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Sample records for german child soldiers

  1. Child Soldiers: Rights Denied, Hope Restored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Bailey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The forceful induction of children as child soldiers is an abhorrent violation of human rights. It is very disturbing that while many children are forcibly recruited into armed conflicts, others actually volunteer, due to their nightmarish alternatives. Although the practice has recently gained worldwide attention, awareness alone will not end the…

  2. Posttraumatic Resilience in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…

  3. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. PMID:26346388

  4. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program. PMID:23095403

  5. Multiple trauma and mental health in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-10-01

    The present study examines the effect of war and domestic violence on the mental health of child soldiers in a sample consisting of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17 years, female: 49%). All children had experienced at least 1 war-related event and 78% were additionally exposed to at least 1 incident of domestic violence. Prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder were 33%, and 36%, respectively. Behavioral and emotional problems above clinical cutoff were measured in 61%. No gender differences were found regarding mental health outcomes. War experience and domestic violence were significantly associated with all mental health outcomes. The authors' findings point to the detrimental effects of domestic violence in addition to traumatizing war experiences in child soldiers. PMID:21053376

  6. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…

  7. Child Soldiers and Iconography: Portrayals and (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, child soldiers have inundated the popular media. Images of boys armed with AK47s appear ubiquitous, providing a cautionary tale of innocent childhood gone awry. While these representations turn commonly held assumptions of a protected and innocuous childhood on its head, what they conceal is as provocative as what they…

  8. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  9. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed. PMID:24397926

  10. [Posttraumtic stress disorder after deployment of German soldiers : does the risk increase with deployment duration?].

    PubMed

    Trautmann, S; Schönfeld, S; Höfler, M; Heinrich, A; Hauffa, R; Zimmermann, P; Wittchen, H-U

    2013-07-01

    International studies suggest a growing risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with an increasing duration of deployment. There are no data available for the German armed forces that would allow an assessment of the average mission duration of about 4 months. Analyses are based on a stratified random sample of 1,483 ISAF soldiers. Standardized diagnostic interviews were conducted about 12 months after soldiers returned from mission. Deployment duration was categorized into 1-2 months, 3-5 months, and 5-8 months. Additionally, dimensional analyses of deployment duration were performed. Deployment duration was associated with the number of stressful and traumatic events. Notwithstanding, we found no linear relationship between mission duration and PTSD risk, neither in the total sample nor in the defined subgroups. However, we found a bimodal distribution suggesting an increased PTSD risk in the first 2 months and - less pronounced and limited to the Kunduz location - for deployment durations of at least 6 months. There was no general increase in PTSD risk with increasing deployment durations for German soldiers in this naturalistic study. The higher risk for soldiers with short deployments might be explained by selection of vulnerable subjects and different deployment characteristics. Further, there is some evidence of an increased PTSD risk for soldiers deployed for longer periods to high-risk locations (e.g., Kunduz). PMID:23712322

  11. 75 FR 75855 - Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of... of America, pursuant to section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA), title...

  12. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  13. 3 CFR - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers.... 2012-18 of September 28, 2012 Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008... HOUSE, Washington, September 28, 2012....

  14. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Hermenau, Katharin; Hecker, Tobias; Maedl, Anna; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs. PMID:24224078

  15. Video visor for the German army soldier-of-the-future programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritze, J.; Kiefner, M.; Lenz, H.-J.

    2007-04-01

    The German Soldier-of-the-Future ("Infanterist der Zukunft" - IdZ) programme provides three different optronic reconnaissance systems and weapon sights respectively for each infantry squad of ten soldiers. Besides the reconnaissance and targeting device (WBBG) of the squad leader and the weapon sight (WBZG) for the sniper, the so-called "Video Visier" (video visor) will be used as a new type of weapon sight for aiming and combating with the German assault rifles G36 and AG36, with the machine gun MG4 as well as with the bazooka PzF3. The video visor includes an uncooled thermal imager, a daylight camera, an eye-safe laser range finder and a digital magnetic compass with inclination sensor. Communication with the soldier-mounted central processing unit and real-time transmission of the video data (e.g. display mounted into the helmet of the soldier) is enabled by a wireless data link. In the presentation of the requirements, the philosophy and concept as well as the functionality of the video visor will be described in detail.

