São Francisco River Basin, until the karst area. Although highly impacted, the temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa still harbor a significant number of bird species, and serve as resting and feeding places for migratory or errant species that are still eliciting new records. PMID:26132031

  16. Environmental factors and benthic Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) assemblages in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Suriani-Affonso, A L; França, R S; Marchese, M; Rocha, O

    2011-05-01

    The Oligochaeta forms an important part of the macroinvertebrates inhabiting sediments of lotic ecosystems. It has an important role in the cycling of matter and energy transfer in these environments. The aim of this study is to analyse limnological variables, their influence on the structure and diversity of benthic oligochaete taxocenosis in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River and its tributary the Piumhi River. Samples were taken in two climatic periods, the dry season in October 2006 and 2007 and the rainy season in March 2007 and 2008 at three points along the Piumhi River and six points along the São Francisco River. The sediment of the São Francisco consisted predominantly of sand and clay, whereas the sediment of the Piumhi was mainly sandy. Six species of oligochaete occurred in the Piumhi River while seven were found in the São Francisco. Of these, Pristina synclites Stephenson, 1925, Pristina americana Cernosvitov, 1937, Bothrioneurum sp. Stolc, 1888 and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 occurred in the sediment of both rivers. L. hoffmeisteri showed the highest numerical abundance in the Piumhi River and Brinkhurstia americana (Brinkhurst, 1964) and L. neotropicus Cernosvitov, 1939 were the most abundant species in the São Francisco River. The highest oligochaete density was recorded in the Piumhi during the dry seasons. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) of sediment characteristics explained most of the data variability and the association of the presence of oligochaete species in the Piumhi and São Francisco Rivers with the limnological variables (grain size composition and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the sediment). PMID:21755161

  17. Detrital zircon without detritus: a result of 496-Ma-old fluid-rock interaction during the gold-lode formation of Passagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Zeh, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Zircon and xenotime occur in tourmaline-rich hydrothermal pockets in the auriferous lode of Passagem de Mariana, a world-class gold deposit. Zircon grains show pristine oscillatory zoning, but many of them are altered, exhibiting porous domains filled with graphite. Uranium-Pb dating of zircon, using in-situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, yields ages between 3.2 and 2.65 Ga, which match those for detrital zircon of the footwall quartzite of the > 2.65-Ga-old Moeda Formation. Discordant analyses point to zircon-age resetting during the Brasiliano orogeny at ca. 500 Ma. This interpretation is supported by U-Pb dating of euhedral xenotime immediately adjacent to altered zircon within the same tourmaline pocket. The xenotime grains give a Concordia age of 496.3 ± 2.0 Ma, which is identical to that determined for monazite of a quartz-hematite vein-type deposit (i.e., jacutinga lode) in the region (Itabira), another important mineralisation style of gold. The occurrence of relatively abundant inherited detrital zircon, but absence of rock fragments in the tourmaline pocket investigated here, implies that detrital material was completely replaced by tourmaline. The graphite overprint on the altered detrital zircon attests to a reducing fluid, which was likely formed by fluid-rock interaction with carbonaceous phyllite of the Batatal Formation, the host rock of the Passagem lode.

  18. Occurrence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in goat milk from small and medium-sized farms located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, V Q; Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of goat milk has been increasing due to its nutritional characteristics and health benefits. Therefore, assessment of the presence of foodborne pathogens in this product is critical to ensure its safety to consumers. The present study aimed to identify common foodborne pathogens in raw goat milk. Fifty-three samples of raw goat milk from 11 farms were collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as for enumeration and isolation of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CPS and CNS, respectively). All samples tested negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The CPS counts in raw goat milk samples were predominantly less than 2 log cfu/mL (n=39), and CNS counts were predominantly higher than 3 log cfu/mL (n=42). Based on Staphylococcus counts, 51 isolates were selected (CPS=26; CNS=25) and tested by PCR for the presence of classic enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Only 3 isolates (CPS=2, CNS=1) were negative for all enterotoxin-encoding genes tested, and the genotype sec and see was the most frequent (n=16), followed by sea, sec, and see (n=13) and sec (n=13); sed was not detected in any isolate. The frequencies of enterotoxin-encoding genes for CPS and CNS were similar, demonstrating the equivalence of both groups in harboring these virulent markers. These results suggest that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes are not frequent contaminants of raw goat milk, but that Staphylococcus spp. that are capable of producing enterotoxins are prevalent; therefore, consumers of raw goat milk and products made from raw milk are at risk. PMID:26476939

  19. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vinícius A; Antonini, Yasmine; Araújo, Ana P A

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Espinhaço Range consists of large areas covered by quartzitic or metaliferous tropical altitudinal fields. The Espinhaço Range ecosystems are endangered by anthropic high impacts, particularly due to mining and urbanization. We conducted a one-year inventory of the bee flora and fauna at the quartzitic Ouro Branco Mountains and a two-year survey of the metaliferous Ouro Preto fields. The samples were collected twice a month, from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. The bees (677) belonged to 91 species, five families. The family Apidae was the richest and most abundant, followed by the Halictidae and Megachilidae. The bees visited 46 flowering plant species; the most visited plants were the Asteraceae (n = 220), the Malpighiaceae (n = 95), the Melastomataceae (n = 94), the Fabaceae (n = 78), and the Solanaceae (n = 63). Diversity was higher in Ouro Branco (H = 1.47) than in Ouro Preto (H = 1.17). The low richness and abundance of bees in our research site when compared to other Brazilian "Cerrado" areas can be due to the high altitude, low temperature, and low availability of flowers we found. "Canga" and rupestrian areas house fauna and flora species that are rare and threatened by extinction. The southern Espinhaço areas can, therefore, be given the status of permanent biodiversity preservation area. PMID:17352066

  20. [Determinants of food and nutrition insecurity: a study conducted in Low-budget Restaurants in Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, Fernanda Martins; Silva, Yara Cardoso; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Dias Júnior, Cláudio Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the condition of household food and nutrition (in)security (IAN) of the users of low-budget restaurants in Belo Horizonte (BH). This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out on all low-budget restaurants and cafeteria in BH with a sample of 1613 users. The IAN was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and cross-checked with the socioeconomic profile of the users. The Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were applied. All p-value < 0.25 variables were included in the multivariate analysis. The groups most exposed to IAN among users of low-budget restaurants are those with a lower socioeconomic level and per capita income class and those with a large number of residents in the household. Also affected are those who admit to having different kinds of wants and needs, and those for whom price and living alone are the main reasons for frequenting low-budget restaurants. The factors affecting the IAN are varied and multifactorial, thus representing a major challenge for public policy makers and for those who live directly with these dietary restrictions. The low-budget restaurants serve as a strategy for promoting healthy eating habits. PMID:24897225

  1. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  2. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America. PMID:25557749

  3. New species and reports of dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from Salminus franciscanus (Actinopterygii: Bryconidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cassandra Moraes; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Six species of dactylogyrid monogenoideans were collected at the upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from the gills of Salminus franciscanus. Anacanthorus adkruidenieri sp. n. and Anacanthorus paradouradensis sp. n. are described and compared with the other species of Anacanthorus. Anacanthorus adkruidenieri sp. n. is more similar to A. kruidenieri and A. parakruidenieri, but it can be distinguished from both by the rod-shaped accessory piece, which is articulated with the base of the male copulatory organ and is coiled around it, and by the shank of the hook, with expanded proximal bulbous portion bearing a central, elliptical foramen. Anacanthorus paradouradensis sp. n. resembles A. douradensis, but differs in the accessory piece, which is approximately half the length of the copulatory organ. Salminus franciscanus is a new host record and the São Francisco Basin is a new locality record for Anacanthorus daulometrus, Annulotrematoides glossophallus, Jainus iocensis and Tereancistrum arcuatus. PMID:25947500

  4. A new and possibly critically endangered species of casque-headed tree frog Aparasphenodon Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Anura, Hylidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Santana, Diego José; Da Silva, Fabiano Aguiar; Quintela, Fernando Marques; Feio, Renato Neves

    2013-01-01

    A new species of casque-headed tree frog of the genus Aparasphenodon is described from the municipality of Cataguases (21°20'S, 42°45'W; 288 m a.s.l.) in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov. is characterized by medium size (males, snout-vent length, SVL 51.6-60.5 mm; females, SVL 58.7-62.1 mm); snout almost round in dorsal view; dorsum and limbs with cream-colored reticulation on dark-brown background; spots on ventral surface cream-colored; lips white; cream-colored dorsolateral stripe originating on the snout, crossing the upper eyelid and extending posteriorly to the axilla level; and red iris. PMID:26106793

  5. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-01-01

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed. PMID:27395095

  6. Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Leaves Cultivated in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as “alecrim pimenta,” native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol. PMID:22505916

  7. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  8. Trance surgery in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Don, N S; Moura, G

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results of fieldwork in Brazil on healer-mediums who perform crude forms of surgery, often employing sharp instruments. We found that these healer-mediums were in a hyperaroused brain state while they were engaged in behaviors commonly described in the anthropology literature as "possession trance"; therefore, this practice is termed "trance surgery" in this report. The research was conducted at widely scattered sites throughout Brazil. We observed several thousand patients being treated by 9 trance surgeons and videotaped several hundred of these cases. In addition to background information and our own observational material, this paper includes 2 medical case reports, physiological data gathered from healers and patients, and results of a pathologist's examination of a surgically excised tumor. Topographic brain mapping revealed increased brain activity (36-44 Hz) when healer-mediums were engaged in trance behaviors, compared to resting baseline conditions at midline scalp locations (Cz, P < .009 and Pz, P < .004; both matched t tests). These results suggest the presence of a hyperaroused brain state associated with the trance behaviors of the healers. We believe that such a state is required for this unusual practice, but other factors may also be involved. In contrast, a small sample of patients monitored during possession trance surgical procedures revealed no high-frequency brain activity; instead, there were indications of cortical quieting, suggesting relaxation, despite the absence of anesthesia. Pathohistological examination of a tumor excised from a patient in our presence revealed a human fibroadenoma. We conclude that these practices are usually benign and that pain is often absent, despite the lack of sterile procedures and anesthesia. Although during the period of our investigation we were informed anecdotally of 3 cases involving serious complications or death, we personally observed no cases of shock, hemorrhage, or death

  9. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  10. Policing violence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities. PMID:12295035

  11. Country watch. Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:12288109

  12. Noise labeling in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, Marco A. N.; Massarani, Paulo M.; de Azevedo, Jose A. J.; Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2002-11-01

    The Brazilian Silence Program, created in 1990 by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment, advocates the production and use of equipment with lower noise level. The subcommittee of Noise Labeling of the Brazilian Committee of Certification is composed of INMETRO acoustic specialists to organize and implement the Brazilian Labeling Program. This subcommittee elaborated the label form and test procedure. The noise-labeling program will first concentrate on the following household devices, both manufactured in Brazil or imported from abroad; mixers, blenders, hairdryers, refrigerators, and vacuum cleaners. The label should contain the sound-power level in dBA. INMETRO or other credited laboratories are responsible for the measurements. The ISO 4871, 3740 (1 to 5), ISO 8960, and IEC 704 (1 to 4) and also the equivalent Brazilian standards are used for the measurements, such as ABNT NBR 13910-1. The main objective of the label is to inform the consumer about the emitted noise level. The label offers the noise parameter to be used by the consumer when comparing devices, considering price, performance, and now also noise. No restriction for noise level was established.

  13. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  14. Hydrological Forecasting Practices in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando; Paiva, Rodrigo; Collischonn, Walter; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2016-04-01

    This work brings a review on current hydrological and flood forecasting practices in Brazil, including the main forecasts applications, the different kinds of techniques that are currently being employed and the institutions involved on forecasts generation. A brief overview of Brazil is provided, including aspects related to its geography, climate, hydrology and flood hazards. A general discussion about the Brazilian practices on hydrological short and medium range forecasting is presented. Detailed examples of some hydrological forecasting systems that are operational or in a research/pre-operational phase using the large scale hydrological model MGB-IPH are also presented. Finally, some suggestions are given about how the forecasting practices in Brazil can be understood nowadays, and what are the perspectives for the future.

