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Sample records for germ line dna

  1. Avoiding bad genes: oxidatively damaged DNA in germ line and mate choice.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Torres, Roxana; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2008-11-01

    August Weismann proposed that genetic changes in somatic cells cannot pass to germ cells and hence to next generations. Nevertheless, evidence is accumulating that some environmental effects can promote heritable changes in the DNA of germ cells, which implies that some somatic influence on germ line is possible. This influence is mostly detrimental and related to the presence of oxidative stress, which induces mutations and epigenetic changes. This effect should be stronger in males due to the particular characteristics of sperm. Here, we propose the hypothesis that females are able to avoid males with oxidatively damaged DNA in the germ line by using oxidative-dependent (pre- and post-mating) signals. This new hypothesis may shed light on unsolved questions in evolutionary biology, such as the benefits of polyandry, the lek paradox, or the role of sexual selection on the evolution of aging. PMID:18937375

  2. DNA Methylation Errors in Cloned Mouse Sperm by Germ Line Barrier Evasion.

    PubMed

    Koike, Tasuku; Wakai, Takuya; Jincho, Yuko; Sakashita, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Hisato; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Sayaka; Miura, Fumihito; Ito, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro

    2016-06-01

    The germ line reprogramming barrier resets parental epigenetic modifications according to sex, conferring totipotency to mammalian embryos upon fertilization. However, it is not known whether epigenetic errors are committed during germ line reprogramming that are then transmitted to germ cells, and consequently to offspring. We addressed this question in the present study by performing a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using a target postbisulfite sequencing method in order to identify DNA methylation errors in cloned mouse sperm. The sperm genomes of two somatic cell-cloned mice (CL1 and CL7) contained significantly higher numbers of differentially methylated CpG sites (P = 0.0045 and P = 0.0116). As a result, they had higher numbers of differentially methylated CpG islands. However, there was no evidence that these sites were transmitted to the sperm genome of offspring. These results suggest that DNA methylation errors resulting from embryo cloning are transmitted to the sperm genome by evading the germ line reprogramming barrier. PMID:27103445

  3. Variation in germ line mtDNA heteroplasmy is determined prenatally but modified during subsequent transmission

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Christoph; Cree, Lynsey M.; Mourier, Arnaud; Stewart, James B.; Koolmeister, Camilla; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Wai, Timothy; Floros, Vasileios I.; Hagström, Erik; Chatzidaki, Emmanouella E.; Wiesner, Rudolph J.; Samuels, David C; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    A genetic bottleneck explains the marked changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy observed during the transmission of pathogenic mutations, but the precise timing remains controversial, and it is not clear whether selection plays a role. These issues are critically important for the genetic counseling of prospective mothers, and developing treatments aimed at disease prevention. By studying mice transmitting a heteroplasmic single base-pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNAMet gene, we show that mammalian mtDNA heteroplasmy levels are principally determined prenatally within the developing female germ line. Although we saw no evidence of mtDNA selection prenatally, skewed heteroplasmy levels were observed in the offspring of the next generation, consistent with purifying selection. High percentage levels of the tRNAMet mutation were linked to a compensatory increase in overall mitochondrial RNAs, ameliorating the biochemical phenotype, and explaining why fecundity is not compromised. PMID:23042113

  4. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ∼20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ≥1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ∼30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

  5. mtDNA germ line variation mediated ROS generates retrograde signaling and induces pro-cancerous metabolic features

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Srivastava, Archita; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Manvati, Siddharth; Chopra, Rupali; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2014-01-01

    mtDNA non-synonymous germ line variation (G10398A; p.A114T) has remained equivocal with least mechanistic understanding in showing an association with cancer. This has necessitated showing in-vitro how an over-expression within mitochondria of either of the variants produces higher intracellular ROS, resulting in differential anchorage dependent and independent growth. Both these features were observed to be relatively higher in ND3:114T variant. An elevated amount of intracellular carbonylated proteins and a reduced activity of a key glycolytic enzyme, Pyruvate kinase M2, along with high glucose uptake and lactate production were other pro-cancerous features observed. The retrograde signaling through surplus ROS was generated by post-ND3 over-expression regulated nuclear gene expression epigenetically, involving selectively the apoptotic-DDR-pathways. The feature of ND3 over-expression, inducing ROS mediated pro-cancerous features in the cells in in vitro, was replicated in a pilot study in a limited number of sporadic breast tumors, suggesting the importance of mitochondrial germ-line variant(s) in enabling the cells to acquire pro-cancerous features. PMID:25300428

  6. Genetic Mosaics and the Germ Line Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Mark E.; Friedman, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mosaics provide information about cellular lineages that is otherwise difficult to obtain, especially in humans. De novo mutations act as cell markers, allowing the tracing of developmental trajectories of all descendants of the cell in which the new mutation arises. De novo mutations may arise at any time during development but are relatively rare. They have usually been observed through medical ascertainment, when the mutation causes unusual clinical signs or symptoms. Mutational events can include aneuploidies, large chromosomal rearrangements, copy number variants, or point mutations. In this review we focus primarily on the analysis of point mutations and their utility in addressing questions of germ line versus somatic lineages. Genetic mosaics demonstrate that the germ line and soma diverge early in development, since there are many examples of combined somatic and germ line mosaicism for de novo mutations. The occurrence of simultaneous mosaicism in both the germ line and soma also shows that the germ line is not strictly clonal but arises from at least two, and possibly multiple, cells in the embryo with different ancestries. Whole genome or exome DNA sequencing technologies promise to expand the range of studies of genetic mosaics, as de novo mutations can now be identified through sequencing alone in the absence of a medical ascertainment. These technologies have been used to study mutation patterns in nuclear families and in monozygotic twins, and in animal model developmental studies, but not yet for extensive cell lineage studies in humans. PMID:25898403

  7. Absence of Replication-Competent Human-Tropic Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in the Germ Line DNA of Inbred Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Scobie, Linda; Taylor, Samantha; Wood, James C.; Suling, Kristen M.; Quinn, Gary; Meikle, Sharon; Patience, Clive; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Onions, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The potential transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has raised concern in the development of porcine xenotransplantation products. Our previous studies have resulted in the identification of animals within a research herd of inbred miniature swine that lack the capacity to transmit PERV to human cells in vitro. In contrast, other animals were capable of PERV transmission. The PERVs that were transmitted to human cells are recombinants between PERV-A and PERV-C in the post-VRA region of the envelope (B. A. Oldmixon, J. C. Wood, T. A. Ericsson, C. A. Wilson, M. E. White-Scharf, G. Andersson, J. L. Greenstein, H. J. Schuurman, and C. Patience, J. Virol. 76:3045-3048, 2002); these viruses we term PERV-A/C. This observation prompted us to determine whether these human-tropic replication-competent (HTRC) PERV-A/C recombinants were present in the genomic DNA of these miniature swine. Genomic DNA libraries were generated from one miniature swine that transmitted HTRC PERV as well as from one miniature swine that did not transmit HTRC PERV. HTRC PERV-A/C proviruses were not identified in the germ line DNAs of these pigs by using genomic mapping. Similarly, although PERV-A loci were identified in both libraries that possessed long env open reading frames, the Env proteins encoded by these loci were nonfunctional according to pseudotype assays. In the absence of a germ line source for HTRC PERV, further studies are warranted to assess the mechanisms by which HTRC PERV can be generated. Once identified, it may prove possible to generate animals with further reduced potential to produce HTRC PERV. PMID:14963152

  8. Germ-line and somatic DICER1 mutations in pineoblastoma.

    PubMed

    de Kock, Leanne; Sabbaghian, Nelly; Druker, Harriet; Weber, Evan; Hamel, Nancy; Miller, Suzanne; Choong, Catherine S; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Kees, Ursula R; Rednam, Surya P; van Hest, Liselotte P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Jhangiani, Shalini; Lupski, James R; Zacharin, Margaret; Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Huang, Annie; Priest, John R; Perry, Arie; Mueller, Sabine; Albrecht, Steffen; Malkin, David; Grundy, Richard G; Foulkes, William D

    2014-10-01

    Germ-line RB-1 mutations predispose to pineoblastoma (PinB), but other predisposing genetic factors are not well established. We recently identified a germ-line DICER1 mutation in a child with a PinB. This was accompanied by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type allele within the tumour. We set out to establish the prevalence of DICER1 mutations in an opportunistically ascertained series of PinBs. Twenty-one PinB cases were studied: Eighteen cases had not undergone previous testing for DICER1 mutations; three patients were known carriers of germ-line DICER1 mutations. The eighteen PinBs were sequenced by Sanger and/or Fluidigm-based next-generation sequencing to identify DICER1 mutations in blood gDNA and/or tumour gDNA. Testing for somatic DICER1 mutations was also conducted on one case with a known germ-line DICER1 mutation. From the eighteen PinBs, we identified four deleterious DICER1 mutations, three of which were germ line in origin, and one for which a germ line versus somatic origin could not be determined; in all four, the second allele was also inactivated leading to complete loss of DICER1 protein. No somatic DICER1 RNase IIIb mutations were identified. One PinB arising in a germ-line DICER1 mutation carrier was found to have LOH. This study suggests that germ-line DICER1 mutations make a clinically significant contribution to PinB, establishing DICER1 as an important susceptibility gene for PinB and demonstrates PinB to be a manifestation of a germ-line DICER1 mutation. The means by which the second allele is inactivated may differ from other DICER1-related tumours. PMID:25022261

  9. Germ-line mutations, DNA damage, and global hypermethylation in mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an urban/industrial location

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole; Polyzos, Aris; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Somers, Christopher M.; Godschalk, Roger W.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Berndt, M. Lynn; Pogribny, Igor P.; Koturbash, Igor; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is widespread, yet we have little understanding of the long-term health implications associated with exposure. We investigated DNA damage, mutation, and methylation in gametes of male mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an industrial/urban environment. C57BL/CBA mice were exposed in situ to ambient air near two integrated steel mills and a major highway, alongside control mice breathing high-efficiency air particulate (HEPA) filtered ambient air. PCR analysis of an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus revealed a 1.6-fold increase in sperm mutation frequency in mice exposed to ambient air for 10 wks, followed by a 6-wk break, compared with HEPA-filtered air, indicating that mutations were induced in spermatogonial stem cells. DNA collected after 3 or 10 wks of exposure did not exhibit increased mutation frequency. Bulky DNA adducts were below the detection threshold in testes samples, suggesting that DNA reactive chemicals do not reach the germ line and cause ESTR mutation. In contrast, DNA strand breaks were elevated at 3 and 10 wks, possibly resulting from oxidative stress arising from exposure to particles and associated airborne pollutants. Sperm DNA was hypermethylated in mice breathing ambient relative to HEPA-filtered air and this change persisted following removal from the environmental exposure. Increased germ-line DNA mutation frequencies may cause population-level changes in genetic composition and disease. Changes in methylation can have widespread repercussions for chromatin structure, gene expression and genome stability. Potential health effects warrant extensive further investigation. PMID:18195365

  10. Germ Line Mechanics--And Unfinished Business.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patchwork quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  11. The Biology of the Germ line in Echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Gary M.; Brayboy, Lynae; Fresques, Tara; Gustafson, Eric A.; Oulhen, Nathalie; Ramos, Isabela; Reich, Adrian; Swartz, S. Zachary; Yajima, Mamiko; Zazueta, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The formation of the germ line in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential. The developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form, however, differs markedly among species. In many animals, the germ line is formed by an inherited mechanism, in which molecules made and selectively partitioned within the oocyte drive the early development of cells that acquire this material to a germ-line fate. In contrast, the germ line of other animals is fated by an inductive mechanism that involves signaling between cells that directs this specialized fate. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of germ-line determination in echinoderms, an early-branching sister group to the chordates. One member of the phylum, sea urchins, appears to use an inherited mechanism of germ-line formation, whereas their relatives, the sea stars, appear to use an inductive mechanism. We first integrate the experimental results currently available for germ line determination in the sea urchin, for which considerable new information is available, and then broaden the investigation to the lesser-known mechanisms in sea stars and other echinoderms. Even with this limited insight, it appears that sea stars, and perhaps the majority of the echinoderm taxon, rely on inductive mechanisms for germ-line fate determination. This enables a strongly contrasted picture for germ-line determination in this phylum, but one for which transitions between different modes of germ-line determination might now be experimentally addressed. PMID:23900765

  12. The biology of the germ line in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M; Brayboy, Lynae; Fresques, Tara; Gustafson, Eric A; Oulhen, Nathalie; Ramos, Isabela; Reich, Adrian; Swartz, S Zachary; Yajima, Mamiko; Zazueta, Vanessa

    2014-08-01

    The formation of the germ line in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential. The developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form, however, differs markedly among species. In many animals, the germ line is formed by an inherited mechanism, in which molecules made and selectively partitioned within the oocyte drive the early development of cells that acquire this material to a germ-line fate. In contrast, the germ line of other animals is fated by an inductive mechanism that involves signaling between cells that directs this specialized fate. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of germ-line determination in echinoderms, an early-branching sister group to the chordates. One member of the phylum, sea urchins, appears to use an inherited mechanism of germ-line formation, whereas their relatives, the sea stars, appear to use an inductive mechanism. We first integrate the experimental results currently available for germ-line determination in the sea urchin, for which considerable new information is available, and then broaden the investigation to the lesser-known mechanisms in sea stars and other echinoderms. Even with this limited insight, it appears that sea stars, and perhaps the majority of the echinoderm taxon, rely on inductive mechanisms for germ-line fate determination. This enables a strongly contrasted picture for germ-line determination in this phylum, but one for which transitions between different modes of germ-line determination might now be experimentally addressed. PMID:23900765

  13. Germ-line genetic enhancement and Rawlsian primary goods.

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2005-03-01

    Genetic interventions raise a host of moral issues and, of its various species, germ-line genetic enhancement is the most morally contentious. This paper surveys various arguments against germ-line enhancement and attempts to demonstrate their inadequacies. A positive argument is advanced in favor of certain forms of germ-line enhancements, which holds that they are morally permissible if and only if they augment Rawlsian primary goods, either directly or by facilitating their acquisition. PMID:15881795

  14. Germ line development: lessons learned from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M; Medrano, Jose V; Remohí, José; Simón, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Current knowledge about mammalian germ line development is mainly based on the mouse model and little is known about how this fundamental process occurs in humans. This review summarizes our current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic germ line development in mammals, mainly focusing on primordial germ cell (PGC) specification events, comparing the differences between mouse and human models. We also emphasize the knowledge derived from the most successful strategies used to generate germ cell-like cells in vitro in both models and major obstacles to obtaining bona fide in vitro-derived gametes are considered. PMID:25461452

  15. Embryonic germ cell lines and their derivation from mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Labosky, P A; Barlow, D P; Hogan, B L

    1994-01-01

    When primordial germ cells of the mouse are cultured on feeder layers with the addition of the polypeptide signalling molecules leukaemia inhibitory factor, Steel factor and basic fibroblast growth factor they give rise to cells that resemble undifferentiated blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells. These primordial germ cell-derived embryonic germ cells (EG cells) can be induced to differentiate extensively in culture and also form teratocarcinomas when injected into nude mice. Additionally, they contribute to chimeras when injected into host blastocysts. We have derived multiple EG cell lines from 8.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos of C57BL/6 inbred mice. Four independent EG cell lines with normal male karyotypes have formed chimeras (up to 70% coat colour chimerism) when injected into BALB/c host blastocysts. Chimeric mice from all four cell lines are fertile, but only those from one line have transmitted coat colour markers through the germline. Studies have also been carried out to determine whether gonadal primordial germ cells can give rise to pluripotent EG cells. Germ cells from gonads of 15.5 dpc C57BL/6 embryos and newborn mice failed to produce EG cell lines. EG cell lines capable of forming teratocarcinomas and coat colour chimeras have been established from primordial germ cells of 12.5 dpc genital ridges. We are currently testing the genomic imprinting status of the insulin-like growth factor type 2 receptor gene (Igf2r) in our different EG cell lines. PMID:7835148

  16. Origin and development of the germ line in sea stars.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M; Fresques, Tara; Kiyomoto, Masato; Yajima, Mamiko; Zazueta, Vanesa

    2014-05-01

    This review summarizes and integrates our current understanding of how sea stars make gametes. Although little is known of the mechanism of germ line formation in these animals, recent results point to specific cells and to cohorts of molecules in the embryos and larvae that may lay the ground work for future research efforts. A coelomic outpocketing forms in the posterior of the gut in larvae, referred to as the posterior enterocoel (PE), that when removed, significantly reduces the number of germ cell later in larval growth. This same PE structure also selectively accumulates several germ-line associated factors-vasa, nanos, piwi-and excludes factors involved in somatic cell fate. Since its formation is relatively late in development, these germ cells may form by inductive mechanisms. When integrated into the morphological observations of germ cells and gonad development in larvae, juveniles, and adults, the field of germ line determination appears to have a good model system to study inductive germ line determination to complement the recent work on the molecular mechanisms in mice. We hope this review will also guide investigators interested in germ line determination and regulation of the germ line into how these animals can help in this research field. The review is not intended to be comprehensive-sea star reproduction has been studied for over 100 years and many reviews are comprehensive in their coverage of, for example, seasonal growth of the gonads in response to light, nutrient, and temperature. Rather the intent of this review is to help the reader focus on new experimental results attached to the historical underpinnings of how the germ cell functions in sea stars with particular emphasis to clarify the important areas of priority for future research. PMID:24648114

  17. Programmed Genetic Instability: A Tumor-Permissive Mechanism for Maintaining the Evolvability of Higher Species through Methylation-Dependent Mutation of DNA Repair Genes in the Male Germ Line

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongzhong

    2008-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes are classified by their somatic behavior either as caretakers (CTs) that maintain DNA integrity or as gatekeepers (GKs) that regulate cell survival, but the germ line role of these disease-related gene subgroups may differ. To test this hypothesis, we have used genomic data mining to compare the features of human CTs (n = 38), GKs (n = 36), DNA repair genes (n = 165), apoptosis genes (n = 622), and their orthologs. This analysis reveals that repair genes are numerically less common than apoptosis genes in the genomes of multicellular organisms (P < 0.01), whereas CT orthologs are commoner than GK orthologs in unicellular organisms (P < 0.05). Gene targeting data show that CTs are less essential than GKs for survival of multicellular organisms (P < 0.0005) and that CT knockouts often permit offspring viability at the cost of male sterility. Patterns of human familial oncogenic mutations confirm that isolated CT loss is commoner than is isolated GK loss (P < 0.00001). In sexually reproducing species, CTs appear subject to less efficient purifying selection (i.e., higher Ka/Ks) than GKs (P = 0.000003); the faster evolution of CTs seems likely to be mediated by gene methylation and reduced transcription-coupled repair, based on differences in dinucleotide patterns (P = 0.001). These data suggest that germ line CT/repair gene function is relatively dispensable for survival, and imply that milder (e.g., epimutational) male prezygotic repair defects could enhance sperm variation—and hence environmental adaptation and speciation—while sparing fertility. We submit that CTs and repair genes are general targets for epigenetically initiated adaptive evolution, and propose a model in which human cancers arise in part as an evolutionarily programmed side effect of age- and damage-inducible genetic instability affecting both somatic and germ line lineages. PMID:18535014

  18. Impact of gut microbiota on the fly's germ line.

    PubMed

    Elgart, Michael; Stern, Shay; Salton, Orit; Gnainsky, Yulia; Heifetz, Yael; Soen, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Unlike vertically transmitted endosymbionts, which have broad effects on their host's germ line, the extracellular gut microbiota is transmitted horizontally and is not known to influence the germ line. Here we provide evidence supporting the influence of these gut bacteria on the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. Removal of the gut bacteria represses oogenesis, expedites maternal-to-zygotic-transition in the offspring and unmasks hidden phenotypic variation in mutants. We further show that the main impact on oogenesis is linked to the lack of gut Acetobacter species, and we identify the Drosophila Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) gene as an apparent mediator of repressed oogenesis in Acetobacter-depleted flies. The finding of interactions between the gut microbiota and the germ line has implications for reproduction, developmental robustness and adaptation. PMID:27080728

  19. Impact of gut microbiota on the fly's germ line

    PubMed Central

    Elgart, Michael; Stern, Shay; Salton, Orit; Gnainsky, Yulia; Heifetz, Yael; Soen, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Unlike vertically transmitted endosymbionts, which have broad effects on their host's germ line, the extracellular gut microbiota is transmitted horizontally and is not known to influence the germ line. Here we provide evidence supporting the influence of these gut bacteria on the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. Removal of the gut bacteria represses oogenesis, expedites maternal-to-zygotic-transition in the offspring and unmasks hidden phenotypic variation in mutants. We further show that the main impact on oogenesis is linked to the lack of gut Acetobacter species, and we identify the Drosophila Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) gene as an apparent mediator of repressed oogenesis in Acetobacter-depleted flies. The finding of interactions between the gut microbiota and the germ line has implications for reproduction, developmental robustness and adaptation. PMID:27080728

  20. A germ cell determinant reveals parallel pathways for germ line development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mainpal, Rana; Nance, Jeremy; Yanowitz, Judith L

    2015-10-15

    Despite the central importance of germ cells for transmission of genetic material, our understanding of the molecular programs that control primordial germ cell (PGC) specification and differentiation are limited. Here, we present findings that X chromosome NonDisjunction factor-1 (XND-1), known for its role in regulating meiotic crossover formation, is an early determinant of germ cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. xnd-1 mutant embryos display a novel 'one PGC' phenotype as a result of G2 cell cycle arrest of the P4 blastomere. Larvae and adults display smaller germ lines and reduced brood size consistent with a role for XND-1 in germ cell proliferation. Maternal XND-1 proteins are found in the P4 lineage and are exclusively localized to the nucleus in PGCs, Z2 and Z3. Zygotic XND-1 turns on shortly thereafter, at the ∼300-cell stage, making XND-1 the earliest zygotically expressed gene in worm PGCs. Strikingly, a subset of xnd-1 mutants lack germ cells, a phenotype shared with nos-2, a member of the conserved Nanos family of germline determinants. We generated a nos-2 null allele and show that nos-2; xnd-1 double mutants display synthetic sterility. Further removal of nos-1 leads to almost complete sterility, with the vast majority of animals without germ cells. Sterility in xnd-1 mutants is correlated with an increase in transcriptional activation-associated histone modification and aberrant expression of somatic transgenes. Together, these data strongly suggest that xnd-1 defines a new branch for PGC development that functions redundantly with nos-2 and nos-1 to promote germline fates by maintaining transcriptional quiescence and regulating germ cell proliferation. PMID:26395476

  1. Development without germ cells: the role of the germ line in zebrafish sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Slanchev, Krasimir; Stebler, Jürg; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo; Raz, Erez

    2005-03-15

    The progenitors of the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are typically specified early in the development in positions, which are distinct from the gonad. These cells then migrate toward the gonad where they differentiate into sperms and eggs. Here, we study the role of the germ cells in somatic development and particularly the role of the germ line in the sex differentiation in zebrafish. To this end, we ablated the germ cells using two independent methods and followed the development of the experimental fish. First, PGCs were ablated by knocking down the function of dead end, a gene important for the survival of this lineage. Second, a method to eliminate the PGCs using the toxin-antitoxin components of the parD bacterial genetic system was used. Specifically, we expressed a bacterial toxin Kid preferentially in the PGCs and at the same time protected somatic cells by uniformly expressing the specific antidote Kis. Our results demonstrate an unexpected role for the germ line in promoting female development because PGC-ablated fish invariably developed as males. PMID:15728735

  2. Development without germ cells: The role of the germ line in zebrafish sex differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Slanchev, Krasimir; Stebler, Jürg; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo; Raz, Erez

    2005-01-01

    The progenitors of the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are typically specified early in the development in positions, which are distinct from the gonad. These cells then migrate toward the gonad where they differentiate into sperms and eggs. Here, we study the role of the germ cells in somatic development and particularly the role of the germ line in the sex differentiation in zebrafish. To this end, we ablated the germ cells using two independent methods and followed the development of the experimental fish. First, PGCs were ablated by knocking down the function of dead end, a gene important for the survival of this lineage. Second, a method to eliminate the PGCs using the toxin–antitoxin components of the parD bacterial genetic system was used. Specifically, we expressed a bacterial toxin Kid preferentially in the PGCs and at the same time protected somatic cells by uniformly expressing the specific antidote Kis. Our results demonstrate an unexpected role for the germ line in promoting female development because PGC-ablated fish invariably developed as males. PMID:15728735

  3. Germ cell DNA quantification shortly after IR laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, D; Carrasco, F; Diaz, F; Perez-de-Vargas, I

    1991-01-01

    The immediate effect of IR laser radiation on rat germ cells was studied by cytophotometric quantification of the nuclear DNA content in testicular sections. Two different levels of radiation were studied: one according to clinical application (28.05 J/cm2) and another known to increase the germ cell number (46.80 J/cm2). The laser beam induced changes in the germ cell DNA content depending on the cell type, the cell cycle phase and the doses of radiation energy applied. Following irradiation at both doses the percentage of spermatogonia showing a 4c DNA content was increased, while the percentage of these with a 2c DNA content was decreased. Likewise, the percentages of primary spermatocytes with a DNA content equal to 4c (at 28.05 J/cm2), between 2c and 4c (at 46.80 J/cm2) and higher than 4c (at both doses) were increased. No change in the mean spermatid DNA content was observed. Nevertheless, at 46.80 J/cm2 the percentages of elongated spermatids with a c or 2c DNA content differed from the controls. Data show that, even at laser radiation doses used in therapy, the germ cell DNA content is increased shortly after IR laser radiation. PMID:1772145

  4. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  5. The Epigenetics of Germ-line Immortality: Lessons from an Elegant Model System

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Hirofumi; Kelly, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to help regulate the unique transcription program that is established in germ cell development. During the germline cycle of many organisms, the epigenome undergoes waves of extensive resetting events, while a part of epigenetic modification remains faithful to specific loci. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these events, how loci are selected for, or avoid, reprogramming, or even why these events are required. In particular, although the significance of genomic imprinting phenomena involving DNA methylation in mammals is now well accepted, the role of histone modification as a transgenerational epigenetic mechanism has been the subject of debate. Such epigenetic mechanisms may help regulate transcription programs and / or the pluripotent status conferred on germ cells, and contribute to germ line continuity across generations. Recent studies provide new evidence for heritability of histone modifications through germ line cells and its potential effects on transcription regulation both in the soma and germ line of subsequent generations. Unraveling transgenerational epigenetic mechanisms involving highly conserved histone modifications in elegant model systems will accelerate the generation of new paradigms and inspire research in a wide variety of fields, including basic developmental studies and clinical stem cell research. PMID:20646025

  6. GERM-LINE SPECIFIC FACTORS IN CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical mutagenesis test results ave not revealed evidence of germ-line specific mutagens. owever, conventional assays have indicated that there are male-female differences in mutagenic response, as well as quantitative/qualitative differences in induced mutations which depend u...

  7. Germ-line gene therapy and the medical imperative.

    PubMed

    Munson, Ronald; Davis, Lawrence H

    1992-06-01

    Somatic cell gene therapy has yielded promising results. If germ cell gene therapy can be developed, the promise is even greater: hundreds of genetic diseases might be virtually eliminated. But some claim the procedure is morally unacceptable. We thoroughly and sympathetically examine several possible reasons for this claim but find them inadequate. There is no moral reason, then, not to develop and employ germ-line gene therapy. Taking the offensive, we argue next that medicine has a prima facie moral obligation to do so. PMID:11645742

  8. Mechanisms of germ line genome instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoyoung; Peterson, Shaun E; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2016-06-01

    During meiosis, numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed as part of the normal developmental program. This seemingly destructive behavior is necessary for successful meiosis, since repair of the DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) helps to produce physical links between the homologous chromosomes essential for correct chromosome segregation later in meiosis. However, DSB formation at such a massive scale also introduces opportunities to generate gross chromosomal rearrangements. In this review, we explore ways in which meiotic DSBs can result in such genomic alterations. PMID:26880205

  9. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  10. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, S.; Whyte, J.; Taylor, L.; Sherman, A.; Nair, V.; Kaiser, P.; McGrew, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- (MHC-) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  11. Selective accumulation of germ-line associated gene products in early development of the sea star and distinct differences from germ-line development in the sea urchin

    PubMed Central

    Fresques, Tara; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Reich, Adrian; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Echinodermata is a diverse Phylum, a sister group to chordates, and contains diverse organisms that may be useful to understand varied mechanisms of germ-line specification. Results We tested 23 genes in development of the sea star Patiria miniata that fall into five categories: 1) Conserved germ-line factors; 2) Genes involved in the inductive mechanism of germ-line specification; 3) Germ-line associated genes; 4) Molecules involved in left-right asymmetry; and 5) Genes involved in regulation and maintenance of the genome during early embryogenesis. Overall, our results support the contention that the posterior enterocoel is a source of the germ line in the sea star P. miniata. Conclusion The germ line in this organism appears to be specified late in embryogenesis, and in a pattern more consistent with inductive interactions amongst cells. This is distinct from the mechanism seen in sea urchins, a close relative of the sea star clad. We propose that P. miniata may serve as a valuable model to study inductive mechanisms of germ-cell specification and when compared to germ-line formation in the sea urchin S. purpuratus may reveal developmental transitions that occur in the evolution of inherited and inductive mechanisms of germ-line specification. PMID:24038550

  12. Pituitary blastoma: a pathognomonic feature of germ-line DICER1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    de Kock, Leanne; Sabbaghian, Nelly; Plourde, François; Srivastava, Archana; Weber, Evan; Soglio, Dorothée Bouron-Dal; Hamel, Nancy; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Park, Sung-Hye; Deal, Cheri L.; Kelsey, Megan M.; Dishop, Megan K.; Esbenshade, Adam; Kuttesch, John F.; Jacques, Thomas S.; Perry, Arie; Leichter, Heinz; Maeder, Philippe; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Warner, Justin; Neal, James; Zacharin, Margaret; Korbonits, Márta; Cole, Trevor; Traunecker, Heidi; McLean, Thomas W.; Rotondo, Fabio; Lepage, Pierre; Albrecht, Steffen; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman; Priest, John R.; Foulkes, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals harboring germ-line DICER1 mutations are predisposed to a rare cancer syndrome, the DICER1 Syndrome or pleuropulmonary blastoma-familial tumor and dysplasia syndrome [online Mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM) #601200]. In addition, specific somatic mutations in the DICER1 RNase III catalytic domain have been identified in several DICER1-associated tumor types. Pituitary blastoma (PitB) was identified as a distinct entity in 2008, and is a very rare, potentially lethal early childhood tumor of the pituitary gland. Since the discovery by our team of an inherited mutation in DICER1 in a child with PitB in 2011, we have identified 12 additional PitB cases. We aimed to determine the contribution of germ-line and somatic DICER1 mutations to PitB. We hypothesized that PitB is a pathognomonic feature of a germ-line DICER1 mutation and that each PitB will harbor a second somatic mutation in DICER1. Lymphocyte or saliva DNA samples ascertained from ten infants with PitB were screened and nine were found to harbor a heterozygous germ-line DICER1 mutation. We identified additional DICER1 mutations in nine of ten tested PitB tumor samples, eight of which were confirmed to be somatic in origin. Seven of these mutations occurred within the RNase IIIb catalytic domain, a domain essential to the generation of 5p miRNAs from the 5′ arm of miRNA-precursors. Germ-line DICER1 mutations are a major contributor to PitB. Second somatic DICER1 “hits” occurring within the RNase IIIb domain also appear to be critical in PitB pathogenesis. PMID:24839956

  13. Genetic disorders and the ethical status of germ-line gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Berger, E M; Gert, B M

    1991-12-01

    Recombinant DNA technology will soon allow physicians an opportunity to carry out both somatic cell- and germ-line gene therapy. While somatic cell gene therapy raises no new ethical problems, gene therapy of gametes, fertilized eggs or early embryos does raise several novel concerns. The first issue discussed here relates to making a distinction between negative and positive eugenics; the second issue deals with the evolutionary consequences of lost genetic diversity. In distinguishing between positive and negative eugenics, the concept of malady is applied as a definitional criterion for identifying genetic disorders that could qualify for germ-line therapy. Because gene replacement techniques are currently unavailable for humans, and because even if they were possible the number of people involved would be quite small, the loss of diversity concern seems moot. Finally, we discuss the issue of iatrogenic disorders associated with gene therapy and discuss several 'real world considerations.' PMID:1787394

  14. Sex-lethal, master and slave: a hierarchy of germ-line sex determination in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Oliver, B; Kim, Y J; Baker, B S

    1993-11-01

    Female sex determination in the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by genes functioning in the soma as well as genes that function within the germ line. Genes known or suspected to be involved in germ-line sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster have been examined to determine if they are required upstream or downstream of Sex-lethal+, a known germ-line sex determination gene. Seven genes required for female-specific splicing of germ-line Sex-lethal+ pre-mRNA are identified. These results together with information about the tissues in which these genes function and whether they control sex determination and viability or just sex determination in the germ line have been used to deduce the genetic hierarchy regulating female germ-line sex determination. This hierarchy includes the somatic sex determination genes transformer+, transformer-2+ and doublesex+ (and by inference Sex-lethal+), which control a somatic signal required for female germ-line sex determination, and the germ-line ovarian tumor genes fused+, ovarian tumor+, ovo+, sans fille+, and Sex-lethal+, which are involved in either the reception or interpretation of this somatic sex determination signal. The fused+, ovarian tumor+, ovo+ and sans fille+ genes function upstream of Sex-lethal+ in the germ line. PMID:8187645

  15. Reevaluation of whether a soma-to-germ-line transformation extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Andrew Kekūpa'a; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan

    2016-03-29

    The germ lineage is considered to be immortal. In the quest to extend lifespan, a possible strategy is to drive germ-line traits in somatic cells, to try to confer some of the germ lineage's immortality on the somatic body. Notably, a study in Caenorhabditis elegans suggested that expression of germ-line genes in the somatic cells of long-lived daf-2 mutants confers some of daf-2's long lifespan. Specifically, mRNAs encoding components of C. elegans germ granules (P granules) were up-regulated in daf-2 mutant worms, and knockdown of individual P-granule and other germ-line genes in daf-2 young adults modestly reduced their lifespan. We investigated the contribution of a germ-line program to daf-2's long lifespan and also tested whether other mutants known to express germ-line genes in their somatic cells are long-lived. Our key findings are as follows. (i) We could not detect P-granule proteins in the somatic cells of daf-2 mutants by immunostaining or by expression of a P-granule transgene. (ii) Whole-genome transcript profiling of animals lacking a germ line revealed that germ-line transcripts are not up-regulated in the soma of daf-2 worms compared with the soma of control worms. (iii) Simultaneous removal of multiple P-granule proteins or the entire germ-line program from daf-2 worms did not reduce their lifespan. (iv) Several mutants that robustly express a broad spectrum of germ-line genes in their somatic cells are not long-lived. Together, our findings argue against the hypothesis that acquisition of a germ-cell program in somatic cells increases lifespan and contributes to daf-2's long lifespan. PMID:26976573

  16. MIWI2 as an Effector of DNA Methylation and Gene Silencing in Embryonic Male Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Kita, Kanako; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Nagamori, Ippei; Ogonuki, Narumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Akazawa, Takashi; Inoue, Norimitsu; Nakano, Toru

    2016-09-13

    During the development of mammalian embryonic germ cells, global demethylation and de novo DNA methylation take place. In mouse embryonic germ cells, two PIWI family proteins, MILI and MIWI2, are essential for the de novo DNA methylation of retrotransposons, presumably through PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Although piRNA-associated MIWI2 has been reported to play critical roles in the process, its molecular mechanisms have remained unclear. To identify the mechanism, transgenic mice were produced; they contained a fusion protein of MIWI2 and a zinc finger (ZF) that recognized the promoter region of a type A LINE-1 gene. The ZF-MIWI2 fusion protein brought about DNA methylation, suppression of the type A LINE-1 gene, and a partial rescue of the impaired spermatogenesis of MILI-null mice. In addition, ZF-MIWI2 was associated with the proteins involved in DNA methylation. These data indicate that MIWI2 functions as an effector of de novo DNA methylation of the retrotransposon. PMID:27626653

  17. Significance of DNA quantification in testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Codesal, J; Paniagua, R; Regadera, J; Fachal, C; Nistal, M

    1991-01-01

    A cytophotometric quantification of DNA in tumor cells was performed in histological sections of orchidectomy specimens from 36 men with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), 7 of them showing more than one tumor type. Among the variants of seminoma (classic and spermatocytic) the lowest DNA content were in spermatocytic seminoma. With respect to non-seminomatous tumors (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma), choriocarcinomas showed the highest DNA content, and the lowest value was found in teratomas. No significant differences were found between the average DNA content of seminomas (all types) and non-seminomatous tumors (all types). Both embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor showed similar DNA content when they were the sole tumor and when they were found associated with other tumors. In this study, except for the 4 cases of teratoma and the case of spermatocytic seminoma, all TGCT examined did not show modal values of DNA content in the diploid range. Such an elevated frequency of aneuploidism in these tumors may be helpful for their diagnosis. PMID:1666273

  18. Genetic Evidence That the Ovo Locus Is Involved in Drosophila Germ Line Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, B.; Pauli, D.; Mahowald, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    Zygotically contributed ovo gene product is required for the survival of female germ cells in Drosophila melanogaster. Trans-allelic combinations of weak and dominant ovo mutations (ovo(D)) result in viable germ cells that appear to be partially transformed from female to male sexual identity. The ovo(D2) mutation is partially suppressed by many Sex-lethal alleles that affect the soma, while those that affect only the germ line fail to interact with ovo(D2). One of two loss-of-function ovo alleles is suppressed by a loss-of-function Sex-lethal allele. Because ovo mutations are germ line dependent, it is likely that ovo is suppressed by way of communication between the somatic and germ lines. A loss-of-function allele of ovo is epistatic to germ line dependent mutations in Sex-lethal. The germ line dependent sex determination mutation, sans fille, and ovo(D) mutations show a dominant synergistic interaction resulting in partial transformation of germ line sexual identity. The ovo locus appears to be involved in germ line sex determination and is linked in some manner to sex determination in the soma. PMID:2116356

  19. Germ-line deletion in DICER1 revealed by a novel MLPA assay using synthetic oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Sabbaghian, Nelly; Srivastava, Archana; Hamel, Nancy; Plourde, François; Gajtko-Metera, Malgorzata; Niedziela, Marek; Foulkes, William D

    2014-04-01

    DICER1 is an endoribonuclease responsible for the production of mature microRNAs which are small, single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to mRNA and repressing the expression of target genes. Germ-line mutations in DICER1 are responsible for a rare cancer syndrome, including tumors that can co-occur with multinodular goiter (MNG). Using Sanger sequencing, we screened all DICER1 exons and intron boundaries in 20 suspected mutation carriers: nine with ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (including Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs)), five with pleuropulmonary blastoma, one with cystic nephroma, one with nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma and four with more than one manifestation suggestive of a germ-line DICER1 mutation. All were negative for any apparently deleterious variants. We developed a Multiplex Ligation-based Probe Amplification assay for DICER1 to screen for large deletions or duplications. Synthetic oligonucleotides were designed to cover all exons in three probe-mixes. In a child with a SLCT and MNG, and in her mother and brother (both diagnosed with MNG), we identified a heterozygous germ-line deletion of approximately 3 kilobases that eliminates exon 21 of DICER1 and two-thirds of intron 21, accompanied by an insertion of a G nucleotide at the 3' end of the deletion (c.3270-6_4051-1280delinsG). This allele is expressed in the patient's cDNA, creating an out-of-frame deletion predicted to result in a truncated protein (r.3270_4050del; p.Tyr1091Ser*28). Our novel finding of a disease-causing large deletion in DICER1 emphasizes the need to include assays that can detect rearrangements, duplications and deletions in any DICER1 screening protocol. PMID:24065110

  20. Germ-line deletion in DICER1 revealed by a novel MLPA assay using synthetic oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Sabbaghian, Nelly; Srivastava, Archana; Hamel, Nancy; Plourde, François; Gajtko-Metera, Malgorzata; Niedziela, Marek; Foulkes, William D

    2014-01-01

    DICER1 is an endoribonuclease responsible for the production of mature microRNAs which are small, single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to mRNA and repressing the expression of target genes. Germ-line mutations in DICER1 are responsible for a rare cancer syndrome, including tumors that can co-occur with multinodular goiter (MNG). Using Sanger sequencing, we screened all DICER1 exons and intron boundaries in 20 suspected mutation carriers: nine with ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (including Sertoli–Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs)), five with pleuropulmonary blastoma, one with cystic nephroma, one with nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma and four with more than one manifestation suggestive of a germ-line DICER1 mutation. All were negative for any apparently deleterious variants. We developed a Multiplex Ligation-based Probe Amplification assay for DICER1 to screen for large deletions or duplications. Synthetic oligonucleotides were designed to cover all exons in three probe-mixes. In a child with a SLCT and MNG, and in her mother and brother (both diagnosed with MNG), we identified a heterozygous germ-line deletion of approximately 3 kilobases that eliminates exon 21 of DICER1 and two-thirds of intron 21, accompanied by an insertion of a G nucleotide at the 3′ end of the deletion (c.3270-6_4051-1280delinsG). This allele is expressed in the patient's cDNA, creating an out-of-frame deletion predicted to result in a truncated protein (r.3270_4050del; p.Tyr1091Ser*28). Our novel finding of a disease-causing large deletion in DICER1 emphasizes the need to include assays that can detect rearrangements, duplications and deletions in any DICER1 screening protocol. PMID:24065110

  1. Augmented Binary Substitution: Single-pass CDR germ-lining and stabilization of therapeutic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Sue; Fennell, Brian J.; Apgar, James R.; Lambert, Matthew; McDonnell, Barry; Grant, Joanne; Wade, Jason; Franklin, Edward; Foy, Niall; Ní Shúilleabháin, Deirdre; Fields, Conor; Darmanin-Sheehan, Alfredo; King, Amy; Paulsen, Janet E.; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Cunningham, Orla; Finlay, William J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Although humanized antibodies have been highly successful in the clinic, all current humanization techniques have potential limitations, such as: reliance on rodent hosts, immunogenicity due to high non-germ-line amino acid content, v-domain destabilization, expression and formulation issues. This study presents a technology that generates stable, soluble, ultrahumanized antibodies via single-step complementarity-determining region (CDR) germ-lining. For three antibodies from three separate key immune host species, binary substitution CDR cassettes were inserted into preferred human frameworks to form libraries in which only the parental or human germ-line destination residue was encoded at each position. The CDR-H3 in each case was also augmented with 1 ± 1 random substitution per clone. Each library was then screened for clones with restored antigen binding capacity. Lead ultrahumanized clones demonstrated high stability, with affinity and specificity equivalent to, or better than, the parental IgG. Critically, this was mainly achieved on germ-line frameworks by simultaneously subtracting up to 19 redundant non-germ-line residues in the CDRs. This process significantly lowered non-germ-line sequence content, minimized immunogenicity risk in the final molecules and provided a heat map for the essential non-germ-line CDR residue content of each antibody. The ABS technology therefore fully optimizes the clinical potential of antibodies from rodents and alternative immune hosts, rendering them indistinguishable from fully human in a simple, single-pass process. PMID:26621728

  2. Augmented Binary Substitution: Single-pass CDR germ-lining and stabilization of therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Sue; Fennell, Brian J; Apgar, James R; Lambert, Matthew; McDonnell, Barry; Grant, Joanne; Wade, Jason; Franklin, Edward; Foy, Niall; Ní Shúilleabháin, Deirdre; Fields, Conor; Darmanin-Sheehan, Alfredo; King, Amy; Paulsen, Janet E; Hickling, Timothy P; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Cunningham, Orla; Finlay, William J J

    2015-12-15

    Although humanized antibodies have been highly successful in the clinic, all current humanization techniques have potential limitations, such as: reliance on rodent hosts, immunogenicity due to high non-germ-line amino acid content, v-domain destabilization, expression and formulation issues. This study presents a technology that generates stable, soluble, ultrahumanized antibodies via single-step complementarity-determining region (CDR) germ-lining. For three antibodies from three separate key immune host species, binary substitution CDR cassettes were inserted into preferred human frameworks to form libraries in which only the parental or human germ-line destination residue was encoded at each position. The CDR-H3 in each case was also augmented with 1 ± 1 random substitution per clone. Each library was then screened for clones with restored antigen binding capacity. Lead ultrahumanized clones demonstrated high stability, with affinity and specificity equivalent to, or better than, the parental IgG. Critically, this was mainly achieved on germ-line frameworks by simultaneously subtracting up to 19 redundant non-germ-line residues in the CDRs. This process significantly lowered non-germ-line sequence content, minimized immunogenicity risk in the final molecules and provided a heat map for the essential non-germ-line CDR residue content of each antibody. The ABS technology therefore fully optimizes the clinical potential of antibodies from rodents and alternative immune hosts, rendering them indistinguishable from fully human in a simple, single-pass process. PMID:26621728

  3. Germ-line engineering, freedom, and future generations.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Elizabeth F

    2003-02-01

    New technologies in germ-line engineering have raised many questions about obligations to future generations. In this article, I focus on the importance of increasing freedom and the equality of freedom for present and future generations, because these two ideals are necessary for a just society and because they are most threatened by the wide-scale privatisation of GLE technologies. However, there are ambiguities in applying these ideals to the issue of genetic technologies. I argue that Amartya Sen's capability theory can be used as a framework to ensure freedom and equality in the use of GLE technology. Capability theory articulates the goal of equalising real freedom by bringing all people up to a threshold of basic human capabilities. Sen's capability theory can clarify the proper moral goal of GLE insofar as this technology could be used to bring people up to certain basic human capabilities, thereby increasing their real freedom. And by increasing the freedom of those who lack basic human capabilities, GLE can aid in decreasing the inequalities of freedom among classes of people. PMID:12718332

  4. Exome sequencing reveals recurrent germ line variants in patients with familial Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roccaro, Aldo M; Sacco, Antonio; Shi, Jiantao; Chiarini, Marco; Perilla-Glen, Adriana; Manier, Salomon; Glavey, Siobhan; Aljawai, Yosra; Mishima, Yuji; Kawano, Yawara; Moschetta, Michele; Correll, Mick; Improgo, Ma Reina; Brown, Jennifer R; Imberti, Luisa; Rossi, Giuseppe; Castillo, Jorge J; Treon, Steven P; Freedman, Matthew L; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Hide, Winston; Hiller, Elaine; Rainville, Irene; Ghobrial, Irene M

    2016-05-26

    Familial aggregation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) cases, and the clustering of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders among first-degree relatives of WM patients, has been reported. Nevertheless, the possible contribution of inherited susceptibility to familial WM remains unrevealed. We performed whole exome sequencing on germ line DNA obtained from 4 family members in which coinheritance for WM was documented in 3 of them, and screened additional independent 246 cases by using gene-specific mutation sequencing. Among the shared germ line variants, LAPTM5(c403t) and HCLS1(g496a) were the most recurrent, being present in 3/3 affected members of the index family, detected in 8% of the unrelated familial cases, and present in 0.5% of the nonfamilial cases and in <0.05 of a control population. LAPTM5 and HCLS1 appeared as relevant WM candidate genes that characterized familial WM individuals and were also functionally relevant to the tumor clone. These findings highlight potentially novel contributors for the genetic predisposition to familial WM and indicate that LAPTM5(c403t) and HCLS1(g496a) may represent predisposition alleles in patients with familial WM. PMID:26903547

  5. PRMT5 Protects Genomic Integrity during Global DNA Demethylation in Primordial Germ Cells and Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shinseog; Günesdogan, Ufuk; Zylicz, Jan J.; Hackett, Jamie A.; Cougot, Delphine; Bao, Siqin; Lee, Caroline; Dietmann, Sabine; Allen, George E.; Sengupta, Roopsha; Surani, M. Azim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Primordial germ cells (PGCs) and preimplantation embryos undergo epigenetic reprogramming, which includes comprehensive DNA demethylation. We found that PRMT5, an arginine methyltransferase, translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during this process. Here we show that conditional loss of PRMT5 in early PGCs causes complete male and female sterility, preceded by the upregulation of LINE1 and IAP transposons as well as activation of a DNA damage response. Similarly, loss of maternal-zygotic PRMT5 also leads to IAP upregulation. PRMT5 is necessary for the repressive H2A/H4R3me2s chromatin modification on LINE1 and IAP transposons in PGCs, directly implicating this modification in transposon silencing during DNA hypomethylation. PRMT5 translocates back to the cytoplasm subsequently, to participate in the previously described PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway that promotes transposon silencing via de novo DNA remethylation. Thus, PRMT5 is directly involved in genome defense during preimplantation development and in PGCs at the time of global DNA demethylation. PMID:25457166

  6. Functional studies of a germ-line polymorphism at codon 47 within the p53 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Felley-Bosco, E.; Weston, A.; Cawley, H.M.; Bennett, W.P.; Harris, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    A rare germ-line polymorphism in codon 47 of the p53 gene replaces the wild-type proline (CCG) with a serine (TCG). Restriction analysis of 101 human samples revealed the frequency of the rare allele to be 0% (n = 69) in Causasians and 4.7% (3/64, n = 32) among African-Americans. To investigate the consequence of this amino acid substitution, a cDNA construct (p53 mut47ser) containing the mutation was introduced into a lung adenocarcinoma cell line (Calu-6) that does not express p53. A growth suppression similar to that obtained after introduction of a wild-type p53 cDNA construct was observed, in contrast to the result obtained by introduction of p53 mut143ala. Furthermore, expression of neither p53 mut47ser nor wild-type p53 was tolerated by growing cells. In transient expression assays, both mut47ser and wild-type p53 activated the expression of a reporter gene linked to a p53 binding sequence (PG13-CAT) and inhibited the expression of the luciferase gene under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter (RSVluc). In the same assay, mut143ala did not activate the expression of PG13-CAT and produced only a slight inhibitory effect on RSVluc. These findings indicate that the p53 variant with a serine at codon 47 should be considered as a rare germ-line polymorphism that does not alter the growth-suppression activity of p53. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Three abundant germ line-specific transcripts in Volvox carteri encode photosynthetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Choi, G; Przybylska, M; Straus, D

    1996-09-01

    Volvox carteri is a multicellular eukaryotic green alga composed of about 2000 cells of only two differentiated types: somatic and germ line. To understand how embryonic cells are assigned either to somatic or germ line fates, we are investigating the regulation of transcripts that are abundant in only one cell type. Here we report the identity of three transcripts that are coordinately expressed at high levels in germ line cells but not in somatic cells. Surprisingly, all three transcripts encode photosynthetic chloroplast proteins (light-harvesting complex protein, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3, and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase) that are transcribed from nuclear genes. We discuss why these mRNAs might be required at high levels in germ line cells and present a hypothesis, suggested by our results, on the evolution of cell specialization in the Volvocales. PMID:8781179

  8. Mechano-logical model of C. elegans germ line suggests feedback on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Kathryn; Qin, Zhao; Gavaghan, David; Kugler, Hillel; Hubbard, E. Jane Albert; Osborne, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans germ line is an outstanding model system in which to study the control of cell division and differentiation. Although many of the molecules that regulate germ cell proliferation and fate decisions have been identified, how these signals interact with cellular dynamics and physical forces within the gonad remains poorly understood. We therefore developed a dynamic, 3D in silico model of the C. elegans germ line, incorporating both the mechanical interactions between cells and the decision-making processes within cells. Our model successfully reproduces key features of the germ line during development and adulthood, including a reasonable ovulation rate, correct sperm count, and appropriate organization of the germ line into stably maintained zones. The model highlights a previously overlooked way in which germ cell pressure may influence gonadogenesis, and also predicts that adult germ cells might be subject to mechanical feedback on the cell cycle akin to contact inhibition. We provide experimental data consistent with the latter hypothesis. Finally, we present cell trajectories and ancestry recorded over the course of a simulation. The novel approaches and software described here link mechanics and cellular decision-making, and are applicable to modeling other developmental and stem cell systems. PMID:26428008

  9. Germ-line mutations of the APC gene in 53 familial adenomatous polyposis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Y; Ando, H; Nagase, H; Nishisho, I; Horii, A; Miki, Y; Mori, T; Utsunomiya, J; Baba, S; Petersen, G

    1992-01-01

    We searched for germ-line mutations of the APC gene in 79 unrelated patients with familial adenomatous polyposis using a ribonuclease protection analysis coupled with polymerase chain reaction amplifications of genomic DNA. Mutations were found in 53 patients (67%); 28 of the mutations were small deletions and 2 were 1- to 2-base-pair insertions; 19 were point mutations resulting in stop codons and only 4 were missense point mutations. Thus, 92% of the mutations were predicted to result in truncations of the APC protein. More than two-thirds (68%) of the mutations were clustered in the 5' half of the last exon, and nearly two-fifths of the total mutations occurred at one of five positions. This information has significant implications for understanding the role of APC mutation in inherited forms of colorectal neoplasia and for designing effective methods for genetic counseling and presymptomatic diagnosis. Images PMID:1316610

  10. Conceptual links between DNA methylation reprogramming in the early embryo and primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Seisenberger, Stefanie; Peat, Julian R; Reik, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    DNA methylation is a carrier of important regulatory information that undergoes global reprogramming in the mammalian germ line, including pre-implantation embryos and primordial germ cells (PGCs). A flurry of recent studies have employed technical advances to generate global profiles of methylation and hydroxymethylation in these cells, unravelling the dynamics of methylation erasure at single locus resolution. Active demethylation in the zygote, involving extensive oxidation, is followed by passive loss over early cell divisions. Certain gamete-contributed methylation marks appear to have evolved non-canonical mechanisms for targeted maintenance of methylation in the face of these processes. These protected sequences include the imprinting control regions (ICRs) required for parental imprinting but also a surprising number of other regions. Such targeted maintenance mechanisms may also operate at certain sequences during early PGC migration when global passive demethylation occurs. In later gonadal PGCs, imprints must be reset and this may be achieved through the targeting of active mechanisms including oxidation. Thus, emerging evidence paints a complex picture whereby active and passive demethylation pathways operate synergistically and in parallel to ensure robust erasure in the early embryo and PGCs. PMID:23510682

  11. Beyond the Mouse Monopoly: Studying the Male Germ Line in Domestic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Dobrinski, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation of spermatogenesis and essential to maintain the continuous production of spermatozoa after the onset of puberty in the male. The study of the male germ line is important for understanding the process of spermatogenesis, unravelling mechanisms of stemness maintenance, cell differentiation, and cell-to-cell interactions. The transplantation of SSCs can contribute to the preservation of the genome of valuable individuals in assisted reproduction programs. In addition to the importance of SSCs for male fertility, their study has recently stimulated interest in the generation of genetically modified animals because manipulations of the male germ line at the SSC stage will be maintained in the long term and transmitted to the offspring. Studies performed mainly in the mouse model have laid the groundwork for facilitating advancements in the field of male germ line biology, but more progress is needed in nonrodent species in order to translate the technology to the agricultural and biomedical fields. The lack of reliable markers for isolating germ cells from testicular somatic cells and the lack of knowledge of the requirements for germ cell maintenance have precluded their long-term maintenance in domestic animals. Nevertheless, some progress has been made. In this review, we will focus on the state of the art in the isolation, characterization, culture, and manipulation of SSCs and the use of germ cell transplantation in domestic animals. PMID:25991701

  12. The dynamic changes of DNA methylation in primordial germ cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jiangquan; Hu, Junyuan

    2016-10-15

    The discovery of DNA methylation has provided a new perspective on how DNA may be dynamically regulated in the mammalian genome. DNA methylation is a dynamic process with a demethylation and de novo methylation from primordial germ cell to differentiation. DNA methylation and demethylation have been proposed to play important roles in somatic cell reprogramming. Some essential components were discussed, such as hydroxymethylation which has recently been confirmed as a modification of developmental importance. PMID:27320728

  13. The fog-3 gene and regulation of cell fate in the germ line of Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.; Kimble, J.

    1995-02-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, germ cells normally adopt one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. We have identified and characterized the gene fog-3, which is required for germ cells to differentiate as sperm rather than as oocytes. Analysis of double mutants suggests that fog-3 is absolutely required for spermatogenesis and acts at the end of the regulatory hierarchy controlling sex determination for the germ line. By contrast, mutations in fog-3 do not alter the sexual identity of other tissues. We also have characterized the null phenotype of fog-1, another gene required for spermatogenesis; we demonstrate that it too controls the sexual identity of germ cells but not of other tissues. Finally, we have studied the same interaction of these two fog genes with gld-1, a gene required for germ cells to undergo oogenesis rather than mitosis. On the basis of these results, we propose that germ-cell fate might be controlled by a set of inhibitory interactions among genes that specify one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Such a regulatory network would link the adoption of one germ-cell fate to the suppression of the other two. 68 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Germ-line p53 mutations in 15 families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Frebourg, T.; Barbier, N.; Yan, Yu-xin; Friend, S.H. |; Garber, J.E.; Dreyfus, M.; Li, F.P.; Fraumeni, J. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    Germ-line mutations of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 have been observed in some families with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a familial cancer syndrome in which affected relatives develop a diverse set of early-onset malignancies including breast carcinoma, sarcomas, and brain tumors. The analysis of the p53 gene in LFS families has been limited, in most studies to date, to the region between exon 5 and exon 9. In order to determine the frequency and distribution of germ-line p53 mutations in LFS, we sequenced the 10 coding exons of the p53 gene in lymphocytes and fibroblast cell lines derived from 14 families with the syndrome. Germ-line mutations were observed in eight families. Six mutations were missense mutations located between exons 5 and 8. One mutation was a nonsense mutation in exon 6, and one mutation was a splicing mutation in intron 4, generating aberrant shorter p53 RNA(s). In three families, a mutation of the p53 gene was observed in the fibroblast cell line derived from the proband. However, the mutation was not found in affected relatives in two families and in the blood from the one individual, indicating that the mutation probably occurred during cell culture in vitro. In four families, no mutation was observed. This study indicates that germ-line p53 mutations in LFS are mostly located between exons 5 and 8 and that {approximately}50% of patients with LFS have no germ-line mutations in the coding region of the p53 gene. The observation of p53 mutations occurring during primary cultures of human fibroblasts shows that analysis for germ-line p53 mutations must be performed on cells that have not been grown in vitro. 49 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Female mice lack adult germ-line stem cells but sustain oogenesis using stable primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C

    2013-05-21

    Whether or not mammalian females generate new oocytes during adulthood from germ-line stem cells to sustain the ovarian follicle pool has recently generated controversy. We used a sensitive lineage-labeling system to determine whether stem cells are needed in female adult mice to compensate for follicular losses and to directly identify active germ-line stem cells. Primordial follicles generated during fetal life are highly stable, with a half-life during adulthood of 10 mo, and thus are sufficient to sustain adult oogenesis without a source of renewal. Moreover, in normal mice or following germ-cell depletion with Busulfan, only stable, single oocytes are lineage-labeled, rather than cell clusters indicative of new oocyte formation. Even one germ-line stem cell division per 2 wk would have been detected by our method, based on the kinetics of fetal follicle formation. Thus, adult female mice neither require nor contain active germ-line stem cells or produce new oocytes in vivo. PMID:23630252

  16. Human somatic cells subjected to genetic induction with six germ line-related factors display meiotic germ cell-like features

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Jose V.; Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M.; Míguez, Jose M.; Moreno, Inmaculada; Martínez, Sebastián; Quiñonero, Alicia; Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Marqués-Marí, Ana I.; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, Jose; Simón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro derivation of human germ cells has attracted interest in the last years, but their direct conversion from human somatic cells has not yet been reported. Here we tested the ability of human male somatic cells to directly convert into a meiotic germ cell-like phenotype by inducing them with a combination of selected key germ cell developmental factors. We started with a pool of 12 candidates that were reduced to 6, demonstrating that ectopic expression of the germ line-related genes PRDM1, PRDM14, LIN28A, DAZL, VASA and SYCP3 induced direct conversion of somatic cells (hFSK (46, XY), and hMSC (46, XY)) into a germ cell-like phenotype in vitro. Induced germ cell-like cells showed a marked switch in their transcriptomic profile and expressed several post-meiotic germ line related markers, showed meiotic progression, evidence of epigenetic reprogramming, and approximately 1% were able to complete meiosis as demonstrated by their haploid status and the expression of several post-meiotic markers. Furthermore, xenotransplantation assays demonstrated that a subset of induced cells properly colonize the spermatogonial niche. Knowledge obtained from this work can be used to create in vitro models to study gamete-related diseases in humans. PMID:27112843

  17. P granules extend the nuclear pore complex environment in the C. elegans germ line

    PubMed Central

    Updike, Dustin L.; Hachey, Stephanie J.; Kreher, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The immortal and totipotent properties of the germ line depend on determinants within the germ plasm. A common characteristic of germ plasm across phyla is the presence of germ granules, including P granules in Caenorhabditis elegans, which are typically associated with the nuclear periphery. In C. elegans, nuclear pore complex (NPC)–like FG repeat domains are found in the VASA-related P-granule proteins GLH-1, GLH-2, and GLH-4 and other P-granule components. We demonstrate that P granules, like NPCs, are held together by weak hydrophobic interactions and establish a size-exclusion barrier. Our analysis of intestine-expressed proteins revealed that GLH-1 and its FG domain are not sufficient to form granules, but require factors like PGL-1 to nucleate the localized concentration of GLH proteins. GLH-1 is necessary but not sufficient for the perinuclear location of granules in the intestine. Our results suggest that P granules extend the NPC environment in the germ line and provide insights into the roles of the PGL and GLH family proteins. PMID:21402789

  18. Spondyloepiphseal dysplasia congenita in siblings born to unaffected parents: ? germ line mosaicism

    SciTech Connect

    Mulla, W.; McDonald-McGinn, D.; Zackai, E.

    1994-09-01

    Germ line mosaicism has been used to explain the birth of more than one child affected with a dominantly inherited disorder born to unaffected parents. Furthermore, it has been confirmed clinically in families where recurrence in siblings was originally thought to be autosomal recessive, but were affected individuals have reproduced affected offspring. Firm evidence of germ line mosaicism using mutation analysis by molecular methods exists for some autosomal disorders. We present two siblings with spondyloepipheseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) born to unaffected parents. This suggests the presence of germ line mosaicism in this entity. Patient 1 was born at 32 weeks gestation to a G1P1 Puerto Rican mother. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. The neonate, a short-limbed dwarf, died at 15 hours of age from respiratory distress and a compromised thoracic cavity. Patient 2, the sibling of patient 1 was born at 37 weeks gestation after a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios and prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of short-limbed dwarfism. The diagnosis of SEDC was made and, after review of the sibling`s postmortem X-rays, it was felt that she was similarly affected. The family history reveals no history of dwarfism or consanguinity. The SEDC is described as an autosomal dominant form of dwarfism with variable presentation including some cases that have been lethal in the neonatal period. SEDC is now believed to represent a family of collagen II mutations. Sporadic cases that have arisen in families with no history have been ascribed to new heterozygous mutations. Other families in which SEDC and SEMD recurred without a family history most likely represent germ line mosaicism. In these cases molecular studies should be pursued to document a collagen II mutation. We believe that germ line mosaicism is the most plausible explanation for recurrence in our family.

  19. Somatic and germ-line mosaicism in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Pei-Wen; Lee, Ni-Chung; Chien, Nancy; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Spector, Elaine; Tsai, Anne Chun-Hui

    2009-07-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease and is characterized by mental retardation, distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and great toes, short stature, and growth retardation. CREBBP and EP300 are the only genes currently known to be associated with RSTS. Mutations in CREBBP and EP300 were identified in approximately 50% and 3% of RSTS patients, respectively. To date, most of CREBBP mutations were de novo mutations and the recurrence rate in a family was low. Families with more than one affected child are extremely rare. In this study, we have shown a family with two affected siblings; the same mutation was found in both siblings. However, the mutation was not found in the blood or saliva DNA samples from the parents, suggesting the mechanism of germ-line mosaicism. In addition, we identified low-level mosaicism of a CREBBP mutation in the father from a second family with one affected child. Among the three analyzed tissue samples from the father, low-level mosaicism is present only significantly in the blood sample. We hypothesize mutations in CREBBP in these two families occur in the postzygotic stage in one of the parents (one generation ahead) of the affected individual. Additional family studies are required to determine how common somatic and/or gonadal mosaicism is present in RSTS patients. PMID:19533794

  20. Effects of stress and aging on ribonucleoprotein assembly and function in the germ line

    PubMed Central

    Schisa, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    In a variety of cell types, ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes play critical roles in regulating RNA metabolism. The germ line contains RNPs found also in somatic cells, such as processing (P) bodies and stress granules, as well as several RNPs unique to the germ line, including germ granules, nuage, Balbiani bodies, P granules, U bodies, and sponge bodies. Recent advances have identified a conserved response of germ line RNPs to environmental stresses such as nutritional stress and heat shock. The RNPs increase significantly in size based on cytology; their morphology and subcellular localization changes, and their composition changes. These dynamic changes are reversible when stresses diminish, and similar changes occur in response to aging or extended meiotic arrest prior to fertilization of oocytes. Intriguing correlations exist between the dynamics of the RNPs and the microtubule cytoskeleton and its motor proteins, suggesting a possible mechanism for the assembly and dissociation of the large RNP granules. Similarly, coordinated changes of the nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum may also help unravel the regulatory mechanisms of RNP dynamics. Based on their composition, the RNPs are thought to regulate mRNA decay and/or translation, and initial support for some of these roles is now at hand. Ultimately, the question of why RNP remodeling occurs to such a large extent during a variety of stresses and aging remains to be fully answered, but a current attractive hypothesis is that the plasticity promotes the maintenance of oocyte quality. PMID:24523207

  1. Identification of Grandchildless Loci Whose Products Are Required for Normal Germ-Line Development in the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Capowski, E. E.; Martin, P.; Garvin, C.; Strome, S.