  16. Intestinal Parasites in First World War German Soldiers from “Kilianstollen”, Carspach, France

    PubMed Central

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named “Kilianstollen” in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach. PMID:25333988

  17. Functional Categories in Early Child German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the representation of phrase structure in early child German through the investigation of longitudinal data from seven German-speaking toddlers with respect to verb placement, verb inflection, negation, /wh/ pronouns, and complementizers. It is argued that children construct phrase-structure trees in a gradual fashion, on the basis of…

  18. Social ecology interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder: what can we learn from child soldiers?

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon

    2013-09-01

    Research with child soldiers is crucial to improving mental health services after war. This research also can illuminate innovative approaches to treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult soldiers, veterans and other trauma survivors in high-income countries. A key contribution is the role of social ecology for trauma-healing interventions. PMID:23999478

  19. Small arms video sight for the "German Army Soldier-of-the-Future Program": lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledertheil, Bernd H.; Berlips, Carsten; Ohlmann, Marco

    2009-05-01

    The Small Arms Video Sight is part of the optronical sights developed for the German IdZ-ES program (German Army Soldier-of-the Future Program - Enhanced System) [1]. The aim of the development was to use this highly integrated sight on three different rifles (G36 = the assault rifle of the German soldier optional with a 40mm underslung grenade launcher, MG 4 = a light machine gun , PZF3 = a 60mm / 110mm bazooka). The Video Sight will be used for observation, target detection, recognition and identification, direct and indirect aiming and shooting with ballistic calculation and aiming mark correction, still and video picture capturing and wireless transmission, determination of a located target position by distance and angle to the own position and so on. To perform all these tasks the Video Sight is equipped with an uncooled IR and a CCD camera, a laser range finder, a digital compass, angle sensors, electronic display, all this sensors highly integrated and controlled by an operating system.

  20. Roots and Rogues in German Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the proper characterization of subject omission at a particular stage in German child language. It focuses on post-verbal null subjects in finite clauses, here termed Rogues. It is argued that the statistically significant presence of Rogues, in conjunction with their distinct developmental profile, speaks against a…

  1. Mozambique child soldier life outcome study: lessons learned in rehabilitation and reintegration efforts.

    PubMed

    Boothby, N; Crawford, J; Halperin, J

    2006-01-01

    As the use of child soldiers continues to proliferate throughout the world, effective psychosocial interventions must be developed and evaluated. Our research shows that former child soldiers who are provided rehabilitative services and accepted back into their families and communities are able to become productive, responsible and caring adults. In 1988, 39 captured or escaped child soldiers were brought by the Mozambican government to the Lhanguene Rehabilitation Center in Maputo, Mozambique's capital city. Interventions that focused on rehabilitating the children both psychologically and physically were initiated during their 6-month stay at the Lhanguene centre, and reintegration assistance was provided for 2 years thereafter to support their return to families and communities. Our research continued to follow these former child soldiers for 16 years, and focused on their psychological, social and economic functioning. The study included qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to obtain adult well-being outcomes and was also designed to identify interventions that enabled these child soldiers to re-enter civilian life and lead relatively productive lives. Efficacious rehabilitation activities included those that strengthened individuals' coping skills for anticipated trauma and grief, instilled a sense of social responsibility and promoted self-regulation and security (versus survival) seeking behaviour. Activities that supported long term reintegration and self-sufficiency included community acceptance and forgiveness, traditional cleansing and healing rituals, livelihoods and apprenticeships. PMID:19153896

  2. Child Soldiers, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessells, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide, children are drawn into lives as soldiers and terrorism as the result of forced recruitment and also by extremist ideologies and their inability to obtain security, food, power, prestige, education, and positive life options through civilian means. Using an example from Sierra Leone, this article shows that peace education is an…

  3. Lives beyond Suffering: The Child Soldiers of African Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Jacqueline N.; Baer, Allison L.

    2011-01-01

    Sierra Leone is only one of the more than 50 armed conflicts currently going on around the world. It is estimated that 20 million children were either refugees or displaced internally, and some 300,000 children under the age of 18 were used in hostilities at any given time as government or rebel soldiers, with about one-third reportedly fighting…

  4. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments. PMID:27402736

  5. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  6. The Dangers of the Single Story: Child-Soldiers in Literary Fiction and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the paradox between innocence and responsibility generated by the term child-soldiers, which is treated differently in literary and cinematographic works from the North and the South, this article uses postcolonial theory in order to deconstruct "the single story" that may be erasing these children's many stories. Accordingly, the…

  7. Post-traumatic stress symptoms among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone: follow-up study†

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; McBain, Ryan; Brennan, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Former child soldiers are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the trajectory of symptoms has yet to be examined. Aims The risk and protective factors associated with PTSD symptom change among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone were investigated. Method Data from 243 former child soldiers (mean age 16.6 years, 30% female) were analysed. Results Self-reported rates of possible PTSD using standard cut-off points declined from 32% to 16% 4 years later (P<0.05). Symptoms of PTSD at baseline were significantly associated with war experiences (P<0.01) and post-conflict family abuse (P<0.001). Reliable improvement in symptoms was reported by 30%. In growth models examining symptom change, worsening of symptoms was associated with death of a parent (P<0.05) and post-conflict stigma (P<0.001). Protective effects were observed for increases in family acceptance (P<0.001). Conclusions The findings indicated improvement in PTSD symptoms among former child soldiers despite limited access to care. Family and community support played a vital part in promoting psychological adjustment. PMID:23887999

  8. [Psychogenic Disorders in German soldiers during World War I and II].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, P; Hahne, H-H; Biesold, K-H; Lanczik, M

