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Sample records for gerli padarist saab

  1. 77 FR 73279 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of stall events during icing conditions where the natural stall warning (buffet) was not identified. This AD requires replacing the stall warning computer (SWC) with a new SWC, which provides an artificial stall warning in......

  2. 76 FR 53301 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...-16787; AD 2011-18-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000... specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on June 1, 2011 (76 FR 31508). That NPRM... air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator...

  3. 77 FR 1 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... mandatory by SAD 1- 189 [which corresponds to FAA AD 2004-12-03 Amendment 39-13662 (69 FR 35235, June 24... (69 FR 35235, June 24, 2004). (v) Saab Service Bulletin 340-32-139, Revision 01, dated November 1... reference of certain other publications listed in this AD as of July 29, 2004 (69 FR 35235, June 24,...

  4. 76 FR 81889 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of hydraulic accumulator failure. This proposed AD would require replacing certain hydraulic accumulators with stainless...

  5. 76 FR 19719 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... charge for these parts. As we do not control warranty coverage for affected parties, some parties...

  6. 76 FR 41665 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19719). That... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department...

  7. Biosynthesis of dihydrochalcomycin: characterization of a deoxyallosyltransferase (gerGTI).

    PubMed

    Pageni, Binod Babu; Simkhada, Dinesh; Oh, Tae-Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-02-28

    Through an inactivation experiment followed by complementation, the gerGTII gene was previously characterized as a chalcosyltransferase gene involved in the biosynthesis of dihydochalcomycin. The glycosyltransferase gerGTI was identified as a deoxyallosyltransferase required for the glycosylation of D-mycinose sugar. This 6-deoxyhexose sugar was converted to mycinose, via bis-O-methylation, following attachment to the polyketide lactone during dihydrochalcomycin biosynthesis. Gene sequence alignment of gerGTI to several glycosyltransferases revealed a consensus sequence motif that appears to be characteristic of the enzymes in this sub-group of the glycosyltransferase family. To characterize its putative function, genetic disruption of gerGTI in the wild-type strain Streptomyces sp. KCTC 0041BP and in the gerGTII-deleted mutant (S. sp. Delta gerGTsss, as well as complementation of gerGTII in S. sp. Delta gerGTss-GTs, were carried out, and the products were analyzed by LC/MS. S. sp. Delta gerGTss-GTs mutant produced dihydrochalconolide macrolide. S. sp. Delta gerGTs and S. sp. Delta gerGTss-GTs complementation of gerGTII yielded dihydrochalconolide without the mycinose sugar. The intermediate shows that gerGTI encodes a deoxyallosyltransferase that acts after gerGTII. PMID:20069384

  8. 75 FR 19673 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Saab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...This document grants in full the Saab Cars North America, Inc.'s (Saab) petition for exemption of the 9-5 vehicle line in accordance with 49 CFR part 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted because the agency has determined that the antitheft device to be placed on the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor......

  9. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Theiss, Timothy J.; Graves, Ronald L.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. This report details the results of these evaluations.

  10. Structural and functional analysis of the GerD spore germination protein of Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Kai; Ghosh, Sonali; Devarakonda, Parvathimadhavi; Carlson, Kristina; Davis, Andrew; Stewart, Kerry-Ann V; Cammett, Elizabeth; Pelczar Rossi, Patricia; Setlow, Barbara; Lu, Min; Setlow, Peter; Hao, Bing

    2014-05-01

    Spore germination in Bacillus species represents an excellent model system with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional control of growth and development. Binding of specific chemical nutrients to their cognate receptors located in the spore inner membrane triggers the germination process that leads to a resumption of metabolism in spore outgrowth. Recent studies suggest that the inner membrane GerD lipoprotein plays a critical role in the receptor-mediated activation of downstream germination events. The 121-residue core polypeptide of GerD (GerD⁶⁰⁻¹⁸⁰) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus forms a stable α-helical trimer in aqueous solution. The 2.3-Å-resolution crystal structure of the trimer reveals a neatly twisted superhelical rope, with unusual supercoiling induced by parallel triple-helix interactions. The overall geometry comprises three interleaved hydrophobic screws of interacting helices linked by short turns that have not been seen before. Using complementation analysis in a series of Bacillus subtilis gerD mutants, we demonstrated that alterations in the GerD trimer structure have profound effects on nutrient germination. This important structure-function relationship of trimeric GerD is supported by our identification of a dominant negative gerD mutation in B. subtilis. These results and those of others lead us to propose that GerD mediates clustering of germination proteins in the inner membrane of dormant spores and thus promotes the rapid and cooperative germination response to nutrients. PMID:24530795

  11. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Lopez Vega, Alberto; Theiss, Timothy J; Graves, Ronald L; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.

  12. Crystal Structure of the GerBC Component of a Bacillus Subtilis Spore Germinant Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Setlow, B; Setlow, P; Hao, B

    2010-01-01

    The nutrient germinant receptors (nGRs) of spores of Bacillus species are clusters of three proteins that play a critical role in triggering the germination of dormant spores in response to specific nutrient molecules. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C protein of the GerB germinant receptor, so-called GerBC, of Bacillus subtilis spores at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The GerBC protein adopts a previously uncharacterized type of protein fold consisting of three distinct domains, each of which is centered by a beta sheet surrounded by multiple alpha helices. Secondary-structure prediction and structure-based sequence alignment suggest that the GerBC structure represents the prototype for C subunits of nGRs from spores of all Bacillales and Clostridiales species and defines two highly conserved structural regions in this family of proteins. GerBC forms an interlocked dimer in the crystalline state but is predominantly monomeric in solution, pointing to the possibility that GerBC oligomerizes as a result of either high local protein concentrations or interaction with other nGR proteins in spores. Our findings provide the first structural view of the nGR subunits and a molecular framework for understanding the architecture, conservation, and function of nGRs.

  13. Protéger les nourrissons contre la coqueluche

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Compte tenu du taux à la hausse de la coqueluche chez les enfants, plusieurs familles m’ont demandé quels moyens prendre pour protéger leurs tout-petits de cette infection. Quelles devraient être mes recommandations à ces familles? Réponse La coqueluche est une maladie évitable qui est endémique dans le monde entier. Chez les adultes, la coqueluche cause une maladie bénigne semblable à un rhume, suivie d’une toux persistante. Chez les nourrissons, elle peut causer de l’apnée, des convulsions, une encéphalopathie, une bronchopneumonie et la mort. Les décès dus à la coqueluche se produisent dans 86 % des cas chez des nourrissons de moins de 4 mois. La stratégie du cocooning, c’est-à-dire la vaccination des adultes en étroit contact avec des nourrissons, est recommandée par de nombreuses agences mondiales et nationales, mais elle ne prévient probablement que 20 % des cas de coqueluche chez les nourrissons. La vaccination durant la grossesse est plus efficace, mais elle n’est pas encore approuvée au Canada. Il n’a pas été démontré que la vaccination à la naissance soit uniformément efficace et elle n’est donc pas recommandée à l’heure actuelle.

  14. MAC Europe 1991: Evaluation of AVIRIS, GER imaging spectrometry data for the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, F.; Richter, R.; Rothfuss, H.; Werner, K.; Hausknecht, P.; Mueller, A.; Strobl, P.

    1992-01-01

    During the MAC Europe 91 Campaign, the area of Oberpfaffenhofen including the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen was flown by the AVIRIS imaging spectrometer, the GER 2 imaging spectrometer (63 band scanner), and two SAR systems (NASA/JPL AIRSAR and DLR E-SAR). In parallel to the overflights ground spectrometry (ASD, IRIS M IV) and atmospheric measurements were carried out in order to provide data for optical sensor calibration. Ground spectrometry measurements were carried out in the runway area of the DLR research center Oberpfaffenhofen. This area was used as well during the GER 2 European flight campaign EISAC 89 as a calibration target. The land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen is located 3 km north of the DLR research center. During the MAC Europe 91 Campaign a ground survey was carried out for documentation in the ground information data base (vegetation type, vegetation geometry, soil type, and soil mixture). Crop stands analyzed were corn, barley and rape. The DLR runway area and the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen were flown with the AVIRIS on 29 July and with the GER 2 on 12 and 23 July and 3 Sep. AVIRIS and GER 2 scenes were processed and atmospherically corrected for optical data analysis of optical and radar data. For the AVIRIS and the GER 2 scenes, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) estimates were calculated. An example of the reflectance of 6 calibration targets inside a GER 2 scene of Oberpfaffenhofen is given. SNR values for the GER 2 for a medium albedo target are given. The integrated analysis for the optical and radar data was carried out in cooperation with the DLR Institute for Microwave Technologies.

  15. Analysis of the Effects of a gerP Mutation on the Germination of Spores of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Butzin, Xuan Yi; Troiano, Anthony J.; Coleman, William H.; Griffiths, Keren K.; Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Wang, Guiwen; Li, Yong-qing

    2012-01-01

    As previously reported, gerP Bacillus subtilis spores were defective in nutrient germination triggered via various germinant receptors (GRs), and the defect was eliminated by severe spore coat defects. The gerP spores' GR-dependent germination had a longer lag time between addition of germinants and initiation of rapid release of spores' dipicolinic acid (DPA), but times for release of >90% of DPA from individual spores were identical for wild-type and gerP spores. The gerP spores were also defective in GR-independent germination by DPA with its associated Ca2+ divalent cation (CaDPA) but germinated better than wild-type spores with the GR-independent germinant dodecylamine. The gerP spores exhibited no increased sensitivity to hypochlorite, suggesting that these spores have no significant coat defect. Overexpression of GRs in gerP spores did lead to faster germination via the overexpressed GR, but this was still slower than germination of comparable gerP+ spores. Unlike wild-type spores, for which maximal nutrient germinant concentrations were between 500 μM and 2 mM for l-alanine and ≤10 mM for l-valine, rates of gerP spore germination increased up to between 200 mM and 1 M l-alanine and 100 mM l-valine, and at 1 M l-alanine, the rates of germination of wild-type and gerP spores with or without all alanine racemases were almost identical. A high pressure of 150 MPa that triggers spore germination by activating GRs also triggered germination of wild-type and gerP spores identically. All these results support the suggestion that GerP proteins facilitate access of nutrient germinants to their cognate GRs in spores' inner membrane. PMID:22904285

  16. 78 FR 51803 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Léger: Modern Art and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``L ger: Modern Art and the Metropolis... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``L ger: Modern Art and the Metropolis... that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Philadelphia Museum of Art,...

  17. Amino acid residues in the GerAB protein important in the function and assembly of the alanine spore germination receptor of Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gareth R; Moir, Anne

    2011-05-01

    The paradigm gerA operon is required for endospore germination in response to c-alanine as the sole germinant, and the three protein products, GerAA, GerAB, and GerAC are predicted to form a receptor complex in the spore inner membrane. GerAB shows homology to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) family of single-component transporters and is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with 10 membrane-spanning helices. Site-directed mutations were introduced into the gerAB gene at its natural location on the chromosome. Alterations to some charged or potential helix-breaking residues within membrane spans affected receptor function dramatically. In some cases, this is likely to reflect the complete loss of the GerA receptor complex, as judged by the absence of the germinant receptor protein GerAC, which suggests that the altered GerAB protein itself may be unstable or that the altered structure destabilizes the complex. Mutants that have a null phenotype for Instituto de Biotecnología de León, INBIOTEC, Parque Científico de León, Av. Real, 1, 24006 León, Spain-alanine germination but retain GerAC protein at near-normal levels are more likely to define amino acid residues of functional, rather than structural, importance. Single-amino-acid substitutions in each of the GerAB and GerAA proteins can prevent incorporation of GerAC protein into the spore; this provides strong evidence that the proteins within a specific receptor interact and that these interactions are required for receptor assembly. The lipoprotein nature of the GerAC receptor subunit is also important; an amino acid change in the prelipoprotein signal sequence in the gerAC1 mutant results in the absence of GerAC protein from the spore. PMID:21378181

  18. Alignment silkworms as seismic animal anomalous behavior (SAAB) and electromagnetic model of a fault: a theory and laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Huang, Qing-Hua

    1998-05-01

    Alignment of silkworms and fish, observed as seismic anomalous animal behavior (SAAB) prior to the Kobe earthquake, were duplicated in a laboratory by applying a pulsed electric field assuming SAAB as electrophysiological responses to the stimuli of seismic electric signals (SES). The animals became aligned perpendicularly to the field direction since their skeletal muscle had a higher resistivity perpendicular to the field direction than parallel to it. An electromagnetic model of a fault is proposed in which dipolar charges, ±q are generated due to the change of seismic stress, σ(t). From a mathematical model, dq/dt=-α(dσ/dt) - q/ɛρ, where α is the charge generation constant like a piezoelectric coefficient, ɛ, the dielectric constant and ρ, the resistivity of bedrock granite. A fault having a length 2a and a displacement or rock rupture time τ, during which the stress is changed, gives pulsed dipolar charge surface densities, +q(t, x) and -q(t, x+2a), or an apparent electric dipole moment of P(t)=2aQ(t)=2aAq(t)=aM 0[ɛρ/(τ-ɛρ)](e-1/τ-e-1/σρ) using the earthquake moment M 0. The fault displacement, D, its initial velocity, D‧ and the stress drop, Δσ give τ=D/D‧=(Δσ/σ 0)(α/β). The field fintensity, F, and seismic current density at a fault zone, J were calculated as F=q/ɛ and J=F/ρ‧ using ρ‧ of water as to give J=0.1-1 A/m2 sufficient to cause SAAB experimentally. The near-field ultra low frequency (ULF) waves generated by P(t) give SES reciprocally proportional to the distance R.

  19. NASA's Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture Sensor Development and Its Applicability to the GER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Heather; Cryan, Scott; DSouza, Christopher; Strube, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper will address how a common Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture (AR&D/C) sensor suite can support Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) missions, and discuss how the model of common capability development to support multiple missions can enable system capability level partnerships and further GER objectives. NASA has initiated efforts to develop AR&D/C sensors, that are directly applicable to GER. NASA needs AR&D/C sensors for both the robotic and crewed segments of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). NASA recently conducted a commonality assessment of the concept of operations for the robotic Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) and the crewed mission segment using the Orion crew vehicle. The commonality assessment also considered several future exploration and science missions requiring an AR&D/C capability. Missions considered were asteroid sample return, satellite servicing, and planetary entry, descent, and landing. This assessment determined that a common sensor suite consisting of one or more visible wavelength cameras, a three-dimensional LIDAR along with long-wavelength infrared cameras for robustness and situational awareness could be used on each mission to eliminate the cost of multiple sensor developments and qualifications. By choosing sensor parameters at build time instead of at design time and, without having to requalify flight hardware, a specific mission can design overlapping bearing, range, relative attitude, and position measurement availability to suit their mission requirements with minimal nonrecurring engineering costs. The resulting common sensor specification provides the union of all performance requirements for each mission and represents an improvement over the current systems used for AR&D/C today. NASA's AR&D/C sensor development path could benefit the International Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) and support the GER mission scenario by providing a common sensor suite upon which GER objectives could be achieved while

  20. Nonzonal Expressions of GAUSS-KRÜGER Projection in Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongmei; Bian, Shaofeng; Liu, Qiang; Li, Houpu; Chen, Cheng; Hu, Yanfeng

    2016-06-01

    With conformal colatitude introduced, based on the mathematical relationship between exponential and logarithmic functions by complex numbers, strict equation of complex conformal colatitude is derived, and then theoretically strict nonzonal expressions of Gauss projection in polar regions are carried out. By means of the computer algebra system, correctness of these expressions is verified, and sketches of Gauss-krüger projection without bandwidth restriction in polar regions are charted. In the Arctic or Antarctic region, graticule of nonzonal Gauss projection complies with people's reading habit and reflects real ground-object distribution. Achievements in this paper could perfect mathematical basis of Gauss projection and provide reference frame for polar surveying and photogrammetry.

  1. Transglutaminase-Mediated Cross-Linking of GerQ in the Coats of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Ragkousi, Katerina; Setlow, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The spores of Bacillus subtilis show remarkable resistance to many environmental stresses, due in part to the presence of an outer proteinaceous structure known as the spore coat. GerQ is a spore coat protein essential for the presence of CwlJ, an enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of the cortex during spore germination, in the spore coat. Here we show that GerQ is cross-linked into higher-molecular-mass forms due in large part to a transglutaminase. GerQ is the only substrate for this transglutaminase identified to date. In addition, we show that cross-linking of GerQ into high-molecular-mass forms occurs only very late in sporulation, after mother cell lysis. These findings, as well as studies of GerQ cross-linking in mutant strains where spore coat assembly is perturbed, lead us to suggest that coat proteins must assemble first and that their cross-linking follows as a final step in the spore coat formation pathway. PMID:15317760

  2. NAGT-GER: A Community of Practice to Support the Emerging Field of Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, L.; LaDue, N.; Cheek, K.; Ryker, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the National Research Council noted in its 2012 report on discipline-based education research (DBER) in undergraduate science and engineering, in order to advance DBER as a field of inquiry, "a robust infrastructure is required to recognize and support [DBER] within professional societies." One way to develop such an infrastructure around geoscience education research is to create a community of practice within the broader geoscience education community. In recent years, the members of the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) have created two divisions to support the geoscience education needs of specific subpopulations of the geoscience community: the 2YC division, focusing on community college issues, and TED, focusing on teacher education. This year marks the first year of a new division within the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) focused on geoscience education research. The Geoscience Education Research division (GER) is committed to the promotion of high quality, scholarly research in geoscience education that improves teaching and learning in K-12, higher education, and informal learning environments. High quality DBER in geoscience requires the ability to connect current theories of teaching and learning with deep content-specific conceptual understanding. A community of practice like NAGT GER, has the potential to improve the quality of scholarly efforts in geoscience education by providing a forum for improving the collective knowledge and expertise of the geoscience education research community. Current division initiatives and efforts will be highlighted and time for dialogue on future directions will be included.

  3. Highly Conductive Anion-Exchange Membranes from Microporous Tröger's Base Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengjin; Guo, Rui; Malpass-Evans, Richard; Carta, Mariolino; McKeown, Neil B; Guiver, Michael D; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-09-12

    The development of polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) combining high ion conductivity and long-term stability is a major challenge for materials chemistry. AEMs with regularly distributed fixed cationic groups, based on the formation of microporous polymers containing the V-shape rigid Tröger's base units, are reported for the first time. Despite their simple preparation, which involves only two synthetic steps using commercially available precursors, the polymers provide AEMs with exceptional hydroxide conductivity at relatively low ion-exchange capacity, as well as a high swelling resistance and chemical stability. An unprecedented hydroxide conductivity of 164.4 mS cm(-1) is obtained at a relatively a low ion-exchange capacity of 0.82 mmol g(-1) under optimal operating conditions. The exceptional anion conductivity appears related to the intrinsic microporosity of the charged polymer matrix, which facilitates rapid anion transport. PMID:27505421

  4. Synthesis and Investigation of the V-shaped Tröger's Base Derivatives as Hole-transporting Materials.

    PubMed

    Braukyla, Titas; Sakai, Nobuya; Daskeviciene, Maryte; Jankauskas, Vygintas; Kamarauskas, Egidijus; Malinauskas, Tadas; Snaith, Henry J; Getautis, Vytautas

    2016-07-20

    V-shaped Tröger's base core has been investigated as a central linking unit in the synthesis of new charge-transporting materials for optoelectronic applications. The studied molecules have been synthesized in two steps from relatively inexpensive starting materials, and demonstrate high glass transition temperatures, good stability of the amorphous state, and comparatively high hole drift mobility (up to 0.011 cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) ). PMID:27245871

  5. Morphological and molecular taxonomic analysis of Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 (Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropodinae) in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Peter; Li, Shuqiang; Krehenwinkel, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 is revised from material collected in Sichuan province. A molecular analysis shows the utility of DNA markers to support taxonomic hypotheses in Sparassidae. Two new species are described: Pseudopoda coenobium spec. nov. from Emeishan (male, female) and Pseudopoda wu spec. nov. from Lugu Lake at the border to Yunnan (male, female). The latter species exhibits a unique reduction of the conductor and a strongly developed embolus. The female of Pseudopoda virgata (Fox, 1936) is described for the first time, the male is redescribed, the known range of the geographical distribution is considerably extended to the East (Baoxing and Tienqiang County), the vertical distribution range is extended from 300 m to slightly more than 2000 m. The male of Pseudopoda signata Jäger, 2001 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed, the known distribution range of this species is extended from Muge Cuo Lake over Kangding town to the valleys of Paomashan, Gonggashan and Yanzi. It shows a strong morphological variation, which may be interpreted as developing subspecies status in different valleys. However, according to results from a molecular analysis it is clearly considered intraspecific variability. Three further species are recorded from Sichuan: Pseudopoda emei Zhang et al., 2013, Pseudopoda sp. cf. yunnanensis (Yang & Hu, 2001) and Pseudopoda rivicola Jäger and Vedel, 2007. PMID:26623582

  6. Application of crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation to a general, scalable method for the resolution of 2,8-disubstituted Tröger's base derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Donald L; Field, Thomas; Schmidt, Monica R; DeStefano, Alyson K; Stiteler, Christopher J; Venditto, Vincent J; Krovic, Brooke; Hoffman, Christopher M; Ondisco, Matthew T; Belowich, Matthew E

    2013-11-15

    A general method for the gram scale resolution of 2-substituted and 2,8-disubstituted Tröger's base (TB) derivatives in 63-91% yield has been achieved through the application of crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation (CIAT). Enantiomeric ratios of the resolved TB derivatives range from 99.1:0.9 to >99.5:0.5. Among the Tröger's base compounds resolved are four synthetically valuable bromo and iodo derivatives. PMID:24116701

  7. German Environmental Survey 1998 (GerES III): environmental pollutants in blood of the German population.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kerstin; Kaus, Susanne; Krause, Christian; Lepom, Peter; Schulz, Christine; Seiwert, Margarete; Seifert, Bernd

    2002-05-01

    The German Environmental Survey was conducted for the third time in 1998 (GerES III). The probability sample of about 4800 subjects was selected to be representative for the German population with regard to region (East-/West-Germany), community size, age (18 to 69 years) and gender. Blood samples were taken from each study participant and questionnaires were used to get exposure-related information. Cadmium, lead, mercury, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p, p'-DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-180) were analysed in whole blood to document the extent, distribution, and determinants of exposure of the general population to these substances. The geometric means of Cd, Pb, and Hg in blood amounted to 0.44, 31, and 0.58 microgram/l, respectively. Smokers showed a Cadmium level of 1.1 micrograms/l and non-smokers a level of 0.28 microgram/l. The geometric mean of lead was higher in the blood of males than of females (36 micrograms/l vs. 26 micrograms/l). The concentration of mercury in blood depends on fish consumption and the number of teeth with amalgam fillings. The mean concentrations of HCB and p, p'-DDE in blood were 0.44 microgram/l and 1.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In East-Germany (the former GDR) the DDE concentration in blood was more than twice as high as in West-Germany. Geometric means for PCB were 0.42, 0.68 and 0.44 microgram/l for PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180, respectively. A marked increase of HCB, DDE and PCB levels with age could be observed. alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH could be detected in 1.7% and 5.2% of the samples only. beta-HCH was quantified in 34% of the samples with a 95th percentile of 0.5 microgram/l. PMID:12068749

  8. Exploiting Statistical Methodologies and Controlled Vocabularies for Prioritized Functional Analysis of Genomic Experiments: the StRAnGER Web Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A.; Moulos, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    StRAnGER is a web application for the automated statistical analysis of annotated gene profiling experiments, exploiting controlled biological vocabularies, like the Gene Ontology or the KEGG pathways terms. Starting from annotated lists of differentially expressed genes and gene enrichment scores, regarding the terms of each vocabulary, StRAnGER repartitions and reorders the initial distribution of terms to define a new distribution of elements. Each element pools terms holding the same enrichment score. The new distribution thus derived, is reordered in a decreasing order to the right, according to the observation score of the elements, while elements with the same score, are sorted again in a decreasing order of their enrichment scores. By applying bootstrapping techniques, a corrected measure of the statistical significance of these elements is derived, which enables the selection of terms mapped to these elements, unambiguously associated with respective significant gene sets. The selected terms are immunized against the bias infiltrating statistical enrichment analyses, producing technically very high statistical scores, due to the finite nature of the data population. Besides their high statistical score, another selection criterion for the terms is the number of their members, something that incurs a biological prioritization in line with a Systems Biology context. The output derived, represents a detailed ranked list of significant terms, which constitute a starting point for further functional analysis. PMID:21293737

  9. Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Child Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (CPTCI-GER).