    1991-01-01

    To identify genes that encode maternal components required for development of the germ line in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we have screened for mutations that confer a maternal-effect sterile or ``grandchildless'' phenotype: homozygous mutant hermaphrodites produced by heterozygous mothers are themselves fertile, but produce sterile progeny. Our screens have identified six loci, defined by 21 mutations. This paper presents genetic and phenotypic characterization of four of the loci. The majority of mutations, those in mes-2, mes-3 and mes-4, affect postembryonic germ-line development; the progeny of mutant mothers undergo apparently normal embryogenesis but develop into agametic adults with 10-1000-fold reductions in number of germ cells. In contrast, mutations in mes-1 cause defects in cytoplasmic partitioning during embryogenesis, and the resulting larvae lack germ-line progenitor cells. Mutations in all of the mes loci primarily affect the germ line, and none disrupt the structural integrity of germ granules. This is in contrast to grandchildless mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, all of which disrupt germ granules and affect abdominal as well as germ-line development. PMID:1783292

  2. Establishment and applications of male germ cell and Sertoli cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wen, Liping; Yuan, Qingqing; Sun, Min; Niu, Minghui; He, Zuping

    2016-08-01

    Within the seminiferous tubules there are two major cell types, namely male germ cells and Sertoli cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that male germ cells and Sertoli cells can have significant applications in treating male infertility and other diseases. However, primary male germ cells are hard to proliferate in vitro and the number of spermatogonial stem cells is scarce. Therefore, methods that promote the expansion of these cell populations are essential for their use from the bench to the bed side. Notably, a number of cell lines for rodent spermatogonia, spermatocytes and Sertoli cells have been developed, and significantly we have successfully established a human spermatogonial stem cell line with an unlimited proliferation potential and no tumor formation. This newly developed cell line could provide an abundant source of cells for uncovering molecular mechanisms underlying human spermatogenesis and for their utilization in the field of reproductive and regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the methods for establishing spermatogonial, spermatocyte and Sertoli cell lines using various kinds of approaches, including spontaneity, transgenic animals with oncogenes, simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen, the gene coding for a temperature-sensitive mutant of p53, telomerase reverse gene (Tert), and the specific promoter-based selection strategy. We further highlight the essential applications of these cell lines in basic research and translation medicine. PMID:27069011

  3. RNAi Screen Identifies Novel Regulators of RNP Granules in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germ Line

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Megan P.; Hollis, Angela; Severance, Ashley L.; Karrick, Megan L.; Schisa, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Complexes of RNA and RNA binding proteins form large-scale supramolecular structures under many cellular contexts. In Caenorhabditis elegans, small germ granules are present in the germ line that share characteristics with liquid droplets that undergo phase transitions. In meiotically-arrested oocytes of middle-aged hermaphrodites, the germ granules appear to aggregate or condense into large assemblies of RNA-binding proteins and maternal mRNAs. Prior characterization of the assembly of large-scale RNP structures via candidate approaches has identified a small number of regulators of phase transitions in the C. elegans germ line; however, the assembly, function, and regulation of these large RNP assemblies remain incompletely understood. To identify genes that promote remodeling and assembly of large RNP granules in meiotically-arrested oocytes, we performed a targeted, functional RNAi screen and identified over 300 genes that regulate the assembly of the RNA-binding protein MEX-3 into large granules. Among the most common GO classes are several categories related to RNA biology, as well as novel categories such as cell cortex, ER, and chromosome segregation. We found that arrested oocytes that fail to localize MEX-3 into cortical granules display reduced oocyte quality, consistent with the idea that the larger RNP assemblies promote oocyte quality when fertilization is delayed. Interestingly, a relatively small number of genes overlap with the regulators of germ granule assembly during normal development, or with the regulators of solid RNP granules in cgh-1 oocytes, suggesting fundamental differences in the regulation of RNP granule phase transitions during meiotic arrest. PMID:27317775

  4. RNAi Screen Identifies Novel Regulators of RNP Granules in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germ Line.

    PubMed

    Wood, Megan P; Hollis, Angela; Severance, Ashley L; Karrick, Megan L; Schisa, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Complexes of RNA and RNA binding proteins form large-scale supramolecular structures under many cellular contexts. In Caenorhabditis elegans, small germ granules are present in the germ line that share characteristics with liquid droplets that undergo phase transitions. In meiotically-arrested oocytes of middle-aged hermaphrodites, the germ granules appear to aggregate or condense into large assemblies of RNA-binding proteins and maternal mRNAs. Prior characterization of the assembly of large-scale RNP structures via candidate approaches has identified a small number of regulators of phase transitions in the C. elegans germ line; however, the assembly, function, and regulation of these large RNP assemblies remain incompletely understood. To identify genes that promote remodeling and assembly of large RNP granules in meiotically-arrested oocytes, we performed a targeted, functional RNAi screen and identified over 300 genes that regulate the assembly of the RNA-binding protein MEX-3 into large granules. Among the most common GO classes are several categories related to RNA biology, as well as novel categories such as cell cortex, ER, and chromosome segregation. We found that arrested oocytes that fail to localize MEX-3 into cortical granules display reduced oocyte quality, consistent with the idea that the larger RNP assemblies promote oocyte quality when fertilization is delayed. Interestingly, a relatively small number of genes overlap with the regulators of germ granule assembly during normal development, or with the regulators of solid RNP granules in cgh-1 oocytes, suggesting fundamental differences in the regulation of RNP granule phase transitions during meiotic arrest. PMID:27317775

  5. Assessment of Fecundity and Germ Line Transmission in Two Transgenic Pig Lines Produced by Sleeping Beauty Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome. PMID:24705079

  6. Genetic modification of the human germ line: The reasons why this project has no future.

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Modification of the human germ line has remained a distant but valuable objective for most biologists since the emergence of genetics (and even before). To study the historical transformations of this project, I have selected three periods - the 1930s, at the pinnacle of eugenics, around 1974 when molecular biology triumphed, and today - and have adopted three criteria to estimate the feasibility of this project: the state of scientific knowledge, the existence of suitable tools, and societal demands. Although the long-awaited techniques to modify the germ line are now available, I will show that most of the expectations behind this project have disappeared, or are considered as being reachable by highly different strategies. PMID:26231145

  7. Two murine natural polyreactive autoantibodies are encoded by nonmutated germ-line genes.

    PubMed Central

    Baccala, R; Quang, T V; Gilbert, M; Ternynck, T; Avrameas, S

    1989-01-01

    Two monoclonal IgM natural autoantibodies (E7 and D23) obtained from the fusion of normal, nonimmunized, BALB/c mouse spleen cells and nonsecreting myeloma cells were selected on the basis of their polyreactivity with auto- and xenoantigens and chemical haptens. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the variable and constant regions of the heavy and light chains showed the following. (i) The antibodies arise from different genetic elements with very low or no homology--E7 from a heavy-chain variable region (VH) of family 36-60 and kappa light-chain variable region (V kappa) from a group 19--whereas D23 derives from a VH of family Q52 and V kappa derives from group 8. (ii) E7 and D23 are probably of germ-line origin, as suggested by high homology with VH genes from the unrearranged genome. Compared with the germ-line VH 1210.7 gene, E7 has a single nucleotide difference leading to a silent mutation at position 15, whereas D23 seems to be encoded by germ-line VH 101 with one nucleotide difference causing replacement of Ser-84 by Ala. (iii) The genetic V kappa and VH elements for E7 and D23 also give rise to different responses to phenyloxazolone, dinitrophenyl, 5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl, arsonate, phosphocholine, and influenza virus hemagglutinin. Antibodies from normal and autoimmune mice with rheumatoid factor-like activity are also homologous to E7 and D23. These results indicate that polyreactive autoantibodies are encoded by germ-line genes and that, starting with the preimmune poly- and autoreactive repertoire, mutated forms of antibodies recognizing exogenous antigens can be obtained and selected. PMID:2499887

  8. Genomic analysis of germ line and somatic variants in familial myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Churpek, Jane E; Pyrtel, Khateriaa; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Shao, Jin; Koboldt, Daniel; Miller, Christopher A; Shen, Dong; Fulton, Robert; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina; Pusic, Iskra; Uy, Geoffrey L; Braunstein, Evan M; Levis, Mark; Ross, Julie; Elliott, Kevin; Heath, Sharon; Jiang, Allan; Westervelt, Peter; DiPersio, John F; Link, Daniel C; Walter, Matthew J; Welch, John; Wilson, Richard; Ley, Timothy J; Godley, Lucy A; Graubert, Timothy A

    2015-11-26

    Familial clustering of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be caused by inherited factors. We screened 59 individuals from 17 families with 2 or more biological relatives with MDS/AML for variants in 12 genes with established roles in predisposition to MDS/AML, and identified a pathogenic germ line variant in 5 families (29%). Extending the screen with a panel of 264 genes that are recurrently mutated in de novo AML, we identified rare, nonsynonymous germ line variants in 4 genes, each segregating with MDS/AML in 2 families. Somatic mutations are required for progression to MDS/AML in these familial cases. Using a combination of targeted and exome sequencing of tumor and matched normal samples from 26 familial MDS/AML cases and asymptomatic carriers, we identified recurrent frameshift mutations in the cohesin-associated factor PDS5B, co-occurrence of somatic ASXL1 mutations with germ line GATA2 mutations, and recurrent mutations in other known MDS/AML drivers. Mutations in genes that are recurrently mutated in de novo AML were underrepresented in the familial MDS/AML cases, although the total number of somatic mutations per exome was the same. Lastly, clonal skewing of hematopoiesis was detected in 67% of young, asymptomatic RUNX1 carriers, providing a potential biomarker that could be used for surveillance in these high-risk families. PMID:26492932

  9. How do male germ cells handle DNA damage?

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Ann-Karin; Lindeman, Birgitte; Wiger, Richard; Duale, Nur; Brunborg, Gunnar . E-mail: gunnar.brunborg@fhi.no

    2005-09-01

    Male reproductive health has received considerable attention in recent years. In addition to declining sperm quality, fertility problems and increased incidence of testicular cancer, there is accumulating evidence that genetic damage, in the form of unrepaired DNA lesions or de novo mutations, may be transmitted via sperm to the offspring. Such genetic damage may arise from environmental exposure or via endogenously formed reactive species, in stem cells or during spermatogenesis. Damaged testicular cells not removed by apoptosis rely on DNA repair for their genomic integrity to be preserved. To identify factors with potentially harmful effects on testicular cells and to characterise associated risk, a thorough understanding of repair mechanisms in these cells is of particular importance. Based on results from our own and other laboratories, we discuss the current knowledge of different pathways of excision repair in rodent and human testicular cells. It has become evident that, in human spermatogenic cells, some repair functions are indeed non-functional.

  10. Germ Line Transcripts Are Processed by a Dicer-Like Protein That Is Essential for Developmentally Programmed Genome Rearrangements of Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Colin D.; Anderson, Alissa M.; Motl, Jason A.; Rexer, Charles H.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    Abundant ∼28-nucleotide RNAs that are thought to direct histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation and promote the elimination of nearly 15 Mbp of DNA from the developing somatic genome are generated during Tetrahymena thermophila conjugation. To identify the protein(s) that generates these small RNAs, we studied three Dicer-related genes encoded within the Tetrahymena genome, two that contain both RNase III and RNA helicase motifs, Dicer 1 (DCR1) and DCR2, and a third that lacks the helicase domain, Dicer-like 1 (DCL1). DCL1 is expressed upon the initiation of conjugation, and the protein localizes to meiotic micronuclei when bidirectional germ line transcription occurs and small RNAs begin to accumulate. Cells in which we disrupted the DCL1 gene (ΔDCL1) grew normally and initiated conjugation as wild-type cells but arrested near the end of development and eventually died, unable to resume vegetative growth. These ΔDCL1 cells failed to generate the abundant small RNAs but instead accumulated germ line-limited transcripts. Together, our findings demonstrate that these transcripts are the precursors of the small RNAs and that DCL1 performs RNA processing within the micronucleus. Postconjugation ΔDCL1 cells die without eliminating the germ line-limited DNA sequences from their newly formed somatic macronuclei, a result that shows that this Dicer-related gene is required for programmed DNA rearrangements. Surprisingly, ΔDCL1 cells were not deficient in overall H3K9 methylation, but this modification was not enriched on germ line-limited sequences as it is in wild-type cells, which clearly demonstrates that these small RNAs are essential for its targeting to specific loci. PMID:16199890

  11. Photoreversible inhibition by ultraviolet light of germ line development in Smittia sp. (Chironomidae, Diptera)

    SciTech Connect

    von Brunn, A.; Kalthoff, K.

    1983-12-01

    Pole cell formation in embryos of the parthenogenetic midge, Smittia sp., can be delayed or inhibited by irradiation of the posterior egg pole with ultraviolet light (uv). This leaves the schedule of nuclear divisions and chromosome eliminations virtually unaffected. However, uv irradiation delays the precocious migration to the posterior pole of one nucleus, which normally becomes included in the first pole cell. This effect is photoreversible, i.e., mitigated by application of blue light after uv. Photoreversibility indicates that a nucleic acid component is involved as an effective target. During normal development of Smittia a number of chromosomes are eliminated during mitosis V, not only from somatic nuclei but also in the germ line. In the latter, this mitosis takes place during the first gonial division in the larva. After uv irradiation, the first pole cell nucleus has undergone supernumerary mitoses before pole cell formation and, as a result, is driven into mitosis V precociously as the pole cell divides. This is frequently associated with chromosome elimination from pole cells, which in turn is correlated with subsequent disappearance of already formed pole cells. Adults derived from embryos without pole cells do not form ovaries. Pole cell formation, pole cell preservation, and ovary development are separately inhibited by uv, and inhibition of each step is photoreversible. The results are discussed in the context of germ cell determination, protection against chromosome elimination, and the role of chromosomes limited to the germ line.

  12. Xist imprinting is promoted by the hemizygous (unpaired) state in the male germ line

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sha; Payer, Bernhard; Namekawa, Satoshi; An, Jee Young; Press, William; Catalan-Dibene, Jovani; Sunwoo, Hongjae; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2015-01-01

    The long noncoding X-inactivation–specific transcript (Xist gene) is responsible for mammalian X-chromosome dosage compensation between the sexes, the process by which one of the two X chromosomes is inactivated in the female soma. Xist is essential for both the random and imprinted forms of X-chromosome inactivation. In the imprinted form, Xist is paternally marked to be expressed in female embryos. To investigate the mechanism of Xist imprinting, we introduce Xist transgenes (Tg) into the male germ line. Although ectopic high-level Xist expression on autosomes can be compatible with viability, transgenic animals demonstrate reduced fitness, subfertility, defective meiotic pairing, and other germ-cell abnormalities. In the progeny, paternal-specific expression is recapitulated by the 200-kb Xist Tg. However, Xist imprinting occurs efficiently only when it is in an unpaired or unpartnered state during male meiosis. When transmitted from a hemizygous father (+/Tg), the Xist Tg demonstrates paternal-specific expression in the early embryo. When transmitted by a homozygous father (Tg/Tg), the Tg fails to show imprinted expression. Thus, Xist imprinting is directed by sequences within a 200-kb X-linked region, and the hemizygous (unpaired) state of the Xist region promotes its imprinting in the male germ line. PMID:26489649

  13. Germ Line Basis for Antibody Diversity: Immunoglobulin VH- and CH-gene Frequencies Measured by DNA·RNA Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, E.; Shoyab, M.; Williamson, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    The reiteration frequency for mouse immunoglobulin VH-genes and CH-genes has been directly estimated by hybridization of purified MOPC 315 α-chain mRNA with a vast excess of mouse DNA. A biphasic Cot curve resulted. The low Cot transition (Cot1/2 about 1.5) was interpreted as hybridization to VH-genes and the high Cot transition (Cot1/2 about 103) as hybridization to CH-genes. These values correspond to about 5000 VH-genes and less than 8 CH-genes. This germ-line content of VH-genes is sufficient to account for antibody diversity given a comparable set of VL-genes. Minimal-gene models are invalidated and there is no need to invoke somatic generators of diversity. PMID:4521059

  14. Effect of germ-line genetic variation on breast cancer survival in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Goode, Ellen L; Dunning, Alison M; Kuschel, Bettina; Healey, Catherine S; Day, Nicholas E; Ponder, Bruce A J; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul P D

    2002-06-01

    Somatic genetic alterations in tumors are known to correlate with survival, but little is known about the prognostic significance of germ-line variation. We assessed the effect of germ-line variation on survival among women with breast cancer participating in a British population-based study. Up to 2430 cases for whom current vital status data were available were screened for BRCA1/2 mutations and genotyped for polymorphisms in 22 DNA repair, hormone metabolism, carcinogen metabolism, and other genes. The effect of genotype on outcome was assessed by Cox regression analysis. The largest effect was observed for the silent polymorphism D501D (t>c) in LIG4, a gene involved in DNA double-strand break repair. The estimated hazard ratio (HR) in cc homozygotes relative to tt homozygotes was 4.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.1-7.7; P = 0.002), and this effect remained after stratification by stage, grade, and tumor type [HR, 4.2 (1.8-9.4); P = 0.01]. Total length of a CYP19 IVS4 (ttta)(n) repeat was also associated with survival [HR, 0.9 (0.8-1.0); P = 0.01], but this became nonsignificant after stratification by stage, grade, and tumor type. Poorer survival was observed for 10 BRCA1 mutation carriers [HR, 4.1 (1.3-13); P = 0.047]; however, after adjustment for known prognostic factors, the HR estimate decreased to 2.0 and became nonsignificant (P = 0.4). CYP17 (P = 0.05) and TP53 (P = 0.06) polymorphisms showed marginally significant associations in unstratified analyses. No effect on survival was seen for polymorphisms in ATM, BRCA1/2, CHK2, KU70, NBS1, RAD51, RAD52, XRCC3, AR, COMT, NQO1, VDR, ADH3, CYP1A1, GSTP1, TGF-beta, or CDH1. Even if confirmed, the prognostic markers identified in this study are unlikely to replace current markers of prognosis such as estrogen receptor status. However, our results demonstrate the potential of the analysis of germ-line variation to provide insight into the biological determinants of response to treatment and prognosis in breast

  15. Mechanisms of Genomic Instabilities Underlying Two Common Fragile-Site-Associated Loci, PARK2 and DMD, in Germ Cell and Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Jun; Takahashi, Yuji; Goto, Jun; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Shunpei; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Minami, Narihiro; Smith, David I.; Lesage, Suzanne; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Nishino, Ichizo; Brice, Alexis; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are specific chromosome regions that exhibit an increased frequency of breaks when cells are exposed to a DNA-replication inhibitor such as aphidicolin. PARK2 and DMD, the causative genes for autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinsonism and Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, respectively, are two very large genes that are located within aphidicolin-induced CFSs. Gross rearrangements within these two genes are frequently observed as the causative mutations for these diseases, and similar alterations within the large fragile sites that surround these genes are frequently observed in cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this fragility, we performed a custom-designed high-density comparative genomic hybridization analysis to determine the junction sequences of approximately 500 breakpoints in germ cell lines and cancer cell lines involving PARK2 or DMD. The sequence signatures where these breakpoints occur share some similar features both in germ cell lines and in cancer cell lines. Detailed analyses of these structures revealed that microhomologies are predominantly involved in rearrangement processes. Furthermore, breakpoint-clustering regions coincide with the latest-replicating region and with large nuclear-lamina-associated domains and are flanked by the highest-flexibility peaks and R/G band boundaries, suggesting that factors affecting replication timing collectively contribute to the vulnerability for rearrangement in both germ cell and somatic cell lines. PMID:20598272

  16. Ex vivo culture of Drosophila pupal testis and single male germ-line cysts: dissection, imaging, and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Stefanie M K; Rathke, Christina; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Awe, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. Studying the role of a protein in post-meiotic spermatogenesis using mutagenesis or other genetic tools is often impeded by essential embryonic, pre-meiotic, or meiotic functions of the protein under investigation. The post-meiotic phenotype of a mutant of such a protein could be obscured through an earlier developmental block, or the interpretation of the phenotype could be complicated. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster offers a bypass to this problem: intact testes and even cysts of germ cells dissected from early pupae are able to develop ex vivo in culture medium. Making use of such cultures allows microscopic imaging of living germ cells in testes and of germ-line cysts. Importantly, the cultivated testes and germ cells also become accessible to pharmacological inhibitors, thereby permitting manipulation of enzymatic functions during spermatogenesis, including post-meiotic stages. The protocol presented describes how to dissect and cultivate pupal testes and germ-line cysts. Information on the development of pupal testes and culture conditions are provided alongside microscope imaging data of live testes and germ-line cysts in culture. We also describe a pharmacological assay to study post-meiotic spermatogenesis, exemplified by an assay targeting the histone-to-protamine switch using the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor anacardic acid. In principle, this cultivation method could be adapted to address many other research questions in pre- and post-meiotic spermatogenesis. PMID:25286189

  17. Proliferation of Endogenous Retroviruses in the Early Stages of a Host Germ Line Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D.; Roca, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire–dam–progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5′- and 3′-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5′-LTR sequence was identical to the 3′-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200–49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. PMID:25261407

  18. Proliferation of endogenous retroviruses in the early stages of a host germ line invasion.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire-dam-progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5'- and 3'-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5'-LTR sequence was identical to the 3'-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200-49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. PMID:25261407

  19. Germ-line origins of mutation in families with hemophilia B: The sex ratio varies with the type of mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Bottema, C.D.K.; Schaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. ); Cohen, M.P. ); Sexauer, C.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Previous epidemiological and biochemical studies have generated conflicting estimates of the sex ratio of mutation. Direct genomic sequencing in combination with haplotype analysis extends previous analyses by allowing the precise mutation to be determined in a given family. From analysis of the factor IX gene of 260 consecutive families with hemophilia B, the authors report the germ-line origin of mutation in 25 families. When combined with 14 origins of mutation reported by others and with 4 origins previously reported by them, a total of 25 occur in the female germ line, and 18 occur in the male germ line. The excess of germ-line origins in females does not imply an overall excess mutation rate per base pair in the female germ line. Bayesian analysis of the data indicates that the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation. The aggregate of single-base substitutions shows a male predominance of germ-line mutations (P < .002). The maximum-likelihood estimate of the male predominance is 3.5-fold. Of the single-base substitutions, deletions display a sex ratio of unity. Analysis of the parental age at transmission of a new mutation suggests that germ-line mutations are associated with a small increase in parental age in females but little, if any, increase in males. Although direct genomic sequencing offers a general method for defining the origin of mutation in specific families, accurate estimates of the sex ratios of different mutational classes require large sample sizes and careful correction for multiple biases of ascertainment. The biases in the present data result in an underestimate of the enhancement of mutation in males. 62 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Revisiting DNA damage repair, p53-mediated apoptosis and cisplatin sensitivity in germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Francesca; Feldman, Darren R; Barchi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), ie, seminomas and nonseminomas, account for 1% to 3% of all neoplasms in men. They are the most common cancer in young white males and are unique in their responsiveness to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. For this reason, TGCTs are considered a model for curative disease. However, up to now, the molecular mechanisms behind this exceptional responsiveness to DNA-damaging agents have remained unclear. A hypersensitive apoptotic response, as well as a reduction in the proficiency to repair cisplatin-induced DNA damage might account for this behavior. In this review, building on recent findings of p53-induced apoptosis and DNA-repair mechanisms in TGCTs, we will discuss the molecular bases that drive tumor sensitivity to cisplatin, emphasizing the new therapeutic approaches proposed to eventually constrain tumor recurrence, and target TGCTs which are unresponsive to standard therapies. PMID:23784838

  1. A paternal environmental legacy: evidence for epigenetic inheritance through the male germ line.

    PubMed

    Soubry, Adelheid; Hoyo, Cathrine; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K

    2014-04-01

    Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components. In this essay we suggest the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during sperm development. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs are viable mechanistic candidates for a non-genetic transfer of paternal environmental information, from maturing germ cell to zygote. Inclusion of paternal factors in future research will ultimately improve the understanding of transgenerational epigenetic plasticity and health-related effects in future generations. PMID:24431278

  2. A paternal environmental legacy: Evidence for epigenetic inheritance through the male germ line

    PubMed Central

    Soubry, Adelheid; Hoyo, Cathrine; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components. In this essay we suggest the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during sperm development. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs are viable mechanistic candidates for a non-genetic transfer of paternal environmental information, from maturing germ cell to zygote. Inclusion of paternal factors in future research will ultimately improve the understanding of transgenerational epigenetic plasticity and health-related effects in future generations. PMID:24431278

  3. A mitotic kinase scaffold depleted in testicular seminomas impacts spindle orientation in germ line stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hehnly, Heidi; Canton, David; Bucko, Paula; Langeberg, Lorene K; Ogier, Leah; Gelman, Irwin; Santana, L Fernando; Wordeman, Linda; Scott, John D

    2015-01-01

    Correct orientation of the mitotic spindle in stem cells underlies organogenesis. Spindle abnormalities correlate with cancer progression in germ line-derived tumors. We discover a macromolecular complex between the scaffolding protein Gravin/AKAP12 and the mitotic kinases, Aurora A and Plk1, that is down regulated in human seminoma. Depletion of Gravin correlates with an increased mitotic index and disorganization of seminiferous tubules. Biochemical, super-resolution imaging, and enzymology approaches establish that this Gravin scaffold accumulates at the mother spindle pole during metaphase. Manipulating elements of the Gravin-Aurora A-Plk1 axis prompts mitotic delay and prevents appropriate assembly of astral microtubules to promote spindle misorientation. These pathological responses are conserved in seminiferous tubules from Gravin(-/-) mice where an overabundance of Oct3/4 positive germ line stem cells displays randomized orientation of mitotic spindles. Thus, we propose that Gravin-mediated recruitment of Aurora A and Plk1 to the mother (oldest) spindle pole contributes to the fidelity of symmetric cell division. PMID:26406118

  4. Generation of Efficient Germ-Line Chimeras Using Embryonic Stem Cell Injection.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, William A

    2015-01-01

    There are many different reasons for producing germ-line chimeras, so a method for producing these is very important both for the testing of stem cells (SC) and for the production of an animal which may be genetically modified (Voncken, Methods Mol Biol 693:11-36, 2011). As with many scientific procedures the theory behind the process is very simple: in this case injection of cells into the blastocoel cavity of an embryo which has developed to the blastocyst stage so as the injected cells can contribute to the inner cell mass (ICM) and hopefully contribute to the germ line of the animal produced (Schneider et al., Stem Cell Rev 5(4):369-377, 2009). Incorporation of the cells into the gonads of the animal produced will allow the testing of those cells and the resulting animal which may be derived from the injected cells (Bradley et al., Nature 309(5965):255-256, 1984). The problems arise because of the size of the cells and the challenge of injection into the blastocoel cavity of a developing embryo. PMID:26621594

  5. A mitotic kinase scaffold depleted in testicular seminomas impacts spindle orientation in germ line stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hehnly, Heidi; Canton, David; Bucko, Paula; Langeberg, Lorene K; Ogier, Leah; Gelman, Irwin; Santana, L Fernando; Wordeman, Linda; Scott, John D

    2015-01-01

    Correct orientation of the mitotic spindle in stem cells underlies organogenesis. Spindle abnormalities correlate with cancer progression in germ line-derived tumors. We discover a macromolecular complex between the scaffolding protein Gravin/AKAP12 and the mitotic kinases, Aurora A and Plk1, that is down regulated in human seminoma. Depletion of Gravin correlates with an increased mitotic index and disorganization of seminiferous tubules. Biochemical, super-resolution imaging, and enzymology approaches establish that this Gravin scaffold accumulates at the mother spindle pole during metaphase. Manipulating elements of the Gravin-Aurora A-Plk1 axis prompts mitotic delay and prevents appropriate assembly of astral microtubules to promote spindle misorientation. These pathological responses are conserved in seminiferous tubules from Gravin−/− mice where an overabundance of Oct3/4 positive germ line stem cells displays randomized orientation of mitotic spindles. Thus, we propose that Gravin-mediated recruitment of Aurora A and Plk1 to the mother (oldest) spindle pole contributes to the fidelity of symmetric cell division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09384.001 PMID:26406118

  6. Germ-Line Transmitted, Chromosomally Integrated HHV-6 and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Adam J.; Gallagher, Alice; Mottram, Timothy; Lake, Annette; Kane, Eleanor V.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Roman, Eve; Jarrett, Ruth F.

    2014-01-01

    A unique feature of both human herpesvirus 6A and B (HHV-6A and B) among human herpesviruses is their ability to integrate into chromosomal telomeres. In some individuals integrated viral genomes are present in the germ-line and result in the vertical transmission of HHV-6; however, little is known about the disease associations of germ-line transmitted, chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). Recent publications suggest that HHV-6 is associated with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here we examine the prevalence of ciHHV-6 in 936 cases of cHL and 563 controls by screening with a duplex TaqMan assay and confirming with droplet digital PCR. ciHHV-6 was detected in 10/563 (1.8%) controls and in all but one individual the virus was HHV-6B. Amongst cases 16/936 (1.7%) harboured ciHHV-6, thus demonstrating no association between ciHHV-6 and risk of cHL. PMID:25384040

  7. Phenotypic and Molecular Analysis of Mes-3, a Maternal-Effect Gene Required for Proliferation and Viability of the Germ Line in C. Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, J. E.; Capowski, E. E.; Strome, S.

    1995-01-01

    mes-3 is one of four maternal-effect sterile genes that encode maternal components required for normal postembryonic development of the germ line in Caenorhabditis elegans. mes-3 mutant mothers produce sterile progeny, which contain few germ cells and no gametes. This terminal phenotype reflects two problems: reduced proliferation of the germ line and germ cell death. Both the appearance of the dying germ cells and the results of genetic tests indicate that germ cells in mes-3 animals undergo a necrotic-like death, not programmed cell death. The few germ cells that appear healthy in mes-3 worms do not differentiate into gametes, even after elimination of the signaling pathway that normally maintains the undifferentiated population of germ cells. Thus, mes-3 encodes a maternally supplied product that is required both for proliferation of the germ line and for maintenance of viable germ cells that are competent to differentiate into gametes. Cloning and molecular characterization of mes-3 revealed that it is the upstream gene in an operon. The genes in the operon display parallel expression patterns; transcripts are present throughout development and are not restricted to germ-line tissue. Both mes-3 and the downstream gene in the operon encode novel proteins. PMID:8601481

  8. MAPK15 upregulation promotes cell proliferation and prevents DNA damage in male germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ilardi, Gennaro; Acunzo, Mario; Nigita, Giovanni; Sasdelli, Federica; Celetti, Angela; Strambi, Angela; Staibano, Stefania; Croce, Carlo Maria; Chiariello, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common malignancies in males between 15 and 35 years of age. Despite the high cure rate, achieved through chemotherapy and/or surgery, the molecular basis of GCT etiology is still largely obscure. Here, we show a positive correlation between MAPK15 (ERK8; ERK7) expression and specific GCT subtypes, with the highest levels found in the aggressive embryonal carcinomas (EC). Indeed, in corresponding cellular models for EC, MAPK15 enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo and promoted cell proliferation in vitro, supporting a role for this kinase in human GCT. At molecular level, we demonstrated that endogenous MAPK15 is necessary to sustain cell cycle progression of EC cells, by limiting p53 activation and preventing the triggering of p53-dependent mechanisms resulting in cell cycle arrest. To understand MAPK15-dependent mechanisms impinging on p53 activation, we demonstrate that this kinase efficiently protects cells from DNA damage. Moreover, we show that the ability of MAPK15 to control the autophagic process is necessary for basal management of DNA damage and for tumor formation controlled by the kinase. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MAPK15 overexpression may contribute to the malignant transformation of germ cells by controlling a “stress support” autophagic pathway, able to prevent DNA damage and the consequent activation of the p53 tumor suppressor. Moreover, in light of these results, MAPK15-specific inhibitors might represent new tools to enhance the therapeutic index of cytotoxic therapy in GCT treatment, and to increase the sensitivity to DNA-damaging drugs in other chemotherapy-resistant human tumors. PMID:26988910

  9. MAPK15 upregulation promotes cell proliferation and prevents DNA damage in male germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Matteo; Colecchia, David; Ilardi, Gennaro; Acunzo, Mario; Nigita, Giovanni; Sasdelli, Federica; Celetti, Angela; Strambi, Angela; Staibano, Stefania; Croce, Carlo Maria; Chiariello, Mario

    2016-04-12

    Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common malignancies in males between 15 and 35 years of age. Despite the high cure rate, achieved through chemotherapy and/or surgery, the molecular basis of GCT etiology is still largely obscure. Here, we show a positive correlation between MAPK15 (ERK8; ERK7) expression and specific GCT subtypes, with the highest levels found in the aggressive embryonal carcinomas (EC). Indeed, in corresponding cellular models for EC, MAPK15 enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo and promoted cell proliferation in vitro, supporting a role for this kinase in human GCT. At molecular level, we demonstrated that endogenous MAPK15 is necessary to sustain cell cycle progression of EC cells, by limiting p53 activation and preventing the triggering of p53-dependent mechanisms resulting in cell cycle arrest.To understand MAPK15-dependent mechanisms impinging on p53 activation, we demonstrate that this kinase efficiently protects cells from DNA damage. Moreover, we show that the ability of MAPK15 to control the autophagic process is necessary for basal management of DNA damage and for tumor formation controlled by the kinase.In conclusion, our findings suggest that MAPK15 overexpression may contribute to the malignant transformation of germ cells by controlling a "stress support" autophagic pathway, able to prevent DNA damage and the consequent activation of the p53 tumor suppressor. Moreover, in light of these results, MAPK15-specific inhibitors might represent new tools to enhance the therapeutic index of cytotoxic therapy in GCT treatment, and to increase the sensitivity to DNA-damaging drugs in other chemotherapy-resistant human tumors. PMID:26988910

  10. Wnt signaling-mediated redox regulation maintains the germ line stem cell differentiation niche

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Su; Gao, Yuan; Song, Xiaoqing; Ma, Xing; Zhu, Xiujuan; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhihao; Ni, Jianquan; Li, Hua; Malanowski, Kathryn E; Anoja, Perera; Park, Jungeun; Haug, Jeff; Xie, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells continuously undergo self-renewal and generate differentiated cells. In the Drosophila ovary, two separate niches control germ line stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation processes. Compared to the self-renewing niche, relatively little is known about the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche. In this study, we show that the cellular redox state regulated by Wnt signaling is critical for the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche to promote GSC progeny differentiation. Defective Wnt signaling causes the loss of the differentiation niche and the upregulated BMP signaling in differentiated GSC progeny, thereby disrupting germ cell differentiation. Mechanistically, Wnt signaling controls the expression of multiple glutathione-S-transferase family genes and the cellular redox state. Finally, Wnt2 and Wnt4 function redundantly to maintain active Wnt signaling in the differentiation niche. Therefore, this study has revealed a novel strategy for Wnt signaling in regulating the cellular redox state and maintaining the differentiation niche. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08174.001 PMID:26452202

  11. Mus308 Processes Oxygen and Nitrogen Ethylation DNA Damage in Germ Cells of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Valdés, Nancy; Comendador, Miguel A.; Sierra, L. María

    2010-01-01

    The D. melanogaster mus308 gene, highly conserved among higher eukaryotes, is implicated in the repair of cross-links and of O-ethylpyrimidine DNA damage, working in a DNA damage tolerance mechanism. However, despite its relevance, its possible role on the processing of different DNA ethylation damages is not clear. To obtain data on mutation frequency and on mutation spectra in mus308 deficient (mus308−) conditions, the ethylating agent diethyl sulfate (DES) was analysed in postmeiotic male germ cells. These data were compared with those corresponding to mus308 efficient conditions. Our results indicate that Mus308 is necessary for the processing of oxygen and N-ethylation damage, for the survival of fertilized eggs depending on the level of induced DNA damage, and for an influence of the DNA damage neighbouring sequence. These results support the role of mus308 in a tolerance mechanism linked to a translesion synthesis pathway and also to the alternative end-joinig system. PMID:20936147

  12. The ethics of germ-line gene therapy: challenges to mainstream approaches by a feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Perlman, D

    1993-01-01

    Many mainstream bioethicists visualize the ethical debate surrounding germ-line gene therapy (GLGT) as a conflict of rights and duties between a woman and her fetus and as representative of the larger tension between the principles of autonomy and beneficence and its corollary duty to nonmaleficence. Many feminist ethicists attempt to circumnavigate the purported inadequacies of mainstream ethical approaches and take a much broader, context-oriented approach to reproductive freedom. The first section will describe many of the mainstream conflicts surrounding GLGT and offer a feminist critique of the inadequacies of mainstream approaches. Instead of merely achieving a stalemate in ethical dialogue from the mainstream viewpoint, the application of a feminist view of the fetus and reproductive freedom provides a more equitable and ethically inclusive adjudication of the central issue surrounding the ethics of GLGT, as the second section will show. PMID:8118148

  13. Hermes-mediated germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Michel, K; Stamenova, A; Pinkerton, A C; Franz, G; Robinson, A S; Gariou-Papalexiou, A; Zacharopoulou, A; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    2001-04-01

    We report the use of the Hermes transposable element for germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Hermes was able to genetically transform this insect at an estimated frequency between 0.6 and 1.1%, which is comparable to the transformation frequencies obtained for this species when using other transposable elements. Hermes integrates into the medfly genome by a cut-and-paste mechanism and the sequences integrated into the genome are delimited by the terminal nucleotides of the Hermes inverted terminal repeats. Integration resulted in the generation of 8 bp target site duplications, the sequences of which conformed to the target site duplications generated by hAT element transposition in insects. The Hermes element is one additional genetic tool that can be deployed in manipulating and characterizing the medfly genome. PMID:11422511

  14. Large, Male Germ Cell-Specific Hypomethylated DNA Domains With Unique Genomic and Epigenomic Features on the Mouse X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Rieko; Shiura, Hirosuke; Numata, Koji; Sugimoto, Michihiko; Kondo, Masayo; Mise, Nathan; Suzuki, Masako; Greally, John M.; Abe, Kuniya

    2013-01-01

    To understand the epigenetic regulation required for germ cell-specific gene expression in the mouse, we analysed DNA methylation profiles of developing germ cells using a microarray-based assay adapted for a small number of cells. The analysis revealed differentially methylated sites between cell types tested. Here, we focused on a group of genomic sequences hypomethylated specifically in germline cells as candidate regions involved in the epigenetic regulation of germline gene expression. These hypomethylated sequences tend to be clustered, forming large (10 kb to ∼9 Mb) genomic domains, particularly on the X chromosome of male germ cells. Most of these regions, designated here as large hypomethylated domains (LoDs), correspond to segmentally duplicated regions that contain gene families showing germ cell- or testis-specific expression, including cancer testis antigen genes. We found an inverse correlation between DNA methylation level and expression of genes in these domains. Most LoDs appear to be enriched with H3 lysine 9 dimethylation, usually regarded as a repressive histone modification, although some LoD genes can be expressed in male germ cells. It thus appears that such a unique epigenomic state associated with the LoDs may constitute a basis for the specific expression of genes contained in these genomic domains. PMID:23861320

  15. Dnmt3b Prefers Germ Line Genes and Centromeric Regions: Lessons from the ICF Syndrome and Cancer and Implications for Diseases.

    PubMed

    Walton, Emma L; Francastel, Claire; Velasco, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The correct establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation patterns are critical for mammalian development and the control of normal cell growth and differentiation. DNA methylation has profound effects on the mammalian genome, including transcriptional repression, modulation of chromatin structure, X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, and the suppression of the detrimental effects of repetitive and parasitic DNA sequences on genome integrity. Consistent with its essential role in normal cells and predominance at repetitive genomic regions, aberrant changes of DNA methylation patterns are a common feature of diseases with chromosomal and genomic instabilities. In this context, the functions of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can be affected by mutations or alterations of their expression. DNMT3B, which is involved in de novo methylation, is of particular interest not only because of its important role in development, but also because of its dysfunction in human diseases. Expression of catalytically inactive isoforms has been associated with cancer risk and germ line hypomorphic mutations with the ICF syndrome (Immunodeficiency Centromeric instability Facial anomalies). In these diseases, global genomic hypomethylation affects repeated sequences around centromeric regions, which make up large blocks of heterochromatin, and is associated with chromosome instability, impaired chromosome segregation and perturbed nuclear architecture. The review will focus on recent data about the function of DNMT3B, and the consequences of its deregulated activity on pathological DNA hypomethylation, including the illicit activation of germ line-specific genes and accumulation of transcripts originating from repeated satellite sequences, which may represent novel physiopathological biomarkers for human diseases. Notably, we focus on cancer and the ICF syndrome, pathological contexts in which hypomethylation has been extensively characterized. We also discuss the potential

  16. Dnmt3b Prefers Germ Line Genes and Centromeric Regions: Lessons from the ICF Syndrome and Cancer and Implications for Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Emma L.; Francastel, Claire; Velasco, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The correct establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation patterns are critical for mammalian development and the control of normal cell growth and differentiation. DNA methylation has profound effects on the mammalian genome, including transcriptional repression, modulation of chromatin structure, X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, and the suppression of the detrimental effects of repetitive and parasitic DNA sequences on genome integrity. Consistent with its essential role in normal cells and predominance at repetitive genomic regions, aberrant changes of DNA methylation patterns are a common feature of diseases with chromosomal and genomic instabilities. In this context, the functions of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can be affected by mutations or alterations of their expression. DNMT3B, which is involved in de novo methylation, is of particular interest not only because of its important role in development, but also because of its dysfunction in human diseases. Expression of catalytically inactive isoforms has been associated with cancer risk and germ line hypomorphic mutations with the ICF syndrome (Immunodeficiency Centromeric instability Facial anomalies). In these diseases, global genomic hypomethylation affects repeated sequences around centromeric regions, which make up large blocks of heterochromatin, and is associated with chromosome instability, impaired chromosome segregation and perturbed nuclear architecture. The review will focus on recent data about the function of DNMT3B, and the consequences of its deregulated activity on pathological DNA hypomethylation, including the illicit activation of germ line-specific genes and accumulation of transcripts originating from repeated satellite sequences, which may represent novel physiopathological biomarkers for human diseases. Notably, we focus on cancer and the ICF syndrome, pathological contexts in which hypomethylation has been extensively characterized. We also discuss the potential

  17. DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-07

    Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  18. Elevated mutation rates in the germ line of first- and second-generation offspring of irradiated male mice

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Ruth; Plumb, Mark A.; Boulton, Emma; Roux, Isabelle; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2002-01-01

    Mutation rates at two expanded simple tandem repeat loci were studied in the germ line of first- and second-generation offspring of inbred male CBA/H, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice exposed to either high linear energy transfer fission neutrons or low linear energy transfer x-rays. Paternal CBA/H exposure to either x-rays or fission neutrons resulted in increased mutation rates in the germ line of two subsequent generations. Comparable transgenerational effects were observed also in neutron-irradiated C57BL/6 and x-irradiated BALB/c mice. The levels of spontaneous mutation rates and radiation-induced transgenerational instability varied between strains (BALB/c>CBA/H>C57BL/6). Pre- and postmeiotic paternal exposure resulted in similar increases in mutation rate in the germ line of both generations of CBA/H mice, which together with our previous results suggests that radiation-induced expanded simple tandem repeat instability is manifested in diploid cells after fertilization. The remarkable finding that radiation-induced germ-line instability persists for at least two generations raises important issues of risk evaluation in humans. PMID:11997464

  19. Somatic and occult germ-line mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in nonfamilial pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Gimm, O; Armanios, M; Dziema, H; Neumann, H P; Eng, C

    2000-12-15

    Most pheochromocytomas are sporadic but about 10% are though to be hereditary. Although the etiology of most inherited pheochromocytoma is well known, little is known about the etiology of the more common sporadic tumor. Recently, germ-line mutations of SDHD, a mitochondria complex II gene, were found in patients with hereditary paraganglioma. We sought to determine whether SDHD plays a role in the development of sporadic pheochromocytomas and performed a mutation and deletion analysis of SDHD. Among 18 samples, we identified 4 heterozygous sequence variants (3 germ-line, 1 somatic). One germ-line SDHD mutation IVS1+2T>G (absent among 78 control alleles) is predicted to cause aberrant splicing. On reinvestigation, this patient was found to have a tumor of the carotid body, which was likely a paraganglioma. Another patient with malignant, extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma was found to have germ-line c.34G> A (G12S). However, this sequence variant was also found in 1 of 78 control alleles. The third, germ-line nonsense mutation R38X was found in a patient with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. The only somatic heterozygous mutation, c.242C>T (P81L), has been found in the germ line of two families with hereditary paraganglioma and is conserved among four eukaryotic multicellular organisms. Hence, this mutation is most likely of functional significance too. Overall, loss of heterozygosity in at least one of the two markers flanking SDHD was found in 13 tumors (72%). All of the tumors that already harbored intragenic SDHD mutations, whether germ-line or somatic, also had loss of heterozygosity. Our results indicate that SDHD plays a role in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma. Given the minimum estimated germline SDHD mutation frequency of 11% (maximum estimate up to 17%) in this set of apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma cases and if these data can be replicated in other populations, our observations might suggest that all such patients be considered for SDHD mutation

  20. Identification of Genes Uniquely Expressed in the Germ-Line Tissues of the Jewel Wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    PubMed Central

    Ferree, Patrick M.; Fang, Christopher; Mastrodimos, Mariah; Hay, Bruce A.; Amrhein, Henry; Akbari, Omar S.

    2015-01-01

    The jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis is a rising model organism for the study of haplo-diploid reproduction characteristic of hymenopteran insects, which include all wasps, bees, and ants. We performed transcriptional profiling of the ovary, the female soma, and the male soma of N. vitripennis to complement a previously existing transcriptome of the wasp testis. These data were deposited into an open-access genome browser for visualization of transcripts relative to their gene models. We used these data to identify the assemblies of genes uniquely expressed in the germ-line tissues. We found that 156 protein-coding genes are expressed exclusively in the wasp testis compared with only 22 in the ovary. Of the testis-specific genes, eight are candidates for male-specific DNA packaging proteins known as protamines. We found very similar expression patterns of centrosome associated genes in the testis and ovary, arguing that de novo centrosome formation, a key process for development of unfertilized eggs into males, likely does not rely on large-scale transcriptional differences between these tissues. In contrast, a number of meiosis-related genes show a bias toward testis-specific expression, despite the lack of true meiosis in N. vitripennis males. These patterns may reflect an unexpected complexity of male gamete production in the haploid males of this organism. Broadly, these data add to the growing number of genomic and genetic tools available in N. vitripennis for addressing important biological questions in this rising insect model organism. PMID:26464360

  1. Identification and characterization of two novel germ line p53 mutations in the non-LFS/non-LFL breast cancer families in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cao, A-Yong; Jin, Wei; Shi, Peng-Cheng; Di, Gen-hong; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Germ line mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, p53, are known to cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) or Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (LFL). We sought to identify p53 germ line mutations in potential hereditary breast cancer patients without LFS/LFL phenotype, which will help us establish the genetic testing strategy for p53 in Chinese high-risk breast cancer families. We screened all coding exons and intron-exon boundaries of p53 in 240 women with early-onset breast cancer or affected relatives from four breast disease clinical centers in China by utilizing PCR-DHPLC and DNA sequencing analysis. Additionally, three cell lines (H1299, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) were transfected with pEGFP-N1-only or pEGFP-N1 vectors expressing either wild-type or two novel identified mutant p53. And then we performed flow cytometry analysis in the transfected cells to determine the status of cell apoptosis, and real-time PCR as well as western blot analysis to ascertain the expression of p53, p21, and p27. Two novel germ line mutations (563T > C and 643_660del18) were detected in two independent families. Neither of them, however, was present in the 768 normal controls. Functional assays revealed that the ability to trigger cell apoptosis and transcriptional activation of target gene under similar expression of p53 were lower in two mutants versus wild-type p53. Deleterious mutations of p53 seemed to be responsible for approximately 1% of non-BRCA1/BRCA2 hereditary breast cancer in Chinese population, and our findings suggested that p53 should be included in genetic testing of Chinese non-LFS/non-LFL high-risk breast cancer families. PMID:19238535

  2. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A; Tax, David M J; Gillis, Ad J M; Dorssers, Lambert C J; Koestler, Devin C; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina's HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we identified

  3. Genome Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Provide Clues to the Origin and Pathogenesis of Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rijlaarsdam, Martin A.; Tax, David M. J.; Gillis, Ad J. M.; Dorssers, Lambert C. J.; Koestler, Devin C.; de Ridder, Jeroen; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to the gonad. Imprinted regions are erased in the gonad and later become uniparentally imprinted according to fetal sex. Here, 91 GCTs (type I-IV) and four cell lines were profiled (Illumina’s HumanMethylation450BeadChip). Data was pre-processed controlling for cross hybridization, SNPs, detection rate, probe-type bias and batch effects. The annotation was extended, covering snRNAs/microRNAs, repeat elements and imprinted regions. A Hidden Markov Model-based genome segmentation was devised to identify differentially methylated genomic regions. Methylation profiles allowed for separation of clusters of non-seminomas (type II), seminomas/dysgerminomas (type II), spermatocytic seminomas (type III) and teratomas/dermoid cysts (type I/IV). The seminomas, dysgerminomas and spermatocytic seminomas were globally hypomethylated, in line with previous reports and their demethylated precursor. Differential methylation and imprinting status between subtypes reflected their presumed cell of origin. Ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts showed (partial) sex specific uniparental maternal imprinting. The spermatocytic seminomas showed uniparental paternal imprinting while testicular teratomas exhibited partial imprinting erasure. Somatic imprinting in type II GCTs might indicate a cell of origin after global demethylation but before imprinting erasure. This is earlier than previously described, but agrees with the totipotent/embryonic stem cell like potential of type II GCTs and their rare extra-gonadal localization. The results support the common origin of the type I teratomas and show strong similarity between ovarian type I teratomas and dermoid cysts. In conclusion, we

  4. Differential Expression of Conserved Germ Line Markers and Delayed Segregation of Male and Female Primordial Germ Cells in a Hermaphrodite, the Leech Helobdella

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Vallès, Yvonne; Weisblat, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are often set aside early in embryogenesis, a strategy that minimizes the risk of genomic damage associated with replication and mitosis during the cell cycle. Here, we have used germ line markers (piwi, vasa, and nanos) and microinjected cell lineage tracers to show that PGC specification in the leech genus Helobdella follows a different scenario: in this hermaphrodite, the male and female PGCs segregate from somatic lineages only after more than 20 rounds of zygotic mitosis; the male and female PGCs share the same (mesodermal) cell lineage for 19 rounds of zygotic mitosis. Moreover, while all three markers are expressed in both male and female reproductive tissues of the adult, they are expressed differentially between the male and female PGCs of the developing embryo: piwi and vasa are expressed preferentially in female PGCs at a time when nanos is expressed preferentially in male PGCs. A priori, the delayed segregation of male and female PGCs from somatic tissues and from one another increases the probability of mutations affecting both male and female PGCs of a given individual. We speculate that this suite of features, combined with a capacity for self-fertilization, may contribute to the dramatically rearranged genome of Helobdella robusta relative to other animals. PMID:24217283

  5. Germ line variants predispose to both JAK2 V617F clonal hematopoiesis and myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hinds, David A; Barnholt, Kimberly E; Mesa, Ruben A; Kiefer, Amy K; Do, Chuong B; Eriksson, Nicholas; Mountain, Joanna L; Francke, Uta; Tung, Joyce Y; Nguyen, Huong Marie; Zhang, Haiyu; Gojenola, Linda; Zehnder, James L; Gotlib, Jason

    2016-08-25

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel predisposition alleles associated with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and JAK2 V617F clonal hematopoiesis in the general population. We recruited a web-based cohort of 726 individuals with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis and 252 637 population controls unselected for hematologic phenotypes. Using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platform with custom probes for the JAK2 V617F mutation (V617F), we identified 497 individuals (0.2%) among the population controls who were V617F carriers. We performed a combined GWAS of the MPN cases plus V617F carriers in the control population (n = 1223) vs the remaining controls who were noncarriers for V617F (n = 252 140). For these MPN cases plus V617F carriers, we replicated the germ line JAK2 46/1 haplotype (rs59384377: odds ratio [OR] = 2.4, P = 6.6 × 10(-89)), previously associated with V617F-positive MPN. We also identified genome-wide significant associations in the TERT gene (rs7705526: OR = 1.8, P = 1.1 × 10(-32)), in SH2B3 (rs7310615: OR = 1.4, P = 3.1 × 10(-14)), and upstream of TET2 (rs1548483: OR = 2.0, P = 2.0 × 10(-9)). These associations were confirmed in a separate replication cohort of 446 V617F carriers vs 169 021 noncarriers. In a joint analysis of the combined GWAS and replication results, we identified additional genome-wide significant predisposition alleles associated with CHEK2, ATM, PINT, and GFI1B All SNP ORs were similar for MPN patients and controls who were V617F carriers. These data indicate that the same germ line variants endow individuals with a predisposition not only to MPN, but also to JAK2 V617F clonal hematopoiesis, a more common phenomenon that may foreshadow the development of an overt neoplasm. PMID:27365426

  6. Purified mariner (Mos1) transposase catalyzes the integration of marked elements into the germ-line of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; Morgan, D; Tosi, L R; Beverley, S M; James, A A

    2000-11-01

    Derivatives of the mariner transposable element, Mos1, from Drosophila mauritiana, can integrate into the germ-line of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Previously, the transposase required to mobilize Mos1 was provided in trans by a helper plasmid expressing the enzyme under the control of the D. psuedoobscura heat-shock protein 82 promoter. Here we tested whether purified recombinant Mos1 transposase could increase the recovery of Ae. aegypti transformants. Mos1 transposase was injected into white-eyed, kh(w)/kh(w), Ae. aegypti embryos with a Mos1 donor plasmid containing a copy of the wild-type allele of the D. melanogaster cinnabar gene. Transformed mosquitoes were recognized by partial restoration of eye color in the G(1) animals and confirmed by Southern analyses of genomic DNA. At Mos1 transposase concentrations approaching 100 nM, the rate of germ-line transformants arising from independent insertions in G(0) animals was elevated 2-fold compared to that seen in experiments with helper plasmids. Furthermore, the recovery of total G(1) transformants was increased 7.5-fold over the frequency seen with co-injected helper plasmid. Southern blot analyses and gene amplification experiments confirmed the integration of the transposons into the mosquito genome, although not all integrations were of the expected cut-and-paste type transposition. The increased frequency of germ-line integrations obtained with purified transposase will facilitate the generation of Mos1 transgenic mosquitoes and the application of transgenic approaches to the biology of this important vector of multiple pathogens. PMID:10989286

  7. Developmental expression of FOG-1/CPEB protein and its control in the C. elegans hermaphrodite germ line

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Liana B.; Kimble, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Controls of a germ cell as sperm or oocyte and of determination of cell number remain unsolved problems in developmental biology. This paper examines C. elegans FOG-1, a CPEB-related RNA-binding protein that controls the sperm fate. We find that abundant FOG-1 protein is observed transiently in germ cells just prior to their expression of an early sperm-differentiation marker. As the germ line elongates, abundant FOG-1 appears more and more distally as sperm become specified, but disappears when the germ line switches to oogenesis. This dynamic pattern is controlled by both globally-acting and germline-specific sex-determining regulators. Importantly, the extent of FOG-1 expression corresponds roughly to sperm number in wild-type and mutants altering sperm number. By contrast, three other key regulators of the sperm/oocyte decision do not similarly correspond to sperm number. We suggest that FOG-1 is precisely modulated in both time and space to specify sperm fate and control sperm number. PMID:17279572

  8. Flatworm stem cells and the germ line: developmental and evolutionary implications of macvasa expression in Macrostomum lignano.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniela; De Mulder, Katrien; Hartenstein, Volker; Kuales, Georg; Borgonie, Gaetan; Marx, Florentine; Morris, Joshua; Ladurner, Peter

    2008-07-01

    We have isolated and identified the vasa homologue macvasa, expressed in testes, ovaries, eggs and somatic stem cells of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. Molecular tools such as in situ hybridization and RNA interference were developed for M. lignano to study gene expression and function. Macvasa expression was followed during postembryonic development, regeneration and in starvation experiments. We were able to follow gonad formation in juveniles and the reformation of gonads from stem cells after amputation by in situ hybridization and a specific Macvasa antibody. Expression of macvasa in the germ cells was highly affected by feeding conditions and correlated with the decrease and regrowth of the gonads. RNA interference showed specific down-regulation of macvasa mRNA and protein. The absence of Macvasa did not influence gonad formation and stem cell proliferation. Our results corroborate the exclusive nature of the flatworm stem cell system but challenge the concept of a solely postembryonic specification of the germ line in Platyhelminthes. We address the transition of somatic stem cells to germ cells and speculate on Macrostomum as a system to unravel the mechanisms of preformation or epigenesis in the evolution of germ line specification from somatic stem cells. PMID:18405892

  9. Evidence for an Inducible Repair-Recombination System in the Female Germ Line of Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Differential Sensitivity to Gamma Rays

    PubMed Central

    Laurencon, A.; Bregliano, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    In a previous paper, we reported that the reactivity level, which regulates the frequency of transposition of I factor, a LINE element-like retrotransposon, is enhanced by the same agents that induce the SOS response in Escherichia coli. In this report, we describe experimental evidence that, for identical genotypes, the reactivity levels correlate with the sensitivity of oogenesis to gamma rays, measured by the number of eggs laid and by frequency of dominant lethals. This strongly supports the hypothesis that the reactivity level is one manifestation of an inducible DNA repair system taking place in the female germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. The implications of this finding for the understanding of the regulation of I factor are discussed and some other possible biological roles of this system are outlined. PMID:8647394

  10. DNA damage in human germ cell exposed to the some food additives in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pandir, Dilek

    2016-08-01

    The use of food additives has increased enormously in modern food technology but they have adverse effects in human healthy. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage of some food additives such as citric acid (CA), benzoic acid (BA), brilliant blue (BB) and sunset yellow (SY) which were investigated in human male germ cells using comet assay. The sperm cells were incubated with different concentrations of these food additives (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/mL) for 1 h at 32 °C. The results showed for CA, BA, BB and SY a dose dependent increase in tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment in human sperm when compared to control group. When control values were compared in the studied parameters in the treatment concentrations, SY was found to exhibit the highest level of DNA damage followed by BB > BA > CA. However, none of the food additives affected the tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment at 50 and 100 μg/mL. At 200 μg/mL of SY, the tail DNA% and tail length of sperm were 95.80 ± 0.28 and 42.56 ± 4.66, for BB the values were 95.06 ± 2.30 and 39.56 ± 3.78, whereas for BA the values were 89.05 ± 2.78 and 31.50 ± 0.71, for CA the values were 88.59 ± 6.45 and 13.59 ± 2.74, respectively. However, only the highest concentration of the used food additives significantly affected the studied parameters of sperm DNA. The present results indicate that SY and BB are more harmful than BA and CA to human sperm in vitro. PMID:25501537

  11. Purpose and regulation of stem cells: a systems-biology view from the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line

    PubMed Central

    Cinquin, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are expected to play a key role in the development and maintenance of organisms, and hold great therapeutic promises. However, a number of questions must be answered to achieve an understanding of stem cells and put them to use. Here I review some of these questions, and how they relate to the model system provided by the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line, which is exceptional in its thorough genetic characterization and experimental accessibility under in vivo conditions. A fundamental question is how to define a stem cell; different definitions can be adopted that capture different features of interest. In the C. elegans germ line, stem cells can be defined by cell lineage or by cell commitment (‘commitment’ must itself be carefully defined). These definitions are associated with two other important questions about stem cells: their functions (which must be addressed following a systems approach, based on an evolutionary perspective) and their regulation. I review possible functions and their evolutionary groundings, including genome maintenance and powerful regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, and possible regulatory mechanisms, including asymmetrical division and control of transit amplification by a developmental timer. I draw parallels between Drosophila and C. elegans germline stem cells; such parallels raise intriguing questions about Drosophila stem cells. I conclude by showing that the C. elegans germ line bears similarities with a number of other stem cell systems, which underscores its relevance to the understanding of stem cells. PMID:19065622

  12. Fog-2, a Germ-Line-Specific Sex Determination Gene Required for Hermaphrodite Spermatogenesis in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, T.; Kimble, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation and characterization of 16 mutations in the germ-line sex determination gene fog-2 (fog for feminization of the germ line). In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans there are normally two sexes, self-fertilizing hermaphrodites (XX) and males (XO). Wild-type XX animals are hermaphrodite in the germ line (spermatogenesis followed by oogenesis), and female in the soma. fog-2 loss-of-function mutations transform XX animals into females while XO animals are unaffected. Thus, wild-type fog-2 is necessary for spermatogenesis in hermaphrodites but not males. The fem genes and fog-1 are each essential for specification of spermatogenesis in both XX and XO animals. fog-2 acts as a positive regulator of the fem genes and fog-1. The tra-2 and tra-3 genes act as negative regulators of the fem genes and fog-1 to allow oogenesis. Two models are discussed for how fog-2 might positively regulate the fem genes and fog-1 to permit spermatogenesis; fog-2 may act as a negative regulator of tra-2 and tra-3, or fog-2 may act positively on the fem genes and fog-1 rendering them insensitive to the negative action of tra-2 and tra-3. PMID:3396865

  13. Germ-Line Mutations in the von Hippel–Lindau Tumor-Suppressor Gene Are Similar to Somatic von Hippel–Lindau Aberrations in Sporadic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Jean M.; Naglich, Joseph; Gelbert, Lawrence; Hsia, Y. Edward; Lamiell, James M.; Green, Jane S.; Collins, Debra; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.; Laidlaw, Jana; Li, Fred P.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J. P.; Seizinger, Bernd R.; Kley, Nikolai

    1994-01-01

    von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary tumor syndrome predisposing to multifocal bilateral renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), pheochromocytomas, and pancreatic tumors, as well as angiomas and hemangioblastomas of the CNS. A candidate gene for VHL was recently identified, which led to the isolation of a partial cDNA clone with extended open reading frame, without significant homology to known genes or obvious functional motifs, except for an acidic pentamer repeat domain. To further characterize the functional domains of the VHL gene and assess its involvement in hereditary and nonhereditary tumors, we performed mutation analyses and studied its expression in normal and tumor tissue. We identified germ-line mutations in 39% of VHL disease families. Moreover, 33% of sporadic RCCs and all (6/6) sporadic RCC cell lines analyzed showed mutations within the VHL gene. Both germ-line and somatic mutations included deletions, insertions, splice-site mutations, and missense and nonsense mutations, all of which clustered at the 3' end of the corresponding partial VHL cDNA open reading frame, including an alternatively spliced exon 123 nt in length, suggesting functionally important domains encoded by the VHL gene in this region. Over 180 sporadic tumors of other types have shown no detectable base changes within the presumed coding sequence of the VHL gene to date. We conclude that the gene causing VHL has an important and specific role in the etiology of sporadic RCCs, acts as a recessive tumor-suppressor gene, and appears to encode important functional domains within the 3' end of the known open reading frame. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7977367

  14. VisCap: inference and visualization of germ-line copy-number variants from targeted clinical sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Trevor J.; Amr, Sami S.; Bowser, Mark J.; Gowrisankar, Sivakumar; Hynes, Elizabeth; Mahanta, Lisa M.; Rehm, Heidi L.; Funke, Birgit; Lebo, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate VisCap, a software program targeted to clinical laboratories for inference and visualization of germ-line copy-number variants (CNVs) from targeted next-generation sequencing data. Genet Med 18 7, 712–719. Methods: VisCap calculates the fraction of overall sequence coverage assigned to genomic intervals and computes log2 ratios of these values to the median of reference samples profiled using the same test configuration. Candidate CNVs are called when log2 ratios exceed user-defined thresholds. Genet Med 18 7, 712–719. Results: We optimized VisCap using 14 cases with known CNVs, followed by prospective analysis of 1,104 cases referred for diagnostic DNA sequencing. To verify calls in the prospective cohort, we used droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm 10/27 candidate CNVs and 72/72 copy-neutral genomic regions scored by VisCap. We also used a genome-wide bead array to confirm the absence of CNV calls across panels applied to 10 cases. To improve specificity, we instituted a visual scoring system that enabled experienced reviewers to differentiate true-positive from false-positive calls with minimal impact on laboratory workflow. Genet Med 18 7, 712–719. Conclusions: VisCap is a sensitive method for inferring CNVs from targeted sequence data from targeted gene panels. Visual scoring of data underlying CNV calls is a critical step to reduce false-positive calls for follow-up testing. Genet Med 18 7, 712–719. PMID:26681316

  15. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg Gang

    2009-03-25

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  16. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema

    Oleg Gang

    2010-01-08

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  17. Development of germ-line-specific CRISPR-Cas9 systems to improve the production of heritable gene modifications in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhengjing; Feng, Zhengyan; Wei, Pengliang; Zhang, Hui; Botella, José Ramón; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-01

    The Streptococcus-derived CRISPR/Cas9 system is being widely used to perform targeted gene modifications in plants. This customized endonuclease system has two components, the single-guide RNA (sgRNA) for target DNA recognition and the CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) for DNA cleavage. Ubiquitously expressed CRISPR/Cas9 systems (UC) generate targeted gene modifications with high efficiency but only those produced in reproductive cells are transmitted to the next generation. We report the design and characterization of a germ-line-specific Cas9 system (GSC) for Arabidopsis gene modification in male gametocytes, constructed using a SPOROCYTELESS (SPL) genomic expression cassette. Four loci in two endogenous genes were targeted by both systems for comparative analysis. Mutations generated by the GSC system were rare in T1 plants but were abundant (30%) in the T2 generation. The vast majority (70%) of the T2 mutant population generated using the UC system were chimeras while the newly developed GSC system produced only 29% chimeras, with 70% of the T2 mutants being heterozygous. Analysis of two loci in the T2 population showed that the abundance of heritable gene mutations was 37% higher in the GSC system compared to the UC system and the level of polymorphism of the mutations was also dramatically increased with the GSC system. Two additional systems based on germ-line-specific promoters (pDD45-GT and pLAT52-GT) were also tested, and one of them was capable of generating heritable homozygous T1 mutant plants. Our results suggest that future application of the described GSC system will facilitate the screening for targeted gene modifications, especially lethal mutations in the T2 population. PMID:26360626

  18. Germ line development in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria: vasa as a marker.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-che; Dearden, Peter; Akam, Michael

    2002-12-01

    Vasa is a widely conserved germline marker, both in vertebrates and invertebrates. We identify a vasa orthologue, Sgvasa, and use it to study germline development in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria, a species in which no germ plasm has been identified. In adults, Sgvasa is specifically expressed in the ovary and testis. It is expressed at high levels during early oogenesis, but no detectable vasa RNA and little Vasa protein are present in mature unlaid eggs. None appears to be localized to any defined region of the egg cortex, suggesting that germline specification may not depend on maternal germ plasm expressing vasa. Vasa protein is expressed in most cleavage energids as they reach the egg surface and persists at high levels in most cells aggregating to form the embryonic primordium. However, after gastrulation, Vasa protein persists only in extraembryonic membranes and in cells at the outer margin of the late heart-stage embryo. In the embryo, it then become restricted to cells at the dorsal margin of the forming abdomen. In older embryos, these Vasa-positive cells move toward the midline; Vasa protein accumulates asymmetrically in their cytoplasm, a pattern closely resembling that of germ cells in late embryonic gonads. Thus, we suggest that the Vasa-stained cells in the abdominal margin are germ cells, as proposed by Nelson (1934), and not cardioblasts, as has been proposed by others. PMID:12453463

  19. Differentiation in Stem Cell Lineages and in Life: Explorations in the Male Germ Line Stem Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    I have been privileged to work on cellular differentiation during a great surge of discovery that has revealed the molecular mechanisms and genetic regulatory circuitry that control embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance and repair. Studying the regulation of proliferation and differentiation in the male germ line stem cell lineage has allowed us investigate how the developmental program imposes layers of additional controls on fundamental cellular processes like cell cycle progression and gene expression to give rise to the huge variety of specialized cell types in our bodies. We are beginning to understand how local signals from somatic support cells specify self-renewal versus differentiation in the stem cell niche at the apical tip of the testis. We are discovering the molecular events that block cell proliferation and initiate terminal differentiation at the switch from mitosis to meiosis-a signature event of the germ cell program. Our work is beginning to reveal how the developmental program that sets up the dramatic new cell type-specific transcription program that prepares germ cells for meiotic division and spermatid differentiation is turned on when cells become spermatocytes. I have had the privilege of working with incredible students, postdocs, and colleagues who have discovered, brainstormed, challenged, and refined our science and our ideas of how developmental pathways and cellular mechanisms work together to drive differentiation. PMID:26970629

  20. Transcriptome profiles of Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus animal and vegetal half-embryos: identification of sex determination, germ line, mesoderm, and other developmental genes.