  15. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  16. Fasciola hepatica IN BOVINES IN BRAZIL: DATA AVAILABILITY AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    PubMed Central

    Bennema, Sita C.; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Medeiros, Camilla; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a disease of importance for both veterinary and public health. For the first time, georeferenced prevalence data of Fasciola hepatica in bovines were collected and mapped for the Brazilian territory and data availability was discussed. Bovine fasciolosis in Brazil is monitored on a Federal, State and Municipal level, and to improve monitoring it is essential to combine the data collected on these three levels into one dataset. Data were collected for 1032 municipalities where livers were condemned by the Federal Inspection Service (MAPA/SIF) because of the presence of F. hepatica. The information was distributed over 11 states: Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo. The highest prevalence of fasciolosis was observed in the southern states, with disease clusters along the coast of Paraná and Santa Catarina and in Rio Grande do Sul. Also, temporal variation of the prevalence was observed. The observed prevalence and the kriged prevalence maps presented in this paper can assist both animal and human health workers in estimating the risk of infection in their state or municipality. PMID:24553606

  17. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    PubMed

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. PMID:26541807

  18. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Paulo; Hirata, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Arnaldo; Barbati, Daniela; Peñaranda, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages. PMID:26840000

  19. Ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sand fly collections were performed to study ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna of the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, an area with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The collections were performed in peridomicile areas and along trails previously selected for the study of wild and synanthropic Leishmania hosts. Differences in the distribution patterns of the sand fly species as well as in species richness and abundance between the different ecotopes were investigated during both rainy and dry seasons over the course of the study period. Results A total of 8,046 sand flies belonging to 11 genera and 28 species were collected. Lutzomyia longipalpis and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant species in peridomicile areas, whereas Martinsmyia minasensis and Lutzomyia cavernicola were the most abundant species among the different trail ecotopes. Conclusion The different composition of the sand fly fauna observed in the peridomicile areas and in the trails during the study, reinforces the importance of sampled different areas in a phlebotomine fauna survey. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. Intermedia most abundant in peridomicile can be important to Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis transmission in the Imbaúbas native village. PMID:24886717

  20. Batflies parasitic on some phyllostomid bats in southeastern Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite relationships.

    PubMed

    Komeno, C A; Linhares, A X

    1999-01-01

    Ectoparasitic batflies were studied on 12 species of phyllostomid bats, by making 35 nightly collections of bats using mist nets at the "Panga" Ecological Reservation near Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, from August 1989 to July 1990. Eleven species of Streblidae and one of Nycteribiidae were collected on 12 species of bats. Prevalence of ectoparasitic flies was lower than those reported by other authors for the New World and may be the result of the lack of caves in the study area, causing bats to roost in less favorable locations, forming smaller colonies. The fly, Trichobius joblingi Wenzel, was found on Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus), showing preference for adult male bats. This could be explained by the predominance of males in the bat colonies, and by the fact that females rest in isolation during the reproductive period making them less exposed to the parasites. The streblid flies, Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel and Megistopoda proxima (Séguy), were found on Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy). A. falcata occurred mainly on young and adult females, whereas M. proxima did not show any preferences relative to the reproductive condition of the host. Ecological factors are important in determining differential numbers of parasites occurring on the different sexes, ages and reproductive state of the hosts. PMID:10224519

  1. Chagas Disease Control Programme in Brazil: a study of the effectiveness of 13 years of intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, F. C.; Vitor, R. W.; Antunes, C. M.; Carneiro, M.

    1998-01-01

    Reported is an evaluation of 13 years of intervention by the Chagas Disease Control Programme in an endemic area (Montalvania) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The design used was an epidemiological panel study. The reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates was estimated from data collected on three separate occasions: a serological survey in 1975-80, a quasi-experimental study in 1987, and the present investigation. A random sample of 156 households was selected and blood samples were collected from 653 inhabitants. The data routinely collected by the control programme were analysed to correlate the results with the incidence of T. cruzi. The overall prevalence of infection was 2.3%; however, no participant under 14 years of age was found to have a positive serological test. The total reduction in T. cruzi infection rates in this area from the start of the programme's activities was estimated to be 83.5%. Cross-sectional comparisons for the age groups 2-6 years and 7-14 years indicated a 100% reduction in T. cruzi incidence rates; but cohort comparisons showed that 100% reduction was achieved only for the 2-6-years age group. PMID:9803589

  2. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941

  3. Public Knowledge about and Detection of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Urban Divinópolis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Margonari, Carina; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Maia, Kamila Nunes; Éder de Oliveira, Michael; Luisa Fonseca, Amanda; Furtado de Sousa, Fabrizio; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniases are diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms. Many factors may affect their occurrence and expansion including environmental, geographic, and social conditions. In the past two decades, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has exhibited the potential for a disease outbreak, with the appearance of CL, and VL cases (human and canine). Hence, this study was initiated to monitor public knowledge of the disease. Questionnaires were administered in four neighborhoods (Jardim Belvedere, Esplanada, Danilo Passos I and II) where most of the human and canine cases have been reported. The analyses demonstrated that public knowledge of the disease is sparse and fragmented. A strong perception of the dog as the main reservoir was observed. Five veterinary clinics were evaluated for the presence of canine VL using serological (RIFI and ELISA) and molecular (PCR-RFLP) techniques. This is the first study demonstrating the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in Divinópolis, suggesting a possible urbanization of VL. PMID:22991521

  4. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-01-01

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species. PMID:26125852

  5. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  6. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  7. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  8. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

  9. Professional and Community Satisfaction with the Brazilian Family Health Strategy, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Lilian G.; Sheridan, Juliet D.; Nicholls, Andrea Y.; Mues, Katherine E.; Saleme, Priscila S.; Resende, Joana C.; Ferreira, José A. G.; Leon, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the strengths and limitations of the Family Health Strategy (ESF) from the perceptions of healthcare professionals and community. Methods Between June-August 2009, in the city of Vespasiano, Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil, a questionnaire was applied to evaluate the ESF with 77 healthcare professionals and 293 caretakers of children under five. Health professional ESF training, community access to care, patient communication, and delivery of health education and pediatric care were of main interest in the evaluation. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The majority of health care professionals reported their program training was insufficient in quantity, content and method of delivery. Caretakers and professionals identified similar weaknesses (services not accessible to the caretakers, lack of healthcare professionals, poor training for professionals) and strengths (community health worker-patient communications, provision of educational information, and pediatric care). Recommendations for improvement included: more doctors and specialists, more and better training, and scheduling improvements. Caretaker satisfaction with the ESF was found to be related to perceived benefits such as community health agent household visits (OR 5.8, 95%CI 2.8;12.1), good professional-patient relationships (OR 4.8, 95%CI 2.5;9.3), and family-focused health (OR 4.1, 95%CI 1.6;10.2); and perceived problems such as lack of personnel (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.2;0.6), difficulty with access (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1;0.4), and poor quality of care (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1;0.6). Overall, 62% of caretakers reported being generally satisfied with the ESF services. Conclusions Identifying the limitations and strengths of the ESF from the healthcare professional and caretaker perspective may serve to advance primary community healthcare in Brazil. PMID:24037368

  10. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  11. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  12. Brazil's best university seeks fame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, John

    1994-10-01

    The University of São Paulo believes it should be making a more prominent mark on the world outside Brazil, but the difficulties of doing so from within a still-developing country are greater and less tangible than may be thought.

  13. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  14. Violence in Schools in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Angel

    1995-01-01

    The causes of violence in schools, as in society, are multiple and complex; they are rooted in the intolerable economic and social conditions created by Brazil's development model, characterized by unequal wealth distribution, widespread poverty, and an exclusive society. By mirroring this exclusionary process, the educational system is inherently…

  15. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  16. The population question in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives. PMID:12286343

  17. Occupational health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  18. Relationship Between South Atlantic Subtropical High and South Atlantic SST Anomalies during Extreme Precipitation Events on Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. It occupies 10.85% of Brazilian territory and is highly urbanized. The Southeast Brazil is the biggest geoeconomic region of the country having a strong and diverse economy. Agriculture dominates in all states of the region. The main agricultural products are sugar cane, coffee, cotton, maize, cassava, rice, beans and fruits. Livestock farming is also practiced in the region. The largest herd of cattle is found in the state of Minas Gerais. These activities are highly dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall. Studies of extreme precipitation events over Brazil have been well emphasized in the literature over the years and their relationship with anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) in both the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean have been analyzed. This paper investigates the extreme events occurring in southeastern Brazil from 1982 to 2004 using the technique of quantiles. The composite technique was applied to precipitation, sea level pressure anomaly (SLP) and sea surface temperature anomaly (SST) data in order to investigate the characteristics of rainfall patterns, the position and intensity of South Atlantic subtropical high (SASH) and SST anomalies in the Southern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) in the occurrence of these events and to make a distinction between dry and wet extremes. Analyzing the precipitation patterns, it was noticed that the composition of dry events throughout the Southeast Brazil has negative precipitation anomalies. Particularly, in the southern part of the region there is a large precipitation deficit, having an average of 50mm in the winter months. The composition for the wet events shows that, on average, positive precipitation anomalies with the southern region containing the highest cumulative average, reaching a positive anomaly of 100mm. The composition of SLP in the case of dry events indicates a positive anomaly

  19. [The Impact of Prohibition on drinking and driving in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2012-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to present comparative data on drinking and driving behavior among drivers in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais, in the period from 2005 to 2009, evaluating the impact of Law No. 11.705 (Prohibition), dated June 6, 2008. Data regarding prevalence of this behavior, collected at Sobriety Checkpoints (internationally used methodology) were analyzed using representative samples obtained from drivers on different public roads with intensive traffic in Belo Horizonte (2005-2009), thus permitting analysis of the impact of the new law. In 2008, the data showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the prevalence of individuals driving with any level of alcohol in the blood, when compared to 2007, after the change in legislation. This study showed that the impact caused by Law No.11.705 was marked in the sense of modifying the behavior under scrutiny. However, other control measures need to be added to the current legislation, in order to obtain a continuous reduction of drinking and driving behavior, thereby fostering a culture of sobriety on the road. PMID:22534851

  20. [Multiple sclerosis: study of patients with relapsing-remitting form registered at Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health].

    PubMed

    Santos, Eustáquio Claret dos; Yokota, Mitico; Dias, Nádia Fernanda Rezende

    2007-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The recommended treatment for the relapsing-remitting form is carried out with the immunomodulatory drugs, which are provided, in Belo Horizonte, by Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health (MG/SSH). We analyzed data of 283 patients registered at Exceptional Drug Program (immunomodulators) of SES/MG from May to October 2004. There was predominance of females (3.7:1) and the mean age was 38.4 +/-10.7 years old. The first clinical manifestations were 29.7+/-10.2 years old. The initial symptoms included sensorial (46.4%), visual (33.1%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (30.1%) and motor (pyramidal) syndrome (25.9%). The symptoms observed in subsequent relapses were motor (22.3%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (18.9%), visual (18.9%) and sensorial findings (9.6%). In 234 brain MRI and 109 spine MRI there were demyelinating lesions at 97.4% and 85.3% respectively. We compared our findings with other series described on Brazilian literature. PMID:17952303

  1. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Santos, Dircelina Silva; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7) were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%), southern (47.5%), eastern (57.5%) and western (55%). The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%), 5-10 years (21.2%) and 10-15 years (10%). Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001). The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%), Entamoeba coli (20.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%), Hymenolepis nana (7.5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (5%), hookworms (3.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.5%), Endolimax nana (2.5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%). The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community. PMID:19142436

  2. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  3. AIDS Treatment In Brazil: Impacts And Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy Stewart; Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has one of the developing world's largest, and arguably most successful, AIDS treatment programs. In this paper we review the treatment program, including controversial policies that Brazil has used to promote widespread local and global access to AIDS treatment. We also examine the lessons learned from this program and highlight the challenges Brazil faces, including the rising costs of AIDS treatment and changes in donors' funding priorities. Finally, we explore the relevance of Brazil's treatment program for other countries and its broad implications for global AIDS and health policy. PMID:19597210

  4. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  5. Brazil-Africa geological links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  6. Redescription of Hysteronotus megalostomus (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae), a poorly known characid from tributaries of the Rio São Fancisco, Brazil with comments on the conservation of the species.

    PubMed

    Menezes, N A; Weitzman, S H; Teixeira, T F

    2016-07-01

    Originally described from the upper Rio das Velhas, a tributary of the Rio São Francisco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Hysteronotus megalostomus was recently collected in many tributaries of the Rio São Francisco north of the type locality. The specimens of the population samples collected outside the type locality share the morphological features present in the type material except for the presence of an adipose fin found only in two specimens within the more recently collected material. Presence or absence of the adipose fin has been extensively used by fish taxonomists to characterize different species and even genera, but in H. megalostomus the character is not consistent, indicating its use alone is not diagnostic. The species is redescribed and its phylogenetic relationships and conservation status are briefly discussed. PMID:27237472

  7. Geotourism in the "Estrada Real", Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.; Barbosa, F. M. Da C. P.

    2009-04-01

    Many natural landscapes are preserved throughout the World due to their cultural and historical values as well as for their environmental importance. The Way of Saint James of Compostela (Camino de Santiago de Compostela), located in Europe, is a well known example of this. It was the inspiration source for the development of a tourist route in the Brazilian States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, although it has no pilgrimage connotation. The Estrada Real (literally translated as the Royal Route) is made of a series of roads or routes that were formerly used by the Portuguese colonizers to control the flow of gold, silver, diamonds and other precious stones and minerals. The tourist activities, particularly in the State of Minas Gerais, are experiencing an accelerated growth, benefiting the local and traditional communities economically. The existence of various geomorphological and geological sites in the Estrada Real has also favored the increase of the ecotourism and the Brazilian incipient geotourism. However, the uncontrolled touristic activities can damage the natural environment and some historical heritage sites. This research basically consisted in a preliminary identification of important geomorphosites such as caves and mountains that need to be protected for a rational and sustainable use. Out of the 4,632 known Brazilian caves, approximately 1,655 caves developed in limestone, dolomite, quartzite and granite are located in the State of Minas Gerais. For this reason, the authors strongly recommend that studies on the importance of such geomorphosites should take place in the municipalities of the Estrada Real in order to guide the regional development of tourism and sustainable development. Keywords: ecotourism, Estrada Real, sustainability.