    PubMed

    de Haan, Anke; Petermann, Franz; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-02-01

    Dysfunctional trauma-related cognitions are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The psychometric properties of the German version of the Child Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (CPTCI-GER) were assessed in a sample of 223 children and adolescents (7-16 years) with a history of different traumatic events. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original two-factor structure--permanent and disturbing change (CPTCI-PC) and fragile person in a scary world (CPTCI-SW). The total scale and both subscales showed good internal consistency. Participants with PTSD had significantly more dysfunctional trauma-related cognitions than those without PTSD. Dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions correlated significantly with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS; r = .62), depression (r = .71), and anxiety (r = .67). The CPTCI-GER has good psychometric properties and may facilitate evaluation of treatments and further research on the function of trauma-related cognitions in children and adolescents. (Partial) correlations provide empirical support for the combined DSM-5 symptom cluster negative alterations in cognitions and mood. PMID:25990307

  10. Germination of Individual Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in the GerD and SpoVA Proteins, Which Are Important in Spore Germination▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guiwen; Yi, Xuan; Li, Yong-qing; Setlow, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Release of Ca2+ with dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) was monitored by Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy during germination of individual spores of Bacillus subtilis strains with alterations in GerD and SpoVA proteins. Notable conclusions about germination after the addition of nutrient were as follows. (i) Following l-alanine addition, wild-type and gerD spores and spores with elevated SpoVA protein levels (↑SpoVA spores) slowly released ∼10% of their CaDPA during a variable (6- to 55-min) period ending at Tlag, the time when faster CaDPA release began. (ii) Tlag times were lower for ↑SpoVA spores than for wild-type spores and were higher for gerD spores. (iii) The long Tlag times of gerD spores were partially due to slow commitment to germinate. (iv) The intervals between the commitment to germinate and CaDPA release were similar for wild-type and ↑SpoVA spores but longer for gerD spores. (v) The times for rapid CaDPA release, ΔTrelease = Trelease − Tlag (with Trelease being the time at which CaDPA release was complete), were similar for wild-type, gerD, and ↑SpoVA spores. (vi) Spores with either one of two point mutations in the spoVA operon (spoVA1 and spoVA2 spores) exhibited a more rapid rate of CaDPA release beginning immediately after l-alanine addition leading to ∼65% CaDPA release prior to Tlag. (vii) Tlag times for spoVA1 and spoVA2 spores were longer than for wild-type spores. (viii) The intervals between spoVA1 and spoVA2 spores' commitment and CaDPA release were similar to those for wild-type spores, but commitment occurred later. In contrast to germination after the addition of nutrient, Tlag and ΔTrelease times were relatively similar during dodecylamine germination of spores of the five strains. These findings suggest the following. (i) GerD plays no role in CaDPA release during spore germination. (ii) SpoVA proteins are involved in CaDPA release during germination with nutrients, and probably with

  11. Recovery of drugs of abuse from Dräger DCD5000 oral fluid collection device in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ashley-Jane; Warner, Janet V; Henman, Michael G; Ferguson, Wendy E

    2015-03-01

    In Australia, it is a requirement of workplace oral fluid (OF) drugs of abuse testing that drug recovery from collection devices be verified by an accredited laboratory. Recovery data are used in conjunction with collection volume imprecision data and uncertainty of measurement to provide an estimation of drug concentration in neat OF. The manufacturer's product information for the DCD5000 collection device indicates that the collection volume of the swab is 380 µL. Recovery data for the swab when used with the isopropanol provided by the manufacturer are not available. A series of experiments using fortified drug-free OF were performed to assess the collection volume imprecision of the Dräger DCD5000 swab and the recovery of drugs from the swab using isopropanol. The fortified OF was collected with the swabs (n = 16), and swabs were discharged into vials of isopropanol as per the manufacturer's instructions. The mean collection volume of the DCD5000 swab was 487 µL with an imprecision of 1.3%. Recovery of drug from the device ranged from 86 to 98% for drugs listed in the Australian OF workplace testing standard. Recovery of methadone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine ranged from 93 to 102%. Recovery of 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidene was 45%, suggesting that urine is more suitable sample if methadone therapy is being monitored. Overall, drug recovery from the device using isopropanol was acceptable when the increased collection volume of the swab was taken into account. PMID:25342718

  12. Discovery of Tröger's base analogues as selective inhibitors against human breast cancer cell line: design, synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Manda, Bhaskar Reddy; Alla, Manjula; Ganji, Roopa Jones; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2014-10-30

    A library of structurally diverse Tröger's base analogues has been constructed via unusual amination of methylene bridge employing Vilsmeier-Haack conditions as well as by the incorporation of five and six membered heterocycles on the aromatic core of Tröger's base framework. The constructed structurally diverse frameworks were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against a panel of three human cancer lines A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), MDAMB-231 (breast) and SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma). From the activity profile obtained, a redesign of Tröger's base analogues led to the construction of more potent molecular entities. The study led to development of a series of compounds with MDAMB-231 cell line specific cytotoxicity. Of the 30 compounds synthesized and evaluated, 7 compounds were found to possess cytotoxicity that is equivalent or better than standard drug doxorubicin against MDAMB-231 cell line while only one compound was found to be active against SK-N-SH cell line. PMID:25140752

  13. The CO2 abundance in Comets C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS), C/2012 K5 (LINEAR), and 290P/Jäger as measured with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Adam J.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Cochran, Anita L.; Bodewits, Dennis; DiSanti, Michael A.; Russo, Neil Dello; Lisse, Carey M.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most abundant ices present in comets and is therefore important for understanding cometary composition and activity. We present analysis of observations of CO2 and [O I] emission in three comets to measure the CO2 abundance and evaluate the possibility of employing observations of [O I] emission in comets as a proxy for CO2. We obtained NIR imaging sensitive to CO2 of comets C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS), C/2012 K5 (LINEAR), and 290P/Jäger with the IRAC instrument on Spitzer. We acquired observations of [O I] emission in these comets with the ARCES echelle spectrometer mounted on the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory and observations of OH with the Swift observatory (PanSTARRS) and with Keck HIRES (Jäger). The CO2/H2O ratios derived from the Spitzer images are 12.6 ± 1.3% (PanSTARRS), 28.9 ± 3.6% (LINEAR), and 31.3 ± 4.2% (Jäger). These abundances are derived under the assumption that contamination from CO emission is negligible. The CO2 abundance for PanSTARRS is close to the average abundance measured in comets at similar heliocentric distance to date, while the abundances measured for LINEAR and Jäger are significantly larger than the average abundance. From the coma morphology observed in PanSTARRS and the assumed gas expansion velocity, we derive a rotation period for the nucleus of about 9.2 h. Comparison of H2O production rates derived from ARCES and Swift data, as well as other observations, suggest the possibility of sublimation from icy grains in the inner coma. We evaluate the possibility that the [O I] emission can be employed as a proxy for CO2 by comparing CO2/H2O ratios inferred from the [O I] lines to those measured directly by Spitzer. We find that for PanSTARRS we can reproduce the observed CO2 abundance to an accuracy of ∼20%. For LINEAR and Jäger, we were only able to obtain upper limits on the CO2 abundance inferred from the [O I] lines. These upper limits are consistent with the CO2 abundances measured

  14. Resolution and Determination of the Absolute Configuration of a Twisted Bis-Lactam Analogue of Tröger's Base: A Comparative Spectroscopic and Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Rúnarsson, Ögmundur Vidar; Benkhäuser, Christian; Christensen, Niels Johan; Ruiz, Josep Artacho; Ascic, Erhad; Harmata, Michael; Snieckus, Victor; Rissanen, Kari; Fristrup, Peter; Lützen, Arne; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2015-08-21

    The first reported twisted bis-lactam, a racemic Tröger's base (TB) analogue (2), was resolved into its enantiomers on a chiral stationary phase HPLC column. The absolute configuration of (+)-2 was determined to be (R,R)-2 by comparing experimental and calculated vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The absolute configuration of (-)-2 was determined by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The corresponding theoretical spectra were calculated using the lowest energy conformation of (R,R)-2 and (S,S)-2 at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The absolute configuration of (+)-2 was also determined to (R,R)-2 by anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) in a chiral space group P212121 using Cu-irradiation resulting in a very low Flack parameter of -0.06(3), despite the heaviest element being an oxygen atom, thus unambiguously confirming the results from the spectroscopic studies. We conclude that, for the Tröger's base (TB) analogue (2), we may rank the reliability of the individual methods for AC determination as AXRD ≫ VCD > ECD, while the synergy of all three methods provides very strong confidence in the assigned ACs of (+)-(R,R)-2 and (-)-(S,S)-2. PMID:26244379

  15. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. PMID:24894458

  16. 77 FR 38224 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... stall events during icing conditions which were not accompanied with a prior stall warning. This... operating in icing conditions, which if not corrected may result in loss of control of the airplane....

  17. 77 FR 38470 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Register on April 2, 2012 (77 FR 19565). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... the NPRM (77 FR 19565, April 2, 2012) or on the determination of the cost to the public. Conclusion We... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  18. 78 FR 49982 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... air conditioning motor. This proposed AD would require an inspection to determine if a certain air... new or overhauled, and repetitive replacement of the brushes on affected air conditioning compressor motor units. As an option to the replacement, this proposed AD allows pulling the air...

  19. 77 FR 19565 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... to back off within a limited range, leading to degradation of the pushrod which causes backlash in.... We also estimate that it would take about 1 work-hours per product to comply with the basic... estimate that any necessary follow-on actions would take about 7 work-hours and require parts costing...

  20. 77 FR 26158 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2011 (76 FR 81889). That NPRM proposed to... that we revise the NPRM (76 FR 81889, December 29, 2011) to include a statement as follows: ``In... add the statement to the Discussion section of the NPRM (76 FR 81889, December 29, 2011). We...

  1. 78 FR 1731 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Register on October 2, 2012 (77 FR 60073). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77 FR... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate...

  2. 77 FR 60073 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... bottom panel of the center cabin. This proposed AD would require doing a general visual inspection to... proposing this AD to detect and correct any chafing on the bottom panel of the center cabin, which...

  3. 78 FR 33010 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... gravity (CG) configuration, possibly resulting in reduced control of the aeroplane. To address...

  4. 77 FR 11791 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... certain electrical connectors and braids could cause corrosion damage. This proposed AD would require performing in certain locations a detailed inspection for corrosion of the electrical and...

  5. 77 FR 29855 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 11791). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The... the NPRM (77 FR 11791, February 28, 2012) or on the determination of the cost to the public... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  6. 76 FR 13072 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... in the Federal Register on December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77796). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe..., in general, agree with their substance. But we might have found it necessary to use different words... service information. We might also have required different actions in this AD from those in the MCAI...

  7. 76 FR 31508 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the products listed above. This proposed AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) originated by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition...

  8. Levels and predictors of urinary nickel concentrations of children in Germany: results from the German Environmental Survey on children (GerES IV).

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Seiwert, Margarete; Hünken, Andreas; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, André; Schulz, Christine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2013-03-01

    Human biomonitoring of nickel has gained interest in environmental medicine due to its wide distribution in the environment and its allergenic potential. There are indications that the prevalence of nickel sensitization in children is increased by nickel exposure and that oral uptake of nickel can exacerbate nickel dermatitis in nickel-sensitive individuals. Urinary nickel measurement is a good indicator of exposure. However, data on nickel levels in urine of children are rare. For the first time, the German Environmental Survey on children (GerES IV) 2003-2006 provided representative data to describe the internal nickel exposure of children aged 3-14 years in Germany. Nickel was measured after enrichment in the organic phase of urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Nickel levels (n=1576) ranged from <0.5 to 15 μg/l. Geometric mean was 1.26 μg/l. Multivariate regression analysis showed that gender, age, socio-economic status, being overweighted, consumption of hazelnut spread, nuts, cereals, chocolate and urinary creatinine were significant predictors for urinary nickel excretion of children who do not smoke. 20.2% of the variance could be explained by these variables. With a contribution of 13.8% the urinary creatinine concentration was the most important predictor. No influence of nickel intake via drinking water and second hand smoke exposure was observed. PMID:22503716

  9. A new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the snake Philodryas olfersii Lichtenstein (Colubridae) from a coastal habitat in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lúcio A; Winck, Gisele R; Coelho, Cleide D; Flausino, Walter; Duarte Rocha, Carlos F

    2013-06-01

    A new coccidian species of the genus Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) is reported from the colubrid snake host Philodryas olfersii Lichtenstein at a coastal area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. Oöcysts of Caryospora olfersii n. sp. are spherical to sub-spherical, 33.1 × 31.2 μm, with smooth, colourless, three-layered wall, c.1.4; middle layer lightly striated. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule are all absent. Sporocysts are ovoid, 22.9 × 17.4 μm on average, with one extremity in the shape of a short neck. Stieda body present, 3.2 × 1.3 μm, sub-Stieda body present, homogeneous, larger than Stieda body, 4.5 × 1.7 μm. Sporozoites are inserted in a bulky sporocyst residuum. PMID:23673697

  10. 75 FR 51696 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Federal Register on January 19, 2010 (75 FR 2829). That original NPRM proposed to require inspecting the... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... inspecting the fuselage surface for corrosion and cracking behind the external adapter plate of the...

  11. 75 FR 2829 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... surface for corrosion and cracking behind the external adapter plate of the antennae installation, and... plate of the antennae during inspection. Similar cracking was found on two additional airplanes,...

  12. 76 FR 3564 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... in the Federal Register on August 23, 2010 (75 FR 51696). That first supplemental NPRM proposed to... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and (3... the antennae installation, and repair if necessary. The first supplemental NPRM resulted from a...

  13. SAAB Tackling the Black, Brown Male Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, dropping out of high school is a one-way ticket to prison for Black men. Recent research conducted by sociologists Becky Pettit and Bruce Western indicates that 3 percent of Whites and 20 percent of Blacks born between 1965 and 1969 had served time in prison by their early thirties. The crisis among Black and Hispanic men mobilized…

  14. 76 FR 62656 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...-03, Amendment 39-13662 (69 FR 35235, June 24, 2004). That AD required actions intended to address an unsafe condition on the products listed above. Since we issued AD 2004-12-03, Amendment 39-13662 (69 FR... FAA AD 2004-12-03 (69 FR 35235, June 24, 2004)]. Since that AD was issued, service experience...

  15. 76 FR 22007 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3564). That second SNPRM proposed to require inspecting the fuselage surface for corrosion... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... adapter plate of the antennae installation, and repair if necessary. This AD was prompted by a report of...

  16. Enantiomeric separation of functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger bases using macrocyclic cyclofructan and cyclodextrin chiral selectors in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with application of principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Na, Yun-Cheol; Nanayakkara, Yasith S; Woods, Ross M; Sharma, Ankit; Lacour, Jérôme; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-04-01

    The enantiomeric separation of a series of racemic functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger base compounds was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Using HPLC and CE the entire set of 14 derivatives was separated by chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and chiral additives composed of cyclodextrin (native and derivatized) and cyclofructan (derivatized). Baseline separations (Rs≥1.5) in HPLC were achieved for 13 of the 14 compounds with resolution values as high as 5.0. CE produced 2 baseline separations. The separations on the cyclodextrin CSPs showed optimum results in the reversed phase mode, and the LARIHC™ cyclofructan CSPs separations showed optimum results in the normal phase mode. HPLC separation data of the compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA biplot analysis showed that retention is governed by the size of the R1 substituent in the case of derivatized cyclofructan and cyclodextrin CSPs, and enantiomeric resolution closely correlated with the size of the R2 group in the case of non-derivatized γ-cyclodextrin CSP. It is clearly shown that chromatographic retention is necessary but not sufficient for the enantiomeric separations of these compounds. PMID:24631813

  17. Reprint of: Enantiomeric separation of functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger bases using macrocyclic cyclofructan and cyclodextrin chiral selectors in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with application of principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Na, Yun-Cheol; Nanayakkara, Yasith S; Woods, Ross M; Sharma, Ankit; Lacour, Jérôme; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-10-01

    The enantiomeric separation of a series of racemic functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger base compounds was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Using HPLC and CE the entire set of 14 derivatives was separated by chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and chiral additives composed of cyclodextrin (native and derivatized) and cyclofructan (derivatized). Baseline separations (Rs ≥ 1.5) in HPLC were achieved for 13 of the 14 compounds with resolution values as high as 5.0. CE produced 2 baseline separations. The separations on the cyclodextrin CSPs showed optimum results in the reversed phase mode, and the LARIHC cyclofructan CSPs separations showed optimum results in the normal phase mode. HPLC separation data of the compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA biplot analysis showed that retention is governed by the size of the R1 substituent in the case of derivatized cyclofructan and cyclodextrin CSPs, and enantiomeric resolution closely correlated with the size of the R2 group in the case of non-derivatized γ-cyclodextrin CSP. It is clearly shown that chromatographic retention is necessary but not sufficient for the enantiomeric separations of these compounds. PMID:24910297

  18. Bacillus thermoamylovorans Spores with Very-High-Level Heat Resistance Germinate Poorly in Rich Medium despite the Presence of ger Clusters but Efficiently upon Exposure to Calcium-Dipicolinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Krawczyk, Antonina O.; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T.

    2015-01-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of spores of four food-spoiling isolates were determined. Flow cytometry counts of spores were much higher than their counts on rich medium (maximum, 5%). Microscopic analysis revealed inefficient nutrient-induced germination of spores of all four isolates despite the presence of most known germination-related genes, including two operons encoding nutrient germinant receptors (GRs), in their genomes. In contrast, exposure to nonnutrient germinant calcium-dipicolinic acid (Ca-DPA) resulted in efficient (50 to 98%) spore germination. All four strains harbored cwlJ and gerQ genes, which are known to be essential for Ca-DPA-induced germination in Bacillus subtilis. When determining spore survival upon heating, low viable counts can be due to spore inactivation and an inability to germinate. To dissect these two phenomena, the recoveries of spores upon heat treatment were determined on plates with and without preexposure to Ca-DPA. The high-level heat resistance of spores as observed in this study (D120°C, 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 min; z value, 12.2 ± 1.8°C) is in line with survival of sterilization processes in the food industry. The recovery of B. thermoamylovorans spores can be improved via nonnutrient germination, thereby avoiding gross underestimation of their levels in food ingredients. PMID:26341201

  19. Bacillus thermoamylovorans Spores with Very-High-Level Heat Resistance Germinate Poorly in Rich Medium despite the Presence of ger Clusters but Efficiently upon Exposure to Calcium-Dipicolinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-11-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of spores of four food-spoiling isolates were determined. Flow cytometry counts of spores were much higher than their counts on rich medium (maximum, 5%). Microscopic analysis revealed inefficient nutrient-induced germination of spores of all four isolates despite the presence of most known germination-related genes, including two operons encoding nutrient germinant receptors (GRs), in their genomes. In contrast, exposure to nonnutrient germinant calcium-dipicolinic acid (Ca-DPA) resulted in efficient (50 to 98%) spore germination. All four strains harbored cwlJ and gerQ genes, which are known to be essential for Ca-DPA-induced germination in Bacillus subtilis. When determining spore survival upon heating, low viable counts can be due to spore inactivation and an inability to germinate. To dissect these two phenomena, the recoveries of spores upon heat treatment were determined on plates with and without preexposure to Ca-DPA. The high-level heat resistance of spores as observed in this study (D120°C, 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 min; z value, 12.2 ± 1.8°C) is in line with survival of sterilization processes in the food industry. The recovery of B. thermoamylovorans spores can be improved via nonnutrient germination, thereby avoiding gross underestimation of their levels in food ingredients. PMID:26341201

  20. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... planning an outreach effort or community event Health Communication Programs Information, tools, and partnership opportunities to improve ... Care Professionals Community Outreach and Health Fairs Health Communication Programs FAQs About NIDDK Meet the Director Offices & ...

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... priorities, and trends Funding Process Tips for applicants; human subjects research information; grant review and management resources; and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and ...

  2. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  3. Big(ger) Data as Better Data in Open Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsloo, Paul; Archer, Elizabeth; Barnes, Glen; Chetty, Yuraisha; van Zyl, Dion

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the hype, promise and perils of Big Data and the currently dominant paradigm of data-driven decision-making, it is important to critically engage with the potential of Big Data for higher education. We do not question the potential of Big Data, but we do raise a number of issues, and present a number of theses to be seriously…

  4. Fatigue experience from tests carried out with forged beam and frame structures in the development of the Saab aircraft Viggen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    A part of the lower side of the main wing at the joint of the main spar with the fuselage frame was investigated. This wing beam area was simulated by a test specimen consisting of a spar boom of AZ 74 forging (7075 aluminum alloy modified with 0.3 percent Ag) and a portion of a honeycomb sandwich panel attached to the boom flange with steel bolts. The cross section was reduced to half scale. However, the flange thickness, the panel height, and the bolt size were full scale. Further, left and right portions of the fuselage frame intended to carry over the bending moment of the main wing were tested. Each of these frame halves consisted of a forward and a rear forging (7079 aluminum alloy, overaged) connected by an outer and inner skin (Alclad 7075) creating a box beam. These test specimens were full scale and were constructed principally of ordinary aircraft components. The test load spectrum was common to both types of specimens with regard to percentage levels. It consisted of maneuver and gust loads, touchdown loads, and loads due to ground roughness. A load history of 200 hours of flight with 15,000 load cycles was punched on a tape. The loads were randomized in groups according to the flight-by-flight principle. The highest positive load level was 90 percent of limit load and the largest negative load was -27 percent. A total of 20 load levels were used. Both types of specimens were provided with strain gages and had a nominal stress of about 300 MN/sq m in some local areas. As a result of the tests, steps were taken to reduce the risk of fatigue damage in aircraft. Thus stress levels were lowered, radii were increased, and demands on surface finish were sharpened.

  5. [Cartography in the "Universal Transverse Mercator" system (Gauss-Krüger projection) of sources shedding M. tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, D; Fonea, M; Sava, N

    1980-01-01

    The authors made use of maps prepared in the projection system known as the "Universal Transverse Mercator" (Gauss-Kruger projection) for the study of an epidemiometric indicator in tuberculosis, namely the instantaneous prevalence of bacili carriers on December 31 1978 in the Ilfov District. The representation allows to evaluate the density of sources of infection, and as a consequence, of areas in which antiepidemic measured have to be intensified. The extension of the study to other districts could provide data for assessing the epidemiologic potential in various territories, as well as comparisons and the dynamics of the potential. The method could also be used in the study of other epidemiometric indicators. PMID:6254131

  6. A manufacturer's approach to ensure long term structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, Hans; Fredriksson, Billy; Holm, Ingvar

    1992-01-01

    The main features of the design concepts for the Saab 340 and Saab 2000 aircraft are described with respect to structural integrity and high reliability. Also described is the approach taken at Saab Aircraft to ensure structural integrity and high reliability. The concepts of global and local loads and sequences, and the fatigue and damage tolerance sizing and their verification are discussed. Also described is quality assurance in the production and structural maintenance program. Structural repair and feedback from operators are also covered.

  7. Jeotgalibacillus alimentarius gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from jeotgal with L-lysine in the cell wall, and reclassification of Bacillus marinus Rüger 1983 . as mMrinibacillus marinus gen nov., comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Yoon, J H; Weiss, N; Lee, K C; Lee, I S; Kang, K H; Park, Y H

    2001-11-01

    A moderately halophilic, round-endospore-forming bacterium (strain YKJ-13T) was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood, and studied by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. This organism was related to the phylogenetic clade comprising members of Bacillus rRNA group 2 and formed a cluster with Bacillus marinus with a bootstrap fidelity value of 93.6%. The peptidoglycan type was A1alpha linked directly through L-Lys. Based on cell morphology, peptidoglycan type and phylogeny, strain YKJ-13T, together with B. marinus, is considered to be a member of Bacillus rRNA group 2. Strain YKJ-13T was also characterized by having MK-7 and MK-8 as the predominant menaquinones and iso-C15:0 as the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 44 mol%. Strain YKJ-13T exhibited a 16S rDNA similarity value of 95.7% with B. marinus DSM 1297T, its closest phylogenetic relative. Levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain YKJ-13T and other Bacillus spp. were less than 94.2%. Therefore, on the basis of the data presented, the name Jeotgalibacillus alimentarius gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for strain YKJ-13T (= KCCM 80002T = JCM 10872T). It is also proposed that B. marinus be reclassified in Marinibacillus gen. nov. as Marinibacillus marinus comb. nov. PMID:11760951

  8. On the construction of a 2-metre mirror blank for the universal reflecting telescope in Tautenburg (German Title: Über die Fertigung eines 2-Meter-Spiegelträgers für das Universal-Spiegelteleskop in Tautenburg )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lödel, Wolfgang

    The astronomers' desire to penetrate deeper into space transforms into a demand for larger telescopes. The primary mirror constitutes the main part of a reflecting telescope, and it determines all subsequent activities. Already in the 1930s activities existed in the Schott company to manufacture mirror blanks up to diameters of 2 metres, which could not be pursued because of political constraints. This ambitious goal was again picked up a few years after the war. At a time when the procurement of raw materials was extremely difficult, the glass workers of Schott in Jena attacked this large project. After some failures, a good mirror blank could be delivered to the Carl Zeiss Company in 1951 for further processing and for the construction of the first 2-metre reflecting telescope. From 1960 to 1986, this mirror made from optical glass ZK7 served its purpose at the Karl Schwarzschild Observatory in Tautenburg. lt was then replaced by a zero expansion glass ceramics mirror.