    PubMed

    Sellars, Melony J; Trewin, Carolyn; McWilliam, Sean M; Glaves, R S E; Hertzler, Philip L

    2015-06-01

    There is virtually no knowledge of the molecular events controlling early embryogenesis in Penaeid shrimp. A combination of controlled spawning environment, shrimp embryo micro-dissection techniques, and next-generation sequencing was used to produce transcriptome EST datasets of Penaeus japonicus animal and vegetal half-embryos. Embryos were collected immediately after spawning, and then blastomeres were separated at the two-cell stage and allowed to develop to late gastrulation, then pooled for RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis. Ion Torrent sequencing of cDNA from approximately 500 pooled animal and vegetal half-embryos from multiple spawnings resulted in 560,516 and 493,703 reads, respectively. Reads from each library were assembled and Gene Ontogeny analysis produced 3479 annotated animal contigs and 4173 annotated vegetal contigs, with 159/139 hits for developmental processes in the animal/vegetal contigs, respectively. Contigs were subject to BLAST for selected developmental toolbox genes. Some of the genes found included the sex determination genes sex-lethal and transformer; the germ line genes argonaute 1, boule, germ cell-less, gustavus, maelstrom, mex-3, par-1, pumilio, SmB, staufen, and tudor; the mesoderm genes brachyury, mef2, snail, and twist; the axis determination/segmentation genes β-catenin, deformed, distal-less, engrailed, giant, hairy, hunchback, kruppel, orthodenticle, patched, tailless, and wingless/wnt-8c; and a number of cell-cycle regulators. Animal and vegetal contigs were computationally subtracted from each other to produce sets unique to either half-embryo library. Genes expressed only in the animal half included bmp1, kruppel, maelstrom, and orthodenticle. Genes expressed only in the vegetal half included boule, brachyury, deformed, dorsal, engrailed, hunchback, spalt, twist, and wingless/wnt-8c. PMID:25634056

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Germ Line Potential of Stem Cells Derived from Newborn Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Dyce, Paul W.; Liu, Jinghe; Tayade, Chandrakant; Kidder, Gerald M.; Betts, Dean H.; Li, Julang

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that fetal porcine skin-derived stem cells were capable of differentiation into oocyte-like cells (OLCs). Here we report that newborn mice skin-derived stem cells are also capable of differentiating into early OLCs. Using stem cells from mice that are transgenic for Oct4 germline distal enhancer-GFP, germ cells resulting from their differentiation are expected to be GFP+. After differentiation, some GFP+ OLCs reached 40–45 µM and expressed oocyte markers. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that ∼0.3% of the freshly isolated skin cells were GFP+. The GFP-positive cells increased to ∼7% after differentiation, suggesting that the GFP+ cells could be of in vivo origin, but are more likely induced upon being cultured in vitro. To study the in vivo germ cell potential of skin-derived cells, they were aggregated with newborn ovarian cells, and transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized mice. GFP+ oocytes were identified within a subpopulation of follicles in the resulting growth. Our finding that early oocytes can be differentiated from mice skin-derived cells in defined medium may offer a new in vitro model to study germ cell formation and oogenesis. PMID:21629667

  2. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-01-18

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

  3. The role of evolutionarily conserved germ-line DH sequence in B-1 cell development and natural antibody production.

    PubMed

    Vale, Andre M; Nobrega, Alberto; Schroeder, Harry W

    2015-12-01

    Because of N addition and variation in the site of VDJ joining, the third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (CDR-H3) is the most diverse component of the initial immunoglobulin antigen-binding site repertoire. A large component of the peritoneal cavity B-1 cell component is the product of fetal and perinatal B cell production. The CDR-H3 repertoire is thus depleted of N addition, which increases dependency on germ-line sequence. Cross-species comparisons have shown that DH gene sequence demonstrates conservation of amino acid preferences by reading frame. Preference for reading frame 1, which is enriched for tyrosine and glycine, is created both by rearrangement patterns and by pre-BCR and BCR selection. In previous studies, we have assessed the role of conserved DH sequence by examining peritoneal cavity B-1 cell numbers and antibody production in BALB/c mice with altered DH loci. Here, we review our finding that changes in the constraints normally imposed by germ-line-encoded amino acids within the CDR-H3 repertoire profoundly affect B-1 cell development, especially B-1a cells, and thus natural antibody immunity. Our studies suggest that both natural and somatic selection operate to create a restricted B-1 cell CDR-H3 repertoire. PMID:26104486

  4. Novel germ line DDX41 mutations define families with a lower age of MDS/AML onset and lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Lewinsohn, Maya; Brown, Anna L; Weinel, Luke M; Phung, Connie; Rafidi, George; Lee, Ming K; Schreiber, Andreas W; Feng, Jinghua; Babic, Milena; Chong, Chan-Eng; Lee, Young; Yong, Agnes; Suthers, Graeme K; Poplawski, Nicola; Altree, Meryl; Phillips, Kerry; Jaensch, Louise; Fine, Miriam; D'Andrea, Richard J; Lewis, Ian D; Medeiros, Bruno C; Pollyea, Daniel A; King, Mary-Claire; Walsh, Tom; Keel, Siobán; Shimamura, Akiko; Godley, Lucy A; Hahn, Christopher N; Churpek, Jane E; Scott, Hamish S

    2016-02-25

    Recently our group and others have identified DDX41 mutations both as germ line and acquired somatic mutations in families with multiple cases of late onset myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that DDX41 acts as a tumor suppressor. To determine whether novel DDX41 mutations could be identified in families with additional types of hematologic malignancies, our group screened two cohorts of families with a diverse range of hematologic malignancy subtypes. Among 289 families, we identified nine (3%) with DDX41 mutations. As previously observed, MDS and AML were the most common malignancies, often of the erythroblastic subtype, and 1 family displayed early-onset follicular lymphoma. Five novel mutations were identified, including missense mutations within important functional domains and start-loss and splicing mutations predicted to result in truncated proteins. We also show that most asymptomatic mutation carriers have normal blood counts until malignancy develops. This study expands both the mutation and phenotypic spectra observed in families with germ line DDX41 mutations. With an increasing number of both inherited and acquired mutations in this gene being identified, further study of how DDX41 disruption leads to hematologic malignancies is critical. PMID:26712909

  5. Transplantation of male germ line stem cells restores fertility in infertile mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takehiko; Dobrinski, Ina; Avarbock, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Azoospermia or oligozoospermia due to disruption of spermatogenesis are common causes of human male infertility. We used the technique of spermatogonial transplantation in two infertile mouse strains, Steel (Sl) and dominant white spotting (W), to determine if stem cells from an infertile male were capable of generating spermatogenesis. Transplantation of germ cells from infertile Sl/Sld mutant male mice to infertile W/Wv or Wv/W54 mutant male mice restored fertility to the recipient mice. Thus, transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells from an infertile donor to a permissive testicular environment can restore fertility and result in progeny with the genetic makeup of the infertile donor male. PMID:10613820

  6. Germ line transformation and in vivo labeling of nuclei in Diptera: report on Megaselia abdita (Phoridae) and Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Caroti, Francesca; Urbansky, Silvia; Wosch, Maike; Lemke, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    To understand how and when developmental traits of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster originated during the course of insect evolution, similar traits are functionally studied in variably related satellite species. The experimental toolkit available for relevant fly models typically comprises gene expression and loss as well as gain-of-function analyses. Here, we extend the set of available molecular tools to piggyBac-based germ line transformation in two satellite fly models, Megaselia abdita and Chironomus riparius. As proof-of-concept application, we used a Gateway variant of the piggyBac transposon vector pBac{3xP3-eGFPafm} to generate a transgenic line that expresses His2Av-mCherry as fluorescent nuclear reporter ubiquitously in the gastrulating embryo of M. abdita. Our results open two phylogenetically important nodes of the insect order Diptera for advanced developmental evolutionary genetics. PMID:26044750

  7. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    PubMed

    Urbisz, Anna Z; Chajec, Łukasz; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal). In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore) organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female germ-line cysts is

  8. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components

    PubMed Central

    Urbisz, Anna Z.; Chajec, Łukasz; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal). In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells - ring canals - cytophore) organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female germ-line cysts

  9. Elucidating human male germ cell development by studying germ cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Nettersheim, Daniel; Jostes, Sina; Schneider, Simon; Schorle, Hubert

    2016-10-01

    Human germ cell development is regulated in a spatio-temporal manner by complex regulatory networks. Here, we summarize results obtained in germ cell tumors and respective cell lines and try to pinpoint similarities to normal germ cell development. This comparison allows speculating about the critical and error-prone mechanisms, which when disturbed, lead to the development of germ cell tumors. Short after specification, primordial germ cells express markers of pluripotency, which, in humans, persists up to the stage of fetal/infantile spermatogonia. Aside from the rare spermatocytic tumors, virtually all seminomas and embryonal carcinomas express markers of pluripotency and show signs of pluripotency or totipotency. Therefore, it appears that proper handling of the pluripotency program appears to be the most critical step in germ cell development in terms of tumor biology. Furthermore, data from mice reveal that germline cells display an epigenetic signature, which is highly similar to pluripotent cells. This signature (poised histone code, DNA hypomethylation) is required for the rapid induction of toti- and pluripotency upon fertilization. We propose that adult spermatogonial cells, when exposed to endocrine disruptors or epigenetic active substances, are prone to reinitiate the pluripotency program, giving rise to a germ cell tumor. The fact that pluripotent cells can be derived from adult murine and human testicular cells further corroborates this idea. PMID:27512122

  10. Effect of mode of administration of methyl methanesulfonate and triethylenemelamine on induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in mouse germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, C.W.; Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of route of administration on induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse germ cells in vivo was studied using two germ cell mutagens, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and triethylenemelamine (TEM). The chemicals were administered to male mice (C3Hf x 101)F/sub 1/ by IP injection or gavage using acute or 5-day subacute regimens. After completion of dosing, methyl-(/sup 3/H)thymidine ((/sup 3/H)TdR) was injected into the testes, and spermatozoa were collected 16 days later. The sperm heads were isolated, and UDS was determined by the amount of (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporated. Acute administration of MMS (2-100 mg/kg) induced a strong, dose-related UDS response. The response was slightly higher with IP injection than with gavage. Acute administration of TEM (0.05-4.0 mg/kg) by IP injection or gavage induced weak and variable responses. The study showed that gavage, as well as IP injection, can be used for the administration of test chemicals and that the subacute 5-day regimen induced a higher UDS response than the acute regimen. Furthermore, the testicular route may enhance the detection of weak UDS inducers.

  11. Analysis of a four generation family reveals the widespread sequence-dependent maintenance of allelic DNA methylation in somatic and germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Aifa; Huang, Yi; Li, Zesong; Wan, Shengqing; Mou, Lisha; Yin, Guangliang; Li, Ning; Xie, Jun; Xia, Yudong; Li, Xianxin; Luo, Liya; Zhang, Junwen; Chen, Shen; Wu, Song; Sun, Jihua; Sun, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Zhimao; Chen, Jing; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Cai, Zhiming; Gui, Yaoting

    2016-01-01

    Differential methylation of the homologous chromosomes, a well-known mechanism leading to genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation, is widely reported at the non-imprinted regions on autosomes. To evaluate the transgenerational DNA methylation patterns in human, we analyzed the DNA methylomes of somatic and germ cells in a four-generation family. We found that allelic asymmetry of DNA methylation was pervasive at the non-imprinted loci and was likely regulated by cis-acting genetic variants. We also observed that the allelic methylation patterns for the vast majority of the cis-regulated loci were shared between the somatic and germ cells from the same individual. These results demonstrated the interaction between genetic and epigenetic variations and suggested the possibility of widespread sequence-dependent transmission of DNA methylation during spermatogenesis. PMID:26758766

  12. Identification of a mouse B-type cyclin which exhibits developmentally regulated expression in the germ line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, D. L.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    To begin to examine the function of cyclins in mammalian germ cells, we have screened an adult mouse testis cDNA library for the presence of B-type cyclins. We have isolated cDNAs that encode a murine B-type cyclin, which has been designated cycB1. cycB1 was shown to be expressed in several adult tissues and in the midgestation mouse embryo. In the adult tissues, the highest levels of cycB1 transcripts were seen in the testis and ovary, which contain germ cells at various stages of differentiation. The major transcripts corresponding to cycB1 are 1.7 and 2.5 kb, with the 1.7 kb species being the predominant testicular transcript and the 2.5 kb species more abundant in the ovary. Examination of cDNAs corresponding to the 2.5 kb and 1.7 kb mRNAs revealed that these transcripts encode identical proteins, differing only in the polyadenylation signal used and therefore in the length of their 3' untranslated regions. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that the predominant sites of cycB1 expression in the testis and ovary were in the germinal compartment, particularly in early round spermatids in the testis and growing oocytes in the ovary. Thus cycB1 is expressed in both meiotic and postmeiotic cells. This pattern of cycB1 expression further suggests that cycB1 may have different functions in the two cell types, only one of which correlates with progression of the cell cycle.

  13. Relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water to gamma radiation for germ line mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, B.J.; Lee, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    The relative biological effectiveness was determined using sex-linked recessive lethals induced in Drosophila spermatozoa as the biological effect. The sex-linked recessive lethal test, a measure of mutations induced in germ cells and transmitted through successive generations, yields a linear dose-response curve in the range used in these experiments. A dose-response curve was determined from three exposures to tritiated water and three exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma radiation. The ratio of the slopes of these two response curves is 2.7 +/- 0.3, yielding a relative biological effectiveness that suggests the tritium beta particle is 2.7 times more effective per unit of energy absorbed in inducing gene mutations transmitted to successive generations than /sup 60/Co gamma radiation. The increase in relative biological effectiveness with higher linear energy transfer for tritium beta radiation strongly suggests that single-strand breaks are repaired by a nearly error-free repair mechanism. Ion tracks with a high density of ions (high linear energy transfer) are more efficient than tracks with a low ion density (low linear energy transfer) in inducing transmissible mutations, suggesting interaction among products of ionization. Since most transmitted mutations induced by ionizing radiation result from strand breakage, interaction probably occurs at this level with double-strand breaks being repaired by an error-prone mechanism yielding transmissible mutations.

  14. Identification and sequence analysis of a new member of the mouse HSP70 gene family and characterization of its unique cellular and developmental pattern of expression in the male germ line.

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Z F; Wolgemuth, D J; Hunt, C R

    1988-01-01

    A unique member of the mouse HSP70 gene family has been isolated and characterized with respect to its DNA sequence organization and expression. The gene contains extensive similarity to a heat shock-inducible HSP70 gene within the coding region but diverges in both 3' and 5' nontranslated regions. The gene does not yield transcripts in response to heat shock in mouse L cells. Rather, the gene appears to be activated uniquely in the male germ line. Analysis of RNA from different developmental stages and from enriched populations of spermatogenic cells revealed that this gene is expressed during the prophase stage of meiosis. A transcript different in size from the major heat-inducible mouse transcripts is most abundant in meiotic prophase spermatocytes and decreases in abundance in postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. This pattern of expression is distinct from that observed for another member of this gene family, which was previously shown to be expressed abundantly in postmeiotic germ cells. These observations suggest that specific HSP70 gene family members play distinct roles in the differentiation of the germ cell lineage in mammals. Images PMID:3405224

  15. DNA Strand Breaks in Mitotic Germ Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans Evaluated by Comet Assay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sojin; Choi, Seoyun; Ahn, Byungchan

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage responses are important for the maintenance of genome stability and the survival of organisms. Such responses are activated in the presence of DNA damage and lead to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair. In Caenorhabditis elegans, double-strand breaks induced by DNA damaging agents have been detected indirectly by antibodies against DSB recognizing proteins. In this study we used a comet assay to detect DNA strand breaks and to measure the elimination of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. We found that C. elegans brc-1 mutants were more sensitive to ionizing radiation and camptothecin than the N2 wild-type strain and repaired DNA strand breaks less efficiently than N2. This study is the first demonstration of direct measurement of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. This newly developed assay can be applied to detect DNA strand breaks in different C. elegans mutants that are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. PMID:26903030

  16. Efficient gene-driven germ-line point mutagenesis of C57BL/6J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud III, Edward J; Culiat, Cymbeline T; Klebig, Mitch; Barker, Gene; Cain, K T; Carpenter, Debra J S; Easter, Lori L; Foster, Carmen M; Gardner, Alysyn Wallace; Guo, ZY; Houser, Kay J; Hughes, Lori A; Kerley, Marilyn K; Liu, Zhaowei; Olszewski, Robert Edward; Pinn, Irina; Shaw, Ginger D; Shinpock, Sarah G; Wymore, Ann; Rinchik, Eugene M; Johnson, Dabney K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Analysis of an allelic series of point mutations in a gene, generated by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis, is a valuable method for discovering the full scope of its biological function. Here we present an efficient gene-driven approach for identifying ENU-induced point mutations in any gene in C57BL/6J mice. The advantage of such an approach is that it allows one to select any gene of interest in the mouse genome and to go directly from DNA sequence to mutant mice. Results: We produced the Cryopreserved Mutant Mouse Bank (CMMB), which is an archive of DNA, cDNA, tissues, and sperm from 4,000 G1 male offspring of ENU-treated C57BL/6J males mated to untreated C57BL/6J females. Each mouse in the CMMB carries a large number of random heterozygous point mutations throughout the genome. High-throughput Temperature Gradient Capillary Electrophoresis (TGCE) was employed to perform a 32-Mbp sequence-driven screen for mutations in 38 PCR amplicons from 11 genes in DNA and/or cDNA from the CMMB mice. DNA sequence analysis of heteroduplex-forming amplicons identified by TGCE revealed 22 mutations in 10 genes for an overall mutation frequency of 1 in 1.45 Mbp. All 22 mutations are single base pair substitutions, and nine of them (41%) result in nonconservative amino acid substitutions. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of cryopreserved spermatozoa into B6D2F1 or C57BL/6J ova was used to recover mutant mice for nine of the mutations to date. Conclusions: The inbred C57BL/6J CMMB, together with TGCE mutation screening and ICSI for the recovery of mutant mice, represents a valuable gene-driven approach for the functional annotation of the mammalian genome and for the generation of mouse models of human genetic diseases. The ability of ENU to induce mutations that cause various types of changes in proteins will provide additional insights into the functions of mammalian proteins that may not be detectable by knockout mutations.

  17. Drosophila Mitochondrial Genetics: Evolution of Heteroplasmy through Germ Line Cell Divisions

    PubMed Central

    Solignac, Michel; Génermont, Jean; Monnerot, Monique; Mounolou, Jean-Claude

    1987-01-01

    The mitochondrial genotype of all F1 female offspring (426 individuals) of a single Drosophila mauritiana female, heteroplasmic for two types of mtDNA (a short and a long genome), was established. All descendants were heteroplasmic. The earliest eggs laid by this female show the cytoplasmic genetic structure of ovariole stem cells at the end of development. Cohorts of females from the eggs laid day after day by this female, throughout the 31 days of its life, provide information on the evolution of the mitochondrial genotypes in the course of successive divisions of stem cells. An increase of the percentage of long DNA in offspring was observed as the female aged. Moreover, the variance of the genotypes increases as rounds of stem cell division progress. These results are supported by observations based on the adults issued from the early and late eggs, for three additional heteroplasmic females. PMID:17246410

  18. Saturation germ line mutagenesis of the murine t region including a lethal allele at the quaking locus.

    PubMed Central

    Shedlovsky, A; King, T R; Dove, W F

    1988-01-01

    The proximal region of mouse chromosome 17 contains many genes affecting embryonic development, germ cell differentiation, and the immune system. Although the study of natural variation, including t haplotypes, has yielded some information about the function of these genes, spontaneous variants often exhibit manifold genetic effects and are generally not carried on inbred backgrounds. To clearly connect phenotypes with the actions of individual genes, mutants in which genes are altered singly are needed. Therefore, we used a highly efficient point mutagen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, in combination with classical breeding schemes to induce and identify recessive lethal mutations in the t region. Of 350 mutagenized gametes examined, at least 10 independent recessive embryonic lethal mutations have been identified; an additional two are perinatal lethals. A spontaneous brachyury mutation, TWis, arose on a genetic background that permits high-resolution mapping of the induced recessive mutations against cloned DNA sequences from the t region. One lethal mutation is an allele at the quaking locus. The multiple alleles of quaking and the feasibility of high-resolution mapping permit investigation of the pleiotropic action of this locus in mammalian development. Images PMID:3422415

  19. Germ line variation in TP53 regulatory network genes associates with breast cancer survival and treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Maral; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Dörk, Thilo; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Cornelissen, Sten; van den Broek, Alexandra J; Schürmann, Peter; Meyer, Andreas; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Keong, Garrett Teoh Hor; Irwanto, Astrid; Laakso, Marko; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Liu, Jianjun; Nevalinna, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Germ line variation in the TP53 network genes PRKAG2, PPP2R2B, CCNG1, PIAS1 and YWHAQ was previously suggested to have an impact on drug response in vitro. Here, we investigated the effect on breast cancer survival of germ line variation in these genes in 925 Finnish breast cancer patients and further analyzed 5 SNPs in PRKAG2 (rs1029946, rs4726050, rs6464153, rs7789699) and PPP2R2B (rs10477313) for 10-year survival in breast cancer patients, interaction with TP53 R72P and MDM2-SNP309, outcome after specific adjuvant therapy, and correlation to tumor characteristics in 4701 invasive cases from four data sets. We found evidence for carriers of PRKAG2-rs1029946 and PRKAG2-rs4726050 having improved survival in the pooled data (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.3–0.9; P = 0.023 for homozygous carriers of the rare G-allele and HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.7–0.9; P = 0.049 for carriers of the rare G allele, respectively). PRKAG2-rs4726050 showed a significant interaction with MDM2-SNP309, with PRKAG2-rs4726050 rare G-allele having a dose-dependent effect for better breast cancer survival confined only to MDM2 SNP309 rare G-allele carriers (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.2–0.7; P = 0.001). This interaction also emerged as an independent predictor of better survival (P = 0.047). PPP2R2B-rs10477313 rare A-allele was found to predict better survival (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.6–0.9; P = 0.018), especially after hormonal therapy (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.5–0.9; P = 0.048). These findings warrant further studies and suggest that genetic markers in TP53 network genes such as PRKAG2 and PPP2R2B might affect prognosis and treatment outcome in breast cancer patients. PMID:23034890

  20. High response rates to neoadjuvant platinum-based therapy in ovarian cancer patients carrying germ-line BRCA mutation.

    PubMed

    Gorodnova, Tatiana V; Sokolenko, Anna P; Ivantsov, Alexandr O; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Suspitsin, Evgeny N; Aleksakhina, Svetlana N; Yanus, Grigory A; Togo, Alexandr V; Maximov, Sergey Ya; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2015-12-28

    Preoperative therapy provides an advantage for clinical drug assessment, as it involves yet untreated patients and facilitates access to the post-treatment biological material. Testing for Slavic founder BRCA mutations was performed for 225 ovarian cancer (OC) patients, who were treated by platinum-based neoadjuvant therapy. 34 BRCA1 and 1 BRCA2 mutation carriers were identified. Complete clinical response was documented in 12/35 (34%) mutation carriers and 8/190 (4%) non-carriers (P = 0.000002). Histopathologic response was observed in 16/35 (46%) women with the germ-line mutation versus 42/169 (25%) patients with the wild-type genotype (P = 0.02). Somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the remaining wild-type BRCA1 allele was detected only in 7/24 (29%) post-neoadjuvant therapy residual tumor tissues as compared to 9/11 (82%) BRCA1-associated OC, which were not exposed to systemic treatment before the surgery (P = 0.009). Furthermore, comparison of pre- and post-treatment tumor material obtained from the same patients revealed restoration of BRCA1 heterozygosity in 2 out of 3 sample pairs presenting with LOH at diagnosis. The obtained data confirm high sensitivity of BRCA-driven OC to platinating agents and provide evidence for a rapid selection of tumor cell clones without LOH during the course of therapy. PMID:26342406

  1. HIPSTR and thousands of lncRNAs are heterogeneously expressed in human embryos, primordial germ cells and stable cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yunusov, Dinar; Anderson, Leticia; DaSilva, Lucas Ferreira; Wysocka, Joanna; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R. Michael; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are transcribed into numerous regulatory long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs display higher developmental stage-, tissue-, and cell-subtype-specificity of expression, and are generally less abundant in a population of cells. Despite the progress in single-cell-focused research, the origins of low population-level expression of lncRNAs in homogeneous populations of cells are poorly understood. Here, we identify HIPSTR (Heterogeneously expressed from the Intronic Plus Strand of the TFAP2A-locus RNA), a novel lncRNA gene in the developmentally regulated TFAP2A locus. HIPSTR has evolutionarily conserved expression patterns, its promoter is most active in undifferentiated cells, and depletion of HIPSTR in HEK293 and in pluripotent H1BP cells predominantly affects the genes involved in early organismal development and cell differentiation. Most importantly, we find that HIPSTR is specifically induced and heterogeneously expressed in the 8-cell-stage human embryos during the major wave of embryonic genome activation. We systematically explore the phenomenon of cell-to-cell variation of gene expression and link it to low population-level expression of lncRNAs, showing that, similar to HIPSTR, the expression of thousands of lncRNAs is more highly heterogeneous than the expression of mRNAs in the individual, otherwise indistinguishable cells of totipotent human embryos, primordial germ cells, and stable cell lines. PMID:27605307

  2. Evidence for a pathogenic role of BRCA1 L1705P and W1837X germ-line mutations.

    PubMed

    Sokolenko, Anna P; Volkov, Nikita M; Preobrazhenskaya, Elena V; Suspitsin, Evgeny N; Garifullina, Aigul R; Ivantsov, Alexandr V; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2016-05-01

    BRCA1 L1705P (c.5114T>C) has been classified in the NCBI SNP database as the variant with uncertain significance and is absent in major BRCA1 databases. BRCA1 W1837X (c.5511G>A) results in a loss of only last 27 residues of BRCA1 protein, thus its pathogenic role still requires a confirmation. This report describes two breast cancer (BC) patients carrying BRCA1 L1705P and W1837X germ-line mutations, respectively. Significant evidence for BC-predisposing impact of the mentioned mutations have been obtained: (1) both index cases presented with the triple-negative receptor status of BC disease; (2) complete segregation with BRCA1-related cancers was observed in the families of these patients; (3) somatic loss of the remaining (wild-type) BRCA1 allele was detected in tumor tissues of the affected women. The results of this study have to be taken into account while providing genetic counseling to cancer patients and while considering the use of BRCA1-specific therapeutic compounds for BC treatment. PMID:26951538

  3. Transgene expression of green fluorescent protein and germ line transmission in cloned pigs derived from in vitro transfected adult fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Dario; Perota, Andrea; Lagutina, Irina; Colleoni, Silvia; Duchi, Roberto; Calabrese, Fiorella; Seveso, Michela; Cozzi, Emanuele; Lazzari, Giovanna; Lucchini, Franco; Galli, Cesare

    2008-12-01

    The pig represents the xenogeneic donor of choice for future organ transplantation in humans for anatomical and physiological reasons. However, to bypass several immunological barriers, strong and stable human genes expression must occur in the pig's organs. In this study we created transgenic pigs using in vitro transfection of cultured cells combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to evaluate the ubiquitous transgene expression driven by pCAGGS vector in presence of different selectors. pCAGGS confirmed to be a very effective vector for ubiquitous transgene expression, irrespective of the selector that was used. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression observed in transfected fibroblasts was also maintained after nuclear transfer, through pre- and postimplantation development, at birth and during adulthood. Germ line transmission without silencing of the transgene was demonstrated. The ubiquitous expression of GFP was clearly confirmed in several tissues including endothelial cells, thus making it a suitable vector for the expression of multiple genes relevant to xenotransplantation where tissue specificity is not required. Finally cotransfection of green and red fluorescence protein transgenes was performed in fibroblasts and after nuclear transfer blastocysts expressing both fluorescent proteins were obtained. PMID:18823265

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study of Golden Retrievers Identifies Germ-Line Risk Factors Predisposing to Mast Cell Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Maja L.; Melin, Malin; Tonomura, Noriko; Koltookian, Michele; Courtay-Cahen, Celine; Flindall, Netty; Bass, Joyce; Boerkamp, Kim; Megquir, Katherine; Youell, Lisa; Murphy, Sue; McCarthy, Colleen; London, Cheryl; Rutteman, Gerard R.; Starkey, Mike; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT) are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease. The genetic risk factors are largely unknown, although somatic mutations in the oncogene C-KIT have been detected in a proportion of CMCT, making CMCT a comparative model for mastocytosis in humans where C-KIT mutations are frequent. We have performed a genome wide association study in golden retrievers from two continents and identified separate regions in the genome associated with risk of CMCT in the two populations. Sequence capture of associated regions and subsequent fine mapping in a larger cohort of dogs identified a SNP associated with development of CMCT in the GNAI2 gene (p = 2.2x10-16), introducing an alternative splice form of this gene resulting in a truncated protein. In addition, disease associated haplotypes harbouring the hyaluronidase genes HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 on cfa20 and HYAL4, SPAM1 and HYALP1 on cfa14 were identified as separate risk factors in European and US golden retrievers, respectively, suggesting that turnover of hyaluronan plays an important role in the development of CMCT. PMID:26588071

  5. HIPSTR and thousands of lncRNAs are heterogeneously expressed in human embryos, primordial germ cells and stable cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yunusov, Dinar; Anderson, Leticia; DaSilva, Lucas Ferreira; Wysocka, Joanna; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are transcribed into numerous regulatory long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs display higher developmental stage-, tissue-, and cell-subtype-specificity of expression, and are generally less abundant in a population of cells. Despite the progress in single-cell-focused research, the origins of low population-level expression of lncRNAs in homogeneous populations of cells are poorly understood. Here, we identify HIPSTR (Heterogeneously expressed from the Intronic Plus Strand of the TFAP2A-locus RNA), a novel lncRNA gene in the developmentally regulated TFAP2A locus. HIPSTR has evolutionarily conserved expression patterns, its promoter is most active in undifferentiated cells, and depletion of HIPSTR in HEK293 and in pluripotent H1BP cells predominantly affects the genes involved in early organismal development and cell differentiation. Most importantly, we find that HIPSTR is specifically induced and heterogeneously expressed in the 8-cell-stage human embryos during the major wave of embryonic genome activation. We systematically explore the phenomenon of cell-to-cell variation of gene expression and link it to low population-level expression of lncRNAs, showing that, similar to HIPSTR, the expression of thousands of lncRNAs is more highly heterogeneous than the expression of mRNAs in the individual, otherwise indistinguishable cells of totipotent human embryos, primordial germ cells, and stable cell lines. PMID:27605307

  6. Intermittent Stem Cell Cycling Balances Self-Renewal and Senescence of the C. elegans Germ Line.

    PubMed

    Cinquin, Amanda; Chiang, Michael; Paz, Adrian; Hallman, Sam; Yuan, Oliver; Vysniauskaite, Indre; Fowlkes, Charless C; Cinquin, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Self-renewing organs often experience a decline in function in the course of aging. It is unclear whether chronological age or external factors control this decline, or whether it is driven by stem cell self-renewal-for example, because cycling cells exhaust their replicative capacity and become senescent. Here we assay the relationship between stem cell cycling and senescence in the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system, defining this senescence as the progressive decline in "reproductive capacity," i.e. in the number of progeny that can be produced until cessation of reproduction. We show that stem cell cycling diminishes remaining reproductive capacity, at least in part through the DNA damage response. Paradoxically, gonads kept under conditions that preclude reproduction keep cycling and producing cells that undergo apoptosis or are laid as unfertilized gametes, thus squandering reproductive capacity. We show that continued activity is in fact beneficial inasmuch as gonads that are active when reproduction is initiated have more sustained early progeny production. Intriguingly, continued cycling is intermittent-gonads switch between active and dormant states-and in all likelihood stochastic. Other organs face tradeoffs whereby stem cell cycling has the beneficial effect of providing freshly-differentiated cells and the detrimental effect of increasing the likelihood of cancer or senescence; stochastic stem cell cycling may allow for a subset of cells to preserve proliferative potential in old age, which may implement a strategy to deal with uncertainty as to the total amount of proliferation to be undergone over an organism's lifespan. PMID:27077385

  7. Germ line variation in nucleotide excision repair genes and lung cancer risk in smokers.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Lori C; Loomis, Melissa M; Doherty, Jennifer A; Julianto, Liberto; Barnett, Matt J; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thornquist, Mark D; Weiss, Noel S; Goodman, Gary E; Chen, Chu

    2012-01-01

    Since nucleotide excision repair (NER) is primarily responsible for detecting and removing bulky DNA lesions induced by tobacco smoke in the respiratory tract, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NER protein-encoding genes may influence lung cancer risk, particularly in smokers. Studies testing this hypothesis have produced inconsistent results, with most analyzing a few SNPs in relatively small population samples. In a study nested in the Beta- Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, we examined 79 tag and previously reported risk-associated SNPs in the ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, LIG1, POLE, XPA, and XPC genes in 744 lung cancer cases and 1,477 controls, all of whom were non-Hispanic white smokers. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to estimate lung cancer risk associated with SNP genotypes and haplotypes, adjusting for case-control matching factors. Lung cancer risk was modestly associated with LIG1 rs156640 (OR per G allele, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), rs156641 (OR per A allele, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), and rs8100261 (OR per A allele, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98); XPA rs3176658 (OR per A allele, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-1.00); and ERCC2 rs50871 (OR per C allele, 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). Associations with LIG1 and XPA, but not ERCC2, haplotypes were found. The results of this study and others suggest that inherited variants in LIG1 and possibly other NER genes may predispose to smoking-related lung cancer. Given that chance likely accounts for one or more of the associations observed, replication of our findings is needed. PMID:22493747

  8. Intermittent Stem Cell Cycling Balances Self-Renewal and Senescence of the C. elegans Germ Line

    PubMed Central

    Cinquin, Amanda; Chiang, Michael; Paz, Adrian; Hallman, Sam; Yuan, Oliver; Vysniauskaite, Indre; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Cinquin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Self-renewing organs often experience a decline in function in the course of aging. It is unclear whether chronological age or external factors control this decline, or whether it is driven by stem cell self-renewal—for example, because cycling cells exhaust their replicative capacity and become senescent. Here we assay the relationship between stem cell cycling and senescence in the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system, defining this senescence as the progressive decline in “reproductive capacity,” i.e. in the number of progeny that can be produced until cessation of reproduction. We show that stem cell cycling diminishes remaining reproductive capacity, at least in part through the DNA damage response. Paradoxically, gonads kept under conditions that preclude reproduction keep cycling and producing cells that undergo apoptosis or are laid as unfertilized gametes, thus squandering reproductive capacity. We show that continued activity is in fact beneficial inasmuch as gonads that are active when reproduction is initiated have more sustained early progeny production. Intriguingly, continued cycling is intermittent—gonads switch between active and dormant states—and in all likelihood stochastic. Other organs face tradeoffs whereby stem cell cycling has the beneficial effect of providing freshly-differentiated cells and the detrimental effect of increasing the likelihood of cancer or senescence; stochastic stem cell cycling may allow for a subset of cells to preserve proliferative potential in old age, which may implement a strategy to deal with uncertainty as to the total amount of proliferation to be undergone over an organism’s lifespan. PMID:27077385

  9. Germ line and embryonic expression of Fex, a member of the Drosophila F-element retrotransposon family, is mediated by an internal cis-regulatory control region.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, B; Fellert, S; Taubert, H; Hoch, M

    1996-01-01

    The F elements of Drosophila melanogaster belong to the superfamily of long interspersed nucleotide element retrotransposons. To date, F-element transcription has not been detected in flies. Here we describe the isolation of a member of the F-element family, termed Fex, which is transcribed in specific cells of the female and male germ lines and in various tissues during embryogenesis of D. melanogaster. Sequence analysis revealed that this element contains two complete open reading frames coding for a putative nucleic acid-binding protein and a putative reverse transcriptase. Functional analysis of the 5' region, using germ line transformation of Fex-lacZ reporter gene constructs, demonstrates that major aspects of tissue-specific Fex expression are controlled by internal cis-acting elements that lie in the putative coding region of open reading frame 1. These sequences mediate dynamic gene expression in eight expression domains during embryonic and germ line development. The capacity of the cis-regulatory region of the Fex element to mediate such complex expression patterns is unique among members of the long interspersed nucleotide element superfamily of retrotransposons and is reminiscent of regulatory regions of developmental control genes. PMID:8649411

  10. Correlation of microscopic phenotype with genotype in a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded testicular germ cell tumor with universal DNA amplification, comparative genomic hybridization, and interphase cytogenetics.

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, M. R.; Jauch, A.; Walt, H.; du Manoir, S.; Ried, T.; Jochum, W.; Sulser, T.; Cremer, T.

    1995-01-01

    We present a strategy for the evaluation of numerical copy number changes of DNA segments within a solid tumor genome that allows the correlation of microscopic phenotype with genotype in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material. Cells from a human testicular germ cell tumor and adjacent tissue areas with normal seminiferous tubules were selected separately from microscopically analyzed histological tissue sections, and DNA was extracted from the selected areas. After universal DNA amplification, the amplification products were subjected to comparative genomic hybridization. The results confirmed balanced chromosome copy numbers for the normal tissue area, although the analysis of the tumor tissue area revealed numerous gains and losses of chromosome segments. The comparative genomic hybridization results were used to select DNA probes for interphase cytogenetics on serial sections. We conclude that this technique allows the screening of selected tissue areas for numerical DNA alterations, thus enabling a direct phenotype-genotype comparison. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7778673

  11. Expression of human LINE-1 elements in enhanced by isochromosome 12p; evidence from testicular germ cell tumors and the Pallister-Killian syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Swergold, D.

    1994-09-01

    Expression of the human LINE-1 (L1Hs) transposable element is restricted to a narrow range of cell types. Specific expression of either endogenous elements or transfected recombinant elements has been reported primarily in tumors and cell lines of germ cell origin, including the NTera2D1, 2102EP, and JEG3 cell lines. These tumors and cell lines often contain one or more copies of isochromosome 12p, or translocations of 12p. Another human condition, the Pallister-Killian syndrome, is also characterized by the mosaic presence of an isochromosome 12p in patient`s cells. M28, a previously described somatic hybrid cell line, contains a human isochromosone 12p derived from fibroblasts of a patient with Pallister-Killian syndrome in a mouse LMTK-background. I asked whether the M28 cell line would exhibit enhanced expression of endogenous or transfected L1Hs elements. Expression of transfected recombinant L1Hs elements was 10-20 fold higher in M28 than in LMTK-cells. Expression of L1Hs elements was not increased in the GM10868A somatic cell hybrid line which contains a complete human chromosome 12 in a Chinese Hamster Ovary background. Somatic cell hybrid lines containing various human chromosomes in a LMTK-background also exhibited no enhanced L1Hs expression. P40, the protein encoded by the L1Hs first open reading frame, was detected in NTera2D1 but not in non-transfected M28 cells. Preliminary promoter deletion experiments indicate that similar, but non-identical regions of the L1Hs 5{prime} UTR, contribute to high level expression in the NTera2D1 and the M28 cell lines. These data suggest that the enhanced expression of human LINE-1 elements in tumors of germ cell origin is due in part to the presence of the isochromosome 12p.

  12. Proteasome regulation of the chromodomain protein MRG-1 controls the balance between proliferative fate and differentiation in the C. elegans germ line.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pratyush; Leahul, Lindsay; Wang, Xin; Wang, Chris; Bakos, Brendan; Jasper, Katie; Hansen, Dave

    2015-01-15

    The level of stem cell proliferation must be tightly controlled for proper development and tissue homeostasis. Multiple levels of gene regulation are often employed to regulate stem cell proliferation to ensure that the amount of proliferation is aligned with the needs of the tissue. Here we focus on proteasome-mediated protein degradation as a means of regulating the activities of proteins involved in controlling the stem cell proliferative fate in the C. elegans germ line. We identify five potential E3 ubiquitin ligases, including the RFP-1 RING finger protein, as being involved in regulating proliferative fate. RFP-1 binds to MRG-1, a homologue of the mammalian chromodomain-containing protein MRG15 (MORF4L1), which has been implicated in promoting the proliferation of neural precursor cells. We find that C. elegans with reduced proteasome activity, or that lack RFP-1 expression, have increased levels of MRG-1 and a shift towards increased proliferation in sensitized genetic backgrounds. Likewise, reduction of MRG-1 partially suppresses stem cell overproliferation. MRG-1 levels are controlled independently of the spatially regulated GLP-1/Notch signalling pathway, which is the primary signal controlling the extent of stem cell proliferation in the C. elegans germ line. We propose a model in which MRG-1 levels are controlled, at least in part, by the proteasome, and that the levels of MRG-1 set a threshold upon which other spatially regulated factors act in order to control the balance between the proliferative fate and differentiation in the C. elegans germ line. PMID:25564623

  13. Developmental-stage-specific expression of the hsp70 gene family during differentiation of the mammalian male germ line.

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Z F; Wolgemuth, D J

    1987-01-01

    Mouse somatic tissues contain low levels of transcripts homologous to the heat shock-inducible and cognate members of the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene family. An abundant, unique sized hsp70 mRNA of 2.7 kilobases (kb) is present in testes in the absence of exogenous stress. Its expression is restricted to germ cells and is developmentally regulated. The 2.7-kb transcript first appears during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and is stable throughout the morphogenic stages of spermiogenesis. A 2.7-kb hsp70 mRNA is present in rat and human testes. These observations suggest that a member of the hsp70 gene family plays a role in the development of the mammalian male germ cell lineage. Images PMID:3600644

  14. Infection of the germ line by retroviral particles produced in the follicle cells: a possible mechanism for the mobilization of the gypsy retroelement of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Song, S U; Kurkulos, M; Boeke, J D; Corces, V G

    1997-07-01

    The gypsy retroelement of Drosophila moves at high frequency in the germ line of the progeny of females carrying a mutation in the flamenco (flam) gene. This high rate of de novo insertion correlates with elevated accumulation of full-length gypsy RNA in the ovaries of these females, as well as the presence of an env-specific RNA. We have prepared monoclonal antibodies against the gypsy Pol and Env products and found that these proteins are expressed in the ovaries of flam females and processed in the manner characteristic of vertebrate retroviruses. The Pol proteins are expressed in both follicle and nurse cells, but they do not accumulate at detectable levels in the oocyte. The Env proteins are expressed exclusively in the follicle cells starting at stage 9 of oogenesis, where they accumulate in the secretory apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum. They then migrate to the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane where they assemble into viral particles. These particles can be observed in the perivitelline space starting at stage 10 by immunoelectron microscopy using anti-Env antibodies. We propose a model to explain flamenco-mediated induction of gypsy mobilization that involves the synthesis of gypsy viral particles in the follicle cells, from where they leave and infect the oocyte, thus explaining gypsy insertion into the germ line of the subsequent generation. PMID:9226450

  15. DNA Fingerprinting of the NCI-60 Cell Line Panel

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Philip L.; Reinhold, William C.; Varma, Sudhir; Hutchinson, Amy A.; Pommier, Yves; Chanock, Stephen J.; Weinstein, John N.

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute’s NCI-60 cell line panel, the most extensively characterized set of cells in existence and a public resource, is frequently used as a screening tool for drug discovery. Since many laboratories around the world rely on data from the NCI-60 cells, confirmation of their genetic identities represents an essential step in validating results from them. Given the consequences of cell line contamination or misidentification, quality control measures should routinely include DNA fingerprinting. We have, therefore, used standard DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats to profile the NCI-60, and the resulting DNA fingerprints are provided here as a reference. Consistent with previous reports, the fingerprints suggest that several NCI-60 lines have common origins: the melanoma lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-N, and M14; the central nervous system lines U251 and SNB-19; the ovarian lines OVCAR-8 and OVCAR-8/ADR (also called NCI/ADR); and the prostate lines DU-145, DU-145 (ATCC), and RC0.1. Those lines also demonstrate that the ability to connect two fingerprints to the same origin is not affected by stable transfection or by the development of multidrug resistance. As expected, DNA fingerprints were not able to distinguish different tissues-of-origin. The fingerprints serve principally as a barcodes. PMID:19372543

  16. DNA fingerprinting of the NCI-60 cell line panel.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Philip L; Reinhold, William C; Varma, Sudhir; Hutchinson, Amy A; Pommier, Yves; Chanock, Stephen J; Weinstein, John N

    2009-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell line panel, the most extensively characterized set of cells in existence and a public resource, is frequently used as a screening tool for drug discovery. Because many laboratories around the world rely on data from the NCI-60 cells, confirmation of their genetic identities represents an essential step in validating results from them. Given the consequences of cell line contamination or misidentification, quality control measures should routinely include DNA fingerprinting. We have, therefore, used standard DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats to profile the NCI-60, and the resulting DNA fingerprints are provided here as a reference. Consistent with previous reports, the fingerprints suggest that several NCI-60 lines have common origins: the melanoma lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-N, and M14; the central nervous system lines U251 and SNB-19; the ovarian lines OVCAR-8 and OVCAR-8/ADR (also called NCI/ADR); and the prostate lines DU-145, DU-145 (ATCC), and RC0.1. Those lines also show that the ability to connect two fingerprints to the same origin is not affected by stable transfection or by the development of multidrug resistance. As expected, DNA fingerprints were not able to distinguish different tissues-of-origin. The fingerprints serve principally as a barcodes. PMID:19372543

  17. Synergistic Effects Induced by a Low Dose of Diesel Particulate Extract and Ultraviolet-A in Caenorhabditis elegans: DNA Damage-Triggered Germ Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust has been classified as a potential carcinogen and is associated with various health effects. A previous study showed that the doses for manifesting the mutagenetic effects of diesel exhaust could be reduced when coexposed with ultraviolet-A (UVA) in a cellular system. However, the mechanisms underlying synergistic effects remain to be clarified, especially in an in vivo system. In the present study, using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as an in vivo system we studied the synergistic effects of diesel particulate extract (DPE) plus UVA, and the underlying mechanisms were dissected genetically using related mutants. Our results demonstrated that though coexposure of wild type worms at young adult stage to low doses of DPE (20 μg/mL) plus UVA (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 J/cm2) did not affect worm development (mitotic germ cells and brood size), it resulted in a significant induction of germ cell death. Using the strain of hus-1::gfp, distinct foci of HUS-1::GFP was observed in proliferating germ cells, indicating the DNA damage after worms were treated with DPE plus UVA. Moreover, the induction of germ cell death by DPE plus UVA was alleviated in single-gene loss-of-function mutations of core apoptotic, checkpoint HUS-1, CEP-1/p53, and MAPK dependent signaling pathways. Using a reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe, it was found that the production of ROS in worms coexposed to DPE plus UVA increased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, employing a singlet oxygen (1O2) trapping probe, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone, coupled with electron spin resonance analysis, we demonstrated the increased 1O2 production in worms coexposed to DPE plus UVA. These results indicated that UVA could enhance the apoptotic induction of DPE at low doses through a DNA damage-triggered pathway and that the production of ROS, especially 1O2, played a pivotal role in initiating the synergistic process. PMID:24841043

  18. Isolated erythrocytosis: study of 67 patients and identification of three novel germ-line mutations in the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) gene

    PubMed Central

    Albiero, Elena; Ruggeri, Marco; Fortuna, Stefania; Finotto, Silvia; Bernardi, Martina; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen sensing pathway modulates erythropoietin expression. In normal cells, intracellular oxygen tensions are directly sensed by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-containing proteins. PHD2 isozyme has a key role in tagging hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-α subunits for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Erythrocytosis-associated PHD2 mutations reduce hydroxylation of HIF-α. The investigation of 67 patients with isolated erythrocytosis, either sporadic or familial, allowed the identification of three novel mutations in the catalytic domain of the PHD2 protein. All new mutations are germ-line, heterozygous and missense, and code for a predicted full length mutant PHD2 protein. Identification of the disease-causing genes will be of critical importance for a better classification of familial and acquired erythrocytosis, offering additional insight into the erythropoietin regulating oxygen sensing pathway. PMID:21828119

  19. Associations between Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and LINE-1 DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Deborah J.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Butler, Rondi A.; Bartell, Scott M.; Fletcher, Tony; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, synthetic compounds that are used in a number of consumer products. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in gene expression and DNA methylation in animals and cellular systems. However, whether PFAA exposure is associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation, a potential marker of cardiovascular risk, in humans remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the cross-sectional associations between serum PFAAs and LINE-1 DNA methylation in a population highly exposed to PFOA. We measured serum PFAAs twice four to five years apart in 685 adult participants (47% male, mean age ± SD=42 ± 11 years). We measured percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at the second time point (follow-up), and estimated absolute differences in LINE-1 methylation associated with an interquartile (IQR) shift in mean PFAA serum levels. IQR increases in mean serum PFOA, PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were associated with differences of −0.04 (p=0.16), 0.20 (p=0.001), 0.06 (p=0.19), and 0.02 (p=0.57), respectively, in % LINE-1 methylation at follow-up after adjustment for potential confounders. We observed a monotonic increase in LINE-1 DNA methylation across tertiles of PFOS and PFNA (ptrend=0.02 for both associations), but not across tertiles of PFOA or PFHxS (ptrend=0.71 and 0.44, respectively). In summary, serum PFOS was associated with LINE-1 methylation, while serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA were not. Additional research is needed to more precisely determine whether these compounds are epigenetically active. PMID:24263140

  20. DNA profiling and characterization of animal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Glyn N; Byrne, Ed; Hawkins, J Ross

    2014-01-01

    The history of the culture of animal cell lines is littered with published and much unpublished experience with cell lines that have become switched, mislabelled, or cross-contaminated during laboratory handling. To deliver valid and good quality research and to avoid waste of time and resources on such rogue lines, it is vital to perform some kind of qualification for the provenance of cell lines used in research and particularly in the development of biomedical products. DNA profiling provides a valuable tool to compare different sources of the same cells and, where original material or tissue is available, to confirm the correct identity of a cell line. This chapter provides a review of some of the most useful techniques to test the identity of cells in the cell culture laboratory and gives methods which have been used in the authentication of cell lines. PMID:24297409

  1. AGO4 regulates entry into meiosis and influences silencing of sex chromosomes in the male mouse germ line

    PubMed Central

    Modzelewski, Andrew J.; Holmes, Rebecca J.; Hilz, Stephanie; Grimson, Andrew; Cohen, Paula E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The four mammalian Argonaute family members are thought to share redundant functions in the microRNA pathway, yet only AGO2 possesses the catalytic “slicer” function required for RNA interference. Whether AGO1, AGO3, or AGO4 possess specialized functions remains unclear. Here we show that AGO4 localizes to spermatocyte nuclei during meiotic prophase I, specifically at sites of asynapsis and the transcriptionally silenced XY sub-domain, the sex body. We generated Ago4 knockout mice and show that Ago4−/− spermatogonia initiate meiosis early, resulting from premature induction of retinoic acid-response genes. During prophase I, the sex body assembles incorrectly in Ago4−/− mice, leading to disrupted meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). This is associated with a dramatic loss of microRNAs, >20% of which arise from the X chromosome. Thus, AGO4 regulates meiotic entry and MSCI in mammalian germ cells, implicating small RNA pathways in these processes. PMID:22863743

  2. NANOG promoter methylation and expression correlation during normal and malignant human germ cell development

    PubMed Central

    Nettersheim, Daniel; Bierman, Katharina; Gillis, Ad JM; Steger, Klaus; Looijenga, Leendert HJ

    2011-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors are the most frequent malignant tumors in young Caucasian males, with increasing incidence. The actual model of tumorigenesis is based on the theory that a block in maturation of fetal germ cells lead to formation of the intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified. Early fetal germ cells and undifferentiated germ cell tumors express pluripotency markers such as the transcription factor NANOG. It has been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications, such as promoter DNA methylation, are able to silence gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Here we show that OCT3/4-SOX2 mediated expression of NANOG can be silenced by methylation of promoter CpG-sites. We found that global methylation of DNA decreased from fetal spermatogonia to mature sperm. In contrast, CpGs in the NANOG promoter were found hypomethylated in spermatogonia and hypermethylated in sperm. This selective repression might reflect the cells need to suppress pluripotency in order to prevent malignant transformation. Finally, methylation of CpGs in the NANOG promoter in germ cell tumors and derived cell lines correlated to differentiation state. PMID:20930529

  3. LIN-35/Rb Causes Starvation-Induced Germ Cell Apoptosis via CED-9/Bcl2 Downregulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Láscarez-Lagunas, L. I.; Silva-García, C. G.; Dinkova, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism for maintaining germ line health. In Caenorhabditis elegans, germ cell apoptosis occurs under normal conditions to sustain gonad homeostasis and oocyte quality. Under stress, germ cell apoptosis can be triggered via different pathways, including the following: (i) the CEP-1/p53 pathway, which induces germ cell apoptosis when animals are exposed to DNA damage; (ii) the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) pathway, which triggers germ cell apoptosis when animals are exposed to heat shock, oxidative stress, or osmotic stress; and (iii) an unknown mechanism that triggers germ cell apoptosis during starvation. Here, we address how starvation induces germ cell apoptosis. Using polysomal profiling, we found that starvation for 6 h reduces the translationally active ribosomes, which differentially affect the mRNAs of the core apoptotic machinery and some of its regulators. During starvation, lin-35/Rb mRNA increases its expression, resulting in the accumulation of this protein. As a consequence, LIN-35 downregulates the expression of the antiapoptotic gene ced-9/Bcl-2. We observed that the reduced translation of ced-9/Bcl-2 mRNA during food deprivation together with its downregulation drastically affects its protein accumulation. We propose that CED-9/Bcl-2 downregulation via LIN-35/Rb triggers germ cell apoptosis in C. elegans in response to starvation. PMID:24752899

  4. Biofunction-assisted DNA detection through RNase H-enhanced 3' processing of a premature tRNA probe in a wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Tabuchi, Junichiro; Doi, Yasunori; Takamatsu, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a novel type of biofunction-assisted, signal-turn-on sensor for simply and homogenously detecting DNA. This sensor system is composed of two types of in vitro-transcribed label-free RNAs (a 3' premature amber suppressor tRNA probe and an amber-mutated mRNA encoding a reporter protein), RNase H, and a wheat germ extract (WGE). A target DNA induces the 3' end maturation of the tRNA probe, which is enhanced by RNase H and leads to the expression of a full-length reporter protein through amber suppression in WGE, while there is almost no expression without the target due to the inactivity of the premature probe. Therefore, the target can be readily detected with the activity of the translated reporter. The catalytic reuse of the target with the help of RNase H in addition to various bioprocesses in WGE enables this sensor system to exhibit relatively high selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:27289318

  5. Zfp-37, a new murine zinc finger encoding gene, is expressed in a developmentally regulated pattern in the male germ line.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, P S; Wolgemuth, D J

    1992-01-01

    To begin to examine the function in the mouse testis of genes containing the zinc finger motif, we have screened an adult mouse total testis cDNA library with probes to a conserved region of zinc fingers. We have isolated cDNAs for a new murine zinc finger encoding gene that has been designated Zfp-37. Northern blot hybridization analysis revealed Zfp-37 transcripts at high levels in the testis, the only adult tissue in which Zfp-37 expression was observed. Zfp-37 was also expressed at lower levels in the mid-gestation embryo and placenta. The major testicular transcripts are 2.3 and 2.6 kb. A 4.0 kb transcript was detected at lower levels in the testis as well as in embryo and placenta. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis revealed that expression of Zfp-37 was most abundant in germ cells which have completed meiosis and are undergoing the complex morphogenetic changes of spermiogenesis. The pattern of expression of Zfp-37 and the presence of the zinc finger domain suggest that Zfp-37 may have a role in regulating spermiogenesis. Images PMID:1614869

  6. A Proximity-Based Programmable DNA Nanoscale Assembly Line

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hongzhou; Chao, Jie; Xiao, Shou-Jun; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to synthesize nanometer-scale particles with desired shapes and compositions offers the exciting prospect of generating new functional materials and devices by combining the particles in a controlled fashion into larger structures. Self-assembly can achieve this task efficiently, but may be subject to thermodynamic and kinetic limitations: Reactants, intermediates and products may collide with each other throughout the assembly timecourse to produce non-target instead of target species. An alternative approach to nanoscale assembly uses information-containing molecules such as DNA1 to control interactions and thereby minimize unwanted crosstalk between different components. In principle, this method should allow the stepwise and programmed construction of target products by fastening individually selected nanoscale components – much as an automobile is built on an assembly line. Here, we demonstrate that a nanoscale assembly line can indeed be realized by the judicious combination of three known DNA-based modules: a DNA origami2 tile that provides a framework and track for the assembly process, cassettes containing three distinct two-state DNA machines that serve as programmable cargo-donating devices3,4 and are attached4,5 in series to the tile, and a DNA walker that can move on the track from device to device and collect cargo. As the walker traverses the pathway prescribed by the origami tile track, it encounters sequentially the three DNA devices that can be independently switched between an ‘ON’ state allowing its cargo to be transferred to the walker, and an ‘OFF’ state where no transfer occurs. We use three different types of gold nanoparticles as cargo and show that the experimental system does indeed allow the controlled fabrication of the eight different products that can be obtained with three two-state devices. PMID:20463734

  7. Erasure of DNA methylation, genomic imprints, and epimutations in a primordial germ-cell model derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Stel, Jente M.; Shioda, Keiko; Qu, Na; Odahima, Junko; Mitsunaga, Shino; Zhang, Xiangfan; Nagano, Makoto; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Isselbacher, Kurt J.; Shioda, Toshi

    2016-01-01

    The genome-wide depletion of 5-methylcytosines (5meCs) caused by passive dilution through DNA synthesis without daughter strand methylation and active enzymatic processes resulting in replacement of 5meCs with unmethylated cytosines is a hallmark of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Although recent studies have shown that in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) mimics the in vivo differentiation of epiblast cells to PGCs, how DNA methylation status of PGCLCs resembles the dynamics of 5meC erasure in embryonic PGCs remains controversial. Here, by differential detection of genome-wide 5meC and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmeC) distributions by deep sequencing, we show that PGCLCs derived from mouse PSCs recapitulated the process of genome-wide DNA demethylation in embryonic PGCs, including significant demethylation of imprint control regions (ICRs) associated with increased mRNA expression of the corresponding imprinted genes. Although 5hmeCs were also significantly diminished in PGCLCs, they retained greater amounts of 5hmeCs than intragonadal PGCs. The genomes of both PGCLCs and PGCs selectively retained both 5meCs and 5hmeCs at a small number of repeat sequences such as GSAT_MM, of which the significant retention of bisulfite-resistant cytosines was corroborated by reanalysis of previously published whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data for intragonadal PGCs. PSCs harboring abnormal hypermethylation at ICRs of the Dlk1-Gtl2-Dio3 imprinting cluster diminished these 5meCs upon differentiation to PGCLCs, resulting in transcriptional reactivation of the Gtl2 gene. These observations support the usefulness of PGCLCs in studying the germline epigenetic erasure including imprinted genes, epimutations, and erasure-resistant loci, which may be involved in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. PMID:27486249

  8. Prevalence of an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome associated with the germ line TP53 R337H mutation in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Legal, Edith Falcon-de; Ascurra, Marta; Custódio, Gislaine; Ayala, Horacio Legal; Monteiro, Magna; Vega, Celeste; Fernández-Nestosa, María José; Vega, Sonia; Sade, Elis R; Coelho, Izabel M M; Ribeiro, Enilze M S F; Cavalli, Iglenir J; Figueiredo, Bonald C

    2015-04-01

    The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer, and the germline TP53 R337H mutation is the most common mutation reported to date. However, this mutation is associated with a lower cumulative lifetime cancer risk than other mutations in the p53 DNA-binding domain. A detailed statistical analysis of 171,500 DNA tests in Brazilian neonates found that 0.27% of the general population is positive for this mutation, and some of the estimated 200,000 Brazilian R337H carriers in southern and southeastern Brazil have already developed cancer. The present study was designed to estimate R337H prevalence in neighboring Paraguay. To address this question, 10,000 dried blood samples stored in Guthrie cards since 2008 were randomly selected from the Paraguayan municipalities located at the border with Brazil. These samples were tested for R337H mutation using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. This germline mutation was detected in five samples (5/10,000), indicating that the total number of R337H carriers in Paraguay may be as high as 3500. Previous studies have shown that other countries (i.e., Portugal, Spain, and Germany) presented one family with this mutation, leading us to conclude that, besides Brazil and Paraguay, other countries may have multiple families carrying this mutation, which is an inherited syndrome that is difficult to control. PMID:25736369

  9. Similar phenotypes of Girdin germ-line and conditional knockout mice indicate a crucial role for Girdin in the nestin lineage.