  8. First record of Ceratium furcoides (Dinophyta), an invasive species, in a temporary high-altitude lake in the Iron Quadrangle (MG, Southeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    Moreira, R A; Rocha, O; Santos, R M; Laudares-Silva, R; Dias, E S; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ceratium are generally marine organisms, but rare occurrences in freshwater have been observed in Brazil. In this paper we are recording for the first time the presence of Ceratium furcoides, an invasive species, in a shallow, natural intermittent pool formed at a high-altitude at the southern end of the Iron Quadrangle, an iron-mining district of Minas Gerais State (Southeast Brazil). Samples were collected in October and November of 2010 (rainy period). The population density of this organism observed in Lagoa Seca ("Dry Pool") was very low, at most 4 ind L-1. Mountain lakes are extremely vulnerable to atmospheric deposition of organisms, making them valuable witnesses both of the many forms of impact arising from human activities and of the extended global connections that facilitate the dispersion and introduction of new species over great distances. Studies on the population dynamics of C. furcoides in natural tropical systems are still rare and very recent to the brazilian scenario and hence the monitoring of its dynamics and the potential impact on aquatic communities of its becoming established are essential to an understanding of the process of bioinvasion by this species. PMID:25945626

  9. Another record of significant regional variation in toxicity of Tityus serrulatus venom in Brazil: a step towards understanding the possible role of sodium channel modulators.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fagner Neves; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Guerrero-Vargas, Jimmy Alexander; Santos, Daniel M; Pimenta, Adriano M C; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2013-10-01

    The scorpion Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most severe accidents that have been registered in Brazil, mainly in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), being the lung edema (LE), the main cause of death in these accidents. Although an increased in the number of accidents caused to this species in Federal District (Distrito Federal - DF), it seems that this particular species is not responsible for severe scorpionism cases in this region. Given this observation, we tested the toxicity in mice and compared the ability of T. serrulatus venom from DF (Ts-DF) and Minas Gerais State (Ts-MG) to induce LE in rats. The LD50 of Ts-DF venom was 51.6 μg/mouse, almost twice (1.98) higher than that obtained for Ts-MG venom. The ability of venom (0.5 mg/kg) to induce LE in rats was determined by the wet weight differences between treated and untreated lungs, by pulmonary morphological analyses and by pulmonary vascular permeability (PVP) using the Evans blue protocol. Significant differences in the wet weight of lungs and changes in PVP were found in Ts-MG venom treated rats when compared to rats treated with Ts-DF venom or untreated rats (p < 0.001), but no differences occurred when comparing rats treated with Ts-DF venom and untreated rats (p < 0.05). These results were confirmed by evaluation of pulmonary morphology. Comparison of chromatographic profiles obtained from these venoms (Ts-DF and Ts-MG) using the fractal dimension (D) analysis and the molecular mass fingerprint of the chromatographic fractions showed a higher number of components between 35 and 40% acetonitrile in Ts-MG venom than in Ts-DF venom, indicating a higher diversity of sodium channel modulators in that venom. PMID:23851224

  10. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  11. Recent developments on shotcrete applications in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes Filho, J.D.; Guimaraes Neto, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the development of shotcrete in Brazil, since its introduction in the country to the present. Firstly, the authors focus on the application, with an overview on the main projects in which shotcrete was used. Next, the evolution of fabrication of shotcrete equipment in Brazil and some new achievements in this area are shown.

  12. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  13. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  14. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  15. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  16. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  17. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  18. Redescription of Cystidicoloides fischeri based on specimens from piranhas in Brazil, and erection of a new genus (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Santos, Michelle D; Brasil-Sato, Marília C

    2008-08-01

    The cystidicolid nematode Cystidicoloides fischeri (Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928) is redescribed from specimens collected from the stomach of the San Francisco piranha, Pygocentrus piraya (Cuvier), and the white piranha, Serrasalmus brandtii (Lütken) (both Characidae, Characiformes) (new host records), from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The morphology of this type species of Cystidicoloides Skinker, 1931, studied with both light and scanning electron microscopy, is characterized by some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the presence of a cephalic cuticular collarette, subdorsal and subventral cephalic spikes, cuticular tooth-like elevations inside the prostom, deirids, area rugosa, and details in the structure of the cephalic end. Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982 is transferred to Cystidicoloides as C. izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb. Cystidicoloides uniseriata Valovaya and Valter, 1988 is considered a species inquirenda with uncertain generic appurtenance. The presence of subdorsal and subventral cephalic spikes and the collarette are characteristic of Cystidicoloides, comprising only species parasitizing Neotropical fishes. The species from salmonids in the Holarctic, hitherto reported mostly as Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Linstow, 1872), belongs to a different, newly erected genus, for which the name Salmonema n. gen. (type species S. ephemeridarum) is now proposed. Cystidicoloides prevosti (Choquette, 1951) is transferred to Salmonema as S. prevosti (Choquette, 1951) n. comb. Sterliadochona ssavini Skryabin, 1948 and Sterliadochona Skryabin, 1948 are considered as species inquirenda and a genus inquirendum, respectively. A key to species of Cystidicoloides is provided. PMID:18576775

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Santa Fé Group, central Brazil: Implications for the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Daniele; Ernesto, Marcia; Rocha-Campos, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the Floresta Formation (Santa Fé Group) of the Sanfranciscana Basin, central Brazil. This formation represents the Permo-Carboniferous glacial record of the basin and comprises the Brocotó (diamictites and flow diamictites), Brejo do Arroz (red sandstones and shales with dropstones and invertebrate trails), and Lavado (red sandstones) members, which crop out near the cities of Santa Fé de Minas and Canabrava, Minas Gerais State. Both Brejo do Arroz and Lavado members were sampled in the vicinities of the two localities. Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations of 268 samples from 76 sites revealed reversed components of magnetization in all samples in accordance with the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The magnetic carriers are magnetite and hematite with both minerals exhibiting the same magnetization component, suggesting a primary origin for the remanence. We use the high-quality paleomagnetic pole for the Santa Fé Group (330.9°E 65.7°S; N = 60; α95 = 4.1°; k = 21) in a revised late Carboniferous to early Triassic apparent polar wander path for South America. On the basis of this result it is shown that an early Permian Pangea A-type fit is possible if better determined paleomagnetic poles become available.

  20. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems. PMID:24294225

  1. Community Healthcare Workers’ Perception of an Educational Intervention in the Care of Patients with Sickle Cell Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ludmila Mourão Xavier; de Andrade Barbosa, Thiago Luis; Vieira, Elen Débora Souza; Vieira, Lara Jhulian Tolentino; Castro, Karla Patrícia Ataíde Nery; Pereira, Igor Alcântara; Caldeira, Antônio Prates; de Carvalho Torres, Heloísa; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite advances in the management of sickle cell disease, gaps still exist in the training of primary healthcare professionals for monitoring patients with the disease. Objective To assess the perception of community healthcare workers about the care and monitoring of patients with sickle cell disease after an educational intervention. Method This exploratory, descriptive, and the qualitative study was conducted in Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The intervention involved the educational training of community healthcare workers from the Family Health Program of the Brazilian Unified Health System. The focus group technique was used to collect the data. The following topics were covered in the discussion: assessment of educational workshops, changes observed in the perception of professionals after training, profile of home visits, and access to and provision of basic healthcare services to individuals with sickle cell disease. The discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were subjected to content analysis and empirically organized into two categories. Results Changes in the healthcare practices of community health workers were observed after the educational intervention. The prioritization of healthcare services for patients with sickle cell disease and monitoring of clinical warning signs in healthcare units were observed. Furthermore, changes were observed in the profile of home visits to patients, which were performed using a script provided in the educational intervention. Conclusion The educational intervention significantly changed the work process of community health workers concerning patient monitoring in primary healthcare. PMID:25960859

  2. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems. PMID:24294225

  3. The role of environmental land use conflicts in soil fertility: A study on the Uberaba River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valera, C A; Valle Junior, R F; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pacheco, F A L

    2016-08-15

    In the Uberaba River basin (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), pastures for livestock production have invaded areas of native vegetation (Cerrado biome), while already existing pastures were invaded by crop agriculture, with an expansion of sugar cane plantations in the most recent years. In some areas of the basin, these land use changes were classified as environmental land use conflicts because the new uses were not conforming to land capability, i.e. the soil's natural use. Where the areas in conflict became dense, some soil properties have changed significantly, namely the organic matter content and the exchangeable potassium concentration, which have decreased drastically (5kg/m(3) per 10% increase in the conflict area) threatening the fertility of soil. Besides, these changes may have triggered a cascade of other environmental damages, specifically the increase of soil erosion and the degradation of water quality with negative impacts on aquatic biodiversity, related to a disruption of soil organic matter structural functions. Because half the Uberaba catchment has been considered is a state of accentuated environmental degradation, not only caused by environmental land use conflicts, conservation measures have been proposed and requested for immediate implementation across the watershed. PMID:27107645

  4. Life cycle and behavior of Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions and remarks on parasitism of toads in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Pires, Marcus Sandes; da Silva, Hélio Ricardo; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2013-05-01

    The life cycle and behavior of Amblyomma rotundatum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The experiment started with four engorged females collected from toads (Rhinella schneideri) naturally infested at the Pirapitinga Ecological Station in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Developmental periods of free-living stages were assessed in an incubator at 27 ± 1 °C, >80 % RH and darkness. The complete life cycle, including pre-attachment periods for each parasitic stage, ranged from 126 to 228 days. The pre-attachment, feeding and molting periods increased as the life cycle progressed from larva to adult female. Oviposition lasted about 20 days, with the peak occurring on days 4 and 5. Longevity of nymphs and adult females was quite similar (approximately 250 and 240 days, respectively) and slightly longer than that of larvae. Lesions caused by tick feeding are discussed and a list of known hosts, including new host records for A. rotundatum, is offered. PMID:23100108

  5. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a Cave of the Speleological Province of Bambuí, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings. PMID:24130847

  6. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  7. The ethanol program in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldemberg, José

    2006-10-01

    The number of automobiles in the world has been growing fast and today requires one quarter of the global petroleum consumption. This problem requires adequate solutions, one of which Brazil has achieved with the Sugarcane Ethanol Program. This paper presents the history of this program, from its launch in the 1970s to the today's condition of full competitiveness in a free market. It also shows how it can be replicated to other countries, in order to replace 10 per cent of the world's gasoline consumption.