    2005-02-01

    In the First and Second World War German soldiers frequently suffered from psychogenic disorders. By comparison a change in the prevalences can be noted: in the First World War dissociative disorders dominated the clinical impression ("shell shock"), in the Second World War they could rarely be seen but were replaced by somatoform and psychosomatic diseases. The discussion about numerous reasons for this development has not been completed yet and is still not free from political attitudes. To achieve a more scientific point of view, the perspective of psychotraumatology might be helpful. According to psychotraumatic research, dissociative and somatoform disorders can emerge in a close relation to a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The choice of symptoms depends on personality traits of the victim, but also on specific factors that characterise the situation in which the trauma appears. The mixture of pathogenetic and protective influences includes e. g. the possibility of flight- or fight reactions, feelings of trauma-associated guilt and group cohesion in the military unit. These factors can be useful to help explain the change of symptoms between both wars. In addition the analysis of situational conditions in former wars can give hints to actual planning and prophylaxis strategies in modern military psychiatry, that has to adjust to very different military operation fields. PMID:15685493

  9. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a longitudinal study of risk, protective factors, and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether post-conflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method Male and female former child soldiers (N=260, ages 10–17 at baseline) were recruited from the roster of an NGO-run Interim Care Center in Kono District and interviewed in 2002, 2004 and 2008. The retention rate was 69%. Linear growth models were used to investigate trends related to war and post-conflict experiences. Results The long-term mental health of former child soldiers was associated with war experiences and post-conflict risk factors, which were partly mitigated by post-conflict protective factors. Increases in externalizing behavior were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and post-conflict stigma while increased community acceptance was associated with decreases in externalizing problems (B=−1.09). High baseline levels of internalizing problems were associated with surviving rape while increases were associated with younger involvement in armed groups and social and economic hardships. Improvements in internalizing problems were associated with higher levels of community acceptance and increases in community acceptance (B=−0.86). Decreases in adaptive/prosocial behaviors were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and post-conflict stigma, but partially mitigated by social support, being in school and increased community acceptance (B=1.93). Conclusions Psychosocial interventions for former child soldiers may be more effective if they account for post-conflict factors in addition to war exposures. Youth with accumulated risk factors, lack of protective factors, and persistent distress should be identified; sustainable services to promote community acceptance, reduce stigma, and expand social supports and educational access are recommended. PMID

  10. Social Ecology of Child Soldiers: Child, Family, and Community Determinants of Mental Health, Psychosocial Wellbeing, and Reintegration in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Tol, Wietse A.; Perera, Em; Karki, Rohit; Koirala, Suraj; Upadhaya, Nawaraj

    2013-01-01

    This study employs social ecology to evaluate psychosocial wellbeing in a cross-sectional sample of 142 former child soldiers in Nepal. Outcome measures included the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale (CPSS), and locally developed measures of function impairment and reintegration. At the child level, traumatic exposures, especially torture, predicted poor outcomes, while education improved outcomes. At the family level, conflict-related death of a relative, physical abuse in the household, and loss of wealth during the conflict predicted poor outcomes. At the community level, living in high caste Hindu communities predicted fewer reintegration supports. Ultimately, social ecology is well-suited to identify intervention foci across ecological levels, based on community differences in vulnerability and protective factors. PMID:21088102

  11. 78 FR 72789 - Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 233 / Wednesday, December 4, 2013 /#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of August 2, 2013 Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, as...

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2011-4 of October 25, 2010 Presidential Determination With...

  13. [Guiltless guilty--trauma-related guilt and posttraumatic stress disorder in former Ugandan child soldiers].

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Schrage, Jana; Post, Manuela; Adam, Hubertus

    2011-01-01

    Despite international bans, more than 250,000 children and adolescents are exploited as soldiers worldwide, almost half of them in Africa. These children are exposed to a tremendous amount of violence and are often forced to commit atrocities themselves. In the present study, 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17, female: 48.5%) were interviewed regarding traumatic experiences, trauma-related guild, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Affective and cognitive aspects of guilt were assessed with the Trauma-related Guilt Inventory (TRGI) and PTSD with a diagnostic interview (MINI-KID). Children had been abducted at a mean age of 10.75 years and served for an average period of 19.81 months. They were exposed to numerous traumatic experiences during abduction, e. g., 86.4% were exposed to killings, 87.9% were threatened with death, 52.6% were forced to kill another person, and 25.8% were raped. Diagnostic criteria for PTSD were fulfilled by 33% of the children. Higher guilt cognitions were significantly related to posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children. PMID:21425638

  14. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  15. Transference-focused psychotherapy with former child soldiers: meeting the murderous self.