    PubMed

    Asai, Masato; Asai, Naoya; Murata, Ayana; Yokota, Hirofumi; Ohmori, Kenji; Mii, Shinji; Enomoto, Atsushi; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Masahide

    2012-10-01

    Girdin is an Akt substrate and actin-binding protein. Mice with germ-line deletions of Girdin (a non-conditional knockout, (ncKO)) exhibit complete postnatal lethality accompanied by growth retardation and neuronal cell migration defects, which results in hypoplasia of the olfactory bulb and granule cell dispersion in the dentate gyrus. However, the physiological and molecular abnormalities in Girdin ncKO mice are not fully understood. In this study, we first defined the distribution of Girdin in neonates (P1) and adults (6months or older) using β-galactosidase activity in tissues from ncKO mice. The results indicate that Girdin is expressed throughout the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, enteric and autonomic nervous systems). In addition, β-galactosidase activity was detected in non-neural tissues, particularly in tissues with high tensile force, such as tendons, heart valves, and skeletal muscle. In order to identify the cellular population where the Girdin ncKO phenotype originates, newly generated Girdin flox mice were crossed with nestin promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice to obtain Girdin conditional knockout (cKO) mice. The phenotype of Girdin cKO mice was almost identical to ncKO mice, including postnatal lethality, growth retardation and decreased neuronal migration. Our findings indicate that loss of Girdin in the nestin cell lineage underlies the phenotype of Girdin ncKO mice. PMID:22974978

  10. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a and germ line C634G RET mutation diagnosed in an 80-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Sanz, C; Vezzosi, D; Pigny, P; Bennet, A; Caron, P

    2009-04-01

    An 80-year-old man presented with progressive fatigue. Blood tests showed that serum calcium was increased (2.93 mmol/l, normal range 2.20-2.55 mmol/l) and serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) inappropriately high (198 pg/ml, normal range 15-85 pg/ml). Neck ultrasonography and Tc-MIBI scintigraphy revealed a right parathyroid adenoma and a multinodular goiter. Serum calcitonin was significantly increased (220 pg/ml, normal range<10 pg/ml). Concomitantly, a chest-abdominal computed tomography was performed and revealed a 22 mm right adrenal incidentaloma. The urinary catecholamines and metabolites were two-fold above the upper limit of normal. After right adrenalectomy which confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy with dissection of the central lymph node compartment and right parathyroidectomy. On histopathologic examination, both thyroid lobes presented 13 foci of MTC without lymph node metastasis and the parathyroid gland presented a benign adenoma without hyperplasia. The patient underwent screening and genetic testing revealing a germ line C634 G RET mutation. The diagnosis of Men2a at the age of 80 years and the absence of lymph node metastasis of the multiple MTC in a carrier of C634G mutation were unusual and argued for the possible role of genetic modifier(s) in this MEN 2a patient. PMID:19201392

  11. Does Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) protect testicular and germ cell DNA integrity by regulating the redox status?

    PubMed

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Vanhees, Kimberly; Maas, Lou; Drittij, Marie-Jose; Pachen, Daniëlle; van Doorn-Khosrovani, Sahar van Waalwijk; van Schooten, Frederik J; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2016-08-01

    A balanced redox homeostasis in the testis is essential for genetic integrity of sperm. Reactive oxygen species can disturb this balance by oxidation of glutathione, which is regenerated using NADPH, formed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). G6PDH is regulated by the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (Atm) protein. Therefore, we studied the redox status and DNA damage in testes and sperm of mice that carried a deletion in Atm. The redox status in heterozygote mice, reflected by glutathione levels and antioxidant capacity, was lower than in wild type mice, and in homozygotes the redox status was even lower. The redox status correlated with oxidative DNA damage that was highest in mice that carried Atm deletions. Surprisingly, G6PDH activity was highest in homozygotes carrying the deletion. These data indicate that defective Atm reduces the redox homeostasis of the testis and genetic integrity of sperm by regulating glutathione levels independently from G6PDH activity. PMID:27318254

  12. Dynamic DNA methylation across diverse human cell lines and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Varley, Katherine E.; Gertz, Jason; Bowling, Kevin M.; Parker, Stephanie L.; Reddy, Timothy E.; Pauli-Behn, Florencia; Cross, Marie K.; Williams, Brian A.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Crawford, Gregory E.; Absher, Devin M.; Wold, Barbara J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    As studies of DNA methylation increase in scope, it has become evident that methylation has a complex relationship with gene expression, plays an important role in defining cell types, and is disrupted in many diseases. We describe large-scale single-base resolution DNA methylation profiling on a diverse collection of 82 human cell lines and tissues using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). Analysis integrating RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data illuminates the functional role of this dynamic mark. Loci that are hypermethylated across cancer types are enriched for sites bound by NANOG in embryonic stem cells, which supports and expands the model of a stem/progenitor cell signature in cancer. CpGs that are hypomethylated across cancer types are concentrated in megabase-scale domains that occur near the telomeres and centromeres of chromosomes, are depleted of genes, and are enriched for cancer-specific EZH2 binding and H3K27me3 (repressive chromatin). In noncancer samples, there are cell-type specific methylation signatures preserved in primary cell lines and tissues as well as methylation differences induced by cell culture. The relationship between methylation and expression is context-dependent, and we find that CpG-rich enhancers bound by EP300 in the bodies of expressed genes are unmethylated despite the dense gene-body methylation surrounding them. Non-CpG cytosine methylation occurs in human somatic tissue, is particularly prevalent in brain tissue, and is reproducible across many individuals. This study provides an atlas of DNA methylation across diverse and well-characterized samples and enables new discoveries about DNA methylation and its role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:23325432

  13. Dearth and Delayed Maturation of Testicular Germ Cells in Fanconi Anemia E Mutant Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chun; Begum, Khurshida; Jordan, Philip W.; He, Yan; Overbeek, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    After using a self-inactivating lentivirus for non-targeted insertional mutagenesis in mice, we identified a transgenic family with a recessive mutation that resulted in reduced fertility in homozygous transgenic mice. The lentiviral integration site was amplified by inverse PCR. Sequencing revealed that integration had occurred in intron 8 of the mouse Fance gene, which encodes the Fanconi anemia E (Fance) protein. Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins play pivotal roles in cellular responses to DNA damage and Fance acts as a molecular bridge between the FA core complex and Fancd2. To investigate the reduced fertility in the mutant males, we analyzed postnatal development of testicular germ cells. At one week after birth, most tubules in the mutant testes contained few or no germ cells. Over the next 2–3 weeks, germ cells accumulated in a limited number of tubules, so that some tubules contained germ cells around the full periphery of the tubule. Once sufficient numbers of germ cells had accumulated, they began to undergo the later stages of spermatogenesis. Immunoassays revealed that the Fancd2 protein accumulated around the periphery of the nucleus in normal developing spermatocytes, but we did not detect a similar localization of Fancd2 in the Fance mutant testes. Our assays indicate that although Fance mutant males are germ cell deficient at birth, the extant germ cells can proliferate and, if they reach a threshold density, can differentiate into mature sperm. Analogous to previous studies of FA genes in mice, our results show that the Fance protein plays an important, but not absolutely essential, role in the initial developmental expansion of the male germ line. PMID:27486799

  14. Molecular characterization of the breakpoints of a 12-kb deletion in the NF1 gene in a family showing germ-line mosaicism.

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro, C; Gaona, A; Lynch, M; Kruyer, H; Ravella, A; Estivill, X

    1995-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is caused by deletions, insertions, translocations, and point mutations in the NF1 gene, which spans 350 kb on the long arm of human chromosome 17. Although several point mutations have been described, large molecular abnormalities have rarely been characterized in detail. We describe here the molecular breakpoints of a 12-kb deletion of the NF1 gene, which is responsible for the NF1 phenotype in a kindred with two children affected because of germline mosaicism in the unaffected father, who has the mutation in 10% of his spermatozoa. The mutation spans introns 31-39, removing 12,021 nt and inserting 30 bp, of which 19 bp are a direct repetition of a sequence located in intron 31, just 4 bp before the 5' breakpoint. The 5' and 3' breakpoints contain the sequence TATTTTA, which could be involved in the generation of the deletion. The most plausible explanation for the mechanism involved in the generation of this 12-kb deletion is homologous/nonhomologous recombination. Since sperm of the father does not contain the corresponding insertion of the 12-kb deleted sequence, this deletion could have occurred within the NF1 chromosome through loop formation. RNA from lymphocytes of one of the NF1 patients showed similar levels of the mutated and normal transcripts, suggesting that the NF1-mRNA from mutations causing frame shifts of the reading frame or stop codons in this gene is not degraded during its processing. The mutation was not detected in fresh lymphocytes from the unaffected father by PCR analysis, supporting the case for true germ-line mosaicism. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7485153

  15. miRNA expression patterns in normal breast tissue and invasive breast cancers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Shoko; Vesuna, Farhad; Raman, Venu; van Diest, Paul J.; van der Groep, Petra

    2015-01-01

    miRNA deregulation has been found to promote carcinogenesis. Little is known about miRNA deregulation in hereditary breast tumors as no miRNA expression profiling studies have been performed in normal breast tissue of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. miRNA profiles of 17 BRCA1- and 9 BRCA2-associated breast carcinomas were analyzed using microarrays. Normal breast tissues from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (both n = 5) and non-mutation carriers (n = 10) were also included. Candidate miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Breast carcinomas showed extensive miRNA alteration compared to normal breast tissues in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Moreover, normal breast tissue from BRCA1 mutation carriers already showed miRNA alterations compared to non-mutation carriers. Chromosomal distribution analysis showed several hotspots containing down- or up-regulated miRNAs. Pathway analysis yielded many similarities between the BRCA1 and BRCA2 axes with miRNAs involved in cell cycle regulation, proliferation and apoptosis. Lesser known pathways were also affected, including cellular movement and protein trafficking. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the potential role of miRNA deregulation in BRCA1/2-associated breast carcinogenesis. The observed extensive miRNA deregulation is likely the result of genome-wide effects of chromosomal instability caused by impaired BRCA1 or BRCA2 function. This study's results also suggest the existence of common pathways driving breast carcinogenesis in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutation carriers. PMID:26378051

  16. Two-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroo; Turnbull, Brit B; Weissman, Irving L

    2009-01-01

    During mouse development, primordial germ cells (PGCs) that give rise to the entire germ line are first identified within the proximal epiblast. However, long-term tracing of the fate of the cells has not been done wherein all cells in and around the germ-cell lineage are identified. Also, quantitative estimates of the number of founder PGCs using different models have come up with various numbers. Here, we use tetrachimeric mice to show that the progenitor numbers for the entire germ line in adult testis, and for the initiating embryonic PGCs, are both 4 cells. Although they proliferate to form polyclonal germ-cell populations in fetal and neonatal testes, germ cells that actually contribute to adult spermatogenesis originate from a small number of secondary founder cells that originate in the fetal period. The rest of the "deciduous" germ cells are lost, most likely by apoptosis, before the reproductive period. The second "actual" founder germ cells generally form small numbers of large monoclonal areas in testes by the reproductive period. Our results also demonstrate that there is no contribution of somatic cells to the male germ cell pool during development or in adulthood. These results suggest a model of 2-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells in mice, the second step distinguishing the heritable germ line from cells selected not to participate in forming the next generation. PMID:19098099

  17. Germ-line transmission of trisomy 21: Data from 80 families suggest an implication of grandmaternal age and a high frequency of female-specific trisomy rescue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21; Down syndrome, DS) is the most common aneuploidy in live births. Though its etiology has been intensively studied for a half of century, there are surprisingly many problems awaiting their elucidation. Some of the open questions are related directly to germ line mosaicism for T21, other problems include the prevalence of males with non-mosaic trisomy over females (skewed sex ratio, SR), the genetic predisposition to non-disjunction, etc. Studies in families of gonadal mosaicism (GM) carriers might help resolving some of these problems. Results 80 families of carriers of GM, in which the sex of the offspring had been specified, were identified in the literature and in logbooks of two local genetic units. Mothers in these families were relatively young: only 8% of mothers were 35 years old and older at the time of delivery of their first affected offspring while the proportion of grandmothers on the GM carrier's side aged 35 years old and older was significantly higher (39%). Postzygotic rescue of T21 due to error in the meiosis I had been proposed as a mechanism of parental GM formation in 78% of the families with known origin of the T21. For the other 22%, rescue of errors in the meiosis II or postzygotic mitotic non-disjunction was assumed. Mosaicism for T21 in successive generations was reported in at least 12 families. The proportion of mosaics among affected female offspring (14%) is significantly higher compared to that among affected male offspring (0%). Male preponderance (SR = 1.5) is found in non mosaic liveborn offspring with either maternally- or paternally transmitted T21. Among unaffected offspring of male carriers of GM there is a notable excess of females (SR = 0.27). Conclusion Both direct (results of cytogenetic and molecular study of the origin of trisomic line) and indirect (advanced grandmaternal age on the side of GM carrier) evidences allow to assume that significant proportion of the mosaic parents

  18. dead end, a novel vertebrate germ plasm component, is required for zebrafish primordial germ cell migration and survival.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Gilbert; Stebler, Jürg; Slanchev, Krasimir; Dumstrei, Karin; Wise, Clare; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Raz, Erez

    2003-08-19

    In most animals, primordial germ cell (PGC) specification and development depend on maternally provided cytoplasmic determinants that constitute the so-called germ plasm. Little is known about the role of germ plasm in vertebrate germ cell development, and its molecular mode of action remains elusive. While PGC specification in mammals occurs via different mechanisms, several germ plasm components required for early PGC development in lower organisms are expressed in mammalian germ cells after their migration to the gonad and are involved in gametogenesis. Here we show that the RNA of dead end, encoding a novel putative RNA binding protein, is a component of the germ plasm in zebrafish and is specifically expressed in PGCs throughout embryogenesis; Dead End protein is localized to perinuclear germ granules within PGCs. Knockdown of dead end blocks confinement of PGCs to the deep blastoderm shortly after their specification and results in failure of PGCs to exhibit motile behavior and to actively migrate thereafter. PGCs subsequently die, while somatic development is not effected. We have identified dead end orthologs in other vertebrates including Xenopus, mouse, and chick, where they are expressed in germ plasm and germ-line cells, suggesting a role in germ-line development in these organisms as well. PMID:12932328

  19. LINEs of evidence: noncanonical DNA replication as an epigenetic determinant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are repetitive elements in mammalian genomes. They are capable of synthesizing DNA on their own RNA templates by harnessing reverse transcriptase (RT) that they encode. Abundantly expressed full-length L1s and their RT are found to globally influence gene expression profiles, differentiation state, and proliferation capacity of early embryos and many types of cancer, albeit by yet unknown mechanisms. They are essential for the progression of early development and the establishment of a cancer-related undifferentiated state. This raises important questions regarding the functional significance of L1 RT in these cell systems. Massive nuclear L1-linked reverse transcription has been shown to occur in mouse zygotes and two-cell embryos, and this phenomenon is purported to be DNA replication independent. This review argues against this claim with the goal of understanding the nature of this phenomenon and the role of L1 RT in early embryos and cancers. Available L1 data are revisited and integrated with relevant findings accumulated in the fields of replication timing, chromatin organization, and epigenetics, bringing together evidence that strongly supports two new concepts. First, noncanonical replication of a portion of genomic full-length L1s by means of L1 RNP-driven reverse transcription is proposed to co-exist with DNA polymerase-dependent replication of the rest of the genome during the same round of DNA replication in embryonic and cancer cell systems. Second, the role of this mechanism is thought to be epigenetic; it might promote transcriptional competence of neighboring genes linked to undifferentiated states through the prevention of tethering of involved L1s to the nuclear periphery. From the standpoint of these concepts, several hitherto inexplicable phenomena can be explained. Testing methods for the model are proposed. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Philip Zegerman (nominated by Dr. Orly Alter), Dr. I. King

  20. Presequence-Independent Mitochondrial Import of DNA Ligase Facilitates Establishment of Cell Lines with Reduced mtDNA Copy Number

    PubMed Central

    Spadafora, Domenico; Kozhukhar, Natalia; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the essential role played by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cellular physiology and bioenergetics, methods for establishing cell lines with altered mtDNA content are of considerable interest. Here, we report evidence for the existence in mammalian cells of a novel, low- efficiency, presequence-independent pathway for mitochondrial protein import, which facilitates mitochondrial uptake of such proteins as Chlorella virus ligase (ChVlig) and Escherichia coli LigA. Mouse cells engineered to depend on this pathway for mitochondrial import of the LigA protein for mtDNA maintenance had severely (up to >90%) reduced mtDNA content. These observations were used to establish a method for the generation of mouse cell lines with reduced mtDNA copy number by, first, transducing them with a retrovirus encoding LigA, and then inactivating in these transductants endogenous Lig3 with CRISPR-Cas9. Interestingly, mtDNA depletion to an average level of one copy per cell proceeds faster in cells engineered to maintain mtDNA at low copy number. This makes a low-mtDNA copy number phenotype resulting from dependence on mitochondrial import of DNA ligase through presequence-independent pathway potentially useful for rapidly shifting mtDNA heteroplasmy through partial mtDNA depletion. PMID:27031233

  1. Mutations and polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA in head and neck cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, E; Garozzo, A; Lombardo, N; De Clemente, M; Carey, TE

    2006-01-01

    Summary Changes in mitochondrial DNA have been reported in cancer cells. Since little information exists regarding mt DNA mutations in head and neck, the present study focused on ten head and neck cancer cell lines in the attempt to detect alterations in the ND4 gene sequence. DNA was extracted from 10 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines from 9 patients. MtDNA sequences were compared in normal and tumour cell line DNA. In ten head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, 8 somatic mutations and 5 polymorphisms of the mitochondrial gene for ND4 were found. All 5 polymorphisms were silent. Of the 8 somatic mutations, 3 altered the amino acid sequence suggesting a possible effect on enzyme function. The mitochondrial mutations and polymorphisms found demonstrated that these can serve as clonal markers for individual cell lines and demonstrate that the mitochondrial genome remains stable in the cell lines during in vitro culture. PMID:18236634

  2. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements.

    PubMed

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Pathak, Rupak; Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R; Allen, Antiño R; Raber, Jacob; Tackett, Alan J; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Koturbash, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5'-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. PMID:27419368

  3. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Myungkoo

    1995-12-06

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7{beta}, 8{alpha}-dihydoxy-9{alpha}, l0{alpha}-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[{alpha}]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, ({minus})-trans-, (+)-cis- and ({minus})-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( {approximately} 25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G{sub 2} or G{sub 3} (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N{sup 2}-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[{alpha}]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N{sup 2}-dG.

  4. Identification of a putative germ plasm in the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Specification of the germ line is an essential event during the embryonic development of sexually reproducing animals, as germ line cells are uniquely capable of giving rise to the next generation. Animal germ cells arise through either inheritance of a specialized, maternally supplied cytoplasm called 'germ plasm’ or though inductive signaling by somatic cells. Our understanding of germ cell determination is based largely on a small number of model organisms. To better understand the evolution of germ cell specification, we are investigating this process in the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Experimental evidence from previous studies demonstrated that Parhyale germ cells are specified through inheritance of a maternally supplied cytoplasmic determinant; however, this determinant has not been identified. Results Here we show that the one-cell stage Parhyale embryo has a distinct cytoplasmic region that can be identified by morphology as well as the localization of germ line-associated RNAs. Removal of this cytoplasmic region results in a loss of embryonic germ cells, supporting the hypothesis that it is required for specification of the germ line. Surprisingly, we found that removal of this distinct cytoplasm also results in aberrant somatic cell behaviors, as embryos fail to gastrulate. Conclusions Parhyale hawaiensis embryos have a specialized cytoplasm that is required for specification of the germ line. Our data provide the first functional evidence of a putative germ plasm in a crustacean and provide the basis for comparative functional analysis of germ plasm formation within non-insect arthropods. PMID:24314239

  5. Sex Specification and Heterogeneity of Primordial Germ Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakashita, Akihiko; Kawabata, Yukiko; Jincho, Yuko; Tajima, Shiun; Kumamoto, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Hisato; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Kono, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    In mice, primordial germ cells migrate into the genital ridges by embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), where they are then subjected to a sex-specific fate with female and male primordial germ cells undergoing mitotic arrest and meiosis, respectively. However, the sex-specific basis of primordial germ cell differentiation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex-specific features of mouse primordial germ cells. We performed RNA-sequencing (seq) of E13.5 female and male mouse primordial germ cells using next-generation sequencing. We identified 651 and 428 differentially expressed transcripts (>2-fold, P < 0.05) in female and male primordial germ cells, respectively. Of these, many transcription factors were identified. Gene ontology and network analysis revealed differing functions of the identified female- and male-specific genes that were associated with primordial germ cell acquisition of sex-specific properties required for differentiation into germ cells. Furthermore, DNA methylation and ChIP-seq analysis of histone modifications showed that hypomethylated gene promoter regions were bound with H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. Our global transcriptome data showed that in mice, primordial germ cells are decisively assigned to a sex-specific differentiation program by E13.5, which is necessary for the development of vital germ cells. PMID:26700643

  6. Interaction between DMRT1 function and genetic background modulates signaling and pluripotency to control tumor susceptibility in the fetal germ line

    PubMed Central

    Krentz, Anthony D.; Murphy, Mark W.; Zhang, Teng; Sarver, Aaron L.; Jain, Sanjay; Griswold, Michael D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Zarkower, David

    2013-01-01

    Dmrt1(doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1) is a regulator of testis development in vertebrates that has been implicated in testicular germ cell tumors of mouse and human. In the fetal mouse testis Dmrt1 regulates germ cell pluripotency in a strain-dependent manner. Loss of Dmrt1 in 129Sv strain mice results in a >90% incidence of testicular teratomas, tumors consisting cells of multiple germ layers; by contrast, these tumors have never been observed in Dmrt1 mutants of C57BL/6J (B6) or mixed genetic backgrounds. To further investigate the interaction between Dmrt1 and genetic background we compared mRNA expression in wild type and Dmrt1 mutant fetal testes of 129Sv and B6 mice at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), prior to overt tumorigenesis. Loss of Dmrt1 caused misexpression of overlapping but distinct sets of mRNAs in the two strains. The mRNAs that were selectively affected included some that changed expression only in one strain or the other and some that changed in both strains but to a greater degree in one versus the other. In particular, loss of Dmrt1 in 129Sv testes caused a more severe failure to silence regulators of pluripotency than in B6 testes. A number of genes misregulated in 129Sv mutant testes also are misregulated in human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), suggesting similar etiology between germ cell tumors in mouse and man. Expression profiling showed that DMRT1 also regulates pluripotency genes in the fetal ovary, although Dmrt1 mutant females do not develop teratomas. Pathway analysis indicated disruption of several signaling pathways in Dmrt1 mutant fetal testes, including Nodal, Notch, and GDNF. We used a Nanos3-cre knock-in allele to perform conditional gene targeting, testing the GDNF coreceptors Gfra1 and Ret for effects on teratoma susceptibility. Conditional deletion of Gfra1 but not Ret in fetal germ cells of animals outcrossed to 129Sv caused a modest but significant elevation in tumor incidence. Despite some

  7. Herpesvirus saimiri DNA in a lymphoid cell line established by in vitro transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Schirm, S; Müller, I; Desrosiers, R C; Fleckenstein, B

    1984-01-01

    A lymphoid T-cell line (H1591) was established by infecting peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a cotton top marmoset with Herpesvirus saimiri OMI. Analysis of these in vitro-immortalized cells revealed nonintegrated, covalently closed circular viral DNA molecules in high multiplicities with substantial rearrangements and large deletions in their L-DNA (unique) regions. One subline, designated H1591 Er, contained circular viral DNA with one stretch of H-DNA (repetitive) and one of L-DNA; the L-DNA segment consisted of a linear fusion of a 53.2-kilobase-pair piece of L-DNA (left half of L-DNA) with a 15.2-kilobase-pair L-DNA fragment from the right end of the L-DNA region. The other subline, H1591 S, contained two short regions of L-DNA, each derived from the extreme ends of virion L-DNA. Both L-DNA regions of H1591 S cells contained inverted repetitions (15.0 +/- 0.2 and 9.1 +/- 4.7 kilobase pairs). The extensive deletions of L-DNA sequences in cell line H1591 indicate that at least 73% of the genetic information in H. saimiri is not required to maintain the persistence of viral DNA and the state of transformation in lymphoid T-cells. Images PMID:6321774

  8. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N.; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P.; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the U.S. Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in 7 isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of γH2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis. PMID:21538559

  9. DNA excision repair in cell extracts from human cell lines exhibiting hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hansson, J.; Keyse, S.M.; Lindahl, T.; Wood, R.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Whole cell extracts from human lymphoid cell lines can perform in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids damaged by agents including UV or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP). Extracts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells are defective in repair synthesis. We have now studied in vitro DNA repair synthesis using extracts from lymphoblastoid cell lines representing four human hereditary syndromes with increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Extracts of cell lines from individuals with the sunlight-sensitive disorders dysplastic nevus syndrome or Cockayne's syndrome (complementation groups A and B) showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids with UV photoproducts. This is consistent with in vivo measurements of the overall DNA repair capacity in such cell lines. A number of extracts were prepared from two cell lines representing the variant form of XP (XP-V). Half of the extracts prepared showed normal levels of in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing UV lesions, but the remainder of the extracts from the same cell lines showed deficient repair synthesis, suggesting the possibility of an unusually labile excision repair protein in XP-V. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells show cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents including cis-DDP. Extracts from cell lines belonging to two different complementation groups of FA showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing cis-DDP or UV adducts. Thus, there does not appear to be an overall excision repair defect in FA, but the data do not exclude a defect in the repair of interstrand DNA cross-links.

  10. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  11. Primary pulmonary germ cell tumor with blastomatous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Miller, R R; Champagne, K; Murray, R C

    1994-11-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a patient with mixed blastoma-germ cell malignancy primary in the lung. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were elevated at presentation, and normalized with anti-germ cell chemotherapy. The resection specimen contained massively necrotic germ cell tumor with viable mature neural tissue, plus viable biphasic blastoma with stromal bone and skeletal muscle differentiation. It is not clear whether the germ cell component represents unusual differentiation of a somatic cell line or whether the blastoma component represents an unusual pattern of teratomatous differentiation. PMID:7525163

  12. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. XVII. Formation mechanisms underlying naturally occurring DNA deletions in the human genome and their potential relevance for bridging the gap between induced DNA double-strand breaks and deletions in irradiated germ cells.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Krishnaswami; Taleei, Reza; Rahmanian, Shirin; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2013-01-01

    While much is known about radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their repair, the question of how deletions of different sizes arise as a result of the processing of DSBs by the cell's repair systems has not been fully answered. In order to bridge this gap between DSBs and deletions, we critically reviewed published data on mechanisms pertaining to: (a) repair of DNA DSBs (from basic studies in this area); (b) formation of naturally occurring structural variation (SV) - especially of deletions - in the human genome (from genomic studies) and (c) radiation-induced mutations and structural chromosomal aberrations in mammalian somatic cells (from radiation mutagenesis and radiation cytogenetic studies). The specific aim was to assess the relative importance of the postulated mechanisms in generating deletions in the human genome and examine whether empirical data on radiation-induced deletions in mouse germ cells are consistent with predictions of these mechanisms. The mechanisms include (a) NHEJ, a DSB repair process that does not require any homology and which functions in all stages of the cell cycle (and is of particular relevance in G0/G1); (b) MMEJ, also a DSB repair process but which requires microhomology and which presumably functions in all cell cycle stages; (c) NAHR, a recombination-based DSB repair mechanism which operates in prophase I of meiosis in germ cells; (d) MMBIR, a microhomology-mediated, replication-based mechanism which operates in the S phase of the cell cycle, and (e) strand slippage during replication (involved in the origin of small insertions and deletions (INDELs). Our analysis permits the inference that, between them, these five mechanisms can explain nearly all naturally occurring deletions of different sizes identified in the human genome, NAHR and MMBIR being potentially more versatile in this regard. With respect to radiation-induced deletions, the basic studies suggest that those arising as a result of the operation

  13. Dazl Functions in Maintenance of Pluripotency and Genetic and Epigenetic Programs of Differentiation in Mouse Primordial Germ Cells In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Haston, Kelly M.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mammalian germ cells progress through a unique developmental program that encompasses proliferation and migration of the nascent primordial germ cell (PGC) population, reprogramming of nuclear DNA to reset imprinted gene expression, and differentiation of mature gametes. Little is known of the genes that regulate quantitative and qualitative aspects of early mammalian germ cell development both in vivo, and during differentiation of germ cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in vitro. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a transgenic mouse system that enabled isolation of small numbers of Oct4ΔPE:GFP-positive germ cells in vivo, and following differentiation from mESCs in vitro, to uncover quantitate and qualitative phenotypes associated with the disruption of a single translational regulator, Dazl. We demonstrate that disruption of Dazl results in a post-migratory, pre-meiotic reduction in PGC number accompanied by aberrant expression of pluripotency genes and failure to erase and re-establish genomic imprints in isolated male and female PGCs, as well as subsequent defect in progression through meiosis. Moreover, the phenotypes observed in vivo were mirrored by those in vitro, with inability of isolated mutant PGCs to establish pluripotent EG (embryonic germ) cell lines and few residual Oct-4-expressing cells remaining after somatic differentiation of mESCs carrying a Dazl null mutation. Finally, we observed that even within undifferentiated mESCs, a nascent germ cell subpopulation exists that was effectively eliminated with ablation of Dazl. Conclusions and Significance This report establishes the translational regulator Dazl as a component of pluripotency, genetic, and epigenetic programs at multiple time points of germ cell development in vivo and in vitro, and validates use of the ESC system to model and explore germ cell biology. PMID:19468308

  14. Etoposide, cisplatin, bleomycin, and cyclophosphamide (ECBC) as first-line chemotherapy for poor-risk non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gerl, A; Clemm, C; Hentrich, M; Hartenstein, R; Wilmanns, W

    1993-01-01

    Sixty-one patients with advanced metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumors were treated with etoposide 120 mg/m2, cisplatin 30 mg/m2, bleomycin 12 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 daily for four days; and additional bleomycin bolus injection of 15 mg was given on day 1. Fifty patients (82%) were treated with four to six courses at 3-week intervals. Forty patients (66%) attained complete remission, and further 7 patients (11%) achieved a marker-negative partial remission accounting for a favorable response rate of 77%. Hematologic toxicity was considerable and there were two treatment-related deaths. After a median observation time of 47 months (range 12 to 108 months), 43 patients were alive, of which 38 had continuous complete remission, one a second complete remission, two marker-negative stable disease and two progressive disease. Our results are similar to those reported by other investigators for poor-risk metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumors treated with dose-intensified regimens. PMID:7692901

  15. What Are Germs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... four major types of germs are: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. They can invade plants, animals, and ... countertop, be sure to wash your hands regularly! Fungi (say: FUN-guy) are multi-celled (made of ...

  16. Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-Based Risk Model (GERM) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    This software describes the transport and energy deposition of the passage of galactic cosmic rays in astronaut tissues during space travel, or heavy ion beams in patients in cancer therapy. Space radiation risk is a probability distribution, and time-dependent biological events must be accounted for physical description of space radiation transport in tissues and cells. A stochastic model can calculate the probability density directly without unverified assumptions about shape of probability density function. The prior art of transport codes calculates the average flux and dose of particles behind spacecraft and tissue shielding. Because of the signaling times for activation and relaxation in the cell and tissue, transport code must describe temporal and microspatial density of functions to correlate DNA and oxidative damage with non-targeted effects of signals, bystander, etc. These are absolutely ignored or impossible in the prior art. The GERM code provides scientists data interpretation of experiments; modeling of beam line, shielding of target samples, and sample holders; and estimation of basic physical and biological outputs of their experiments. For mono-energetic ion beams, basic physical and biological properties are calculated for a selected ion type, such as kinetic energy, mass, charge number, absorbed dose, or fluence. Evaluated quantities are linear energy transfer (LET), range (R), absorption and fragmentation cross-sections, and the probability of nuclear interactions after 1 or 5 cm of water equivalent material. In addition, a set of biophysical properties is evaluated, such as the Poisson distribution for a specified cellular area, cell survival curves, and DNA damage yields per cell. Also, the GERM code calculates the radiation transport of the beam line for either a fixed number of user-specified depths or at multiple positions along the Bragg curve of the particle in a selected material. The GERM code makes the numerical estimates of basic

  17. Efficient Generation of Hepatic Cells from Multipotent Adult Mouse Germ-Line Stem Cells Using an OP9 Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Streckfuss-Bömeke, Katrin; Jende, Jörg; Cheng, I-Fen; Hasenfuss, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract On the basis of their self-renewal capacity and their ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers, germ line–derived multipotent adult stem cells (maGSCs) from mouse testis might serve as one of preferable sources for pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine. In our study, we aimed for an efficient hepatic differentiation protocol that is applicable for both maGSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We attempted to accomplish this goal by using a new established co-culture system with OP9 stroma cells for direct differentiation of maGSCs and ESCs into hepatic cells. We found that the hepatic differentiation of maGSCs was induced by the OP9 co-culture system in comparison to the gelatin culture. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of OP9 co-culture with activin A resulted in the increased expression of endodermal and early hepatic markers Gata4, Sox17, Foxa2, Hnf4, Afp, and Ttr compared to differentiated cells on gelatin or on OP9 alone. Moreover, the hepatic progenitors were capable of differentiating further into mature hepatic cells, demonstrated by the expression of liver-specific markers Aat, Alb, Tdo2, Krt18, Krt8, Krt19, Cps1, Sek, Cyp7a1, Otc, and Pah. A high percentage of maGSC-derived hepatic progenitors (51% AFP- and 61% DLK1-positive) and mature hepatic-like cells (26% ALB-positive) were achieved using this OP9 co-culture system. These generated hepatic cells successfully demonstrated in vitro functions associated with mature hepatocytes, including albumin and urea secretion, glycogen storage, and uptake of low-density lipoprotein. The established co-culture system for maGSCs into functional hepatic cells might serve as a suitable model to delineate the differentiation process for the generation of high numbers of mature hepatocytes in humans without genetic manipulations and make germ line–derived stem cells a potential autologous and alternative cell source for hepatic transplants in metabolic liver

  18. Germ Cells Need Folate to Proliferate.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amy K

    2016-07-11

    In this issue of Developmental Cell, Chaudhari and colleagues (2016) use a novel method to create an in vitro proliferative cell line from tumorous C. elegans germ cells, and in the process discover that bacterial folates act as signals for proliferation, independent of their roles as vitamins. PMID:27404353

  19. Colleges Put the Squeeze on Germs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    A spirited campaign to promote "hand hygiene" is under way at the University of Central Florida Orlando campus, and the urinal toter, known as UCF 5th Guy, is its front line. Like their counterparts at many other institutions, health officials at Central Florida want students to think about the germs that lurk on their hands. And then clean them,…

  20. Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Joanne G.; Smedley, Mark A.; Harwood, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA) and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression. PMID:24833334

  1. Characterization of a novel human papillomavirus DNA in the cervical carcinoma cell line ME180.

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, S; Delius, H; Kahn, T; Hofmann, B; zur Hausen, H; Schwarz, E

    1991-01-01

    The human cervical carcinoma cell line ME180 was examined for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and RNA. The integrated DNA of a presumably new HPV type showing a relationship closer to HPV39 than to HPV18 was cloned and sequenced. HPV sequences from the E6-E7-E1 region are expressed as poly(A)+ RNAs. Images PMID:1716694

  2. Identification of Insect Cell Lines from 8 Lepidopteran species by DNA Amplification Fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid Nessr Alhag, Sadeq; Chao, Yao Han; Xin, Peng Jian

    DNA Amplification Fingerprinting (DAF) with arbitrarily selected primers was used to obtain DNA fingerprint profiles to distinguish among 8 lepidopteran insect cell lines. The fingerprinting pattern is a stable characteristic of the cell line because high and low passages generated the same profile. The DNA from each cell line was amplified and PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. All cell lines could be distinguished from each other with following exception: Bombyx mori (Bm-e-HNU5) produced the same profile as Laphygma exigua (Le-H-HNU7) also Spodoptera exigua (UCR-SE-1C) produced identical patterns to Spodoptera litura (SL-ZSU-1). DAF will serve as an additional, valuable and reliable technique for the identification of insect cell lines.

  3. Germ-line mosaicism for a valine-to-methionine substitution at residue 553 in the glycoprotein Ib-binding domain of von Willebrand factor, causing type IIB von Willebrand disease

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, E.W.; Giles, A.R.; Lillicrap, D. )

    1992-01-01

    The origin of new single-gene mutations resulting in inherited disease is an issue which may be at least partially resolved by our enhanced ability to detect these changes. In this report the authors describe the identification of a missense mutation at codon 553 (guanine to adenine) in the von Willebrand factor (vWf) gene in affected members of a family with type IIB von Willebrand's disease (vWd). They found no evidence for this substitution in 190 normal vWf genes. The encoded substitution of a methionine for a valine at this residue is nonconservative in nature and has affected a vWf protein region which has been shown to facilitate binding to the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib. In patients with type IIb vWd this interaction is characteristically increased in affinity. This mutation has also recently been recorded in four other type IIb vWd families. Thus, there is strong circumstantial evidence to incriminate this substitution as the disease causing mutation in this family. As further supporting evidence for this claim, they have shown by vWf polymorphism analysis that the mutation originated in a vWf gene transmitted from a phenotypically normal grandfather. These results confirm (1) that the candidate type IIB vWd mutation in this family occurred at some time during the development of the germ line of the grandfather and presumably was related to a mitotic cell division and (2) that, as a result, he is a low-level germ-line mosaic for the mutation.

  4. RNA Granules in Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Seydoux, Geraldine; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Nagamori, Ippei

    2011-01-01

    Germ granules” are cytoplasmic, nonmembrane-bound organelles unique to germline. Germ granules share components with the P bodies and stress granules of somatic cells, but also contain proteins and RNAs uniquely required for germ cell development. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of germ granule assembly, dynamics, and function. One hypothesis is that germ granules operate as hubs for the posttranscriptional control of gene expression, a function at the core of the germ cell differentiation program. PMID:21768607

  5. Specific repertoire of olfactory receptor genes in the male germ cells of several mammalian species

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaeghen, P.; Schurmans, S.; Vassart, G.; Parmentier, M.

    1997-02-01

    Olfactory receptors constitute the largest family among G protein-coupled receptors, with up to 1000 members expected. We have previously shown that genes belonging to this family were expressed in the male germ line from both dog and human. We have subsequently demonstrated the presence of one of the corresponding olfactory receptor proteins during dog spermatogenesis and in mature sperm cells. In this study, we investigated whether the unexpected pattern of expression of olfactory receptors in the male germ line was conserved in other mammalian species. Using reverse transcription-PCR with primers specific for the olfactory receptor gene family, about 20 olfactory receptor cDNA fragments were cloned from the testis of each mammalian species tested. As a whole, they displayed no sequence specificity compared to other olfactory receptors, but highly homologous, possibly orthologous, genes were amplified from different species. Finally, their pattern of expression, as determined by RNase protection assay, revealed that many but not all of these receptors were expressed predominantly in testis. The male germ line from each mammalian species tested is thus characterized by a specific repertoire of olfactory receptors, which display a pattern of expression suggestive of their potential implication in the control of sperm maturation, migration, or fertilization. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure causes gonadal developmental toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans through ROS-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoying; Li, Qingqing; Shi, Jue; Shi, Liulin; Li, Buqing; Xu, An; Zhao, Guoping; Wu, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a common persistent organic pollutant, has been reported to show potential developmental toxicity in many animal studies. However, little was known about its effects on reproductive tissues, especially in the germ line. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo experimental model to study the developmental toxicity caused by PFOS exposure, especially in the gonads. Our results showed that PFOS exposure significantly retarded gonadal development, as shown by the increased number of worms that remained in the larval stages after hatched L1-stage larvae were exposed to PFOS for 72 h. Investigation of germ line proliferation following PFOS exposure showed that the number of total germ cells reduced in a dose-dependent manner when L1-stage larvae were exposed to 0-25.0 μM PFOS. PFOS exposure induced transient mitotic cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the germ line. Quantification of DNA damage in proliferating germ cells and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed that distinct foci of HUS-1:GFP and ROS significantly increased in the PFOS-treated groups, whereas the decrease in mitotic germ cell number and the enhanced apoptosis induced by PFOS exposure were effectively rescued upon addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and mannitol (MNT). These results suggested that ROS-induced DNA damage might play a pivotal role in the impairment of gonadal development indicated by the reduction in total germ cells, transient mitotic cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. PMID:27108369

  7. Analysis of TET Expression/Activity and 5mC Oxidation during Normal and Malignant Germ Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Nettersheim, Daniel; Heukamp, Lukas C.; Fronhoffs, Florian; Grewe, Marc J.; Haas, Natalie; Waha, Anke; Honecker, Friedemann; Waha, Andreas; Kristiansen, Glen; Schorle, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    During mammalian development the fertilized zygote and primordial germ cells lose their DNA methylation within one cell cycle leading to the concept of active DNA demethylation. Recent studies identified the TET hydroxylases as key enzymes responsible for active DNA demethylation, catalyzing the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Further oxidation and activation of the base excision repair mechanism leads to replacement of a modified cytosine by an unmodified one. In this study, we analyzed the expression/activity of TET1-3 and screened for the presence of 5mC oxidation products in adult human testis and in germ cell cancers. By analyzing human testis sections, we show that levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine are decreasing as spermatogenesis proceeds, while 5-methylcytosine levels remain constant. These data indicate that during spermatogenesis active DNA demethylation becomes downregulated leading to a conservation of the methylation marks in mature sperm. We demonstrate that all carcinoma in situ and the majority of seminomas are hypomethylated and hypohydroxymethylated compared to non-seminomas. Interestingly, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine were detectable in all germ cell cancer entities analyzed, but levels did not correlate to the 5-methylcytosine or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine status. A meta-analysis of gene expression data of germ cell cancer tissues and corresponding cell lines demonstrates high expression of TET1 and the DNA glycosylase TDG, suggesting that germ cell cancers utilize the oxidation pathway for active DNA demethylation. During xenograft experiments, where seminoma-like TCam-2 cells transit to an embryonal carcinoma-like state DNMT3B and DNMT3L where strongly upregulated, which correlated to increasing 5-methylcytosine levels. Additionally, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels were elevated, demonstrating that de novo methylation and active demethylation accompanies this transition

  8. DNA replication: damage tolerance at the assembly line.

    PubMed

    Blastyák, András

    2014-07-01

    Damage tolerance mechanisms ensure resumption of DNA synthesis at damage-replisome encounters. Replication fork reversal (RFR) is one such widely recognized mechanism that acts on replisomes where lagging strand synthesis continues upon leading strand synthesis block. The possibility to form such a structure is highly counter to our current understanding of the replisome dynamics of single replisomes. Here, I suggest a model that takes coupled bidirectional replisome organization into account to solve this apparent contradiction. PMID:24957737

  9. Primordial germ cells: the first cell lineage or the last cells standing?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew D.; Alberio, Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    Embryos of many animal models express germ line determinants that suppress transcription and mediate early germ line commitment, which occurs before the somatic cell lineages are established. However, not all animals segregate their germ line in this manner. The ‘last cell standing’ model describes primordial germ cell (PGC) development in axolotls, in which PGCs are maintained by an extracellular signalling niche, and germ line commitment occurs after gastrulation. Here, we propose that this ‘stochastic’ mode of PGC specification is conserved in vertebrates, including non-rodent mammals. We postulate that early germ line segregation liberates genetic regulatory networks for somatic development to evolve, and that it therefore emerged repeatedly in the animal kingdom in response to natural selection. PMID:26286941

  10. Primordial germ cells: the first cell lineage or the last cells standing?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew D; Alberio, Ramiro

    2015-08-15

    Embryos of many animal models express germ line determinants that suppress transcription and mediate early germ line commitment, which occurs before the somatic cell lineages are established. However, not all animals segregate their germ line in this manner. The 'last cell standing' model describes primordial germ cell (PGC) development in axolotls, in which PGCs are maintained by an extracellular signalling niche, and germ line commitment occurs after gastrulation. Here, we propose that this 'stochastic' mode of PGC specification is conserved in vertebrates, including non-rodent mammals. We postulate that early germ line segregation liberates genetic regulatory networks for somatic development to evolve, and that it therefore emerged repeatedly in the animal kingdom in response to natural selection. PMID:26286941

  11. Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testicular Cancer Resource Center Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC) 95% of all testicular tumors are germ cell ... seen in young adults. Patients with mediastinal nonseminomatous EGC are typically classed as poor risk patients because ...

  12. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect

    PubMed Central

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E. M.; Extavour, Cassandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this “germ plasm” acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects. PMID:23789106

  13. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect.

    PubMed

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E M; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2013-06-15

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this "germ plasm" acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects. PMID:23789106

  14. Epigenetic Regulation of Germ Cells— Remember or Forget?

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lijuan; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Unlike somatic cells, germ cells retain the potential to reproduce an entire new organism upon fertilization. In order to accomplish the process of fertilization, germ cells undergo an extreme cellular differentiation process known as gametogenesis in order to produce morphologically and functionally distinct oocyte and sperm. In addition to changes in genetic content changes from diploid to haploid, epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin state without altering primary DNA sequences have profound influence on germ cell differentiation and moreover, the transgenerational effect. In this review, we will go over the most recent discoveries on epigenetic regulations in germline differentiation and transgenerational inheritance across different metazoan species. PMID:25930104

  15. Efficient DNA fingerprinting method for the identification of cross-culture contamination of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Y; Nishizaki, C; Drexler, H G

    1999-09-01

    In order to identify cross-culture contamination of cell lines, we applied DNA fingerprinting using variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci and short tandem repeat (STR) loci amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instead of a radioisotope labeled multilocus probe. Eleven cell lines were used for the Apo B and D1S80 loci detection, and twelve cell lines were examined in the Y-chromosome analysis. The data obtained from the sister cell lines NALM-6 and B85, two MOLM-1 cultures from two cryopreserved tubes, and four subclones of BALM-9 and its sister cell line BALM-10, displayed clear and distinct bands of each PCR product for both Apo B and D1S80. Detection of a Y-chromosome DNA sequence is another very informative marker for the identification of cell lines, if the Y-chromosome is present. We examined eight cell lines for the expression of four STR loci; the data thus generated were compared with the results previously reported from other laboratories. The resulting electrophoretic banding patterns showed that our "home-made" STR detection system is a useful and efficient tool for the authentication of cell lines. PCR detection of VNTR and STR loci represents a simple, rapid and powerful DNA fingerprinting technique to authenticate human cell lines and to detect cross-culture contamination. This PCR technique may be used in lieu of the more time-consuming, labor-intensive and radioactive Southern blot multilocus method. PMID:10695022

  16. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  17. Testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; McGlynn, Katherine A; Okamoto, Keisei; Jewett, Michael A S; Bokemeyer, Carsten

    2016-04-23

    Testicular germ cell tumours are at the crossroads of developmental and neoplastic processes. Their cause has not been fully elucidated but differences in incidences suggest that a combination of genetic and environment factors are involved, with environmental factors predominating early in life. Substantial progress has been made in understanding genetic susceptibility in the past 5 years on the basis of the results of large genome-wide association studies. Testicular germ cell tumours are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and hence have among the best outcomes of all tumours. Because the tumours occur mainly in young men, preservation of reproductive function, quality of life after treatment, and late effects are crucial concerns. In this Seminar, we provide an overview of advances in the understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of testicular germ cell tumours. We also summarise the consensus on how to treat testicular germ cell tumours and focus on a few controversies and improvements in the understanding of late effects of treatment and quality of life for survivors. PMID:26651223

  18. Stress responses to DNA damaging agents in the human colon carcinoma cell line, RKO.

    PubMed

    Beard, S E; Capaldi, S R; Gee, P

    1996-11-01

    DNA damage results from a wide variety of external agents such as chemicals and radiation. The consequences of exposure to agents that damage DNA have been traditionally studied from the perspective of cell survival and mutagenesis. Mutations are late endpoints of DNA damage. Cells respond to the earlier stages of DNA damage by inducing the expression of several genes, including those specific of the nature of the lesion. These early transcriptional responses are likely to predetermine the later fate of the damaged cell. Genes activated during this early response include those involved in DNA repair, replication, and growth control. We are interested in the transcriptional mechanisms by which cells respond to DNA damaging agents. To facilitate the measurement of gene induction, we used seven different reporter constructs integrated stably into the RKO cell line derived from a human colon carcinoma. These constructs were derived from promoters and/or response elements isolated from genes associated with DNA damage responses in human cells, and were fused to the bacterial reporter gene, choramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). The cell lines generated in this manner contain the promoters and/or response elements representing DNA polymerase beta, p53, gadd (growth arrest and DNA damage) 45 and 153, c-fos, TPA response element, and tissue-type plasminogen activator. These recombinant cell lines were assembled in a 96-well microtiter plate permitting their simultaneous exposure to compounds and subsequent CAT protein measurement. This assembly has been designated the CAT-Tox (D) assay. These cell lines were exposed to different classes of DNA damaging agents including those which covalently join bases to form dimers (e.g., UVC irradiation), generate DNA adducts by alkylation (e.g., methylmethane sulfonate [MMS], ethylmethane sulfonate [EMS], N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanine [MNNG], dimethylnitrosamine [DMN]), cross-link DNA (e.g., mitomycin C), and inhibit DNA

  19. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in cohesin mutant human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinglan; Zhang, Zhe; Bando, Masashige; Itoh, Takehiko; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Li, Jennifer R.; Clark, Dinah; Kaur, Maninder; Tatsuro, Kondo; Kline, Antonie D.; Chang, Celia; Vega, Hugo; Jackson, Laird G.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Krantz, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    The cohesin complex has recently been shown to be a key regulator of eukaryotic gene expression, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its effects are poorly understood. We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in cohesin-deficient cell lines from probands with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Heterozygous mutations in NIPBL, SMC1A and SMC3 genes account for ∼65% of individuals with CdLS. SMC1A and SMC3 are subunits of the cohesin complex that controls sister chromatid cohesion, whereas NIPBL facilitates cohesin loading and unloading. We have examined the methylation status of 27 578 CpG dinucleotides in 72 CdLS and control samples. We have documented the DNA methylation pattern in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as well as identified specific differential DNA methylation in CdLS. Subgroups of CdLS probands and controls can be classified using selected CpG loci. The X chromosome was also found to have a unique DNA methylation pattern in CdLS. Cohesin preferentially binds to hypo-methylated DNA in control LCLs, whereas the differential DNA methylation alters cohesin binding in CdLS. Our results suggest that in addition to DNA methylation multiple mechanisms may be involved in transcriptional regulation in human cells and in the resultant gene misexpression in CdLS. PMID:20448023

  20. DNA damage promotes Herpes Simplex Virus-1 protein expression in a neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Volcy, Ketna; Fraser, Nigel W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the induction of the cellular DNA damage response by Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection of epithelial cells in tissue culture promotes productive infection, there has been no experimental observation of the effect of the cellular DNA damage response on HSV-1 infection in vivo or in neuronal derived cell lines in tissue culture. Thus, it has been speculated that the lack of cellular DNA damage induction during infection of neurons may promote latency in these cells. This work examines the profile of HSV-1 promoter induction and protein expression, in the absence or presence of infection; using cellular DNA damage inducing topoisomerase inhibitors (Camptothecin and Etoposide) on a neuroblastoma cell line (C1300) in which HSV-1 infection fails to induce the DNA damage response. In the absence of infection, a plasmid expressing the immediate early ICP0 promoter was the most induced by the DNA damage drug treatments compared to the early (RR) and late (VP16) gene promoters. Similarly, drug treatment of C1300 cells infected with HSV-1 virus showed enhanced protein expression for ICP0, but not ICP4 and VP16 proteins. However, when the cells were infected with a HSV-1 virus defective in the immediate early gene trans-activator VP16 (in814) and treated with the DNA damaging drugs, there was enhanced expression of immediate early and late HSV-1 proteins. Although, viral infection of the neuroblastoma cell alone did not induce DNA damage, cellular DNA damage induced by drug treatments facilitated viral promoter induction and viral protein expression. This implicates a mechanism by which HSV-1 viral genes in a quiescent or latent state may become induced by cellular DNA damage in neuronal cells to facilitate productive infection. PMID:23354549

  1. Critical role of CCDC6 in the neoplastic growth of testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA damage response has been clearly described as an anti-cancer barrier in early human tumorigenesis. Moreover, interestingly, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) have been reported to lack the DNA Damage Response (DDR) pathway activation. CCDC6 is a pro-apoptotic phosphoprotein substrate of the kinase ataxia telangectasia mutated (ATM) able to sustain DNA damage checkpoint in response to genotoxic stress and is commonly rearranged in malignancies upon fusion with different partners. In our study we sought to determine whether CCDC6 could have a role in the patho-genesis of testicular germ cell tumors. Methods To achieve this aim, analysis for CCDC6 expression has been evaluated on serial sections of the mouse testis by immunohistochemistry and on separate populations of murine testicular cells by western blot. Next, the resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species has been investigated in GC1 cells, derived from immortalized type B murine germ cells, following CCDC6 silencing. Finally, the CCDC6 expression in normal human testicular cells, in Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia Unclassified (IGCNU), in a large series of male germ cell tumours and in the unique human seminoma TCam2 cell line has been evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western Blot analyses. Results The analysis of the CCDC6 expression revealed its presence in Sertoli cells and in spermatogonial cells. CCDC6 loss was the most consistent feature among the primary tumours and TCam2 cells. Interestingly, following treatment with low doses of H2O2, the silencing of CCDC6 in GC1 cells caused a decrease in the oxidized form of cytochrome c and low detection of Bad, PARP-1 and Caspase 3 proteins. Moreover, in the silenced cells, upon oxidative damage, the cell viability was protected, the γH2AX activation was impaired and the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) release was decreased. Conclusions Therefore, our results suggest that the loss of CCDC6

  2. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

  3. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, Harold P.; Wittwer, Carl T.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  4. Integrated on-line system for DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis: From template to called bases

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, H.; Yeung, E.S.

    1997-02-15

    An integrated on-line prototype for coupling a microreactor to capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing has been demonstrated. A dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reaction is performed in a fused-silica capillary. Subsequently, the sequencing ladder is directly injected into a size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at nearly 95{degree}C for purification. On-line injection to a capillary for electrophoresis is accomplished at a junction set at nearly 70{degree}C. High temperature at the purification column and injection junction prevents the renaturation of DNA fragments during on-line transfer without affecting the separation. The high solubility of DNA in and the relatively low ionic strength of 1 x TE buffer permit both effective purification and electrokinetic injection of the DNA sample. The system is compatible with highly efficient separations by a replaceable poly(ethylene oxide) polymer solution in uncoated capillary tubes. Future automation and adaptation to a multiple-capillary array system should allow high-speed, high-throughput DNA sequencing from templates to called bases in one step. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells, like other pluripotent stem cells, can be killed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes despite low expression of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules

    PubMed Central

    Dressel, Ralf; Guan, Kaomei; Nolte, Jessica; Elsner, Leslie; Monecke, Sebastian; Nayernia, Karim; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Engel, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Background Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells (maGSCs) represent a new pluripotent cell type that can be derived without genetic manipulation from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) present in adult testis. Similarly to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they could provide a source of cellular grafts for new transplantation therapies of a broad variety of diseases. To test whether these stem cells can be rejected by the recipients, we have analyzed whether maGSCs and iPSCs can become targets for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) or whether they are protected, as previously proposed for embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Results We have observed that maGSCs can be maintained in prolonged culture with or without leukemia inhibitory factor and/or feeder cells and still retain the capacity to form teratomas in immunodeficient recipients. They were, however, rejected in immunocompetent allogeneic recipients, and the immune response controlled teratoma growth. We analyzed the susceptibility of three maGSC lines to CTL in comparison to ESCs, iPSCs, and F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules were not detectable by flow cytometry on these stem cell lines, apart from low levels on one maGSC line (maGSC Stra8 SSC5). However, using a quantitative real time PCR analysis H2K and B2m transcripts were detected in all pluripotent stem cell lines. All pluripotent stem cell lines were killed in a peptide-dependent manner by activated CTLs derived from T cell receptor transgenic OT-I mice after pulsing of the targets with the SIINFEKL peptide. Conclusion Pluripotent stem cells, including maGSCs, ESCs, and iPSCs can become targets for CTLs, even if the expression level of MHC class I molecules is below the detection limit of flow cytometry. Thus they are not protected against CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Therefore, pluripotent cells might be rejected after transplantation by this mechanism if specific antigens are presented and if specific

  6. Line scanning system for direct digital chemiluminescence imaging of DNA sequencing blots

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, A.E.; Weiss, R.; Gesteland, R.F. Eccles Inst. of Human Genetics, Salt Lake City, UT )

    1993-07-01

    A cryogenically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with an area CCD array is used in a line scanning system for low-light-level imaging of chemiluminescent DNA sequencing blots. Operating the CCD camera in time-delayed integration (TDI) mode results in continuous data acquisition independent of the length of the CCD array. Scanning is possible with a resolution of 1.4 line pairs/mm at the 50% level of the modulation transfer function. High-sensitivity, low-light-level scanning of chemiluminescent direct-transfer electrophoresis (DTE) DNA sequencing blots is shown. The detection of DNA fragments on the blot involves DNA-DNA hybridization with oligonucleotide-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and 1,2-dioxetane-based chemiluminescence. The width of the scan allows the recording of up to four sequencing reactions (16 lanes) on one scan. The scan speed of 52 cm/h used for the sequencing blots corresponds to a data acquisition rate of 384 pixels/s. The chemiluminescence detection limit on the scanned images is 3.9 [times] 10[sup [minus]18] mol of plasmid DNA. A conditional median filter is described to remove spikes caused by cosmic ray events from the CCD images. 39 refs., 9 refs.

  7. Biflorin induces cytotoxicity by DNA interaction in genetically different human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Ana Carolina Lima; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; da Silva Souza, Luciana Gregório; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is a public health problem and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been notably increasing, resulting in high aggressiveness and poor survival rates. Taking into account the antitumor activity of biflorin, a substance isolated from Capraria biflora L. roots that is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo, this study aimed to demonstrate the action of biflorin against three established human melanoma cell lines that recapitulate the molecular landscape of the disease in terms of genetic alterations and mutations, such as the TP53, NRAS and BRAF genes. The results presented here indicate that biflorin reduces the viability of melanoma cell lines by DNA interactions. Biflorin causes single and double DNA strand breaks, consequently inhibiting cell cycle progression, replication and DNA repair and promoting apoptosis. Our data suggest that biflorin could be considered as a future therapeutic option for managing melanoma. PMID:27079618

  8. A new view on dam lines in Polish Arabian horses based on mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Głażewska, Iwona; Wysocka, Anna; Gralak, Barbara; Prus, Renata; Sell, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Polish Arabian horses are one of the oldest and the most important Arab populations in the world. The Polish Arabian Stud Book and the Genealogical Charts by Skorkowski are the main sources of information on the ancestors of Polish Arabs. Both publications were viewed as credible sources of information until the 1990s when the data regarding one of the dam lines was questioned. The aim of the current study was to check the accuracy of the pedigree data of Polish dam lines using mtDNA analysis. The analyses of a 458 bp mtDNA D-loop fragment from representatives of 15 Polish Arabian dam lines revealed 14 distinct haplotypes. The results were inconsistent with pedigree data in the case of two lines. A detailed analysis of the historical sources was performed to explain these discrepancies. Our study revealed that representatives of different lines shared the same haplotypes. We also noted a genetic identity between some lines founded by Polish mares of unknown origin and lines established by desert-bred mares. PMID:17897600

  9. Activation of a DNA damage checkpoint response in a TAF1-defective cell line.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Ann M; Skaar, Jeffrey R; DeCaprio, James A

    2004-06-01

    Although the link between transcription and DNA repair is well established, defects in the core transcriptional complex itself have not been shown to elicit a DNA damage response. Here we show that a cell line with a temperature-sensitive defect in TBP-associated factor 1 (TAF1), a component of the TFIID general transcription complex, exhibits hallmarks of an ATR-mediated DNA damage response. Upon inactivation of TAF1, ATR rapidly localized to subnuclear foci and contributed to the phosphorylation of several downstream targets, including p53 and Chk1, resulting in cell cycle arrest. The increase in p53 expression and the G(1) phase arrest could be blocked by caffeine, an inhibitor of ATR. In addition, dominant negative forms of ATR but not ATM were able to override the arrest in G(1). These results suggest that a defect in TAF1 can elicit a DNA damage response. PMID:15169897

  10. Activation of a DNA Damage Checkpoint Response in a TAF1-Defective Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Ann M.; Skaar, Jeffrey R.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Although the link between transcription and DNA repair is well established, defects in the core transcriptional complex itself have not been shown to elicit a DNA damage response. Here we show that a cell line with a temperature-sensitive defect in TBP-associated factor 1 (TAF1), a component of the TFIID general transcription complex, exhibits hallmarks of an ATR-mediated DNA damage response. Upon inactivation of TAF1, ATR rapidly localized to subnuclear foci and contributed to the phosphorylation of several downstream targets, including p53 and Chk1, resulting in cell cycle arrest. The increase in p53 expression and the G1 phase arrest could be blocked by caffeine, an inhibitor of ATR. In addition, dominant negative forms of ATR but not ATM were able to override the arrest in G1. These results suggest that a defect in TAF1 can elicit a DNA damage response. PMID:15169897

  11. DNA Delivery by Microinjection for the Generation of Recombinant Mammalian Cell Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenuet, Sebastien; Derouazi, Madiha; Hacker, David; Wurm, Florian

    Gene transfer methods for producing recombinant cell lines are often not very efficient. One reason is that the recombinant DNA is delivered into the cell cytoplasm and only a small fraction reaches the nucleus. This chapter describes a method for microinjecting DNA directly into the nucleus. Direct injection has several advantages including the ability to deliver a defined copy number into the nucleus, the avoidance of DNAses that are present in the cell cytoplasm, and the lack of a need for extensive subcloning to find the recombinant cells. The procedure is described for two cell lines, CHO DG44 and BHK-21, using green fluorescent protein as a reporter gene. However, this method could easily be adapted to other cells lines and using other recombinant genes.