  8. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  9. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg) in field studies in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Ruivo, Maycon Araújo; Colli, Marcos Henrique Alcantara; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu; da Costa, Alvimar José; De Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2015-01-30

    The present study aimed to determine the susceptibility of 17 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations, originating in the Southeast and Southern regions of Brazil, to different ivermectin concentrations (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg), administered through subcutaneous or topical (pour-on) routes. R. (B.) microplus populations from the states of Minas Gerais (seven populations), São Paulo (seven populations) and Paraná (three populations) were chosen for the tests. The selected cattle were allocated to treatment groups on day 0, and block formation was based on the arithmetic mean of female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm long) counted on three consecutive days (-3, -2 and -1). To evaluate the therapeutic and residual efficacies of these formulations, tick counts (females ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 mm long) were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, and continued on a weekly basis thereafter until the end of each experiment. The results obtained throughout this study, utilizing field efficacy studies, allowed us to conclude that the resistance of R. (B.) microplus against 200 and 500 μg/kg ivermectin is widely disseminated because all tick populations that had contact with these specific concentrations were diagnosed as resistant. However, it is possible to infer that R. (B.) microplus resistance against 630 μg/kg ivermectin was also widespread, diagnosed at six of ten analyzed properties. Resistance of these ectoparasites to 630 μg/kg ivermectin is most likely emerging in three other populations of R. (B.) microplus. Strategies of resistance management need to be quickly determined to keep the selection pressure at a minimum level in Brazil. PMID:25576441

  10. Hereditary haemoglobin disorders in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F

    1985-01-01

    The data on the incidence and variability of hereditary haemoglobin (Hb) disorders in Brazil are reviewed. The most common abnormalities are HbS, HbC and beta-thalassaemias. Both homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for these genes (i.e., HbS/HbC disease, S/beta-thalassaemia, C/beta-thalassaemia) are common, owing to the free miscegenation of populations of Mediterranean and African ancestry. The diversity of beta-thalassaemias is similar to that observed in other regions. beta(0)-Thalassaemia is more frequent than the beta(+) variant among affected individuals. Most patients are descendants of Italian immigrants but occasional cases have other racial origins. Patients with thalassaemia major are mostly beta (0) homozygotes, while thalassaemia intermedia is more heterogeneous, including a variety of genotypes. alpha-Thalassaemias are not common although cases of HbH disease have been reported. Isolated examples of several Hb variants have been described, and two abnormal Hb were first found in Brazil: Hb Porto Alegre and Hb Niteroi. PMID:3898485

  11. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not. PMID:11765396

  12. Genetic determinants of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a population from rural Brazil.

    PubMed

    Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Parra, Flavia C; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the heritability of and pleiotropic relationships among triglycerides and cholesterol lipoproteins that have long been considered traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Quantitative lipid and lipoprotein phenotypes were determined for a cross-sectional sample of a community in Jequitinhonha valley in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The sample consisted primarily of subsistence farmers. Two hundred sixty-nine individuals (128 males and 141 females), ages 18-88 years, were sampled. Eighty-eight percent (n = 252) of the individuals belonged to a single pedigree, which was highly informative for genetic analysis. Data on anthropometrics, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were available for each study participant. Extended pedigrees were constructed using the pedigree-based data management software PedSys. Univariate and bivariate variance-components analyses, adjusted by sex and age, were performed using the SOLAR software package. Heritability estimates of lipids and lipoproteins ranged from 29% to 45% (p < 0.008). The highest heritability estimated was for HDL-C (h2 = 44.8%, p < 0.0001), and this was the only trait that exhibited a significant household effect (c2 = 25%). Strong positive genetic correlations were found between triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) (rhog = 0.998) and between total cholesterol and LDL-C (rhog = 0.948). Significant genetic correlations were also found between triglycerides and LDL-C, between total cholesterol and VLDL, and between total cholesterol and LDL-C and VLDL, and finally between LDL and VLDL. There was a significant negative environmental correlation between triglycerides and HDL-C (rhoe = -0.406). PMID:18027813

  13. Survey of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Environmentally Protected Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  14. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSESSMENT IN SEDIMENT OF NATIONAL PARKS IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Azeredo, Antonio; de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Paulo, João; Torres, Machado; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment and their sources found in protected regions of southeastern Brazil. Samples of sediments were collected at four National Parks: Itatiaia National Park (PNIT), Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), Serra dos Orgãos National Park (PNSO) and Jurubatiba National Park (PNJUB). The National Parks studied comprise rainforests, altitudinal fields and ‘restinga’ environments located in the Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. The sampling was conducted between 2002 and 2004 from June to September. In general, the environmental levels of PAHs found were similar to those in other remote areas around the globe. PNIT exhibited the highest median values of total PAHs in sediment (97 ng·g−1), followed by PNJUB (89 ng·g−1), PNSO (57 ng·g−1) and PNSB (27 ng·g−1). The highest levels of total PAHs (576 and 24430 ng·g−1) could be associated to a point source contamination where are characterizated for human activities. At PNSB and PNIT the PAH profiles were richer in 2 and 3 ring compounds, whereas at PNSO and PNJUB, the profiles exhibited 3 and 4 ring compounds. The phenanthrene predominance in most samples could indicate the influence of biogenic synthesis. The samples with a petrogenic pattern found in this study might be associated with the vicinity of major urban areas, highway traffic and/or industrial activities close to PNSO and PNIT. At PNIT and PNJUB, forest fires and slash and burn agricultural practices may drive the results towards a pyrolytic pattern. PMID:18472130

  15. Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease. PMID:14756419

  16. Evaluation of surface water quality in aquatic bodies under the influence of uranium mining (MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rodgher, Suzelei; de Azevedo, Heliana; Ferrari, Carla Rolim; Roque, Cláudio Vítor; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa; de Campos, Michelle Burato; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes

    2013-03-01

    The quality of the water in a uranium-ore-mining area located in Caldas (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and in a reservoir (Antas reservoir) that receives the neutralized acid solution leaching from the waste heaps generated by uranium mining was investigated. The samples were collected during four periods (October 2008, January, April and July 2009) from six sampling stations. Physical and chemical analyses were performed on the water samples, and the data obtained were compared with those of the Brazilian Environmental Standards and WHO standard. The water samples obtained from waste rock piles showed high uranium concentrations (5.62 mg L(-1)), high manganese values (75 mg L(-1)) and low average pH values (3.4). The evaluation of the water quality at the point considered the limit between the Ore Treatment Unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries and the environment (Consulta Creek) indicated contamination by fluoride, manganese, uranium and zinc. The Antas reservoir showed seasonal variations in water quality, with mean concentrations for fluoride (0.50 mg L(-1)), sulfate (16 mg L(-1)) and hardness (20 mg L(-1)) which were low in January, evidencing the effect of rainwater flowing into the system. The concentrations for fluoride, sulfate and manganese were close or above to the limits established by current legislation at the point where the treated mining effluent was discharged and downstream from this point. This study demonstrated that the effluent discharged by the UTM affected the quality of the water in the Antas reservoir, and thus the treatments currently used for effluent need to be reviewed. PMID:22717708

  17. Proposed hydrologic analyses of streamflow for Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, Henry Chiles

    1974-01-01

    Streamflow records are evaluated for the Rio Jacui basin in the state of Rio Grande Sul, Brazil, in reference to data reliability, length of record, and density of areal coverage. Availability of water is a factor in the development of a country, and surface water is of especial importance in Brazil. This report is intended as a reference for further investigation of the flow characteristic of the basin to provide (1) information for utilization of streamflow and (2) information to improve the data collection and analytic procedures. In addition the evaluation study can serve as a pilot for other developing river basins in Brazil. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  19. Geotechnologies for the Characterization of Specialty Coffee Environments of Mantiqueira de Minas in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Lacerda, M. P. C.; Borém, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) is a major cause of environmental transformation. Distant drivers, often associated with emerging markets for specific products, are now being considered one of the main factors of LUCC and are gaining attention in land change science. Consumers show an increasing interest in local and quality food, certified for its origin and its environmental production standards. A kind of agricultural product certification, Geographic Indication, identifies a product as originating from a specific region where a given quality, reputation or characteristic is attributed to its geographical origin. Sustainable land use is potentially an indirect effect of Geographic Indication, as it requires better land management in order to preserve the natural resources associated with the unique characteristics of the certified product. Located in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil is the region of Mantiqueira de Minas, considered one of the most important regions for the production of specialty coffees in Brazil. In 2011, the region's tradition and reputation were recognized with a Geographic Indication, the second given for coffee regions in the country. To explore the full potential of this area for producing coffees with higher quality and meet the growing demand of this new international market, which aggregates value at specialty coffees, it became fundamental to understand the coffee environments of the region, the "terroirs" where these coffees are obtained. Geotechnology can give a significant contribution in filling this gap. This work is part of a research project that made a detailed characterization of the region's coffee agroecosystems. Geotechnologies were employed to map the areas occupied by coffee plantations by using RapidEye satellite images and SPRING and ArcGIS software. All the segments of the environment were characterized and mapped in detail and the relations with coffee quality were evaluated. The results

  20. Hindcast experiments of ensemble streamflow forecasting for the Paraopeba river (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, W.; Meller, A.; Dias, P. L. S.; Moreira, D. S.

    2012-04-01

    Streamflow forecasts are routinely produced and used in Brazil to predict inflow to major hydropower reservoirs . In this field of application quantitative precipitation forecasts are becoming increasingly used to extend the range and increase the skill of streamflow forecasts. Forecasting systems designed to provide flood alert, on the other side, are relatively rare in Brazil, and are often based on simplified river routing models. However, a number of recent floods with significant loss of lives and economical impact is now motivating the creation of a new governmental institution dedicated to natural disaster and flood forecasting. This will further motivate the incorporation of numerical weather predictions (NWP) as input data to hydrological flood forecasting models, with the aim of increasing forecast lead time. In this context ensemble meteorological forecasts will be increasingly useful, since it is expected that ensembles can give some idea of the confidence level of the forecasts, and that extremes can be better captured by a high number of NWP runs with different initial conditions, or with different meteorological models. Silva Dias and Moreira (2006) organized a grand ensemble including several different models and model members for South America. We used forecasts of individual models of this grand ensemble to run a series of streamflow hindcast experiments (in forecast mode), using the MGB-IPH hydrological model. These tests were conducted in the Paraopeba river basin, which is a tributary of the São Francisco river, located in Minas Gerais State, in a Tropical region in the range from 21 S to 19 S. Results of 72 hour streamflow forecasts were compared to hourly observed discharge at Porto Mesquita gauging station, were the drainage area is 10280 square kilometers, during the Austral Summer of 2011. Results were assessed by visual inspection of hydrographs and by the analysis of a number of summary statistics. These preliminary results suggest that

  1. Ensemble Streamflow Predictions in the Três Marias Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Kuwajima, Julio; Assis dos Reis, Alberto; Collischonn, Walter

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the main electricity source of Brazil. The related hydropower reservoirs are multi-purpose thus besides efficient and reliable energy production, they are relevant for flood control. In this context, the present study shows results of an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) for supporting the operational decision making implemented at Três Marias hydroelectric power project located in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. It is a large tropical river basin with approximately 55,000km² up to the Três Marias dam. The hydrological model used in the study is the MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias from Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas), a large scale distributed hydrological model. Applied in an operational forecasting mode, it uses an empirical data assimilation method to take into account real time streamflow observations to update its state variables. We present results of a hindcast experiment with observed precipitation and streamflow data from the local energy utility, CEMIG (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais), and from the Brazilian water agency, ANA (Agencia Nacional de Água),. Probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) from CPTEC (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos), ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) are used to generate the ESP. The data products and the MGB-IPH model are integrated into an open shell forecasting platform based on the software package Delft-FEWS. Inside the forecasting platform a hindcast mode over a forecast lead time of 10-16 days in recent rainfall periods is applied in. The ESP results are compared to deterministic forecasts of the Três Marias reservoir inflow. The results assessment verifies the added value of the ESP in general in comparison to the use of deterministic forecasts by means of different performance indicators. The ESP derived from the ECMWP ensemble shows the best performance. A future

  2. Spatio-temporal evolution of triggered seismicity at Nova Ponte Reservoir, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimpliganond, C.; Sousa, K. T.; Caixeta, D. D.; Barros, L. V.; França, G. S.

    2007-05-01

    Nova Ponte Reservoir is located at Minas Gerais State, SE of Brazil, on the Araguari river. The lake is situated at the boundary between two geotectonic provinces: the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Mobile Belt and a Phanerozoic volcano-sedimentary basin so called Parana Basin. The impoundment started in October 1993 creating a lake with volume of 12.8 km3 and maximum depth of 132 m. The pre-impoundment monitoring was made with one station for eigth years, and no local event had been detected. Two months after the lake start to be filling, the occurrence of some events felt by the local population lead to the deployment of a five vertical analog stations network. In 1995 this network was replaced by a digital one, which is operating until now. The almost continuous monitoring shows that the seismic activiy at Nova Ponte Reservoir is a proved case of reservoir triggered seismicity. Initially the events occured 25 km south of the dam, in a cluster named Area 1, with maximum magnitude of 2.0 mD. Soon after the activity at this area decreased and a continuous seismicity appeared at another area, named Area 2, with more widespread epicentral distribution. Most of the triggered events occurs at this area. A conspicuous cluster of epicenters is located 10 km south of the dam, where the two largest events were detected, on April 1995 with 3.5 mD, and on May 1998 with 4.0 mb and VI MM maximum intensity (Assumpção et al., 2002 PAGEOPH). The last one corespond to the second largest triggered earthquake in Brazil. The seismicity at these two areas was well studied. Since July 2004 some events have been located in a small area half distance between areas 1 and 2, named Area 3. Compared to areas 1 and 2, this area show less number of events, with maximum magnitude of 2.1 mD. More recent data analysis shows another new cluster of events situated around 35 km east of the dam where occurred on July 23, 2006 an event of 2.9 mD. In this study we present preliminary results for this

  3. Longitudinal study of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in Brazil (SaMi-Trop project): a cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; de Oliveira, Lea Campos; Ferreira, Ariela Mota; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Reingold, Arthur L; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We have established a prospective cohort of 1959 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy to evaluate if a clinical prediction rule based on ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, and other biomarkers can be useful in clinical practice. This paper outlines the study and baseline characteristics of the participants. Participants The study is being conducted in 21 municipalities of the northern part of Minas Gerais State in Brazil, and includes a follow-up of 2 years. The baseline evaluation included collection of sociodemographic information, social determinants of health, health-related behaviours, comorbidities, medicines in use, history of previous treatment for Chagas disease, functional class, quality of life, blood sample collection, and ECG. Patients were mostly female, aged 50–74 years, with low family income and educational level, with known Chagas disease for >10 years; 46% presented with functional class >II. Previous use of benznidazole was reported by 25.2% and permanent use of pacemaker by 6.2%. Almost half of the patients presented with high blood cholesterol and hypertension, and one-third of them had diabetes mellitus. N-terminal of the prohormone BNP (NT-ProBNP) level was >300 pg/mL in 30% of the sample. Findings to date Clinical and laboratory markers predictive of severe and progressive Chagas disease were identified as high NT-ProBNP levels, as well as symptoms of advanced heart failure. These results confirm the important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the remote areas, thus supporting political decisions that should prioritise in addition to epidemiological surveillance the medical treatment of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in the coming years. The São Paulo-Minas Gerais Tropical Medicine Research Center (SaMi-Trop) represents a major challenge for focused research in neglected diseases, with knowledge that can be applied in primary healthcare. Future plans We will continue following this patients’ cohort

  4. An Energy Overview of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Brazil. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  5. Reversing the Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, F.; Vandewalle, N.