    PubMed

    Draijer, Nel; Van Zon, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the application of transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) to the treatment of former child soldiers suffering from dissociative identity disorder. It focuses on the problems with aggression faced in psychotherapy. TFP provides a psychodynamic, object relations model to understand the aggression arising in psychotherapy, focusing on the transference and countertransference in the here and now of the therapeutic relationship. Aggression is considered an essential and vital inner dynamic aimed at autonomy, distancing, and the prevention of injury and dependency. In extremely traumatized patients there may be aggressive and oppressive inner parts that want total control-identifying with childhood aggressors-thus avoiding vulnerability. According to TFP it is vital that this aggression is addressed as belonging to the patients themselves in order to reach some form of integration, balance, and health. This is illustrated in a case description. PMID:23406222

  16. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Dorothea F.; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L.; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M.

    2013-01-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8–12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls. PMID:24265919

  17. Null Arguments in German Child Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the 10% to 20% null subject stage in 3-year-olds in Germany and shows that this stage, though long, is not final. Findings indicate that children in this phase use structures found neither in the state of early null subjects nor in adult German, namely, postverbal referential null subjects. Further study is proposed. (94 references)…

  18. Comparison of mental health between former child soldiers and children never conscripted by armed groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Tol, Wietse A.; Speckman, Rebecca A.; Maharjan, Sujen M.; Worthman, Carol M.; Komproe, Ivan H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Despite child soldiers being considered in need of special mental health interventions, there is a lack of studies investigating the mental health of child soldiers compared with civilian children in armed conflicts. Objective: To compare the mental health status of former child soldiers with children who have never been conscripts of armed groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: A matched-pair cohort study conducted from March through April 2007 in Nepal compared the mental health of 141 former child soldiers to 141 never conscripted children matched on age, sex, education, and ethnicity. Outcome Measures: Depression symptoms were assessed via the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), anxiety symptoms via the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-5), symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) via the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), general psychological difficulties via the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), daily functioning via the Function Impairment (FI) tool, and exposure to traumatic events via Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KIDDIE-SADS) PTSD Traumatic Event Checklist. Results: Participants were a mean of 15.75 years at the time of this study and child soldiers ranged in age from 5 to 16 years at the time of conscription. All participants experienced at least 1 type of trauma. Number (%) of child soldiers meeting cutoff scores were 75 (53.2%) for depression, 65 (46.1%) for anxiety, 78 (55.3%) for PTSD, 55 (39.0%) for psychological difficulties, and 88 (62.4%) for function impairment. Child soldiers had greater odds of meeting cutoff for depression (OR=3.56, 95% CI 2.33—5.43), PTSD (for which we employed stratified analyses because of sex interaction: boys’ OR=3.85, 95% CI 1.77—8.39; girls’ OR=6.33, 95% CI 2.64—15.17), psychological difficulties (OR=2.91, 95% CI=1.53—5.51), and function impairment (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.41—2.96), but no difference for anxiety (OR=1

  19. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    PubMed

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms. PMID:23695004

  20. The Challenge of Living On: Psychopathology and Its Mediating Influence on the Readjustment of Former Child Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Current civil wars are characterized by the increasing involvement of civilian populations and the systematic employment of child soldiers. An example of such wars was the conflict in Northern Uganda, where the war-affected population is still challenged by the reintegration of formerly abducted children and youths. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, using a multistage cluster sampling approach of 1,113 Northern Ugandans aged between 12 and 25 in camps for internally displaced persons and locally validated instruments was conducted to assess symptoms and diagnoses of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and probable Depression in war-affected, as well as formerly abducted individuals. Further objectives were to determine predictors of psychopathology and to relate indicators of maladjustment (i.e., impairments in daily and community functioning, somatic complaints, suicidality, aggressiveness and discrimination) to abduction, level of exposure to violence and psychopathology. 43% of the sample reported abduction by the rebel army. Exposure to violence among this group was higher than for non-abducted youths (t = 28.05; p<.001). PTSD point prevalence rates were 25% among former child soldiers and 7% among the comparison group. High suicidal ideation was present in 16% and 6% respectively. A higher amount of experienced and witnessed event-types (β = . 32. p<.001), loss of first-degree relatives (β = .13. p<.001) and the number of event-types involving forced perpetration (β = .23. p<.001) were identified as risk factors of PTSD symptoms in former child soldiers. The associations between abductee-status and indicators of maladjustment were fully mediated by level of trauma exposure and psychopathology. Results show that child soldiering and its psychological sequelae affect a substantial proportion of children and youths. After release or flight, their readjustment depends at least partly on their level of mental traumatization. PMID