  9. An Evolved International Lunar Decade Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D.; Holder, K.

    2015-10-01

    An Evolved Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) reflecting a proposed International Lunar Decade is presented by an NSS chapter to address many of the omissions and new prospective commercial mission developments since the 2013 edition of the ISECG GER.

  10. Definition of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux for studies on respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Emilsson, Össur Ingi; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Ólafsson, Ísleifur; Cook, Elizabeth; Júlíusson, Sigurður; Berg, Sören; Nordang, Leif; Björnsson, Einar Stefán; Guðlaugsdóttir, Sunna; Guðmundsdóttir, Anna Soffía; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2016-05-01

    Objective Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) has been associated with respiratory diseases. Our aim was to study a questionnaire method to identify nGER subjects with respiratory involvement in a general population. Material and methods A subgroup of Icelandic participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III (ECRHS III) reporting symptoms of nGER (n  =  48) as well as age and gender paired controls (n  =  42) were studied further by a structured interview, questionnaires, laryngeal fibrescopy, and exhaled breath condensate. A subgroup underwent 24-h oesophageal pH impedance (24-h MII-pH) measurements. Symptoms of nGER were assessed with a modified version of the reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ), where symptoms were divided into daytime and nocturnal. A report of nGER both at baseline and at follow-up was defined as persistent nGER. Results Participants reporting persistent nGER had significantly more signs of laryngopharyngeal reflux according to the reflux finding score than those without nGER (Mean ± SD: 5.1 ± 2.3 vs. 3.9 ± 2.2, p  =  0.02). Of the 16 persistent nGER subjects that underwent 24-h MII-pH, 11 had abnormal gastroesophageal reflux, but none of three control subjects (69% vs. 0%). Pepsin was more commonly found in exhaled breath condensate in the nGER group (67% vs. 45%, p  =  0.04). Conclusions Participants with nGER symptoms at least once a month, reported on two occasions, had a high level of positive 24-h MII-pH measurements, laryngeal inflammation and pepsin in exhaled breath condensate. This nGER definition identified a representable group for studies on nGER and respiratory diseases in a general population. PMID:26825677

  11. 24-hour esophageal pH-monitoring in children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux disease: Analysis of intraesophageal pH monitoring values recorded in distal and proximal channel at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Semeniuk, Janusz; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess values of 24-h esophageal pH-monitoring parameters with dual-channel probe (distal and proximal channel) in children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: 264 children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were enrolled in a study (mean age χ = 20.78 ± 17.23 mo). The outcomes of this study, immunoallerrgological tests and positive result of oral food challenge test with a potentially noxious nutrient, enabled to qualify children into particular study groups. RESULTS: 32 (12.1%) infants (group 1) had physiological GER diagnosed. Pathological acid GER was confirmed in 138 (52.3%) children. Primary GER was diagnosed in 76 (28.8%) children (group 2) and GER secondary to allergy to cow milk protein and/or other food (CMA/FA) in 62 (23.5%) children (group 3). 32 (12.1%) of them had CMA/FA (group 4-reference group), and in remaining 62 (23.5%) children neither GER nor CMA/FA was confirmed (group 5). Mean values of pH monitoring parameters measured in distal and proximal channel were analyzed in individual groups. This analysis showed statistically significant differentiation of mean values in the case of: number of episodes of acid GER, episodes of acid GER lasting > 5 min, duration of the longest episode of acid GER in both channels, acid GER index total and supine in proximal channel. Statistically significant differences of mean values among examined groups, especially between group 2 and 3 in the case of total acid GER index (only distal channel) were confirmed. CONCLUSION: 24-h esophageal pH monitoring confirmed pathological acid GER in 52.3% of children with typical and atypical symptoms of GERD. The similar pH-monitoring values obtained in group 2 and 3 confirm the necessity of implementation of differential diagnosis for primary vs secondary cause of GER. PMID:17876877

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux: a potential asthma trigger.

    PubMed

    Harding, Susan M

    2005-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a potential trigger of asthma. Approximately 77% of asthmatics report heartburn. GER is a risk factor for asthma-related hospitalization and oral steroid burst use. Asthmatics may be predisposed to GER development because of a high prevalence of hiatal hernia and autonomic dysregulation and an increased pressure gradient between the abdominal cavity and the thorax, over-riding the lower esophageal sphincter pressure barrier. Asthma medications may potentiate GER. Potential mechanisms of esophageal acid-induced bronchoconstriction include a vagally mediated reflex, local axonal reflexes, heightened bronchial reactivity, and microaspiration, all resulting in neurogenic inflammation. Anti-reflux therapy improves asthma symptoms in approximately 70% of asthmatics with GER. A 3-month empiric trial of twice-daily proton pump inhibitor given 30 to 60 minutes before breakfast and dinner can identify asthmatics who have GER as a trigger of their asthma. PMID:15579368

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Hillemeier, C

    2000-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is relatively common in adolescence. The severity of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux varies from an occasional burp to persistent emesis. Evaluation of most of these patients reveals no definable anatomic, metabolic, infectious, or neurologic etiology. The clinical determination of a cause-and-effect relationship between GER and other disorders, including associated respiratory disease, is often difficult and must be approached with considerable caution. Tests that merely document the presence of GER add little to the diagnosis. The adolescent with GER often has persistent symptoms of esophagitis that lead to appropriate intervention. Understanding the capabilities and limitations of the various diagnostic maneuvers available to assess GER is important to avoid subjecting these patients to invasive, costly, and inappropriate testing. This article includes a general discussion of physiology, diagnostic evaluation, and therapy of GER, followed by a review of respiratory and other complications. PMID:11060560

  14. Gastroesophageal Reflux is Not Associated with Dental Erosion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Yvette K.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dalal, Deepal H.; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Clark, Ann L.; Rechmann, Beate; Rechmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Dental erosion is a complication of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in adults; in children, it is not clear if GER has a role in dental pathologic conditions. Dietary intake, oral hygiene, high bacterial load, and decreased salivary flow might contribute independently to GER development or dental erosion, but their potential involvement in dental erosion from GER is not understood. We investigated the prevalence of dental erosion among children with and without GER symptoms, and whether salivary flow rate or bacterial load contribute to location-specific dental erosion. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 59 children (ages 9–17 y) with symptoms of GER and 20 asymptomatic children (controls); all completed a questionnaire on dietary exposure. Permanent teeth were examined for erosion into dentin, erosion locations, and affected surfaces. The dentist was not aware of GER status, nor was the gastroenterologist aware of dental status. Stimulated salivary flow was measured and salivary bacterial load was calculated for total bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Results Controlling for age, dietary intake, and oral hygiene, there was no association between GER symptoms and dental erosion, by tooth location or affected surface. Salivary flow did not correlate with GER symptoms or erosion. Erosion location and surface were independent of total bacteria and levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Conclusions Location-specific dental erosion is not associated with GER, salivary flow, or bacterial load. Prospective studies are required to determine the pathogenesis of GER-associated dental erosion and the relationship between dental caries to GER and dental erosion. PMID:21820389

  15. Identification of a Novel Lipoprotein Regulator of Clostridium difficile Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Fimlaid, Kelly A.; Jensen, Owen; Donnelly, M. Lauren; Francis, Michael B.; Sorg, Joseph A.; Shen, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. C. difficile infections are transmitted when ingested spores germinate in the gastrointestinal tract and transform into vegetative cells. Germination begins when the germinant receptor CspC detects bile salts in the gut. CspC is a subtilisin-like serine pseudoprotease that activates the related CspB serine protease through an unknown mechanism. Activated CspB cleaves the pro-SleC zymogen, which allows the activated SleC cortex hydrolase to degrade the protective cortex layer. While these regulators are essential for C. difficile spores to outgrow and form toxin-secreting vegetative cells, the mechanisms controlling their function have only been partially characterized. In this study, we identify the lipoprotein GerS as a novel regulator of C. difficile spore germination using targeted mutagenesis. A gerS mutant has a severe germination defect and fails to degrade cortex even though it processes SleC at wildtype levels. Using complementation analyses, we demonstrate that GerS secretion, but not lipidation, is necessary for GerS to activate SleC. Importantly, loss of GerS attenuates the virulence of C. difficile in a hamster model of infection. Since GerS appears to be conserved exclusively in related Peptostreptococcaeace family members, our results contribute to a growing body of work indicating that C. difficile has evolved distinct mechanisms for controlling the exit from dormancy relative to B. subtilis and other spore-forming organisms. PMID:26496694

  16. Graphene-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of thymine adsorbed on single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesenko, Olena; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Dementjev, Andrej; Karpicz, Renata; Kaplas, Tommi; Svirko, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) spectra and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of thymine molecules adsorbed on a single-layer graphene were studied. The enhancement factor was shown to depend on the molecular groups of thymine. In the GERS spectra of thymine, the main bands are shifted with respect to those for molecules adsorbed on a glass surface, indicating charge transfer for thymine on graphene. The probable mechanism of the GERS enhancement is discussed. CARS spectra are in accord with the GERS results, which indicates similar benefit from the chemical enhancement.

  17. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reflux (GER) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Children and Teens ... findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health ...

  18. [Research advances in the relationship between cow's milk allergy and gastroesoph-ageal reflux in infants].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Fang; Jiang, Mi-Zu

    2016-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and cow's milk allergy (CMA) are common disorders in infants. In recent years, more and more research has investigated the relationship between these two diseases. Some studies reported that about half of the cases of GER in infants younger than 1 year may be an association with CMA. Therefore, overall understanding the role of CMA on the pathogenesis of GER has a great importance on improving clinical level of diagnosis and therapy. This review article tried to elaborate advances in research on the relationship between CMA and GER in infants, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27412554

  19. Sedimentation upon different carrier liquid in giant electrorheological fluid and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yaying; Wen, Weijia

    2014-10-01

    When giant electrorheological (GER) fluid is settled after some time, particles can precipitate out of the oil in a multistep process that involves the formation of larger particles, the aggregation of colloids, and eventual sedimentation. Colloidal stability in giant electrorheological (GER) fluid can influence the GER performance and the fluid flow steadiness. We investigated the sedimentation effect of the GER particles suspended in various carrier liquid. Different from the existing electrorheological (ER) fluids, GER particles consisting of oxalate core with urea coating are found oil synergistic. The sedimentation effect of the particles suspended in oils from the family of synthetic oil and mineral oil were checked by direct observation. The rheological behavior of the GER fluid upon electric field application was also investigated. These experiments showed that stable colloidal suspension and good GER effect can be achieved coherently by favorable particle-oil interaction. The resultant high yield stress and low sedimentation rate achieved due to the instrumental linking of hydrogen bond is showed in the hydrogenated silicone oil carrier liquid. With the anti-sedimentation characteristic upon the new carrier oil, hydrogenated silicone oil-GER fluid, we investigated their GER effect in a modified mono tube damper and the experimental result showed wide controllability range. Our investigations may broaden engineering applications.

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A long term relationship

    PubMed Central

    Gnanapandithan, Karthik; Popkin, Joel H.; Devadoss, Ramprakash; Martin, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a dreaded disease of uncertain etiology and no available cure. It is still unclear if a causal relationship exists between gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and IPF, but studies have shown an increased prevalence of acid reflux in patients with IPF. We describe a patient with achalasia and GER who went on to develop IPF. She underwent a rapidly worsening course punctuated by acute exacerbations of IPF, despite best efforts to manage the acid GER. We also reviewed the literature on the role of GER in the etiology and progression of IPF and the impact of antireflux measures on its course. PMID:27222783

  1. Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be generically adequate. This document is an EPRI Tier 1 Report. The report gives the methodology for the collection and evaluation of data which are used to construct a Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectrum (GERs) for each equipment class considered. The GERS for each equipment class are included in an EPRI Tier 2 Report with the same title. Associated with each GERS are inclusion rules, cautions, and checklists for field screening of in-place equipment for GERS applicability. A GERS provides a measure of equipment seismic resistance based on available test data. As such, a GERS may also be used to judge the seismic adequacy of similar new or replacement equipment or to estimate the seismic margin of equipment re-evaluated with respect to earthquake levels greater than considered to date, resulting in fifteen finalized GERS. GERS for relays (included in the original version of this report) are now covered in a separate report (NP-7147). In addition to the presentation of GERS, the Tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to equipment of older vintage, methods for estimating amplification factors for evaluating devices installed in cabinets and enclosures, and how seismic test data from related studies relate to the GERS approach. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Insights into the mode of action of anticandidal herbal monoterpenoid geraniol reveal disruption of multiple MDR mechanisms and virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Fatima, Zeeshan; Hameed, Saif

    2016-07-01

    The anticandidal potential of Geraniol (Ger) against Candida albicans has already been established. The present study reveals deeper insights into the mechanisms of action of Ger. We observed that the repertoire of antifungal activity was not only limited to C. albicans and its clinical isolates but also against non-albicans species of Candida. The membrane tampering effect was visualized through transmission electron micrographs, depleted ergosterol levels and altered plasma membrane ATPase activity. Ger also affects cell wall as revealed by spot assays with cell wall-perturbing agents and scanning electron micrographs. Functional calcineurin pathway seems to be indispensable for the antifungal effect of Ger as calcineurin signaling mutant was hypersensitive to Ger while calcineurin overexpressing strain remained resistant. Ger also causes mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired iron homeostasis and genotoxicity. Furthermore, Ger inhibits both virulence attributes of hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation. Taken together, our results suggest that Ger is potential antifungal agent that warrants further investigation in clinical applications so that it could be competently employed in therapeutic strategies to treat Candida infections. PMID:26935560

  3. Do gastrointestinal and respiratory signs and symptoms correlate with the severity of gastroesophageal reflux?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a disorder that is common by seen in childhood and may lead to severe complications. In this study, we ascertained the incidence of GER among the children who had typical and atypical complaints of GER and whether there was a difference between two groups comparing the findings of 24-hour pH-meter. Methods 39 out of 70 patients with typical and atypical GER symptoms were diagnosed as GER by 24-hour pH-meter monitoring. The patients were divided into three groups, those having gastrointestinal complaints, those having respiratory complaints and those having both gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms. Results Evaluated the GER prevalence in these groups, it was found to be 60% in the gastrointestinal group, 48.6% in the respiratory group and 75% in the mixed group. When pH-meter measurements of GER positive patients were compared within the clinical groups, the fraction of time that pH was lower than 4 was found to be significantly higher in the mixed group (p = 0.004). Conclusions The coexistence of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms in the patients with GER may be related to the severe reflux. PMID:22436080

  4. Software: Where we are and what is required in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Jerry

    1990-01-01

    The current status and future direction of flight critical software are presented in the form of view-graphs. The following subject areas are covered: the programmers environment; Saab Grippen Flight test program; present day tools; analysis tools (reverse engineering); automatic code generators; and future plans.

  5. NMDA Receptors: Power Switches for Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Anna M; Attwell, David

    2016-07-01

    The role of NMDA receptors in oligodendrocytes has been controversial. A new paper (Saab et al., 2016) suggests they play a key role in regulating glucose uptake in response to axonal glutamate release, thus controlling metabolic cooperation between oligodendrocytes and axons. PMID:27387644

  6. Inorganic Phosphate and Sodium Ions Are Cogerminants for Spores of Clostridium perfringens Type A Food Poisoning-Related Isolates▿

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Udompijitkul, Pathima; Sarker, Mahfuzur R.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A isolates carrying a chromosomal copy of the enterotoxin (cpe) gene are involved in the majority of food poisoning (FP) outbreaks, while type A isolates carrying a plasmid-borne cpe gene are involved in C. perfringens-associated non-food-borne (NFB) gastrointestinal diseases. To cause diseases, C. perfringens spores must germinate and return to active growth. Previously, we showed that only spores of FP isolates were able to germinate with K+ ions. We now found that the spores of the majority of FP isolates, but none of the NFB isolates, germinated with the cogerminants Na+ and inorganic phosphate (NaPi) at a pH of ∼6.0. Spores of gerKA-KC and gerAA mutants germinated to a lesser extent and released less dipicolinic acid (DPA) than did wild-type spores with NaPi. Although gerKB spores germinated to a similar extent as wild-type spores with NaPi, their rate of germination was lower. Similarly, gerO and gerO gerQ mutant spores germinated slower and released less DPA than did wild-type spores with NaPi. In contrast, gerQ spores germinated to a slightly lesser extent than wild-type spores but released all of their DPA during NaPi germination. In sum, this study identified NaPi as a novel nutrient germinant for spores of most FP isolates and provided evidence that proteins encoded by the gerKA-KC operon, gerAA, and gerO are required for NaPi-induced spore germination. PMID:19666724

  7. Automating usability of ATLAS Distributed Computing resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupputi, S. A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Kouba, T.; Schovancová, J.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The automation of ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) operations is essential to reduce manpower costs and allow performance-enhancing actions, which improve the reliability of the system. In this perspective a crucial case is the automatic handling of outages of ATLAS computing sites storage resources, which are continuously exploited at the edge of their capabilities. It is challenging to adopt unambiguous decision criteria for storage resources of non-homogeneous types, sizes and roles. The recently developed Storage Area Automatic Blacklisting (SAAB) tool has provided a suitable solution, by employing an inference algorithm which processes history of storage monitoring tests outcome. SAAB accomplishes both the tasks of providing global monitoring as well as automatic operations on single sites. The implementation of the SAAB tool has been the first step in a comprehensive review of the storage areas monitoring and central management at all levels. Such review has involved the reordering and optimization of SAM tests deployment and the inclusion of SAAB results in the ATLAS Site Status Board with both dedicated metrics and views. The resulting structure allows monitoring the storage resources status with fine time-granularity and automatic actions to be taken in foreseen cases, like automatic outage handling and notifications to sites. Hence, the human actions are restricted to reporting and following up problems, where and when needed. In this work we show SAAB working principles and features. We present also the decrease of human interactions achieved within the ATLAS Computing Operation team. The automation results in a prompt reaction to failures, which leads to the optimization of resource exploitation.

  8. Formality Theorem for Hochschild Cochains via Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgushev, Vasily

    2011-08-01

    We construct a 2-colored operad Ger ∞ which, on the one hand, extends the operad Ger ∞ governing homotopy Gerstenhaber algebras and, on the other hand, extends the 2-colored operad governing open-closed homotopy algebras. We show that Tamarkin's Ger ∞-structure on the Hochschild cochain complex C •( A, A) of an A ∞-algebra A extends naturally to a {{Ger}^+_{infty}}-structure on the pair ( C •( A, A), A). We show that a formality quasi-isomorphism for the Hochschild cochains of the polynomial algebra can be obtained via transfer of this {{Ger}^+_{infty}}-structure to the cohomology of the pair ( C •( A, A), A). We show that {{Ger}^+_{infty}} is a sub DG operad of the first sheet E 1(SC) of the homology spectral sequence for the Fulton-MacPherson version SC of Voronov's Swiss Cheese operad. Finally, we prove that the DG operads {{Ger}^+_{infty}} and E 1(SC) are non-formal.

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?

    PubMed Central

    Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy. PMID:24719900

  10. [Function of oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Höhne, S; Wachter, R; Merkel, N; Hesse, V; Finke, R

    2014-04-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) has a special meaning for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twelve voluntary patients with CF up to the age of 25 underwent an oesophageal manometry and a 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring. These patients were without symptoms of GER. The examination proved an acid GER in 42 %. In the total population the frequency is ≤ 10 %. In 11 of 12 patients a pathologically low pressure of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) was found. No significant correlations between the DeMeester score and the pressure of the LES, the reflux and respiratory symptomatology, the lung function as well as the quality of life could be proven. However, there was a significant correlation between the DeMeester score and the acid clearance time. 37 % of the registered cough pushes were related to a GER, of which 78 % were associated with an acid GER. Therefore, coughing in patients with CF must not necessarily be caused by the underlying disease. The timely detection of a pathological GER in patients with CF, but without symptoms of GER, and its prompt therapy could protect the lung function. PMID:24718938

  11. Prevalence and determinants of frequent gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in the Australian community.

    PubMed

    Pandeya, N; Green, A C; Whiteman, D C

    2012-01-01

    Frequent gastroesophageal reflux (GER) causes chronic inflammation and damages esophageal mucosa, which can lead to Barrett's esophagus. It has also been consistently found to be a strong risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The prevalence of GER appears to vary; however, population-based Australian studies investigating the symptoms are limited. This study aimed to estimate the population prevalence and identify the determinants of frequent GER symptoms in the Australian population. Self-reported information on the frequency of reflux symptoms were collected from 1,580 adults from a population register. We estimated age- and sex-standardized prevalence of occasional (GER symptoms in the Australian population. We also estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for GER symptoms associated with demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The standardized prevalences of GER symptoms were 10.4% and 38.3% for frequent and occasional symptoms, respectively. Compared with participants with body mass index <25, those with body mass index ≥35 had almost 90% higher prevalence of frequent GER symptoms (PR 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-3.16). Similarly, the prevalence of frequent GER symptoms was significantly higher among regular users of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs than never users (PR 1.71; 95%CI 1.08-3.16) and regular consumers of medium to well-done barbecued meat (PR 1.75; 95%CI 1.10-2.80) or fried food (PR 2.69; 95%CI 1.66-4.35). The prevalence of frequent GER symptoms was significantly lowered with regular physical activity (PR 0.46; 95%CI 0.32-0.66) and Helicobacter pylori infection (PR 0.53; 95%CI 0.35-0.80). We found no evidence that frequent GER symptoms were associated with smoking, alcohol, spicy food, or coffee consumption. Our results confirm that GER symptoms are common and that frequent GER symptoms are associated with a range of modifiable lifestyle factors. PMID:22128757

  12. Relationship of gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants and children: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Treves, S.

    1984-05-01

    One hundred twenty-six pediatric patients (0-16 yr of age) with clinically suspected gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were evaluated using radionuclide scintigraphy. Although 46 of the patients (38.3%) had abnormal studies exhibiting evidence of GER, there were no signifcant differences in gastric emptying between patients with and without GER. At 60 min after ingestion, the 76 patients less than 2 yr old had a mean residual of 54%, whereas those over 2 yr of age had a value of 29%. Gastric emptying values may be age-related.

  13. Digestive Diseases A-Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Information Digestive Diseases English English Español Digestive Diseases The digestive system made up of the ... Upper GI Endoscopy Upper GI Series Virtual Colonoscopy Digestive Disease Topics Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) ...

  14. Evolution of the gain extinction ratio in dual-pump phase sensitive amplification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingyi; Inoue, Takashi; Kurosu, Takayuki; Namiki, Shu

    2012-05-01

    We have experimentally achieved a gain extinction ratio (GER) of 30 dB at 21.75 dBm pump power in a dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier based on highly nonlinear fiber, which is more efficient than what we predict with the conventional three-wave model. We point out that high-order sidebands play a key role. Then we scrutinize the trajectories of the output signal vector in the complex plane with increasing nonlinear phase shift and understand the roll-over behavior of GER versus pump power curve. We found that the phase "flip" of the output signal occurs around the largest GER. Adjusting design parameters, we show how to improve GER. PMID:22555697

  15. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language URL Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens View or Print All Sections Definition and Facts ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding how Crohn’s Disease treatments affect children’s gut microbiome Jun 10, 2016 See additional news » Related Conditions & Diseases Barrett's Esophagus Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER) and Gastroesophageal Reflux ...

  17. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding how Crohn’s Disease treatments affect children’s gut microbiome Jun 10, 2016 See additional news » Related Conditions & Diseases Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) ...

  18. Barrett's Esophagus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding how Crohn’s Disease treatments affect children’s gut microbiome Jun 10, 2016 See additional news » Related Conditions & Diseases Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux ...

  19. Pyloric Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other conditions can have similar symptoms. For instance, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) usually begins before 8 weeks of age, ... after feedings. However, the majority of infants with GERD do not experience projectile vomiting, and although they ...