  12. De novo inbred heterozygous Zeb2/Sip1 mutant mice uniquely generated by germ-line conditional knockout exhibit craniofacial, callosal and behavioral defects associated with Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Nishizaki, Yuriko; Matsui, Fumiko; Wakamatsu, Nobuaki; Higashi, Yujiro

    2015-11-15

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS) is caused by de novo heterozygous mutation at ZEB2 (SIP1, ZFHX1B) gene, and exhibit moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), a characteristic facial appearance, epilepsy and other congenital anomalies. Establishing a murine MOWS model is important, not only for investigating the pathogenesis of this disease, but also for identifying compounds that may improve the symptoms. However, because the heterozygous Zeb2 knockout mouse could not be maintained as a mouse line with the inbred C57BL/6 background, it was difficult to use those mice for the study of MOWS. Here, we systematically generated de novo Zeb2 Δex7/+ mice by inducing the Zeb2 mutation in the germ cells using conditional recombination system. The de novo Zeb2 Δex7/+ mice with C57BL/6 background developed multiple defects relevant to MOWS, including craniofacial abnormalities, defective corpus callosum formation and the decreased number of parvalbumin interneurons in the cortex. In behavioral analyses, these mice showed reduced motor activity, increased anxiety and impaired sociability. Notably, during the Barnes maze test, immobile Zeb2 mutant mice were observed over repeated trials. In contrast, neither the mouse line nor the de novo Zeb2 Δex7/+ mice with the closed colony ICR background showed cranial abnormalities or reduced motor activities. These results demonstrate the advantages of using de novo Zeb2 Δex7/+ mice with the C57BL/6 background as the MOWS model. To our knowledge, this is the first time an inducible de novo mutation system has been applied to murine germline cells to produce an animal model of a human congenital disease. PMID:26319231

  13. Asymmetric segregation of template DNA strands in basal-like human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and methods Stem or progenitor cells from healthy tissues have the capacity to co-segregate their template DNA strands during mitosis. Here, we set out to test whether breast cancer cell lines also possess the ability to asymmetrically segregate their template DNA strands via non-random chromosome co-segregation, and whether this ability correlates with certain properties attributed to breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). We quantified the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA strands in 12 human breast cancer cell lines, and correlated the frequency to molecular subtype, CD44+/CD24-/lo phenotype, and invasion/migration ability. We tested if co-culture with human mesenchymal stem cells, which are known to increase self-renewal, can alter the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA in breast cancer. Results We found a positive correlation between asymmetric segregation of template DNA and the breast cancer basal-like and claudin-low subtypes. There was an inverse correlation between asymmetric segregation of template DNA and Her2 expression. Breast cancer samples with evidence of asymmetric segregation of template DNA had significantly increased invasion and borderline significantly increased migration abilities. Samples with high CD44+/CD24-/lo surface expression were more likely to harbor a consistent population of cells that asymmetrically segregated its template DNA; however, symmetric self-renewal was enriched in the CD44+/CD24-/lo population. Co-culturing breast cancer cells with human mesenchymal stem cells expanded the breast CSC pool and decreased the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA. Conclusions Breast cancer cells within the basal-like subtype can asymmetrically segregate their template DNA strands through non-random chromosome segregation. The frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA can be modulated by external factors that influence expansion or self-renewal of CSC populations. Future

  14. Oxidative DNA damage induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in HEK-293 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Jiang, Lijie; Ge, Lan; Chen, Min; Yang, Guang; Ji, Fang; Zhong, Laifu; Guan, Yingjie; Liu, Xiaofang

    2015-05-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly employed as a plasticizer. We have found that exposure of human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK-293) to DEHP resulted in a crucial dose-dependent increase of DNA strand breaks in a comet assay. To elucidate the role of glutathione (GSH) in the DNA damage, the cells were pretreated with buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor. Here we show that depletion of GSH in HEK-293 cells with BSO dramatically increased the susceptibility of HEK-293 cells to DEHP-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, when the intracellular GSH content was elevated by NAC, the DNA damage induced by DEHP was almost completely abolished. In addition, DEHP had effect on lysosomal or mitochondrial damage at high dose level. These results indicate that DEHP exerts genotoxic effects in HEK-293 cells, probably through DNA damage induced by oxidative stress; GSH is responsible for cellular defense against DEHP-induced DNA damage; lysosome and mitochondria may be the vital targets in DEHP-induced DNA damage. PMID:25899473

  15. Mutation of a Nopp140 gene dao-5 alters rDNA transcription and increases germ cell apoptosis in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-C; Tsai, Y-T; Kao, C-W; Lee, L-W; Lai, H-J; Ma, T-H; Chang, Y-S; Yeh, N-H; Lo, S J

    2014-01-01

    Human diseases of impaired ribosome biogenesis resulting from disruption of rRNA biosynthesis or loss of ribosomal components are collectively described as 'ribosomopathies'. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), a representative human ribosomopathy with craniofacial abnormalities, is attributed to mutations in the tcof1 gene that has a homologous gene called nopp140. Previous studies demonstrated that the dao-5 (dauer and aged animal overexpression gene 5) of Caenorhabditis elegans is a member of nopp140 gene family and plays a role in nucleogenesis in the early embryo. Here, we established a C. elegans model for studying Nopp140-associated ribosomopathy. A null dao-5 mutant ok542 with a semi-infertile phenotype showed a delay in gonadogenesis, as well as a higher incidence of germline apoptosis. These phenotypes in dao-5(ok542) are likely resulted from inefficient rDNA transcription that was observed by run-on analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays measuring the RNA Pol I occupancy on the rDNA promoter. ChIP assays further showed that the modifications of acetylated histone 4 (H4Ac) and dimethylation at the lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9me2) around the rDNA promoter were altered in dao-5 mutants compared with the N2 wild type. In addition, activated CEP-1 (a C. elegans p53 homolog) activity was also linked to the loss of DAO-5 in terms of the transcriptional upregulation of two CEP-1 downstream effectors, EGL-1 and CED-13. We propose that the dao-5 mutant of C. elegans can be a valuable model for studying human Nopp140-associated ribosomopathy at the cellular and molecular levels. PMID:24722283

  16. Heparin effect on DNA synthesis in a murine fibrosarcoma cell line: influence of anionic density

    SciTech Connect

    Piepkorn, M.W.; Daynes, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    The effects of heparin subfractions on DNA synthesis in a murine cutaneous fibrosarcoma cell line were examined. Porcine mucosal heparin was preparatively fractionated for anionic charge density by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography and for molecular weight by Sephadex G-100 filtration. The cell line was plated from confluent monolayer cultures and grown in medium and fetal bovine serum, with or without a heparin fraction at a final concentration of 10 micrograms/ml. At intervals thereafter, the cells were pulsed with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. A low-charge density heparin fraction stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation (cpm/mg protein and cpm/cell) during the first 3 days of growth compared to control values without added heparin, whereas a high-charge density heparin fraction had little of this effect (186 +/- 35% of control vs. 101 +/- 14%, respectively; P less than .05). The augmentation of DNA synthesis observed with the low-charge density fraction correlated with increased proportions of cells in S and G2 phases compared with those of the controls, as determined by flow cytofluorometry. Low- and high-molecular-weight heparin fractions did not significantly alter DNA synthesis. Heparin subfractions are thus heterogeneous with respect to their effect on cellular DNA synthesis in this tumor line.

  17. Identification of two poorly prognosed ovarian carcinoma subtypes associated with CHEK2 germ-line mutation and non-CHEK2 somatic mutation gene signatures.

    PubMed

    Ow, Ghim Siong; Ivshina, Anna V; Fuentes, Gloria; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC), a major histologic type of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), is a poorly-characterized, heterogeneous and lethal disease where somatic mutations of TP53 are common and inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1/2 predispose to cancer in 9.5-13% of EOC patients. However, the overall burden of disease due to either inherited or sporadic mutations is not known. We performed bioinformatics analyses of mutational and clinical data of 334 HG-SOC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify novel tumor-driving mutations, survival-significant patient subgroups and tumor subtypes potentially driven by either hereditary or sporadic factors. We identified a sub-cluster of high-frequency mutations in 22 patients and 58 genes associated with DNA damage repair, apoptosis and cell cycle. Mutations of CHEK2, observed with the highest intensity, were associated with poor therapy response and overall survival (OS) of these patients (P = 8.00e-05), possibly due to detrimental effect of mutations at the nuclear localization signal. A 21-gene mutational prognostic signature significantly stratifies patients into relatively low or high-risk subgroups with 5-y OS of 37% or 6%, respectively (P = 7.31e-08). Further analysis of these genes and high-risk subgroup revealed 2 distinct classes of tumors characterized by either germline mutations of genes such as CHEK2, RPS6KA2 and MLL4, or somatic mutations of other genes in the signature. Our results could provide improvement in prediction and clinical management of HG-SOC, facilitate our understanding of this complex disease, guide the design of targeted therapeutics and improve screening efforts to identify women at high-risk of hereditary ovarian cancers distinct from those associated with BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:24879340

  18. Comparison of DNA methylation patterns among mouse cell lines by restriction landmark genomic scanning.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, J; Hirose, K; Fushiki, S; Hirotsune, S; Ozawa, N; Hara, A; Hayashizaki, Y; Watanabe, S

    1994-01-01

    Restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) is a novel method which enables us to simultaneously visualize a large number of loci as two-dimensional gel spots. By this method, the status of DNA methylation can efficiently be determined by monitoring the appearance or disappearance of spots by using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme. In the present study, using RLGS with NotI, we examined, in comparison with a brain RLGS profile, the status of DNA methylation of more than 900 loci among three types of mouse cell lines: the embryonal carcinoma cell line P19, the stable mesenchymal cell line 10T1/2, and our established neuroepithelial (EM) cell lines. We found that the relative numbers of RLGS spots which appeared were less than 3.3% of those surveyed in all cell lines examined. However, 5 to 14% of spots disappeared, the numbers increasing with an increase in the length of the culture period, and many spots were commonly lost in 10T1/2 and in three EM cell lines. Thus, for these cell lines, many more spots disappeared than appeared. However, the numbers of spots disappearing and appearing were well balanced, and the ratio in P19 cells was almost equal to that in liver cells in vivo. These RLGS experimental observations suggested that permanent cell lines such as 10T1/2 are hypermethylated and that our newly established EM cell lines are also becoming heavily methylated at common loci. On the other hand, methylation and demethylation seem to be balanced in P19 cells in a manner similar to that in in vivo liver tissue. Images PMID:7935456

  19. [Mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Bremmer, F; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is among the most frequent anatomic region in which germ cell tumors (GCT) arise, second only to the gonads. Mediastinal GCT (mGCT) account for 16 % of all mediastinal neoplasms. Although the morphology and (according to all available data) the molecular genetics of mediastinal and gonadal GCT are identical, a number of unique aspects exist. There is a highly relevant bi-modal age distribution. In pre-pubertal children of both sexes, mGCT consist exclusively of teratomas and yolk sac tumors. The prognosis is generally favorable with modern treatment. In post-pubertal adults, virtually all patients with malignant mGCT are males; the prognosis is more guarded and depends (among other factors) on the histological GCT components and is similar to GCT in other organs. So-called somatic type malignancies (i. e. clonally related, non-germ cell neoplasias arising in a GCT) are much more frequent in mGCT than in other organs, and the association between mediastinal yolk sac tumors and hematological malignancies, such as myelodysplasias and leukemias, is unique to mediastinal tumors. The prognosis of GCT with somatic type malignancies is generally dismal. PMID:27491549

  20. High frequency of mosaic CREBBP deletions in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome patients and mapping of somatic and germ-line breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Cristina; Castronovo, Paola; Bentivegna, Angela; Mottadelli, Federica; Faravelli, Francesca; Giovannucci-Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Pessagno, Alice; Lucci-Cordisco, Emanuela; Pinto, Anna Maria; Salviati, Leonardo; Selicorni, Angelo; Tenconi, Romano; Neri, Giovanni; Larizza, Lidia

    2007-11-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare malformation disorder caused by mutations in the closely related CREBBP and EP300 genes, accounting respectively for up to 60 and 3% of cases. About 10% of CREBBP mutations are whole gene deletions often extending into flanking regions. Using FISH and microsatellite analyses as a first step in the CREBBP mutation screening of 42 Italian RSTS patients, we identified six deletions, three of which were in a mosaic condition that has not been previously reported in RSTS. The use of region-specific BAC clones and small CREBBP probes allowed us to assess the extent of all of the deletions by mapping their endpoints to genomic intervals of 5-10 kb. Four of our five intragenic breakpoints cluster at the 5' end of CREBBP, where there is a peak of breakpoints underlying rearrangements in RSTS patients and tumors. The search for genomic motifs did not reveal any low-copy repeats (LCRs) or any greater density of repetitive sequences. In contrast, the percentage of interspersed repetitive elements (mainly Alu and LINEs in the CREBBP exon 2 region) is significantly higher than that in the entire gene or the average in the genome, thus suggesting that this characteristic may be involved in the region's vulnerability to breaking and nonhomologous pairing. The FISH analysis extended to the EP300 genomic region did not reveal any deletions. The clinical presentation was typical in all cases, but more severe in the three patients carrying constitutional deletions, raising a question about the possible underdiagnosis of a few cases of mild RSTS. PMID:17855048

  1. Synovial sarcoma cell lines showed reduced DNA repair activity and sensitivity to a PARP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Mamiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kondo, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki; Ohta, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma and a rare type of cancer. Unfortunately, effective chemotherapies for synovial sarcomas have not been established. In this report, we show that synovial sarcoma cell lines have reduced repair activity for DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and a topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide). We also observed reduced recruitment of RAD51 homologue (S. cerevisiae; RAD51) at sites of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in synovial sarcoma cell lines that had been exposed to IR. These findings showed that synovial sarcoma cell lines are defective in homologous recombination (HR) repair. Furthermore, we found that a poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (AZD2281; olaparib) effectively reduced the growth of synovial sarcoma cell lines in the presence of an alkylating agent (temozolomide). Our findings offer evidence that treatment combining a PARP inhibitor and an alkylating agent could have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of synovial sarcoma. PMID:27353471

  2. A comparison of DNA damage probes in two HMEC lines withX-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisnewski, Christy L.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Rosen, ChristoperJ.; Chang, Polly Y.; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2007-01-19

    In this study, we investigated {gamma}H2AX{sup ser139} and 53BP1{sup ser25}, DNA damage pathway markers, to observe responses to radiation insult. Two Human Mammary Epithelial Cell (HMEC) lines were utilized to research the role of immortalization in DNA damage marker expression, HMEC HMT-3522 (S1) with an infinite lifespan, and a subtype of HMEC 184 (184V) with a finite lifespan. Cells were irradiated with 50 cGy X-rays, fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde after 1 hour repair at 37 C, and processed through immunofluorescence. Cells were visualized with a fluorescent microscope and images were digitally captured using Image-Pro Plus software. The 184V irradiated cells exhibited a more positive punctate response within the nucleus for both DNA damage markers compared to the S1 irradiated cells. We will expand the dose and time course in future studies to augment the preliminary data from this research. It is important to understand whether the process of transformation to immortalization compromises the DNA damage sensor and repair process proteins of HMECs in order to understand what is 'normal' and to evaluate the usefulness of cell lines as experimental models.

  3. A COMPARISON OF DNA DAMAGE PROBES IN TWO HMEC LINES WITH X-IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wisnewski, C.L.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Rosen, C.J.; Chang, P.Y.; Blakely, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated γH2AXser139 and 53BP1ser25, DNA damage pathway markers, to observe responses to radiation insult. Two Human Mammary Epithelial Cell (HMEC) lines were utilized to research the role of immortalization in DNA damage marker expression, HMEC HMT-3522 (S1) with an infi nite lifespan, and a subtype of HMEC 184 (184V) with a fi nite lifespan. Cells were irradiated with 50cGy X-rays, fi xed with 4% paraformaldehyde after 1 hour repair at 37°C, and processed through immunofl uorescence. Cells were visualized with a fl uorescent microscope and images were digitally captured using Image-Pro Plus software. The 184V irradiated cells exhibited a more positive punctate response within the nucleus for both DNA damage markers compared to the S1 irradiated cells. The dose and time course will be expanded in future studies to augment the preliminary data from this research. It is important to understand whether the process of transformation to immortalization compromises the DNA damage sensor and repair process proteins of HMECs in order to understand what is “normal” and to evaluate the usefulness of cell lines as experimental models.

  4. Structure Prediction and Analysis of DNA Transposon and LINE Retrotransposon Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Abrusán, György; Zhang, Yang; Szilágyi, András

    2013-01-01

    Despite the considerable amount of research on transposable elements, no large-scale structural analyses of the TE proteome have been performed so far. We predicted the structures of hundreds of proteins from a representative set of DNA and LINE transposable elements and used the obtained structural data to provide the first general structural characterization of TE proteins and to estimate the frequency of TE domestication and horizontal transfer events. We show that 1) ORF1 and Gag proteins of retrotransposons contain high amounts of structural disorder; thus, despite their very low conservation, the presence of disordered regions and probably their chaperone function is conserved. 2) The distribution of SCOP classes in DNA transposons and LINEs indicates that the proteins of DNA transposons are more ancient, containing folds that already existed when the first cellular organisms appeared. 3) DNA transposon proteins have lower contact order than randomly selected reference proteins, indicating rapid folding, most likely to avoid protein aggregation. 4) Structure-based searches for TE homologs indicate that the overall frequency of TE domestication events is low, whereas we found a relatively high number of cases where horizontal transfer, frequently involving parasites, is the most likely explanation for the observed homology. PMID:23530042

  5. Classification of Individual Lung Cancer Cell Lines Based on DNA Methylation Markers

    PubMed Central

    Marchevsky, Alberto M.; Tsou, Jeffrey A.; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.

    2004-01-01

    The classification of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can pose diagnostic problems due to inter-observer variability and other limitations of histopathology. There is an interest in developing classificatory models of lung neoplasms based on the analysis of multivariate molecular data with statistical methods and/or neural networks. DNA methylation levels at 20 loci were measured in 41 SCLC and 46 NSCLC cell lines with the quantitative real-time PCR method MethyLight. The data were analyzed with artificial neural networks (ANN) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to classify the cell lines into SCLC or into NSCLC. Models used either data from all 20 loci, or from five significant DNA methylation loci that were selected by a step-wise back-propagation procedure (PTGS2, CALCA, MTHFR, ESR1, and CDKN2A). The data were sorted randomly by cell line into 10 different data sets, each with training and testing subsets composed of 71 and 16 of the cases, respectively. Ten ANN models were trained using the 10 data sets: five using 20 variables, and five using the five variables selected by step-wise back-propagation. The ANN models with 20 input variables correctly classified 100% of the cell lines, while the models with only five variables correctly classified 87 to 100% of cases. For comparison, 10 different LDA models were trained and tested using the same data sets with either the original data or with logarithmically transformed data. Again, half of the models used all 20 variables while the others used only the five significant variables. LDA models provided correct classifications in 62.5% to 87.5% of cases. The classifications provided by all of the different models were compared with kappa statistics, yielding kappa values ranging from 0.25 to 1.0. We conclude that ANN models based on DNA methylation profiles can objectively classify SCLC and NSCLC cells lines with substantial to perfect concordance, while LDA models based on

  6. Relationship between DNA ploidy level and tumor sociology behavior in 12 nervous cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, R.; Camby, I.; Salmon, I.

    1995-06-01

    Cell population sociology was studied in two medulloblastomas and 10 astrocytic human tumor cell lines by means of the characterization of the structure of neoplastic cell colonies growing on histological slides. This was carried out via digital cell image analysis of Feulgen-stained nuclei, to which the Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi paving mathematical techniques were applied. Such assessments were compared to the DNA ploidy level (assessed by means of DNA histogram typing). The results show that the cell colony architecture characteristics differed markedly according to whether the cell lines were euploid (diploid or tetraploid) or aneuploid (hyperdiploid, triploid, hypertriploid, or polymorphic). In fact, the cell colonies from the euploid cell nuclei populations were larger and more dense than those from the aneuploid ones. Furthermore, for an identical period of culture, the cell lines from high-grade malignant astrocytic tumors (glioblastomas) exhibited cell colonies that were larger and more dense than those in cell lines from low-grade astrocytic tumors (astrocytomas). In each of these two groups, the diploid cell nuclei populations exhibited cell colonies larger and more dense than the nondiploid colonies. The present methodology is now being applied in vivo to histological sections of surgically removed human brain tumors in order to distinguish between high-risk clinical subgroups and medium-risk subgroups in clearly circumscribed histopathological groups. 38 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEX DAMAGE AS A MEASURE OF CHEMICAL MUTAGEN EFFECTS ON MAMMALIAN GERM CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As heritable chromosome anomalies are implicated in a variety of human disabilities, their induction in germ cells by environmental chemicals is viewed as a threat to health. Synaptonemal complex (SC) analysis is a novel approach for the detection of germ-line chromosomal damage....

  8. A functional Bucky ball-GFP transgene visualizes germ plasm in living zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Stephan; Bontems, Franck; Krishnakumar, Pritesh; Gömann, Jasmin; Dosch, Roland

    2015-01-01

    In many animals, the germline is specified by maternal RNA-granules termed germ plasm. The correct localization of germ plasm during embryogenesis is therefore crucial for the specification of germ cells. In zebrafish, we previously identified Bucky ball (Buc) as a key regulator of germ plasm formation. Here, we used a Buc antibody to describe its continuous germ plasm localization. Moreover, we generated a transgenic Buc-GFP line for live imaging, which visualizes germ plasm from its assembly during oogenesis up to the larval stages. Live imaging of Buc-GFP generated stunning movies, as they highlighted the dynamic details of germ plasm movements. Moreover, we discovered that Buc was still detected in primordial germ cells 2 days after fertilization. Interestingly, the transgene rescued buc mutants demonstrating genetically that the Buc-GFP fusion protein is functional. These results show that Buc-GFP exerts all biochemical interactions essential for germline development and highlight the potential of this line to analyze the molecular regulation of germ plasm formation. PMID:26143227

  9. Integrated adenovirus type 12 DNA in the transformed hamster cell line T637: sequence arrangements at the termini of viral DNA and mode of amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Eick, D; Doerfler, W

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 20 to 22 copies of adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) DNA per cell were integrated into the genome of the cell line T637. Only a few of these copies seemed to remain intact and colinear with virion DNA. All other persisting viral genomes exhibited deletions or inversions or both in the right-hand part of Ad12 DNA. Spontaneously arising morphological revertants of T637 cells has lost viral DNA. In most of the revertant cell lines only the intact or a part of the intact viral genome was preserved; other revertant cell lines has lost all viral DNA. In three other Ad12-transformed hamster cell lines, HA12/7, A2497-3, and CLAC3 (Stabel et al., J. Virol. 36:22-40, 1980), major rearrangements at the right end of the integrated Ad12 DNA were not found. These studies were performed to investigate the phenomena of amplification, rearrangements, and deletions of Ad12 DNA in hamster cells. Images PMID:6283150

  10. Multiple pathways of DNA double-strand break processing in a mutant Indian muntjac cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Bouffler, S.D.; Jha, B.; Johnson, R.T. )

    1990-09-01

    DNA break processing is compared in the Indian muntjac cell lines, SVM and DM. The initial frequencies and resealing of X-ray generated single- and double-strand breaks are similar in the two cell lines. Inhibiting the repair of UV damage leads to greater double-strand breakage in SVM than in DM, and some of these breaks are not repaired; however, repair-associated single-strand breakage and resealing are normal. Dimethylsulfate also induces excess double-strand breakage in SVM, and these breaks are irreparable. Restricted plasmids are reconstituted correctly in SVM at approximately 30% of the frequency observed in DM. Thus SVM has a reduced capacity to repair certain types of double-strand break. This defect is not due to a DNA ligase deficiency. We conclude that DNA double-strand breaks are repaired by a variety of pathways within mammalian cells and that the structure of the break or its mode of formation determines its subsequent fate.

  11. The DNA damage/repair cascade in glioblastoma cell lines after chemotherapeutic agent treatment.

    PubMed

    Annovazzi, Laura; Caldera, Valentina; Mellai, Marta; Riganti, Chiara; Battaglia, Luigi; Chirio, Daniela; Melcarne, Antonio; Schiffer, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic resistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been linked to a subpopulation of cells with stem cell-like properties, the glioma stem cells (GSCs), responsible for cancer progression and recurrence. This study investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of three chemotherapeutics, temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (Dox) and paclitaxel (PTX) on glioma cell lines, by analyzing the molecular mechanisms leading to DNA repair and cell resistance, or to cell death. The drugs were tested on 16 GBM cell lines, grown as neurospheres (NS) or adherent cells (AC), by studying DNA damage occurrence by Comet assay, the expression by immunofluorescence and western blotting of checkpoint/repair molecules and apoptosis. The three drugs were able to provoke a genotoxic injury and to inhibit dose- and time-dependently cell proliferation, more evidently in AC than in NS. The first cell response to DNA damage was the activation of the damage sensors (p-ATM, p-53BP1, γ-H2AX), followed by repair effectors; the expression of checkpoint/repair molecules appeared higher in NS than in AC. The non-homologous repair pathway (NHEJ) seemed more involved than the homologous one (HR). Apoptosis occurred after long treatment times, but only a small percentage of cells in NS underwent death, even at high drug concentration, whereas most cells survived in a quiescent state and resumed proliferation after drug removal. In tumor specimens, checkpoint/repair proteins were constitutively expressed in GBMs, but not in low-grade gliomas. PMID:25892134

  12. Resistance of Spiroplasma citri Lines to the Virus SVTS2 Is Associated with Integration of Viral DNA Sequences into Host Chromosomal and Extrachromosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Y.; Melcher, U.; Davis, R. E.; Fletcher, J.

    1995-01-01

    Spiroplasmavirus SVTS2, isolated from Spiroplasma melliferum TS2, produces plaques when inoculated onto lawns of Spiroplasma citri M200H, a derivative of the type strain Maroc R8A2. S. citri strains MR2 and MR3, originally selected as colonies growing within plaques on a lawn of M200H inoculated with SVTS2, were resistant to SVTS2. Genomic DNA fingerprints and electrophoretic protein profiles of M200H, MR2, and MR3 were similar, but three proteins present in M200H were missing or significantly reduced in both resistant lines. None of these three polypeptides reacted with antiserum against S. citri membrane proteins, indicating that they probably are not surface-located virus receptors. Electroporation with SVTS2 DNA produced 1.5 x 10(sup5) transfectants per (mu)g of DNA in M200H but none in MR2 or MR3, suggesting that resistance may result from inhibition of viral replication. The digestion patterns of the extrachromosomal double-stranded (ds) DNA of these lines were similar. Three TaqI fragments of MR2 extrachromosomal DNA that were not present in M200H extrachromosomal DNA hybridized strongly to an SVTS2 probe, and two of these fragments plus an additional one hybridized with the MR3 extrachromosomal DNA, indicating that a fragment of SVTS2 DNA was present in the extrachromosomal ds DNA of MR2 and MR3 but not of M200H. When the restricted genomes of all three lines were probed with SVTS2 DNA, strong hybridization to two EcoRI fragments of chromosomal MR2 and MR3 DNA but not M200H DNA indicated that SVTS2 DNA had integrated into the genomes of MR2 and MR3 but not of M200H. When MR3 extrachromosomal ds DNA containing a 2.1-kb SVTS2 DNA fragment was transfected into M200H, the transformed spiroplasmas were resistant to SVTS2. These results suggest that SVTS2 DNA fragments, possibly integrated into the chromosomal or extrachromosomal DNA of a previously susceptible spiroplasma, may function as viral incompatibility elements, providing resistance to superinfection by

  13. Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-11

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  14. DNA damage produced by cadmium in a human fetal hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    López-Ortal, P; Souza, V; Bucio, L; González, E; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M C

    1999-02-19

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important heavy metal environmental toxicants. It alters a wide variety of cellular and biochemical processes. The objective of this work was to study DNA damage and recovery after acute and chronic CdCl2 treatment in a human fetal hepatic cell line (WRL-68 cells). Using the alkaline microgel electrophoresis assay that detects DNA single-strand breaks and/or alkali-labile sites in individual cells, we evaluated for levels of DNA damage. The mean migration length in control cells was 35.37+/-1. 43 microm (8% damaged cells), whereas the mean migration in cells treated with 0.005 microM CdCl2 for 3 h (acute low dose) was 65. 87+/-2.07 microm (88% damaged cells). Treatment with 0.01 microM CdCl2 for the same time (acute high dose) increased the mean migration length to 125.79+/-2.91 microm (92% damaged cells). However, a 0.005 microM CdCl2 treatment for 7 days (chronic treatment) only increased 65% DNA migration to 58.38+/-2.59 microm (88% damaged nucleus). Lipoperoxidative damage expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) production per milligram of protein was 15. 7+/-2.6 for control cells, whereas in Cd-treated cells the values were 20.2+/-2.4 (acute low dose), 22.9+/-2.2 (acute high dose), and 22.6+/-2.1 (chronic treatment). To study the repair of DNA damage, cells were washed with 0.01 microM meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and fresh Dulbecco's modified essential medium (DMEM) added. The percentage of damaged cells diminished after 90 min, with DNA migration returning to control values by 120 min. Cd treatment produced DNA single-strand breaks and the damage was greater in acute high dose treated cells. Lipid peroxidation values did not correlate with DNA single-strand breaks. PMID:10023089

  15. Chromosomal Aberrations in DNA Repair Defective Cell Lines: Comparisons of Dose Rate and Radiation Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K. A.; Hada, M.; Patel, Z.; Huff, J.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome aberration yields were assessed in DNA double-strand break repair (DSB) deficient cells after acute doses of gamma-rays or high-LET iron nuclei, or low dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma-rays. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase, DNA-PK activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post-irradiation and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma radiation induced higher yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both chromosome exchange types were significantly higher for the ATM and NBS defective lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges in the NBS cells. Large increases in the quadratic dose response terms indicate the important roles of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications that facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize aberration formation. Differences in the response of AT and NBS deficient cells at lower doses suggests important questions about the applicability of observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low dose exposures. For all iron nuclei irradiated cells, regression models preferred purely linear and quadratic dose responses for simple and complex exchanges, respectively. All the DNA repair defective cell lines had lower Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values than normal cells, the lowest being for the DNA-PK-deficient cells, which was near unity. To further

  16. Regulation of expression of mouse interferon-induced transmembrane protein like gene-3, Ifitm3 (mil-1, fragilis), in germ cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satomi S; Nagamatsu, Go; Tokitake, Yuko; Kasa, Miyuki; Tam, Patrick P L; Matsui, Yasuhisa

    2004-08-01

    Mouse interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) gene, Ifitm3 (previously known as mil-1 and fragilis), is expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs), in their precursors, and in germ cells of the fetal gonads (Saitou et al. [2002] Nature 418:293-300; Tanaka and Matsui [2002] Mech Dev 119S:S261-S267). By examining the expression of green fluorescent protein transgene under the control of DNA sequences flanking exon 1, we have identified domains that direct Ifitm3 transcription in PGCs and their precursors in gastrula stage and 13.5 days post coitum embryos. Germ cell-specific expression is achieved by the activity of a consensus element unique to the Ifitm genes, which may act to suppress Ifitm3 expression in somatic tissues. The lack of any influence of the interferon-stimulable response elements on transgene expression in the germ-line suggests that interferon-mediated response is not critical for activating Ifitm3. PMID:15254899

  17. Characterization of DNA methylation and its association with other biological systems in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Jinglan; Kaur, Maninder; Krantz, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) is a common tool to study genetic disorders. However, it has not been fully characterized to what degree LCLs preserve the in vivo status of non-genetic biological systems, such as DNA methylation and gene transcription. We previously reported that DNA methylation in LCLs is highly variable in a data set of ~27,000 CpG dinucleotide sites around transcription start site (TSS) and 63 human subjects including healthy controls and probands of genetic disorders. Disease-causing mutations are linked to differential methylation at some CpG sites, but account for a small proportion of the total variance. In this study, we repeated the experiments to ensure that the high variance is not due to technical error and scrutinized the characteristics of DNA methylation and its association with other biological systems. Using sequence information and ChIP-seq data, we conclude that local CpG density and histone modifications not only correlate to baseline methylation level, but also affect the direction of methylation change in LCLs. Integrative analysis of gene transcription and DNA methylation data of the same subjects shows that medium or high methylation around TSS blocks the transcription while low methylation is a necessary, but not sufficient condition of downstream gene transcription. We utilized epigenetic information around TSS to predict active gene transcription via logistic regression models. The multivariate model using DNA methylation, eight histone modifications, and two regulatory protein complexes (CTCF and cohesin) as predictors has better performance (accuracy = 95.1%) than any univariate models of single predictors. Linear regression analysis further shows that the transcriptional levels predicted by epigenetic markers have significant correlation to microarray measurements (p = 2.2e-10). This study provides new insights into the epigenetic systems of LCLs and suggests that more specifically designed experiments are needed to

  18. PCR-Free Enrichment of Mitochondrial DNA from Human Blood and Cell Lines for High Quality Next-Generation DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Meetha P.; Bosworth, Colleen M.; McMahon, Sarah; Grandhi, Sneha; Grimerg, Brian T.; LaFramboise, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology allow for accurate detection of mitochondrial sequence variants, even those in low abundance at heteroplasmic sites. Considerable sequencing cost savings can be achieved by enriching samples for mitochondrial (relative to nuclear) DNA. Reduction in nuclear DNA (nDNA) content can also help to avoid false positive variants resulting from nuclear mitochondrial sequences (numts). We isolate intact mitochondrial organelles from both human cell lines and blood components using two separate methods: a magnetic bead binding protocol and differential centrifugation. DNA is extracted and further enriched for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by an enzyme digest. Only 1 ng of the purified DNA is necessary for library preparation and next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Enrichment methods are assessed and compared using mtDNA (versus nDNA) content as a metric, measured by using real-time quantitative PCR and NGS read analysis. Among the various strategies examined, the optimal is differential centrifugation isolation followed by exonuclease digest. This strategy yields >35% mtDNA reads in blood and cell lines, which corresponds to hundreds-fold enrichment over baseline. The strategy also avoids false variant calls that, as we show, can be induced by the long-range PCR approaches that are the current standard in enrichment procedures. This optimization procedure allows mtDNA enrichment for efficient and accurate massively parallel sequencing, enabling NGS from samples with small amounts of starting material. This will decrease costs by increasing the number of samples that may be multiplexed, ultimately facilitating efforts to better understand mitochondria-related diseases. PMID:26488301

  19. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  20. DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by Cavitational Mechanical Effects of Ultrasound in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Yukihiro; Fujiwara, Yoshisada; Campbell, Paul; Zhao, Qing-Li; Ogawa, Ryohei; Ali Hassan, Mariame; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Takasaki, Ichiro; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kondo, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic technologies pervade the medical field: as a long established imaging modality in clinical diagnostics; and, with the emergence of targeted high intensity focused ultrasound, as a means of thermally ablating tumours. In parallel, the potential of [non-thermal] intermediate intensity ultrasound as a minimally invasive therapy is also being rigorously assessed. Here, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells has been observed, although definitive identification of the underlying mechanism has thus far remained elusive. A likely candidate process has been suggested to involve sonochemical activity, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the generation of DNA single-strand breaks. Here however, we provide compelling new evidence that strongly supports a purely mechanical mechanism. Moreover, by a combination of specific assays (neutral comet tail and staining for γH2AX foci formation) we demonstrate for the first time that US exposure at even moderate intensities exhibits genotoxic potential, through its facility to generate DNA damage across multiple cancer lines. Notably, colocalization assays highlight that ionizing radiation and ultrasound have distinctly different signatures to their respective γH2AX foci formation patterns, likely reflecting the different stress distributions that initiated damage formation. Furthermore, parallel immuno-blotting suggests that DNA-PKcs have a preferential role in the repair of ultrasound-induced damage. PMID:22235259

  1. Generation and analysis of end sequence database for T-DNA tagging lines in rice.

    PubMed

    An, Suyoung; Park, Sunhee; Jeong, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Yeon; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Yu, Jung-Hwa; Hur, Junghe; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Hea; Lee, Miok; Han, Soonki; Kim, Soo-Jin; Yang, Jungwon; Kim, Eunjoo; Wi, Soo Jin; Chung, Hoo Sun; Hong, Jong-Pil; Choe, Vitnary; Lee, Hak-Kyung; Choi, Jung-Hee; Nam, Jongmin; Kim, Seong-Ryong; Park, Phun-Bum; Park, Ky Young; Kim, Woo Taek; Choe, Sunghwa; Lee, Chin-Bum; An, Gynheung

    2003-12-01

    We analyzed 6749 lines tagged by the gene trap vector pGA2707. This resulted in the isolation of 3793 genomic sequences flanking the T-DNA. Among the insertions, 1846 T-DNAs were integrated into genic regions, and 1864 were located in intergenic regions. Frequencies were also higher at the beginning and end of the coding regions and upstream near the ATG start codon. The overall GC content at the insertion sites was close to that measured from the entire rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Functional classification of these 1846 tagged genes showed a distribution similar to that observed for all the genes in the rice chromosomes. This indicates that T-DNA insertion is not biased toward a particular class of genes. There were 764, 327, and 346 T-DNA insertions in chromosomes 1, 4 and 10, respectively. Insertions were not evenly distributed; frequencies were higher at the ends of the chromosomes and lower near the centromere. At certain sites, the frequency was higher than in the surrounding regions. This sequence database will be valuable in identifying knockout mutants for elucidating gene function in rice. This resource is available to the scientific community at http://www.postech.ac.kr/life/pfg/risd. PMID:14630961

  2. Sequence of hepatitis B virus DNA incorporated into the genome of a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Ziemer, M; Garcia, P; Shaul, Y; Rutter, W J

    1985-01-01

    Seven copies of integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and contiguous genomic DNA from a human hepatoma cell line (PLC/PRF/5) have been isolated by molecular cloning and have been partially sequenced. The HBV sequences are fragmented and rearranged. Thus, the surface antigen gene is the only intact HBV transcription unit present in these integrated sequences. The sites of integration-recombination are dispersed over the entire viral genome; there is some preference for integration within the double-stranded portion of the genome. There are no repeats at the ends of the integrated HBV DNA fragments. Thus, recombination does not take place in a manner resembling the integration of retroviruses. The sequence data suggest that each HBV fragment is of the adw subtype. However, the integrated DNAs show an unexpected degree of sequence divergence. Direct evidence for the duplication, transposition, and subsequent divergence of two sequences is presented. The data surprisingly suggest that infection-integration of four distinct adw strains occurred. PMID:2983098

  3. Comparison of semen variables, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins in two male layer breeder lines.

    PubMed

    M, Shanmugam; T R, Kannaki; A, Vinoth

    2016-09-01

    Semen variables are affected by the breed and strain of chicken. The present study was undertaken to compare the semen quality in two lines of adult chickens with particular reference to sperm chromatin condensation, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins. Semen from a PD3 and White Leghorn control line was collected at 46 and 47 weeks and 55 weeks of age. The semen was evaluated for gross variables and sperm chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by using the comet assay at 47 weeks of age and sperm membrane proteins were assessed at 55 weeks of age. The duration of fertility was studied by inseminating 100 million sperm once into the hens of the same line as well as another line. The eggs were collected after insemination for 15days and incubated. The eggs were candled on 18th day of incubation for observing embryonic development. The White Leghorn control line had a greater sperm concentration and lesser percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm at the different ages where assessments occurred. There was no difference in sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage and membrane proteins between the lines. Only low molecular weight protein bands of less than 95kDa were observed in samples of both lines. The line from which semen was used had no effect on the duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination either when used in the same line or another line. Thus, from the results of the present study it may be concluded that there was a difference in gross semen variables between the lines that were studied, however, the sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage, membrane proteins and duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination did not differ between the lines. PMID:27470200

  4. Molecular genetics of testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sheikine, Yuri; Genega, Elizabeth; Melamed, Jonathan; Lee, Peng; Reuter, Victor E.; Ye, Huihui

    2012-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common malignancy in young men. While most TGCT are potentially curable, approximately 5% of patients with TGCT may develop chemoresistance and die from the disease. This review article summarizes current knowledge in genetics underlying the development, progression and chemoresistance of TGCT. Most post-pubertal TGCT originate from intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU), which are transformed fetal gonocytes. Development of IGCNU may involve aberrantly activated KITLG/KIT pathway and overexpression of embryonic transcription factors such as NANOG and POU5F1, which leads to suppression of apoptosis, increased proliferation, and accumulation of mutations in gonocytes. Invasive TGCT consistently show gain of chromosome 12p, typically isochromosome 12p. Single gene mutations are uncommon in TGCT. KIT, TP53, KRAS/NRAS, and BRAF are genes most commonly mutated in TGCT and implicated in their pathogenesis. Different histologic subtypes of TGCT possess different gene expression profiles that reflect different directions of differentiation. Their distinct gene expression profiles are likely caused by epigenetic regulation, in particular DNA methylation, but not by gene copy number alterations. Resistance of TGCT to chemotherapy has been linked to karyotypic aberrations, single-gene mutations, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in small-scale studies. The study of TGCT genetics could ultimately translate into development of new molecular diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for these tumors and improve the care of patients with these malignancies. PMID:22432056

  5. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing

    SciTech Connect

    Fregeau, C.J.; Elliott, J.C.; Fourney, R.M.

    1995-07-20

    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines-GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)-to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. 82 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, C J; Aubin, R A; Elliott, J C; Gill, S S; Fourney, R M

    1995-07-20

    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines--GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)--to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. PMID:8530025

  7. Hypomethylation of human-specific family of LINE-1 retrotransposons in circulating DNA of lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kapitskaya, Kristina Yu; Rykova, Elena Yu; Ponomaryova, Anastasia A; Cherdyntseva, Nadezda V; Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P; Azhikina, Tatyana L

    2016-09-01

    Circulating DNA has recently gained attention as a fast and non-invasive way to assess tumor biomarkers. Since hypomethylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements was described as one of the key hallmarks of tumorigenesis, we aimed to establish whether the methylation level of LINE-1 retrotransposons changes in cell-surface-bound fraction of circulating DNA (csbDNA) of lung cancer patients. Methylated CpG Island Recovery Assay (MIRA) coupled to qPCR-based quantitation was performed to assess integral methylation level of LINE-1 promoters in csbDNA of non-small cell lung cancer patients (n=56) and healthy controls (n=44). Deep sequencing of amplicons revealed that hypomethylation of LINE-1 promoters in csbDNA of lung cancer patients is more pronounced for the human-specific L1Hs family. Statistical analysis demonstrates significant difference in LINE-1 promoter methylation index between cancer patients and healthy individuals (ROC-curve analysis: n=100, AUC=0.69, p=0.0012) and supports the feasibility of MIRA as a promising non-invasive approach. PMID:27565927

  8. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. General Information about Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. Detection of phase specificity of in vivo germ cell mutagens in an in vitro germ cell system.

    PubMed

    Habas, Khaled; Anderson, Diana; Brinkworth, Martin

    2016-04-15

    In vivo tests for male reproductive genotoxicity are time consuming, resource-intensive and their use should be minimised according to the principles of the 3Rs. Accordingly, we investigated the effects in vitro, of a variety of known, phase-specific germ cell mutagens, i.e., pre-meiotic, meiotic, and post-meiotic genotoxins, on rat spermatogenic cell types separated using Staput unit-gravity velocity sedimentation, evaluating DNA damage using the Comet assay. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) (spermatogenic phase), 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (5-BrdU) (meiotic phase), methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) (post-meiotic phase) were selected for use as they are potent male rodent, germ cell mutagens in vivo. DNA damage was detected directly using the Comet assay and indirectly using the TUNEL assay. Treatment of the isolated cells with ENU and MNU produced the greatest concentration-related increase in DNA damage in spermatogonia. Spermatocytes were most sensitive to 6-MP and 5-BrdU while spermatids were particularly susceptible to MMS and EMS. Increases were found when measuring both Olive tail moment (OTM) and% tail DNA, but the greatest changes were in OTM. Parallel results were found with the TUNEL assay, which showed highly significant, concentration dependent effects of all these genotoxins on spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids in the same way as for DNA damage. The specific effects of these chemicals on different germ cell types matches those produced in vivo. This approach therefore shows potential for use in the detection of male germ cell genotoxicity and could contribute to the reduction of the use of animals in such toxicity assays. PMID:27059372

  11. Sequence-dependent but not sequence-specific piRNA adhesion traps mRNAs to the germ plasm.

    PubMed

    Vourekas, Anastassios; Alexiou, Panagiotis; Vrettos, Nicholas; Maragkakis, Manolis; Mourelatos, Zissimos

    2016-03-17

    The conserved Piwi family of proteins and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have a central role in genomic stability, which is inextricably linked to germ-cell formation, by forming Piwi ribonucleoproteins (piRNPs) that silence transposable elements. In Drosophila melanogaster and other animals, primordial germ-cell specification in the developing embryo is driven by maternal messenger RNAs and proteins that assemble into specialized messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) localized in the germ (pole) plasm at the posterior of the oocyte. Maternal piRNPs, especially those loaded on the Piwi protein Aubergine (Aub), are transmitted to the germ plasm to initiate transposon silencing in the offspring germ line. The transport of mRNAs to the oocyte by midoogenesis is an active, microtubule-dependent process; mRNAs necessary for primordial germ-cell formation are enriched in the germ plasm at late oogenesis via a diffusion and entrapment mechanism, the molecular identity of which remains unknown. Aub is a central component of germ granule RNPs, which house mRNAs in the germ plasm, and interactions between Aub and Tudor are essential for the formation of germ granules. Here we show that Aub-loaded piRNAs use partial base-pairing characteristics of Argonaute RNPs to bind mRNAs randomly in Drosophila, acting as an adhesive trap that captures mRNAs in the germ plasm, in a Tudor-dependent manner. Notably, germ plasm mRNAs in drosophilids are generally longer and more abundant than other mRNAs, suggesting that they provide more target sites for piRNAs to promote their preferential tethering in germ granules. Thus, complexes containing Tudor, Aub piRNPs and mRNAs couple piRNA inheritance with germline specification. Our findings reveal an unexpected function for piRNP complexes in mRNA trapping that may be generally relevant to the function of animal germ granules. PMID:26950602

  12. Lsh is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis and retrotransposon silencing in female germ cells.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, Rabindranath; Baumann, Claudia; Fan, Tao; Schmidtmann, Anja; Dobrinski, Ina; Muegge, Kathrin

    2006-12-01

    Lymphoid specific helicase (Lsh) is a major epigenetic regulator that is essential for DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing of parasitic elements in the mammalian genome. However, whether Lsh is involved in the regulation of chromatin-mediated processes during meiosis is not known. Here, we show that Lsh is essential for the completion of meiosis and transcriptional repression of repetitive elements in the female gonad. Oocytes from Lsh knockout mice exhibit demethylation of transposable elements and tandem repeats at pericentric heterochromatin, as well as incomplete chromosome synapsis associated with persistent RAD51 foci and gammaH2AX phosphorylation. Failure to load crossover-associated foci results in the generation of non-exchange chromosomes. The severe oocyte loss observed and lack of ovarian follicle formation, together with the patterns of Lsh nuclear compartmentalization in the germ line, demonstrate that Lsh has a critical and previously unidentified role in epigenetic gene silencing and maintenance of genomic stability during female meiosis. PMID:17115026

  13. Genome-Wide Profiling of Pluripotent Cells Reveals a Unique Molecular Signature of Human Embryonic Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pashai, Nikta; Hao, Haiping; All, Angelo; Gupta, Siddharth; Chaerkady, Raghothama; De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Gearhart, John D.; Kerr, Candace L.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic germ cells (EGCs) provide a powerful model for identifying molecules involved in the pluripotent state when compared to their progenitors, primordial germ cells (PGCs), and other pluripotent stem cells. Microarray and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reveals for the first time that human EGCs possess a transcription profile distinct from PGCs and other pluripotent stem cells. Validation with qRT-PCR confirms that human EGCs and PGCs express many pluripotency-associated genes but with quantifiable differences compared to pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), and embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs). Analyses also identified a number of target genes that may be potentially associated with their unique pluripotent states. These include IPO7, MED7, RBM26, HSPD1, and KRAS which were upregulated in EGCs along with other pluripotent stem cells when compared to PGCs. Other potential target genes were also found which may contribute toward a primed ESC-like state. These genes were exclusively up-regulated in ESCs, IPSCs and ECCs including PARP1, CCNE1, CDK6, AURKA, MAD2L1, CCNG1, and CCNB1 which are involved in cell cycle regulation, cellular metabolism and DNA repair and replication. Gene classification analysis also confirmed that the distinguishing feature of EGCs compared to ESCs, ECCs, and IPSCs lies primarily in their genetic contribution to cellular metabolism, cell cycle, and cell adhesion. In contrast, several genes were found upregulated in PGCs which may help distinguish their unipotent state including HBA1, DMRT1, SPANXA1, and EHD2. Together, these findings provide the first glimpse into a unique genomic signature of human germ cells and pluripotent stem cells and provide genes potentially involved in defining different states of germ-line pluripotency. PMID:22737227

  14. Birthweight, maternal weight trajectories and global DNA methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements.

    PubMed

    Michels, Karin B; Harris, Holly R; Barault, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    Low birthweight, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and maternal malnutrition have been related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Conversely, high birthweight has been linked to future risk of cancer. Global DNA methylation estimated by the methylation of repetitive sequences in the genome is an indicator of susceptibility to chronic diseases. We used data and biospecimens from an epigenetic birth cohort to explore the association between trajectories of fetal and maternal weight and LINE-1 methylation in 319 mother-child dyads. Newborns with low or high birthweight had significantly lower LINE-1 methylation levels in their cord blood compared to normal weight infants after adjusting for gestational age, sex of the child, maternal age at delivery, and maternal smoking during pregnancy (p = 0.007 and p = 0.036, respectively), but the magnitude of the difference was small. Infants born prematurely also had lower LINE-1 methylation levels in cord blood compared to term infants, and this difference, though small, was statistically significant (p = 0.004). We did not find important associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI or gestational weight gain and global methylation of the cord blood or fetal placental tissue. In conclusion, we found significant differences in cord blood LINE-1 methylation among newborns with low and high birthweight as well as among prematurely born infants. Future studies may elucidate whether chromosomal instabilities or other functional consequences of these changes contribute to the increased risk of chronic diseases among individuals with these characteristics. PMID:21980406

  15. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  16. Extraction and characterization of corn germ proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to develop methods to extract corn germ protein economically and characterize and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (dried) germ using 0.1M NaCl as solvent. The method involved homogenization, sti...

  17. Identification of Potential Germ-Cell Mutagens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The existence of agents that can induce germ-cell mutations in experimental systems has been recognized since 1927 with the discovery of the ability of X-rays to induce such mutations in Drosophila. Various rodent-based germ-cell mutation assays have been developed, and ~50 germ...

  18. Recovery of Infectious Pariacoto Virus from cDNA Clones and Identification of Susceptible Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karyn N.; Ball, L. Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Pariacoto virus (PaV) is a nodavirus that was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. Virus particles are non enveloped and about 30 nm in diameter and have T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The 3.0-Å crystal structure shows that about 35% of the genomic RNA is icosahedrally ordered, with the RNA forming a dodecahedral cage of 25-nucleotide (nt) duplexes that underlie the inner surface of the capsid. The PaV genome comprises two single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs: RNA1 (3,011 nt), which encodes the 108-kDa catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and RNA2 (1,311 nt), which encodes the 43-kDa capsid protein precursor α. In order to apply molecular genetics to the structure and assembly of PaV, we identified susceptible cell lines and developed a reverse genetic system for this virus. Cell lines that were susceptible to infection by PaV included those from Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea and Aedes albopictus, whereas cells from Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda were refractory to infection. To recover virus from molecular clones, full-length cDNAs of PaV RNAs 1 and 2 were cotranscribed by T7 RNA polymerase in baby hamster kidney cells that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Lysates of these cells were infectious both for cultured cells from Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm) and for larvae of Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth). The combination of infectious cDNA clones, cell culture infectivity, and the ability to produce milligram amounts of virus allows the application of DNA-based genetic methods to the study of PaV structure and assembly. PMID:11711613

  19. Recovery of infectious pariacoto virus from cDNA clones and identification of susceptible cell lines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K N; Ball, L A

    2001-12-01

    Pariacoto virus (PaV) is a nodavirus that was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. Virus particles are non enveloped and about 30 nm in diameter and have T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The 3.0-A crystal structure shows that about 35% of the genomic RNA is icosahedrally ordered, with the RNA forming a dodecahedral cage of 25-nucleotide (nt) duplexes that underlie the inner surface of the capsid. The PaV genome comprises two single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs: RNA1 (3,011 nt), which encodes the 108-kDa catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and RNA2 (1,311 nt), which encodes the 43-kDa capsid protein precursor alpha. In order to apply molecular genetics to the structure and assembly of PaV, we identified susceptible cell lines and developed a reverse genetic system for this virus. Cell lines that were susceptible to infection by PaV included those from Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea and Aedes albopictus, whereas cells from Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda were refractory to infection. To recover virus from molecular clones, full-length cDNAs of PaV RNAs 1 and 2 were cotranscribed by T7 RNA polymerase in baby hamster kidney cells that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Lysates of these cells were infectious both for cultured cells from Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm) and for larvae of Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth). The combination of infectious cDNA clones, cell culture infectivity, and the ability to produce milligram amounts of virus allows the application of DNA-based genetic methods to the study of PaV structure and assembly. PMID:11711613

  20. Gove's Curriculum and the GERM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the complex relationship between England's new National Curriculum and the neoliberal reform of education known as GERM. It explores contradictions between economic functionality and Gove's nostalgic traditionalism. It critiques the new curriculum as narrow, age-inappropriate, obsessed with abstract rules, and poorly focused…

  1. HISTORY OF GERM CELL MUTAGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the early work on germ cell mutation analysis was conducted with nonmammalian species, but this historical overview will begin with the rodent studies that provided quantitative data on induced mutations. The initial studies of mutation induction utilized the newly develo...

  2. Associations between genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism and LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Adana A M; Marian, Catalin; Brasky, Theodore M; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Liu, Zhenhua; Mason, Joel B; Makambi, Kepher H; Spear, Scott L; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation is an early event in the carcinogenic process. Percent methylation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is a biomarker of genome-wide methylation and is a potential biomarker for breast cancer. Understanding factors associated with percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal tissues could provide insight into early stages of carcinogenesis. In a cross-sectional study of 121 healthy women with no prior history of cancer who underwent reduction mammoplasty, we examined associations between plasma and breast folate, genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism, and percent LINE-1 methylation using multivariable regression models (adjusting for race, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol use). Results are expressed as the ratio of LINE-1 methylation relative to that of the referent group, with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found no significant associations between plasma or breast folate and percent LINE-1 methylation. Variation in MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR were significantly associated with percent LINE-1 methylation. Variant allele carriers of MTHFR A1289C had 4% lower LINE-1 methylation (Ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.98), while variant allele carriers of MTR A2756G (Ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) and MTRR A66G (Ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) had 3% higher LINE-1 methylation, compared to those carrying the more common genotypes of these SNPs. DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in histologically normal breast tissues is influenced by polymorphisms in genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Future studies are needed to investigate the sociodemographic, environmental and additional genetic determinants of DNA methylation in breast tissues and the impact on breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:26090795

  3. A concerted approach to the study of the aneuploidogenic properties of two chelating agents (EDTA and NTA) in the germ and somatic cell lines of Drosophila and the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Zordan, M.; Russo, A.; Costa, R.; Bianco, N.; Beltrame, C.; Levis, A.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The genetic effects of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA), two widely used chelating agents, were investigated by using a somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) after treatment of larvae and the FIX test for aneuploidy after treatment of adult female Drosophila melanogaster. Chloral hydrate (CH) and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUr) were used as positive controls. Effectively absorbed amounts of the test compounds assayed in Drosophila were estimated at the single fly level by a method using {sup 3}H-leucine. NTA and EDTA were also assayed in tests for aneuploidy based on chromosome counting in mouse germ and somatic cells. The authors previously showed that NTA was able to induce aneuploidy in the germ cells of both Drosophila and the mouse when tested at the exposure levels of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} M and 275 mg per kg body weight, respectively. In the present experiments, EDTA was assayed at 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} M and 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M in the FIX test adopting a three-stage brooding scheme. Significant increases in chromosomal loss were observed int he second brook and in the combined three-brook total for both exposure levels of EDTA. The previously observed induction of germ cell aneuploidy by NTA was confirmed in the present experiments on a different strain of mice. These results compared and discussed with reference to the characteristics of the different test systems used and to the different chelating properties of NTA and EDTA.

  4. LINE1 methylation levels in pre-diagnostic leukocyte DNA and future renal cell carcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Andreotti, Gabriella; Liao, Linda M; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Purdue, Mark P; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Albanes, Demetrius; Mannisto, Satu; Moore, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Higher levels of LINE1 methylation in blood DNA have been associated with increased kidney cancer risk using post-diagnostically collected samples; however, this association has never been examined using pre-diagnostic samples. We examined the association between LINE1 %5mC and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (215 cases/436 controls), and the Alpha-tocopherol, Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) of Finnish male smokers (191 cases/575 controls). Logistic regression adjusted for age at blood draw, study center, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, dietary alcohol intake, family history of cancer, and sex was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using cohort and sex-specific methylation categories. In PLCO, higher, although non-significant, RCC risk was observed for participants at or above median methylation level (M2) compared to those below the median (M1) (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.96–1.95). The association was stronger in males (M2 vs. M1, OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.00–2.39) and statistically significant among male smokers (M2 vs. M1, OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.46–4.63). A significant interaction for smoking was also detected (P-interaction: 0.01). No association was found among females or female smokers. Findings for male smokers were replicated in ATBC (M2 vs. M1, OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.07–1.60). In a pooled analysis of PLCO and ATBC male smokers (281cases/755controls), the OR among subjects at or above median methylation level (M2) compared to those below the median (M1) was 1.89 (95% CI: 1.34–2.67, P-value: 3 x 10–4); a trend was also observed by methylation quartile (P-trend: 0.002). These findings suggest that higher LINE1 methylation levels measured prior to cancer diagnosis may be a biomarker of future RCC risk among male smokers. PMID:25647181

  5. The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM)

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Albarede, F.; Shaw, H.; McDonough, B.; White, W.

    1996-12-01

    The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) initiative is a grass- roots effort with the goal of establishing a community consensus on a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs, and the fluxes between them. Long term goal of GERM is a chemical reservoir characterization analogous to the geophysical effort of the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Chemical fluxes between reservoirs are included into GERM to illuminate the long-term chemical evolution of the Earth and to characterize the Earth as a dynamic chemical system. In turn, these fluxes control geological processes and influence hydrosphere-atmosphere-climate dynamics. While these long-term goals are clearly the focus of GERM, the process of establishing GERM itself is just as important as its ultimate goal. The GERM initiative is developed in an open community discussion on the World Wide Web (GERM home page is at http://www-ep.es.llnl. gov/germ/germ-home.html) that is mediated by a series of editors with responsibilities for distinct reservoirs and fluxes. Beginning with the original workshop in Lyons (March 1996) GERM is continued to be developed on the Internet, punctuated by workshops and special sessions at professional meetings. It is planned to complete the first model by mid-1997, followed by a call for papers for a February 1998 GERM conference in La Jolla, California.