  1. The challenge of living on: psychopathology and its mediating influence on the readjustment of former child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Current civil wars are characterized by the increasing involvement of civilian populations and the systematic employment of child soldiers. An example of such wars was the conflict in Northern Uganda, where the war-affected population is still challenged by the reintegration of formerly abducted children and youths. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, using a multistage cluster sampling approach of 1,113 Northern Ugandans aged between 12 and 25 in camps for internally displaced persons and locally validated instruments was conducted to assess symptoms and diagnoses of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and probable Depression in war-affected, as well as formerly abducted individuals. Further objectives were to determine predictors of psychopathology and to relate indicators of maladjustment (i.e., impairments in daily and community functioning, somatic complaints, suicidality, aggressiveness and discrimination) to abduction, level of exposure to violence and psychopathology. 43% of the sample reported abduction by the rebel army. Exposure to violence among this group was higher than for non-abducted youths (t = 28.05; p<.001). PTSD point prevalence rates were 25% among former child soldiers and 7% among the comparison group. High suicidal ideation was present in 16% and 6% respectively. A higher amount of experienced and witnessed event-types (β = . 32. p<.001), loss of first-degree relatives (β = .13. p<.001) and the number of event-types involving forced perpetration (β = .23. p<.001) were identified as risk factors of PTSD symptoms in former child soldiers. The associations between abductee-status and indicators of maladjustment were fully mediated by level of trauma exposure and psychopathology. Results show that child soldiering and its psychological sequelae affect a substantial proportion of children and youths. After release or flight, their readjustment depends at least partly on their level of mental traumatization. PMID

  2. Designing mental health interventions informed by child development and human biology theory: a social ecology intervention for child soldiers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. PMID:25380194

  3. Social ecology of child soldiers: child, family, and community determinants of mental health, psychosocial well-being, and reintegration in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A; Perera, Em; Karki, Rohit; Koirala, Suraj; Upadhaya, Nawaraj

    2010-11-01

    This study employed a social ecology framework to evaluate psychosocial well-being in a cross-sectional sample of 142 former child soldiers in Nepal. Outcome measures included the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (CPSS), and locally developed measures of functional impairment and reintegration. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the contribution of factors at multiple levels. At the child level, traumatic exposures, especially torture, predicted poor outcomes, while education improved outcomes. At the family level, conflict-related death of a relative, physical abuse in the household, and loss of wealth during the conflict predicted poor outcomes. At the community level, living in high caste Hindu communities predicted lack of reintegration supports. Ultimately, social ecology is well suited to identify intervention foci across ecological levels based on community differences in vulnerability and protective factors. PMID:21088102

  4. Research Review: Psychosocial Adjustment and Mental Health in Former Child Soldiers--A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and scope: This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age less than 18 years) associated with armed forces and armed groups (CAAFAG)--commonly referred to as child soldiers. Methods: PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search PubMed, PsycInfo, JSTOR,…

  5. Group Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy with Former Child Soldiers and Other War-Affected Boys in the DR Congo: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, John; O'Callaghan, Paul; Shannon, Ciaran; Black, Alastair; Eakin, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been home to the world's deadliest conflict since World War II and is reported to have the largest number of child soldiers in the world. Despite evidence of the debilitating impact of war, no group-based mental health or psychosocial intervention has been evaluated in a randomised…

  6. "And so They Ordered Me to Kill a Person": Conceptualizing the Impacts of Child Soldiering on the Development of Moral Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainryb, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 child soldiers serve in various armed groups around the world, and become directly implicated in the perpetration of kidnappings, killings, and torture. Considering that children construct moral concepts and a sense of themselves as moral beings in the context of their everyday interactions with others, the concern with how…

  7. Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p = 0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences

  8. Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E; Williams, David R; Ellis, B Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups--commonly referred to as child soldiers--often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  9. Past horrors, present struggles: The role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone☆

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E.; Williams, David R.; Ellis, B. Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups–commonly referred to as child soldiers–often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  10. Underage and Under Fire: An Enquiry into the Use of Child Soldiers 1994-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoiskar, Astri Halsan

    2001-01-01

    Identifies, via analysis of 165 countries, the circumstances under which some nations' armed forces or groups employed children in armed conflicts during the period 1994-98. Concludes that child participation is primarily linked to repressive and unstable regimes and to protracted conflicts. Suggests child employment reduces rather than enhances…

  11. The use of child soldiers in war with special reference to Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Harendra de Silva, D G

    2013-11-01

    Throughout history, the involvement of children in military operations has been extensively documented. The issue of child conscription is multi-faceted, with very few medical but more sociological aspects, including terrorism, politics, economics, history, culture and religion amongst other factors. Many United Nations Instruments as well as the International Criminal Court have documented that child conscription is detrimental to a child's development, violates Child Rights, and is a war crime. Efforts by international bodies to address conscription as child abuse have failed since the process is undertaken by groups rather than individuals, and because the law has no access to the perpetrators. The background to a conflict in Sri Lanka and various ethno-religious and political factors are discussed. The role of the diaspora community, the internet and various fund-raising mechanisms for war are discussed. The history of child conscription and studies examining reasons and the tasks assigned to them as conscripts as well as abusive aspects, especially in relation to emotional abuse, neglect and physical harm, are discussed. Documentation of conscription as child abuse needing a definition including a new definition of 'suicide by proxy' is stressed. The importance of culture and history, and the manipulation of the idealistic mind are discussed in the context of 'setting the stage' for child conscription. The toy weapon industry and the real arms industry, especially small arms, are important in maintaining conflicts, especially in the developing world. The conflicts of interests of members of the UN Security Council and the 'peace-keepers' of the world is discussed. PMID:24070161