  20. Historisches Rätsel Liebe, Revolution und Mathematik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    In Jahr 1800 wies William Herschel bei der Untersuchung des Sonnenlichts erstmals Strahlung außerhalb des sichtbaren Spektrums nach. Sein Sohn Frederick entwickelte ein Gerät zur Vermessung der Sonnenintensität, das Aktinometer. Dieses Gerät wurde in einigen Messkampagnen verwendet, setzte sich aber letztlich nicht durch. Heute ist die Vermessung der Sonneneinstrahlung ein wesentlicher Bereich, der zur Modellierung solarer Energiegewinnungsanlagen erforderlich ist.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux in children with otitis media in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Kazerooni, Azadeh; Brejis, Nezamodin; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Saneian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Otitis media (OM) is the most common cause of childhood hearing loss and reason to visit the pediatrician. Furthermore, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with a variety of upper aerodigestive tract symptoms or diseases, such as sinusitis, laryngitis, and otits. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of GER in children, aged 3 months to 7 years, with OM. Materials and Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted on 50 children with OM and 50 healthy children. Presence of GER as the main variables was diagnosed by clinical examination in all studied children using the questionnaires with 2 age-stratified versions of the pediatric GER disease symptoms for children 2 years old and younger, and children 3–7 years old. Results: The prevalence of GER in children with OM and controls was 58% and 22% respectively (P = 0.0005). The frequency of irritability, congestion, and feeding complex in children with OM were significantly more than in control groups. Among children with recurrent acute OM (AOM), and chronic serous OM (CSOM) the prevalence of GER was significantly more than controls (61.1%, vs. 22% for AOM, P = 0.004, and 72.7% vs. 22%, P= 0.003). In children with AOM, regurgitation, vomiting, irritability and congestion were significantly higher than controls included. In children with CSOM, regurgitation, vomiting, and congestion were significantly higher than controls. Conclusion: Results show a significant association between GER and OM, AOM and CSOM in children with OM compares to healthy children. This shows that looking for GER in children with OM may help improving treatments outcomes. PMID:27274496

  2. Gene expression-based risk score in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bret, Caroline; Klein, Bernard; Moreaux, Jérôme

    2012-12-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and displays heterogeneous clinical and molecular characteristics. In this study, high throughput gene expression profiling of DLBCL tumor samples was used to design a 12-gene expression-based risk score (GERS) predictive for patient's overall survival. GERS allowed identifying a high-risk group comprising 46,4% of the DLBCL patients in two independent cohorts (n=414 and n=69). GERS was shown to be an independent predictor of survival when compared to the previously published prognostic factors, including the International Prognostic Index (IPI). GERS displayed a prognostic value in germinal-center B-cell-like subgroup (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) molecular subgroups of patients as well as in DLBCL patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) regimens. Combination of GERS and IPI lead to a potent prognostic classification of DLBCL patients. Finally, a genomic instability gene signature was highlighted in gene expression profiles of patients belonging to the high-risk GERS-defined group. PMID:23482333

  3. Assessment and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in healthy infants with apneic episodes: a retrospective analysis of 87 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Antti I; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Wikström, Anne; Rintala, Risto J

    2011-12-01

    This retrospective study sought to assess whether gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is associated with recurrent infant apneic episodes (AEs) and whether its treatment prevents AEs. Symptoms, diagnostic measures, and treatment of GER in 87 infants admitted for AEs were recorded. The effect of GER on recurrent AEs and survival were assessed. Esophageal pH monitoring was done to 58/87 (67%) patients, of whom 53/58 (91%) had a pathological finding; 48 patients had treatment for GER (medical 43%/49%; surgical 5%/6%) with continuing AEs during hospitalization (25%/29% patients) as the main indication. Follow-up (65 patients) disclosed recurrent AEs in 12 (18%) patients (no treatment 4/21, medical 8/39, surgical 0/5, P = NS). All 87 patients survived. Recurrent AEs after discharge was predicted by AEs during hospitalization but not by pathological GER. AEs observed during hospitalization predicted postdischarge AE recurrence. Of GER treatment modalities, only surgery prevented recurrent AEs. PMID:21997146

  4. Role of the current young generation within the space exploration sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzada-Diaz, A.; Dayas-Codina, M.; MacArthur, J. L.; Bielicki, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    The space sector gathers together people from a variety of fields who work in the industry on different levels and with different expertise. What is often forgotten is the impact and role of the current young generation. Their engagement is of great importance as undeniably today's young 'space generation' will be defining the direction of future space exploration. Today's vision of future human and robotic space exploration has been set out in the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). This focuses on sustainable, affordable and productive long-term goals. The strategy begins with the International Space Station (ISS) and then expands human presence into the solar system, including a human mission to Mars. This paper presents a general overview of the role of today's youth within the space exploration sector and the challenges to overcome. To complete this perspective, we present results from a survey made among students and young professionals about their levels of awareness of the GER. The respondents presented their opinion about current aspects of the GER and prioritised the GER's objectives. It is hoped that the paper will bring a new perspective into the GER and a contribution to the current GER strategy.

  5. Exertional esophageal pH-metry and manometry in recurrent chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Budzyński, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of 24-h and exertional esophageal pH-metry and manometry in patients with recurrent chest pain. METHODS: The study included 111 patients (54% male) with recurrent angina-like chest pain, non-responsive to therapy with proton pump inhibitors. Sixty-five (59%) had non-obstructive lesions in coronary artery angiography, and in 46 (41%) significant coronary artery narrowing was found. In all patients, 24-h esophageal pH-metry and manometry, and treadmill stress tests with simultaneous esophageal pH-metry and manometry monitoring were performed. During a 24-h examination the percentage of spontaneous chest pain (sCP) episodes associated with acid reflux or dysmotility (symptom index, SI) was calculated. Patients with SI > 50% for acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were classified as having GER-related sCP. The remaining symptomatic individuals were determined as having non-GER-related sCP. During the stress test, the occurrence of chest pain, episodes of esophageal acidification (pH < 4 for 10 s) and esophageal spasm with more than 55% of simultaneous contractions (exercise-provoked esophageal spasm or EPES) were noted. RESULTS: Sixty-eight (61%) individuals reported sCP during 24-h esophageal function monitoring. Eleven of these (16%) were classified as having GER-related sCP and 53/68 (84%) as having non-GER-related sCP. The exercise-provoked chest pain during a stress test occurred in 13/111 (12%) subjects. In order to compare the clinical usefulness of 24-h esophageal function monitoring and its examination limited only to the treadmill stress test, the standard parameters of diagnostic test evaluation were determined. The occurrence of GER-related or non-GER-related sCP was assumed as a “gold standard”. Afterwards, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. These parameters expressed a prediction of GER-related or non-GER-related sCP occurrence by the presence of chest pain, esophageal acidification and

  6. Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Wickenberg, Jennie; Fahlström, Rickard; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof; Darwiche, Gassan

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects. Methods Gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1), cereal bran flakes (GER2) or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3). Results The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023). The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045) and 120 min (p = 0.023) after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy subjects, they should be

  7. The effect of famotidine on gastroesophageal and duodeno-gastro-esophageal refluxes in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ying; Dai, Ning; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jian-Guo; Si, Jian-Ming

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of famotidine on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux (DGER) and to explore it's possible mechanisms. To identify the relevant factors of the reflux. METHODS: Ninteen critically ill patients were consecutively enrolled in the study. Dynamic 24 h monitoring of GER and DGER before and after administration of famotidine was performed. The parameters of gastric residual volume,multiple organ disorder syndrome (MODS) score, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score and PEEP were recorded. Paired t test; Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Univariate analysis with Spearman's rank correlation were applied to analyse the data. RESULTS: Statistical significance of longest acid reflux, reflux time of pH < 4 and fraction time of acid reflux was observed in ten critically ill patients before and after administration. P value is 0.037, 0.005, 0.005 respectively. Significance change of all bile reflux parameters was observed before and after administration. P value is 0.007, 0.024, 0.005, 0.007, 0.005. GER has positive correlation with APACHE II score and gastric residual volume with correlation coefficient of 0.720, 0.932 respectively. CONCLUSION: GER and DGER are much improved after the administration of famotidine. GER is correlated with APACHE II score and gastric residual volume. PMID:12532466

  8. Reasons of PEG failure to eliminate gastroesophageal reflux in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Douzinas, Emmanuel E; Andrianakis, Ilias; Livaditi, Olga; Bakos, Dimitrios; Flevari, Katerina; Goutas, Nikos; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Tasoulis, Marios-Konstantinos; Betrosian, Alex P

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate factors predicting failure of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) to eliminate gastroesophageal reflux (GER). METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive mechanically ventilated patients were investigated. Patients were evaluated for GER by pH-metry pre-PEG and on the 7th post-PEG day. Endoscopic and histologic evidence of reflux esophagitis was also carried out. A beneficial response to PEG was considered when pH-metry on the 7th post-PEG day showed that GER was below 4%. RESULTS: Seventeen patients responded (RESP group) and 12 did not respond (N-RESP) to PEG. The mean age, sex, weight and APACHE II score were similar in both groups. GER (%) values were similar in both groups at baseline, but were significantly reduced in the RESP group compared with the N-RESP group on the 7th post-PEG day [2.5 (0.6-3.8) vs 8.1 (7.4-9.2, P < 0.001)]. Reflux esophagitis and the gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV) grading differed significantly between the two groups (P = 0.031 and P = 0.020, respectively). Histology revealed no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic grading of GEFV and the presence of severe reflux esophagitis are predisposing factors for failure of PEG to reduce GER in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:19916176

  9. Self-assembly of mildly reduced graphene oxide monolayer for enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Fenping; Wu, Shang; Wang, Yanbin; Wu, Lan; Yuan, Peilin; Wang, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted much attention recently. In present study, monolayer of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets was chemically bonded on Si substrates and their possible applications in Raman scattering were investigated. In comparison with the mechanically exfoliated graphene, mildly reduced graphene oxide (MR-GO) monolayer is a better substrate to quench the fluorescence (FL) signals and simultaneously enhance the Raman signals of adsorbed Rhodamin 6G (R6G) molecules. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that π-π stacking and the residual polarized oxygen groups on MRGO surface, which can produce a strong local electric field under laser excitation, are mainly responsible for the excellent GERS effect of MR-GO substrate, while the charge transfer between R6G and MR-GO has a relatively low contribution for GERS effect. Our results not only provide a new approach to realize sensitive GERS substrate, but also are helpful for improving the fundamental understanding of GERS effect on RGO substrate.

  10. ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap: A Stepwise Approach to Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Goodliff, Kandyce; Whitley, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, ISECG released the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), advancing the "Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" by articulating the perspectives of participating agencies on exploration goals and objectives, mission scenarios, and coordination of exploration preparatory activities. The GER featured a stepwise development and demonstration of capabilities ultimately required for human exploration of Mars. In 2013 the GER was updated to reflect the ongoing evolution of agency's exploration policies and plans, informed by individual agency and coordinated analysis activities that are relevant to various elements of the GER framework as well as coordinated stakeholder engagement activities. For this release of version 2 of the GER in the mid 2013 timeframe, a modified mission scenario is presented, more firmly reflecting the importance of a stepwise evolution of critical capabilities provided by multiple partners necessary for executing increasingly complex missions to multiple destinations and leading to human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the updated mission scenario, the changes since the release of version 1, the mission themes incorporated into the scenario, and risk reduction for Mars missions provided by exploration at various destinations.

  11. German version of ItchyQoL: validation and initial clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Krause, Karoline; Kessler, Birgit; Weller, Karsten; Veidt, Jennifer; Chen, Suephy C; Martus, Peter; Church, Martin K; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-09-01

    Pruritus is a major symptom of numerous skin and systemic diseases and causes a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL). We report here the validation of the German version (GerItchyQoL) of the first pruritus-specific QoL instrument ItchyQoL. GerItchyQoL was created from the original version following standard protocols. It was completed by 308 patients with chronic pruritus of different origin and tested for validity, reliability and responsiveness. Factor analysis of Ger-ItchyQoL revealed the 4 domains symptoms, functioning, feelings, and self-perception. Reliability was demonstrated by good internal consistency of all domains. We confirmed convergent validity by comparing the instrument with itch severity, as measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS 0-10), and with the Short-Form-12 (SF-12), a widely used generic health-related QoL instrument. Concurrent validity was shown by the ability to discriminate between patient groups of different itch severity. Changes in GerItchyQoL scores correlated with changes in itch severity (VAS), suggesting responsiveness of the German tool. This study provides preliminary evidence of validity, reliability and responsiveness of GerItchyQoL and also shows a high impact of chronic pruritus on QoL. Further translations of ItchyQoL into additional languages will enable large-scale international, multilingual trials. PMID:23494363

  12. Pharmacological Therapy of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Monari, Caterina; Martini, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Faldella, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a very common phenomenon among preterm infants, its therapeutic management is still an issue of debate among neonatologists. A step-wise approach should be advisable, firstly promoting nonpharmacological interventions and limiting drugs to selected infants unresponsive to the conservative measures or who are suffering from severe GER with clinical complications. Despite of this, a concerning pharmacological overtreatment has been increasingly reported. Most of the antireflux drugs, however, have not been specifically assessed in preterm infants; moreover, serious adverse effects have been noticed in association to their administration. This review mainly aims to draw the state of the art regarding the pharmacological management of GER in preterm infants, analyzing the best piecies of evidence currently available on the most prescribed anti-reflux drugs. Although further trials are required, sodium alginate-based formulations might be considered promising; however, data regarding their safety are still limited. Few piecies of evidence on the efficacy of histamine-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors in preterm infants with GER are currently available. Nevertheless, a significantly increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and infections has been largely reported in association with their use, thereby leading to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. The efficacy of metoclopramide in GER's improvement still needs to be clarified. Other prokinetic agents, such as domperidone and erythromycin, have been reported to be ineffective, whereas cisapride has been withdrawn due to its remarkable cardiac adverse effects. PMID:23878533

  13. Pharmacological therapy of gastroesophageal reflux in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Monari, Caterina; Martini, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Faldella, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a very common phenomenon among preterm infants, its therapeutic management is still an issue of debate among neonatologists. A step-wise approach should be advisable, firstly promoting nonpharmacological interventions and limiting drugs to selected infants unresponsive to the conservative measures or who are suffering from severe GER with clinical complications. Despite of this, a concerning pharmacological overtreatment has been increasingly reported. Most of the antireflux drugs, however, have not been specifically assessed in preterm infants; moreover, serious adverse effects have been noticed in association to their administration. This review mainly aims to draw the state of the art regarding the pharmacological management of GER in preterm infants, analyzing the best piecies of evidence currently available on the most prescribed anti-reflux drugs. Although further trials are required, sodium alginate-based formulations might be considered promising; however, data regarding their safety are still limited. Few piecies of evidence on the efficacy of histamine-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors in preterm infants with GER are currently available. Nevertheless, a significantly increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and infections has been largely reported in association with their use, thereby leading to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. The efficacy of metoclopramide in GER's improvement still needs to be clarified. Other prokinetic agents, such as domperidone and erythromycin, have been reported to be ineffective, whereas cisapride has been withdrawn due to its remarkable cardiac adverse effects. PMID:23878533

  14. [Gastroesophageal reflux in infants: myths and realities].

    PubMed

    Baudon, J-J

    2009-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common problem in infants but the distinction between GER and GER disease remains difficult. Clinical manifestations such as vomiting, poor weight gain, respiratory disorders, and apneas do always not correlate with the demonstration of reflux episodes. Premature infants frequently suffer from reflux but correlations with apneas are also poor. Esophagitis is a complication suggested in infants experiencing pain but reflux by itself can induce pain as well. The "gold" diagnosis test is pH recording; however, overlap between normal and abnormal indices is obvious. Impedance measurement demonstrates more reflux episodes but non-acid reflux harm is not established. GER disease is probably self-limited in most infants, although it is impossible to predict whether some of them continue to have GER in adult life. The treatment raises doubts concerning indications and efficacy. Overprescription is frequent in infants with regurgitations. Nonpharmacological treatment - small-volume thickened milk and correct positioning - should be the first-line treatment. Prokinetic drugs have not proved their efficacy. Among anti-acid drugs, proton pump inhibitors are the best choice, but their indications are not very clearly established for infants. On the other hand, considerable variations of their metabolism due to the patients' age and genetic factors can explain variations in therapeutic effects. PMID:19303264

  15. The Relationship Between Gastroesophageal Reflux and Chronic Unexplained Cough in Children.

    PubMed

    Pavić, Ivan; Čepin-Bogović, Jasna; Hojsak, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic cough and acid or weakly acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) determined by 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and to assess whether the association is age dependent. Overall 150 children (mean age 7.5 years; range 0.3-18.0 years; male/female 90/60) were enrolled. Median of 87.5% (0% to 100%) of all cough episodes were associated with reflux; 9% (0% to 100%) with acidic and 60% (0% to 100%) with weakly acidic episodes. In 52 children (34.7%), all cough episodes were associated with GER (100% association). Children younger than 2 years had significantly higher number of cough episodes associated with total (P = .03) and weakly acidic GER (P = .01). Binary logistic regression confirmed that only increase in age decreases the risk for complete (100%) association between cough episode and GER. Cough is significantly associated with weakly acidic GER and children of younger age are at higher risk. PMID:26324664

  16. Giant electrorheological fluid comprising nanoparticles: Carbon nanotube composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaxing; Gong, Xiuqing; Chen, Shuyu; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We have fabricated suspensions exhibiting the giant electrorheological (GER) effect comprising nanoparticles—multiwall carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) composite particles dispersed in silicone oil. This type of GER fluids display dramatically enhanced antisedimentation characteristic without sacrificing the yield stress. The nanoparticles-nanotubes composites were fabricated by modifying the coprecipitation method with MCNTs and urea-coated barium titanyl-oxylate (BTRU) nanoparticles as the components. The composite solid particles are denoted MCNT-BTRU. In the best cases, stabilized suspensions with MCNT-BTRU particles dispersed in silicone oil have been maintained for several months without any appreciable sedimentation being observed. Both the sedimentary and rheological properties of the MCNT-BTRU suspension were systematically studied and compared with their BTRU counterparts. Yield stress as high as 194 kPa was obtained in the MCNT-BTRU suspensions. The MCNT-BTRU based GER fluids, with their antisedimentation characteristic, may have broad engineering applications.

  17. Seismic ruggedness of relays

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia due to gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Rong; Xu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Chun-Ju; Yang, Hai-Ming; Zhao, Shun-Ying

    2015-06-01

    The most common causes of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) are connective tissue diseases, organ transplantation, drug reaction, and infections. Although rare, BOOP due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been reported in adults but not to date in pediatric patients. This study describes 2 pediatric patients who developed GER and BOOP. One patient had superior mesenteric artery syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection, and the other had a gastroduodenal ulcer with reflux esophagitis. Respiratory symptoms occurred concurrently or after gastrointestinal symptoms. Monitoring of esophageal pH for 24 hours revealed pathologic acid reflux. Lung biopsy findings confirmed BOOP. No other causes of BOOP were observed in these 2 patients. Both patients were cured with antireflux therapy and corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to implicate GER as a reversible cause of BOOP in children. PMID:25986021

  19. Discovering forgeries of modern art by the 14C Bomb Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caforio, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Mandò, P. A.; Minarelli, F.; Peccenini, E.; Pellicori, V.; Petrucci, F. C.; Schwartzbaum, P.; Taccetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the anomalous behaviour of the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration in the years after 1955 (so-called "Bomb Peak"), an alleged painting by Fernard Léger was unambiguously proven to be a fake just by dating the canvas support. Some art historians had questioned the authenticity of the painting, and their suspicions were fuelled by some scientific examinations of the paint materials (X-ray radiography, SEM-EDS), compared to those of another work unquestionably attributed to Léger. The decisive argument to prove that it was a fake was provided by the radiocarbon date obtained from a sample of canvas of the painting, using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the INFN-Labec laboratory in Florence. Beyond any doubt, the cotton plant from which the canvas was produced was cut no earlier than 1959, i.e. four years after Léger's death, thus definitely confirming the concerns of a fake.

  20. The Effects of Heat Activation on Bacillus Spore Germination, with Nutrients or under High Pressure, with or without Various Germination Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E.; Doona, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75°C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the l-asparagine–glucose–fructose–K+ mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation. PMID:25681191

  1. Infant gastroesophageal reflux disease score: reproducibility and validity in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sandeep; Mittal, Santosh K; Kalra, Krishan K; Rajeshwari, Krishnan; Gondal, Ranjana

    2004-01-01

    A 25-point infant gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) score based on 11 signs and symptoms of gastrooesophageal reflux (GER), to diagnose GERD has been suggested in infant. We carried out this study to test the reproducibility and validity of this scoring system in the cross-cultural settings of Indian infants. Caretakers of 610 apparently healthy infants, between the ages of 1 month and 24 months were administered the Orenstein's infant GER questionnaire and assigned a GERD score. Of these, 95 infants were taken up for a 24-hours oesophageal pH monitoring study. Before the pH study, each subject was again tested by the infant GER questionnaire by another independent observer and assigned an infant GERD score. The 24-hours oesophageal pH study was done using the Synectics Digitrapper MK III portable pH recording device. Reflux index (RI) >10% in infants up to 1 year of age and >5% in children more than 1 year of age was taken as pathological. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and oesophageal biopsies were performed in 35 cases, after taking informed consent. A good correlation was seen between the scores evaluated independently by the two workers, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.906. The mean GERD score in infants with GER (as diagnosed by pH-metry) was 4.64 +/- 3.99 compared to 3.54 +/- 3.96 in those with no documented GER (p>0.05). A GERD score of 5 had a sensitivity of 43% and specificity of 79%, compared to 86% and 85% observed by Orenstein et al. in their series. The infant GER Questionnaire is easily adaptable and reproducible in the settings of developing countries. However, its diagnostic validity appears to be much less than that obtained by Orenstein et al. in their study on American infants. PMID:15471328

  2. Upper esophageal sphincter during transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation: effects of reflux content and posture.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Arash; Bhargava, Valmik; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2010-05-01

    Although some studies show that the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contracts during transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR), others show that it relaxes. We hypothesized that the posture of the subject and constituents of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may determine the type of UES response during the TLESR. High-resolution manometry and esophageal pH/impedance recording were performed in 10 healthy volunteers in the right recumbent (1 h) and upright (1 h) positions following the ingestion of a 1,000-Kcal meal. The UES pressure response during TLESR and constituents of GER (liquid, air, and pH) were determined. 109 TLESRs (58 upright and 51 recumbent) were analyzed. The majority of TLESRs were associated with GER (91% upright and 88% recumbent) events. UES relaxation was the predominant response during upright position (81% of TLESRs), and it was characteristically associated with presence of air in the reflux (92%). On the other hand, UES contraction was the predominant response during recumbent position (82% of TLESRs), and it was mainly associated with liquid reflux (71%). The rate of esophageal pressure increase (dP/dt) during the GER, but not the pH, had major influence on the type of UES response during TLESR. The dP/dt during air reflux (127 +/- 39 mmHg/s) was significantly higher than liquid reflux (31 +/- 6 mmHg/s, P < 0.0001). We concluded that the nature of UES response during TLESR, relaxation or contraction, is related to the posture and the constituents of GER. We propose that the rapid rate of esophageal pressure increase associated with air reflux determines the UES relaxation response to GER. PMID:20167874

  3. Outlook of possible European contributions to future exploration scenarios and architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, M. A.; Fenoglio, F.; Pelle, S.; Couzin, P.; Thaeter, J.; Eilingsfeld, F.; Hufenbach, B.; Bergamasco, A.