    2005-12-01

    We propose a lattice model for studying the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), i.e. the phase segregation occuring when a granular material is vertically shaked. The model considers the tap intensity and the mobility μ of the grains as the main physical parameters. Different mobilities for different grain species lead to segregation (BNE) patterns, reverse segregation (RBNE) patterns, “sandwhich" layered structures or vertical domains. A phase diagram (decompaction χ, mobility difference between both species Δ μ) is obtained in which the different phases are emphasized. In a narrow region of the diagram, different phases coexist. It is shown that the BNE segregation could be reversed by increasing the tap intensity or the characteristics of the grains. Numerical results are compared with earlier experimental works.

  6. Brazil comes in from the cold

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Brazil is well on its way to rolling back its nuclear program from the brink of developing nuclear explosives. The reason for this dramatic reversal can be traced to international diplomatic pressure on Brazil to accept full-scope safeguards and implement the Treaty of Tlatelolco, and to the growth of democracy in Brazil, which has provided an opportunity for groups such as the Brazilian Physics Society to work politically to end their country's effort to build nuclear weapons. The recent developments in Brazil underscore the importance of responsible civilian control of the nuclear program, and the role of domestic and international inspections of nuclear facilities to verify that weapons-related activities are not taking place. More importantly, these developments show that knowledgeable and dedicated people and groups opposed to nuclear weapons production can make a significant contribution to stopping their country from going nuclear.

  7. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  8. Telecommunications and Information Services in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarapanoff, Kira; Alvares, Lillian

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the interdependence of telecommunications and information sciences in Brazil. Highlights include new technologies and telecommunications: satellites, fiber optic cables, data communication networks, information superhighways, and cooperative projects; and information services development. (AEF)

  9. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  10. Pollinators of Oxypetalum (Asclepiadaceae) in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, M F; Shepherd, G J

    1999-11-01

    Floral visitors of seven species of Oxypetalum were registered in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais. O. appendiculatum, O. banksii subsp, banksii, O. alpinumn var. alpinum and O. pachyglossum are pollinated by wasps, being Polybia ignobilis (Vespidae) a pollinator of these four species. It seems that P ignobilis promotes interspecific pollinations mainly between O. alpinum var. alpinum and O. pachyglossum, two species with very similar floral morphology. O. jacobinae, O. mexiae and O. subriparium are pollinated by bees. Wasps and bees carry one, two, three or several pollinaria in the mouthparts. O. mexiae, an endemic species in Viçosa, seems to present reproductive limitations, since its flowers are seldom visited. PMID:23505657

  11. Quartzite of historic buildings in Brazil: designations and degradation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antônio

    2015-04-01

    Quartzite dated with ages between 2.60 and 1.75 Ga were used in historic buildings in Brazil, almost exclusively in Minas Gerais. Dating from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, these buildings can be viewed in the cities of Ouro Preto and Tiradentes, as well as part of the architectural complex of the old Colégio Caraça, located in the homonymous ridge. Here, the quartzite used is the oldest (approx. 2.60 Ga). Designated as Cambotas, the material crops out in the vicinity of the complex. On the other hand those quartzite used in the constructions in Ouro Preto are stratigraphically from the Moeda Formation (between 2.6 and 2.56 Ga), or from Itacolomy Group (between 2.12 and 1.75 Ga). The first, designated Lajes, is exposed in the Ouro Preto Ridge, while the second, designated Itacolomy, crops out in the homonymous ridge. In buildings of Tiradentes were employed quartzites with ages also from Lower Proterozoic. They belong to the Tiradentes Formation and are exposed in the São José Ridge, near the city. In these regions, where these monuments were built, the metamorphic rocks of sedimentary origin predominate and it can be affirmed that resulted from a low-grade metamorphism (schists and phyllites from the greenschist facies). The quartzite occur associate and consist essentially of quartz, but may show different contents of accessory minerals such as mica, kyanite and opaque minerals (iron oxides). Depending on the content of mica can show planar structures. Structures of the sediment phase can still be observed, such as banding by compositional variation or other such as cross bedding. The different degradation patterns of these quartzite occur singly or in combinations and were influenced by the textures and structures of these rocks. From all those patterns, the most common has to do with chromatic modifications of the stone materials (patina) occurred due to varying degrees of oxidation and formation of hydroxides. Because of this, the quartzite can

  12. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  13. Loss and damage affecting the public health sector and society resulting from flooding and flash floods in Brazil between 2010 and 2014 - based on data from national and global information systems.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Aline Costa; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2016-03-01

    This article outlines the results of a descriptive study that analyses loss and damage caused by hydrometeorological disasters in Brazil between 2010 and 2014 using the EM DAT (global) and S2iD (national) databases. The analysis shows major differences in the total number of disaster events included in the databases (EM-DAT = 36; S2iD = 4,070) and estimated costs of loss and damage (EM-DAT - R$ 9.2 billion; S2iD - R$331.4 billion). The analysis also shows that the five states most affected by these events are Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná in Brazil's South and Southeast regions and that these results are consistent with the findings of other studies. The costs of disasters were highest for housing, public infrastructure works, collectively used public facilities, other public service facilities, and state health and education facilities. The costs associated with public health facilities were also high. Despite their limitations, both databases demonstrated their usefulness for determining seasonal and long-term trends and patterns, and risk areas, and thus assist decision makers in identifying areas that are most affected by and vulnerable to natural disasters. PMID:26960082

  14. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  15. Domiciliation of Triatoma pseudomaculata (Corrêa e Espínola 1964) in the Jequitinhonha Valley, State of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Girley Francisco Machado; Azeredo, Bernardino Vaz de Mello; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Diotaiuti, Liléia; de Lana, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Impact of the vector control program was evaluated eight years after implantation of epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease in Berilo, a municipality in the Jequitinhonha Valley of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. In all 5,242 domiciliary units (96% of the total) were inspected and 10 found to be infested by the triatomine bug Triatoma pseudomaculata. Triatomines were found associated with bats inside one house and in the peridomiciles of the other nine. None of the 111 Triatoma pseudomaculata captured was infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Noireau et al traps were installed in (n=8) and around (n=100) the infested house but no Trypanpsoma cruzi-infected triatomines were found. None bat, opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and rat captured in the peridomicile were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi although 24% of the inhabitants of the house infested by Triatoma pseudomaculata were seropositive for the parasite, based on ELISA, IHA and IIF. PMID:17876457

  16. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty. PMID:25088506

  17. Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, H; Câmara, V de M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory scheme, workers' compensation system, plant-level practices, training, and data collection. METHODS. We reviewed and analyzed Brazilian regulatory legislation and government and non-governmental organization (NGO) activity in occupational safety and health, as well as the structure and function of the workers' compensation system. We also reviewed available data on injuries and diseases from major sources, including the now-defunct Instituto Nacional do Previdencia Social (INPS) and the workers' compensation scheme, Seguro de Acidente de Trabalho (SAT). RESULTS. The incidence of workplace injuries has decreased in recent years and is now reported to be about 5 per 100 workers per year. The case fatality rate has been constant at about 5 fatalities per 1000 injuries. Less than 6% of reported injuries are classified as "diseases." Brazil's rates are comparable to those of Mexico and Zimbabwe, and two to four times higher than in most industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS. Brazil has a high incidence of occupational injuries and diseases; these injuries and diseases are underreported; there is a large informal sector at special risk; and Brazil illustrates the disparity that exists in many countries between legislation on the books and legislation that is actually implemented. PMID:1836110

  18. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  19. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta H; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  20. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  1. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  2. Air-driven Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, M.; Swift, Michael; King, P.

    2003-07-01

    A large heavy object may rise to the top of a bed of smaller particles under the influence of vertical vibration, the “Brazil nut effect.” Recently it has been noted that interstitial air can influence the Brazil nut rise time. Here we report that the air movement induced by vertical vibration produces a very strong Brazil nut effect for fine granular beds. We use a porous-bottomed box to investigate the mechanism responsible for this effect and to demonstrate that it is related to the piling of fine beds, first reported by Chladni and studied by Faraday. Both effects are due to the strong interaction of the fine particles with the air, as it is forced through the bed by the vibration.

  3. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  4. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B.; Jacobson, Cardell K.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey data from 2001 and 2008 to examine factors predicting intergroup marriage and the trends in intergroup marriage in Brazil. The results show higher rates of intermarriage in urban than in rural areas. Intermarriage is less common among the most educated people. While the rates of intermarriage are increasing substantially, the rates of change are diffuse across urban and rural areas, regions and education groups. PMID:24052666

  5. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Añez, Germán; Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil. PMID:26413514

  6. Morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny of Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) a parasite of Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei: Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Suellen A; Naldoni, Juliana; Silva, Márcia R M; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-10-01

    Myxobolus curimatae n. sp. has been found infecting the gill filaments of Prochilodus costatus (Prochilodontidae) from the São Francisco River in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of the species was 18.7%. Mature spores were rounded from a frontal view, with elongated polar capsules of equal size, and had polar filaments with 9-10 turns. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that sporogenesis patterns followed those of other Myxobolus species. The plasmodium walls had numerous invaginations and protrusions, and few pinocytic channels. Numerous mitochondria, generative cells and young pansporoblasts were observed in the peripherical areas of the plasmodia, and mature spores were found in deeper layers. A layer of collagenic fibrils surrounded the plasmodia. The morphological data and molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA identified this parasite as a new species. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed M. curimatae n. sp., as a sister species of Thelohanellus marginatus, in a basal branch of the subclade composed by parasites with tropism to different organs and host families. PMID:26002517

  7. First description of B chromosomes in the family Auchenipteridae, Parauchenipterus galeatus (Siluriformes) of the São Francisco River basin (MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Filho, Orlando Moreira

    2009-01-01

    B chromosomes are considered additional and non-essential; they likely originate from A chromosomes and follow a distinct evolution. In fish, approximately half of the Neotropical species with B chromosomes are Characiformes and 35% are Siluriformes. There has been no report of B chromosomes in Auchenipteridae until this moment. B chromosomes found in a population of Parauchenipterus galeatus from the São Francisco River basin in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were small, metacentric, totally heterochromatic and exhibited intra-individual and inter-individual variation. The diploid number was 58 chromosomes (22 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 12 subtelocentric and 8 acrocentric). The nucleolar organizing regions were simple and the heterochromatin intercalated in the ribosomal sites, characterized by CMA(3) and DAPI fluorochromes, was of a GC-rich constitution. The 5S rDNA genes were located in an intercalary position in only one chromosome pair. An hypothesis about the origin of the B chromosomes in P. galeatus and a review on B chromosomes in catfish are also presented in this study. PMID:19394233

  8. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period. PMID:26628236

  9. The Youth Daily Life Before Fulfilling Socio-educational Measures of Deprivation of Liberty in Brazil: Ordinary Experiences That Are Tangent to the Inclusion in Drug Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciana Assis; Rocha, Daniete Fernandes; Vieira, Gabriela; Reis, Adriene

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate some understanding of the daily lives of young people facing socio-educational measures of incarceration, especially regarding the predisposing factors that may explain their involvement in criminal occupations and activities (Although the socio-educational measures applicable to adolescents configures as a response to committing of an offence, it has a mostly educational and not punitive character.). This is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach. The data collection instrument used was semi-structured interviews with 22 young men aged between 12 and 17 years, on condition of deprivation of freedom in four youth centres in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results showed that these adolescents had a way of life associated with a scarcity of resources owned by households (including little control over them, despite the efforts of their mothers); low adherence to school; limited institutional access to activities in their free time; exposure to predisposing factors to crime, such as early contact with crime through neighbourhood and family relationships; and profiting from crime. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27279041