  12. When combat prevents PTSD symptoms—results from a survey with former child soldiers in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human beings from time immemorial have eradicated neighbouring tribes, languages, religions, and cultures. In war and crisis, the cumulative exposure to traumatic stress constitutes a predictor of the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, homicide has evolved as a profitable strategy in man, leading to greater reproductive success. Thus, an evolutionary advantage of perpetrating violence would be eliminated if the exposure to aggressive acts would traumatize the perpetrator. We argue that perpetrating violence could actually ‘immunize’ a person against adverse effects of traumatic stressors, significantly reducing the risk of developing PTSD. Methods We surveyed 42 former child soldiers in Northern Uganda that have all been abducted by the Lord Resistance Army (LRA) as well as 41 non-abducted controls. Results Linear regression analyses revealed a dose–response effect between the exposure to traumatic events and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) sum score. However, the vulnerability to develop trauma related symptoms was reduced in those with higher scores on the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS). This effect was more pronounced in the formerly abducted group. Conclusions We conclude that attraction to aggression when being exposed to the victim’s struggling can lead to a substantial risk-reduction for developing PTSD. PMID:22583755

  13. War experiences, general functioning and barriers to care among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study

    PubMed Central

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Jones, Peter; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Abbott, Rosemary; Ayella-Ataro, Paul Stephen; Amone, Jackson; Ovuga, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to war is associated with considerable risks for long-term mental health problems (MHP) and poor functioning. Yet little is known about functioning and mental health service (MHS) use among former child soldiers (FCS). We assessed whether different categories of war experiences predict functioning and perceived need for, sources of and barriers to MHS among FCS. Methods Data were drawn from an on-going War-affected Youths (WAYS) cohort study of FCS in Uganda. Participants completed questionnaires about war experiences, functioning and perceived need for, sources of and barriers to MHS. Regression analyses and parametric tests were used to assess between-group differences. Results Deaths, material losses, threat to loved ones and sexual abuse significantly predicted poor functioning. FCS who received MHS function better than those who did not. Females reported more emotional and behavioural problems and needed MHS more than males. FCS who function poorly indicated more barriers to MHS than those who function well. Stigma, fear of family break-up and lack of health workers were identified as barriers to MHS. Conclusions Various war experiences affect functioning differently. A significant need for MHS exists amidst barriers to MHS. Nevertheless, FCS are interested in receiving MHS and believe it would benefit them. PMID:24408904

  14. Mother and Soldier: Raising a Child with a Disability in a Low-Income Military Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nancy E.; Wall, Shavaun M.; Liebow, Harriet; Sabatino, Christine A.; Timberlake, Elizabeth M.; Farber, Michaela Z.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of six low-income women, each of whom is raising a child with a suspected or diagnosed disability while also serving as an active member of the armed forces. Their experiences as they attempt to strike a balance between the highly demanding work role of the military and their role as a mother of a child…

  15. Constraints on Parameter Setting: A Grammatical Analysis of Some Acquisition Stages in German Child Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald

    1991-01-01

    Argues that to improve the parameter model as a theory of language acquisition it has to be constrained in several ways. Results on the acquisition of subject-verb agreement, verb placement, empty subjects, and negation in German child language are presented. (55 references) (JL)

  16. Research Review: Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers – a systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and scope This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age <18 years) associated with armed forces and armed groups (CAAFAG) – commonly referred to as child soldiers. Methods PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search PubMed, PsycInfo, JSTOR, and Sociological Abstracts in February 2012 for all articles on former child soldiers and CAAFAG. Twenty-one quantitative studies from 10 countries were analyzed for author, year of publication, journal, objectives, design, selection population, setting, instruments, prevalence estimates, and associations with war experiences. Opinion pieces, editorials, and qualitative studies were deemed beyond the scope of this study. Quality of evidence was rated according to the Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR). Findings According to SAQOR criteria, among the available published studies, eight studies were of high quality, four were of moderate quality, and the remaining nine were of low quality. Common limitations were lack of validated mental health measures, unclear methodology including undefined sampling approaches, and failure to report missing data. Only five studies included a comparison group of youth not involved with armed forces/armed groups, and only five studies assessed mental health at more than one point in time. Across studies, a number of risk and protective factors were associated with postconflict psychosocial adjustment and social reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the

  17. childLex: a lexical database of German read by children.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Sascha; Würzner, Kay-Michael; Heister, Julian; Geyken, Alexander; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    This article introduces childLex, an online database of German read by children. childLex is based on a corpus of children's books and comprises 10 million words that were syntactically annotated and lemmatized. childLex reports linguistic norms for lexical, superlexical, and sublexical variables in three different age groups: 6-8 (grades 1-2), 9-10 (grades 3-4), and 11-12 years (grades 5-6). Here, we describe how childLex was collected and analyzed. In addition, we provide information about the distributions of word frequency, word length, and orthographic neighborhood size, as well as their intercorrelations. Finally, we explain how childLex can be accessed using a Web interface. PMID:25319039