    2013-07-01

    Building upon the important experience acquired with the development of the International Space Station, the major spacefaring countries are working within the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at the definition of a coordinated framework for expanding the human presence beyond the Low Earth Orbit, the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER defines a long-range strategy for global exploration and include three major elements. Common goals of ISECG participating agencies for space exploration. Notional mission scenarios which are technically feasible and programmatically implementable. Two mission scenarios were defined in the 1st iteration of the GER: the "Asteroid Next" and the "Moon Next" mission scenarios. Identification of near-term opportunities for coordination and cooperation related to e.g. the development of technologies, the implementation of robotic missions to destination of interest for closing strategic knowledge gaps which need to be addressed prior to human missions as well as the utilization of ISS for demonstration of exploration enabling capabilities. In 2009 two studies have been awarded by ESA to Industrial Teams led by Thales Alenia Space—Italy and by Astrium—Germany to define, analyze and assess optional European scenarios for future human spaceflight and exploration activities, and to derive the required capabilities for the investigated timeframe until the year 2033. Work on the European scenarios has been aligned with and informed by the international work on the GER. A conceptual design of different Building Block Elements, representing critical contributions to international Design Reference Missions (DRM's) included in the ISECG GER, has been performed and analyzed with respect to programmatic risks, budgets and required technologies. Key driving requirements for the analyzed Building Block elements have been derived from the international DRM's included in the GER. The interim outcomes of the human

  4. The Efficacy of the Upright Position on Gastro-Esophageal Reflux and Reflux-Related Respiratory Symptoms in Infants With Chronic Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo Jin; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Min, Taek Ki; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Jun Sung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), particularly non-acid reflux, is common in infants and is a known cause of chronic respiratory symptoms in infancy. Recent guidelines recommended empirical acid suppression therapy and the head-up position in patients with suspected GER. However, the efficacy of the upright position in relieving GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants is unclear. We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of the upright position on GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms. Methods Thirty-two infants (21 male; median age, 5 months; range, 0 to 19 months) with unexplained chronic respiratory symptoms underwent multi-channel intraluminal esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. We retrospectively compared the frequencies of GER and reflux-related symptoms according to body position. Results A mean of 3.30 episodes of reflux per hour was detected. Overall, refluxes were more frequent during the postprandial period than the emptying period (3.77 vs. 2.79 episodes/hour, respectively; P=0.01). Although there was no significant difference in the total refluxes per hour between the upright and recumbent positions (6.12 vs. 3.77 episodes, P=0.10), reflux-related respiratory symptoms per reflux were significantly fewer in infants kept in an upright position than in a recumbent position during the postprandial period (3.07% vs. 14.75%, P=0.016). Non-acid reflux was the predominant type of reflux in infants, regardless of body position or meal time. Conclusions The upright position may reduce reflux-related respiratory symptoms, rather than reflux frequency. Thus, it may be a useful non-pharmacological treatment for infantile GER disease resistant to acid suppressants. PMID:22211166

  5. Comparison of host cell invasion and proliferation among Neospora caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and from clinical cases of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Dellarupe, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Jiménez-Ruiz, E; Schares, G; Unzaga, J M; Venturini, M C; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study we have shown that the in vitro invasion rate (IR) and tachyzoite yield (TY) are associated with the virulence phenotypes of Neospora caninum isolates of bovine origin. In addition, we recently observed marked differences in virulence when canine isolates were compared in a pregnant BALB/c mouse model. In this study, we investigated whether invasion and proliferation capacities could be used as virulence-related N. caninum phenotypic traits. Of the isolates compared in mice, four canine isolates obtained from oocysts (Nc-Ger2, Nc-Ger3, Nc-Ger-6, Nc-6 Arg) had shown a low-moderate virulence, and two further isolates obtained from dogs with neurological signs (Nc-Bahia, Nc-Liv) were highly virulent. The IR for each isolate was determined by a plaque assay and the counting of immunofluorescence-labeled parasitophorous vacuoles at 3 days post-inoculation (p.i.). The TY was determined by the quantification of tachyzoites at 56 h p.i. by real-time PCR. Most of the canine isolates showed similar IR values under controlled invasion conditions for 4h and 72 h p.i., indicating a limited time period for invasion similar to that observed for bovine isolates. The Nc-Ger3, Nc-Bahia, and Nc-Liv isolates showed a significantly higher IR and TY than the Nc-Ger2 and Nc-Ger6 isolates (P<0.0001). A correlation was found between the IRs and TY (ρ>0.885, P<0.033), as well as between the TY and both dam morbidity (ρ=0.8452, P<0.033) and pup mortality (ρ>0.8117, P<0.058) in mice. These results demonstrate the importance both the invasive and proliferative capacities have on the virulence of canine N. caninum isolates. PMID:25045851

  6. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Novel Concepts of Proton Pump Inhibitors as Antifibrotic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ghebre, Yohannes T; Raghu, Ganesh

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of abnormal acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) than in matched control subjects. Several studies demonstrated that more than one-third of patients with IPF have abnormal esophageal acid exposures. In addition, many of these studies indicate that the majority of patients with IPF have silent reflux with no symptoms of GER. Findings of abnormal reflux persist in a large proportion of patients with IPF placed on antacid therapy such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). This seemingly paradoxical observation suggests that either patients with IPF are somehow resistant to PPI-based intervention or PPIs are inherently unable to suppress acid GER. By contrast, patients with IPF who undergo Nissen fundoplication surgery are effectively relieved from the complications of GER, and retrospective studies suggest improved lung function. Retrospective, anecdotal data suggest a beneficial role of PPIs in IPF including stabilization of lung function, reduction in episodes of acute exacerbation, and enhanced longevity. The recent evidence-based guidelines for treatment of IPF approved conditional recommendation of PPIs for all patients with IPF regardless of their GER status. Recently, we have reported that PPIs possess antiinflammatory and antifibrotic activities by directly suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, profibrotic proteins, and proliferation of lung fibroblasts. Our study provides an alternative explanation for the beneficial effect of PPIs in IPF. In this Perspective, we reviewed emerging progress on antifibrotic effect of PPIs using IPF as a disease model. In addition, we summarized surgical and pharmacological interventions for GER and their downstream effect on lung physiology. PMID:27110898

  7. Use of a selection technique to identify the diversity of binding sites for the yeast RAP1 transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, I R; Chambers, A

    1994-01-01

    We have used the technique known as selected and amplified binding (SAAB) to isolate binding sites for the yeast transcription factor RAP1 from a degenerate pool of oligonucleotides. A total of 47 sequences were isolated, of which two were shown to be contaminating non-RAP1 binding sites. After excluding these two sequences the remainder of the sequences were used to derive a new consensus binding site for RAP1. The new consensus 5' A/G T A/G C A C C C A N N C C/A C C 3' is a significant extension of the existing consensus (4). It is longer by two base pairs at the 5' end and is significantly more constrained at the 3' end. An analysis of the combinations of mis-matches in individual SAAB sequences, compared to the consensus RAP1 binding site, has allowed us to analyse the structure of the RAP1 binding site in some detail. The binding site can be sub-divided into three regions; a core binding site, a 5' flanking region and a 3' flanking region. The core binding site, consisting of the sequence 5'CACCCA3', is critical for recognition by RAP1. The less conserved flanking regions are not as important. Interactions between RAP1 and these regions probably stabilise the interaction between RAP1 and the core binding site. Each of the sequences isolated in the SAAB analysis was used to search release 78 of the EMBL+GenBank DNA data base. The searches identified 102 potential binding sites for RAP1 within promoters of yeast genes. Images PMID:8121795

  8. Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) inoceramid bivalves of the genus Mytiloides from the Sredna Gora Mountains, north-western Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochev, Docho

    2015-03-01

    The inoceramid bivalves of the genus Mytiloides, from the Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Sredna Gora Mts (north-western Bulgaria), are studied. The material comes from three sections: Izvor, Filipovtsi, and Vrabchov dol. Eight species are described taxonomically, with one left in open nomenclature: M. cf. mytiloides (Mantell, 1822), M. mytiloidiformis (Tröger, 1967), M. incertus (Jimbo, 1894), M. scupini (Heinz, 1930), M. herbichi (Atabekian, 1969), M. striatoconcentricus (Gümbel, 1868), M. labiatoidiformis (Tröger, 1967) and M. carpathicus (Simionescu, 1899). Mytiloides incertus and Mytiloides scupini are index species for the eponymous Upper Turonian inoceramid biozones.

  9. Activities of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration supporting the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-08-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) is driven by several goals and objectives that include space science, the search for life as well as preparatory science activities to enable human space exploration. The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), through its Commissions and Panels provides an international forum that supports and promotes space exploration worldwide. COSPAR's Panel on Exploration (PEX) investigates a stepwise approach of preparatory research on Earth and in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to facilitate a future global space exploration program. We summarize recent activities and workshops of PEX in support of the GER.

  10. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  11. [How to deal with gastroesophageal reflux in childhood].

    PubMed

    Schuler Barazzoni, M; Belli, D C; Schäppi, M

    2006-02-22

    Gastroesophageal reflux is frequent source of consultation at the paediatrician's room, although most GER resolve spontaneously in infancy. In most cases, after a thorough anamnesis and a full physical examination prokinetic and anti-acid medications are started, as well as postural change, without the assistance of a specialist. When reflux is complicated by either oesophagitis, respiratory symptoms, failure to thrive or when the above treatment fail, further investigations need to be undertaken. Their option will depend on the clinical presentation. Rarely GER will lead to surgery. PMID:16562534

  12. Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, George; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This document is the final report for the project entitled "Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software." This report consists of 17 sections which document the results of the several subtasks of this effort. The Probabilistic NAS Platform (PNP) is an air operations simulation platform developed and maintained by the Saab Sensis Corporation. The improvements made to the PNP simulation include the following: an airborne distributed separation assurance capability, a required time of arrival assignment and conformance capability, and a tactical and strategic weather avoidance capability.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with nonacid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough, and chronic cough due to GER represents a subtype of GER-related diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) can be divided into two subgroups based on the pH of the GER. Nonacid GERC is less common than acid GERC, and its diagnosis and treatment strategy have not been standardized. However, nonacid GERC usually presents with its unique set of characteristics and features upon diagnosis and treatment in the clinic. Although the underlying molecular mechanism of nonacid GERC is not fully understood, it is considered to be associated with reflux theory, reflex theory and airway hypersensitivity. Multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring is a promising new technique that can detect both acid and nonacid reflux, and our findings as well as those of others have shown its usefulness in diagnosing nonacid GERC. Development of new diagnostic techniques has led to an increased rate of nonacid GERC diagnosis. We summarize our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of nonacid GERC and provide a guide for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:26759577

  14. A Different Kind of Science for the Non-Science Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarra, Hector

    This paper reports on a small scale study undertaken at the University of Iowa to examine whether students perceive a difference as to the value of learning in General Education Requirement (GER) science classes compared to learning in science application courses. It also explores the need for a different approach to the teaching of science…

  15. Genetic enhancement of cold tolerance to overcome a major limitation in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season cold tolerance during stand establishment at cool soil temperature of 54ºF to 59ºF (12 ºC to 15ºC) is a key agronomic trait for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]), lacks cold tolerance and is adversely affected by cool temperatures during ger...

  16. Feeding and Reflux: A Parent & Professional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, William J.; Martorana, Pamela; Vitello, Louise; Eicher, Peggy S.; LaCour, Tricia

    2008-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as a cause of an infant or child's refusal to eat is becoming better recognized. However, the many more subtle influences that reflux can have on feeding are less often recognized. Although vomiting after meals is the classic presentation, infants and children may present with a variety of more subtle symptoms less…

  17. INTERSPECIFIC CHROMOSOME SUBSTITUTION LINES IN UPLAND COTTON IMPROVEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of Upland cotton, the genetic base of US cultivars and elite germplasm is very narrow. Two of the primary impediments to genetic improvement of cotton are: 1) insufficient information about genes that control important traits and 2) under-utilization of diverse ger...

  18. Planungswerkzeuge für Energieeffiziente Gebäude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dirk

    In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland entfallen rund 30% des Endenergiebedarfs alleine auf die Wärmeversorgung von Gebäuden [1]. Der Hauptanteil dieser Endenergie wird für die Beheizung von Wohngebäuden verwendet, wobei insbesondere Gas und Heizöl als Primärenergieträger eingesetzt werden.

  19. Effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on gastro-esophageal reflux in mechanically-ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Douzinas, Emmanuel E; Tsapalos, Andreas; Dimitrakopoulos, Antonios; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Rapidis, Alexandros D; Roussos, Charis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in mechanically-ventilated patients. METHODS : In a prospective, randomized, controlled study 36 patients with recurrent or persistent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and GER > 6% were divided into PEG group (n = 16) or non-PEG group (n  = 20). Another 11 ventilated patients without reflux (GER < 3%) served as control group. Esophageal pH-metry was performed by the “pull through” method at baseline, 2 and 7 d after PEG. Patients were strictly followed up for semi-recumbent position and control of gastric nutrient residue. RESULTS: A significant decrease of median (range) reflux was observed in PEG group from 7.8 (6.2 - 15.6) at baseline to 2.7 (0 - 10.4) on d 7 post-gastrostomy (P < 0.01), while the reflux increased from 9 (6.2 - 22) to 10.8 (6.3 - 36.6) (P < 0.01) in non-PEG group. A significant correlation between GER (%) and the stay of nasogastric tube was detected (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Gastrostomy when combined with semi-recumbent position and absence of nutrient gastric residue reduces the gastroesophageal reflux in ventilated patients. PMID:16440428

  20. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Critically Ill Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Solana García, Maria José; López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Sánchez Sánchez, César

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in children due to immaturity of the antireflux barrier. In critically ill patients there is also a high incidence due to a partial or complete loss of pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter though other factors, such as the use of nasogastric tubes, treatment with adrenergic agonists, bronchodilators, or opiates and mechanical ventilation, can further increase the risk of GER. Vomiting and regurgitation are the most common manifestations in infants and are considered pathological when they have repercussions on the nutritional status. In critically ill children, damage to the esophageal mucosa predisposes to digestive tract hemorrhage and nosocomial pneumonia secondary to repeated microaspiration. GER is mainly alkaline in children, as is also the case in critically ill pediatric patients. pH-metry combined with multichannel intraluminal impedance is therefore the technique of choice for diagnosis. The proton pump inhibitors are the drugs of choice for the treatment of GER because they have a greater effect, longer duration of action, and a good safety profile. PMID:23431462

  1. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  2. Insights into Evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Complete Genome Sequence of Closely Related O55:H7 Precursor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In spite of this, only two EPEC genomes have been fully sequenced: the typical, model EPEC strain E2348/69 (O127:H6), and the contemporary, atypical EPEC strain CB9615 (O55:H7, Ger...

  3. Improvement of crop protection against greenbug using the worldwide sorghum germplasm collection and genomics-based approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful development of new sorghum cultivars and hybrids to ensure sustainable production depends largely on the availability of genetic resources with desirable traits such as pest resistance. Our recent research has focused on improvement of crop protection against greenbug using worldwide ger...

  4. Opting for Migration: Is It Just an Economic Necessity?--A Comparison between German and Polish Highly Skilled Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alexandra; Barwinska-Malajowicz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the migration motives of German and Polish final semester students and university graduates in the partner cities of Bielefeld (GER) and Rzeszów (PL), who are on the threshold of their professional careers. The survey presented here was motivated by the question: are the current migration motives of highly-skilled graduates…

  5. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  6. [Gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Larrosa Haro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Physiological gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus and occurs up 2/3 of normal infants; and, it resolves spontaneously around 9-12 months of age. When GER causes symptoms or complications is considered gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and it is associated to growth impairment, anemia, apnea, wheezing or other chronic respiratory symptoms, asthma, recurrent pneumonia or sleeping problems. Diagnosis of GERD implies studies as upper gastrointestinal series, upper endoscopy and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring; special cases may require motility and nuclear medicine studies. GER may be successfully treated with prone elevated position (30-45 degrees), shortening the feeding intervals to 3 h and anti-GER high-viscosity formulas. The regular use of prokinetic drugs is not recommended. The efficacy of proton pump inhibitors and H2 histamine receptor antagonists in the treatment of GERD has been demonstrated in children by diminishing de acid secretion of parietal cells, lowering the gastric contents and decreasing its ability to cause peptic-acid damage to the esophagus or to the respiratory tract. Surgical treatment is indicated in chronic recurrent GERD, usually in children 5 years or older with dependent proton pump inhibitor erosive esophagitis, chronic respiratory disease and in risk-selected cases. PMID:22352129

  7. Validation of molecular markers for resistance among Pakistani chickpea germplasm to races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers in chickpea have been identified against different races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris (Foc), but validation of these markers is essential for their effective use in resistant breeding. In view of this, different simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were analysed in Pakistani ger...

  8. Identification of candidate genes associated with signaling networks regulated by the Q gene in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Q gene of wheat is a member of the AP2 class of transcription factors and has been shown to influence numerous morphological and domestication-related characters including plant height, days to heading, and leaf, spike, and seed morphology. Here, we show that Q-disrupted mutants have delayed ger...

  9. Photoinitiated mediated transport of H3O+ and/or OH- across glycerol monooleate bilayers doped with magnesium octaethylporphyrin.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R C; Feldberg, S W

    1979-01-01

    Photogenerated magnesium octaethylporphyrin cation in glycerol monooleate bilayers is shown to mediate the transport of H3O+ and/or OH-. Data from voltage clamp and open-circuit experiments are consistent with the classic Markin or Laüger carrier model. Photoinitiated currents exhibit the expected transient and steady-state behavior. PMID:262434

  10. Watching for Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the age of 3 to 5 years. Gastroesophageal Reflux A condition known as gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs when the opening at the entrance ... that causes the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to work harder than they should, positioning an infant on ...

  11. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  12. Effect of temperature and water availability during late maturation of the soybean seed on germ and cotyledon isoflavone content and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein), which have been associated with many positive human health effects. Seed isoflavone content is strongly influenced by both environment and genotype. The isoflavone concentration and composition of the soybean seed ger...

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill children: a review.

    PubMed

    Solana García, Maria José; López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Sánchez Sánchez, César

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in children due to immaturity of the antireflux barrier. In critically ill patients there is also a high incidence due to a partial or complete loss of pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter though other factors, such as the use of nasogastric tubes, treatment with adrenergic agonists, bronchodilators, or opiates and mechanical ventilation, can further increase the risk of GER. Vomiting and regurgitation are the most common manifestations in infants and are considered pathological when they have repercussions on the nutritional status. In critically ill children, damage to the esophageal mucosa predisposes to digestive tract hemorrhage and nosocomial pneumonia secondary to repeated microaspiration. GER is mainly alkaline in children, as is also the case in critically ill pediatric patients. pH-metry combined with multichannel intraluminal impedance is therefore the technique of choice for diagnosis. The proton pump inhibitors are the drugs of choice for the treatment of GER because they have a greater effect, longer duration of action, and a good safety profile. PMID:23431462

  14. The Program of Gene Transcription for a Single Differentiating Cell Type during Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric division during sporulation by Bacillus subtilis generates a mother cell that undergoes a 5-h program of differentiation. The program is governed by a hierarchical cascade consisting of the transcription factors: σE, σK, GerE, GerR, and SpoIIID. The program consists of the activation and repression of 383 genes. The σE factor turns on 262 genes, including those for GerR and SpoIIID. These DNA-binding proteins downregulate almost half of the genes in the σE regulon. In addition, SpoIIID turns on ten genes, including genes involved in the appearance of σK. Next, σK activates 75 additional genes, including that for GerE. This DNA-binding protein, in turn, represses half of the genes that had been activated by σK while switching on a final set of 36 genes. Evidence is presented that repression and activation contribute to proper morphogenesis. The program of gene expression is driven forward by its hierarchical organization and by the repressive effects of the DNA-binding proteins. The logic of the program is that of a linked series of feed-forward loops, which generate successive pulses of gene transcription. Similar regulatory circuits could be a common feature of other systems of cellular differentiation. PMID:15383836

  15. Continuing the International Roadmapping Effort - An Introduction to the Evolution of the ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlutz, Juergen; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Laurini, Kathy; Spiero, Francois

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As ISECG agencies advance their individual planning, they also advance the mission themes and reference architecture of the GER to consolidate common goals, near-term mission scenarios and initial opportunities for collaboration. In this context, particular focus has been given to the Better understanding and further refinement of cislunar infrastructure and potential lunar transportation architecture Interaction with international science communities to identify and articulate the scientific opportunities of the near-term exploration mission themes Coordination and consolidation of interest in lunar polar volatiles prospecting and potential for in-situ resource utilisation Identification and articulation of the benefits from exploration and the technology transfer activities The paper discusses the ongoing roadmapping activity of the ISECG agencies. It provides an insight into the status of the above activities and an outlook towards the evolution of the GER that is currently foreseen in the 2017 timeframe.

  16. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  17. The Length of the Barrett's Mucosa in Baboons, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    RUBIO, CARLOS A.; NILSSON, JOHN R.; OWSTON, MICHAEL; DICK, EDWARD J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chewing of regurgitated food with rumination elicits, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in baboons. Protracted reflux transforms the distal multilayered squamous cell-lined epithelium into columnar-lined mucosa, with mucus-producing glands having interspersed oxyntic glands. In humans, this histological constellation is called Barrett's mucosa type 2 (BMT2). Materials and Methods The distal esophagus together with the proximal stomach was removed en bloc, at autopsy, from 35 adult baboons. Longitudinal sections were stained with toluidine blue, a stain that permits easy discrimination between parietal and chief gastric glands. Using a calibrated ocular scale, the length of the BMT2 was assessed in all 35 baboons. Results The mean length of the BMT2 was 9.80 mm (range 1.0 mm–40.2 mm). Conclusion BMT2 in baboons is an integrated part of the natural phenomenon of mucosal adaptation to daily regurgitation of gastric acid into the distal esophagus (natural GER), whereas BMT2 in humans might reflect an evolutionary atavism in the esophagus, triggered by a non-physiological disorder (pathological GER). The baboon offers a suitable model to monitor the series of histological events that take place in the distal esophagus under the influence of protracted GER. PMID:22843881

  18. SULFUR CYCLING IN THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quarles, Robert L., Jessica A. Rivord and Richard Devereux. In press. Sulfur Cycling in Thalassia testudinum Seagrass Bed Sediments (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and S...

  19. Raspberry Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...

  20. Orange Rust Effects on Leaf Photosynthesis and Related Characters of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids), caused by Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, is a relatively new disease in the Western Hemisphere that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane genotypes. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological mechanisms...

  1. Conservation of fern spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

  2. HABITAT ASSESSMENT USING A RANDOM PROBABILITY BASED SAMPLING DESIGN: ESCAMBIA RIVER DELTA, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smith, Lisa M., Darrin D. Dantin and Steve Jordan. In press. Habitat Assessment Using a Random Probability Based Sampling Design: Escambia River Delta, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems...

  3. DAILY MORTALITY AND FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICLES IN ERFURT, GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr H-Erich Wichmann and colleagues at the National Research Center for Environment and Health (GSF) in Neuherberg, Germany, prospec-tively studied the association of daily mortality data with the number and mass concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles in Erfurt, Ger...

  4. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIONS IN THE U.S. PEANUT MINI-CORE COLLECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain not only a high percentage of oil (49%) with high oleate but also a high percentage of protein (25%) and nutritious phytochemicals (such as flavonoids and resveratrol). Therefore, peanut is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. The U.S. Peanut ger...

  5. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust, Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, is an important disease of sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) that causes yield losses, and impacts breeding programs. Initially confined to the Asia-Oceania region (5), P. kuehnii was reported in Florida in June 2007 (2) and lat...

  6. Schooling for All in South Africa: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, Jennifer; Fleisch, Brahm

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that South Africa has achieved universal basic education. Through an analysis of the 2001 census and two national enrolment datasets rather than statistical projections, this study re-examines this assumption and provides new estimates of enrolment levels in primary, basic and secondary education. Using GER, NER, and…

  7. Diversity of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on French cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley and Gibberella ear rot (GER) on maize, and harvested grains often are contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that are a major health and food safety concern...

  8. Use of renewable sources of energy in Mexico case: San Antonio Agua Bendita

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Vera, J. )

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a project undertaken in Mexico to electrify the remote village of San Antonio Agua Bendita (SAAB) using a custom designed hybrid power system. The hybrid power system will provide grid quality electricity to this community which would otherwise not have been electrified via traditional distribution lines. The hybrid power system was designed to electrify the entire community, incorporate multiple sources of renewable power with on-demand power, operate autonomously, and be cost effective in dollars per watt of electricity generated over the system's usable life. A major factor in the success of this project is the use of renewable energy for economic development and community partnership. Many rural electrification projects have provided power for domestic use but few have successfully provided power to improve the economic condition of the people served by the system. The SAAB hybrid avoids this pitfall by providing 120 VAC power at 60 Hz to anticipated industrial loads in the village, as well as providing grid quality power for domestic use.

  9. Acoustic design criteria in a general system for structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brama, Torsten

    1990-01-01

    Passenger comfort is of great importance in most transport vehicles. For instance, in the new generation of regional turboprop aircraft, a low noise level is vital to be competitive on the market. The possibilities to predict noise levels analytically has improved rapidly in recent years. This will make it possible to take acoustic design criteria into account in early project stages. The development of the ASKA FE-system to include also acoustic analysis has been carried out at Saab Aircraft Division and the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden in a joint project. New finite elements have been developed to model the free fluid, porous damping materials, and the interaction between the fluid and structural degrees of freedom. The FE approach to the acoustic analysis is best suited for lower frequencies up to a few hundred Hz. For accurate analysis of interior cabin noise, large 3-D FE-models are built, but 2-D models are also considered to be useful for parametric studies and optimization. The interest is here focused on the introduction of an acoustic design criteria in the general structural optimization system OPTSYS available at the Saab Aircraft Division. The first implementation addresses a somewhat limited class of problems. The problems solved are formulated: Minimize the structural weight by modifying the dimensions of the structure while keeping the noise level in the cavity and other structural design criteria within specified limits.