  6. Impact of DNA repair pathways on the cytotoxicity of piperlongumine in chicken DT40 cell-lines

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Saki; Narita, Takeo; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shunichi; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Tano, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Piperlongumine is a naturally-occurring small molecule with various biological activities. Recent studies demonstrate that piperlongumine selectively kills various types of transformed cells with minimal toxicity to non-transformed cells by inducing a high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS generates various types of DNA lesions, including base modifications and single strand breaks. In order to examine the contribution of ROS-induced DNA damage to the cytotoxicity by piperlongumine, various DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell-lines with a single DNA repair gene deletion were tested for cellular sensitivity to piperlongumine. The results showed that cell lines defective in homologous recombination (HR) display hyper-sensitivity to piperlongumine, while other cell lines with a deficiency in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, or translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases, show no sensitivity to piperlongumine. The results strongly implicate that double strand breaks (DSBs) generated by piperlongumine are major cytotoxic DNA lesions. Furthermore, a deletion of 53BP1 or Ku70 in the BRCA1-deficient cell line restored cellular resistance to piperlongumine. This strongly supports the idea that piperlongumine induces DSB- mediated cell death. Interestingly, piperlongumine makes the wild type DT40 cell line hypersensitive to a PARP-inhibitor, Olaparib. The results implicate that piperlongumine inhibits HR. Further analysis with cell-based HR assay and the kinetic study of Rad51 foci formation confirmed that piperlongumine suppresses HR activity. Altogether, we revealed novel mechanisms of piperlongumine-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25221646

  7. Impact of DNA repair pathways on the cytotoxicity of piperlongumine in chicken DT40 cell-lines.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Saki; Narita, Takeo; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shunichi; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Tano, Keizo

    2014-07-01

    Piperlongumine is a naturally-occurring small molecule with various biological activities. Recent studies demonstrate that piperlongumine selectively kills various types of transformed cells with minimal toxicity to non-transformed cells by inducing a high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS generates various types of DNA lesions, including base modifications and single strand breaks. In order to examine the contribution of ROS-induced DNA damage to the cytotoxicity by piperlongumine, various DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell-lines with a single DNA repair gene deletion were tested for cellular sensitivity to piperlongumine. The results showed that cell lines defective in homologous recombination (HR) display hyper-sensitivity to piperlongumine, while other cell lines with a deficiency in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, or translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases, show no sensitivity to piperlongumine. The results strongly implicate that double strand breaks (DSBs) generated by piperlongumine are major cytotoxic DNA lesions. Furthermore, a deletion of 53BP1 or Ku70 in the BRCA1-deficient cell line restored cellular resistance to piperlongumine. This strongly supports the idea that piperlongumine induces DSB- mediated cell death. Interestingly, piperlongumine makes the wild type DT40 cell line hypersensitive to a PARP-inhibitor, Olaparib. The results implicate that piperlongumine inhibits HR. Further analysis with cell-based HR assay and the kinetic study of Rad51 foci formation confirmed that piperlongumine suppresses HR activity. Altogether, we revealed novel mechanisms of piperlongumine-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25221646

  8. Reprogramming of germ cells into pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, Yoichi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Kimura, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of all gametes, and represent the founder cells of the germline. Although developmental potency is restricted to germ-lineage cells, PGCs can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state. Specifically, PGCs give rise to germ cell tumors, such as testicular teratomas, in vivo, and to pluripotent stem cells known as embryonic germ cells in vitro. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on signaling pathways, transcriptional controls, and post-transcriptional controls that govern germ cell differentiation and de-differentiation. These regulatory processes are common in the reprogramming of germ cells and somatic cells, and play a role in the pathogenesis of human germ cell tumors. PMID:27621759

  9. Reprogramming of germ cells into pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Yoichi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Kimura, Tohru

    2016-08-26

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of all gametes, and represent the founder cells of the germline. Although developmental potency is restricted to germ-lineage cells, PGCs can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state. Specifically, PGCs give rise to germ cell tumors, such as testicular teratomas, in vivo, and to pluripotent stem cells known as embryonic germ cells in vitro. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on signaling pathways, transcriptional controls, and post-transcriptional controls that govern germ cell differentiation and de-differentiation. These regulatory processes are common in the reprogramming of germ cells and somatic cells, and play a role in the pathogenesis of human germ cell tumors. PMID:27621759

  10. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration. PMID:26918157

  11. Establishment of an inducible HBV stable cell line that expresses cccDNA-dependent epitope-tagged HBeAg for screening of cccDNA modulators.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dawei; Wang, Xiaohe; Yan, Ran; Mao, Richeng; Liu, Yuanjie; Ji, Changhua; Cuconati, Andrea; Guo, Haitao

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA is essential to the virus life cycle, its elimination during chronic infection is considered critical to a durable therapy but has not been achieved by current antivirals. Despite being essential, cccDNA has not been the major target of high throughput screening (HTS), largely because of the limitations of current HBV tissue culture systems, including the impracticality of detecting cccDNA itself. In response to this need, we have previously developed a proof-of-concept HepDE19 cell line in which the production of wildtype e antigen (HBeAg) is dependent upon cccDNA. However, the existing assay system is not ideal for HTS because the HBeAg ELISA cross reacts with a viral HBeAg homologue, which is the core antigen (HBcAg) expressed largely in a cccDNA-independent fashion in HepDE19 cells. To further improve the assay specificity, we report herein a "second-generation" cccDNA reporter cell line, termed HepBHAe82. In the similar principle of HepDE19 line, an in-frame HA epitope tag was introduced into the precore domain of HBeAg open reading frame in the transgene of HepBHAe82 cells without disrupting any cis-element critical for HBV replication and HBeAg secretion. A chemiluminescence ELISA assay (CLIA) for the detection of HA-tagged HBeAg with HA antibody serving as capture antibody and HBeAb serving as detection antibody has been developed to eliminate the confounding signal from HBcAg. The miniaturized HepBHAe82 cell based assay system exhibits high level of cccDNA-dependent HA-HBeAg production and high specific readout signals with low background. We have also established a HepHA-HBe4 cell line expressing transgene-dependent HA-HBeAg as a counter screen to identify HBeAg inhibitors. The HepBHAe82 system is amenable to antiviral HTS development, and can be used to identify host factors that regulate cccDNA metabolism and transcription. PMID:27185623

  12. The transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 acts downstream of BMP signaling to generate primordial germ cells in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Taro; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2016-01-15

    Segregation of the germ line from the soma is an essential event for transmission of genetic information across generations in all sexually reproducing animals. Although some well-studied systems such as Drosophila and Xenopus use maternally inherited germ determinants to specify germ cells, most animals, including mice, appear to utilize zygotic inductive cell signals to specify germ cells during later embryogenesis. Such inductive germ cell specification is thought to be an ancestral trait of Bilateria, but major questions remain as to the nature of an ancestral mechanism to induce germ cells, and how that mechanism evolved. We previously reported that BMP signaling-based germ cell induction is conserved in both the mouse Mus musculus and the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which is an emerging model organism for functional studies of induction-based germ cell formation. In order to gain further insight into the functional evolution of germ cell specification, here we examined the Gryllus ortholog of the transcription factor Blimp-1 (also known as Prdm1), which is a widely conserved bilaterian gene known to play a crucial role in the specification of germ cells in mice. Our functional analyses of the Gryllus Blimp-1 ortholog revealed that it is essential for Gryllus primordial germ cell development, and is regulated by upstream input from the BMP signaling pathway. This functional conservation of the epistatic relationship between BMP signaling and Blimp-1 in inductive germ cell specification between mouse and cricket supports the hypothesis that this molecular mechanism regulated primordial germ cell specification in a last common bilaterian ancestor. PMID:26786211

  13. Chemotherapy for Good-Risk Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    In, Gino; Dorff, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    The rate of diagnosis of germ cell tumors has remained fairly constant. By the International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Classification, roughly 60% of all metastatic germ cell tumors are classified as good risk. This group of patients has an excellent prognosis, with greater than 90% expectation of cure. Treatment standards have not changed much in recent years. This article focuses on key concepts in the development of the currently accepted first-line regimens and addresses some evolving areas of interest, if not controversy. PMID:26216822

  14. Differences in DNA Repair Capacity, Cell Death and Transcriptional Response after Irradiation between a Radiosensitive and a Radioresistant Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Borràs-Fresneda, Mireia; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Gomolka, Maria; Hornhardt, Sabine; Rössler, Ute; Armengol, Gemma; Barrios, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy shows variability between patients, indicating inter-individual differences in radiosensitivity. Genetic variation probably contributes to these differences. The aim of the present study was to determine if two cell lines, one radiosensitive (RS) and another radioresistant (RR), showed differences in DNA repair capacity, cell viability, cell cycle progression and, in turn, if this response could be characterised by a differential gene expression profile at different post-irradiation times. After irradiation, the RS cell line showed a slower rate of γ-H2AX foci disappearance, a higher frequency of incomplete chromosomal aberrations, a reduced cell viability and a longer disturbance of the cell cycle when compared to the RR cell line. Moreover, a greater and prolonged transcriptional response after irradiation was induced in the RS cell line. Functional analysis showed that 24 h after irradiation genes involved in "DNA damage response", "direct p53 effectors" and apoptosis were still differentially up-regulated in the RS cell line but not in the RR cell line. The two cell lines showed different response to IR and can be distinguished with cell-based assays and differential gene expression analysis. The results emphasise the importance to identify biomarkers of radiosensitivity for tailoring individualized radiotherapy protocols. PMID:27245205

  15. Differences in DNA Repair Capacity, Cell Death and Transcriptional Response after Irradiation between a Radiosensitive and a Radioresistant Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Borràs-Fresneda, Mireia; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Gomolka, Maria; Hornhardt, Sabine; Rössler, Ute; Armengol, Gemma; Barrios, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy shows variability between patients, indicating inter-individual differences in radiosensitivity. Genetic variation probably contributes to these differences. The aim of the present study was to determine if two cell lines, one radiosensitive (RS) and another radioresistant (RR), showed differences in DNA repair capacity, cell viability, cell cycle progression and, in turn, if this response could be characterised by a differential gene expression profile at different post-irradiation times. After irradiation, the RS cell line showed a slower rate of γ-H2AX foci disappearance, a higher frequency of incomplete chromosomal aberrations, a reduced cell viability and a longer disturbance of the cell cycle when compared to the RR cell line. Moreover, a greater and prolonged transcriptional response after irradiation was induced in the RS cell line. Functional analysis showed that 24 h after irradiation genes involved in “DNA damage response”, “direct p53 effectors” and apoptosis were still differentially up-regulated in the RS cell line but not in the RR cell line. The two cell lines showed different response to IR and can be distinguished with cell-based assays and differential gene expression analysis. The results emphasise the importance to identify biomarkers of radiosensitivity for tailoring individualized radiotherapy protocols. PMID:27245205

  16. A chloroplast DNA deletion located in RNA polymerase gene rpoC2 in CMS lines of sorghum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Muthukrishnan, S; Liang, G H; Schertz, K F; Hart, G E

    1993-01-01

    Fertile lines of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were shown to differ from cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines by the presence of a 3.8 kb HindIII chloroplast DNA fragment in the former and a smaller (3.7 kb) fragment in the latter. DNA/DNA hybridization studies showed that these two fragments are homologous. Fertile plants from S. versicolor, S. almum, S. halepense, and Sorghastrum nutans (Yellow Indiangrass) also have the 3.8 kb fragment, and CMS lines studied containing A1, A2 and A3 cytoplasms have the 3.7 kb fragment. The size difference between the two fragments was localized to a 1.0 kb SacI-HindIII fragment by restriction mapping. A 165 bp deletion, which is flanked by a 51 bp tandem repeat, was identified in the CMS lines by sequencing the clones. Comparison of the two sequences with those from maize, rice, tobacco, spinach, pea, and liverwort revealed that the deleted sequence is located in the middle of the RNA polymerase beta" subunit encoded by the gene rpoC2. The amino acid sequence deleted in the CMS lines is in a monocot-specific region which contains two protein motifs that are characteristic of several transcriptional activation factors, namely, a leucine zipper motif and an acidic domain capable of forming an amphipathic alpha-helix. Further studies designed to determine whether or not the deletion is involved in CMS of sorghum are underway. PMID:8437572

  17. Continuity of states between the cholesteric → line hexatic transition and the condensation transition in DNA solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Selcuk; Podgornik, Rudolf; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Johnson, Mark R.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-11-01

    A new method of finely temperature-tuning osmotic pressure allows one to identify the cholesteric --> line hexatic transition of oriented or unoriented long-fragment DNA bundles in monovalent salt solutions as first order, with a small but finite volume discontinuity. This transition is similar to the osmotic pressure-induced expanded --> condensed DNA transition in polyvalent salt solutions at small enough polyvalent salt concentrations. Therefore there exists a continuity of states between the two. This finding, together with the corresponding empirical equation of state, effectively relates the phase diagram of DNA solutions for monovalent salts to that for polyvalent salts and sheds some light on the complicated interactions between DNA molecules at high densities.

  18. Continuity of states between the cholesteric → line hexatic transition and the condensation transition in DNA solutions

    PubMed Central

    Yasar, Selcuk; Podgornik, Rudolf; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Johnson, Mark R.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A new method of finely temperature-tuning osmotic pressure allows one to identify the cholesteric → line hexatic transition of oriented or unoriented long-fragment DNA bundles in monovalent salt solutions as first order, with a small but finite volume discontinuity. This transition is similar to the osmotic pressure-induced expanded → condensed DNA transition in polyvalent salt solutions at small enough polyvalent salt concentrations. Therefore there exists a continuity of states between the two. This finding, together with the corresponding empirical equation of state, effectively relates the phase diagram of DNA solutions for monovalent salts to that for polyvalent salts and sheds some light on the complicated interactions between DNA molecules at high densities. PMID:25371012

  19. Continuity of states between the cholesteric → line hexatic transition and the condensation transition in DNA solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yasar, Selcuk; Podgornik, Rudolf; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Johnson, Mark R.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-11-05

    A new method of finely temperature-tuning osmotic pressure allows one to identify the cholesteric → line hexatic transition of oriented or unoriented long-fragment DNA bundles in monovalent salt solutions as first order, with a small but finite volume discontinuity. This transition is similar to the osmotic pressure-induced expanded → condensed DNA transition in polyvalent salt solutions at small enough polyvalent salt concentrations. Therefore there exists a continuity of states between the two. This finding with the corresponding empirical equation of state, effectively relates the phase diagram of DNA solutions for monovalent salts to that for polyvalent salts and sheds somemore » light on the complicated interactions between DNA molecules at high densities.« less

  20. Continuity of states between the cholesteric → line hexatic transition and the condensation transition in DNA solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yasar, Selcuk; Podgornik, Rudolf; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Johnson, Mark R.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-11-05

    A new method of finely temperature-tuning osmotic pressure allows one to identify the cholesteric → line hexatic transition of oriented or unoriented long-fragment DNA bundles in monovalent salt solutions as first order, with a small but finite volume discontinuity. This transition is similar to the osmotic pressure-induced expanded → condensed DNA transition in polyvalent salt solutions at small enough polyvalent salt concentrations. Therefore there exists a continuity of states between the two. This finding with the corresponding empirical equation of state, effectively relates the phase diagram of DNA solutions for monovalent salts to that for polyvalent salts and sheds some light on the complicated interactions between DNA molecules at high densities.

  1. Activation of endocrine-related gene expression in placental choriocarcinoma cell lines following DNA methylation knock-down.

    PubMed

    Hogg, K; Robinson, W P; Beristain, A G

    2014-07-01

    Increasingly, placental DNA methylation is assessed as a factor in pregnancy-related complications, yet the transcriptional impact of such findings is not always clear. Using a proliferative in vitro placental model, the effect of DNA methylation loss on gene activation was evaluated at a number of genes selected for being differentially methylated in pre-eclampsia-associated placentae in vivo. We aimed to determine whether reduced DNA methylation at specific loci was associated with transcriptional changes at the corresponding gene, thus providing mechanistic underpinnings for previous clinical findings and to assess the degree of transcriptional response amongst our candidate genes. BeWo and JEG3 choriocarcinoma cells were exposed to 1 μM 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) or vehicle control for 48 h, and re-plated and cultured for a further 72 h in normal media before cells were harvested for RNA and DNA. Bisulphite pyrosequencing confirmed that DNA methylation was reduced by ∼30-50% points at the selected loci studied in both cell lines. Gene activation, measured by qRT-PCR, was highly variable and transcript specific, indicating differential sensitivity to DNA methylation. Most notably, loss of DNA methylation at the leptin (LEP) promoter corresponded to a 200-fold and 40-fold increase in LEP expression in BeWo and JEG3 cells, respectively (P < 0.01). Transcripts of steroidogenic pathway enzymes CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 were up-regulated ∼40-fold in response to 5-Aza-CdR exposure in BeWo cells (P < 0.01). Other transcripts, including aromatase (CYP19), HSD11B2, inhibin (INHBA) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) were more moderately, although significantly, affected by loss of associated DNA methylation. These data present a mixed effect of DNA methylation changes at selected loci supporting cautionary interpretation of DNA methylation results in the absence of functional data. PMID:24623739

  2. Stimulators and inhibitors of lymphocyte DNA synthesis in supernatants from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vesole, D H; Goust, J M; Fett, J W; Fudenberg, H H

    1979-09-01

    Some T and B lymphoid cell lines (LCL) were found to secrete into their supernatants a substance able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. This substance produced an increase in [3H]thymidine uptake by mononuclear cells when added to unstimulated cultures (mitogenic effect) or when added to cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) (potentiating effect). When complete supernatants were used, the potentiating effect was sometimes masked by an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Fractionation on Sephadex G-100 separated these two activities. The stimulatory substance eluted at a m.w. range of 15,000 to 30,000, and the inhibitor eluted with the albumin peak. B cells with or without monocytes were the most sensitive to the mitogenic effect, whereas T cells were unaffected. Responses to PHA and PWM were potentiated when T cells were present, but the maximum effect was observed when the proportion of T cells was less than 50%. The stimulatory material may be similar to lymphocyte mitogenic factor and may function as a T cell-replacing factor in B cell stimulation. PMID:313950

  3. Parental exposure to the herbicide diuron results in oxidative DNA damage to germinal cells of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Barranger, Audrey; Heude-Berthelin, Clothilde; Rouxel, Julien; Adeline, Béatrice; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida

    2016-02-01

    Chemical pollution by pesticides has been identified as a possible contributing factor to the massive mortality outbreaks observed in Crassostrea gigas for several years. A previous study demonstrated the vertical transmission of DNA damage by subjecting oyster genitors to the herbicide diuron at environmental concentrations during gametogenesis. This trans-generational effect occurs through damage to genitor-exposed gametes, as measured by the comet-assay. The presence of DNA damage in gametes could be linked to the formation of DNA damage in other germ cells. In order to explore this question, the levels and cell distribution of the oxidized base lesion 8-oxodGuo were studied in the gonads of exposed genitors. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV and electrochemical detection analysis showed an increase in 8-oxodGuo levels in both male and female gonads after exposure to diuron. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the presence of 8-oxodGuo at all stages of male germ cells, from early to mature stages. Conversely, the oxidized base was only present in early germ cell stages in female gonads. These results indicate that male and female genitors underwent oxidative stress following exposure to diuron, resulting in DNA oxidation in both early germ cells and gametes, such as spermatozoa, which could explain the transmission of diuron-induced DNA damage to offspring. Furthermore, immunostaining of early germ cells seems indicates that damages caused by exposure to diuron on germ line not only affect the current sexual cycle but also could affect future gametogenesis. PMID:26610786

  4. Stochastic specification of primordial germ cells from mesoderm precursors in axolotl embryos.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jodie; O'Reilly, Marie-Anne; Bachvarova, Rosemary F; Ferjentsik, Zoltan; Redwood, Catherine; Walmsley, Maggie; Patient, Roger; Loose, Mathew; Johnson, Andrew D

    2014-06-01

    A common feature of development in most vertebrate models is the early segregation of the germ line from the soma. For example, in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified by germ plasm that is inherited from the egg; in mice, Blimp1 expression in the epiblast mediates the commitment of cells to the germ line. How these disparate mechanisms of PGC specification evolved is unknown. Here, in order to identify the ancestral mechanism of PGC specification in vertebrates, we studied PGC specification in embryos from the axolotl (Mexican salamander), a model for the tetrapod ancestor. In the axolotl, PGCs develop within mesoderm, and classic studies have reported their induction from primitive ectoderm (animal cap). We used an axolotl animal cap system to demonstrate that signalling through FGF and BMP4 induces PGCs. The role of FGF was then confirmed in vivo. We also showed PGC induction by Brachyury, in the presence of BMP4. These conditions induced pluripotent mesodermal precursors that give rise to a variety of somatic cell types, in addition to PGCs. Irreversible restriction of the germ line did not occur until the mid-tailbud stage, days after the somatic germ layers are established. Before this, germline potential was maintained by MAP kinase signalling. We propose that this stochastic mechanism of PGC specification, from mesodermal precursors, is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:24917499

  5. Genotypic stability, segregation and selection in heteroplasmic human cell lines containing np 3243 mutant mtDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, S K; Hance, N; El Meziane, A; Juhola, M K; Juhola, K M; Karhu, R; Spelbrink, J N; Holt, I J; Jacobs, H T

    2000-01-01

    The mitochondrial genotype of heteroplasmic human cell lines containing the pathological np 3243 mtDNA mutation, plus or minus its suppressor at np 12300, has been followed over long periods in culture. Cell lines containing various different proportions of mutant mtDNA remained generally at a consistent, average heteroplasmy value over at least 30 wk of culture in nonselective media and exhibited minimal mitotic segregation, with a segregation number comparable with mtDNA copy number (>/=1000). Growth in selective medium of cells at 99% np 3243 mutant mtDNA did, however, allow the isolation of clones with lower levels of the mutation, against a background of massive cell death. As a rare event, cell lines exhibited a sudden and dramatic diversification of heteroplasmy levels, accompanied by a shift in the average heteroplasmy level over a short period (<8 wk), indicating selection. One such episode was associated with a gain of chromosome 9. Analysis of respiratory phenotype and mitochondrial genotype of cell clones from such cultures revealed that stable heteroplasmy values were generally reestablished within a few weeks, in a reproducible but clone-specific fashion. This occurred independently of any straightforward phenotypic selection at the individual cell-clone level. Our findings are consistent with several alternate views of mtDNA organization in mammalian cells. One model that is supported by our data is that mtDNA is found in nucleoids containing many copies of the genome, which can themselves be heteroplasmic, and which are faithfully replicated. We interpret diversification and shifts of heteroplasmy level as resulting from a reorganization of such nucleoids, under nuclear genetic control. Abrupt remodeling of nucleoids in vivo would have major implications for understanding the developmental consequences of heteroplasmy, including mitochondrial disease phenotype and progression. PMID:10628996

  6. 3-methyladenine-DNA-glycosylase and O6-alkyl guanine-DNA-alkyltransferase activities and sensitivity to alkylating agents in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Damia, G.; Imperatori, L.; Citti, L.; Mariani, L.; D'Incalci, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activities and the expression of 3-methyladenine glycosylase (3-meAde gly) and O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (O6 ATase) were investigated in ten human cancer cell lines. Both 3-meAde gly and O6 ATase activities were variable among different cell lines. mRNA levels of the O6 ATase gene, appeared to be related to the content of O6 ATase in different cell lines, whereas no apparent correlation was found between mRNA of 3-meAde gly and the enzyme activity. No correlation was found between the activity of the two enzymes and the sensitivity to alkylating agents of different structures such as CC-1065, tallimustine, dimethylsulphate (DMSO), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cDDP) and melphalan (L-PAM). The most striking finding of this study is that a correlation exists between the activity of O6 ATase and 3-meAde gly in the various cell lines investigated (P<0.01), suggesting a common mechanism of regulation of two DNA repair enzymes. Images Figure 2 PMID:8611396

  7. [Ovarian germ cell tumors in girls].

    PubMed

    Nechushkina, I V; Karseladze, A I

    2015-01-01

    Morphological structure of tumor influences on the clinical course of the disease in children with germ cell tumors. Patients with ovarian dysgerminoma at the time of diagnosis are significantly older than patients with immature teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Immature teratoma and mixed germ cell tumors are significantly larger compared to other germ cell tumors. Yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma are the most common cause of emergency surgical interventions and are accompanied by rupture of tumor capsule. PMID:26087605

  8. Genic DNA methylation changes during in vitro organogenesis: organ specificity and conservation between parental lines of epialleles.

    PubMed

    Maury, Stéphane; Trap-Gentil, Marie-Véronique; Hébrard, Claire; Weyens, Guy; Delaunay, Alain; Barnes, Steve; Lefebvre, Marc; Joseph, Claude

    2012-11-01

    During differentiation, in vitro organogenesis calls for the adjustment of the gene expression program toward a new fate. The role of epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation is suggested but little is known about the loci affected by DNA methylation changes, particularly in agronomic plants for witch in vitro technologies are useful such as sugar beet. Here, three pairs of organogenic and non-organogenic in vitro cell lines originating from different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima) cultivars were used to assess the dynamics of DNA methylation at the global or genic levels during shoot or root regeneration. The restriction landmark genome scanning for methylation approach was applied to provide a direct quantitative epigenetic assessment of several CG methylated genes without prior knowledge of gene sequence that is particularly adapted for studies on crop plants without a fully sequenced genome. The cloned sequences had putative roles in cell proliferation, differentiation or unknown functions and displayed organ-specific DNA polymorphism for methylation and changes in expression during in vitro organogenesis. Among them, a potential ubiquitin extension protein 6 (UBI6) was shown, in different cultivars, to exhibit repeatable variations of DNA methylation and gene expression during shoot regeneration. In addition, abnormal development and callogenesis were observed in a T-DNA insertion mutant (ubi6) for a homologous sequence in Arabidopsis. Our data showed that DNA methylation is changed in an organ-specific way for genes exhibiting variations of expression and playing potential role during organogenesis. These epialleles could be conserved between parental lines opening perspectives for molecular markers. PMID:22486767

  9. Arsenic trioxide promotes mitochondrial DNA mutation and cell apoptosis in primary APL cells and NB4 cell line.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ran; Zhou, Jin; Sui, Meng; Li, ZhiYong; Feng, GuoSheng; Yang, BaoFeng

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. The NB4 cell line was treated with 2.0 micromol/L As(2)O(3) in vitro, and the primary APL cells were treated with 2.0 micromol/L As(2)O(3) in vitro and 0.16 mg kg(-1) d(-1) As(2)O(3) in vivo. The mitochondrial DNA of all the cells above was amplified by PCR, directly sequenced and analyzed by Sequence Navigatore and Factura software. The apoptosis rates were assayed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial DNA mutation in the D-loop region was found in NB4 and APL cells before As(2)O(3) use, but the mutation spots were remarkably increased after As(2)O(3) treatment, which was positively correlated to the rates of cellular apoptosis, the correlation coefficient: r (NB4-As2O3)=0.973818, and r (APL-As2O3)=0.934703. The mutation types include transition, transversion, codon insertion or deletion, and the mutation spots in all samples were not constant and regular. It is revealed that As(2)O(3) aggravates mtDNA mutation in the D-loop region of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondrial DNA might be one of the targets of As(2)O(3) in APL treatment. PMID:20596959

  10. The genetic organization of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA in the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, S; Freytag von Loringhoven, A; Kahmann, R; Hofschneider, P H; Koshy, R

    1984-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is often found integrated in the genome of infected human liver cells and is supposed to be related to the development of primary liver carcinoma (PLC). Four clones of HBV DNA-containing sequences derived from DNA of the human PLC-derived cell line PLC/PRF/5 are discussed. The viral sequences show no intricate rearrangements excepting for a duplication and an inversion in one case, and a deletion in another. In all cases integration of the viral DNA was seen to be in a region which is single-stranded in the unintegrated HBV DNA. Sequence homologies between human and viral DNA flanking the integration sites have been detected. That may have a functional role in integration. Nucleotide sequence analyses of regions encompassing the viral-human junctions reveal open reading frames which consist of viral and/or human information. The possible expression of chimeric or cellular proteins may play a role in tumour development, and offers directions for further investigations. Images PMID:6091042

  11. TAp73 is essential for germ cell adhesion and maturation in testis

    PubMed Central

    Holembowski, Lena; Kramer, Daniela; Riedel, Dietmar; Sordella, Raffaella; Nemajerova, Alice; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    A core evolutionary function of the p53 family is to protect the genomic integrity of gametes. However, the role of p73 in the male germ line is unknown. Here, we reveal that TAp73 unexpectedly functions as an adhesion and maturation factor of the seminiferous epithelium orchestrating spermiogenesis. TAp73 knockout (TAp73KO) and p73KO mice, but not ΔNp73KO mice, display a “near-empty seminiferous tubule” phenotype due to massive premature loss of immature germ cells. The cellular basis of this phenotype is defective cell–cell adhesions of developing germ cells to Sertoli nurse cells, with likely secondary degeneration of Sertoli cells, including the blood–testis barrier, which leads to disruption of the adhesive integrity and maturation of the germ epithelium. At the molecular level, TAp73, which is produced in germ cells, controls a coordinated transcriptional program of adhesion- and migration-related proteins including peptidase inhibitors, proteases, receptors, and integrins required for germ–Sertoli cell adhesion and dynamic junctional restructuring. Thus, we propose the testis as a unique organ with strict division of labor among all family members: p63 and p53 safeguard germ line fidelity, whereas TAp73 ensures fertility by enabling sperm maturation. PMID:24662569

  12. Generation of the germ layers along the animal-vegetal axis in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Yasuo, H; Lemaire, P

    2001-01-01

    After completion of gastrulation, typical vertebrate embryos consist of three cell sheets, called germ layers. The outer layer, the ectoderm, which produces the cells of the epidermis and the nervous system; the inner layer, the endoderm, producing the lining of the digestive tube and its associated organs (pancreas, liver, lungs etc.) and the middle layer, the mesoderm, which gives rise to several organs (heart, kidney, gonads), connective tissues (bone, muscles, tendons, blood vessels), and blood cells. The formation of the germ layers is one of the earliest embryonic events to subdivide multicellular embryos into a few compartments. In Xenopus laevis, the spatial domains of three germ layers are largely separated along the animal-vegetal axis even before gastrulation; ectoderm in the animal pole region; mesoderm in the equatorial region and endoderm in the vegetal pole region. In this review, we summarise the recent advances in our understanding of the formation of the germ layers in Xenopus laevis. PMID:11291851

  13. Refuting the hypothesis that the acquisition of germ plasm accelerates animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Carrie A; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to the germ line in animals. PGCs are specified during embryogenesis either by an ancestral mechanism of cell-cell signalling (induction) or by a derived mechanism of maternally provided germ plasm (preformation). Recently, a hypothesis was set forth purporting that germ plasm liberates selective constraint and accelerates an organism's protein sequence evolution, especially for genes from early developmental stages, thereby leading to animal species radiations; empirical validation has been claimed in vertebrates. Here we present findings from global rates of protein evolution in vertebrates and invertebrates refuting this hypothesis. Contrary to assertions of the hypothesis, we find no effect of preformation on protein sequence evolution, the evolutionary rates of early-stage developmental genes, or on species diversification. We conclude that the hypothesis is mechanistically implausible, and our multi-faceted analysis shows no empirical support for any of its predictions. PMID:27577604

  14. A new type of papillomavirus DNA, its presence in genital cancer biopsies and in cell lines derived from cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Boshart, M; Gissmann, L; Ikenberg, H; Kleinheinz, A; Scheurlen, W; zur Hausen, H

    1984-01-01

    DNA of a new papillomavirus type was cloned from a cervical carcinoma biopsy. Two EcoRI clones of 7.8 and 6.9 kb in length were obtained, the latter contained a 900-bp deletion. The BamHI fragments of both clones were used to characterize the DNA. It represents a distinct type of papillomavirus as determined by its size, its cross-hybridization with DNA of other papillomavirus types under conditions of low stringency only, the co-linear alignment of its genome with HPV 6 and HPV 16 prototypes and its occasional occurrence as oligomeric episomes. We tentatively propose to designate it as HPV 18. DNA hybridizing with HPV 18 under stringent conditions was detected in 9/36 cervical carcinomas from Africa and Brazil, in 2/13 cervical tumors from Germany and 1/10 penile carcinomas. Benign tumors (17 cervical dysplasias, 29 genital warts), eight carcinomata in situ and 15 biopsies of normal cervical tissue were devoid of detectable HPV 18 DNA. HPV 18-related DNA was found, however, in cells of the HeLa, KB and C4-1 lines all derived from cervical cancer. The state of the viral DNA was investigated in four cervical cancer biopsies. The data reveal that the DNA might be integrated into the host cell genome. One tumor provided evidence for head to tail tandem repeats some of which persisted as circular episomes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:6329740

  15. Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3A1) allele produces Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Milewicz, D M; Witz, A M; Smith, A C; Manchester, D K; Waldstein, G; Byers, P H

    1993-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutations in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). We studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for the same deletion in somatic and germ cells. In fibroblasts from the father, approximately two-fifths of the COL3A1 alleles carried the deletion, but only 10% of the COL3A1 alleles in white blood cells were of the mutant species. The deletion in the mutant allele extended from intron 7 into intron 11. There was a 12-bp direct repeat in intron 7 and intron 11, the latter about 60 bp 5' to the junction. At the breakpoint there was a duplication of 10 bp from intron 11 separated by an insertion of 4 bp contained within the duplicated sequence. The father was mosaic for the deletion so that the gene rearrangement occurred during his early embryonic development prior to lineage allocation. These findings suggest that at least some of the deletions seen in human genes may occur during replication, rather than as a consequence of meiotic crossing-over, and that they thus have a risk for recurrence when observed de novo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8317500

  16. Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3Al) allele produces ehlers-danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring

    SciTech Connect

    McGookey Milewicz, D.; Witz, A.M.; Byers, P.H. ); Smith, A.C.M.; Manchester, D.K.; Waldstein, G. )

    1993-07-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutation in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). The authors studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for the same deletion in somatic and germ cells. In fibroblasts from the father, approximately two-fifths of the COL3A1 alleles carried the deletion, but only 10% of the COL3A1 alleles in white blood cells were of the mutant species. The deletion in the mutant allele extended from intron 7 into intron 11. There was a 12-bp direct repeat in intron 7 and intron 11, the latter about 60 bp 5' to the junction. At the breakpoint there was a duplication of 10 bp from intron 11 separated by an insertion of 4 bp contained within the duplicated sequence. The father was mosaic for the deletion so that the gene rearrangement occurred during his early embryonic development prior to lineage allocation. These findings suggest that at least some of the deletions seen in human genes may occur during replication, rather than as a consequence of meiotic crossing-over, and that they thus have a risk for recurrence when observed de novo. 71 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Autonomy in specification of primordial germ cells and their passive translocation in the sea urchin

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of germ line determination involves many conserved genes, yet is highly variable. Echinoderms are positioned at the base of Deuterostomia and are crucial to understanding these evolutionary transitions, yet the mechanism of germ line specification is not known in any member of the phyla. Here we demonstrate that small micromeres (SMics), which are formed at the fifth cell division of the sea urchin embryo, illustrate many typical features of primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. SMics autonomously express germ line genes in isolated culture, including selective Vasa protein accumulation and transcriptional activation of nanos; their descendants are passively displaced towards the animal pole by secondary mesenchyme cells and the elongating archenteron during gastrulation; Cadherin (G form) has an important role in their development and clustering phenotype; and a left/right integration into the future adult anlagen appears to be controlled by a late developmental mechanism. These results suggest that sea urchin SMics share many more characteristics typical of PGCs than previously thought, and imply a more widely conserved system of germ line development among metazoans. PMID:22991443

  18. Autonomy in specification of primordial germ cells and their passive translocation in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    The process of germ line determination involves many conserved genes, yet is highly variable. Echinoderms are positioned at the base of Deuterostomia and are crucial to understanding these evolutionary transitions, yet the mechanism of germ line specification is not known in any member of the phyla. Here we demonstrate that small micromeres (SMics), which are formed at the fifth cell division of the sea urchin embryo, illustrate many typical features of primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. SMics autonomously express germ line genes in isolated culture, including selective Vasa protein accumulation and transcriptional activation of nanos; their descendants are passively displaced towards the animal pole by secondary mesenchyme cells and the elongating archenteron during gastrulation; Cadherin (G form) has an important role in their development and clustering phenotype; and a left/right integration into the future adult anlagen appears to be controlled by a late developmental mechanism. These results suggest that sea urchin SMics share many more characteristics typical of PGCs than previously thought, and imply a more widely conserved system of germ line development among metazoans. PMID:22991443

  19. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hCG and LDH may be at any level. Poor prognosis A nonseminoma extragonadal germ cell tumor is in the poor prognosis group if: the tumor is in the ... extragonadal germ cell tumor does not have a poor prognosis group. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There ...

  1. Arsenite induces DNA-protein crosslinks and cytokeratin expression in the WRL-68 human hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, P; Del Razo, L M; Gutierrez-Ruíz, M C; Gonsebatt, M E

    2000-04-01

    The induction of DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) has been proposed as an indicator of early biological effects due to the fact that known or suspected carcinogens induce an increased proportion of proteins tightly bound to DNA. Arsenic, a human carcinogen, is reduced and methylated mainly in liver cells generating a number of intermediate reactive forms which could lead to the formation of DNA-protein crosslinks. The induction of DPC by arsenite [As(III)] was investigated in the WRL-68 human hepatic cell line, testing the possibility that cytokeratins or cytokeratin-like proteins, due to their high content of SH groups, could participate in DPC. The formation and decay of DPC was dose-related. Arsenite was the only intracellular species present since no methylated As forms could be detected. Thus, DPC can be attributed to the presence of arsenite, an important species present in liver during As exposure, whose permanence in the tissue would depend on the methylation rate of the organism. Several cytokeratins were identified by immunoblotting among the proteins crosslinked with DNA, including cytokeratin 18 (CK18), a specific liver intermediate filament. An augmented presence of CK18 was detected in treated cultures by immunoblotting of total protein PAGE. In liver cells cytokeratin synthesis is tightly correlated with differentiation programs, thus arsenite could not only be damaging DNA but also modifying differentiation patterns in this tissue. PMID:10753206

  2. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate the expression of MGMT and chemosensitivity to temozolomide in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xi-Feng; Feng, Shou-Xin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive, highly lethal dermatological malignancy. Chemoresistance and rapid metastasis limit the curative effect of multimodal therapies like surgery or chemotherapy. The suicide enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes adducts from the O6-position of guanine to repair DNA damage. High MGMT expression is associated with resistance to therapy in melanoma. However, it is unknown if MGMT is regulated by DNA methylation or histone acetylation in melanoma. We examined the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A alone or in combination on MGMT expression and promoter methylation and histone acetylation in A375, MV3, and M14 melanoma cells. This study demonstrates that MGMT expression, CpG island methylation, and histone acetylation vary between melanoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A led to reexpression of MGMT, indicating that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are associated with silencing of MGMT in melanoma. This study provides information on the role of epigenetic modifications in malignant melanoma that may enable the development of new strategies for treating malignant melanoma. PMID:26943799

  3. Ochratoxin A: induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in mammalian cell lines and primary cells.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Hennicke G; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Schlatter, Josef; Würth, Kirsten; Janzowski, Christine

    2005-01-31

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic/-carcinogenic mycotoxin, produced by several Aspergillus- and Penicillium-strains. Humans are exposed to OTA via food contamination, a causal relationship of OTA to human endemic Balkan nephropathy is still under debate. Since DNA-adducts of OTA or its metabolites could not be identified unambiguously, its carcinogenic effectiveness might be related to secondary effects, such as oxidative cell damage or cell proliferation. In this study, OTA mediated induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity (necrosis, growth inhibition, apoptosis) and modulation of glutathione were investigated in cell lines (V79, CV-1) and primary rat kidney cells. After 24 h incubation, viability of V79 cells was strongly decreased by OTA concentrations >2.5 micromol/L, whereas CV-1 cells were clearly less sensitive. Strong growth inhibition occurred in both cell lines (IC(50) approximately 2 micromol/L). Apoptosis, detected with an immunochemical test and with flow cytometry, was induced by >1 micromol/L OTA. Oxidative DNA damage, detected by comet assay after additional treatment with repair enzymes, was induced in all cell systems already at five-fold lower concentrations. Glutathione in CV-1 cells was depleted after 1 h incubation (>100 micromol/L). In contrast, an increase was measured after 24 h incubation (>0.5 micromol/L). In conclusion, OTA induces oxidative DNA damage at low, not yet cytotoxic concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage might initiate cell transformation eventually in connection with proliferative response following cytotoxic cell death. Both events might represent pivotal factors in the chain of cellular events leading into nephro-carcinogenicity of OTA. PMID:15588931

  4. Radiosensitivity profiles from a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines exhibiting genetic alterations in p53 and disparate DNA-dependent protein kinase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, Gregory T.; Yannone, Steven M.; Langland, Rachel A.; Nakao, Aki; Guan, Yinghui; Long, Sydney B.T.; Vonguyen, Lien; Chen, David J.; Gray, Joe W; Chen, Fanqing

    2009-09-07

    The variability of radiation responses in ovarian tumors and tumor-derived cell lines is poorly understood. Since both DNA repair capacity and p53 status can significantly alter radiation sensitivity, we evaluated these factors along with radiation sensitivity in a panel of sporadic human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. We observed a gradation of radiation sensitivity among these sixteen lines, with a five-fold difference in the LD50 between the most radiosensitive and the most radioresistant cells. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is essential for the repair of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in human somatic cells. Therefore, we measured gene copy number, expression levels, protein abundance, genomic copy and kinase activity for DNA-PK in all of our cell lines. While there were detectable differences in DNA-PK between the cell lines, there was no clear correlation with any of these differences and radiation sensitivity. In contrast, p53 function as determined by two independent methods, correlated well with radiation sensitivity, indicating p53 mutant ovarian cancer cells are typically radioresistant relative to p53 wild-type lines. These data suggest that the activity of regulatory molecules such as p53 may be better indicators of radiation sensitivity than DNA repair enzymes such as DNAPK in ovarian cancer.

  5. Identification of the herpes simplex virus DNA sequences present in six herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-transformed mouse cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Leiden, J M; Frenkel, N; Rapp, F

    1980-01-01

    We have used a novel filter hybridization approach to detect and map the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA sequences which are present in four HSV thymidine kinase (HSVtk+)-transformed cell lines which were derived by exposure of thymidine kinase negative (tk-) mouse cells to UV light-irradiated HSV type 2 (HSV-2). In addition, we have mapped the HSV-1 DNA sequences which are present in two HSV-1tk+-transformed cell lines produced by transfection of tk- mouse cells with sheared HSV-1 DNA. The results of these studies can be summarized as follows. (i) The only HSV DNA sequences which were common to all HSVtk+-transformed cells were those located between map coordinates 0.28 and 0.32. Thus, this region contains all of the viral DNA sequences which are necessary for the expression of HSV-mediated tk transformation. (ii) Many of the cell lines also contained variable amounts of non-tk gene viral DNA sequences located between map coordinates 0.11 to 0.57 and 0.82 to 1.00, suggesting that incorporation of the viral DNA sequences located between these map coordinates is a relatively random event. (iii) The viral DNA sequences located between map coordinates 0 to 0.11 and 0.57 to 0.82 were uniformly absent from all of the HSVtk+ cell lines tested, suggesting that there is a strong negative selective pressure against incorporation of these viral DNA sequences. Images PMID:6245232

  6. Tritium effects on germ cells and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Straume, T.

    1982-11-19

    Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice show acute gamma-ray LD/sub 50/ as low as 6 rad. This provides opportunities for determining dose-response relations at low doses and chronic exposure in the intact animal - conditions of particular interest for hazard evaluation. Examined in this way, /sup 3/HOH in body water is found to kill murine oocytes exponentially with dose, the LD/sub 50/ level for chronic exposure being only 2..mu..Ci/ml (delivering 0.4 rad/day). At very low doses and dose rates, where comparisons between tritium and other radiations are of special significance for radiological protection, the RBE of tritium compared with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation reaches approximately 3. Effects on murine fertility from tritium-induced oocyte loss have been quantified by reproductive capacity measurements. Chronic low-level exposure has been examined also in three primate species - squirrel, rhesus, and bonnet monkeys. In squirrel monkeys the ovarian germ-cell supply is 99% destroyed by the time of birth from prenatal exposure to body-water levels of /sup 3/HOH (administered in maternal drinking water) of only 3 ..mu..Ci/ml, the LD/sub 50/ level being 0.5 ..mu..Ci/ml (giving 0.1 rad/day), one fourth that in mice. Though not completely ruled out, similar high sensitivity of female germ cells has not been found in macaques; and it probably does not occur in man. The exquisite radiosensitivity of primordial oocytes in mice is apparently due to vulnerability of the plasma membrane (or something of similar geometry and location), not DNA. Evidence for this comes from tritium data as well as neutron studies. Tritium administered as /sup 3/HOH, and therefore generally distributed, is much more effective in killing murine oocytes than is tritium administered as /sup 3/H-TdR, localized in the nucleus. This situation in the mouse may have implications for estimating radiation genetic risk in the human female.

  7. Vasa Identifies Germ Cells and Critical Stages of Oogenesis in the Asian Seabass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongyan; Lim, Menghuat; Dwarakanath, Manali; Hong, Yunhan

    2014-01-01

    Germ cells produce sperm and eggs for reproduction and fertility. The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a protandrous marine fish, undergoes male-female sex reversal and thus offers an excellent model to study the role of germ cells in sex differentiation and sex reversal. Here we report the cloning and expression of vasa as a first germ cell marker in this organism. A 2241-bp cDNA was cloned by PCR using degenerate primers of conserved sequences and gene-specific primers. This cDNA contains a polyadenylation signal and a full open reading frame for 645 amino acid residues, which was designated as Lcvasa for the seabass vasa, as its predicted protein is homologous to Vasa proteins. The Lcvasa RNA is maternally supplied and specific to gonads in adulthood. By chromogenic and fluorescent in situ hybridization we revealed germ cell-specific Lcvasa expression in both the testis and ovary. Importantly, Lcvasa shows dynamic patterns of temporospatial expression and subcellular distribution during gametogenesis. At different stages of oogenesis, for example, Lcvasa undergoes nuclear-cytoplasmic redistribution and becomes concentrated preferentially in the Balbiani body of stage-II~III oocytes. Thus, the vasa RNA identifies both female and male germ cells in the Asian seabass, and its expression and distribution delineate critical stages of gametogenesis. PMID:24550690

  8. Measuring nanoscale interactions and dynamics of DNA-grafted colloids with line optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancaniello, Paul Louis

    Much of the excitement regarding nanotechnology stems from the idea of "bottom-up" self-assembly: the possibility of spontaneously growing complex structures or devices out of molecular scale components rather than using conventional microfabrication. Realizing such goals requires a reliable method for inducing specific interactions between multiple particle species. The preferred method for inducing such interactions is to use hybridization, the sequence-specific assembly of single stranded DNA grafted onto the particles into double strands. Linking bridges of DNA can either glue two objects together strongly or cause them to weakly and reversibly adhere. While the strong adhesion limit has been studied, the weak reversible interactions required for equilibrium self-assembly and annealing remain poorly characterized, hindering experimental and theoretical progress. All previous attempts to assemble non-DNA objects using DNA interactions have created highly disordered aggregates rather than the hoped for crystal-like structures. Here we report the first direct measurements of such DNA-induced colloidal interactions, as well as the first colloidal crystals assembled using them. The pair interactions measured with our optical tweezer method can be modeled in detail by well-known statistical physics and chemistry, boding well for their application to directed self-assembly. The microspheres' binding dynamics, however, have a surprising power-law scaling that can significantly slow annealing and crystallization. We separated effects due to multiple bridge kinetics from those due to individual DNA hybridization by adjusting the microspheres' DNA surface density. The process of DNA hybridization requires the traversing of a multitude of intermediate steps to get from two random coil oligonucleotides to a tidy duplex DNA. We probed the nature of these intermediate states by measuring the lifetime distribution of single 16-bp duplexes subject to thermal dissociation under

  9. Telomere homeostasis in mammalian germ cells: a review.

    PubMed

    Reig-Viader, Rita; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres protect against genome instability and participate in chromosomal movements during gametogenesis, especially in meiosis. Thus, maintaining telomere structure and telomeric length is essential to both cell integrity and the production of germ cells. As a result, alteration of telomere homeostasis in the germ line may result in the generation of aneuploid gametes or gametogenesis disruption, triggering fertility problems. In this work, we provide an overview on fundamental aspects of the literature regarding the organization of telomeres in mammalian germ cells, paying special attention to telomere structure and function, as well as the maintenance of telomeric length during gametogenesis. Moreover, we discuss the different roles recently described for telomerase and TERRA in maintaining telomere functionality. Finally, we review how new findings in the field of reproductive biology underscore the role of telomere homeostasis as a potential biomarker for infertility. Overall, we anticipate that the study of telomere stability and equilibrium will contribute to improve diagnoses of patients; assess the risk of infertility in the offspring; and in turn, find new treatments. PMID:26525972

  10. Characterizing the mechanical behavior of the zebrafish germ layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealhofer, David; Serwane, Friedhelm; Mongera, Alessandro; Rowghanian, Payam; Lucio, Adam; Campàs, Otger

    Organ morphogenesis and the development of the animal body plan involve complex spatial and temporal control of tissue- and cell-level mechanics. A prime example is the generation of stresses by individual cells to reorganize the tissue. These processes have remained poorly understood due to a lack of techniques to characterize the local constitutive law of the material, which relates local cellular forces to the resulting tissue flows. We have developed a method for quantitative, local in vivo study of material properties in living tissue using magnetic droplet probes. We use this technique to study the material properties of the different zebrafish germ layers using aggregates of zebrafish mesendodermal and ectodermal cells as a model system. These aggregates are ideal for controlled studies of the mechanics of individual germ layers because of the homogeneity of the cell type and the simple spherical geometry. Furthermore, the numerous molecular tools and transgenic lines already developed for this model organism can be applied to these aggregates, allowing us to characterize the contributions of cell cortex tension and cell adhesion to the mechanical properties of the zebrafish germ layers.

  11. Specification of germ cell fate in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Saitou, Mitinori; Payer, Bernhard; Lange, Ulrike C; Erhardt, Sylvia; Barton, Sheila C; Surani, M Azim

    2003-01-01

    An early fundamental event during development is the segregation of germ cells from somatic cells. In many organisms, this is accomplished by the inheritance of preformed germ plasm, which apparently imposes transcriptional repression to prevent somatic cell fate. However, in mammals, pluripotent epiblast cells acquire germ cell fate in response to signalling molecules. We have used single cell analysis to study how epiblast cells acquire germ cell competence and undergo specification. Germ cell competent cells express Fragilis and initially progress towards a somatic mesodermal fate. However, a subset of these cells, the future primordial germ cells (PGCs), then shows rapid upregulation of Fragilis with concomitant transcriptional repression of a number of genes, including Hox and Smad genes. This repression may be a key event associated with germ cell specification. Furthermore, PGCs express Stella and other genes, such as Oct-4 that are associated with pluripotency. While these molecules are also detected in mature oocytes as maternally inherited factors, their early role is to regulate development and maintain pluripotency, and they do not serve the role of classical germline determinants. PMID:14511483

  12. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  13. Differential replication of two porcine parvovirus strains in bovine cell lines ensues from initial DNA processing and NS1 expression.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sandra; Boisvert, Maude; Szelei, Jozsef; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a small DNA virus with restricted coding capacity. The 5 kb genome expresses three major non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2 and SAT), and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2). These few viral proteins are pleiotropic and interact with cellular components throughout viral replication. In this regard, very few cell lines have been shown to replicate the virus efficiently. Cell lines were established from a primary culture of bovine cells that allowed allotropic variants of PPV to be distinguished. Three cell lines were differentially sensitive to infection by two prototype PPV strains, NADL-2 and Kresse. In the first cell line (D10), infection was restricted early in the infectious cycle and was not productive. Infection of the second cell line (G11) was 1000 times less efficient with the NADL-2 strain compared with porcine cells, while production of infectious virus of the Kresse strain was barely detectable. Restriction points in these cells were the initial generation of DNA replication intermediates and NS1 production. Infection with chimeras between NADL-2 and Kresse showed that residues outside the previously described allotropic determinant were also partially responsible for the restriction to Kresse replication in G11 cells. F4 cells were permissive to both strains, although genome replication and infectious virus production were lower than in the porcine cells used for comparison. These results highlight the dependent nature of parvovirus tropism on host factors and suggest that cells from a non-host origin can fully support a productive infection by both strains. PMID:24347493

  14. Cytoplasmic effects on DNA methylation between male sterile line and its maintainer in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice is advantageous over the traditional one on food production, which is important to support the increasing world’s population, especially in the developing countries. Three-line system that has played a major role since the 1970s in rice includes male sterile (A line), its maintainer (B l...

  15. Extent and pattern of DNA methylation alteration in rice lines derived from introgressive hybridization of rice and Zizania latifolia Griseb.

    PubMed

    Dong, Z Y; Wang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Shen, Y; Lin, X Y; Ou, X F; Han, F P; Liu, B

    2006-07-01

    We have reported previously that introgression by Zizania latifolia resulted in extensive DNA methylation changes in the recipient rice genome, as detected by a set of pre-selected DNA segments. In this study, using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method, we globally assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation alterations in three typical introgression lines relative to their rice parent at approximately 2,700 unbiased genomic loci each representing a recognition site cleaved by one or both of the isoschizomers, HpaII/MspI. Based on differential digestion by the isoschizomers, it is estimated that 15.9% of CCGG sites are either fully methylated at the internal Cs and/or hemi-methylated at the external Cs in the rice parental cultivar Matsumae. In comparison, a statistically significant increase in the overall level of both methylation types was detected in all three studied introgression lines (19.2, 18.6, 19.6%, respectively). Based on comparisons of MSAP profiles between the isoschizomers within the rice parent and between parent and the introgression lines, four major groups of MSAP banding patterns are recognized, which can be further divided into various subgroups as a result of inheritance of, or variation in, parental methylation patterns. The altered methylation patterns include hyper- and hypomethylation changes, as well as inter-conversion of hemi- to full-methylation, or vice versa, at the relevant CCGG site(s). Most alterations revealed by MSAP in low-copy loci can be validated by DNA gel blot analysis. The changed methylation patterns are uniform among randomly selected individuals for a given introgression line within or among selfed generations. Sequencing on 31 isolated fragments that showed different changing patterns in the introgression line(s) allowed their mapping onto variable regions on one or more of the 12 rice chromosomes. These segments include protein-coding genes, transposon/retrotransposons and

  16. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gotia, Hanzel T.; Munro, James B.; Knowles, Donald P.; Daubenberger, Claudia A.; Bishop, Richard P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field. PMID:26930209

  17. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Gotia, Hanzel T; Munro, James B; Knowles, Donald P; Daubenberger, Claudia A; Bishop, Richard P; Silva, Joana C

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field. PMID:26930209

  18. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, DNA damage and methylation in mammary and kidney epithelial cell lines exposed to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Giromini, Carlotta; Rebucci, Raffaella; Fusi, Eleonora; Rossi, Luciana; Saccone, Francesca; Baldi, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro damage induced by ochratoxin A (OTA) in BME-UV1 and MDCK epithelial cells. Both cells lines were treated with OTA (0 up to 10 μg/mL), and cell viability (MTT assay), membrane stability (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay) and apoptotic cell rate (Tunel assay) were investigated. Further, the effect of the incubation with OTA has been evaluated at DNA level by the determination of DNA integrity, by the quantification of DNA adduct formation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) and by the assessment of the global DNA methylation status (5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC)). The obtained results showed that after 24 h of OTA treatment, BME-UV1 cell viability was reduced in a dose-dependent way. OTA significantly (P < 0.05) increased LDH release in BME-UV1 cells at all concentrations tested. OTA (1.25 μg/mL) induced 35 % LDH release in MDCK cells (P < 0.05). A significant (P < 0.05) change in percentages of apoptotic BME-UV1 (10 ± 0.86) and MDCK (25 ± 0.88) cells was calculated when the cells were co-incubated with OTA. The level of 8-OHdG adduct formation was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in BME-UV1 cells treated with 1.25 μg/mL of OTA. The results of the present study suggest that a different mechanism of action may occur in these cell lines. Graphical abstract Study results overview. PMID:27154019

  19. Epigenetic reduction of DNA repair in progression to gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Carol; Bernstein, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in DNA repair due to inherited germ-line mutations in DNA repair genes cause increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. In sporadic GI cancers, mutations in DNA repair genes are relatively rare. However, epigenetic alterations that reduce expression of DNA repair genes are frequent in sporadic GI cancers. These epigenetic reductions are also found in field defects that give rise to cancers. Reduced DNA repair likely allows excessive DNA damages to accumulate in somatic cells. Then either inaccurate translesion synthesis past the un-repaired DNA damages or error-prone DNA repair can cause mutations. Erroneous DNA repair can also cause epigenetic alterations (i.e., epimutations, transmitted through multiple replication cycles). Some of these mutations and epimutations may cause progression to cancer. Thus, deficient or absent DNA repair is likely an important underlying cause of cancer. Whole genome sequencing of GI cancers show that between thousands to hundreds of thousands of mutations occur in these cancers. Epimutations that reduce DNA repair gene expression and occur early in progression to GI cancers are a likely source of this high genomic instability. Cancer cells deficient in DNA repair are more vulnerable than normal cells to inactivation by DNA damaging agents. Thus, some of the most clinically effective chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment are DNA damaging agents, and their effectiveness often depends on deficient DNA repair in cancer cells. Recently, at least 18 DNA repair proteins, each active in one of six DNA repair pathways, were found to be subject to epigenetic reduction of expression in GI cancers. Different DNA repair pathways repair different types of DNA damage. Evaluation of which DNA repair pathway(s) are deficient in particular types of GI cancer and/or particular patients may prove useful in guiding choice of therapeutic agents in cancer therapy. PMID:25987950

  20. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  1. Amyloid protein-mediated differential DNA methylation status regulates gene expression in Alzheimer's disease model cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Hye Youn; Choi, Eun Nam; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Oh, Seikwan; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in Alzheimer's disease model cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrated analysis of CpG methylation and mRNA expression profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify three Swedish mutant target genes; CTIF, NXT2 and DDR2 gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Swedish mutation on alteration of DNA methylation and gene expression. -- Abstract: The Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP-sw) has been reported to dramatically increase beta amyloid production through aberrant cleavage at the beta secretase site, causing early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). DNA methylation has been reported to be associated with AD pathogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism of APP-sw-mediated epigenetic alterations in AD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We analyzed genome-wide interplay between promoter CpG DNA methylation and gene expression in an APP-sw-expressing AD model cell line. To identify genes whose expression was regulated by DNA methylation status, we performed integrated analysis of CpG methylation and mRNA expression profiles, and identified three target genes of the APP-sw mutant; hypomethylated CTIF (CBP80/CBP20-dependent translation initiation factor) and NXT2 (nuclear exporting factor 2), and hypermethylated DDR2 (discoidin domain receptor 2). Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine restored mRNA expression of these three genes, implying methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation. The profound alteration in the methylation status was detected at the -435, -295, and -271 CpG sites of CTIF, and at the -505 to -341 region in the promoter of DDR2. In the promoter region of NXT2, only one CpG site located at -432 was differentially unmethylated in APP-sw cells. Thus, we demonstrated the effect of the APP-sw mutation on alteration of DNA methylation and subsequent gene expression. This epigenetic regulatory mechanism may

  2. DNA repair in spermatocytes and spermatids of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    When male mice are exposed to chemical agents that reach the germ cells several outcomes are possible in terms of the germ cell unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) response and removal of DNA adducts. It is possible that: the chemical binds to the DNA and induces a UDS response with concomittant removal of DNA adducts; the chemical binds to the DNA but no UDS response is induced; or the chemical does not bind to DNA and no UDS is induced. Many mutagens have been shown to induce a UDS response in postgonial germ cell stages of the male mouse up through midspermatids, but the relationship between this UDS and the repair of genetic damage within the germ cells is still unknown. While some mutagens appear to have an effect only in germ-cell stages where no UDS occurs, others are able to induce genetic damage in stages where UDS has been induced.

  3. Germ cell quantitation in human testicular biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sinha Hikim, A P; Chakraborty, J; Jhunjhunwala, J S

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of human seminiferous epithelium was carried out using an improved method of glutaraldehyde and osmium fixation with plastic embedding. Part of each biopsy specimen was fixed in Bouin's fixative and embedded in paraffin for comparison. Epon embedded tissue had very little artifactual damage compared with paraffin embedded tissue sections. The germ cell to Sertoli cell ratios were determined by counting the various germ cells per "unit" tubular area. Data obtained by this method reflect a remarkable stability of Sertoli cell number and germ cell-Sertoli cell ratios both between biopsies from different individuals and between biopsies from right and left testes from the same individual. Agreement between the present results and those of earlier studies based on paraffin embedded testicular specimens supports the validity of this method of germ cell quantitation of human testicular biopsy samples. PMID:3927550

  4. Specifying and protecting germ cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Strome, Susan; Updike, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the special cells in the body that undergo meiosis to generate gametes and subsequently entire new organisms after fertilization, a process that continues generation after generation. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the factors and mechanisms that specify germ cell fate, including the partitioning of maternally supplied ‘germ plasm’, inheritance of epigenetic memory and expression of transcription factors crucial for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. Even after PGCs are specified, germline fate is labile and thus requires protective mechanisms, such as global transcriptional repression, chromatin state alteration and translation of only germline-appropriate transcripts. Findings from diverse species continue to provide insights into the shared and divergent needs of these special reproductive cells. PMID:26122616

  5. Sex determination in mammalian germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Cassy M; Bowles, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the precursors of the sperm and oocytes and hence are critical for survival of the species. In mammals, they are specified during fetal life, migrate to the developing gonads and then undergo a critical period during which they are instructed, by the soma, to adopt the appropriate sexual fate. In a fetal ovary, germ cells enter meiosis and commit to oogenesis, whereas in a fetal testis, they avoid entry into meiosis and instead undergo mitotic arrest and mature toward spermatogenesis. Here, we discuss what we know so far about the regulation of sex-specific differentiation of germ cells, considering extrinsic molecular cues produced by somatic cells, as well as critical intrinsic changes within the germ cells. This review focuses almost exclusively on our understanding of these events in the mouse model. PMID:25791730

  6. MedlinePlus: Germs and Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective and most overlooked ways to stop disease. Soap and water work well to kill germs. Wash ... PDF Latest News FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps (09/02/2016, HealthDay) Antibacterial Soap? You Can ...

  7. Defective autophagy through epg5 mutation results in failure to reduce germ plasm and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Herpin, Amaury; Englberger, Eva; Zehner, Mario; Wacker, Robin; Gessler, Manfred; Schartl, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that transports cytoplasmic components to lysosomes for degradation. In addition to the canonical view of strict stress-response-induced autophagy, selectively programmed autophagy was recently reported in the context of gonad development of flies and worms, where autophagy seems to be necessary for clearance of germ plasm components. Similar functions have not been described in vertebrates. We used the medaka fish to study the role of autophagy in gonad formation and gametogenesis for the first time in a vertebrate organism for which the germ line is specified by germ plasm. Using a transgenic line deficient in the Ol-epg5 gene—a new critical component of the autophagy pathway—we show that such deficiency leads to an impaired autophagic flux, possibly attributed to compromised maturation or processing of the autophagosomes. Ol-epg5 deficiency correlates with selectively impaired spermatogenesis and low allele transmission rates of the mutant allele caused by failure of germ plasm and mitochondria clearance during the process of germ cell specification and in the adult gonads. The mouse epg-5 homolog is similarly expressed in the maturating and adult testes, suggesting an at least partially conserved function of this process during spermatogenesis in vertebrates. PMID:26183773

  8. Genetic structure and diversity among maize inbred lines as inferred from DNA microsatellites.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kejun; Goodman, Major; Muse, Spencer; Smith, J Stephen; Buckler, Ed; Doebley, John

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty maize inbred lines, representative of the genetic diversity among essentially all public lines of importance to temperate breeding and many important tropical and subtropical lines, were assayed for polymorphism at 94 microsatellite loci. The 2039 alleles identified served as raw data for estimating genetic structure and diversity. A model-based clustering analysis placed the inbred lines in five clusters that correspond to major breeding groups plus a set of lines showing evidence of mixed origins. A "phylogenetic" tree was constructed to further assess the genetic structure of maize inbreds, showing good agreement with the pedigree information and the cluster analysis. Tropical and subtropical inbreds possess a greater number of alleles and greater gene diversity than their temperate counterparts. The temperate Stiff Stalk lines are on average the most divergent from all other inbred groups. Comparison of diversity in equivalent samples of inbreds and open-pollinated landraces revealed that maize inbreds capture <80% of the alleles in the landraces, suggesting that landraces can provide additional genetic diversity for maize breeding. The contributions of four different segments of the landrace gene pool to each inbred group's gene pool were estimated using a novel likelihood-based model. The estimates are largely consistent with known histories of the inbreds and indicate that tropical highland germplasm is poorly represented in maize inbreds. Core sets of inbreds that capture maximal allelic richness were defined. These or similar core sets can be used for a variety of genetic applications in maize. PMID:14704191

  9. Dissecting Germ Cell Metabolism through Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Leanne S.; Ye, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are increasingly postulated to be vital in programming cell fate, including stemness, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The commitment to meiosis is a critical fate decision for mammalian germ cells, and requires a metabolic derivative of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA). Recent evidence showed that a pulse of RA is generated in the testis of male mice thereby triggering meiotic commitment. However, enzymes and reactions that regulate this RA pulse have yet to be identified. We developed a mouse germ cell-specific metabolic network with a curated vitamin A pathway. Using this network, we implemented flux balance analysis throughout the initial wave of spermatogenesis to elucidate important reactions and enzymes for the generation and degradation of RA. Our results indicate that primary RA sources in the germ cell include RA import from the extracellular region, release of RA from binding proteins, and metabolism of retinal to RA. Further, in silico knockouts of genes and reactions in the vitamin A pathway predict that deletion of Lipe, hormone-sensitive lipase, disrupts the RA pulse thereby causing spermatogenic defects. Examination of other metabolic pathways reveals that the citric acid cycle is the most active pathway. In addition, we discover that fatty acid synthesis/oxidation are the primary energy sources in the germ cell. In summary, this study predicts enzymes, reactions, and pathways important for germ cell commitment to meiosis. These findings enhance our understanding of the metabolic control of germ cell differentiation and will help guide future experiments to improve reproductive health. PMID:26367011

  10. Dissecting Germ Cell Metabolism through Network Modeling.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Leanne S; Ye, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are increasingly postulated to be vital in programming cell fate, including stemness, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The commitment to meiosis is a critical fate decision for mammalian germ cells, and requires a metabolic derivative of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA). Recent evidence showed that a pulse of RA is generated in the testis of male mice thereby triggering meiotic commitment. However, enzymes and reactions that regulate this RA pulse have yet to be identified. We developed a mouse germ cell-specific metabolic network with a curated vitamin A pathway. Using this network, we implemented flux balance analysis throughout the initial wave of spermatogenesis to elucidate important reactions and enzymes for the generation and degradation of RA. Our results indicate that primary RA sources in the germ cell include RA import from the extracellular region, release of RA from binding proteins, and metabolism of retinal to RA. Further, in silico knockouts of genes and reactions in the vitamin A pathway predict that deletion of Lipe, hormone-sensitive lipase, disrupts the RA pulse thereby causing spermatogenic defects. Examination of other metabolic pathways reveals that the citric acid cycle is the most active pathway. In addition, we discover that fatty acid synthesis/oxidation are the primary energy sources in the germ cell. In summary, this study predicts enzymes, reactions, and pathways important for germ cell commitment to meiosis. These findings enhance our understanding of the metabolic control of germ cell differentiation and will help guide future experiments to improve reproductive health. PMID:26367011

  11. [Germs that produce the extended spectrum betalactamases].