  18. Soldiering on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Coeli

    2010-01-01

    As community colleges welcome an influx of veterans returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, administrators must focus on helping these soldiers--many who are pursuing higher education for the first time--obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in a changing economy. The process starts the moment these men and women set foot on…

  19. War experiences and psychotic symptoms among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of post-war hardships – the WAYS Study

    PubMed Central

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Otim, Balaam Nyeko; Opio, George; Ovuga, Emilio; Meiser-Stedman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms have been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and war experiences. However, the relationships between types of war experiences, the onset and course of psychotic symptoms, and post-war hardships in child soldiers have not been investigated. This study assessed whether various types of war experiences contribute to psychotic symptoms differently and whether post-war hardships mediated the relationship between war experiences and later psychotic symptoms. In an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (the War-Affected Youths Survey), 539 (61% male) former child soldiers were assessed for psychotic symptoms, post-war hardships, and previous war experiences. Regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of different types of war experiences on psychotic symptoms and the mediating role of post-war hardships in the relations between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms. The findings yielded ‘witnessing violence’, ‘deaths and bereavement’, ‘involvement in hostilities’, and ‘sexual abuse’ as types of war experiences that significantly and independently predict psychotic symptoms. Exposure to war experiences was related to psychotic symptoms through post-war hardships (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.10, 0.25]) accounting for 50% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relation between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms attenuated but remained significant (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.12, 0.26]). Types of war experiences should be considered when evaluating risks for psychotic symptoms in the course of providing emergency humanitarian services in post-conflict settings. Interventions should consider post-war hardships as key determinants of psychotic symptoms among war-affected youths. PMID:24718435

  20. Scratching the Surface: A Comparison of Girl Soldiers from Three Geographic Regions of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…

  1. Haunted by ghosts: prevalence, predictors and outcomes of spirit possession experiences among former child soldiers and war-affected civilians in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena

    2012-08-01

    Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N = 1113 youths and young adults aged between 12 and 25 years in war-affected regions of Northern Uganda we examined the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of cen, a local variant of spirit possession. Randomly selected participants were interviewed using a scale of cen, measures of psychopathology (PTSD and depression) as well as indicators of functional outcome on different levels, including suicide risk, daily activities, perceived discrimination, physical complaints and aggression. We found that cen was more common among former child soldiers then among subjects without a history of abduction. Cen was related to extreme levels of traumatic events and uniquely predicted functional outcome even when the effects of PTSD and depression were controlled for. Our findings show that a long-lasting war that is accompanied by the proliferation of spiritual and magical beliefs and propaganda can lead to high levels of harmful spirit possession. In addition, we provide evidence for the incremental validity of spirit possession as a trauma-related psychological disorder in this context. PMID:22580073

  2. "Soldier of Democracy" or "Enemy of the State"? The Rhetorical Construction of Teacher through No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Rebecca A.; Beutel, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how the political discourse surrounding No Child Left Behind (NCLB) rhetorically constructs teachers and teaching. Using the prepared speeches and press releases from the Bush Administration (January 2001-December 2008) we illustrate that teachers were framed as both allies to the federal government (as supporters of NCLB and…

  3. Turnings and Epiphanies: Militarization, Life Histories, and the Making and Unmaking of Two Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam; Maclure, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The militarization of children and their active participation in conflict continues to be a global phenomenon affecting hundreds of thousands of children. Yet many of the realities of child soldiery remain unclear and continue to be under-researched. In particular, the process of militarization and how it impinges on the identities and actions of…

  4. Child-Free and Unmarried: Changes in the Life Planning of Young East German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Marina A.

    2004-01-01

    Using evidence from demographic and survey data, this research examines how one decade of post-socialism has changed the life planning of young East German women. Aggregate data reflect marriage and fertility postponement and increased nonmarital birth rates and cohabitation. The analysis shows East German women's stubbornness (Dolling, 2003) in…

  5. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  6. Polynomial Modeling of Child and Adult Intonation in German Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruiter, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    In a data set of 291 spontaneous utterances from German 5-year-olds, 7-year-olds and adults, nuclear pitch contours were labeled manually using the GToBI annotation system. Ten different contour types were identified.The fundamental frequency (F0) of these contours was modeled using third-order orthogonal polynomials, following an approach similar…

  7. Structural and Lexical Case in Child German: Evidence from Language-Impaired and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbeiss, Sonja; Bartke, Susanne; Clahsen, Harald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the system of case marking in two groups of German speaking children, 5 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 5 typically developing (TD) children matched to the children with SLI on a general measure of language development. The data from both groups demonstrate high accuracy scores for structural case…

  8. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  9. [Expressed emotion, mother-child relationship, and ADHD symptoms in preschool- a study on the validity of the German Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample].