  10. On wave radar measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.

  11. QWIP at Acreo in Sweden: not only a nightvision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Bernhard; Andersson, Jan Y.; Alverbro, Jorgen; Halldin, Urban; Malm, Hedda; Martijn, Henk H.; Nordahl, Charlotte; Norden, Ulrika

    2003-01-01

    Acreo in Sweden has been invovled in Quantum Well IR Photodetector (QWIP) reserach and development since 1986. During the first years a small group led by Jan Andersson was dedicated to research on QWIP structures and means of coupling radiation into the quantum-well structure. One of the resarech results is a 2D optical grating couler to create an optimal elecgtric field pattern for highest possible absorption and responsivity. Acreo holds a patent for this grating coupler. Since 1988 FLIR Systems, later FMV, Saab Dynamics, Celsius Tech and NUTEK have sponsoered an R and D project with the goal to develop QWIP detectors and start up production. Soon it became clear that an adapted ROIC deisng and the hybridization of the focal plane array are key issues in order to achieve the highest possible performance and operability of the complete detector device for voluem production. Extended measures where taken in 1996. In 1997 the industrial interest increased further, ClesiusTech and Saab Dynamics, merged in 2000, and now a division of FLIR Systems AB started to sponsor the R and D project. Because of its success during the last years it has now been expanded and scheduled until 2003 and beyond. Volume production of QWIP FPAs started in 2000.

  12. The ISECG Science White Paper - A Scientific Perspective on the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, David B.; Worms, Jean-Claude; Spiero, Francois; Schlutz, Juergen; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As an element of this continued road mapping effort, the ISECG agencies are therefore soliciting input and coordinated discussion with the scientific community to better articulate and promote the scientific opportunities of the proposed mission themes. An improved understanding of the scientific drivers and the requirements to address priority science questions associated with the exploration destinations (Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, Mars and its moons) as well as the preparatory activities in cis-lunar space is beneficial to optimize the partnership of robotic assets and human presence beyond low Earth orbit. The interaction has resulted in the development of a Science White Paper to: • Identify and highlight the scientific opportunities in early exploration missions as the GER reference architecture matures, • Communicate overarching science themes and their relevance in the GER destinations, • Ensure international science communities' perspectives inform the future evolution of mission concepts considered in the GER The paper aims to capture the opportunities offered by the missions in the GER for a broad range of scientific disciplines. These include planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and Earth science. The paper is structured around grand science themes that draw together and connect research in the various disciplines, and it will focus on

  13. Carbon isotopes as indicators of peatland growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alewell, Christine; Krüger, Jan Paul; von Sengbusch, Pascal; Szidat, Sönke; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    As undisturbed and/or growing peatlands store considerable amounts of carbon and are unique in their biodiversity and species assemblage, the knowledge of the current status of peatlands (growing with carbon sequestration, stagnating or degrading with carbon emissions) is crucial for landscape management and nature conservation. However, monitoring of peatland status requires long term measurements and is only feasible with expert knowledge. The latter determination is increasingly impeded in a scientific world, where taxonomic expert knowledge and funding of long term monitoring is rare. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes depth profiles in peatland soils have been shown to be a useful tool to monitor the degradation of peatlands due to permafrost thawing in Northern Sweden (Alewell et al., 2011; Krüger et al., 2014), drainage in Southern Finland (Krüger et al., 2016) as well as land use intensification in Northern Germany (Krüger et al., 2015). Here, we tackle the questions if we are able to differentiate between growing and degrading peats with the use of a combination of carbon stable (δ13C) and radiogenic isotope data (14C) with peat stratification information (degree of humification and macroscopic plant remains). Results indicate that isotope data are a useful tool to approximate peatland status, but that expert taxonomic knowledge will be needed for the final conclusion on peatland growth. Thus, isotope tools might be used for landscape screening to pin point sites for detailed taxonomic monitoring. As the method remains qualitative future research at these sites will need to integrate quantitative approaches to determine carbon loss or gain (soil C balances by ash content or C accumulation methods by radiocarbon data; Krüger et al., 2016). Alewell, C., R. Giesler, J. Klaminder, J. Leifeld, and M. Rollog. 2011. Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats. Biogeosciences, 8, 1769-1778. Krüger, J. P., Leifeld, J

  14. Cough and reflux esophagitis in children: their co-existence and airway cellularity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne B; Cox, Nancy C; Faoagali, Joan; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; Beem, Christopher; Ee, Looi C; Withers, Geoffrey D; Patrick, Mark K; Lewindon, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Background There are no prospective studies that have examined for chronic cough in children without lung disease but with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). In otherwise healthy children undergoing flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (esophago-gastroscopy), the aims of the study were to (1) define the frequency of cough in relation to symptoms of GER, (2) examine if children with cough and reflux esophagitis (RE) have different airway cellularity and microbiology in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) when compared to those without. Methods Data specific for chronic cough (>4-weeks), symptoms of GER and cough severity were collected. Children aged <16-years (n = 150) were defined as 'coughers' (C+) if a history of cough in association with their GER symptoms was elicited before BAL were obtained during elective esophago-gastroscopy. Presence of esophagitis on esophageal biopsies was considered reflux esophagitis positive (E+). Results C+ (n = 69) were just as likely as C- (n = 81) to have esophagitis, odds ratio 0.87 (95%CI 0.46, 1.7). Median neutrophil percentage in BAL was significantly different between groups; highest in C+E- (7, IQR 28) and lowest in C-E+ (5, IQR 6). BAL positive bacterial culture occurred in 20.7% and were more likely present in current coughers (OR 3.37, 95%CI 1.39, 8.08). Airway neutrophilia (median 20%, IQR 34) was significantly higher in those with BAL positive bacterial cultures than those without (5%, 4; p = 0.0001). Conclusion In children without lung disease, the common co-existence of cough with symptoms of GER is independent of the occurrence of esophagitis. Airway neutrophilia when present in these children is more likely to be related to airway bacterial infection and not to esophagitis. PMID:16504152

  15. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population. PMID:27068927

  16. Insulin Pump and CGM Usage in the United States and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Weber, Dietmar; Faber-Heinemann, Gabriele; Heinemann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Background: This survey collected and evaluated user responses about routine tasks and preferences regarding insulin pumps and infusion sets (IIS) with comparison of intercountry differences between the United States (US) and Germany (GER), chosen for their large insulin pump populations. Methods: A total of 985 subjects (534 US, 451 GER; 60% female) with type 1 diabetes on pump therapy anonymously answered 20 pump-related questions. US subjects also answered 11 questions about continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) usage. Results: Length of use of insulin cartridges is shorter in US than in GER, mean (SD) 4.3 (5.0) versus 5.3 (3.2) days (P < .001), while the IIS is used longer: 3.3 (1.0) versus 2.7 (1.1) days (P < .001). Lower self-reported HbA1c levels were associated with longer use of insulin cartridges (7.3% for >3 days vs 7.7% for <3 days; P < .01), and with use of an auto-insertion device (vs manual IIS insertion) in the US (7.2% vs 6.9%), but not in GER (7.7% vs 7.9%). Only 47% of pump wearers stated that they were “very satisfied” with their pump (49% US vs 45% GER, ns). However, 98% would recommend the pump to others (95% vs 93%, ns). Analysis of CGM questions showed that 297 (60%) of 496 US responders currently wore one. Of these, 84% said they would recommend CGM to others. CGM wearers who stated they were “very satisfied” with their CGM had lower HbA1c than those who said they were “partly satisfied” (6.9% vs 7.2%). Conclusions: This survey shows interesting differences in real-world use of insulin pumps in 2 large markets, and suggests areas where insulin pumps and CGMs might be improved. PMID:26071425

  17. Comparison of attitudes of non-science major students toward science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, Donald Gary

    This study examines the attitudes of non-science major students who were enrolled in General Education Required (GER) science courses at three diverse Iowa post-secondary educational institutions: The University of Iowa, Cornell College, and Kirkwood Community College. The information was gathered using a survey instrument with the test subjects responding with a five-part Likert-scale to a series of statements regarding: (1) reasons for taking the science course, (2) views and attitudes toward science, and (3) the nature and implications of science and technology. The initial data gathered was analyzed using either chi-squared, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and/or Bonferroni tests. Responses to grouped statements were used to generate population indices related to: (1) experience, (2) attitude, (3) experimentation, and (4) technology. These indices were analyzed for statistically significant differences using Tukey's Studentized (HSD) and Tukey-Krammer tests. Statistically significant differences were found in the response means for some individual statements. When a population index was calculated for each school using the grouped responses related to attitude, experience, science/technology, multiple comparison testing determined significant differences with regards to attitude, experiences, and science/technology. No significant differences were found between the schools for the population index regarding experimentation. Demographic information gathered concerning the nature of the student populations included: (1) declared major, (2) classification, (3) previous number of science courses, (4) gender, and (5) use of computers for the science course. Analysis of demographic data also revealed statistically significant differences. The differences found in this study provide additional quantitative data to characterize the non-science major student. Recommendations based on this data are: (1) The University of Iowa strive for smaller GER class sizes and

  18. Correlation between gastric acid secretion and severity of acid reflux in children.

    PubMed

    Kalach, Nicolas; Badran, Abdul Monem; Jaffray, Patrick; Campeotto, Florence; Benhamou, Pierre Henri; Dupont, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to systematically evaluate gastric acid output in children with long-lasting gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) in order to assess its mechanism and the need for anti-acid treatment. The investigation was carried out in 20 males and 10 females, aged 7.5 +/- 3.8 years, with prolonged (>15 months) clinical manifestations of GER. All underwent routine ambulatory 24-h esophageal pH-monitoring and measurement of gastric acid secretion including gastric basal (BAO) (micromol/kg/h), maximal (MAO) and peak acid outputs (PAO) after pentagastrin (6 microg/kg sec) stimulation. Children with heartburn or abdominal pain underwent upper fiber-endoscopy. In group A (moderate GER, n=12), patients had a normal reflux index (pH<4 below 5.2% of total recording time) despite abnormal Euler and Byrne scoring (median 57, 95% confidence interval 53.5-73.4). In group B (severe GER, n=18, among whom 5 were with grade III esophagitis), reflux index was >5.2%. When considering all children, esophageal pH (%) was significantly correlated with MAO and PAO, r=0.33, p=0.05 and r=0.37, p=0.04, respectively. Children of group B exhibited significantly higher BAO (75, 53.96-137.81), MAO (468, 394.1-671.3) and PAO (617, 518.8-782.3) than those of group A, BAO (27, 10.8-38.5), MAO (266, 243.2-348.2) and PAO (387, 322.5-452.7), p<0.05). The five children of group B with severe esophagitis exhibited significantly higher BAO, MAO and PAO than the other 13 children from the same group and those of group A, p<0.05. Children with long-lasting and severe GER hyper-secrete gastric acid. Individual variations in gastric acid secretion probably account for variations in gastric acid inhibitor requirements. Anti-secretory treatment is justified in children with long-lasting GER and high pH-metric reflux index. PMID:12718363

  19. Ferenczi's collaboration with rank: on paradigm shift and the origins of complementarity in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Peter T

    2008-06-01

    The publication in 1923 of Sigmund Freud's The Ego and the Id is generally recognized as a watershed event in the history of psychoanalysis. The following year Ferenczi and Rank jointly published a book on psychoanalytic technique, The Development of Psychoanalysis (Ger: Entwicklungsziele der Psychoanalyse), concurrently with the independent publication of Ferenczi's Thalassa: A Theory of Genitality (Ger: Versuch einer Genitaltheorie) and Rank's The Trauma of Birth, the latter of which sparked a storm of controversy within the psychoanalytic community. The ensuing debate over technical and theoretical issues raised in these works signaled the emergence of two rival paradigms (following the model described by Thomas Kuhn) in psychoanalytic technique, the one based on ego psychology and drive-dynamics, the other on preoedipal ego development and object relations, which, when viewed from a present-day vantage point, may be considered complementary. The current crisis in psychoanalysis represents a continuation of this not yet completed paradigm shift. PMID:18509367

  20. Metabolomics to Decipher the Chemical Defense of Cereals against Fusarium graminearum and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Léa; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Chéreau, Sylvain; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Gibberella ear rot (GER), two devastating diseases of wheat, barley, and maize. Furthermore, F. graminearum species can produce type B trichothecene mycotoxins that accumulate in grains. Use of FHB and GER resistant cultivars is one of the most promising strategies to reduce damage induced by F. graminearum. Combined with genetic approaches, metabolomic ones can provide powerful opportunities for plant breeding through the identification of resistant biomarker metabolites which have the advantage of integrating the genetic background and the influence of the environment. In the past decade, several metabolomics attempts have been made to decipher the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum. By covering the major classes of metabolites that have been highlighted and addressing their potential role, this review demonstrates the complex and integrated network of events that cereals can orchestrate to resist to F. graminearum. PMID:26492237

  1. Comments on energy confinement in non-periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, S. N. J.; Balthazar, J. M.; Brasil, R. M. L. R. F.

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the possibility of mode localization occurrence in a non-periodic Pflüger's column model of a rocket with an intermediate concentrated mass at its middle point. We discuss the effects of varying the intermediate mass magnitude and its position and the resulting energy confinement for two cases. Free vibration analysis and the severity of mode localization are appraised, without decoupling the system, by considering as a solution basis the fundamental free response or dynamical solution. This allows for the reduction of the dimension of the algebraic modal equation that arises from satisfying the boundary and continuity conditions. By using the same methodology, we also consider the case of a cantilevered Plüger's column with rotational stiffness at the middle support instead of an intermediate concentrated mass.

  2. Respiratory Pathogens Adopt a Chronic Lifestyle in Response to Bile

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Woods, David F.; Mooij, Marlies J.; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, most particularly in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The recent finding that gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) frequently occurs in CF patients led us to investigate the impact of bile on the behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other CF-associated respiratory pathogens. Bile increased biofilm formation, Type Six Secretion, and quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa, all of which are associated with the switch from acute to persistent infection. Furthermore, bile negatively influenced Type Three Secretion and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa, phenotypes associated with acute infection. Bile also modulated biofilm formation in a range of other CF-associated respiratory pathogens, including Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, our results suggest that GER-derived bile may be a host determinant contributing to chronic respiratory infection. PMID:23049911

  3. Hiatus/paraesophageal hernias in neonatal Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parida, S K; Kriss, V M; Hall, B D

    1997-10-17

    We report on an infant with neonatal Marfan syndrome (NMS) and hiatus/paraesophageal hernia who presented to a university hospital with an unusual early complication of this connective tissue disorder. An abnormal course of the nasogastric tube was noted on the first day of life by a radiograph of the chest and abdomen performed for bloody gastric drainage. The question of esophageal perforation was raised. Subsequent contrast study demonstrated a large hiatus/paraesophageal hernia with pronounced gastroesophageal reflux (GER). A part of the hernia was positioned posterior and to the right of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), presumably the location of the nasogastric tube as noted on the initial films. Although characterized by cardiac/aortic abnormalities, NMS can be a difficult diagnosis and should be considered in any infant with hiatus/ paraesophageal hernia with or without GER. PMID:9382135

  4. First description of the male Hoedillus sexpunctatus Simon, 1898; a redescription of the female, and transfer of Hoedillus to Zoropsidae Bertkau, 1882 (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Leister, Matthew; Miller, Kelly B

    2016-01-01

    Hoedillus sexpunctatus Simon, 1898 was described from a single female specimen collected in Guatemala and is the type species of the monotypic genus Hoedillus Simon, 1898. This genus was originally placed in the family Sparassidae Bertkau, 1872, subfamily Heteropodinae Thorell, 1873. In a review of this subfamily, Jäger (2002) determined that Hoedillus was misplaced in Sparassidae due to the lack of metatarsal trilobate membranes. Hoedillus was transferred to the family Zoridae Pickard-Cambridge, 1893 by Jäger (2002), now a junior synonym of Miturgidae Simon, 1886 (Ramírez 2014). Ramírez (2014), suggested Hoedillus may be a member of the Xenoctenus group, but provisionally listed it as a Miturgidae, awaiting further investigation. PMID:27394835

  5. Functional characterization of germin and germin-like protein genes in various plant species using transgenic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Rasheed, Awais; Mahmood, Tariq

    2016-09-01

    The important role of germins (GER) and genes coding for germin-like proteins (GLP) in responses against various stresses in both homologous and heterologous systems is well validated. This review summarizes the work on their functional validation using various biotechnological approaches. The genes are widely expressed during a specific period of plant growth and development, and exhibit a pattern of evolutionary subfunctionalization at both the intracellular and whole plant level. Their applications against various biotic and abiotic stresses, especially against fungal pathogens, are enormous. Although the validation of these proteins against various stresses has led to the development of commercially and agronomically important transgenic plants, much work is still needed to exploit this ever-expanding repertoire of genes and deploy them for commercial use. Historical progress of genetic engineering in GERs and GLPs is reviewed, and future prospects for their potential role in crop improvement are highlighted. PMID:27230937

  6. Editorial: Reflux While Running: Something to Belch About.

    PubMed

    Carlson, D A; Hirano, I

    2016-07-01

    Running is the most popular form of exercise in the United States. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common during exercise and may affect performance. Previous studies have focused on increased intra-abdominal pressure as a major determinant of acid reflux during physical exertion. In this issue, Herregods et al. examined the mechanisms of GER in healthy volunteers using simultaneous high-resolution manometry and pH impedance testing performed while running. Novel observations afforded by the utilization of state-of-the-art technology include the importance of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation ("belch reflex") and transient formation of hiatal hernia during exercise. The findings are provocative and lend credence to commonsense strategies to minimize the consequences of belching in runners. PMID:27356820

  7. Wie viel Schwermetall ist im Trinkwasser?: Optische Spektroskopie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehus, Christina; Trull, Thomas; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter; Vollmer, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Die moderne optische Spektroskopie kann geringste Substanzmengen nachweisen. Für schnelle Routinemessungen reichen konventionelle Zweistrahl-Spektralphotometer. Eine wesentlich höhere Nachweisempfindlichkeit im ppm- oder sogar ppb-Bereich ermöglichen das Atomabsorptions-Spektrometer (AAS) und das Fourier-Transformations-Infrarot-Spektrometer (FTIR). Ein AAS atomisiert die Probe vollständig und weist dann einzelne Elemente nach. Deshalb ist es zum Beispiel für die Schwermetall-Analyse geeignet. Bei der Analyse von Molekülen dominieren heute FTIR-Geräte. Ihr Herzstück ist meist ein Michelson-Interferometer. Zusammen mit schnellen Fourier-Algorithmen erlaubt es, sehr schnell breite Spektren aufzunehmen. Stationäre und mobile FTIR-Geräte können vielfältig eingesetzt werden.

  8. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Zhiqi; Heron, John; Clarkson, James; Hong, Jeongmin; Ko, Changhyun; Biegalski, Michael; Aschauer, Ulrich; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Nowakowski, Mark; Wu, Junqiao; Christen, Hans; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Bokor, Jeffrey; Spaldin, Nicola; Schlom, Darrell; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a ``giant'' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities, and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behavior is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites, and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  9. [Barrett's esophagus in children].

    PubMed

    Ida, Shinobu

    2005-08-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a condition of esophageal dysplasia in which the tubular esophagus is lined with columnar instead of squamous mucosa--not with just any type of columnar mucosa, but with a specialized type with goblet cells. It is considered to be an acquired phenomenon secondary to acid exposure from gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). This report shows a review of BE of children and our data about BE from the study of 19 handicapped children with GER. 3 had intestinal dysplasia with goblet cells (BE). The % time of pH under 4 on 24-hour pH monitoring was significantly lower in the patients with esophagitis including BE than in them with normal esophagus. BE of our study seemed to be reversible after the surgery and anti-acid therapy. It is suggested that BE is not a rare condition even in children and biopsy specimens should be taken to establish the diagnosis. PMID:16101239

  10. Surgical Management of Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Hope T.; Kane, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common in the pediatric population. Most cases represent physiologic GER and as the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) matures and a solid diet is introduced, many of these patients (>65%) experience spontaneous resolution of symptoms by two years of age. Those who continue to have symptoms and develop complications such as failure to thrive, secondary respiratory disease, and others are classified as having gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Goals of GERD treatment include the resolution of symptoms and prevention of complications. Treatment options to achieve these goals include dietary or behavioral modifications, pharmacologic intervention, and surgical therapy. This paper will review the clinical presentation of GERD and discuss options for surgical management and outcomes in these patients. PMID:23762041

  11. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  12. The Cobra helmet mounted display system for Gripen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Blomqvist, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    Selected to meet the stringent requirements of the Gripen swing-role combat aircraft, the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System, has been integrated as a key component to the Gripen weapon delivery system. Saab Aerosystems has since 2003 together with BAE System been developing the Cobra HMD and in parallel integrating the system in Gripen for South Africa. Work is currently done to prepare other customer for the Cobra HMDS. This paper will highlight some technical challenges and experiences with integrating a HMDS in a small cockpit environment as in Gripen and present an overview of the Cobra HMD design and installation. Furthermore the paper will discuss the importance of having the pilots and users involved during the design phase and throughout the development.

  13. The role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine pathway in reflux-induced esophageal mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysfunction of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) signaling pathway can lead to gastrointestinal motility and secretion abnormalities and to visceral hypersensitivity. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of 5-HT in reflux-induced esophageal mucosal injury. Methods Fifty 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a gastroesophageal reflux (GER) model group (30 rats) and a sham surgery control group (20 rats). Four weeks after surgery, the esophageal mucosa was collected for histological evaluation, 5-HT concentrations, and 5-HT selective reuptake transporter (SERT) mRNA and 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) protein expressions. Results Twenty-seven rats in the GER model group survived, and three rats died. Histologically, in the GER model group, 20 rats had reflux esophagitis (RE group), and 7 rats had non-erosive reflux disease (NERD group). The 5-HT levels in the esophageal tissue from the RE group were significantly higher than those from the control and NERD groups. Both the RE and NERD groups showed significant increases in SERT mRNA expression of the esophageal mucosa than that of the controls, and the SERT mRNA level in the RE group was significantly higher than that in the NERD group. The 5-HT4R protein level of the esophageal mucosa in the RE group was significantly lower than that in the controls and the NERD group. Conclusions We conclude that a 5-HT signaling pathway disorder could be a major factor in the pathogenesis of GER and RE. PMID:23092450

  14. Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Feng, Simin; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Bruno R; Lv, Ruitao; Li, Qing; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Elías, Ana Laura; Lei, Yu; Perea-López, Nestor; Endo, Morinobu; Pan, Minghu; Pimenta, Marcos A; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-07-01

    As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (E F) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule's vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10(-11) M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps. PMID:27532043

  15. Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of extended release gabapentin in provoked vestibulodynia and biological correlates of response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Candace S; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie; Bachmann, Gloria A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to establish evidence-based management protocols for provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a chronic vulvar pain condition affecting approximately 14 million women in the U.S. We describe the rationale and design of an NIH funded multicenter clinical trial utilizing an extended release formulation of gabapentin (G-ER), an intervention that preliminary data suggest may be efficacious for this condition. Objectives 1) to determine if pain from tampon insertion (primary outcome measure) is lower in PVD patients when treated with G-ER compared to when treated with placebo and 2) to determine if G-ER reduces vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia, vaginal muscle pain to palpation, the number and intensity of somatic tenderpoints, spontaneous and provoked pain to intradermal capsaicin with an accompanying increase in cardiac beat-to-beat variability and to identify mechanistically-based PVD subtypes. Additional outcomes include subject reported intercourse pain and summative 24-hour pain. Methods This 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study will enroll 120 women 18 years and older who report tenderness localized to the vulvar vestibule, pain with tampon insertion, and, when sexually active, insertional dyspareunia. Electronically entered daily diaries will be used to determine if pain is lower in PVD subjects when treated with G-ER (up to 3000 mg/d) compared to when treated with placebo. Psychophysiological measures will be obtained at baseline and after 2 weeks at the maximum tolerated dose. Conclusion We will conduct the first multicenter RCT to confirm efficacy of an agent that is currently used in clinical practice for treating PVD. PMID:23816491

  16. Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Simin; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Bruno R.; Lv, Ruitao; Li, Qing; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Elías, Ana Laura; Lei, Yu; Perea-López, Nestor; Endo, Morinobu; Pan, Minghu; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (EF) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule’s vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10−11 M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps. PMID:27532043

  17. Evaluation of the Portable Instantaneous Display Analysis Spectrometer (PIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.; Rubin, Tod; Ohashi, Makoto

    1988-01-01

    The Portable Instantaneous Display Analysis System (PIDAS) was evaluated by measuring 125 spectra of mineral specimens and rock samples under the following conditions: in the laboratory under artificial illumination and outdoors, on the building patio, while still using the line voltage electric power supplies. The PIDAS was compared and contrasted with the GEOSCAN PFS, Daedalus-Spectrafax 440, and the Geophysical Environmental Research (GER) IRIS Mark 4.