  10. Nested case-control study in a serological survey to evaluate the effectiveness of a Chagas disease control programme in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, M.; Moreno, E. C.; Antunes, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infections in areas under surveillance in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A model using a nested case-control design incorporated within a serological survey of schoolchildren which was employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chagas disease control programme. FINDINGS: In a sample of 40,374 schoolchildren (aged 7-14 years) surveyed, 16 children tested positive for T. cruzi antibody (by indirect immunofluorescence and indirect haemagglutination). In the case-control study, each case was randomly matched to three seronegative controls (classroom and age +/- 1 year). Compared to controls, T. cruzi-seropositive children were more likely to have a seropositive mother (odds ratio (OR) = 6.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-63.9) or a seropositive family member (OR = 8.6; 95% CI = 1.0-75.5). CONCLUSION: Use of the nested case-control model in a sero-epidemiological survey to evaluate risk factors for T. cruzi transmission was adequate for assessing the effectiveness of a Chagas disease control programme. PMID:11417036

  11. The risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children as an environmental health indicator to guide preventive activities in Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Cifuentes, Enrique; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Romieu, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an environmental health indicator for use as a basis for developing preventive measures against Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children from the rural municipalities of Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and September 1998 among 1171 children under 14 years of age living in 588 dwellings selected from 11 communities. Trained interviewers used a questionnaire to identify risk factors for infection (socioeconomic, sanitation and hygiene variables) and collected stool samples from each child for parasitological tests. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 12.2%. The results showed the protective effects of availability of water in the washbasin and better hygiene, sanitation and socioeconomic status; the interactive effect of crowding was five times larger in households without water in the washbasin than in those having water. There was a statistically significant association between infection and children's age. CONCLUSION: The environmental health indicator, which incorporated the most significant biological, environmental and social factors associated with the risk of A. lumbricoides infection in children from these communities, should contribute to the development of surveillance tools and health protection measures in this population. PMID:11884972

  12. Curie surface of the alkaline provinces of Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP), central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rocha, Loiane Gomes de; Pires, Augusto César Bittencourt; Carmelo, Adriana Chatack; Oksum, Erdinc

    2015-05-01

    The study area includes the most important carbonatite and kimberlite complexes in Brazil, located in the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The central portion of this area involves the Azimuth 125° lineament (Az 125°) that consists of an extensive set of faults (oriented in the NW-SE direction) that served as a conduit for magma ascent. This lineament is the main structural feature associated with these complexes. The Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP) Alkaline Provinces occur along the Az 125° and include highly economically valuable mineralizations. In this study, we aim to map the depth to the curie isotherm (or Curie Point Depths: CPD) of the study area (mainly the Gap and APAP regions) based on spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. The CPD estimations were achieved from a spectral approach known as the centroid method, providing the relationship between the spectra of magnetic anomalies and the depths of the magnetic source of a 2-D magnetic data. The CPD estimates from approximately 500 overlapping blocks vary from 7 km to 40 km deep. The shallower depths are related to the GAP and APAP regions, and the deeper ones are related to the São Franciscana Plate. The Curie depths related to the Az 125° are between 30 km and 15.7 km deep. According to the results, the GAP and APAP intrusive bodies have shallower roots the major faults of the Az 125°.

  13. Evidence of scavenging on remains of the gomphothere Haplomastodon waringi (Proboscidea: Mammalia) from the Pleistocene of Brazil: Taphonomic and paleoecological remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominato, Victor Hugo; Mothé, Dimila; da Silva, Rafael Costa; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    This study reports implications of different tooth marks left by carnivorous mammals on long bones of Haplomastodon waringi from the Quaternary of Águas de Araxá, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Analyses of gnawing damage by ursids, felids, and canids have shown that these groups produce pits on bone surfaces when the gnawing is superficial, and punctures more often when the prey is intensely consumed. Scratches or scoring marks are most often associated with gnawing by canids, which may spend a long time gnawing the bones, leading to differential tooth marking. The gomphothere bones at Águas de Araxá did not result from predation, but are a consequence of a local mass mortality in a period of low environmental humidity, with little water and a scarcity of food. Canids frequently act as opportunistic scavengers during periods when herbivores face food shortages. Previous studies of necrophagous dermestid larvae indicate that the gomphothere carcasses of Águas de Araxá were exposed for a long period of time after death. These insects are the last consumers of a carcass because they act only when the body fat is completely lost. Thus, the gomphothere carcasses at Águas de Araxá suffered canid necrophagy in the early stages of decomposition, possibly during a drought period. Thereafter, the gomphothere carcasses would have been exposed for a period about 230 days until the final burial event.

  14. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  15. Henneguya cuniculator sp. nov., a parasite of spotted sorubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in the São Francisco Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Naldoni, Juliana; Maia, Antônio A M; da Silva, Marcia R M; Adriano, Edson A

    2014-01-16

    Henneguya cuniculator sp. nov. was found infecting spotted sorubim catfish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from the São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The parasites form elongated plasmodia of up to 1 cm in length in the gill filaments. Mature spores were ellipsoidal from the frontal view, with total length of 29.4 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD, range 23.3-32.4) µm, body length of 12.1 ± 1.0 (10.0-14.7) µm, width of 4.8 ± 0.4 (4.0-5.9) µm, and tail length of 16.7 ± 2.0 (12.3-19.4) µm. From the lateral view, spores were biconvex, with thickness of 4.2 ± 0.7 (3.9-4.9) µm. The polar capsules were elongated and equal in size, 6.2 ± 0.3 (5.2-6.2) µm in length, and 1.8 ± 0.1 (1.4-1.9) µm in width. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the plasmodial wall had delicate projections towards the host tissue and a thin layer that prevented contact between the host cells and the parasite. In the ectoplasm, few mitochondria were observed, while generative cells, early stages of sporogenesis, and advanced spore development occurred in the plasmodial periphery, and more mature spores in internal regions. Histopathological analysis showed that plasmodia developed in the sub-epithelial connective tissue of gill filaments, causing compression of the adjacent tissues, deformation of gill filaments, and lamellar fusion. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 18S rDNA genes and using only Henneguya/Myxobolus species parasites of siluriform fish, showed grouping according to the fish family. PMID:24429472

  16. Myxidium ceccarellii n. sp. (Myxosporea) from the gallbladder of Leporinus elongatus (Anastomidae) from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Adriano, Edson A; Silva, Marcia R M; Atkinson, Stephen D; Bartholomew, Jerri L; Maia, Antônio A M

    2014-07-01

    During a survey of myxozoan parasites of freshwater fish from the São Francisco River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, plasmodia of Myxidium ceccarellii n. sp. were found in gallbladders of two out of six specimens (22%) of Leporinus elongatus (Anastomidae). Parasite plasmodia were translucent and greenish, with disporic sporoblasts that develop asynchronously. Mature myxospores were ellipsoidal in frontal and lateral views, with slightly pointed ends. The surfaces of each valve had four to six longitudinal grooves. Spores dimensions were as follows: length 17.7 ± 0.5 μm (17.1-18.1), width 10.4 ± 0.47 μm (9.8-11.3), and thickness 10.1 ± 0.27 μm (9.6-10.4). Two polar capsules, one at either end of the spore, had the length of 6.3 ± 0.5 μm (5.7-7.0) and width of 6.4 ± 0.44 μm (5.7-6.9), with four to five polar filament turns. Some aberrant spores had one or three polar capsules. Partial sequencing of M. ceccarellii n. sp. small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene resulted in 1,845 bp. This is the first molecular study of a Myxidium species that parasitizes a South American freshwater fish. Phylogenetic reconstruction using ssrRNA gene sequences showed that M. ceccarellii n. sp. was positioned basally in a recognized clade of myxozoans that infect the biliary systems of nonfish vertebrates. PMID:24752369

  17. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic control on early diagenetic processes and fossil record in Cretaceous continental sandstones of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Antônio J. V.; da Rosa, Átila A. S.; Goldberg, Karin

    2005-08-01

    The Early Cretaceous, pre-rift continental rock sequences of northeastern Brazil (Rio do Peixe, Araripe, Recôncavo-Tucano, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins), deposited in a wide intracontinental basin (Afro-Brazilian Depression), and the Late Cretaceous, post-rift continental deposits of the Paraná Basin (Bauru Group, Minas Gerais) reflect the controlling processes related to the Brazilian record of nonmarine fossil vertebrates. These sequences were deposited in braided fluvial, eolian, and lacustrine environments in a semi-arid to arid climate. Sedimentary and diagenetic processes ascribed to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions are among the major factors that control fossil preservation in fluvial deposits. The pre-rift successions contain a rare record of a dinosaur fauna that lived near more humid highlands in the northern portion of the Afro-Brazilian Depression, relative to its southern counterpart, where hardly any fossil remains would have been preserved in the adverse climatic conditions. The Afro-Brazilian Depression is interpreted as a large pathway for dinosaurs before the breakup of Gondwana. Conversely, abundant dinosaur remains (bones, eggs, and teeth) and other vertebrates (turtles, crocodiles, frogs, and fish) are found in the Bauru Group in the Paraná Basin. In this unit, the seasonal paleoclimate provided sufficient conditions for the maintenance of bodies of water that served as nesting and living sites for various vertebrate forms. Paleoclimatic conditions are assumed to account for the different preservation of bones in the Paraná Basin relative to the Afro-Brazilian Depression, because the latter was subject to more arid conditions, and the humid environment was restricted to the northern margin.

  18. Molecular characterization of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in naturally infected egg layer chickens in a multi-age flock in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Couto, Rodrigo de Macedo; Preis, Ingred Sales; Braga, Juliana Fortes Vilarinho; Brasil, Bruno S A F; Drummond, Marcela Gonçalves; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; Ecco, Roselene

    2015-01-01

    The virus responsible for an outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) in a multi-age flock of egg layer chickens under quarantine in Brazil was characterized. Layer chickens from this area with circulating gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV 1) were evaluated using histopathology and molecular characterization techniques based on sequences of infected-cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4) and thymidine kinase (TK) genes. The infected chickens that were analyzed were PCR-positive for GaHV-1 in the trachea and negative in most trigeminal ganglia. The lack of ILT lesions in the conjunctiva and respiratory tissues, combined with detection of viral DNA in the trachea, was found to be associated with latent infection. The sequences from five farms obtained in the present study were identical, and there were no deletions within the 272- to 283-bp region of the ICP4 gene, as observed in the sequences of vaccine strains (CEO and TCO). The lack of a deletion in the ICP4 fragment analyzed in this study indicates that the chickens were infected with a field virus. The absence of the T252M mutation in a fragment of the TK gene, in addition to the low mortality rate observed, suggests that the outbreak in the state of Minas Gerais was not caused by a highly virulent strain but rather by a field virus of lower virulence. In addition, using phylogenetic reconstructions, it was found that this field strain was grouped together in a separate branch, apart from the previously characterized Brazilian strains. The introduction of vectored vaccines apparently has been effective in reducing clinical disease and lesions, and preventing new outbreaks of disease. PMID:25385176

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C S; Franco, P S; Silva, N M; Silva, D A O; Ferro, E A V; Pena, H F J; Soares, R M; Gennari, S M; Mineo, J R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and characterize the genotypic and phenotypic features of two isolates of this parasite, considering the importance of these hosts in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 108 free-range chickens were obtained from ten different districts, and submitted to the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies, and brain and heart tissue samples from infected chickens were processed for mouse bioassay. An overall seroprevalence of 71·3% was found and antibody titres ranged from 16 to 4096. After confirmation of seropositivity by mouse bioassay, the determination of the T. gondii genotypes of two isolates was performed by PCR-RFLP, using primers for the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, new SAG2, Apico and CS3. These T. gondii isolates, designated TgChBrUD1and TgChBrUD2, were obtained from heart samples of free-range chickens. The TgChBrUD1 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 11 and the TgChBrUD2 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 6. Both isolates demonstrated high virulence in a rodent model, with the TgChBrUD1 isolate able to induce brain cysts, in accord with its pattern of multiplication rates in human fibroblast culture. Taken together, these results reveal high prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens throughout Uberlândia, indicating an important degree of oocyst environmental contamination and the existence of considerable risk for T. gondii transmission to humans by consumption of free-range chicken as a food source. PMID:26743347

  20. Virtual Learning Environments Designed in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichler, Marcelo L.; Goncalves, Mario R.; da Silva, Flavia O. M.; Junges, Fernando; Del Pino, Jose C.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses instructional design for computerized pedagogic materials and emphasizes the elements of activity and discovery in creating effective learning experiences. Describes a virtual learning environment designed in Brazil that is open to different forms of use so teachers and students can decide on the best ways of using it. (LRW)

  1. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  2. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

  3. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the economic…

  4. Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Brazil, from Field to Gene

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Lenildo; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia; Wada, Marcelo Y.; Jones, Jeffrey L.; Tuboi, Suely H.; Carmo, Eduardo H.; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Camargo, Natal J.; Trevisan, Ronaldo; Graça, Regina M.T.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Moura, Iaci; Dubey, J.P.; Garrett, Denise O.