    PubMed

    Mahmal, Lahoucine; Loukili, Asmaa; Harif, Mhamed; Quessar, Asmaa; Benbachir, Mohamed; Benchekroun, Said

    2004-11-01

    This retrospective study analyses an epidemic with germs ESBL that supervenes at the department of hematology and pediatric oncology in UHC Ibn Rochd of Casablanca. The responsible germ is the ESBL Escherichia coli. Six patients have been infected during the same period that 2 are female and 4 are male. Five patients had acute lenkemia, one patient had a non Hodgkin's disease. All the patients were in the stage of a deep postchermotherapy neutropenia. The picture of all the patients represented a severe infection with suffered fever and acute diarrhea. Five patients died with apicture of septic shock in the 48 to 72 hours after the beginning of the infection and before the identification of the germ. Their treatment consisted in the third generation of cephalosporin and aminoside. One patient who use the imipeneme more the aminoside has been apyrexized the epidemic and severe situation led to the closing of the unit during a week in order to do a disinfection. After 12 monthes of recession, few isolate episodes of infections with enterobacteries ESBL have observed and controlled. The factors that determine the increase and the diffusion of the ESBL germ are numerous and some of them are still not identified, the means of prevention consisted in: the fight against the selection of the resistant germs, the fight against the colonization of the patients by these germs and their transmission between the patients, this requires measures of hygiene and particularly the washing of the hands. PMID:15822469

  12. Germ Cell-Specific Excision of loxP-Flanked Transgenes in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Naoto; Kume, Sachi; Hattori-Ihara, Shoko; Sadaie, Sakiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2016-04-01

    Cre/loxP-mediated DNA excision in germ cell lineages could contribute substantially to the study of germ cell biology in salmonids, which are emerging as a model species in this field. However, a cell type-specific Cre/loxPsystem has not been successfully developed for any salmonid species. Therefore, we examined the feasibility of Cre/loxP-mediated, germ cell-specific gene excision and transgene activation in rainbow trout. Double-transgenic (wTg) progeny were obtained by mating a transgenic male carryingcrewith a transgenic female carrying thehsc-LRLGgene;crewas driven by rainbow troutvasaregulatory regions and thehsc-LRLGgene was made up of the rainbow troutheat-shock-cognate71promoter, theDsRedgene flanked by twoloxPsites, and theEgfpgene. PCR analysis, fluorescence imaging, and histological analysis revealed that excision of theloxP-flanked sequence and activation ofEgfpoccurred only in germ cells of wTg fish. However, progeny tests revealed that the excision efficiency ofloxP-flanked sequence in germ cells was low (≤3.27%). In contrast, the other wTg fish derived from two differentcre-transgenic males frequently excised theloxP-flanked sequence in germ cells (≤89.25%). Thus, we showed for the first time successful germ cell-specific transgene manipulation via the Cre/loxPsystem in rainbow trout. We anticipate that this technology will be suitable for studies of cell function through cell targeting, cell-linage tracing, and generating cell type-specific conditional gene knockouts and separately for developing sterile rainbow trout in aquaculture. PMID:26911430

  13. Constitutive activation of the ATM/BRCA1 pathway prevents DNA damage-induced apoptosis in 5-azacytidine-resistant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Satoshi; Umezu, Tomohiro; Ohtsuki, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Ohyashiki, Junko H

    2014-06-01

    5-Azacytidine (AZA) exerts its anti-tumor effects by exerting cytotoxicity via its incorporation into RNA and DNA, which causes the reactivation of aberrantly silenced growth-regulatory genes by promoter demethylation, as well as DNA damage. AZA is used for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. However, some patients demonstrate resistance to AZA, the mechanisms of which are not fully elucidated. We therefore sought to better characterize the molecular mechanism of AZA resistance using an in vitro model of AZA resistance. We established AZA-resistant cell lines by exposing the human leukemia cell lines U937 and HL-60 to clinical concentrations of AZA, and characterized these cells. AZA-resistant cells showed a down-regulation of the DNMT3A protein, in correlation with their marked genome-wide DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, genes involved in pyrimidine metabolism were down-regulated in both AZA-resistant cell lines; AZA sensitivity was restored by inhibition of CTP synthase. Of note is that the DNA damage response pathway is constitutively activated in the AZA-resistant cell lines, but not in the parental cell lines. Inhibition of the DNA damage response pathway canceled the AZA resistance, in association with an increase in apoptotic cells. We found that the molecular mechanism underlying AZA resistance involves pyrimidine metabolism and the DNA damage response through ATM kinase. This study therefore sheds light on the mechanisms underlying AZA resistance, and will enable better understanding of AZA resistance in patients undergoing AZA treatment. PMID:24680865

  14. The involvement of a LINE-1 element in a DNA rearrangement upstream of the mdr1a gene in a taxol multidrug-resistant murine cell line.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D; Higman, S M; Hsu, S I; Horwitz, S B

    1992-10-01

    Two closely related but functionally distinct P-glycoprotein isoforms are encoded by the murine multidrug-resistance genes mdr1a and mdr1b. In a series of independently selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) J774.2 cell lines, mdr gene amplification and/or overexpression and overproduction of either the mdr1a or mdr1b products, or both gene products, correlates with the MDR phenotype. To investigate the possibility that mutations in the promoter regions of the mdr1a or mdr1b genes could influence their differential expression, mdr promoter-specific probes were used to detect and map potential structural alterations. An unusual structural rearrangement was found in the 5'-region of the amplified mdr1a allele in J7.T1, a cell line selected with taxol. To characterize this rearrangement, the regulatory regions of the mdr1a and mdr1b genes were analyzed. Whereas no gross structural alterations were detected by Southern blot hybridization using the mdr1b promoter probe, a novel amplified EcoRI fragment was detected by the mdr1a promoter probe. To determine the precise nature of this mutation, an mdr1a 5'-genomic clone was isolated from J7.T1 cells. Sequence analysis revealed an unusual DNA rearrangement consisting of the mdr1b gene, from its fourth intron toward its 3'-end, upstream of an intact mdr1a promoter on the amplified allele. We propose that this event occurred by an unequal sister chromatid exchange that was mediated by LINE-1 repetitive elements. PMID:1356977

  15. Characterization of a T-DNA promoter trap line of Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers a cryptic bi-directional promoter.

    PubMed

    Pratibha, Pritu; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Isha; Kumar, Ravi; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Bhat, Shripad Ramachandra; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

    2013-07-15

    Investigation of the transgenic Arabidopsis promoter trap line GFP-868 that showed GFP expression only in anthers revealed the T-DNA insertion at 461bp upstream to the hypothetical gene At4g10596 with the GFP reporter gene in head-to-head orientation to the At4g10596 gene. The expression of the At4g10596 gene in wild type and in GFP-868 plant homozygous for T-DNA insertion was comparable and found in all tissues tested, while the GFP expression was restricted to anthers of the GFP-868 plants suggesting that the 461bp fragment separating the two genes in the GFP-868 line is functioning as bi-directional promoter. This 461bp fragment was cloned upstream to the GUS gene in two orientations to test for bi-directional promoter activity. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying either of these constructs showed GUS activity in anthers indicating that this fragment behaves as bi-directional promoter specific to anthers. These results were also supported by the presence of cis-acting motifs such as TATA box and POLLEN1LELAT52 (AGAAA) within the 461bp sequence in both orientations. However, transcripts corresponding to the upstream sequences beyond -461 nucleotides were not detected in the wild type suggesting that this 461bp fragment is a cryptic promoter. The significance of the promoter trap approach and the usefulness of this type of promoter are discussed. PMID:23612249

  16. Cross-resistance to UV radiation of a cisplatin-resistant human cell line: Overexpression of cellular factors that recognize UV-modified DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, C.C.; Huang, S.L.; Huang, H.M.; Lin-Chao, S. )

    1991-04-01

    A human cell line selected for cisplatin resistance (CPR) was irradiated with UV light and showed cross-resistance to UV light. Applying a modified chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay, we observed that CPR cells acquired enhanced host cell reactivation of a transfected plasmid carrying UV damage. Gel mobility shift analysis indicated that two nuclear factors that recognize UV-modified DNA were overexpressed in CPR cells. In addition, factors that bind UV-modified DNA were independent from the factors that bind cisplatin-modified DNA. The significance of the identified binding factors, possibly DNA repair enzymes, is discussed.

  17. Brachypodium distachyon T-DNA insertion lines: a model pathosystem to study nonhost resistance to wheat stripe rust

    PubMed Central

    An, Tianyue; Cai, Yanli; Zhao, Suzhen; Zhou, Jianghong; Song, Bo; Bux, Hadi; Qi, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most destructive diseases and can cause severe yield losses in many regions of the world. Because of the large size and complexity of wheat genome, it is difficult to study the molecular mechanism of interaction between wheat and PST. Brachypodium distachyon has become a model system for temperate grasses’ functional genomics research. The phenotypic evaluation showed that the response of Brachypodium distachyon to PST was nonhost resistance (NHR), which allowed us to present this plant-pathogen system as a model to explore the immune response and the molecular mechanism underlying wheat and PST. Here we reported the generation of about 7,000 T-DNA insertion lines based on a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Hundreds of mutants either more susceptible or more resistant to PST than that of the wild type Bd21 were obtained. The three putative target genes, Bradi5g17540, BdMYB102 and Bradi5g11590, of three T-DNA insertion mutants could be involved in NHR of Brachypodium distachyon to wheat stripe rust. The systemic pathologic study of this T-DNA mutants would broaden our knowledge of NHR, and assist in breeding wheat cultivars with durable resistance. PMID:27138687

  18. Uptake, cellular distribution and DNA damage produced by mercuric chloride in a human fetal hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    Bucio, L; García, C; Souza, V; Hernández, E; González, C; Betancourt, M; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M C

    1999-01-25

    A human hepatic cell line (WRL-68 cells) was employed to investigate the uptake of the toxic heavy metal mercury. Hg accumulation in WRL-68 cells is a time and concentration dependent process. A rapid initial phase of uptake was followed by a second slower phase. The transport does not require energy and at low HgCl2 concentrations (<50 microM) Hg transport occurs by temperature-insensitive processes. Subcellular distribution of Hg was: 48% in mitochondria, 38% in nucleus and only 8% in cytosolic fraction and 7% in microsomes. Little is known at the molecular level concerning the genotoxic effects following the acute exposure of eucaryotic cells to low concentrations of Hg. Our results showed that Hg induced DNA single-strand breaks or alkali labile sites using the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay). The percentage of damaged nucleus and the average length of DNA migration increased as metal concentration and time exposure increased. Lipid peroxidation, determined as malondialdehyde production in the presence of thiobarbituric acid, followed the same tendency, increased as HgCl2 concentration and time of exposure increased. DNA damage recovery took 8 h after partial metal removed with PBS-EGTA. PMID:10029678

  19. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi . E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp; Shimizu, Kyoko; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshio; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2006-10-27

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells.

  20. Purification and characterization of an endonuclease specific for apurinic sites in DNA from a permanently established mouse plasmacytoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Nes, I F

    1980-01-01

    An endonuclease specific for apurinic sites in double stranded DNA has been purified 373-fold from the nuclei of mouse plasmacytoma cells (line MPC-11). The enzyme is free of any detectable amounts of aspecific nucleases. The enzyme does not act on methylated or OsO4-treated DNA. However, high doses of UV-light and gamma-rays render the DNA slightly susceptible to endonucleolytic attack, which is believed to be due to depurination of depyrimidination caused by the treatment. The molecular weight of the enzyme is determined to be 28,000 and its apparent Km of the purified enzyme is calculated to be 2.7 nM apurinic sites. The activity is not absolutely dependent upon the presence of Mg2+ in the assay mixture although metal chelating agents such as sodium citrate and EDTA abolish the activity completely. The nuclease was stimulated by moderate concentrations of potassium chloride optimizing at 50 mM, and higher concentrations inhibiting the activity. The pH optimun for the reaction was 9.5. PMID:6253941

  1. Brachypodium distachyon T-DNA insertion lines: a model pathosystem to study nonhost resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    An, Tianyue; Cai, Yanli; Zhao, Suzhen; Zhou, Jianghong; Song, Bo; Bux, Hadi; Qi, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most destructive diseases and can cause severe yield losses in many regions of the world. Because of the large size and complexity of wheat genome, it is difficult to study the molecular mechanism of interaction between wheat and PST. Brachypodium distachyon has become a model system for temperate grasses' functional genomics research. The phenotypic evaluation showed that the response of Brachypodium distachyon to PST was nonhost resistance (NHR), which allowed us to present this plant-pathogen system as a model to explore the immune response and the molecular mechanism underlying wheat and PST. Here we reported the generation of about 7,000 T-DNA insertion lines based on a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Hundreds of mutants either more susceptible or more resistant to PST than that of the wild type Bd21 were obtained. The three putative target genes, Bradi5g17540, BdMYB102 and Bradi5g11590, of three T-DNA insertion mutants could be involved in NHR of Brachypodium distachyon to wheat stripe rust. The systemic pathologic study of this T-DNA mutants would broaden our knowledge of NHR, and assist in breeding wheat cultivars with durable resistance. PMID:27138687

  2. Karyotype and nuclear DNA content of hexa-, octo-, and duodecaploid lines of Bromus subgen. Ceratochloa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The subgenus Ceratochloa of the genus Bromus includes a number of closely related allopolyploid forms or species that present a difficult taxonomic problem. The present work combines data concerning chromosome length, heterochromatin distribution and nuclear genome size of different 6x, 8x and 12x accessions in this subgenus. Special attention is paid to the karyotype structure and genomic constitution of duodecaploid plants recently found in South America. Hexaploid lineages possess six almost indistinguishable genomes and a nuclear DNA content between 12.72 pg and 15.10 pg (mean 1Cx value = 2.32 pg), whereas octoploid lineages contain the same six genomes (AABBCC) plus two that are characterized by longer chromosomes and a greater DNA content (1Cx = 4.47 pg). Two duodecaploid accessions found in South America resemble each other and apparently differ from the North American duodecaploid B. arizonicus as regards chromosome size and nuclear DNA content (40.00 and 40.50 pg vs. 27.59 pg). These observations suggest that the South American duodecaploids represent a separate evolutionary lineage of the B. subgenus Ceratochloa, unrecognized heretofore. PMID:21637516

  3. Small acidic peptides from wheat germ chromatin. I. Isolation and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, L; Castigli, E; Qualadrucci, P; Gianfranceschi, G L; Bramucci, M; Miano, A; Amici, D

    1992-01-01

    RNA synthesis in cell and cell-free systems is inhibited by a family of acidic, low molecular weight chromatin peptides (CPs). These peptides were extracted from deproteinized DNA of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but the low yield of purified material by this procedure hinders efforts aimed at understanding their action mechanism in gene regulation. In this report we describe two purification methods of CPs from an easily available source, wheat germ. A comparison is made between the method starting from deproteinized DNA and the method from purified chromatin. The biological effects (inhibition of L1210 cell growth and DNA in vitro transcription) of CPs from wheat germ together with their chemical characteristics (molecular weight, amino acid composition and presence of phosphoserine) show strong homology with those of CPs from other sources. These results suggest a possible role of these chromatin peptides in controlling gene expression. PMID:1508994

  4. Multiple facets of the DNA damage response contribute to the radioresistance of mouse mesenchymal stromal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sugrue, Tara; Brown, James A L; Lowndes, Noel F; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    The regeneration of the hematopoietic system following total body irradiation is supported by host-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) within the bone marrow. The mechanisms used by MSCs to survive radiation doses that are lethal to the hematopoietic system are poorly understood. The DNA damage response (DDR) represents a cohort of signaling pathways that enable cells to execute biological responses to genotoxic stress. Here, we examine the role of the DDR in mediating the resistance of MSCs to ionizing radiation (IR) treatment using two authentic clonal mouse MSC lines, MS5 and ST2, and primary bulk mouse MSCs. We show that multiple DDR mechanisms contribute to the radio-resistance of MSCs: robust DDR activation via rapid γ-H2AX formation, activation of effective S and G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoints, and efficient repair of IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks. We show that MSCs are intrinsically programmed to maximize survival following IR treatment by expressing high levels of key DDR proteins including ATM, Chk2, and DNA Ligase IV; high levels of the anti-apoptotic, Bcl-2 and Bcl-(XL); and low levels of the pro-apoptotic, Bim and Puma. As a result, we demonstrate that irradiated mouse MSCs withstand IR-induced genotoxic stress, continue to proliferate, and retain their capacity to differentiate long-term along mesenchymal-derived lineages. We have shown, for the first time, that the DDR plays key roles in mediating the radioresistance of mouse MSCs which may have important implications for the study and application of MSCs in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, graft-versus-host disease, and cancer treatment. PMID:22961695

  5. Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

  6. Physical mapping of new DNA probes near the fragile X mutation (FRAXA) by using a panel of cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Suthers, G. K.; Hyland, V. J.; Callen, D. F.; Oberle, I.; Rocchi, M.; Thomas, N. S.; Morris, C. P.; Schwartz, C. E.; Schmidt, M.; Ropers, H. H.; Baker, E.; Oostra, B. A.; Dahl, N.; Wilson, P. J.; Hopwood, J. J.; Sutherland, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is a very common disorder, but there has been little progress toward isolating the fragile X mutation (FRAXA). We describe a panel of 14 somatic cell hybrid lines, lymphoblastoid cell lines, and peripheral lymphocytes with X-chromosome translocation or deletion breakpoints near FRAXA. The locations of the breakpoints were defined with 16 established probes between pX45d (DXS100) and St14–1 (DXS52). Seven of the cell lines had breakpoints between the probes RN1 (DXS369) and U6.2 (DXS304), which flank FRAXA at distances of 3–5 centimorgans. The panel of cell lines was used to localize 16 new DNA probes in this region. Six of the probes–VK16, VK18, VK23, VK24, VK37, and VK47–detected loci near FRAXA, and it was possible to order both the X-chromosome breakpoints and the probes in relation to FRAXA. The order of probes and loci near FRAXA is cen–RN1,VK24–VK47–VK23–VK16,FRAXA–VK21A–VK18–IDS–VK37–U6.2-qter. The breakpoints near FRAXA are sufficiently close together that probes localized with this panel can be linked on a large-scale restriction map by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This panel of cell lines will be valuable in rapidly localizing other probes near FRAXA. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:2378346

  7. Mutagenesis in Oocytes of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. I. Scheduled Synthesis of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA and Unscheduled DNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Mark R.; Lee, William R.

    1983-01-01

    As a model system for studying mutagenesis, the oocyte of Drosophila melanogaster has exhibited considerable complexity. Very few experiments have been conducted on the effect of exposing oocytes to chemical mutagens, presumably due to their lower mutational response relative to sperm and spermatids. This lower response may be due either to a change in probability of mutation induction per adduct due to a change in the type of DNA repair or to a lower dose of the mutagen to the female germ line. To study molecular dosimetry and DNA repair in the oocyte, the large number of intracellular constituents (mtDNA, RNA, nucleic acid precursors and large quantities of proteins and lipids) must be separated from nuclear DNA. In this paper we present results showing reliable separation of such molecules enabling us to detect scheduled nuclear and mitochondrial DNA synthesis. We also, by understanding the precise timing of such events, can detect unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) as a measure of DNA repair. Furthermore, by comparing the UDS results in a repair competent (Ore-R) vs. a repair deficient (mei-9L1 ) strain, we have shown the oocyte capable of DNA repair after treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). We conclude that the important determinant of mutation induction in oocytes after treatment with EMS is the time interval between DNA alkylation and DNA synthesis after fertilization, i.e., the interruption of continuous DNA repair. PMID:17246137

  8. Chromosome site for Epstein-Barr virus DNA in a Burkitt tumor cell line and in lymphocytes growth-transformed in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, A; Ripley, S; Heller, M; Kieff, E

    1983-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome stably persists in latently infected Burkitt tumor cells and growth-transformed B lymphocytes. These cells usually contain multiple copies of episomal viral DNA. Cytological hybridization of recombinant viral DNA fragments to metaphase chromosomes of two latently infected cell lines demonstrates that viral DNA localizes to both chromatids of one homologue of chromosome 1 in Namalwa, a Burkitt tumor cell line, and to both chromatids of one homologue of chromosome 4 in IB4, a cell line with transformed growth properties in vitro. The site of chromosome association remains stable in a clone of IB4 cells. Probes from five separate regions of the EBV genome hybridize to the same chromosome regions. A previously undescribed achromatic site is identified within the region of EBV chromosome cytological hybridization. These observations suggest that most or all of the EBV genome is integrated into the chromosomal DNA of Namalwa and IB4 cells. Although the chromosomal sites of EBV DNA association are among those regions with homology to the EBV IR3 repeated DNA sequence, EBV IR3 did not mediate recombination between EBV and chromosomal DNA. Images PMID:6300885

  9. Characterization of ATM and DNA-PK wild-type and mutant cell lines upon DSB induction in the presence and absence of CK2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Fritz, Gerhard; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2012-02-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is involved in several cellular processes and has lately also been linked to the DNA damage response through phosphorylations and interactions. Herein, we have analysed two sets of mouse cell lines, one pair, which is proficient and deficient in ATM and the other set expressing or lacking a functional catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). Both kinases are implicated in the downstream phosphorylation of the signaling molecules such as BID and AKT1 in response to DNA damage. BID and AKT1 are also targets of CK2, hence the four cell lines were treated with the three established CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBB and resorufin in the absence and presence of the radiomimetic drug neocarzinostatin, which induces DNA double-strand breaks. We show that there are differences with respect to the effect of the CK2 inhibitors on the phosphorylation of AKT1 at S473 and its downstream target GSK3β as well as between the two sets of cell lines. However, no such change was seen with BID phosphorylation. The most notably difference was the higher expression of CK2α' and CK2β in DNA-PKcs defective cells compared to the DNA-PKcs proficient cells. PMID:21993375

  10. Evaluation of the DNA damaging effect of the heat-induced food toxicant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in various cell lines with different activities of sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Durling, Louise J K; Busk, Leif; Hellman, Björn E

    2009-04-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a heat-induced food toxicant present in a vast number of food items, has been suggested to be genotoxic after being bioactivated by the sulfotransferase SULT1A1. The comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damaging effect of HMF in cell lines with different activities of SULT1A1: two human cell lines (Caco-2, low activity; and HEK293, higher activity), one cell line from mouse (L5178Y, no activity) and two cell lines from Chinese hamster (V79, negligible activity; and V79-hP-PST, high activity of human SULT1A1). HMF induced significant DNA damage in all cell lines after 3 h exposure to 100 mM. Most sensitive were V79 and V79-hP-PST where HMF induced significant DNA damage at 25 mM. Consequently, in the present study we have shown that HMF is a DNA damaging agent in vitro independent of the activity of SULT1A1 in the cells. The HMF-induced DNA damage was only observed at rather high concentrations which usually was associated with a concomitant decrease in cell viability. PMID:19271322

  11. Genomic Landscape of Developing Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tin-Lap; Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. This process involves many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products whose expressions are strictly regulated. In the past decade the advent of high-throughput gene expression analytical techniques has made functional genomic studies of this process, particularly in model animals such as mice and rats, feasible and practical. These studies have just begun to reveal the complexity of the genomic landscape of the developing male germ cells. Over 50% of the mouse and rat genome are expressed during testicular development. Among transcripts present in germ cells, 40% – 60% are uncharacterized. A number of genes, and consequently their associated biological pathways, are differentially expressed at different stages of spermatogenesis. Developing male germ cells present a rich repertoire of genetic processes. Tissue-specific as well as spermatogenesis stage-specific alternative splicing of genes exemplifies the complexity of genome expression. In addition to this layer of control, discoveries of abundant presence of antisense transcripts, expressed psuedogenes, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) including long ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and retrogenes all point to the presence of multiple layers of expression and functional regulation in male germ cells. It is anticipated that application of systems biology approaches will further our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis.† PMID:19306351

  12. Primordial germ cell biology at the beginning of the XXI century.

    PubMed

    De Felici, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    At the XIV Workshop on the Development and Function of the Reproductive Organs held at the Congress Centre of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Monteporzio Catone, Rome, Italy, the introduction to the first session entitled Mammalian primordial germ cells dedicated to the memory of Anne McLaren, was the occasion for a concise review of the state of art of research on the biology of primordial germ cells (PGCs). This great, unforgettable scientist, who died in a car accident in July 2007, dedicated most of her studies to this field over the last 25 years. Topics briefly reviewed in this Meeting Report are: 1) how the germ line is determined; 2) what are the mechanisms underlying PGC migration; 3) to what extent PGC survival, proliferation and differentiation are cell autonomous or environmentally controlled processes and 4) how the potential for totipotency is retained in PGCs. PMID:19598110

  13. TOPAZ1, a Novel Germ Cell-Specific Expressed Gene Conserved during Evolution across Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Adrienne; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Volff, Jean Nicolas; Luangpraseuth, Alix; Poumerol, Elodie; Thépot, Dominique; Pailhoux, Eric; Livera, Gabriel; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pépin, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    Background We had previously reported that the Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) approach was relevant for the isolation of new mammalian genes involved in oogenesis and early follicle development. Some of these transcripts might be potential new oocyte and granulosa cell markers. We have now characterized one of them, named TOPAZ1 for the Testis and Ovary-specific PAZ domain gene. Principal Findings Sheep and mouse TOPAZ1 mRNA have 4,803 bp and 4,962 bp open reading frames (20 exons), respectively, and encode putative TOPAZ1 proteins containing 1,600 and 1653 amino acids. They possess PAZ and CCCH domains. In sheep, TOPAZ1 mRNA is preferentially expressed in females during fetal life with a peak during prophase I of meiosis, and in males during adulthood. In the mouse, Topaz1 is a germ cell-specific gene. TOPAZ1 protein is highly conserved in vertebrates and specifically expressed in mouse and sheep gonads. It is localized in the cytoplasm of germ cells from the sheep fetal ovary and mouse adult testis. Conclusions We have identified a novel PAZ-domain protein that is abundantly expressed in the gonads during germ cell meiosis. The expression pattern of TOPAZ1, and its high degree of conservation, suggests that it may play an important role in germ cell development. Further characterization of TOPAZ1 may elucidate the mechanisms involved in gametogenesis, and particularly in the RNA silencing process in the germ line. PMID:22069478

  14. Assessing Human Germ-Cell Mutagenesis in the Postgenome Era: A Celebration of the Legacy of William Lawson (Bill) Russell

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Mulvihill, John J.; Wassom, John S.; Malling, Heinrich V.; Shelby, Michael D.; Lewis, Susan E.; Witt, Kristine L.; Preston, R. Julian; Perreault, Sally D.; Allen, James W.; DeMarini, David M.; Woychik, Richard P.; Bishop, Jack B.

    2007-01-01

    Birth defects, de novo genetic diseases, and chromosomal abnormality syndromes occur in ~5% of all live births, and affected children suffer from a broad range of lifelong health consequences. Despite the social and medical impact of these defects, and the 8 decades of research in animal systems that have identified numerous germ-cell mutagens, no human germ-cell mutagen has been confirmed to date. There is now a growing consensus that the inability to detect human germ-cell mutagens is due to technological limitations in the detection of random mutations rather than biological differences between animal and human susceptibility. A multidisciplinary workshop responding to this challenge convened at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the applicability of an emerging repertoire of genomic technologies to studies of human germ-cell mutagenesis. Workshop participants recommended large-scale human germ-cell mutation studies be conducted using samples from donors with high-dose exposures, such as cancer survivors. Within this high-risk cohort, parents and children could be evaluated for heritable changes in (a) DNA sequence and chromosomal structure, (b) repeat sequences and minisatellites, and (c) global gene expression profiles and pathways. Participants also advocated the establishment of a bio-bank of human tissue samples from donors with well-characterized exposure, including medical and reproductive histories. This mutational resource could support large-scale, multiple-endpoint studies. Additional studies could involve the examination of transgenerational effects associated with changes in imprinting and methylation patterns, nucleotide repeats, and mitochondrial DNA mutations. The further development of animal models and the integration of these with human studies are necessary to provide molecular insights into the mechanisms of germ-cell mutations and to identify prevention strategies. Furthermore, scientific

  15. Induced and constitutive DNA methylation in a salinity-tolerant wheat introgression line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Qin, Lumin; Xie, Chao; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jiarui; Kong, Lina; Yu, Wenlong; Xia, Guangmin; Liu, Shuwei

    2014-07-01

    Cytosine methylation is a well recognized epigenetic mark. Here, the methylation status of a salinity-tolerant wheat cultivar (cv. SR3, derived from a somatic hybridization event) and its progenitor parent (cv. JN177) was explored both globally and within a set of 24 genes responsive to salinity stress. A further comparison was made between DNA extracted from plants grown under control conditions and when challenged by salinity stress. The SR3 and JN177 genomes differed with respect to their global methylation level, and methylation levels were reduced by exposure to salinity stress. We found the genetic stress- (triggered by a combination of different genomes in somatic hybridization) induced methylation pattern of 13 loci in non-stressed SR3; the same 13 loci were found to undergo methylation in salinity-stressed JN177. For the salinity-responsive genes, SR3 and JN177 also showed different methylation modifications. C methylation polymorphisms induced by salinity stress were present in both the promoter and coding regions of some of the 24 selected genes, but only the former were associated with changes in transcript abundance. The expression of both TaFLS1 (encoding a flavonol synthase) and TaWRSI5 (encoding a Bowman-Birk-type protease inhibitor), which showed both a different expression and a different DNA methylation level between SR3 and JN177, enhanced the salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. C methylation changes appear to be a common component of the plant response to stress, and methylation changes triggered by somatic hybridization may contribute to the superior salinity tolerance of SR3. PMID:24793752

  16. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  17. Germ cell binding to rat Sertoli cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    DePhilip, R.M.; Danahey, D.G.

    1987-12-01

    The interaction between male germ cells and Sertoli cells was studied in vitro by co-incubation experiments using isolated rat germ cells and primary cultures of Sertoli cells made germ cell-free by the differential sensitivity of germ cells to hypotonic shock. The germ cell/Sertoli cell interaction was examined morphologically with phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy and then quantified by measuring radioactivity bound to Sertoli cell cultures after co-incubation with added (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled germ cells. Germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was the result of specific adhesion between these two cell types, and several features of this specific adhesion were observed. First, germ cells adhered to Sertoli cell cultures under conditions during which spleen cells and red blood cells did not. Second, germ cells had a greater affinity for Sertoli cell cultures than they had for cultures of testicular peritubular cells or cerebellar astrocytes. Third, germ cells fixed with paraformaldehyde adhered to live Sertoli cultures while similarly fixed spleen cells adhered less tightly. Neither live nor paraformaldehyde-fixed germ cells adhered to fixed Sertoli cell cultures. Fourth, germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was not immediate but increased steadily and approached a maximum at 4 h of co-incubation. Saturation of germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures occurred when more than 4200 germ cells were added per mm2 of Sertoli cell culture surface. Finally, germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was eliminated when co-incubation was performed on ice. Based on these observations, we concluded that germ cell adhesion to Sertoli cells was specific, temperature-dependent, and required a viable Sertoli cell but not necessarily a viable germ cell.

  18. "Life in a Germ-Free World":

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Robert G. W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This article examines a specific technology, the germ-free "isolator," tracing its development across three sites: (1) the laboratory for the production of standard laboratory animals, (2) agriculture for the efficient production of farm animals, and (3) the hospital for the control and prevention of cross-infection and the protection of individuals from infection. Germ-free technology traveled across the laboratory sciences, clinical and veterinary medicine, and industry, yet failed to become institutionalized outside the laboratory. That germ-free technology worked was not at issue. Working, however, was not enough. Examining the history of a technology that failed to find widespread application reveals the labor involved in aligning cultural, societal, and material factors necessary for successful medical innovation. PMID:23000838

  19. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Kashiani, Pedram; Saleh, Ghizan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Selamat, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity coefficient (Nei), Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703), while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456). Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10. PMID:23055801

  20. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Kashiani, Pedram; Saleh, Ghizan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Selamat, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I) and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei), Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703), while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456). Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10. PMID:23055801

  1. Gene expression classification using epigenetic features and DNA sequence composition in the human embryonic stem cell line H1.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Xia; Li, Qian-Zhong; Zhang, Lu-Qiang; Fan, Guo-Liang; Wu, Cheng-Yan; Yan, Zhen-He; Zuo, Yong-Chun

    2016-10-30

    Epigenetic factors are known to correlate with gene expression in the existing studies. However, quantitative models that accurately classify the highly and lowly expressed genes based on epigenetic factors are currently lacking. In this study, a new machine learning method combines histone modifications, DNA methylation, DNA accessibility, transcription factors, and trinucleotide composition with support vector machines (SVM) is developed in the context of human embryonic stem cell line (H1). The results indicate that the predictive accuracy will be markedly improved when the epigenetic features are considered. The predictive accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient of the best model are as high as 95.96% and 0.92 for 10-fold cross-validation test, and 95.58% and 0.92 for independent dataset test, respectively. Our model provides a good way to judge a gene is either highly or lowly expressed gene by using genetic and epigenetic data, when the expression data of the gene is lacking. And a web-server GECES for our analysis method is established at http://202.207.14.87:8032/fuwu/GECES/index.asp, so that other scientists can easily get their desired results by our web-server, without going through the mathematical details. PMID:27468948

  2. Energy, ageing, fidelity and sex: oocyte mitochondrial DNA as a protected genetic template.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Wilson B M; Lucas, Cathy H; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Allen, John F

    2013-07-19

    Oxidative phosphorylation couples ATP synthesis to respiratory electron transport. In eukaryotes, this coupling occurs in mitochondria, which carry DNA. Respiratory electron transport in the presence of molecular oxygen generates free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mutagenic. In animals, mutational damage to mitochondrial DNA therefore accumulates within the lifespan of the individual. Fertilization generally requires motility of one gamete, and motility requires ATP. It has been proposed that oxidative phosphorylation is nevertheless absent in the special case of quiescent, template mitochondria, that these remain sequestered in oocytes and female germ lines and that oocyte mitochondrial DNA is thus protected from damage, but evidence to support that view has hitherto been lacking. Here we show that female gametes of Aurelia aurita, the common jellyfish, do not transcribe mitochondrial DNA, lack electron transport, and produce no free radicals. In contrast, male gametes actively transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory chain components and produce ROS. Electron microscopy shows that this functional division of labour between sperm and egg is accompanied by contrasting mitochondrial morphology. We suggest that mitochondrial anisogamy underlies division of any animal species into two sexes with complementary roles in sexual reproduction. We predict that quiescent oocyte mitochondria contain DNA as an unexpressed template that avoids mutational accumulation by being transmitted through the female germ line. The active descendants of oocyte mitochondria perform oxidative phosphorylation in somatic cells and in male gametes of each new generation, and the mutations that they accumulated are not inherited. We propose that the avoidance of ROS-dependent mutation is the evolutionary pressure underlying maternal mitochondrial inheritance and the developmental origin of the female germ line. PMID:23754815

  3. Energy, ageing, fidelity and sex: oocyte mitochondrial DNA as a protected genetic template

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Wilson B. M.; Lucas, Cathy H.; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A.; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Allen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation couples ATP synthesis to respiratory electron transport. In eukaryotes, this coupling occurs in mitochondria, which carry DNA. Respiratory electron transport in the presence of molecular oxygen generates free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mutagenic. In animals, mutational damage to mitochondrial DNA therefore accumulates within the lifespan of the individual. Fertilization generally requires motility of one gamete, and motility requires ATP. It has been proposed that oxidative phosphorylation is nevertheless absent in the special case of quiescent, template mitochondria, that these remain sequestered in oocytes and female germ lines and that oocyte mitochondrial DNA is thus protected from damage, but evidence to support that view has hitherto been lacking. Here we show that female gametes of Aurelia aurita, the common jellyfish, do not transcribe mitochondrial DNA, lack electron transport, and produce no free radicals. In contrast, male gametes actively transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory chain components and produce ROS. Electron microscopy shows that this functional division of labour between sperm and egg is accompanied by contrasting mitochondrial morphology. We suggest that mitochondrial anisogamy underlies division of any animal species into two sexes with complementary roles in sexual reproduction. We predict that quiescent oocyte mitochondria contain DNA as an unexpressed template that avoids mutational accumulation by being transmitted through the female germ line. The active descendants of oocyte mitochondria perform oxidative phosphorylation in somatic cells and in male gametes of each new generation, and the mutations that they accumulated are not inherited. We propose that the avoidance of ROS-dependent mutation is the evolutionary pressure underlying maternal mitochondrial inheritance and the developmental origin of the female germ line. PMID:23754815

  4. Increased γ-H2AX and Rad51 DNA Repair Biomarker Expression in Human Cell Lines Resistant to the Chemotherapeutic Agents Nitrogen Mustard and Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Adam-Zahir, Sheba; Plowman, Piers N; Bourton, Emma C; Sharif, Fariha; Parris, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs mediate cytotoxicity by a number of mechanisms. However, alkylating agents which induce DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL) are amongst the most effective anticancer agents and often form the mainstay of many anticancer therapies. The effectiveness of these drugs can be limited by the development of drug resistance in cancer cells and many studies have demonstrated that alterations in DNA repair kinetics are responsible for drug resistance. In this study we developed two cell lines resistant to the alkylating agents nitrogen mustard (HN2) and cisplatin (Pt). To determine if drug resistance was associated with enhanced ICL DNA repair we used immunocytochemistry and imaging flow cytometry to quantitate the number of γ-H2AX and Rad51 foci in the nuclei of cells after drug exposure. γ-H2AX was used to evaluate DNA strand breaks caused by repair incision nucleases and Rad51 was used to measure the activity of homologous recombination in the repair of ICL. In the drug-resistant derivative cell lines there was overall a significant increase in the number and persistence of both γ-H2AX and Rad51 foci in the nuclei of cells over a 72-hour period, when compared to the non-resistant parental cell lines (ANOVA p < 0.0001). In a Pt-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (A2780cis(R)) a similar enhancement of DNA repair was observed when compared to the non-drug-resistant wild-type ovarian cancer cells (A2780) following exposure to HN2. Our data suggest that using DNA repair biomarkers to evaluate mechanisms of resistance in cancer cell lines and human tumours may be of experimental and clinical benefit. We concede, however, that examination of a larger population of cell lines and tumours is required to fully evaluate the validity of this approach. PMID:26138778

  5. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  6. A distinct group of CpG islands shows differential DNA methylation between replicas of the same cell line in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background CpG dinucleotide-rich genomic DNA regions, known as CpG islands (CGIs), can be methylated at their cytosine residues as an epigenetic mark that is stably inherited during cell mitosis. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are genomic regions showing different degrees of DNA methylation in multiple samples. In this study, we focused our attention on CGIs showing different DNA methylation between two culture replicas of the same cell line. Results We used methylation data of 35 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium to identify CpG islands that were differentially methylated between replicas of the same cell line and denoted them Inter Replicas Differentially Methylated CpG islands (IRDM-CGIs). We identified a group of IRDM-CGIs that was consistently shared by different cell lines, and denoted it common IRDM-CGIs. X chromosome CGIs were overrepresented among common IRDM-CGIs. Autosomal IRDM-CGIs were preferentially located in gene bodies and intergenic regions had a lower G + C content, a smaller mean length, and a reduced CpG percentage. Functional analysis of the genes associated with autosomal IRDM-CGIs showed that many of them are involved in DNA binding and development. Conclusions Our results show that several specific functional and structural features characterize common IRDM-CGIs. They may represent a specific subset of CGIs that are more prone to being differentially methylated for their intrinsic characteristics. PMID:24106769

  7. General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Go to ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  8. Tools for the genetic analysis of germ cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Shirley S; Matin, Angabin

    2009-09-01

    Germ cells are essential for the propagation of individual species. Studies on germ cell development in mice highlight important biological paradigms. Beginning with their first appearance around embryonic day 7 (E7), germ cells undergo specific cellular changes at different stages of their embryonic and adult development. Germ cells migrate through the hind-regions of the embryo to eventually home into the developing gonads. Further differentiation and development of germ cells differ in males and females. The processes involved in germ cell development and their eventual differentiation into sperm and oocytes have been under extensive investigation in recent years. Studies on germ cells have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes involved in their specification, migration, proliferation, death, and differentiation. These studies have also revealed much about maintenance of stem cell populations and fertility. Here we review the genetic tools that are at present available to study germ cells in the mouse. PMID:19548313

  9. GERM as a tool for space station documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, Ken; Hardwick, Charles

    1990-01-01

    GERM as a tool for space station documentation is presented in the form of viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: problem statement, hypermedia as a tool for documentation, description of GERM, technical approach, application development, and results and conclusions.

  10. Dynamics of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine during germ cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Hong, Kwonho; Liu, Rui; Inoue, Azusa; Shen, Li; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yi

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have revealed that mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming to reset the epigenome for totipotency. However, the precise 5-methylcytosine (5mC) dynamics and its relationship with the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are not clear. Here we analyzed the dynamics of 5mC and 5hmC during PGC reprograming and germ cell development. Unexpectedly, we found a specific period (E8.5-9.5) during which both 5mC and 5hmC levels are low. Subsequently, 5hmC levels increase reaching its peak at E11.5 and gradually decrease until E13.5 likely by replication-dependent dilution. Interestingly, 5hmC is enriched in chromocenters during this period. While this germ cell-specific 5hmC subnuclear localization pattern is maintained in female germ cells even in mature oocytes, such pattern is gradually lost in male germ cells as mitotic proliferation resumes during the neonatal stage. Pericentric 5hmC plays an important role in silencing major satellite repeat, especially in female PGCs. Global transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq revealed that the great majority of differentially expressed genes from E9.5 to 13.5 are upregulated in both male and female PGCs. Although only female PGCs enter meiosis during the prenatal stage, meiosis-related and a subset of imprinted genes are significantly upregulated in both male and female PGCs at E13.5. Thus, our study not only reveals the dynamics of 5mC and 5hmC during PGC reprogramming and germ cell development, but also their potential role in epigenetic reprogramming and transcriptional regulation of meiotic and imprinted genes. PMID:23399596

  11. Reproductive Toxicity of Endosulfan: Implication From Germ Cell Apoptosis Modulated by Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Genotoxic Response Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hua; Wang, Meimei; Wang, Lei; Dai, Hui; Wang, Min; Hong, Wei; Nie, Xinxin; Wu, Lijun; Xu, An

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan as a new member of persistent organic pollutants has been shown to induce reproductive dysfunction in various animal models. However, the action mechanism of endosulfan-produced reproductive toxicity remains largely unknown. This study was focused on investigating the reproductive toxicity induced by α-endosulfan and clarifying the role of mitochondria and genotoxic response genes in germ cell apoptosis of Caenorhabditis elegans. Our data showed that endosulfan induced a dose-dependent decrease of life span, fecundity, and hatchability, whereas the germ cell apoptosis was dose-dependently increased. The mitochondria membrane potential was disrupted by endosulfan, leading to a significant increase of germ cell apoptosis in mev-1(kn-1) mutant. However, the apoptotic effects of endosulfan were blocked in mutants of cep-1(w40), egl-1(n487), and hus-1(op241), indicating conserved genotoxic response genes played an essential role in endosulfan-induced germ cell apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure to endosulfan induced the accumulation of HUS-1::GFP foci and the germ cell cycle arrest. These findings provided clear evidence that endosulfan caused significant adverse effects on the reproduction system of C. elegans and increased germ cell apoptosis, which was regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage response genes. This study may help to understand the signal transduction pathways involved in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:25666835

  12. Identification of homologous pairing and strand-exchange activity from a human tumor cell line based on Z-DNA affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Fishel, R.A.; Detmer, K.; Rich, A.

    1988-01-01

    An enzymatic activity that catalyzes ATP-dependent homologous pairing and strand exchange of duplex linear DNA and single-stranded circular DNA has been purified several thousand-fold from a human leukemic T-lymphoblast cell line. The activity was identified after chromatography of nuclear proteins on a Z-DNA column matrix. The reaction was shown to transfer the complementary single strand from a donor duplex linear substrate to a viral circular single-stranded acceptor beginning at the 5' end and proceeding in the 3' direction. Products of the strand-transfer reaction were characterized by electron microscopy. A 74-kDa protein was identified as the major ATP-binding peptide in active strand transferase fractions. The protein preparation described in this report binds more strongly to Z-DNA than to B-DNA.

  13. The DNA of ciliated protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, D M

    1994-01-01

    Ciliates contain two types of nuclei: a micronucleus and a macronucleus. The micronucleus serves as the germ line nucleus but does not express its genes. The macronucleus provides the nuclear RNA for vegetative growth. Mating cells exchange haploid micronuclei, and a new macronucleus develops from a new diploid micronucleus. The old macronucleus is destroyed. This conversion consists of amplification, elimination, fragmentation, and splicing of DNA sequences on a massive scale. Fragmentation produces subchromosomal molecules in Tetrahymena and Paramecium cells and much smaller, gene-sized molecules in hypotrichous ciliates to which telomere sequences are added. These molecules are then amplified, some to higher copy numbers than others. rDNA is differentially amplified to thousands of copies per macronucleus. Eliminated sequences include transposonlike elements and sequences called internal eliminated sequences that interrupt gene coding regions in the micronuclear genome. Some, perhaps all, of these are excised as circular molecules and destroyed. In at least some hypotrichs, segments of some micronuclear genes are scrambled in a nonfunctional order and are recorded during macronuclear development. Vegetatively growing ciliates appear to possess a mechanism for adjusting copy numbers of individual genes, which corrects gene imbalances resulting from random distribution of DNA molecules during amitosis of the macronucleus. Other distinctive features of ciliate DNA include an altered use of the conventional stop codons. Images PMID:8078435

  14. MAD2γ, a novel MAD2 isoform, reduces mitotic arrest and is associated with resistance in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Ramírez-Otero, Miguel; Díaz-Chávez, José; Cáceres-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo; Justo-Garrido, Monserrat; Andonegui, Marco A.; Mendoza, Julia; Downie-Ruíz, Ángela; Cortés-González, Carlo; Reynoso, Nancy; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Santibáñez, Miguel; Fabián-Morales, Eunice; Pruefer, Franz; Luna-Maldonado, Fernando; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Herrera, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Prolonged mitotic arrest in response to anti-cancer chemotherapeutics, such as DNA-damaging agents, induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Disruptions in mitotic checkpoints contribute resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer. MAD2 has been associated with checkpoint failure and chemotherapy response. In this study, a novel splice variant of MAD2, designated MAD2γ, was identified, and its association with the DNA damage response was investigated. Methods: Endogenous expression of MAD2γ and full-length MAD2 (MAD2α) was measured using RT-PCR in cancer cell lines, normal foreskin fibroblasts, and tumor samples collected from patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). A plasmid expressing MAD2γ was transfected into HCT116 cells, and its intracellular localization and checkpoint function were evaluated according to immunofluorescence and mitotic index. Results: MAD2γ was expressed in several cancer cell lines and non-cancerous fibroblasts. Ectopically expressed MAD2γ localized to the nucleus and reduced the mitotic index, suggesting checkpoint impairment. In patients with TGCTs, the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, was associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Likewise, cisplatin induced the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, in HCT116 cells. Conclusions: Overexpression of MAD2γ may play a role in checkpoint disruption and is associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in TGCTs. PMID:27315568

  15. Germ plasm biogenesis –an Oskar-centric perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Germ granules are the hallmark of all germ cells. These membrane-less, electron-dense structures were first observed over 100 years ago. Today, their role in regulating and processing transcripts critical for the establishment, maintenance and protection of germ cells is well-established and pathways outlining the biochemical mechanisms and physical properties associated with their biogenesis are emerging. PMID:26970648

  16. Improvement of dry fractionation ethanol fermentation by partial germ supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol fermentation of dry fractionated grits (corn endosperm pieces) containing different levels of germ was studied using the dry grind process. Partial removal of germ fraction allows for marketing the germ fraction and potentially more efficient fermentation. Grits obtained from a dry milling p...

  17. Evaluation of corn germ meal as extender in plywood adhesive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. Partially defatted dried corn germ, containing 2.1% (dry basis, db) crude oil and 24.7% (db) crude protein, was ground to 40-mesh particle size. The corn germ meal was then substituted (on...

  18. Characterization of the functional properties of carob germ proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins from the carob germ were identified as having gluten-like proteins in 1935. While some biochemical characterization of carob germ proteins and their functionality has been carried out, relatively little has been done when compared to proteins such as gluten. Carob germ proteins were separ...

  19. UTILIZING CORN GERM MEAL IN PLYWOOD GLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from cereal and soybean processing. We were previously successful in formulating a s...

  20. Direct exposure of mouse ovaries and oocytes to high doses of an adenovirus gene therapy vector fails to lead to germ cell transduction.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J W

    2001-04-01

    The risk of insertion of adenovirus gene therapy DNA into female germ cells during the course of somatic gene therapy was stringently tested in the mouse by injecting up to 10(10) infectious particles directly into the ovary and by incubating naked oocytes in a solution of 2 x 10(8) particles/ml for 1 h prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF). The vector used was a recombinant adenovirus carrying the bacterial lacZ gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (Adbeta-gal). Ovaries were stained for LacZ activity, or immunochemically for LacZ, 5-7 days after injection. Although very large amounts of LacZ activity and protein were detected, all positive staining was in the thecal portion of the ovary, with no staining seen in oocytes. In another series of experiments, mice with injected ovaries were mated, and preimplantation embryos or fetuses were analyzed either for LacZ expression or by PCR for lacZ DNA. None of 202 preimplantation embryos stained positively for LacZ and none of 58 fetuses were positive for DNA by PCR analysis. Finally, more than 1400 eggs were fertilized after exposure to the vector prior to IVF and stained as morulae for LacZ activity. Fewer than 2% of the embryos stained positively for LacZ, and experiments indicated that the staining was due to incomplete washing of the eggs prior to IVF. These data provide strong evidence that adenoviruses cannot infect oocytes and that the risk of female germ-line transduction with such vectors is very low. PMID:11319918

  1. An integrated epigenetic and genetic analysis of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMTs) in tumor resistant and susceptible chicken lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both epigenetic alterations and genetic variations play essential roles in tumorigenesis. The epigenetic modification of DNA methylation is catalyzed and maintained by the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT3a, DNMT3b and DNMT1). DNA mutations and DNA methylation profiles of DNMTs themselves and their rela...

  2. Induction of epstein-barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle in vitro causes lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage in lymphoblastoid B cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the oxidative modifications of lipids, proteins and DNA, potential molecular targets of oxidative stress, in two lymphoblastoid cell lines: B95-8 and Raji, after EBV lytic cycle induction. Conjugated dienes level was measured as biomarker of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde adduct and protein carbonyl levels, as well as protein thiol levels were measured as biomarkers of protein oxidation. DNA fragmentation was evaluated as biomarker of DNA oxidation. Results After 48 h (peak of lytic cycle), a significant increase in conjugated dienes level was observed in B95-8 and Raji cell lines (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.019 respectively). Malondialdehyde adduct, protein carbonyl levels were increased in B95-8 and Raji cell lines after EBV lytic cycle induction as compared to controls (MDA-adduct: p = 0.008 and p = 0.006 respectively; Carbonyl: p = 0.003 and p = 0.0039 respectively). Proteins thiol levels were decreased by induction in B95-8 and Raji cell lines (p = 0.046; p = 0.002 respectively). DNA fragmentation was also detected in B95-8 and Raji cell lines after EBV lytic cycle induction as compared to controls. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the presence of increased combined oxidative modifications in lipids, proteins in B95-8 and Raji cells lines after EBV lytic cycle induction. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation are generally induced during EBV lytic cycle induction and probably contribute to the cytopathic effect of EBV. PMID:21722381

  3. R1 and R2 retrotransposition and deletion in the rDNA loci on the X and Y chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, César E; Burke, William D; Eickbush, Thomas H

    2003-01-01

    The non-LTR retrotransposons R1 and R2 insert into the 28S rRNA genes of arthropods. Comparisons among Drosophila lineages have shown that these elements are vertically inherited, while studies within species have indicated a rapid turnover of individual copies (elimination of old copies and the insertion of new copies). To better understand the turnover of R1 and R2, 200 retrotranspositions and nearly 100 eliminations have been scored in the Harwich mutation-accumulation lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Because the rDNA arrays in D. melanogaster are present on the X and Y chromosomes and no exchanges were detected in these lines, it was possible to show that R1 retrotranspositions occur predominantly in the male germ line, while R2 retrotranspositions were more evenly divided between the germ lines of both sexes. The rate of elimination of elements from the Y rDNA array was twice that of the X rDNA array with both chromosomal loci containing regions where the rate of elimination was on average eight times higher. Most R1 and R2 eliminations appear to occur by large intrachromosomal events (i.e., loop-out events) that involve multiple rDNA units. These findings are interpreted in light of the known abundance of R1 and R2 elements in the X and Y rDNA loci of D. melanogaster. PMID:14573479

  4. Activity of nintedanib in germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, Gustav; Jacobsen, Christine; Gerwing, Mirjam; Hauschild, Jessica; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Höpfner, Michael; Nitzsche, Bianca; Honecker, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most frequent malignancy in male patients between 15 and 45 years of age. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy shows excellent cure rates, but patients with cisplatin-resistant GCTs have a poor prognosis. Nintedanib (BIBF 1120, Vargatef) inhibits the receptor classes vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor, and has shown activity against many tumors, as well as in idiopathic lung fibrosis and bleomycin-induced lung injury. Here, we investigated the antineoplastic and antiangiogenic properties of nintedanib in cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive GCT cells, both alone and in combination with classical cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of nintedanib was 4.5 ± 0.43 μmol/l, 3.1 ± 0.45 μmol/l, and 3.6 ± 0.33 μmol/l in cisplatin-sensitive NTERA2, 2102Ep, and NCCIT cells, whereas the IC50 doses of the cisplatin-resistant counterparts were 6.6 ± 0.37 μmol/l (NTERA2-R), 4.5 ± 0.83 μmol/l (2102Ep-R), and 6.1 ± 0.41 μmol/l (NCCIT-R), respectively. Single treatment with nintedanib induced apoptosis and resulted in a sustained reduction in the capacity of colony formation in both cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant GCT cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that nintedanib induced a strong G0/G1-phase arrest in all investigated cell lines. Combination treatment with cisplatin did not result in additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects. The in-vivo activity was studied using the chorioallantoic membrane assay and indicated the antiangiogenic potency of nintedanib with markedly reduced microvessel density. Topical treatment of inoculated tumor plaques resulted in a significant reduction of the tumor size. This indicates that nintedanib might be a promising substance in the treatment of GCT. PMID:26479145

  5. Sufficient Numbers of Early Germ Cells Are Essential for Female Sex Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiangyan; Jin, Xia; Chen, Xiaowen; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    The sex determination for zebrafish is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The determination of sex in zebrafish has been suggested to rely on a mechanism that is affected by germ cell-derived signals. To begin our current study, a simplified and efficient germ cell-specific promoter of the dead end (dnd) gene was identified. Utilizing the metrodinazole (MTZ)/ bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) system for inducible germ cell ablation, several stable Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP-3'UTR) and Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP+3'UTR) zebrafish lines were then generated with the identified promoter. A thorough comparison of the expression patterns and tissue distributions of endogenous dnd and ntr-egfp transcripts in vivo revealed that the identified 2032-bp zebrafish dnd promoter can recapitulate dnd expression faithfully in stable transgenic zebrafish. The correlation between the levels of the germ cell-derived signals and requirement for maintaining the female fate has been also explored with different durations of the MTZ treatments. Our results revealed the decreasing ratios of female presented in the treated transgenic group are fairly associated with the reducing levels of the early germ cell-derived signals. After the juvenile transgenic fish treated with 5 mM MTZ for 20 days, all MTZ-treated transgenic fish exclusively developed into males with subfertilities. Taken together, our results identified here a simplified and efficient dnd promoter, and provide clear evidence indicating that it was not the presence but the sufficiency of signals derived from germ cells that is essential for female sex development in zebrafish. Our model also provides a unique system for sex control in zebrafish studies. PMID:25679390

  6. Extraction and demulsification of oil from wheat germ, barley germ, and rice bran using an aqueous enzymatic method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract oil from wheat germ. The parameters that influence oil yield were investigated, including wheat germ pretreatment, comparison of various industrial enzymes, pH, ratio of wheat germ to water, reaction time and demulsification. Pretreatment at 180ºC...

  7. Development of propidium iodide as a fluorescence probe for the on-line screening of non-specific DNA-intercalators in Fufang Banbianlian Injection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanyan; Li, Sensen; Lin, Zongtao; Liu, Meixian; Wang, Daidong; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI) has been widely used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor prescription. To understand the relationships between its bioactive ingredients and pharmacological efficacies, our previous study has been successfully identified some DNA-binding compounds in FBI using an established on-line screening system, in which 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was developed as a probe. However, DAPI can be only used to screen ATT-specific DNA minor groove binders, leaving the potential active intercalators unknown in FBI. As a continuation of our studies on FBI, here we present a sensitive analytical method for rapid identification and evaluation of DNA-intercalators using propidium iodide (PI) as a fluorescent probe. We have firstly established the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multistage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-propidium iodide-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-DNA-PI-FLD) system. As a result, 38 of 58 previously identified compounds in FBI were DNA-intercalation active. Interestingly, all previously reported DNA-binders also showed intercalative activities, suggesting they are dual-mode DNA-binders. Quantitative study showed that flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids were the main active compounds in FBI, and displayed similar DNA-binding ability using either DAPI or PI. In addition, 13 active compounds were used to establish the structure-activity relationships. In this study, PI was developed into an on-line method for identifying DNA-intercalators for the first time, and thus it will be a useful high-throughput screening technique for other related samples. PMID:27522151

  8. Absence of microsatellite instability and BRAF (V600E) mutation in testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cárcano, F M; Lengert, A H; Vidal, D O; Scapulatempo Neto, C; Queiroz, L; Marques, H; Baltazar, F; Berardinelli, G N; Martinelli, C M S; da Silva, E C A; Reis, R M; Lopes, L F

    2016-09-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common malignant neoplasm in young men. DNA mismatch repair deficiency can lead to microsatellite instability (MSI), an important mechanism of genetic instability. A mutation of the BRAF gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several solid tumors and has recently become an important therapeutic target. The role of MSI and BRAF gene mutation in TGCT, particularly in refractory disease, is poorly understood and reported findings are controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency and clinical impact of MSI status and BRAF mutations in TGCT. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue from 150 TGCT cases. The MSI phenotype was evaluated using multiplex PCR for five quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeat markers. Exon 15 of the BRAF oncogene (V600E) was analyzed by PCR, followed by direct sequencing. Sixteen percent of cases were considered to have refractory disease. In a small subset of cases (17 for MSI and 18 for BRAF), the quantity and quality of DNA recovery were poor and therefore, were unable to be analyzed. The remaining 133 TGCT cases showed a complete absence of MSI. Of the 132 cases successfully evaluated for BRAF mutations, all were V600E wild-type. In conclusion, despite a distinct response of testicular germ cell tumors to therapy, microsatellite instability, and the BRAF V600E mutation were absent in all testicular germ cell tumors tested in this study. PMID:27153176

  9. Ribosome Synthesis and MAPK Activity Modulate Ionizing Radiation-Induced Germ Cell Apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Ralf; Stergiou, Lilli; Hofmann, E. Randal; Hofmann, Jen; Haenni, Simon; Teo, Youjin; Furger, André; Hengartner, Michael O.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of ribosomal RNA by RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I) is an elemental biological process and is key for cellular homeostasis. In a forward genetic screen in C. elegans designed to identify DNA damage-response factors, we isolated a point mutation of RNA pol I, rpoa-2(op259), that leads to altered rRNA synthesis and a concomitant resistance to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced germ cell apoptosis. This weak apoptotic IR response could be phenocopied when interfering with other factors of ribosome synthesis. Surprisingly, despite their resistance to DNA damage, rpoa-2(op259) mutants present a normal CEP-1/p53 response to IR and increased basal CEP-1 activity under normal growth conditions. In parallel, rpoa-2(op259) leads to reduced Ras/MAPK pathway activity, which is required for germ cell progression and physiological germ cell death. Ras/MAPK gain-of-function conditions could rescue the IR response defect in rpoa-2(op259), pointing to a function for Ras/MAPK in modulating DNA damage-induced apoptosis downstream of CEP-1. Our data demonstrate that a single point mutation in an RNA pol I subunit can interfere with multiple key signalling pathways. Ribosome synthesis and growth-factor signalling are perturbed in many cancer cells; such an interplay between basic cellular processes and signalling might be critical for how tumours evolve or respond to treatment. PMID:24278030

  10. Interdependence of DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1 and MSH2 in apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Samar; Ali, Akhtar A; Kilaparty, Surya P; Al-Anbaky, Qudes A; Majeed, Waqar; Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Ali, Nawab

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system consists of a number of proteins that play important roles in repair of base pair mismatch mutations and in maintenance of genomic integrity. A defect in this system can cause genetic instability, which can lead to carcinogenesis. For instance, a germline mutation in one of the mismatch repair proteins, especially MLH1 or MSH2, is responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. These MMR proteins also play an important role in the induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, altered expression of or a defect in MLH1 or MSH2 may confer resistance to anti-cancer drugs used in chemotherapy. We hypothesized that the ability of these two MMR proteins to regulate apoptosis are interdependent. Moreover, a defect in either one may confer resistance to chemotherapy by an inability to trigger apoptosis. To this end, we studied three cell lines-SW480, LoVo, and HTC116. These cell lines were selected based on their differential expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins. SW480 expresses both MLH1 and MSH2; LoVo expresses only MLH1 but not MSH2; HCT116 expresses only MSH2 but not MLH1 protein. MTT assays, a measure of cytotoxicity, showed that there were different cytotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, etoposide, on these cell lines, effects that were correlated with the MMR status of the cells. Cells that are deficient in MLH1 protein (HCT116 cells) were resistant to the drug. Cells that express both MLH1 and MSH2 proteins (SW480 cells) showed caspase-3 cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis. Cells that lack MLH1 (HCT116 cells) did not show any caspase-3 cleavage. Expression of full-length MLH1 protein was decreased in MMR proficient (SW480) cells during apoptosis; it remained unchanged in cells that lack MSH2 (LoVo cells). The expression of MSH2 protein remained unchanged during apoptosis both in MMR proficient (SW480) and deficient (HCT116) cells. Studies on translocation of MLH1 protein from nucleus to cytosolic fraction, an

  11. Potentiation of cytotoxicity by 3-aminobenzamide in DNA repair-deficient human tumor cell lines following exposure to methylating agents or anti-neoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Babich, M A; Day, R S

    1988-04-01

    We studied the potentiation by 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) of killing of nine human cell lines exposed to alkylating agents. Cell lines included normal, transformed and DNA repair-proficient and -deficient phenotypes. 3AB potentiated cell killing by the methylating agents methylmethanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in all lines tested. The degree of potentiation ranged from 1.7- to 3.8-fold, based on the LD99. The average potentiation observed with MMS (2.7-fold) was greater than with MNNG (2.2-fold). On average the potentiation of MMS and MNNG killing of repair-deficient Mer- lines (2.4-fold) was similar to that of repair-proficient Mer+ lines. The degree of 3AB potentiation of MNNG killing (2.0-fold) was similar in Mer+ Rem- lines and in Mer+ Rem+ lines. Mer+ Rem+, Mer+ Rem-, Mer- Rem+, and Mer- Rem- strains all appeared proficient in a 3AB-sensitive DNA repair pathway. Within experimental error, 20 mM 3AB did not inhibit the removal of the MNNG-induced methylpurines 7-methylguanine, O6-methylguanine and 3-methyladenine from the DNA of repair-proficient Mer+ Rem+ HT29 cells, consistent with evidence that 3AB inhibits the ligation step of excision repair. 3AB potentiated cell killing by the bifunctional alkylating agents 1-(2-chlorethyl)-1-nitrosourea or busulfan, two anti-neoplastic drugs, by only 0.9- to 1.5-fold. These drugs therefore produce DNA damage which is not efficiently repaired by the pathways that repair methylated bases. PMID:3356063

  12. Adaptation of the WHO guideline for residual DNA in parenteral vaccines produced on continuous cell lines to a limit for oral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lebron, J A; Troilol, P J; Pacchione, S; Griffiths, T G; Harper, L B; Mixson, L A; Jackson, B E; Michna, L; Barnum, A B; Denisova, L; Johnson, C N; Maurer, K L; Morgan-Hoffman, S; Niu, Z; Roden, D F; Wang, Z; Wolf, J J; Hamilton, T R; Laux, K M; Soper, K A; Ledwith, B J

    2006-01-01

    Although there is a WHO guidance for a limit on residual DNA for parenterally administered vaccines produced on continuous cell lines, there is no corresponding guidance for oral vaccines. To help determine an oral limit, we performed a study of Vero cell DNA uptake in rats, in which the relative uptake and persistence of Vero cell DNA administered orally was compared to its uptake when delivered intramuscularly (IM). The results of this study allowed the generation of an empirically derived IM versus oral factor (10(6)) representing the relative inefficiency of DNA uptake by oral administration. This factor was then applied to the WHO recommended parenteral limit of 10 ng/dose to determine a corresponding upper limit on the level of residual Vero cell DNA for an oral vaccine of 10 mg. As a conservative approach, this empirically determined limit was reduced 100-fold to 100 microg. Thus, the results of this animal study, together with additional evidence in the literature, support a residual DNA safety limit of 100 microg per dose for an oral vaccine produced on a continuous cell line. PMID:16566435

  13. Specific Glycosylation of Membrane Proteins in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines: Glycan Structures Reflect Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Status *

    PubMed Central

    Anugraham, Merrina; Jacob, Francis; Nixdorf, Sheri; Everest-Dass, Arun Vijay; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Packer, Nicolle H.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer in women worldwide bearing the highest mortality rate among all gynecological cancers. Cell membrane glycans mediate various cellular processes such as cell signaling and become altered during carcinogenesis. The extent to which glycosylation changes are influenced by aberrant regulation of gene expression is nearly unknown for ovarian cancer and remains crucial in understanding the development and progression of this disease. To address this effect, we analyzed the membrane glycosylation of non-cancerous ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE 6.3 and HOSE 17.1) and serous ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV 3, IGROV1, A2780, and OVCAR 3), the most common histotype among epithelial ovarian cancers. N-glycans were released from membrane glycoproteins by PNGase F and analyzed using nano-liquid chromatography on porous graphitized carbon and negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Glycan structures were characterized based on their molecular masses and tandem MS fragmentation patterns. We identified characteristic glycan features that were unique to the ovarian cancer membrane proteins, namely the “bisecting N-acetyl-glucosamine” type N-glycans, increased levels of α 2–6 sialylated N-glycans and “N,N′-diacetyl-lactosamine” type N-glycans. These N-glycan changes were verified by examining gene transcript levels of the enzymes specific for their synthesis (MGAT3, ST6GAL1, and B4GALNT3) using qRT-PCR. We further evaluated the potential epigenetic influence on MGAT3 expression by treating the cell lines with 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor. For the first time, we provide evidence that MGAT3 expression may be epigenetically regulated by DNA hypomethylation, leading to the synthesis of the unique “bisecting GlcNAc” type N-glycans on the membrane proteins of ovarian cancer cells. Linking the observation of specific N-glycan substructures and their complex association

  14. Specific glycosylation of membrane proteins in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines: glycan structures reflect gene expression and DNA methylation status.