  18. [Bruno Bloch and his students. 1. Bruno Block memorial lecture, 8 November 1991, Zurich].

    PubMed

    Schnyder, U W

    1993-05-01

    To mark the occasion of the 75th anniversary of Bruno Bloch's appointment to the Chair of Dermatology in Zurich, a commemorative lecture was established. The speaker paid tribute to his professional achievements and to the careers of some of his followers (Wilhelm Lutz, Basel; Marion B. Sulzberger, New York; Edwin Ramel, Lausanne; Hubert Jäger, Lausanne; Werner Jadassohn, Geneva; Guido Miescher, Zurich). PMID:8320121

  19. Automated analysis of high-throughput B-cell sequencing data reveals a high frequency of novel immunoglobulin V gene segment alleles

    PubMed Central

    Gadala-Maria, Daniel; Yaari, Gur; Uduman, Mohamed; Kleinstein, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Individual variation in germline and expressed B-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoires has been associated with aging, disease susceptibility, and differential response to infection and vaccination. Repertoire properties can now be studied at large-scale through next-generation sequencing of rearranged Ig genes. Accurate analysis of these repertoire-sequencing (Rep-Seq) data requires identifying the germline variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments used by each Ig sequence. Current V(D)J assignment methods work by aligning sequences to a database of known germline V(D)J segment alleles. However, existing databases are likely to be incomplete and novel polymorphisms are hard to differentiate from the frequent occurrence of somatic hypermutations in Ig sequences. Here we develop a Tool for Ig Genotype Elucidation via Rep-Seq (TIgGER). TIgGER analyzes mutation patterns in Rep-Seq data to identify novel V segment alleles, and also constructs a personalized germline database containing the specific set of alleles carried by a subject. This information is then used to improve the initial V segment assignments from existing tools, like IMGT/HighV-QUEST. The application of TIgGER to Rep-Seq data from seven subjects identified 11 novel V segment alleles, including at least one in every subject examined. These novel alleles constituted 13% of the total number of unique alleles in these subjects, and impacted 3% of V(D)J segment assignments. These results reinforce the highly polymorphic nature of human Ig V genes, and suggest that many novel alleles remain to be discovered. The integration of TIgGER into Rep-Seq processing pipelines will increase the accuracy of V segment assignments, thus improving B-cell repertoire analyses. PMID:25675496

  20. Esophageal Bolus Transit in Newborns with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms: A Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance Study

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Stefania Alfonsina; Maggiora, Elena; Locatelli, Emanuela; Indrio, Flavia; Bertino, Enrico; Coscia, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate bolus transit during esophageal swallow (ES) and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) events and to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of ES and GER events in a population of term and preterm newborns with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods The study population consisted of term and preterm newborns referred to combined multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) and pH monitoring for GERD symptoms. The frequency and characteristics of ES and GER events were assessed by two independent investigators. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Fifty-four newborns (23 preterm) were included in the analyses. Median bolus head advancing time corrected for esophageal length (BHATc) was shorter during mealtime than during the postprandial period (median, interquartile range): 0.20 (0.15-0.29) s/cm vs. 0.47 (0.39-0.64) s/cm, p<0.001. Median bolus presence time (BPT) was prolonged during mealtime: 4.71(3.49-6.27) s vs. 2.66 (1.82-3.73) s, p<0.001. Higher BHATc (p=0.03) and prolonged BPT (p<0.001) were observed in preterm newborns during the postprandial period. A significant positive correlation between BHATc and bolus clearance time was also observed (ρ=0.33, p=0.016). Conclusion The analysis of ES and GER events at the same time by MII provides useful information to better understand the physiopathology of GERD. In particular, the analysis of BHATc during the postprandial period could help clinicians identify newborns with prolonged esophageal clearance time due to impaired esophageal motility, which could allow for more accurate recommendations regarding further tests and treatment. PMID:26770898

  1. Laryngopharyngeal Reflux in Children with Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Górecka-Tuteja, Anna; Jastrzębska, Izabela; Składzień, Jacek; Fyderek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the characteristic properties of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in children with otitis media with effusion (OME) using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance combined with dual-probe (pharyngeal and esophageal) pH-metry. Methods Children aged 7–10 years of age with OME underwent 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH-metry. The upper pH sensor was situated 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter, and the lower pH sensor was placed 3–5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. Parents were asked to complete the gastroesophageal reflux assessment of symptoms in a pediatrics questionnaire. Results Twenty-eight children were enrolled; LPR was detected in 19 (67.9%) children. The criteria of the LPR diagnosis was the presence of at least one supraesophageal episode with a pH < 5.0 and a change in the pH value measured from the initial level at the upper sensor of > 0.2. In total, 64 episodes were observed. Assessment of all LPR episodes showed the presence of 246 episodes in the entire study. A considerable predominance of weakly acidic episodes (87.8%) was noted; there were 6.5% acidic episodes, and weakly alkaline episodes reached 5.7%. Pathological GER was noted in 10 (35.7%) subjects. Acid GER was detected in 8 children, 2 of whom demonstrated non-acidic reflux. In the LPR-negative patients, no pathological GER was confirmed with the exception of a single case of non-acidic reflux. Conclusions LPR was frequently noted in the group of children with OME, and it might be an important risk factor in this common disease. PMID:27193974

  2. Lipid-Laden Alveolar Macrophages and pH Monitoring in Gastroesophageal Reflux-Related Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kitz, R.; Boehles, H. J.; Rosewich, M.; Rose, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages and pH monitoring have been used in the diagnosis of chronic aspiration in children with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). This study was conducted to prove a correlation between the detection of alimentary pulmonary fat phagocytosis and an increasing amount of proximal gastroesophageal reflux. It was assumed that proximal gastroesophageal reflux better correlates with aspiration than distal GER. Patients from 6 months to 16 years with unexplained recurrent wheezy bronchitis and bronchial hyperreactivity, or recurrent pneumonia with chronic cough underwent 24-hour double-channel pH monitoring and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Aspiration of gastric content was determined by counting lipid laden alveolar macrophages from BAL specimens. There were no correlations between any pH-monitoring parameters and counts of lipid-laden macrophages in the whole study population, even when restricting analysis to those with abnormal reflux index expressing clinically significant GER. Quantifying lipid-laden alveolar macrophages from BAL in children with gastroesophageal-related respiratory disorders does not have an acceptable specificity to prove chronic aspiration as an underlying etiology. Therefore, research for other markers of pulmonary aspiration is needed. PMID:22448325

  3. Developing the global exploration roadmap: An example using the humans to the lunar surface theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by 12 space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group broadly outlines a pathway to send humans beyond low Earth orbit for the first time since Apollo. Three themes have emerged: Exploration of a Near-Earth Asteroid, Extended Duration Crew Missions, and Humans to the Lunar Surface. The lack of detail within each of these themes could mean that realizing the goals of the GER would be significantly delayed. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many of the details needed to fully define and evaluate these themes in terms of scientific rationale, economic viability, and technical feasibility already exist and need to be mapped to the GER. Here, we use the Humans to the Lunar Surface theme as an example to illustrate how this process could work. By mapping documents from a variety of international stakeholders, this process can be used to cement buy-in from the current partners and attract new ones to this effort.

  4. [1998 environment survey--initial results].

    PubMed

    Schulz, C; Becker, K; Helm, D; Krause, C

    1999-12-01

    In close connection with the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, a third round of the German Environmental Survey (GerES III) was carried out using a random subsample of about 4,500 subjects, which are representative for the German population aged 18 to 69 years. The GerES was carried out by the Federal Environmental Agency on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety. The participants had to undergo an examination in human-biomonitoring. An environmental questionnaire was used to get exposure-related information. Preliminary results indicate a reduction of the body burden with metals in 1998 compared with 1990/92. However, some individuals showed elevated values. For those people health effects are possible or cannot be excluded with sufficient certainty. Using the results of GerES III it will be possible for the first time to establish reference values for organochlorine compounds on a representative data basis. The examination of the tap water used in the subjects households shows that the limit and guideline values of the German Drinking Water Ordinance have not always been met in 1998. This holds especially for lead, copper, and zinc which are being used as pipe-material for domestic plumbing. PMID:10726423

  5. Role of feeding jejunostomy in major anastomotic disruptions in esophageal atresia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bawa, Monika; Menon, Prema; Mahajan, Jai K.; Peters, Nitin J.; Garge, Saurabh; Rao, K. L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role of feeding jejunostomy (FJ) in patients of esophageal atresia with anastomotic leak (AL) to decrease the degree of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and its effect on anastomotic healing. Materials and Methods: Twenty neonates, with major AL and severe GER after primary repair were managed with decompressing gastrostomy and transgastric FJ and analyzed prospectively. Results: Male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Mean birth weight was 2.2 kg. Anastomotic gap ranged from 0 to 4 cm. The amount of leak was more than 20% of nasogastric feeds. Gastrostomy and FJ was done on an average of the 12th postoperative day, after observing the general condition, chest tube output, lung expansion, and ventilatory requirement. There was a drastic reduction in chest tube output and lung expanded in all patients. Average hospital stay was 36 days (8-80 days). Sixty percentage patients were discharged successfully on FJ. Esophagogram demonstrated healing and leak free patency after an average of 1.5 months. GER was noted in seven patients, four developed stricture, and one had pseudodiverticulum in follow-up. Conclusion: Decompressing gastrostomy and FJ can be an alternative to managing major ALs. It helps in healing of anastomotic dehiscence and in preserving the native esophagus. PMID:26862291

  6. Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shantanu; Rajasekhar, Hariprem; Gupta, Anju; Bhutada, Alok; Rastogi, Deepa; Wung, Jen-Tien

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA) at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age (GA) who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW) of 1357 ± 392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3 ± 2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (P < 0.001) that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (P < 0.01), chorioamnionitis (P < 0.01), anemia (P < 0.0001), and GER (P < 0.02) played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP. PMID:22187570

  7. Feature extraction with deep neural networks by a generalized discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Stuhlsatz, André; Lippel, Jens; Zielke, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    We present an approach to feature extraction that is a generalization of the classical linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the basis of deep neural networks (DNNs). As for LDA, discriminative features generated from independent Gaussian class conditionals are assumed. This modeling has the advantages that the intrinsic dimensionality of the feature space is bounded by the number of classes and that the optimal discriminant function is linear. Unfortunately, linear transformations are insufficient to extract optimal discriminative features from arbitrarily distributed raw measurements. The generalized discriminant analysis (GerDA) proposed in this paper uses nonlinear transformations that are learnt by DNNs in a semisupervised fashion. We show that the feature extraction based on our approach displays excellent performance on real-world recognition and detection tasks, such as handwritten digit recognition and face detection. In a series of experiments, we evaluate GerDA features with respect to dimensionality reduction, visualization, classification, and detection. Moreover, we show that GerDA DNNs can preprocess truly high-dimensional input data to low-dimensional representations that facilitate accurate predictions even if simple linear predictors or measures of similarity are used. PMID:24805043

  8. Upper gastrointestinal motility: prenatal development and problems in infancy.

    PubMed

    Singendonk, Maartje M J; Rommel, Nathalie; Omari, Taher I; Benninga, Marc A; van Wijk, Michiel P

    2014-09-01

    Deglutition, or swallowing, refers to the process of propulsion of a food bolus from the mouth into the stomach and involves the highly coordinated interplay of swallowing and breathing. At 34 weeks gestational age most neonates are capable of successful oral feeding if born at this time; however, the maturation of respiration is still in progress at this stage. Infants can experience congenital and developmental pharyngeal and/or gastrointestinal motility disorders, which might manifest clinically as gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms, feeding difficulties and/or refusal, choking episodes and airway changes secondary to micro or overt aspiration. These problems might lead to impaired nutritional intake and failure to thrive. These gastrointestinal motility disorders are mostly classified according to the phase of swallowing in which they occur, that is, the oral preparatory, oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal phases. GER is a common phenomenon in infancy and is referred to as GERD when it causes troublesome complications. GER is predominantly caused by transient relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter. In oesophageal atresia, oesophageal motility disorders develop in almost all patients after surgery; however, a congenital origin of disordered motility has also been proposed. This Review highlights the prenatal development of upper gastrointestinal motility and describes the most common motility disorders that occur in early infancy. PMID:24890279

  9. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Two Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frech, Tracy M.; Boynton, Kathleen; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Jones, Bryan; Kriesel, John D.; Peterson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the most common extracutaneous organ system damaged in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is the presenting feature in 10% of patients. The esophagus as the portion of the GIT is the most commonly affected and there is an association of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with SSc interstitial lung disease (ILD). Thus, an aggressive treatment for GER is recommended in all SSc patients with ILD; however, it is recognized that a long-term benefit to this treatment is needed to understand its impact. In this case report we discuss the presence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in two SSc patients and discuss the role for early EGD in SSc patients with moderate-severe GER symptoms for tissue study. Assessment of esophageal biopsy specimens for the presence of eosinophils and possibly ANA can help elucidate disease pathogenesis and direct therapy, as the presence of EoE in SSc has important management considerations, particularly with regards to dietary modification strategies. PMID:26904346

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in 9/11 survivors and workers: insights gained from tragic losses.

    PubMed

    Sayuk, Gregory S; Drossman, Douglas A

    2011-11-01

    Survivors of the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks and the individuals who volunteered for the rescue and recovery efforts remain substantially burdened by psychological trauma and respiratory illnesses related to the environmental exposures. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) are also reported at higher rates than expected among this population. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and exposures to the caustic aerosolized debris of the WTC are explored in further detail as potential mechanisms underlying these GERS experiences in WTC Registry participants. Recent work by Li and colleagues suggests that the WTC experience is associated with increases in GER independent of asthma and PTSD diagnoses. However, this association may be more complex since over-representation of hypersensitive non-acid reflux subjects and failure to completely capture psychiatric comorbidity may also contribute to our understanding of these findings. Nonetheless, the WTC Registry offers a unique study population, and detailed psychologic profiling and physiologic testing of participants may promote greater insight into gastroesophageal reflux pathohysiology. PMID:22056575

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux and congenital gastrointestinal malformations.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, Lucia; Manti, Sara; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Gitto, Eloisa; Salpietro, Carmelo; Centorrino, Antonio; Scalfari, Gianfranco; Santoro, Giuseppe; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Romeo, Carmelo

    2015-07-28

    Although the outcome of newborns with surgical congenital diseases (e.g., diaphragmatic hernia; esophageal atresia; omphalocele; gastroschisis) has improved rapidly with recent advances in perinatal intensive care and surgery, infant survivors often require intensive treatment after birth, have prolonged hospitalizations, and, after discharge, may have long-term sequelae including gastro-intestinal comorbidities, above all, gastroesophageal reflux (GER). This condition involves the involuntary retrograde passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, with or without regurgitation or vomiting. It is a well-recognized condition, typical of infants, with an incidence of 85%, which usually resolves after physiological maturation of the lower esophageal sphincter and lengthening of the intra-abdominal esophagus, in the first few months after birth. Although the exact cause of abnormal esophageal function in congenital defects is not clearly understood, it has been hypothesized that common (increased intra-abdominal pressure after closure of the abdominal defect) and/or specific (e.g., motility disturbance of the upper gastrointestinal tract, damage of esophageal peristaltic pump) pathological mechanisms may play a role in the etiology of GER in patients with birth defects. Improvement of knowledge could positively impact the long-term prognosis of patients with surgical congenital diseases. The present manuscript provides a literature review focused on pathological and clinical characteristics of GER in patients who have undergone surgical treatment for congenital abdominal malformations. PMID:26229394

  12. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  13. Further Studies on Barretts Mucosa in Baboons: Metaplastic Glandular Cells Produce Sialomucin

    PubMed Central

    RUBIO, CARLOS A.; OWSTON, MICHAEL; ORREGO, ABIEL; DICK, EDWARD J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In humans and in baboons, protracted gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) transforms the squamous-lined esophagus into columnar-lined (that is Barrett's mucosa, BM). Alcian blue stain (AB) is used to evidence sialomucin-producing goblet cells in human BM. Aim To assess the frequency and distribution of sialomucin-producing cells in BM in baboons. Materials and Methods Sections from 137 consecutive baboon esophagi were alternatively stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and with AB (pH 2.5), without counterstain. Results Out of 137 baboons, 131 (95.6%) had BM. Columnar and intramucosal glandular cells produced sialomucin in all 131 of these animals. Many BM cells were ballooned and filled with sialomucins, despite goblet cells not being found in H&E sections. Conclusion In humans, protracted GER is a disease requiring medication that may lead to BM; AB stains mainly goblet cells and occasional columnar cells in BM. In baboons, in contrast, BM is a natural postnatal process of adaptation to GER, triggered by regurgitation and rumination. AB stains all columnar and intra-mucosal glandular cells. Sialomucin-overstuffed cells were more frequent and larger in baboons than in humans. The extra load of sialomucin in BM might be an integrated part of the postnatal life-long process of adaptation to regurgitation and rumination in baboons. PMID:21036729

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux and congenital gastrointestinal malformations

    PubMed Central

    Marseglia, Lucia; Manti, Sara; D’Angelo, Gabriella; Gitto, Eloisa; Salpietro, Carmelo; Centorrino, Antonio; Scalfari, Gianfranco; Santoro, Giuseppe; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Romeo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Although the outcome of newborns with surgical congenital diseases (e.g., diaphragmatic hernia; esophageal atresia; omphalocele; gastroschisis) has improved rapidly with recent advances in perinatal intensive care and surgery, infant survivors often require intensive treatment after birth, have prolonged hospitalizations, and, after discharge, may have long-term sequelae including gastro-intestinal comorbidities, above all, gastroesophageal reflux (GER). This condition involves the involuntary retrograde passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, with or without regurgitation or vomiting. It is a well-recognized condition, typical of infants, with an incidence of 85%, which usually resolves after physiological maturation of the lower esophageal sphincter and lengthening of the intra-abdominal esophagus, in the first few months after birth. Although the exact cause of abnormal esophageal function in congenital defects is not clearly understood, it has been hypothesized that common (increased intra-abdominal pressure after closure of the abdominal defect) and/or specific (e.g., motility disturbance of the upper gastrointestinal tract, damage of esophageal peristaltic pump) pathological mechanisms may play a role in the etiology of GER in patients with birth defects. Improvement of knowledge could positively impact the long-term prognosis of patients with surgical congenital diseases. The present manuscript provides a literature review focused on pathological and clinical characteristics of GER in patients who have undergone surgical treatment for congenital abdominal malformations. PMID:26229394

  15. Thal fundoplication in neurologically impaired children.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Ashcraft, K W; Sharp, R J; Murphy, P J; Snyder, C L; Gittes, G K; Bickler, S W

    1996-06-01

    Children with neurological impairment (NI) frequently require feeding gastrostomy, and this often aggravates or produces gastroesophageal reflux (GER). From 1976 to 1994, 141 children with severe NI underwent Thal fundoplication and gastrostomy (GT). GER was evident in 80%; in the rest, fundoplication was an adjunct to GT. Ph results were positive in 38 cases, and 57 children had reflux according to the barium studies. There were no major intraoperative complications. Disruption of the repair and/or recurrent GER was noted in 14 cases (10%); 8 were redone as Thals, and 6 were converted to Nissen procedures. Pyloroplasty was done later in 9 children (6%). Bowel obstruction was seen in 4 patients (3%). Clinical follow-up (mean, 54 months) showed improvement in 96%; only 5 of the 141 (3.2%) have residual symptoms. Of the patients with an intact Thal, 67% could burp or vomit. The ability to vomit may protect the Thal fundoplication and avoid disruption of the repair. PMID:8783112

  16. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function.

  17. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Jönsson, Jenny Maria; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Darwich, Gassan; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298 PMID:19531257

  18. The ISECG* Global Exploration Roadmap as Context for Robotic and Human Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) provides a broad international context for understanding how robotic missions and robotic assets can enable future human exploration of multiple destinations. This presentation will provide a brief high-level review of the GER with a focus on key robotic missions and robotic assets that can provide enabling technology advancements and that also raise interesting operational challenges in both the near-term and long-term. The GER presently features a variety of robotic missions and robotic assets that can provide important technology advancements as well as operational challenges and improvements, in areas ranging from: (a) leveraging the International Space Station, (b) planetary science robotic missions to potential human destinations, (c) micro-g body proximity operations (e.g. asteroids), (d) autonomous operations, (e) high and low-latency telerobotics, (f) human assisted sample return, and (g) contamination control. This presentation will highlight operational and technology challenges in these areas that have feed forward implications for human exploration.

  19. Molecular selectivity of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengxi; Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Jin; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-05-13

    Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) is a recently discovered Raman enhancement phenomenon that uses graphene as the substrate for Raman enhancement and can produce clean and reproducible Raman signals of molecules with increased signal intensity. Compared to conventional Raman enhancement techniques, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS), in which the Raman enhancement is essentially due to the electromagnetic mechanism, GERS mainly relies on a chemical mechanism and therefore shows unique molecular selectivity. In this paper, we report graphene-enhanced Raman scattering of a variety of different molecules with different molecular properties. We report a strong molecular selectivity for the GERS effect with enhancement factors varying by as much as 2 orders of magnitude for different molecules. Selection rules are discussed with reference to two main features of the molecule, namely its molecular energy levels and molecular structures. In particular, the enhancement factor involving molecular energy levels requires the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies to be within a suitable range with respect to graphene's Fermi level, and this enhancement effect can be explained by the time-dependent perturbation theory of Raman scattering. The enhancement factor involving the choice of molecular structures indicates that molecular symmetry and substituents similar to that of the graphene structure are found to be favorable for GERS enhancement. The effectiveness of these factors can be explained by group theory and the charge-transfer interaction between molecules and graphene. Both factors, involving the molecular energy levels and structural symmetry of the molecules, suggest that a remarkable GERS enhancement requires strong molecule-graphene coupling and thus effective charge transfer between the molecules and graphene. These conclusions are further

  20. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  1. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-olof

    2003-01-01

    Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal) was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal), containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5%) provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER). Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding) was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %), (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %). Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p < 0.01), median GER 54 %, (range 7 to 71 %), (the first quartile = 48 %, the third quartile = 60 %). When the viscosity of the rice pudding was decreased (basic test meal added with water), the difference in median GER 65 %, (range 38 to 79 %), (the first quartile = 56 %, the third quartile = 71 %) was not significantly different (p = 0.28) compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy

  2. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  3. PDMS based microfluidic chips and their application in material synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiuqing

    Microfluidics is a highly interdisciplinary science which is to deal with the behavior, control and manipulation of fluids that are constrained to sub-milimeter scale. It incorporates the knowledge and technique intersecting physics, chemistry, mechanics, nanoscience and biotechnology, with practical applications to the design of systems in which small volumes of fluids will be used. In this thesis, we started our research from GER fluid synthesis which then is applied to designing different functions of microfluidic devices, valve, pump, and mixer. We built a way to correlate mechanical signal with electric signal by soft matter. The mechanical devices based GER fluid had good operating stability and mechanical performance. We studied how to improve the performance of GER fluid by increasing the yield stress while avoiding the sendimentation of nanoparticles in GER suspension. The meaning of this work is to enhance the stability and mechanical strength of GER fluid when it is applyed to the microfluidc channels. We tried different oils and studied the particle size for the GER effect. The largest yield stress which amounts to 300 kPa is achievable compared to previous GER fluid with 100 kPa. Microfluidic reactor, directing the flow of microliter volumes along microscale channels, offers the advantages of precise control of reagent loading, fast mixing and an enhanced reaction rate, cessation of the reaction at specific stages, and more. Basically, there are two microfluidic flow regimes, continuous flow and segmented flow (suspended droplets, channel-spanning slug, and wall-wetting films). Both flow regimes offer chemical reaction applications, e.g., continuous flow formation of polymer nanospheres and inorganic nanoparticles, size- and shape-control synthesis by segmented flow, and precipitate-forming reactions in droplets, wherein the segmented flow has gained more popularity in that area. The compartmentalization of segmented flow offers advantages to chemical

  4. Emerging Geoscience Education Research at the University of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. M.; Harris, S.; Wieman, C.; Gilley, B.; Lane, E.; Caulkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience education research (GER) in UBC’s Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences (EOS) began due to a well funded 5-yr Faculty of Science project called the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative (CWSEI). This initiative takes an evidence-based, scientific approach to improving education by 1) establishing what students should learn; 2) scientifically measuring what students are learning; 3) adapting instruction and curricula using effective technologies and pedagogical research; and 4) disseminating and adopting what works. The presentation will discuss how this initiative has fostered a growing GER presence within our Department. CWSEI funding has enabled the EOS Department to hire 4 full-time Science Teaching and Learning Fellows (STLFs) who work directly with faculty to optimize courses and curricula. Much of the effort goes into developing active learning opportunities and rigorous ways to measure student learning and attitudes. Results serve as feedback for both students and instructors. Over 10 research projects have so far been initiated as a result of course and curriculum transformation. Examples include studies about: student attitudes towards Earth and Ocean Sciences; the effects of multiple instructors in courses; links between student in-class engagement and pedagogy; how certain instructional interventions promote metacognition; and others. Also, many modified courses use pre- and post-testing to measure learning gains. One undergraduate honors thesis, about assessing conceptual understanding of geological time, has been completed. Keys to fostering GER in our setting include: (1) faculty commitment to change, based on funding from CWSEI, (2) full-time Earth scientists (STLFs) who catalyze and support change, and (3) support from CWSEI science education experts. Specifically: - STLFs are trained Earth scientists but were not initially science education experts. Continuous support from CWSEI has been crucial for building expertise about how

  5. The ENGAGE Workshop: Encouraging Networks between Geoscientists and Geoscience Education Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; LaDue, N.; Taber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The geoscience education community has made great strides in the study of teaching and learning at the undergraduate level, particularly with respect to solid earth geology. Nevertheless, the 2012 National Research Council report, Discipline-based Education Research: Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering suggests that the geosciences lag behind other science disciplines in the integration of education research within the discipline and the establishment of a broad research base. In January 2015, early career researchers from earth, atmospheric, ocean, and polar sciences and geoscience education research (GER) gathered for the ENGAGE workshop. The primary goal of ENGAGE was to broaden awareness of discipline-based research in the geosciences and catalyze relationships and understanding between these groups of scientists. An organizing committee of geoscientists and GERs designed a two-day workshop with a variety of activities to engage participants in the establishment of a shared understanding of education research and the development of project ideas through collaborative teams. Thirty-three participants were selected from over 100 applicants, based on disciplinary diversity and demonstrated interest in geoscience education research. Invited speakers and panelists also provided examples of successful cross-disciplinary collaborations. As a result of this workshop, participants indicated that they gained new perspectives on geoscience education and research, networked outside of their discipline, and are likely to increase their involvement in geoscience education research. In fact, 26 of 28 participants indicated they are now better prepared to enter into cross-disciplinary collaborations within the next year. The workshop evaluation revealed that the physical scientists particularly valued opportunities for informal networking and collaborative work developing geoscience education research projects. Meanwhile, GERs valued

  6. Satiation meal and the effects of meal and body sizes on gastric evacuation rate in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis fed commercial pellets.