    2006-01-01

    Water was the suspected vehicle of Toxoplasma gondii dissemination in a toxoplasmosis outbreak in Brazil. A case-control study and geographic mapping of cases were performed. T. gondii was isolated directly from the implicated water and genotyped as SAG 2 type I. PMID:16494765

  5. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  6. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  7. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:11424252

  8. Counseling in Brazil: Need, Resources, Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedinger, Edward A.

    This report examines the needs and resources of educational counseling centers in Brazil that advise individuals about opportunities for undergraduate and graduate education in the United States. A survey of nine counseling offices run by the U.S. International Communication Agency (USICA), U.S. consulates, and American-Brazilian binational…

  9. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  10. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  11. Maternal-child health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, C A

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the social and economic climates and the healthcare delivery systems of Brazil is presented. The Brazilian healthcare system is discussed, with particular attention directed to the status of nursing and to the perinatal health-care delivery system. Examples of Brazilian perinatal health-care practices are provided. PMID:3650322

  12. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  13. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  14. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Adalberto Pérez de León, all USDA-ARS, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cança...

  15. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements. PMID:21767370

  16. Special Libraries and Information Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Eduardo J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a survey of 192 special library and information center managers in Brazil that examined managerial activities and factors accounting for variation in managerial jobs. The results are discussed in terms of personal and organizational characteristics, perceived importance of managerial roles, and perceived preparedness to perform…

  17. Allergens from Brazil nut: immunochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, B; Méndez, J D; Armentia, A; Vallverdú, A; Palacios, R

    1997-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of tropical nuts in the Northern Hemisphere during the last years, has evolved in a simultaneous enhancement of allergic IgE mediated (Hypersensitivity type 1) reported cases produced by this kind of food. The Brazil nut is the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa tree (Family Lecythidaceae) and, as in other seeds, proteins represent one of its major components making up 15-17% of its fresh weight and 50% of defatted flour. Of these, storage proteins are the most important ones, and the 12 S globulin legumin-like protein and the 2 S albumin have been described as the most representative. The 2 S protein, due to its high sulfur-rich amino acid content (3% cysteine and 18% methionine), is being studied, cloned and expressed in some important agronomic seeds (soybean, bean, oilseed rape) in order to enrich the nutritional quality of them. The case of a patient with serious clinical allergic symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of consciousness) caused by oral contact with the Brazil nut, is presented. The patient gave a positive Skin Prick Test response to Brazil nut, kiwi and hazelnut extracts, and negative to regionally specific aeroallergens and other food extracts. The patient serum showed a high level of specific IgE by RAST to Brazil nut (> 17.5 PRU/ml, Class 4), and significative levels to hazelnut, and mustard. In vitro immunological studies (SDS-Immunoblotting and IEF-Immunoblotting) revealed IgE-binding proteins present in the extract. It was shown that not only the heavy (Mr 9) and light (Mr 4) subunits of the known allergenic 2 S albumin but also the alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 33.5 and 32) and at least one of the beta-subunits (Mr approximately 21) of the 12 S Brazil nut globulin, hitherto never involved in allergic problems, showed a strong IgE-binding capacity. PMID:9208050

  18. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil. PMID:17351814

  19. Water balance analysis of a watershed dominated by Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in Felixlandia (MG, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surian-Gamba, Otávio; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Garcia-Leite, Hélio; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    Commercial eucalyptus plantations are commonly associated to excessive water use despite the fact that numerous studies have demonstrated significant differences among species and environmental systems. In fact, the analysis of its impact on water balance depending on specific environmental conditions is essential to guarantee its sustainability. The water balance of Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in the Basin Creek of Riacho Fundo in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil) is presented through a study of 2.6 years of measurements in a catchment of 719.9 ha. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships among precipitation, interception and evapotranspiration of eucalyptus plantations, for evaluating the weight on flow and effective precipitation. A triangular weir with a set of level- and baro-logger were used for measuring flow. Rainfall was measured with 2 pluviometers and evaporation using two evapotranspirometers Soil Control, Model JR-200mm. For througfall, eight plots of 136.5 m² each were installed with twelve pluviometers. To estimate the stemflow, the empirical equation Et = - 0.060 + 0.053 (P) was used, where P is the precipitation. The effective precipitation was calculated by summing of the througfall value plus the stemflow. The losses by interception were obtained by the difference between precipitation and effective precipitation. The analysis was carried out on the monthly and annual scales. The results showed that the measured rainfall was close to the average for the region, reaching values close to 1200 mm. The interception of the eucalyptus plantation for the period was approximately 12% of the external precipitation. There were neither significant relationships between flow and evapotranspiration nor between flow and effective precipitation, which shows the complexity of water components at the catchment scale. This is likely associated to the delay effect of the subsurface flow. The average flow for the period of study was

  20. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  1. [From guidelines to practice: evaluation of the pediatric care provided by a service of secondary reference in the north of the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Laura Monteiro de Castro; Alves, Cláudia Regina Lindgren; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Bueno, Mariana de Caux; de Moraes, Erica Furtado

    2013-06-01

    In the State of Minas Gerais, the Secondary Reference Viva Vida Centers (CVVRS) are one of the strategies deployed to tackle the problems in child health. This study sought to evaluate pediatric care provided in a CVVRS, using the guidelines defined when it was set up as a benchmark. A quantitative-qualitative approach was adopted, which included a cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling of 385 medical records of children registered with the program between 2007 and 2009, and analysis of focus groups with strategic actors of the initiative. There were divergences between the user profiles and the target audience in terms of age, hometown and clinical characteristics. Access and use of the service differed depending on the town, due to problems of misinformation concerning the proposal, difficulty of transportation and the fragility of the health network. The centers are considered an innovative and important initiative for the expansion and organization of the health network, though the intended logic is not effectively seen in practice. Interventions for articulation between the network services and adaptation of the agreed guidelines to the regional specificities are necessary. PMID:23752544

  2. [Evaluation of labor-related and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease in drivers of urban transport buses in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Alquimim, Andréia Farias; Barral, Ana Beatris Cezar Rodrigues; Gomes, Kênnya Caroline; Rezende, Mayra Costa de

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular disease among bus drivers in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais. A semi-structured questionnaire covering personal, anthropometric, professional and labor-related data was used, in addition to a questionnaire on the level of stress. 53 bus drivers were surveyed and the average age was 30 to 39 years of age. 81.1% were non-smokers; 58% of the sample were teetotalers; and 50% took regular exercise. In the assessment of BMI, 40 drivers (75.4%) were overweight. The prevalence in eating habits revealed excess consumption of sugar (66.0%), fat (64.2%), coffee (69.8%), salt (60.4%), coca cola (64.2%) and soft drinks (54.7%). Among reports of chronic diseases, no diabetic (98.1%) or hypertensive (94.3%) drivers were observed. Most of the sample (69.7%) had normal stress levels. With respect to laboratory data, the vast majority of drivers had hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. HDL levels were satisfactory, and the LDL revealed normal and desirable levels in more than half of the sample. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease was low. PMID:22899155

  3. [Implementation and impact of the National Iron Supplementation Program in the city of Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Silva, Luciana Saraiva da; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Cássia Lanes Ribeiro, Rita de

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this work was to evaluate the implementation of the National Iron Supplementation Program (NISP) in Viçosa in the State of Minas Gerais and its impact on 6- to 18-month-old non-anemic infants assisted by the Family Health Teams. Interviews were conducted with the professionals and with the children's mothers/guardians. The non-anemic children who didn't receive the earlier supplementation (n=133) were given ferrous sulphate syrup for six months. Hemoglobin dosage, anthropometric evaluation and a socioeconomic survey were conducted before and after the six-month period. Children who ingested 75% or more of the prescribed dosage were classified as high adhesion, while the others were classified as low adhesion, according to the mothers' testimonials. With respect to the implementation in the city, the distribution system was not always available to the priority group and there was a lack of training and motivation on the part of most Community Health Agents. The lack of promotion of NISP among the priority group was detected, apart from a mothers' awareness drive. Regarding diet supplementation, children showed low adhesion and the dosage wasn't effective in preventing anemia. Therefore, important operational barriers to implementation were observed. PMID:22031130

  4. Phylogeography of Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Brazil, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil. PMID:23092706

  5. Growth and reproduction aspects of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) of the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir, state of Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabinson, L M; Rodrigues Filho, J L; Peret, A C; Verani, J R

    2014-05-01

    Growth and reproduction parameters of the yellow-mandi, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae), were determined for the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (GO/MG). The field work occurred throughout February 2007 to January 2008 (with the exception of December 2007). Gill nets with mesh sizes from 1.5 to 10 centimeters were placed in three different areas in the reservoir and were collected 24 hours later. A total of 538 specimens were captured, amongst which 242 were females, 219 were males and 77 could not have their sex determined. Sex ratio differed from 1:1 only during July 2007 and January 2008, with males and females predominating in each of those months. Males occupied the medium length classes (18.9 to 24.3 cm) while females were most abundant in the superior classes (from 27 to 37.8 cm).The growth constant K was statistically equal for males (K=0.1851) and females (K=0.1708), however, females P. maculatus may have a greater investment in reproductive tissue, a fact indicated by the elevated values of Kn and GSI during the summer. Bearing in mind that P. maculatus reproduces in the rainy season, a greater gain in weight is expected during the months before the reproduction season, and that after it occurs the fish loses fat and weight as a consequence of metabolic effort. Still, the absence of juveniles may be an indication that the species did not find in the reservoir the proper conditions for reproduction and growth of its fry. PMID:25166330

  6. Evaluation of SIR-A (Shuttle Imaging Radar) images from the Tres Marias region (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) using derived spatial features and registration with MSS-LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Dutra, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    Two image processing experiments are described using a MSS-LANDSAT scene from the Tres Marias region and a shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A image digitized by a vidicon scanner. In the first experiment the study area is analyzed using the original and preprocessed SIR-A image data. The following thematic classes are obtained: (1) water, (2) dense savanna vegetation, (3) sparse savanna vegetation, (4) reforestation areas and (5) bare soil areas. In the second experiment, the SIR-A image was registered together with MSS-LANDSAT bands five, six, and seven. The same five classes mentioned above are obtained. These results are compared with those obtained using solely MSS-LANDSAT data. The spatial information as well as coregistered SIR-A and MSS-LANDSAT data can increase the separability between classes, as compared to the use of raw SIR-A data solely.

  7. [The "Em Comum-Idade" community intervention project: contributions to the promotion of health among the elderly of Viçosa in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciene Fátima Fernandes; de Freitas, Edilaine Lopes; Salgado, Sara Maria Lopes; Gomes, Ivani Soleira; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2015-12-01

    Actions to promote health among the elderly are extremely important for the prevention of diseases and complications arising from the aging process. In this context, the "Em Comum-Idade" community intervention project emerged. The objective of this article was to evaluate the impact of the actions of this project on anthropometric measurements and functional physical fitness of the participants at the end of the interventions. The variables analyzed were: body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, waist height ratio, power of the lower members, flexibility of upper and lower members and agility and dynamic balance. The sample consisted of 82 participants. Most participants were female, had not completed elementary school and attended less than 50% of the activities. There were no significant changes in the values of anthropometric measurements between the initial and final evaluations of the participants. Significant improvement was found for the values of tests of functional physical fitness among those who attended most of the actions of the project. It is important to maintain health promotion actions for long periods of time in order to get results that positively impact the health status and quality of life of the elderly. PMID:26691801

  8. Solimoes megashear: Intraplate tectonics in northwestern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, M.V. )

    1991-03-01

    A belt of deformation in the Solimoes basin of northwestern Brazil extends east-northeast from near the Peruvian border for about 1300 km. The belt is characterized by the en echelon arrangement of folds and faults interpreted as the result of right-slip displacements in a transpressive regime. The structures were formed during Late Jurassic time, probably due to collision of South America with allochthonous terranes as the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean began. The Iquitos arch near the western end of the megashear separates the Solimoes basin from Subandean basins. The development of the Iquitos arch is interpreted to be related to orogenic loading along western South America by the Andean mountain belt. In Brazil, folds and faults associated with the Solimoes megashear hold hydrocarbons within Paleozoic strata, and 15 gas and oil fields have so far been discovered.

  9. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  10. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  11. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified. PMID:26154966

  12. The water-enhanced Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, C. P.; Pacheco-Martinez, H. A.; Swift, M. R.; King, P. J.

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that a large dense intruder may rise to the surface of a vibrated granular bed, the Brazil nut effect. In this paper we describe a water-enhanced Brazil nut effect which occurs when the vibrated granular bed is fully immersed in a liquid. We use a bed of glass beads immersed in water and monitor the behaviour of a large steel intruder as the system is vibrated vertically. To aid our understanding, we have developed numerical simulations to model this system and provide detailed information on the fluid and grain motion. The mechanism responsible for the rapid rise of the intruder is shown to be fluid-enhanced ratcheting rather than simple differential drag.