    PubMed

    Anugraham, Merrina; Jacob, Francis; Nixdorf, Sheri; Everest-Dass, Arun Vijay; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Packer, Nicolle H

    2014-09-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer in women worldwide bearing the highest mortality rate among all gynecological cancers. Cell membrane glycans mediate various cellular processes such as cell signaling and become altered during carcinogenesis. The extent to which glycosylation changes are influenced by aberrant regulation of gene expression is nearly unknown for ovarian cancer and remains crucial in understanding the development and progression of this disease. To address this effect, we analyzed the membrane glycosylation of non-cancerous ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE 6.3 and HOSE 17.1) and serous ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV 3, IGROV1, A2780, and OVCAR 3), the most common histotype among epithelial ovarian cancers. N-glycans were released from membrane glycoproteins by PNGase F and analyzed using nano-liquid chromatography on porous graphitized carbon and negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Glycan structures were characterized based on their molecular masses and tandem MS fragmentation patterns. We identified characteristic glycan features that were unique to the ovarian cancer membrane proteins, namely the "bisecting N-acetyl-glucosamine" type N-glycans, increased levels of α 2-6 sialylated N-glycans and "N,N'-diacetyl-lactosamine" type N-glycans. These N-glycan changes were verified by examining gene transcript levels of the enzymes specific for their synthesis (MGAT3, ST6GAL1, and B4GALNT3) using qRT-PCR. We further evaluated the potential epigenetic influence on MGAT3 expression by treating the cell lines with 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor. For the first time, we provide evidence that MGAT3 expression may be epigenetically regulated by DNA hypomethylation, leading to the synthesis of the unique "bisecting GlcNAc" type N-glycans on the membrane proteins of ovarian cancer cells. Linking the observation of specific N-glycan substructures and their complex association with epigenetic

  15. Intensive chemotherapy as salvage treatment for solid tumors: focus on germ cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Selle, F.; Gligorov, J.; Richard, S.; Khalil, A.; Alexandre, I.; Avenin, D.; Provent, S.; Soares, D.G.; Lotz, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis. PMID:25493378

  16. Exposure to Endocrine Disruptor Induces Transgenerational Epigenetic Deregulation of MicroRNAs in Primordial Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brieño-Enríquez, Miguel A.; García-López, Jesús; Cárdenas, David B.; Guibert, Sylvain; Cleroux, Elouan; Děd, Lukas; Hourcade, Juan de Dios; Pěknicová, Jana; Weber, Michael; del Mazo, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, germ cell differentiation is initiated in the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) during fetal development. Prenatal exposure to environmental toxicants such as endocrine disruptors may alter PGC differentiation, development of the male germline and induce transgenerational epigenetic disorders. The anti-androgenic compound vinclozolin represents a paradigmatic example of molecule causing transgenerational effects on germ cells. We performed prenatal exposure to vinclozolin in mice and analyzed the phenotypic and molecular changes in three successive generations. A reduction in the number of embryonic PGCs and increased rate of apoptotic cells along with decrease of fertility rate in adult males were observed in F1 to F3 generations. Blimp1 is a crucial regulator of PGC differentiation. We show that prenatal exposure to vinclozolin deregulates specific microRNAs in PGCs, such as miR-23b and miR-21, inducing disequilibrium in the Lin28/let-7/Blimp1 pathway in three successive generations of males. As determined by global maps of cytosine methylation, we found no evidence for prominent changes in DNA methylation in PGCs or mature sperm. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of expression of microRNAs affecting key regulatory pathways of germ cells differentiation. PMID:25897752

  17. Anti-tumour activity of two novel compounds in cisplatin-resistant testicular germ cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, B; Gloesenkamp, C; Schrader, M; Hoffmann, B; Zengerling, F; Balabanov, S; Honecker, F; Höpfner, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy is associated with poor prognosis in testicular germ cell cancer, emphasising the need for new therapeutic approaches. In this respect, the therapeutic concept of anti-angiogenesis is of particular interest. In a previous study, we presented two novel anti-angiogenic compounds, HP-2 and HP-14, blocking the tyrosine kinase activity of angiogenic growth factor receptors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and related signalling pathways in testicular cancer. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of these new compounds in platinum-resistant testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), in vitro and in vivo. Methods and results: Drug-induced changes in cell proliferation of the cisplatin-sensitive TGCT cell line 2102EP and its cisplatin-resistant counterpart 2102EP-R, both expressing the VEGFR-2, were evaluated by crystal violet staining. Both compounds inhibited the growth of cisplatin-resistant TGCT cells in a dose-dependent manner. In combination experiments with cisplatin, HP-14 revealed additive growth-inhibitory effects in TGCT cells, irrespective of the level of cisplatin resistance. Anti-angiogenic effects of HP compounds were confirmed by tube formation assays with freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Using TGCT cells inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilised chicken eggs (chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay), the anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative potency of the novel compounds was also demonstrated in vivo. Gene expression profiling revealed changes in the expression pattern of genes related to DNA damage detection and repair, as well as in chaperone function after treatment with both cisplatin and HP-14, alone or in combination. This suggests that HP-14 can revert the lost effectiveness of cisplatin in the resistant cells by altering the expression of critical genes. Conclusion: The novel compound HP-14 effectively inhibits the

  18. Approaches for identifying germ cell mutagens: Report of the 2013 IWGT workshop on germ cell assays(☆).

    PubMed

    Yauk, Carole L; Aardema, Marilyn J; Benthem, Jan van; Bishop, Jack B; Dearfield, Kerry L; DeMarini, David M; Dubrova, Yuri E; Honma, Masamitsu; Lupski, James R; Marchetti, Francesco; Meistrich, Marvin L; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Stewart, Jane; Waters, Michael D; Douglas, George R

    2015-05-01

    This workshop reviewed the current science to inform and recommend the best evidence-based approaches on the use of germ cell genotoxicity tests. The workshop questions and key outcomes were as follows. (1) Do genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays in somatic cells predict germ cell effects? Limited data suggest that somatic cell tests detect most germ cell mutagens, but there are strong concerns that dictate caution in drawing conclusions. (2) Should germ cell tests be done, and when? If there is evidence that a chemical or its metabolite(s) will not reach target germ cells or gonadal tissue, it is not necessary to conduct germ cell tests, notwithstanding somatic outcomes. However, it was recommended that negative somatic cell mutagens with clear evidence for gonadal exposure and evidence of toxicity in germ cells could be considered for germ cell mutagenicity testing. For somatic mutagens that are known to reach the gonadal compartments and expose germ cells, the chemical could be assumed to be a germ cell mutagen without further testing. Nevertheless, germ cell mutagenicity testing would be needed for quantitative risk assessment. (3) What new assays should be implemented and how? There is an immediate need for research on the application of whole genome sequencing in heritable mutation analysis in humans and animals, and integration of germ cell assays with somatic cell genotoxicity tests. Focus should be on environmental exposures that can cause de novo mutations, particularly newly recognized types of genomic changes. Mutational events, which may occur by exposure of germ cells during embryonic development, should also be investigated. Finally, where there are indications of germ cell toxicity in repeat dose or reproductive toxicology tests, consideration should be given to leveraging those studies to inform of possible germ cell genotoxicity. PMID:25953399

  19. Stable transfection of protein kinase C alpha cDNA in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Tonetti, D A; Chisamore, M J; Grdina, W; Schurz, H; Jordan, V C

    2000-01-01

    An inverse relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) activity and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in human breast cell lines and tumours has been firmly established over the past 10 years. To determine whether specific alterations in PKC expression accompany hormone-independence, we examined the expression of PKC isozymes in the hormone-independent human breast cancer cell clones MCF-7 5C and T47D:C42 compared with their hormone-dependent counterparts, MCF-7 A4, MCF-7 WS8 and T47D:A18 respectively. Both hormone-independent cell clones exhibit elevated PKCα expression and increased basal AP-1 activity compared with the hormone-dependent cell clones. To determine whether PKCα overexpression is sufficient to mediate the hormone-independent phenotype, we stably transfected an expression plasmid containing PKCα cDNA to the T47D:A18 and MCF-7 A4 cell lines. This is the first report of PKCα transfection in T47D cells. In contrast to MCF-7 cells, T47D has the propensity to lose the ER and more readily forms tamoxifen-stimulated tumours in athymic mice. We find that in T47D:A18/PKCα clones, there is concomitant up-regulation of PKC βI and δ, whereas in the MCF-7 A4/PKCα transfectants PKC ɛ is up-regulated. In T47D:A18, but not in MCF-7 A4, PKCα stable transfection is accompanied by down-regulation of ER function whilst basal AP-1 activity is elevated. Our results suggest PKCα overexpression may play a role in growth signalling during the shift from hormone dependent to hormone-independent breast cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10952784

  20. How free of germs is germ-free? Detection of bacterial contamination in a germ free mouse unit

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Clinton A; Skorupski, Anna M; Vowles, Chriss J; Anderson, Natalie E; Poe, Sara A; Eaton, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    Management of germ free animals has changed little since the beginning of the 20th century. The current upswing in their use, however, has led to interest in improved methods of screening and housing. Traditionally, germ free colonies are screened for bacterial colonization by culture and examination of Gram stained fecal samples, but some investigators have reported using PCR-based methods of microbial detection, presumably because of perceived increased sensitivity. The accuracy and detection limit for traditional compared to PCR-based screening assays are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the limit of detection of bacterial contamination of mouse feces by aerobic and anaerobic culture, Gram stain, and qPCR, and to compare the accuracy of these tests in the context of a working germ free mouse colony. We found that the limit of detection for qPCR (approximately 105 cfu/g of feces) was lower than for Gram stain (approximately 109 cfu/g), but that all 3 assays were of similar accuracy. Bacterial culture was the most sensitive, but the least specific, and qPCR was the least sensitive and most specific. Gram stain but not qPCR detected heat-killed bacteria, indicating that bacteria in autoclaved diet are unlikely to represent a potential confounding factor for PCR screening. We conclude that as a practical matter, bacterial culture and Gram stain are adequate for screening germ free mouse colonies for bacterial contaminants, but that should low numbers of unculturable bacteria be present, they would not be detected with any of the currently available means. PMID:26018301

  1. How free of germs is germ-free? Detection of bacterial contamination in a germ free mouse unit.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Clinton A; Skorupski, Anna M; Vowles, Chriss J; Anderson, Natalie E; Poe, Sara A; Eaton, Kathryn A

    2015-07-01

    Management of germ free animals has changed little since the beginning of the 20th century. The current upswing in their use, however, has led to interest in improved methods of screening and housing. Traditionally, germ free colonies are screened for bacterial colonization by culture and examination of Gram stained fecal samples, but some investigators have reported using PCR-based methods of microbial detection, presumably because of perceived increased sensitivity. The accuracy and detection limit for traditional compared to PCR-based screening assays are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the limit of detection of bacterial contamination of mouse feces by aerobic and anaerobic culture, Gram stain, and qPCR, and to compare the accuracy of these tests in the context of a working germ free mouse colony. We found that the limit of detection for qPCR (approximately 10(5) cfu/g of feces) was lower than for Gram stain (approximately 10(9) cfu/g), but that all 3 assays were of similar accuracy. Bacterial culture was the most sensitive, but the least specific, and qPCR was the least sensitive and most specific. Gram stain but not qPCR detected heat-killed bacteria, indicating that bacteria in autoclaved diet are unlikely to represent a potential confounding factor for PCR screening. We conclude that as a practical matter, bacterial culture and Gram stain are adequate for screening germ free mouse colonies for bacterial contaminants, but that should low numbers of unculturable bacteria be present, they would not be detected with any of the currently available means. PMID:26018301

  2. Pathogenic anti-DNA autoantibody-inducing T helper cell lines from patients with active lupus nephritis: isolation of CD4-8- T helper cell lines that express the gamma delta T-cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, S; Zordan, T; Tsokos, G C; Datta, S K

    1990-01-01

    The antigen responsible for autoimmunization in systemic lupus erythematosus is unknown. In spite of this obstacle, we show that T helper (Th) cell lines that are functionally relevant to this disease can be established in vitro. We derived a total of 396 interleukin 2-dependent T-cell lines from the in vivo activated T cells of five patients with lupus nephritis. Only 59 (approximately 15%) of these lines had the ability to selectively augment the production of pathogenic anti-DNA autoantibodies that were IgG in class, cationic in charge, specific for native DNA, and clonally restricted in spectrotype. Forty-nine of these autoantibody-inducing Th lines were CD4+ and expressed the alpha beta T-cell receptor (TCR). The other 10 were CD4-8- (double negative), 3 expressing the alpha beta TCR and 7 expressing the gamma delta TCR. All of the autoantibody-inducing Th lines responded to some endogenous antigen presented by autologous B cells. The autoreactive responses of the CD4+ Th lines were restricted to HLA class II antigens, whereas those of the double-negative cells were not. Endogenous heat shock or stress proteins of the HSP60 family that were expressed by the lupus patients' B cells were involved in stimulating an autoreactive proliferation of the gamma delta Th cells. These studies demonstrate a novel helper activity of certain gamma delta T cells in a spontaneous autoimmune response. Images PMID:2144899

  3. Dynamic changes in global and gene-specific DNA methylation during hibernation in adult thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Sebastian; Mak, Timothy; Liu, Sara; Storey, Kenneth B; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-06-01

    Hibernating mammals conserve energy in the winter by undergoing prolonged bouts of torpor, interspersed with brief arousals back to euthermia. These bouts are accompanied by a suite of reversible physiological and biochemical changes; however, much remains to be discovered about the molecular mechanisms involved. Given the seasonal nature of hibernation, it stands to reason that underlying plastic epigenetic mechanisms should exist. One such form of epigenomic regulation involves the reversible modification of cytosine bases in DNA by methylation. DNA methylation is well known to be a mechanism that confers upon DNA its cellular identity during differentiation in response to innate developmental cues. However, it has recently been hypothesized that DNA methylation also acts as a mechanism for adapting genome function to changing external environmental and experiential signals over different time scales, including during adulthood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation is altered during hibernation in adult wild animals. This study evaluated global changes in DNA methylation in response to hibernation in the liver and skeletal muscle of thirteen-lined ground squirrels along with changes in expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1/3B) and methyl binding domain proteins (MBDs). A reduction in global DNA methylation occurred in muscle during torpor phases whereas significant changes in DNMTs and MBDs were seen in both tissues. We also report dynamic changes in DNA methylation in the promoter of the myocyte enhancer factor 2C (mef2c) gene, a candidate regulator of metabolism in skeletal muscle. Taken together, these data show that genomic DNA methylation is dynamic across torpor-arousal bouts during winter hibernation, consistent with a role for this regulatory mechanism in contributing to the hibernation phenotype. PMID:25908059

  4. Induction and repair of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard in the A-549 cell line followed by a comet assay.

    PubMed

    Jost, Petr; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2015-07-25

    Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide. Alkali-labile adducts of styrene oxide cause DNA breaks leading to the formation of comets. A significant dose-dependent reduction of DNA migration of the comet's tail was found after exposing cells to sulfur mustard, indicative of the amount of sulfur mustard induced cross-links. The remarkable decrease of % tail DNA could be observed as early as 5min following exposure to sulfur mustard and the maximal effect was found after 30min, when DNA migration was reduced to the minimum. Sulfur mustard preincubated in culture medium without cells lost its ability to induce cross-links and had a half-life of about 15min. Pre-incubation longer than 30min does not lead to a significant increase in cross-links when applied to cells. However, the amount of cross-links is decreased during further incubation due to repair. The current modification of the comet assay provides a useful tool for detecting DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard and could be used for detection of other DNA cross-linking agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:25986970

  5. A Novel Piggybac Transposon Inducible Expression System Identifies a Role for Akt Signalling in Primordial Germ Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Glover, James D.; Taylor, Lorna; Sherman, Adrian; Zeiger-Poli, Caroline; Sang, Helen M.; McGrew, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we describe a single piggyBac transposon system containing both a tet-activator and a doxycycline-inducible expression cassette. We demonstrate that a gene product can be conditionally expressed from the integrated transposon and a second gene can be simultaneously targeted by a short hairpin RNA contained within the transposon, both in vivo and in mammalian and avian cell lines. We applied this system to stably modify chicken primordial germ cell (PGC) lines in vitro and induce a reporter gene at specific developmental stages after injection of the transposon-modified germ cells into chicken embryos. We used this vector to express a constitutively-active AKT molecule during PGC migration to the forming gonad. We found that PGC migration was retarded and cells could not colonise the forming gonad. Correct levels of AKT activation are thus essential for germ cell migration during early embryonic development. PMID:24223709

  6. DNA microarray reveals different pathways responding to paclitaxel and docetaxel in non-small cell lung cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Che, Chun-Li; Zhang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Sang, Yu-Lan; Lu, Ben; Dong, Fu-Shi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Lv, Fu-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The wide use of paclitaxel and docetaxel in NSCLC clinical treatment makes it necessary to find biomarkers for identifying patients who can benefit from paclitaxel or docetaxel. In present study, NCI-H460, a NSCLC cell line with different sensitivity to paclitaxel and docetaxel, was applied to DNA microarray expression profiling analysis at different time points of lower dose treatment with paclitaxel or docetaxel. And the complex signaling pathways regulating the drug response were identified, and several novel sensitivity-realted markers were biocomputated.The dynamic changes of responding genes showed that paclitaxel effect is acute but that of docetaxel is durable at least for 48 hours in NCI-H460 cells. Functional annotation of the genes with altered expression showed that genes/pathways responding to these two drugs were dramatically different. Gene expression changes induced by paclitaxel treatment were mainly enriched in actin cytoskeleton (ACTC1, MYL2 and MYH2), tyrosine-protein kinases (ERRB4, KIT and TIE1) and focal adhesion pathway (MYL2, IGF1 and FLT1), while the expression alterations responding to docetaxel were highly co-related to cell surface receptor linked signal transduction (SHH, DRD5 and ADM2), cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (IL1A and IL6) and cell cycleregulation (CCNB1, CCNE2 and PCNA). Moreover, we also confirmed some different expression patterns with real time PCR. Our study will provide the potential biomarkers for paclitaxel and docetaxel-selection therapy in clinical application. PMID:23923072

  7. A new phosphorylated form of Ku70 identified in resistant leukemic cells confers fast but unfaithful dna repair in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Schellenbauer, Amelie; Biard, Denis; Paget, Vincent; Morel-Altmeyer, Sandrine; Guipaud, Olivier; Chambon, Christophe; Salles, Bernard; Maloum, Karim; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Chevillard, Sylvie; Delic, Jozo

    2015-01-01

    Ku70-dependent canonical nonhomologous end-joining (c-NHEJ) DNA repair system is fundamental to the genome maintenance and B-cell lineage. c-NHEJ is upregulated and error-prone in incurable forms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia which also displays telomere dysfunction, multiple chromosomal aberrations and the resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. We identify in these cells a novel DNA damage inducible form of phospho-Ku70. In vitro in different cancer cell lines, Ku70 phosphorylation occurs in a heterodimer Ku70/Ku80 complex within minutes of genotoxic stress, necessitating its interaction with DNA damage-induced kinase pS2056-DNA-PKcs and/or pS1981-ATM. The mutagenic effects of phospho-Ku70 are documented by a defective S/G2 checkpoint, accelerated disappearance of γ-H2AX foci and kinetics of DNA repair resulting in an increased level of genotoxic stress-induced chromosomal aberrations. Together, these data unveil an involvement of phospho-Ku70 in fast but inaccurate DNA repair; a new paradigm linked to both the deregulation of c-NHEJ and the resistance of malignant cells. PMID:26337656

  8. Effect of Chromatin Structure on the Extent and Distribution of DNA Double Strand Breaks Produced by Ionizing Radiation; Comparative Study of hESC and Differentiated Cells Lines

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Priyanka; Panyutin, Irina V.; Remeeva, Evgenia; Neumann, Ronald D.; Panyutin, Igor G.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin structure affects the extent of DNA damage and repair. Thus, it has been shown that heterochromatin is more protective against DNA double strand breaks (DSB) formation by ionizing radiation (IR); and that DNA DSB repair may proceed differently in hetero- and euchromatin regions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have a more open chromatin structure than differentiated cells. Here, we study the effect of chromatin structure in hESC on initial DSB formation and subsequent DSB repair. DSB were scored by comet assay; and DSB repair was assessed by repair foci formation via 53BP1 antibody staining. We found that in hESC, heterochromatin is confined to distinct regions, while in differentiated cells it is distributed more evenly within the nuclei. The same dose of ionizing radiation produced considerably more DSB in hESC than in differentiated derivatives, normal human fibroblasts; and one cancer cell line. At the same time, the number of DNA repair foci were not statistically different among these cells. We showed that in hESC, DNA repair foci localized almost exclusively outside the heterochromatin regions. We also noticed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in an increase in heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 in cancer HT1080 cells, and to a lesser extent in IMR90 normal fibroblasts, but not in hESCs. These results demonstrate the importance of chromatin conformation for DNA protection and DNA damage repair; and indicate the difference of these processes in hESC. PMID:26729112

  9. A novel somatic MAPK1 mutation in primary ovarian mixed germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Deng, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Fa-Ying; Yang, Bi-Cheng; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Guo, Jiu-Bai; Xie, Qiu-Hua; He, Ming; Huang, Ou-Ping

    2016-02-01

    A recent exome-sequencing study revealed prevalent mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) p.E322K mutation in cervical carcinoma. It remains largely unknown whether ovarian carcinomas also harbor MAPK1 mutations. As paralogous gene mutations co‑occur frequently in human malignancies, we analyzed here a total of 263 ovarian carcinomas for the presence of MAPK1 and paralogous MAPK3 mutations by DNA sequencing. A previously unreported MAPK1 p.D321N somatic mutation was identified in 2 out of 18 (11.1%) ovarian mixed germ cell tumors, while no other MAPK1 or MAPK3 mutation was detected in our samples. Of note, OCC‑115, the MAPK1‑mutated sample with bilateral cancerous ovaries affected, harbored MAPK1 mutation in the right ovary while retained the left ovary intact, implicating that the genetic alterations underlying ovarian mixed germ cell tumor may be different, even in patients with similar genetic backgrounds and tumor microenvironments. The results of evolutionary conservation and protein structure modeling analysis implicated that MAPK1 p.D321N mutation may be pathogenic. Additionally, mutations in protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit α (PPP2R1A), ring finger protein 43 (RNF43), DNA directed polymerase ε (POLE1), ribonuclease type III (DICER1), CCCTC‑binding factor (CTCF), ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22), DNA methyltransferase 3α (DNMT3A), transformation/transcription domain‑associated protein (TRRAP), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 were not detected in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors, implicating these genetic alterations may be not associated with MAPK1 mutation in the development of this malignancy. The present study identified a previously unreported MAPK1 mutation in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors for the first time, and this mutation may be actively involved in the tumorigenesis of this disease. PMID:26548627

  10. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies. PMID:26482724

  11. Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA Coding For Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule -1 (PECAM-1, CD31) in NIH-3T3 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Lalemarzi, Hamed; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Baradaran, Behzad; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: PECAM-1 (CD31) is a glycoprotein expressed on endothelial and bone marrow precursor cells. It plays important roles in angiogenesis, maintenance and integration of the cytoskeleton and direction of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. We aimed to clone the cDNA coding for human CD31 from KG1a for further subcloning and expression in NIH-3T3 mouse cell line. Methods: CD31 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 μg of recombinant construct and 6 μl of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 2235 bp specific band was aligned completely to human CD31 reference sequence in NCBI database. Transient and stable expression of human CD31 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (23% and 96%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD31-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD31, with no need for purification of recombinant proteins. PMID:26236664

  12. Replication-induced DNA damage after PARP inhibition causes G2 delay, and cell line-dependent apoptosis, necrosis and multinucleation.

    PubMed

    Dale Rein, Idun; Solberg Landsverk, Kirsti; Micci, Francesca; Patzke, Sebastian; Stokke, Trond

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors have been approved for treatment of tumors with mutations in or loss of BRCA1/2. The molecular mechanisms and particularly the cellular phenotypes resulting in synthetic lethality are not well understood and varying clinical responses have been observed. We have investigated the dose- and time-dependency of cell growth, cell death and cell cycle traverse of 4 malignant lymphocyte cell lines treated with the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. PARP inhibition induced a severe growth inhibition in this cell line panel and increased the levels of phosphorylated H2AX-associated DNA damage in S phase. Repair of the remaining replication related damage caused a G2 phase delay before entry into mitosis. The G2 delay, and the growth inhibition, was more pronounced in the absence of functional ATM. Further, Olaparib treated Reh and Granta-519 cells died by apoptosis, while U698 and JVM-2 cells proceeded through mitosis with aberrant chromosomes, skipped cytokinesis, and eventually died by necrosis. The TP53-deficient U698 cells went through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis without cytokinesis, ending up as multinucleated cells with DNA contents of up to 16c before dying. In summary, we report here for the first time cell cycle-resolved DNA damage induction, and cell line-dependent differences in the mode of cell death caused by PARP inhibition. PMID:26312527

  13. Replication-induced DNA damage after PARP inhibition causes G2 delay, and cell line-dependent apoptosis, necrosis and multinucleation

    PubMed Central

    Dale Rein, Idun; Solberg Landsverk, Kirsti; Micci, Francesca; Patzke, Sebastian; Stokke, Trond

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors have been approved for treatment of tumors with mutations in or loss of BRCA1/2. The molecular mechanisms and particularly the cellular phenotypes resulting in synthetic lethality are not well understood and varying clinical responses have been observed. We have investigated the dose- and time-dependency of cell growth, cell death and cell cycle traverse of 4 malignant lymphocyte cell lines treated with the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. PARP inhibition induced a severe growth inhibition in this cell line panel and increased the levels of phosphorylated H2AX-associated DNA damage in S phase. Repair of the remaining replication related damage caused a G2 phase delay before entry into mitosis. The G2 delay, and the growth inhibition, was more pronounced in the absence of functional ATM. Further, Olaparib treated Reh and Granta-519 cells died by apoptosis, while U698 and JVM-2 cells proceeded through mitosis with aberrant chromosomes, skipped cytokinesis, and eventually died by necrosis. The TP53-deficient U698 cells went through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis without cytokinesis, ending up as multinucleated cells with DNA contents of up to 16c before dying. In summary, we report here for the first time cell cycle-resolved DNA damage induction, and cell line-dependent differences in the mode of cell death caused by PARP inhibition. PMID:26312527

  14. HENMT1 and piRNA Stability Are Required for Adult Male Germ Cell Transposon Repression and to Define the Spermatogenic Program in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Ly; Qu, Zhi Peng; Kortschak, R Daniel; Lawrence, David M; Geoghegan, Joel; Hempfling, Anna-Lena; Bergmann, Martin; Goodnow, Christopher C; Ormandy, Christopher J; Wong, Lee; Mann, Jeff; Scott, Hamish S; Jamsai, Duangporn; Adelson, David L; O'Bryan, Moira K

    2015-10-01

    piRNAs are critical for transposable element (TE) repression and germ cell survival during the early phases of spermatogenesis, however, their role in adult germ cells and the relative importance of piRNA methylation is poorly defined in mammals. Using a mouse model of HEN methyltransferase 1 (HENMT1) loss-of-function, RNA-Seq and a range of RNA assays we show that HENMT1 is required for the 2' O-methylation of mammalian piRNAs. HENMT1 loss leads to piRNA instability, reduced piRNA bulk and length, and ultimately male sterility characterized by a germ cell arrest at the elongating germ cell phase of spermatogenesis. HENMT1 loss-of-function, and the concomitant loss of piRNAs, resulted in TE de-repression in adult meiotic and haploid germ cells, and the precocious, and selective, expression of many haploid-transcripts in meiotic cells. Precocious expression was associated with a more active chromatin state in meiotic cells, elevated levels of DNA damage and a catastrophic deregulation of the haploid germ cell gene expression. Collectively these results define a critical role for HENMT1 and piRNAs in the maintenance of TE repression in adult germ cells and setting the spermatogenic program. PMID:26496356

  15. HENMT1 and piRNA Stability Are Required for Adult Male Germ Cell Transposon Repression and to Define the Spermatogenic Program in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shu Ly; Geoghegan, Joel; Hempfling, Anna-Lena; Bergmann, Martin; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Ormandy, Christopher J.; Wong, Lee; Mann, Jeff; Scott, Hamish S.; Jamsai, Duangporn; Adelson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    piRNAs are critical for transposable element (TE) repression and germ cell survival during the early phases of spermatogenesis, however, their role in adult germ cells and the relative importance of piRNA methylation is poorly defined in mammals. Using a mouse model of HEN methyltransferase 1 (HENMT1) loss-of-function, RNA-Seq and a range of RNA assays we show that HENMT1 is required for the 2’ O-methylation of mammalian piRNAs. HENMT1 loss leads to piRNA instability, reduced piRNA bulk and length, and ultimately male sterility characterized by a germ cell arrest at the elongating germ cell phase of spermatogenesis. HENMT1 loss-of-function, and the concomitant loss of piRNAs, resulted in TE de-repression in adult meiotic and haploid germ cells, and the precocious, and selective, expression of many haploid-transcripts in meiotic cells. Precocious expression was associated with a more active chromatin state in meiotic cells, elevated levels of DNA damage and a catastrophic deregulation of the haploid germ cell gene expression. Collectively these results define a critical role for HENMT1 and piRNAs in the maintenance of TE repression in adult germ cells and setting the spermatogenic program. PMID:26496356

  16. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-12

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  17. Identification of a Heritable Model of Testicular Germ Cell Tumor in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Joanie C.; Dovey, Jennifer Shepard; Chandler, Garvin L.; Carbajal, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCTs) affect infants, children, and adults and are the most common cancer type in young men. Progress in understanding the molecular basis of GCTs has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. Here we report the identification of a zebrafish model of highly penetrant, heritable testicular GCT isolated as part of a forward genetic screen for cancer susceptibility genes. The mutant line develops spontaneous testicular tumors at a median age of 7 months, and pedigree analysis indicates dominant inheritance of the GCT susceptibility trait. The zebrafish model exhibits disruption of testicular tissue architecture and the accumulation of primitive, spermatogonial-like cells with loss of spermatocytic differentiation. Radiation treatment leads to apoptosis of the tumor cells and tumor regression. The GCT-susceptible line can serve as a model for understanding the mechanisms regulating germ cells in normal development and disease and as a platform investigating new therapeutic approaches for GCTs. PMID:20047465

  18. Overview of the Graphical User Interface for the GERM Code (GCR Event-Based Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The descriptions of biophysical events from heavy ions are of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The biophysical description of the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials is best described by a stochastic approach that includes both ion track structure and nuclear interactions. A new computer model called the GCR Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code was developed for the description of biophysical events from heavy ion beams at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The GERM code calculates basic physical and biophysical quantities of high-energy protons and heavy ions that have been studied at NSRL for the purpose of simulating space radiobiological effects. For mono-energetic beams, the code evaluates the linear-energy transfer (LET), range (R), and absorption in tissue equivalent material for a given Charge (Z), Mass Number (A) and kinetic energy (E) of an ion. In addition, a set of biophysical properties are evaluated such as the Poisson distribution of ion or delta-ray hits for a specified cellular area, cell survival curves, and mutation and tumor probabilities. The GERM code also calculates the radiation transport of the beam line for either a fixed number of user-specified depths or at multiple positions along the Bragg curve of the particle. The contributions from primary ion and nuclear secondaries are evaluated. The GERM code accounts for the major nuclear interaction processes of importance for describing heavy ion beams, including nuclear fragmentation, elastic scattering, and knockout-cascade processes by using the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model. The QMSFRG model has been shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections, and has been used by the GERM code for application to thick target experiments. The GERM code provides scientists participating in NSRL experiments with the data needed for the interpretation of their

  19. Differentiation of early germ cells from human skin-derived stem cells without exogenous gene integration.

    PubMed

    Ge, Wei; Ma, Hua-Gang; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Sun, Li-Lan; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Li, Lan; Dyce, Paul; Li, Julang; Shi, Qing-Hua; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Infertility has long been a difficult issue for many couples. The successful differentiation of germ cells and live progeny from pluripotent stem cells brings new hope to the couples suffering with infertility. Here we successfully isolated human fetus skin-derived stem cells (hfSDSCs) from fetus skin tissue and demonstrated that hfSDSCs can be differentiated into early human germ cell-like cells (hGCLCs). These cells express human germ cell markers DAZL and VASA. Moreover, these pluripotent stem cell-derived hGCLCs are free of exogenous gene integration. When hfSDSCs were differentiated in porcine follicle fluid (PFF) conditioned media, which has been shown to promote the differentiation of mouse and porcine SDSCs into oocyte-like cells (OLCs), we observed some vesicular structures formed from hfSDSCs. Moreover, when hfSDSCs were cultured with specific conditioned media, we observed punctate and elongated SCP3 staining foci, indicating the initiation of meiosis. Ploidy analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that a small percentage of putative 1N populations formed from hfSDSCs when compared with positive controls. In conclusion, our data here, for the first time, demonstrated that hfSDSCs possess the differentiation potential into germ lines, and they may differentiate both male and female hGCLCs in vitro under appropriate conditions. PMID:26347377

  20. Human Hemochromatosis Protein (HFE) Immunoperoxidase Stain Highlights Choriocarcinoma within Mixed Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jesse L; Talmon, Geoffrey A; Koepsell, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Identification of choriocarcinoma within a germ cell tumor can have major implications for the subsequent staging and treatment of testicular neoplasms. Immunoperoxidase staining greatly enhances the speed and sensitivity of identifying occult, though clinically significant, tumor components. In mixed germ cell tumors, staining for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) has been historically used to assess for the presence and burden of choriocarcinoma. However, current β-hCG stains produce variable, intense staining of trophoblastic elements and surrounding tissues, clouding the assessment of true-positive staining. Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE) is a membrane bound mediator of iron transport expressed at high levels within placenta. Additionally, previous reports have demonstrated that choriocarcinoma cell lines express HFE, although in vivo expression had not been examined. To address whether HFE can stain trophoblastic elements, HFE immunohistochemistry was conducted in choriocarcinoma (n = 4), mixed germ cell tumors (n = 11), seminoma (n = 4), and placenta (n = 11). HFE consistently demonstrated cytoplasmic and membranous staining, highlighting both syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts within choriocarcinoma and placenta. Staining of intratumoral white blood cells was observed within seminomas and mixed germ cell tumors, corroborating prior reports stating that HFE highlights monocytes and macrophages. Taken together, HFE may serve as an alternative target from β-hCG for immunoperoxidase studies when highlighting choriocarcinoma. PMID:27034532

  1. Human Hemochromatosis Protein (HFE) Immunoperoxidase Stain Highlights Choriocarcinoma within Mixed Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Talmon, Geoffrey A.; Koepsell, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of choriocarcinoma within a germ cell tumor can have major implications for the subsequent staging and treatment of testicular neoplasms. Immunoperoxidase staining greatly enhances the speed and sensitivity of identifying occult, though clinically significant, tumor components. In mixed germ cell tumors, staining for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) has been historically used to assess for the presence and burden of choriocarcinoma. However, current β-hCG stains produce variable, intense staining of trophoblastic elements and surrounding tissues, clouding the assessment of true-positive staining. Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE) is a membrane bound mediator of iron transport expressed at high levels within placenta. Additionally, previous reports have demonstrated that choriocarcinoma cell lines express HFE, although in vivo expression had not been examined. To address whether HFE can stain trophoblastic elements, HFE immunohistochemistry was conducted in choriocarcinoma (n = 4), mixed germ cell tumors (n = 11), seminoma (n = 4), and placenta (n = 11). HFE consistently demonstrated cytoplasmic and membranous staining, highlighting both syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts within choriocarcinoma and placenta. Staining of intratumoral white blood cells was observed within seminomas and mixed germ cell tumors, corroborating prior reports stating that HFE highlights monocytes and macrophages. Taken together, HFE may serve as an alternative target from β-hCG for immunoperoxidase studies when highlighting choriocarcinoma. PMID:27034532

  2. Neurl4 contributes to germ cell formation and integrity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer; Macdonald, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primordial germ cells (PGCs) form at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo, and then migrate to their final destination in the gonad where they will produce eggs or sperm. Studies of the different stages in this process, including assembly of germ plasm in the oocyte during oogenesis, specification of a subset of syncytial embryonic nuclei as PGCs, and migration, have been informed by genetic analyses. Mutants have defined steps in the process, and the identities of the affected genes have suggested biochemical mechanisms. Here we describe a novel PGC phenotype. When Neurl4 activity is reduced, newly formed PGCs frequently adopt irregular shapes and appear to bud off vesicles. PGC number is also reduced, an effect exacerbated by a separate role for Neurl4 in germ plasm formation during oogenesis. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila Neurl4 protein is concentrated in centrosomes and downregulates centrosomal protein CP110. Reducing CP110 activity suppresses the abnormal PGC morphology of Neurl4 mutants. These results extend prior analyses of Neurl4 in cultured cells, revealing a heightened requirement for Neurl4 in germ-line cells in Drosophila. PMID:26116656

  3. Effect of oxidative stress on DNA damage and beta-amyloid precursor proteins in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, D K; Xu, Y; Klaunig, J; Baiyewu, O; Ogunniyi, A; Hall, K; Hendrie, H; Sahota, A

    1999-01-01

    The epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is strongly associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian populations, but our studies suggest that APOE epsilon 4 is not a risk factor for AD in Nigerian blacks and is a weak risk factor in African-Americans. The prevalence of AD is lower in Nigerians than in African-Americans. Increased oxidative damage to macromolecules in brain tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been reported in AD. Here we examined the effects of endogenous and induced oxidative stress on total (nuclear and mitochondrial) DNA damage in lymphoblastoid cell lines (5 probable AD and 3 controls) from Ibadan, Nigeria. Cells were exposed to 200 microM t-butyl peroxide (a generator of ROS) for 4 hours. Total DNA was isolated and digested with nuclease P1 and alkaline phosphatase. DNA fragments were separated by HPLC and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG, an indicator of DNA damage) and deoxyguanosine (dG) determined. We did not detect a significant difference in the OH8dG/dG ratio in untreated or treated cell lines in the two groups, and this was independent of APOE genotype. We also examined, by Western blotting, the level of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) which is involved in AD. The level of the heat shock protein (HSP-70) was examined as a control. There was a slight decrease in levels of APP and HSP-70 following treatment. Studies in cell lines from Caucasian subjects have shown an increase in mitochondrial DNA damage following oxidative challenge. Our preliminary results suggest that African populations are less vulnerable to chemical-induced oxidative DNA damage. PMID:10672260

  4. Dnd knockout ablates germ cells and demonstrates germ cell independent sex differentiation in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Wargelius, Anna; Leininger, Sven; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Kleppe, Lene; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-01-01

    Introgression of farmed salmon escapees into wild stocks is a major threat to the genetic integrity of wild populations. Using germ cell-free fish in aquaculture may mitigate this problem. Our study investigated whether it is possible to produce germ cell-free salmon in F0 by using CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out dnd, a factor required for germ cell survival in vertebrates. To avoid studying mosaic animals, sgRNA targeting alb was simultaneously used as a visual tracer since the phenotype of alb KO is complete loss of pigmentation. Induced mutations for the tracer (alb) and the target (dnd) genes were highly correlated and produced germ cell-less fish lacking pigmentation, underlining the suitability of alb KO to serve as tracer for targeted double allelic mutations in F0 animals in species with prohibitively long generation times. This is also the first report describing dnd knockout in any fish species. Analyzing gene expression and histology of dnd KO fish revealed that sex differentiation of the somatic compartment does not depend on the presence of germ cells. However, the organization of the ovarian somatic compartment seems compromised in mutant fish. PMID:26888627

  5. Rebuilding Pluripotency from Primordial Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Harry G.; Nichols, Jennifer; Humphreys, Peter; Mulas, Carla; Martello, Graziano; Lee, Caroline; Jones, Ken; Surani, M. Azim; Smith, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) are unipotent progenitors of the gametes. Nonetheless, they can give rise directly to pluripotent stem cells in vitro or during teratocarcinogenesis. This conversion is inconsistent, however, and has been difficult to study. Here, we delineate requirements for efficient resetting of pluripotency in culture. We demonstrate that in defined conditions, routinely 20% of PGCs become EG cells. Conversion can occur from the earliest specified PGCs. The entire process can be tracked from single cells. It is driven by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and the downstream transcription factor STAT3. In contrast, LIF signaling is not required during germ cell ontogeny. We surmise that ectopic LIF/STAT3 stimulation reconstructs latent pluripotency and self-renewal. Notably, STAT3 targets are significantly upregulated in germ cell tumors, suggesting that dysregulation of this pathway may underlie teratocarcinogenesis. These findings demonstrate that EG cell formation is a robust experimental system for exploring mechanisms involved in reprogramming and cancer. PMID:24052943

  6. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, A. Marijne; He, Nannan; de Souza, Aline F.; Goercharn-Ramlal, Angelique; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Roost, Matthias S.; Gomes Fernandes, Maria M.; van der Westerlaken, Lucette A. J.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception). Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development. PMID:26834021

  7. Development of interspecies testicular germ-cell transplantation in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarini, Tiziana; Sarasquete, Carmen; Cabrita, Elsa

    2014-06-01

    Interspecific testicular germ cell (TGC) transplantation was investigated in two commercial flatfish species. Testes from donor species (Senegalese sole) were evaluated using classical histological techniques (haematoxylin-eosin staining and haematoxylin-light green-orange G-acid fuchsine staining), in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical analysis. Both Ssvasa1-2 mRNAs and SsVasa protein allowed the characterisation of TGCs, confirming the usefulness of the vasa gene in the detection of Senegalese sole TGCs. Xenogenic transplants were carried out using TGCs from one-year-old Senegalese sole into turbot larvae. Propidium iodide-SYBR-14 and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining showed that 87.98% of the extracted testicular cells were viable for microinjection and that 15.63% of the total recovered cells were spermatogonia. The vasa gene was characterised in turbot recipients using cDNA cloning. Smvasa mRNA was confirmed as a germ cell-specific molecular marker in this species. Smvasa expression analysis during turbot ontogeny was carried out before Senegalese sole TGC transplants into turbot larvae. Turbot larvae at 18 days after hatching (DAH) proved to be susceptible to manipulation procedures. High survival rates (83.75±15.90-100%) were obtained for turbot larvae at 27, 34 and 42 DAH. These data highlight the huge potential of this species for transplantation studies. Quantitative PCR was employed to detect Senegalese sole vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2) in the recipient turbot larvae. The Ssvasa mRNAs showed a significant increase in relative expression in 42-DAH microinjected larvae three weeks after treatment, showing the proliferation of Senegalese sole spermatogonia in transplanted turbot larvae. PMID:23735683

  8. Inheritance of DNA Transferred from American Trypanosomes to Human Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Mariana M.; Nitz, Nadjar; Araujo, Perla F.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; de Cássia Rosa, Ana; Gomes, Dawidson A.; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Interspecies DNA transfer is a major biological process leading to the accumulation of mutations inherited by sexual reproduction among eukaryotes. Lateral DNA transfer events and their inheritance has been challenging to document. In this study we modified a thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR by using additional targeted primers, along with Southern blots, fluorescence techniques, and bioinformatics, to identify lateral DNA transfer events from parasite to host. Instances of naturally occurring human infections by Trypanosoma cruzi are documented, where mitochondrial minicircles integrated mainly into retrotransposable LINE-1 of various chromosomes. The founders of five families show minicircle integrations that were transferred vertically to their progeny. Microhomology end-joining of 6 to 22 AC-rich nucleotide repeats in the minicircles and host DNA mediates foreign DNA integration. Heterogeneous minicircle sequences were distributed randomly among families, with diversity increasing due to subsequent rearrangement of inserted fragments. Mosaic recombination and hitchhiking on retrotransposition events to different loci were more prevalent in germ line as compared to somatic cells. Potential new genes, pseudogenes, and knockouts were identified. A pathway of minicircle integration and maintenance in the host genome is suggested. Thus, infection by T. cruzi has the unexpected consequence of increasing human genetic diversity, and Chagas disease may be a fortuitous share of negative selection. This demonstration of contemporary transfer of eukaryotic DNA to the human genome and its subsequent inheritance by descendants introduces a significant change in the scientific concept of evolutionary biology and medicine. PMID:20169193

  9. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  10. Enzymatic DNA oxidation: mechanisms and biological significance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Walsh, Colum P.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines (5mC) is a major epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes in mammals. How methylation is reversed was until recently poorly understood. The family of dioxygenases commonly known as Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins are responsible for the oxidation of 5mC into three new forms, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Current models link Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation with active DNA demethylation. The higher oxidation products (5fC and 5caC) are recognized and excised by the DNA glycosylase TDG via the base excision repair pathway. Like DNA methyltransferases, Tet enzymes are important for embryonic development. We will examine the mechanism and biological significance of Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation in the context of pronuclear DNA demethylation in mouse early embryos. In contrast to its role in active demethylation in the germ cells and early embryo, a number of lines of evidence suggest that the intragenic 5hmC present in brain may act as a stable mark instead. This short review explores mechanistic aspects of TET oxidation activity, the impact Tet enzymes have on epigenome organization and their contribution to the regulation of early embryonic and neuronal development. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(11): 609-618] PMID:25341925

  11. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Turicibacter sp. Strain H121, Isolated from the Feces of a Contaminated Germ-Free Mouse.

    PubMed

    Auchtung, T A; Holder, M E; Gesell, J R; Ajami, N J; Duarte, R T D; Itoh, K; Caspi, R R; Petrosino, J F; Horai, R; Zárate-Bladés, C R

    2016-01-01

    Turicibacterbacteria are commonly detected in the gastrointestinal tracts and feces of humans and animals, but their phylogeny, ecological role, and pathogenic potential remain unclear. We present here the first complete genome sequence ofTuricibactersp. strain H121, which was isolated from the feces of a mouse line contaminated following germ-free derivation. PMID:27013036

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Turicibacter sp. Strain H121, Isolated from the Feces of a Contaminated Germ-Free Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Auchtung, T. A.; Holder, M. E.; Gesell, J. R.; Ajami, N. J.; Duarte, R. T. D.; Itoh, K.; Caspi, R. R.; Petrosino, J. F.; Horai, R.

    2016-01-01

    Turicibacter bacteria are commonly detected in the gastrointestinal tracts and feces of humans and animals, but their phylogeny, ecological role, and pathogenic potential remain unclear. We present here the first complete genome sequence of Turicibacter sp. strain H121, which was isolated from the feces of a mouse line contaminated following germ-free derivation. PMID:27013036

  14. Germ Cell Origins of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational Impact of Parental Stress Experience.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. PMID:25895429

  15. Mechanism of action studies of lomaiviticin A and the monomeric lomaiviticin aglycon. Selective and potent activity toward DNA double-strand break repair-deficient cell lines.

    PubMed

    Colis, Laureen C; Hegan, Denise C; Kaneko, Miho; Glazer, Peter M; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-05-01

    (-)-Lomaiviticin A (1) and the monomeric lomaiviticin aglycon [aka: (-)-MK7-206, (3)] are cytotoxic agents that induce double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA. Here we elucidate the cellular responses to these agents and identify synthetic lethal interactions with specific DNA repair factors. Toward this end, we first characterized the kinetics of DNA damage by 1 and 3 in human chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) cells. DSBs are rapidly induced by 3, reaching a maximum at 15 min post addition and are resolved within 4 h. By comparison, DSB production by 1 requires 2-4 h to achieve maximal values and >8 h to achieve resolution. As evidenced by an alkaline comet unwinding assay, 3 induces extensive DNA damage, suggesting that the observed DSBs arise from closely spaced single-strand breaks (SSBs). Both 1 and 3 induce ataxia telangiectasia mutated- (ATM-) and DNA-dependent protein kinase- (DNA-PK-) dependent production of phospho-SER139-histone H2AX (γH2AX) and generation of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) foci in K562 cells within 1 h of exposure, which is indicative of activation of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) repair. Both compounds also lead to ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related- (ATR-) dependent production of γH2AX at later time points (6 h post addition), which is indicative of replication stress. 3 is also shown to induce apoptosis. In accord with these data, 1 and 3 were found to be synthetic lethal with certain mutations in DNA DSB repair. 1 potently inhibits the growth of breast cancer type 2, early onset- (BRCA2-) deficient V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line derivative (VC8), and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten- (PTEN-) deficient human glioblastoma (U251) cell lines, with LC50 values of 1.5 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.6 pM, respectively, and selectivities of >11.6 versus the isogenic cell lines transfected with and expressing functional BRCA2 and PTEN genes. 3 inhibits the growth of the same

  16. Serotonin receptors are selectively expressed in the avian germ cells and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Stępińska, Urszula; Kuwana, Takashi; Olszańska, Bożenna

    2015-06-01

    The expression of nine serotonin (5-HT) receptor transcripts was studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in germ cells, cleavage and gastrulation stages of Japanese quail, and qPCR for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in oocytes and embryos. We show the presence/absence of nine serotonin transcripts known in birds for receptors 5-HT1A, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7A in avian germ cells and early embryos. The absence of 5-HT3 and 5-HT5A in primordial germ cells and of 5-HT3 and 5-HT7A in sperm is characteristic. All transcripts appeared in oocytes at all stages (except for 5-HT3 and 5-HT5A transcripts) and all were present in cleaving embryos and at gastrulation, except for 5-HT3, which was permanently observed as late as in stage 4. Interestingly, 5-HT3 and 5-HT5A receptors accumulated in 3-mm and F1 oocytes but were degraded at ovulation and started to be re-transcribed in cleavage stage II embryos and beyond. The selective appearance of 5-HT receptors in germ cells and early embryos supports the hypothesis that serotonin may act as a signalling molecule at early stages of germ line and embryo differentiation via individual receptors present during different stages, when specialized communication systems are not yet developed. PMID:24521994

  17. In vitro DNA and BSA-binding, cell imaging and anticancer activity against human carcinoma cell lines of mixed ligand copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Anjomshoa, Marzieh; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud

    2015-11-01

    Binding studies of two water soluble copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(phen-dion)(diimine)Cl]Cl, where phen-dione is 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione and diimine is 1,10-phenanthroline (1) and 2,2'-bipyridine (2), with fish sperm DNA (FS-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been examined under physiological conditions by a series of experimental methods (UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, viscosity, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques). The experimental results indicate that the complexes interact with FS-DNA by electrostatic and partial insertion of pyridyl rings between the base stacks of double-stranded DNA. The complexes could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA with the binding constants (Kbin) of 32×10(5) M(-1) (1) and 1.7×10(5) M(-1) (2) at 290 K. The quenching mechanism, thermodynamic parameters, the number of binding sites and the effect of the Cu(II) complexes on the secondary structure of BSA have been explored. The in vitro anticancer chemotherapeutic potential of two copper(II) complexes against the three human carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7, A-549, and HT-29) and one normal cell line (DPSC) were evaluated by MTT assay. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity indicate that the complex (1) has greater cytotoxicity activity against all of the cell lines, especially HT-29 with IC50 values of 1.8 μM. Based on the IC50 values, these complexes did not display an apparent cyto-selective profile, because it would appear that two complexes are toxic to all four model cell lines. The microscopic analyses of the cancer cells confirm results of cytotoxicity. PMID:26057093

  18. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with /sup 125/I, or metabolically with (/sup 35/S) methionine or (/sup 3/H) mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen.

  19. Albumin and alpha-fetoprotein gene transcription in rat hepatoma cell lines is correlated with specific DNA hypomethylation and altered chromatin structure in the 5' region.

    PubMed Central

    Tratner, I; Nahon, J L; Sala-Trepat, J M; Venetianer, A

    1987-01-01

    We examined DNA methylation and DNase I hypersensitivity of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin gene region in hepatoma cell lines which showed drastic differences in the level of expression of these genes. We assayed for methylation of the CCGG sequences by using the restriction enzyme isoschizomers HpaII and MspI. We found two methylation sites located in the 5' region of the AFP gene and one in exon 1 of the albumin gene for which hypomethylation is correlated with gene expression. Another such site, located about 4,000 base pairs upstream from the AFP gene, seems to be correlated with the tissue specificity of the cells. DNase I-hypersensitive sites were mapped by using the indirect end-labeling technique with cloned genomic DNA probes. Three tissue-specific DNase I-hypersensitive sites were mapped in the 5' flanking region of the AFP gene when this gene was transcribed. Similarly, three tissue-specific DNase I-hypersensitive sites were detected upstream from the albumin gene in producing cell lines. In both cases, the most distal sites were maintained after cessation of gene activity and appear to be correlated with the potential expression of the gene. Interestingly, specific methylation sites are localized in the same DNA region as DNase I hypersensitive sites. This suggests that specific alterations of chromatin structure and changes in methylation pattern occur in specific critical regulatory regions upstream from the albumin and AFP genes in rat hepatoma cell lines. Images PMID:2439898

  20. Dasatinib induces DNA damage and activates DNA repair pathways leading to senescence in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with kinase-inactivating BRAF mutations

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shaohua; Sen, Banibrata; Mazumdar, Tuhina; Byers, Lauren A.; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Tong, Pan; Giri, Uma; Heymach, John V.; Kadara, Humam N.; Johnson, Faye M.

    2016-01-01

    Improved therapies are greatly needed for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that does not harbor targetable kinase mutations or translocations. We previously demonstrated that NSCLC cells that harbor kinase-inactivating BRAF mutations (KIBRAF) undergo senescence when treated with the multitargeted kinase inhibitor dasatinib. Similarly, treatment with dasatinib resulted in a profound and durable response in a patient with KIBRAF NSCLC. However, no canonical pathways explain dasatinib-induced senescence in KIBRAF NSCLC. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we used 2 approaches: gene expression and reverse phase protein arrays. Both approaches showed that DNA repair pathways were differentially modulated between KIBRAF NSCLC cells and those with wild-type (WT) BRAF. Consistent with these findings, dasatinib induced DNA damage and activated DNA repair pathways leading to senescence only in the KIBRAF cells. Moreover, dasatinib-induced senescence was dependent on Chk1 and p21, proteins known to mediate DNA damage-induced senescence. Dasatinib also led to a marked decrease in TAZ but not YAP protein levels. Overexpression of TAZ inhibited dasatinib-induced senescence. To investigate other vulnerabilities in KIBRAF NSCLC cells, we compared the sensitivity of these cells with that of WTBRAF NSCLC cells to 79 drugs and identified a pattern of sensitivity to EGFR and MEK inhibitors in the KIBRAF cells. Clinically approved EGFR and MEK inhibitors, which are better tolerated than dasatinib, could be used to treat KIBRAF NSCLC. Our novel finding that dasatinib induced DNA damage and subsequently activated DNA repair pathways leading to senescence in KIBRAF NSCLC cells represents a unique vulnerability with potential clinical applications. PMID:26623721

  1. Clinical Effects of Gamma-Radiation-Resistant Aspergillus sydowii on Germ-Free Mice Immunologically Prone to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aladyshkina, Natalia; Retuerto, Mauricio; Hager, Christopher L.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We report and investigated a case of inadvertent contamination of 125 mice (housed in two germ-free positive-pressurized isolators) with emerging human and coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii. The infected mice correspond to genetic line SAMP1/YitFc, which have 100% immune predisposition to develop Crohn's disease-like spontaneous pathologies, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pathogen update based on a scoping review of the literature and our clinical observations and experimentation are discussed. The unwanted infection of germ-free mice (immunologically prone to suffer chronic inflammation) with human pathogen A. sydowii resulted in no overt signs of clinical disease over 3-week exposure period, or during DSS-induced colitis experiments. Results and observations suggest that A. sydowii alone has limited clinical effect in immunocompromised germ-free mice or that other commensal microbial flora is required for Aspergillus-associated disease to occur.

  2. Topology of the germ plasm and development of primordial germ cells in inverted amphibian eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakahara, M.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Inverted Xenopus eggs have reduced numbers of primordial germ cells (PGCs). The extent of the reduction varies from spawning to spawning. Histologic examination revealed that PGC counts were lowest in inverted eggs which displayed the greatest amount of shift in the vegetal mass of large yolk platelets, although the germ plasm itself always remained localized in the egg's original vegetal hemisphere. Even at blastulation the germ plasm continued to be localized in the egg's original vegetal hemisphere. In many cases, however, it was confined to the periphery of the embryo, which probably accounts for the reduced PGC number in some tadpoles. In other cases it may have been dispersed and therefore not detectable in histologic analyses. Although the altered site of involution in inverted embryos did not influence PGC development, subsequent cell movement patterns apparently did. Those embryos which displayed the largest degree of pattern reversal at the tail-bud stage also exhibited the most extreme reduction in PGC numbers. A brief cold shock (4 degrees C, 10 min) prior to first cleavage leads to a further reduction in PGC numbers in inverted embryos, probably as a result of the displacement of the germ plasm away from its original vegetal pole location.

  3. Induction of acquired resistance to anti estrogen by reversible mitochondrial DNA depletion in breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Akihiro; Carcel-Trullols, Jaime; Xie, Cheng-hui; Evans, Teresa T; Mizumachi, Takatsugu; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Although the net benefits of tamoxifen in adjuvant breast cancer therapy have been proven, the recurrence of the cancer in an aggressive and hormone independent form has been highly problematic. We previously demonstrated the important role mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays in hormone-independence in prostate cancer. Here, the role of mtDNA in breast cancer progression was investigated. We established hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) resistant HTRMCF by growing MCF-7, a human breast adenocarcinoma cells, in the presence of 4-OHT. HTRMCF was cross-resistant to 4-OHT and ICI182,780 concurrent with the depletion of mtDNA. To further investigate the role of mtDNA depletion, MCF-7 was depleted of mtDNA by treatment with ethidium bromide. MCFρ0 was resistant to both 4-OHT and ICI182,780. Furthermore, cybrid (MCFcyb) prepared by fusion MCFρ0 with platelet to transfer mtDNA showed susceptibility to anti-estrogen. Surprisingly, after withdrawal of 4-OHT for 8 weeks, HTRMCF and their clones became susceptible to both drugs concurrent with a recovery of mtDNA. Herein, our results substantiated the first evidence that the depletion of mtDNA induced by hormone therapy triggers a shift to acquired resistance to hormone therapy in breast cancer. In addition, we showed that mtDNA depletion can be reversed, rendering the cancer cells susceptible to anti-estrogen. The hormone independent phenotype can be reversed should be a step toward more effective treatments for estrogen-responsive breast cancer. PMID:17990320

  4. Suppression of dexamethasone-stimulated DNA synthesis in an oncogene construct containing rat cell line by a DNA site-oriented ligand of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase: 6-amino-1,2-benzopyrone

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsten, E.; Bauer, P.I.; Kun, E. San Francisco State Univ., CA )

    1991-03-01

    The cellular inhibitory effects of 6-amino-1,2-benzopyrone (6-ABP), a DNA site-specific ligand of adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT), were determined in a dexamethasone-sensitive EJ-ras gene construct containing cell line (14C cells). Dexamethansone in vitro transforms these cells to a tumorigenic phenotype and also stimulates cell replication. AT a nontoxic concentration 6-ABP treatment of intact cells for 4 days inhibits the dexamethasone-stimulated increment of cellular DNA content, depresses replicative DNA synthesis as assayed by thymidine incorporation to the level of cells that were not exposed to dexamethasone, and in permeabilized cells reduces the dexamethasone-stimulated increase of deoxyribonucleotide incorporation into DNA to the level of untreated cells. In situ pulse labeling of cells pretreated with 6-ABP indicated an inhibition of DNA synthesis at a stage prior to the formation of the 10-kb intermediate species. Neither dexamethasone nor the drug influenced the cellular quantity of ADPRT molecules, tested immunochemically.

  5. Late Relapse of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Matthew J; Feldman, Darren R; Carver, Brett S; Sheinfeld, Joel

    2015-08-01

    Germ cell tumors of the testis have an overall survival rate greater than 90% as a result of a successful multidisciplinary approach to management. Late relapse affects a subset of patients however, and tends to be chemorefractory and the overall prognosis is poor. Surgery is the mainstay in management of late relapse but salvage chemotherapy can be successful. In this review, the clinical presentation and detection of late relapse, clinical outcomes, and predictors of survival in late relapse and the importance of a multidisciplinary treatment approach for successful management of late relapse are discussed. PMID:26216823

  6. Repressive translational control in germ cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fangfang; King, Mary Lou

    2013-08-01

    The earliest stages of embryonic development in many animals proceed without zygotic transcription. Genetic control is executed by maternally inherited mRNAs that are under translational control. To set aside the future germ cell lineage, it is pivotal to both exert translational regulation of maternal germline mRNAs and to repress maternal signals in those same cells that drive somatic cell-fate determination. Here we review repressive translational regulation in the germline from the perspective of the conserved RNA binding proteins Pumilio and Nanos, and discuss common themes that have emerged. PMID:23408501

  7. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurimoto, T.; Fujiyama, A.; Matsubara, K.

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes.

  8. Analysis of DNA strand breaks induced in rodent liver in vivo, hepatocytes in primary culture, and a human cell line by chlorinated acetic acids and chlorinated acetaldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.W.; Daniel, F.B. ); DeAngelo, A.B. )

    1992-01-01

    An alkaline unwinding assay was used to quantitate the induction of DNA strand breaks (DNA SB) in the livers of rats and mice treated in vivo, in rodent hepatocytes in primary culture, and in CCRF-CEM cells, a human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, following treatment with tri-(TCA), di-(CA), and mono-(MCA) chloroacetic acid and their corresponding aldehydes, tri-(chloralhydrate, CH), di(DCAA) and mono-(CAA) chloroacetaldehyde. None of the chloracetic acids induced DNA SB in the livers of rats at 4 hr following a single administration of 1-10 mmole/kg. TCA (10 mmole/kg) and DCA (5 and 10 mmole/kg) did produce a small amount of strand breakage in mice (7% at 4hr) but not at 1 hr. N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA), an established alkylating agent and a rodent hepatocarcinogen, produced DNA SB in the livers of both species. TCA, DCA, and MCA also failed to induce DNA strand breaks in splenocytes and epithelial cells derived from the stomach and duodenum of mice treated in vivo. None of the three chloroacetaldehydes induced DNA SB in either mouse or rat liver. These studies provide further evidence that the chloroacetic acids lack genotoxic activity not only in rodent liver, a tissue in that they induce tumors, but in a variety of other rodent tissues and cultured cell types. Two of the chloroacetaldehydes, DCAA and CAA, are direct acting DNA damaging agents in CCRF-CEM cells, but not in liver or splenocytes in vivo or in cultured hepatocytes. CH showed no activity in any system investigated. 58 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Analysis of the early-flowering mechanisms and generation of T-DNA tagging lines in Kitaake, a model rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song Lim; Choi, Minkyung; Jung, Ki-Hong; An, Gynheung

    2013-11-01

    As an extremely early flowering cultivar, rice cultivar Kitaake is a suitable model system for molecular studies. Expression analyses revealed that transcript levels of the flowering repressor Ghd7 were decreased while those of its downstream genes, Ehd1, Hd3a, and RFT1, were increased. Sequencing the known flowering-regulator genes revealed mutations in Ghd7 and OsPRR37 that cause early translation termination and amino acid substitutions, respectively. Genetic analysis of F2 progeny from a cross between cv. Kitaake and cv. Dongjin indicated that those mutations additively contribute to the early-flowering phenotype in cv. Kitaake. Because the short life cycle facilitates genetics research, this study generated 10 000 T-DNA tagging lines and deduced 6758 flanking sequence tags (FSTs), in which 3122 were genic and 3636 were intergenic. Among the genic lines, 367 (11.8%) were inserted into new genes that were not previously tagged. Because the lines were generated by T-DNA that contained the promoterless GUS reporter gene, which had an intron with triple splicing donors/acceptors in the right border region, a high efficiency of GUS expression was shown in various organs. Sequencing of the GUS-positive lines demonstrated that the third splicing donor and the first splicing acceptor of the vector were extensively used. The FST data have now been released into the public domain for seed distribution and facilitation of rice research. PMID:23966593

  10. Synthesis of 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone by selected lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation of wheat germ

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last decade, several studies described the promising cytotoxic activity of fermented wheat germ towards cancer cell lines and during in vivo clinical trials. Recent data suggested that the antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects of this preparation are mainly attributed to quinones. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of sourdough lactic acid bacteria fermentation to release 2-methoxy benzoquinone, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, which are naturally present in wheat germ as glycosylated and non-physiologically active form. Results Preliminarily, forty strains of lactic acid