    PubMed

    Khan, U; Seyhan, K; Başçinar, N; Başçinar, N S

    2016-08-01

    Gastric evacuation (GE) experiments were performed on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis fed commercial food pellets. The experiments included small fish (36 g; 15 cm total length, LT ) fed meals of 0·2, 0·4 and 0·8 g and large fish (152 g; 23 cm) fed meals of 0·8, 2·0 and 4·0 g at temperatures ranging from 15·1 to 18·2° C. The stomach contents were thereafter sampled and weighed at 3 h intervals until the first empty stomach was observed. The course of GE was examined by use of a general power function of the data that revealed that the square-root function described the GE rate (GER) by the current stomach content mass independently of original meal size. Using the square-root function, the relationship between GER and fish size was described by a power function of fish length, whereas the effect of temperature was described by a simple exponential function. GER of the commercial pellets fed to S. fontinalis could thus be described by dStdt=-0·000464L1·31e0·052TSt (g h(-1) ), where St is stomach mass (g) at time t (h), L is total fish length (cm) and T is temperature (° C). The result of this study should provide a useful tool for planning of feeding regimes in production of S. fontinalis by optimizing growth and minimizing food waste. PMID:27282124

  7. Developing the "Lunar Vicinity" Scenario of the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Neal, C. R.; Crawford, I. A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER, [1]) has been developed by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG - comprised of 14 space agencies) to define various pathways to getting humans beyond low Earth orbit and eventually to Mars. Such pathways include visiting asteroids or the Moon before going on to Mars. This document has been written at a very high level and many details are still to be determined. However, a number of important papers regarding international space exploration can form a basis for this document (e.g. [2,3]). In this presentation, we focus on developing the "Lunar Vicinity" scenario by adding detail via mapping a number of recent reports/documents into the GER. Precedence for this scenario is given by Szajnfarber et al. [4] who stated "We find that when international partners are considered endogenously, the argument for a "flexible path" approach is weakened substantially. This is because international contributions can make "Moon first" economically feasible". The documents highlighted here are in no way meant to be all encompassing and other documents can and should be added, (e.g., the JAXA Space Exploration Roadmap). This exercise is intended to demonstrate that existing documents can be mapped into the GER despite the major differences in granularity, and that this mapping is a way to promote broader national and international buy-in to the Lunar Vicinity scenario. The documents used here are: the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration report on developing a global space exploration program [5], the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) report from the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) [6], the Lunar Exploration Roadmap developed by LEAG [7], the National Research Council report Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon (SCEM) [8], the scientific rationale for resuming lunar surface exploration [9], the astrobiological benefits of human space exploration [9,10].

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings in adolescents and young adults with gastroesophageal reflux and antral gastritis: eradication results to no significant clinical improvement

    PubMed Central

    Xinias, Ioannis; Maris, Theophanis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Panteliadis, Christos; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial. The aim was to investigate the association between Hp infection and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the impact of Hp eradication on esophageal acid exposure and motility in adolescents and young adults with Hp gastritis and GERD. Sixty-four patients with symptoms suggestive for GERD, of which 40 Hp-positive (group A) and 24 Hp-negative (group B), underwent endoscopy-biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH-metry. All group A patients received eradication treatment and were re-evaluated six months later again with 24-hour pH-metry, esophageal manometry, endoscopy-biopsy and clinical assessment. At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, grade of endoscopic esophagitis, manometric and pH-metry findings. All Hp-positive patients had an antral predominant gastritis. Eradication of Hp was successful in all patients, and gastritis and esophagitis were healed in all patients. The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) increased significantly from 11.25 mmHg before to 11.71 mmHg after eradication (P<0.05). A significant decrease in reflux index was observed (mean RI 6.02% before versus 4.96% after eradication (P<0.05). However clinical symptoms of GER improved not significantly after 6 months follow up. Conclusively, in children and young adults with GER symptoms and GERD, the presence or absence of Hp has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings. Eradication of Hp infection results in increase in LESP with a consequent decrease in esophageal acid exposure but not significant clinical improvement. PMID:23667732

  9. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  10. Insult of gastroesophageal reflux on airway: clinical significance of pharyngeal nozzle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhonggao; Hu, Zhiwei; Wu, Jimin; Ji, Feng; Wang, Hongtao; Lai, Yungang; Gao, Xiang; Ning, Yachan; Zhang, Chengchao; Li, Zhitong; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-03-01

    At the very time of global paying the highest attention to the worst insults of smoking as well as haze on the airway, everybody knows both are exogenous and noticeable. However, people mostly, including many medical personnel, do not know how badly the gastroesophageal reflux (GER) insults on our own airway. Symptoms of GER are commonly seen as heartburn and regurgitation, which can be mostly tolerated. However, when the up going gastric content reversely passes the esophagus and then the distal pharynx, where it appears a beak like stricture, serving as a nozzle, so as to produce numerous micro-particles and reach the oro-nasal cavity and also the airway causing allergic rhinitis and asthmatic attacks, even pulmonary parenchyma lesions. It will reduce life quality or even jeopardize life. The point that the endogenous insult appears in the respiratory system, but originates from the digestive tract is not well known and often undiagnosed and not correctly treated. The GER induced airway challenge is a treatable and preventive entity, as soon as a diagnosis is made, a good relief could be expected by means of life style adjustment, medicine, or fixation of the patulous cardia through radiofrequency or fundoplication. The author Dr. Zhonggao Wang had suffered it for long and symptoms disappeared for 8 years after anti-reflux surgery. Here is a presentation of Dr. Zhonggao Wang and his team's work and would call attention to the public so as to recognize this relatively unknown entity - a treatable condition occurring from human itself, but not from outside surroundings as smoking or haze does. PMID:25034240

  11. The potential of spatial information in human biomonitoring by example of two German environmental epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gunther; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Conrad, André; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Feigenspan, Stefan; Dobler, Lorenz; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Birke, Manfred; Utermann, Jens

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed at statistically investigating the association between the internal exposure of children and young adults to uranium (U) and epidemiologically relevant external determinants of exposure. The investigation was performed with data from two studies within the framework of the German health-related environmental monitoring program: The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) conducted by the Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt) with data on 1,780 children 3-14 years of age and their home environment and the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB, section: human specimens) with data on 2,253 students 20-29 years of age. Both studies provided data on the U levels in human urine for all probands. GerES IV furthermore provided an extensive environmental and demographic database on, e.g., U levels in drinking water. The data from GerES IV and ESB were linked by GIS to spatially relevant exposure information, including background values of U in stream sediments and in upper and lower soils, U levels in mosses and particulate matter in the lower atmosphere, precipitation and elevation as well as forest density. Bivariate correlation analysis and two decision tree models showed moderate but significant associations between U in human urine and U levels in drinking water, stream sediments and upper and lower soils. Future investigations considering additional epidemiologically relevant data sets may differentiate the results. Furthermore, the sample design of future environmental epidemiology studies should take the spatial evaluation of the data into greater account. PMID:21424229

  12. Bile Acids Repress Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Signaling and Modulate the Airway Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Legendre, Claire; Reen, F. Jerry; Woods, David F.; Mooij, Marlies J.; Adams, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) frequently occurs in patients with respiratory disease and is particularly prevalent in patients with cystic fibrosis. GER is a condition in which the duodenogastric contents of the stomach leak into the esophagus, in many cases resulting in aspiration into the respiratory tract. As such, the presence of GER-derived bile acids (BAs) has been confirmed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum of affected patients. We have recently shown that bile causes cystic fibrosis-associated bacterial pathogens to adopt a chronic lifestyle and may constitute a major host trigger underlying respiratory infection. The current study shows that BAs elicit a specific response in humans in which they repress hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) protein, an emerging master regulator in response to infection and inflammation. HIF-1α repression was shown to occur through the 26S proteasome machinery via the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) pathway. Further analysis of the downstream inflammatory response showed that HIF-1α repression by BAs can significantly modulate the immune response of airway epithelial cells, correlating with a decrease in interleukin-8 (IL-8) production, while IL-6 production was strongly increased. Importantly, the effects of BAs on cytokine production can also be more dominant than the bacterium-mediated effects. However, the effect of BAs on cytokine levels cannot be fully explained by their ability to repress HIF-1α, which is not surprising, given the complexity of the immune regulatory network. The suppression of HIF-1 signaling by bile acids may have a significant influence on the progression and outcome of respiratory disease, and the molecular mechanism underpinning this response warrants further investigation. PMID:24914220

  13. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Walaa K; Shearer, Charles R; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  14. Erratum.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Erratum to Twelve-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of comprehensive physiotherapy following disc herniation operation Owing to errors made at SAGE, the name of one of the authors of the following article was printed incorrectly.Ebenbichler GR, Inschlag S, Pflüger V, et al. Twelve-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of comprehensive physiotherapy following disc herniation operation Clinical Rehabilitation 2015; 29: 548-560 DOI: 10.1177/0269215514552032. PMID:26979482

  15. Self-assembly of heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites from multivalent ligands via social self-sorting

    PubMed Central

    Benkhäuser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Tröger's base-derived racemic bis(1,10-phenanthroline) ligand (rac)-1 and a bis(2,2'-bipyridine) ligand with a central 1,3-diethynylbenzene unit 2 were synthesized. Each of these ligands acts as a multivalent entity for the binding of two copper(I) ions. Upon coordination to the metal ions these two ligands undergo selective self-assembly into heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites in a high-fidelity social self-sorting manner as evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. PMID:26124873

  16. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  17. [100 years' of clinical electrocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bergovec, Mijo

    2003-01-01

    In 1903 Willem Einthoven published in Pflügers Arch his classic article on the investigation of human electrocardiogram by his string galvanometer. Many historians of medicine, Einthoven also marked that publication as the beginning of clinical electrocardiography. Many investigators like Galvani, Manteucci, Kölliker, Müller, Lipmann, Waller, Ader, Einthoven, Lewis, Wilson and others participated in creation and development of electrocardiogram. From that time electrocardiogram quickly became, and has remained the most essential diagnostic laboratory tool in investigation of heart diseases. The aim of this article is to remind us of the beginning of this part of cardiology 100 years ago. PMID:15209030

  18. The science of the stars in Danzig from Rheticus to Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Derek

    This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium), socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the city of Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge created distinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presented to others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printed prognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, German poetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personal correspondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrasts experiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and 4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concern to remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutherans held powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium. In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay in Danzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays and prose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647) and argues that

  19. Genotype-by-environment interaction of growth traits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a continental scale study.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, P; Kause, A; Mulder, H A; Martin, K E; Barfoot, A J; Parsons, J E; Davidson, J; Rexroad, C E; van Arendonk, J A M; Komen, H

    2013-12-01

    Rainbow trout is a globally important fish species for aquaculture. However, fish for most farms worldwide are produced by only a few breeding companies. Selection based solely on fish performance recorded at a nucleus may lead to lower-than-expected genetic gains in other production environments when genotype-by-environment (G × E) interaction exists. The aim was to quantify the magnitude of G × E interaction of growth traits (tagging weight; BWT, harvest weight; BWH, and growth rate; TGC) measured across 4 environments, located in 3 different continents, by estimating genetic correlations between environments. A total of 100 families, of at least 25 in size, were produced from the mating 58 sires and 100 dams. In total, 13,806 offspring were reared at the nucleus (selection environment) in Washington State (NUC) and in 3 other environments: a recirculating aquaculture system in Freshwater Institute (FI), West Virginia; a high-altitude farm in Peru (PE), and a cold-water farm in Germany (GER). To account for selection bias due to selective mortality, a multitrait multienvironment animal mixed model was applied to analyze the performance data in different environments as different traits. Genetic correlation (rg) of a trait measured in different environments and rg of different traits measured in different environments were estimated. The results show that heterogeneity of additive genetic variances was mainly found for BWH measured in FI and PE. Additive genetic coefficient of variation for BWH in NUC, FI, PE, and GER were 7.63, 8.36, 8.64, and 9.75, respectively. Genetic correlations between the same trait in different environments were low, indicating strong reranking (BWT: rg = 0.15 to 0.37, BWH: rg = 0.19 to 0.48, TGC: rg = 0.31 to 0.36) across environments. The rg between BWT in NUC and BWH in both FI (0.31) and GER (0.36) were positive, which was also found between BWT in NUC and TGC in both FI (0.10) and GER (0.20). However, rg were negative between BWT

  20. Echtzeitfähigkeit von Satellitenkompassen in der Binnenschifffahrt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberkamp, G.; Zöbel, D.

    In der maritimen Schifffahrt finden Satellitenkompasse schon seit längerem Verwendung. Nachdem diese Geräte immer erschwinglicher werden, stellt sich die Frage, ob sie auch als Multisensoren für Telematikanwendungen in der Binnenschifffahrt geeignet sind. Im Rahmen einer umfassenden Untersuchung wurde auch die Fragestellung untersucht, wie zeitnah die Sensorinformationen verfügbar werden. Es wurde ein Versuchsaufbau entwickelt, der es ermöglicht, Satellitenkompasse auf ihre Echtzeitfähigkeit hin zu überprüfen. Das vorliegende Papier beschreibt den entwickelten Versuchsaufbau, dokumentiert die Ergebnisse und gibt einen Ausblick auf Verbesserungspotenziale.

  1. [250 years ago: the origin of electrotherapy exemplified by Halle].

    PubMed

    Völker, A

    1993-05-01

    Experiments started in 1743 by a working group at the university of Halle marked the beginning of efforts to incorporate electricity into clinical therapy. Very soon this resulted in knowledge that was also taken up elsewhere, leading to a period of intensive research. The creative suggestions that originated in Halle were authored, among others, by Johann Gottlob Krüger, Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein and Johann Joachim Lange. Their experimental and clinical findings were accompanied by deliberations on the mechanism of action of electrotherapy on which they reported in detail. Due to adverse circumstances this initially leading position occupied by Halle faded out already shortly after the middle of the century. PMID:8517069

  2. Menschliches Erkennen in evolutionärer Sicht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    Es war einige Zeit Mode - etwa bei der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Zeitung -, prominenten Zeitgenossen einen Fragebogen vorzulegen. Da stand dann: Wer ist Ihr Lieblingsautor? Welche Person bewundern Sie am meisten? Eine dieser Fragen hieß: Was halten Sie für die wichtigste wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis überhaupt? Als Philosoph hätte ich Skrupel, eine solche Bewertung vorzunehmen. Der Physiker Gerd Binnig, 1986 Nobelpreisträger für das Rastertunnelmikroskop, hat die Frage kurzerhand beantwortet: Für ihn ist die wichtigste wissenschaftliche Entdeckung die Darwin'sche Theorie.

  3. Self-assembly of heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites from multivalent ligands via social self-sorting.

    PubMed

    Benkhäuser, Christian; Lützen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    A Tröger's base-derived racemic bis(1,10-phenanthroline) ligand (rac)-1 and a bis(2,2'-bipyridine) ligand with a central 1,3-diethynylbenzene unit 2 were synthesized. Each of these ligands acts as a multivalent entity for the binding of two copper(I) ions. Upon coordination to the metal ions these two ligands undergo selective self-assembly into heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites in a high-fidelity social self-sorting manner as evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. PMID:26124873

  4. History of anesthesia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wawersik, J

    1991-01-01

    The first ether anesthetic was administered in Germany by J.F. Heyfelder (1798-1869) at the Erlangen University Hospital on January 24, 1847. Thereafter, famous discoveries occurred in the field of pharmacology. Albert Niemann isolated cocaine from the coca shrub in 1860; Emil Fischer synthesized the first barbiturate, Veronal, in 1902; and Helmut Weese promoted the first ultra-short-acting barbiturate, hexobarbital (Evipan), in 1932. The local anesthetic effect of cocaine was reported by Koller at the Congress of the German Society for Ophthalmology on September 15, 1884, in Heidelberg. Many new techniques were tried first in German hospitals. Friedrich Trendelenburg carried out, by tracheotomy, the first operation with endotracheal intubation in 1869, and Franz Kuhn promoted and clinically practiced endotracheal intubation in Heidelberg beginning in 1900. August Bier performed the first operation under spinal anesthesia at the Kiel University Hospital on August 16, 1898. Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859-1922) standardized the methods of infiltration anesthesia by using a cocaine solution in sufficient dilution. The development of anesthesia machines was greatly influenced by Heinrich Dräger (1847-1917) and his son Bernhard Dräger (1870-1928). The Dräger Company in Lübeck built the first anesthesia machine with a carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber and circle system in 1925. Paul Sudeck and Helmut Schmidt worked with this system at the Hamburg University Hospital and reported their results in 1926. The first Dräger anesthesia machine was produced in 1902 and introduced into clinical use by Otto Roth (1863-1944) in Lübeck. Before the Second World War, three universities in Germany carried out research in the field of anesthesia: the University of Freiburg with H. Killian, the University of Hamburg with P. Sudeck and H. Schmidt, and the University of Würzburg with C.G. Gauss. Killian and Gauss established the first journals, Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie, in

  5. Doubtful outcome of the validation of the Rome II questionnaire: validation of a symptom based diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are used in research and clinical practice. For gastrointestinal complaints the Rome II questionnaire is internationally known but not validated. The aim of this study was to validate a printed and a computerized version of Rome II, translated into Swedish. Results from various analyses are reported. Methods Volunteers from a population based colonoscopy study were included (n = 1011), together with patients seeking general practice (n = 45) and patients visiting a gastrointestinal specialists' clinic (n = 67). The questionnaire consists of 38 questions concerning gastrointestinal symptoms and complaints. Diagnoses are made after a special code. Our validation included analyses of the translation, feasibility, predictability, reproducibility and reliability. Kappa values and overall agreement were measured. The factor structures were confirmed using a principal component analysis and Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency. Results and Discussion Translation and back translation showed good agreement. The questionnaire was easy to understand and use. The reproducibility test showed kappa values of 0.60 for GERS, 0.52 for FD, and 0.47 for IBS. Kappa values and overall agreement for the predictability when the diagnoses by the questionnaire were compared to the diagnoses by the clinician were 0.26 and 90% for GERS, 0.18 and 85% for FD, and 0.49 and 86% for IBS. Corresponding figures for the agreement between the printed and the digital version were 0.50 and 92% for GERS, 0.64 and 95% for FD, and 0.76 and 95% for IBS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for GERS was 0.75 with a span per item of 0.71 to 0.76. For FD the figures were 0.68 and 0.54 to 0.70 and for IBS 0.61 and 0.56 to 0.66. The Rome II questionnaire has never been thoroughly validated before even if diagnoses made by the Rome criteria have been compared to diagnoses made in clinical practice. Conclusion The accuracy of the Swedish version of the Rome II is of

  6. Comparison of nonciliated tracheal epithelial cells in six mammalian species: ultrastructure and population densities.

    PubMed

    Plopper, C G; Mariassy, A T; Wilson, D W; Alley, J L; Nishio, S J; Nettesheim, P

    1983-12-01

    Three types of nonciliated epithelial cells in mammalian conducting respiratory airways are thought to be secretory: mucous (goblet) cells, serous epithelial cells, and Clara cells. Mucous and serous cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the trachea. Clara cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the most distal conducting airways or bronchioles. To ascertain if mucous and serous epithelial cells are common to the tracheal epithelium of mammalian species, we characterized the ultrastructure and population densities of tracheal epithelial cells in six species: hamster (H), rat (Rt), rabbit (Rb), cat (C), Bonnet monkey (M. radiata) (B), and sheep (S). Following fixation by airway infusion with glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde, tracheal tissue was processed for light and electron microscopy (EM) by a selective embedding technique. Tracheal epithelium over cartilage was quantitated by light microscopy and characterized by transmission EM. Mucous cells were defined by abundant large nonhomogeneous granules, numerous Golgi complexes, basally located nuclei and granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER). The percentage of mucous cells in the tracheal epithelium was: H (0%), Rt (0.5%), Rb (1.3%), C (20.2%), B (8%), S (5.1%). Serous cells had homogeneous, electron-dense granules and extensive GER. Serous cells were present only in rats (39.2%). Clara cells had homogeneous electron-dense granules, abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum (AER) and basal GER. Clara cells were found in hamsters (41.4%) and rabbits (17.6%). In sheep trachea, 35.9% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, abundant AER and numerous Golgi complexes. In Bonnet monkey trachea, 16% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, numerous polyribosomes, perinuclear Golgi apparatus and moderate GER. In cat trachea, 5.4% of the epithelial cells lacked granules, and had moderate numbers of mitochondria, moderate amounts of polyribosomes, a central nucleus, and

  7. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  8. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER) PMID:12343012

  9. Internal migration and unemployment in Germany: an Anglo-Irish perspective.

    PubMed

    Keil, M; Newell, A

    1993-01-01

    "The paper analyzes the effect on the migration rate of a number of labour market variables; in particular, relative wage levels and growth rates, and the relative unemployment rates in the home and foreign country. We study the Ireland-U.K. migration rate and use the estimates to predict migration between the two parts of unified Germany. We conclude that magnitudes of unemployment differences and wage differentials are such that currently observed substantial migration flows will not slow down for the forseeable future." (SUMMARY IN GER) PMID:12286947

  10. Combining Evidence of Preferential Gene-Tissue Relationships from Multiple Sources

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Hammar, Mårten; Öberg, Lisa; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S.; Bjäreland, Marcus; Dalevi, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An important challenge in drug discovery and disease prognosis is to predict genes that are preferentially expressed in one or a few tissues, i.e. showing a considerably higher expression in one tissue(s) compared to the others. Although several data sources and methods have been published explicitly for this purpose, they often disagree and it is not evident how to retrieve these genes and how to distinguish true biological findings from those that are due to choice-of-method and/or experimental settings. In this work we have developed a computational approach that combines results from multiple methods and datasets with the aim to eliminate method/study-specific biases and to improve the predictability of preferentially expressed human genes. A rule-based score is used to merge and assign support to the results. Five sets of genes with known tissue specificity were used for parameter pruning and cross-validation. In total we identify 3434 tissue-specific genes. We compare the genes of highest scores with the public databases: PaGenBase (microarray), TiGER (EST) and HPA (protein expression data). The results have 85% overlap to PaGenBase, 71% to TiGER and only 28% to HPA. 99% of our predictions have support from at least one of these databases. Our approach also performs better than any of the databases on identifying drug targets and biomarkers with known tissue-specificity. PMID:23950964