  13. Biobanking and Privacy Law in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi; Castellaro, Felipe Angel Bocchi; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the current regulatory framework for biobanking, genomic research, and protection of privacy in Brazil. It is divided in four parts. The first describes the biobanking context in Brazil and its evolution in recent years. In the second, the entire regulatory framework on biobanking and genomic research is analyzed. The third part focuses on the critical evaluation of this regulatory framework, specifically on some major ethical dilemmas in biobanking. The fourth part describes the characteristics of the Brazilian biobanking and human research governance system, known as the CEP/CONEP system. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the information in the article and its contribution to the study of the biobanking ethical challenges, especially the protection of privacy. It is highlighted that biobanking regulatory harmonization among countries is necessary, since it increases scientific possibilities that can come from broader cooperation among biobanks and several research centers on the national and international levels. PMID:26711412

  14. John Banister: an Elizabethan surgeon in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mello, Amílcar D'Avila de

    2011-03-01

    In Brazil's sixteenth-century history, very few references are made to health professionals. On the expedition of Edward Fenton, dispatched by the English Crown in 1582 to set up a trading post in Asia, was the famous barber-surgeon and physician John Banister. The naval squadron, diverted from its original route to repeat the feats of Sir Francis Drake, stopped over in Africa, crossed the Atlantic and anchored off the Santa Catarina coast in Brazil. In these waters, the expedition degenerated into piracy and returned unsuccessful to Europe. John Banister is considered the person who liberated English anatomy from mediaeval slavery, shedding upon it the light of the Renaissance. It was the first time that anyone of this importance in the area of health had visited these latitudes. PMID:21552689

  15. Reducing firearm injury: lessons from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Marinho

    2007-06-01

    For the second straight year, large cities on the U.S. are experiencing an alarming increased [sic] in homicides, mostly committed with firearms. Philadelphia reported 406 homicides in 2006, giving it the highest rate of homicides among the ten largest cities (27.8 per 100,000 people). This trend has renewed interest in policies to limit the availability of firearms. However, the effectiveness of such policies at reducing injury remains controversial, often creating political deadlock. To inform this debate, we look at evidence from Brazil, a country with even greater levels of violence than the U.S. This Issue Brief analyzes recent gun legislation and other violence reduction policies in Brazil and their effects on firearm violence. PMID:17650567

  16. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  17. [Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  18. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15. PMID:24699606

  19. Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, A

    1997-01-01

    The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas. (EXCERPT) PMID:12294841

  20. Enterovirus meningitis in Brazil, 1998-2003.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Gina P L; Skraba, Irene; Oliveira, Denise; Lima, Ana A F; de Melo, Maria Mabel M; Kmetzsch, Claudete I; da Costa, Eliane V; da Silva, Edson E

    2006-01-01

    Acute viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) such as acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, and encephalitis, are responsible for a high morbidity, particularly in children. Non-Polio enteroviruses (NPEV) are known to be responsible for over 80% of viral meningitis in which the etiologic agent is identified. In the present study, we show the frequency of enterovirus meningitis in Brazil from December 1998 to December 2003. Enterovirus were isolated from 162 (15.8%), of a total of 1,022 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens analyzed. Echovirus 30 was identified in 139 of these isolates (139/162-85.2%). Other identified enteroviruses were: Coxsackievirus B5 (3.7%), Echovirus 13 (3.7%), Echovirus 18 (3%), Echovirus 6 (1.2%), Echovirus 25 (1.2%), Echovirus 1 (0.6%), and Echovirus 4 (0.6%). Patients's age ranged from 28 days to 68 years old. The most frequent symptoms were fever (77%), headache (69.5%), vomiting (71.3%), neck stiffness (41.3%), convulsion (7.1%), and diarrhea (3.7%). Although, the majority of the patients recovered without any complication or permanent squeal, five deaths occurred. Throughout the surveillance period, five viral meningitis outbreaks were confirmed: four in the Southern Brazil and one in the Northeast Brazil. Echovirus 30 was responsible for four out of the five outbreaks while Echovirus 13 caused the fifth one. Besides the outbreaks, 734 sporadic cases were also identified during the study period and 59 of these were positive for virus isolation (8%). Echovirus 30 accounted for 70% of the isolates. Our results showed that Echovirus 30 was the most prevalent etiological agent of viral meningitis in Brazil, causing both outbreaks and sporadic cases. PMID:16299728

  1. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines. PMID:24770530

  2. Brazil's program to use ethanol as transportation fuel loses steam

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-10-18

    The spectacular growth of Proalcool, Brazil's vaunted program to pump sugar-based ethanol into the country's transportation fuel market, has ground to a virtual halt. Ethanol's share of Brazil's transportation fuel market slipped from its peak of 28% in 1989 to less than 25% in 1991. During that same time, gasoline recovered some of its lost share, while diesel remains the preeminent fuel in Brazil. Proalcool still is by far the largest alternative fuel program in the world. But Proalcool has fallen victim to its own success, Brazil's flattering economy and rampant inflation, and the idiosyncrasies of the country's refinery economics.

  3. Four new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Bolivia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of Cerambycidae are described: Sphaerion iuasanga (Elaphidiini), Glypthaga arena, Hypsioma albosericea (Onciderini) from Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Hesycha jataiensis (Onciderini) from Brazil. PMID:26250045

  4. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  5. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil. PMID:24111568

  6. Noise in large cities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2001-05-01

    Large cities' noise is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous pollution, preceded by air and water pollution. In urban centers, in general, and especially in developing countries such as Brazil, large populations are affected by excessive noise due mainly to traffic flow. The Brazilian Federal Government specifies noise limits, but each state can enforce its own set of noise limits, providing they are lower. The rapid economic growth, together with large migration of northern Brazilians to the developing southern urban areas in search of more lucrative jobs in construction and industrial sectors, resulted in a fast increase in activities such as vehicle and bus traffic, home construction, and development of all necessary infrastructures to support this growth. Urban noise in Brazil has been receiving the attention of national authorities only since 1990, when the Federal Government approved the first ``Program of Community Silence,'' based on ISO R 1996-1971. This paper highlights the noise situation in the five largest and most populated cities in Brazil: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Curitiba [Zannin et al., Appl. Acoust. 63, 351-358 (2002)].

  7. [Thalidomide in Brazil: monitoring with shared responsibility?].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M A; Bermudez, J A; Souza, A C

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the regulation and rational use of thalidomide in Brazil, by means of a historical approach comprising three different stages. The first part is a historical review of the controversial drug since it was first synthesized, then marketed and subsequently banned during the 1950s and 60s, until the present, when an apparently irreversible process of rehabilitating the drug is under way. Brazilian experience with the use of thalidomide is described, emphasizing legal, political, and institutional work led by two social movements, the Brazilian Association of People with Thalidomide Syndrome (ABPST) and the Movement for Reintegration of People with Hansen's Disease (Morhan). The article describes the results and analyzes an active search of new cases in what is a second generation of thalidomide syndrome in Brazil. Finally, based on clinical and scientific evidence of thalidomide's therapeutic efficacy, the growth of social movements struggling both for and against authorization of the drug, and a restrictive regulation proposed by the Ministry of Health, the article discusses the implementation of policies for the regulation and rational use of thalidomide in Brazil. PMID:10203451

  8. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  9. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome. PMID:26811272

  10. Sustainable Rural Energy Development in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ghandour, A.

    2005-01-01

    Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.

  11. Food-fuel conflicts: the Brazil case

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, N.

    1981-01-01

    Brazil has decided to commit a significant part of its agricultural resources to the production of sugarcane and other crops to be processed into fuel grade alcohol. Concerns are already being raised about potential food-fuel conflicts, especially in the major food-sugarcane producing areas of the state of Sao Paulo and the sugarcane areas of northeast Brazil. The objective of this paper is to explore the dimensions of this emerging food-fuel issue in Brazil. The energy supply and use situation along with a brief description of the alcohol program are presented first. Current land use in relation to food and export crop production is presented next. This is followed by a description of the energy crops to be used for alcohol production. The paper concludes with an investigation of the food-fuel conflicts on a national and regional basis with the identification of some changes in program emphasis that will lessen the impact of the alcohol program on food supplies and prices.

  12. Comments on cosmic ray research in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, Enio F.

    2013-05-01

    Cosmic Rays (CR) have been studied since their discovery by Victor Hess in the years 1911-1913. Interestingly, research in Physics in Brazil started with experiments on CR. Bernhard Gross (INT/Rio), Gleb Wataghin and Giuseppe Occhialini (USP) carried out their investigations on CR in Brazil in the 30's. Franz X. Roser worked with V. Hess (Nobel Prize, 1936) and Cesar Lattes collaborated with Cecil Powell (Nobel Prize, 1950). Nowadays, most of CR research in Brazil is conducted by the Pierre Auger Project. Nevertheless, there is an enormous lack of information on the effects of CR in matter, particularly in organic and biological materials, which motivates measurements of relevant physicochemical data, such as parameters of crystalline structure modifications, sputtering yields and cross sections for inducing associative or dissociative processes of atoms, molecules and molecular fragments. A fascinating question about CR is whether they are/were one of the agents responsible for the transformation of inorganic into organic material, synthesizing pre-biotic molecules in the whole Universe. The physicochemical effects of CR analogues in condensed gases, analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy - subject of our own work on CR - are discussed at the end of this article.

  13. [Reflections on drug policies in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Tarcísio Matos

    2011-12-01

    This article contains some reflections on drug policies in Brazil. In the first two chapters, taking the needle exchange programs (SEPs) as the starting point, the author discusses the trajectory of the Harm Reduction Policy in Brazil and the role played in it by the Department of STD, AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. The third chapter examines the actions developed by the National Coordination of Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drugs and the Office of Drug Policies - SENAD, after the retraction of the Department of STD and AIDS from drug policies, as well as the introduction of PEAD and the "Crack Plan" in the country. In the fourth and fifth chapters the provisions of the current Brazilian policy on drugs and its limitations related mainly to the fragility of the Family Health Strategy are discussed, and some of the actions foreseen in the PEAD and the "Crack Plan" are critically analyzed. In the sixth chapter the author examines the effects of repression in the name of combating trafficking in the Brazilian policy on drugs having as background of the marginalization and social exclusion of users. Finally, some proposals are presented for the Alcohol and Drugs Policy in Brazil. PMID:22124907

  14. "Health for All" in England and Brazil?

    PubMed

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care. PMID:26077860

  15. Popular Education in Brazil. A Report on the LASG/WEA 1985 Study Visit to Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers Educational Association, Sunderland (England). Northern District.

    The 11 "themes" in this report describe the three-week study visit of 11 adult education workers from Northern England to Brazil. The report describes contacts with Brazilian colleagues in workers' and popular education and in related support services and trade and popular organizations they serve. "Organization of the Visit" (Victor Cadaxa)…

  16. Basic Education in Brazil: What's Wrong and How to Fix It. Thinking Brazil. No. 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While Brazil has successfully achieved universal access to basic education, the quality of education remains stubbornly low. A recent study by the Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA) shows that the average 25 years old Brazilian has completed only nine years of education. Almost eleven percent of the population is illiterate and a…

  17. A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Marinoni, Luciane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Species of Canacidae sensu lato of Brazil are reviewed, including the subfamilies Canacinae and Tethininae. Included are seven species in five genera with two species, Nocticanace austra and Nocticanace packhamorum, from southern Brazil being newly described. To facilitate identification, we have included keys and diagnose to taxa at all levels. PMID:22303126

  18. Rural Sociology in Brazil: Institutional Growth (1965-1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David O.; And Others

    Growth and present status of graduate programs, major research interests, and potential for US-Brazilian collaboration indicate the present state of rural sociology in Brazil. In contrast to US rural sociology's identity crisis of the past decade, the field in Brazil has blossomed. Graduate programs are underway at universities of Rio Grande do…

  19. Spatial Distribution of Leprosy in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wand-del-Rey de Oliveira, Maria L.

    2009-01-01

    To detect areas with increased case-detection rates, we used spatial scan statistics to identify 5 of 10 clusters of leprosy in the Amazon region of Brazil. Despite increasing economic development, population growth, and road infrastructure, leprosy is endemic to this region, which is a source of case exportation to other parts of Brazil. PMID:19331763

  20. Distance Education and Corporate Training in Brazil: Regulations and Interrelationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Stella C. S.; Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Distance education in Brazil has evolved more slowly than distance education offerings in other developing countries. This is because all aspects of Brazil's publicly-funded educational system are excessively regulated, highly bureaucratic, and tightly centralized. Such highly centralized bureaucracy and strict control has resulted in tremendous…