    PubMed

    Schloß, Susan; Schramm, Magdalena; Christiansen, Hanna; Scholz, Kristin-Katharina; Schuh, Lioba Carmen; Döpfner, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Pauli-Pott, Ursula

    2015-11-01

    An inadequate parent-child relationship with hostility, low warmth, and a lack of responsiveness/sensitivity on the part of the primary caregiver often accompanies a child's externalizing disorders and predicts a negative developmental course. The Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample (PFMSS) was developed to enable an economic assessment of components of an inadequate parent-child relationship. In this article we investigate aspects of the validity of the German version of the PFMSS. We analyze whether the PFMSS scales are associated with observed maternal sensitivity, symptoms of attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and maternal depressive symptoms. The sample consists of n = 114 families with 4- to 5-year-old children, whereof n = 65 (57 %) show heightened ADHD-symptoms. The families were recruited from local kindergardens. Maternal sensitivity was assessed by observing the mother-child interaction at home. ADHD, ODD, and maternal depressive ~symptoms were measured by clinical interviews and questionnaires. Most of the PFMSS scales showed the expected associations with maternal sensitivity, ADHD, and ODD symptoms of the child. The German PFMSS thus validly captures significant components of an inadequate mother-child relationship within the context of preschool externalizing behavior problems. PMID:26602046

  10. The Student Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Educating America's service men and women has long been a core mission of many community colleges, especially in cities and towns that host military bases and installations. Today, a soldier, sailor, or Marine can be stationed anywhere in the world and continue his or her education with the help of distance learning initiatives. Whether a soldier…

  11. Six legged soldiers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jeffrey Lockwood has written a fascinating if at times depressing exploration of the role of insects in warfare. Dr. Lockwood reviews the martial use of insects, starting with stinging bees and wasps, which were in ancient and Medieval times widely used in war to induce panic among enemy soldiers. ...

  12. Psychometric Properties of the German Version of the Child Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (CPTCI-GER).

    PubMed

    de Haan, Anke; Petermann, Franz; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-02-01

    Dysfunctional trauma-related cognitions are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The psychometric properties of the German version of the Child Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (CPTCI-GER) were assessed in a sample of 223 children and adolescents (7-16 years) with a history of different traumatic events. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original two-factor structure--permanent and disturbing change (CPTCI-PC) and fragile person in a scary world (CPTCI-SW). The total scale and both subscales showed good internal consistency. Participants with PTSD had significantly more dysfunctional trauma-related cognitions than those without PTSD. Dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions correlated significantly with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS; r = .62), depression (r = .71), and anxiety (r = .67). The CPTCI-GER has good psychometric properties and may facilitate evaluation of treatments and further research on the function of trauma-related cognitions in children and adolescents. (Partial) correlations provide empirical support for the combined DSM-5 symptom cluster negative alterations in cognitions and mood. PMID:25990307

  13. Soldiers in a Stingless Bee.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Benedikt; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Menezes, Cristiano; Nascimento, Fabio S; Engels, Wolf; Grüter, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of workers into morphological subcastes (e.g., soldiers) represents an important evolutionary transition and is thought to improve division of labor in social insects. Soldiers occur in many ant and termite species, where they make up a small proportion of the workforce. A common assumption of worker caste evolution is that soldiers are behavioral specialists. Here, we report the first test of the "rare specialist" hypothesis in a eusocial bee. Colonies of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula are defended by a small group of morphologically differentiated soldiers. Contrary to the rare specialist hypothesis, we found that soldiers worked more (+34%-41%) and performed a greater variety of tasks (+23%-34%) than other workers, particularly early in life. Our results suggest a "rare elite" function of soldiers in T. angustula, that is, that they perform a disproportionately large amount of the work. Division of labor was based on a combination of temporal and physical castes, but soldiers transitioned faster from one task to the next. We discuss why the rare specialist assumption might not hold in species with a moderate degree of worker differentiation. PMID:27277408

  14. Emotional ambivalence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers during military operations

    PubMed Central

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Walter, Steffen; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Traue, Harald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the extent to which a specific mechanism of emotion regulation – namely, ambivalence concerning the expressiveness of German soldiers’ emotions – affects the severity of PTSD symptoms after a military operation. Methodology: A survey was conducted at three points in time among 66 soldiers deployed on military crisis operations. The Harvard Trauma Questionaire (HTQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ-G18), and a questionnaire on the particular stress of German soldiers during military operations were used. Results: The study showed a significant correlation between emotional ambivalence and traumatization. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjective stress of soldiers leading up to deployment is more pronounced when emotional ambivalence is stronger in the context of military operations. This particular stress is greater before and during the military operation than after. Compared to a male control sample, the average AEQ-G18 scores of the soldier sample examined here are considerably lower. Conclusion: This pilot study clearly indicates that the AEQ-G18 could be a suitable predictor of the psychological burden on soldiers. The correlations between emotional ambivalence on the one hand and the particular and post-traumatic stressors on the other hand are not only statistically significant in the present pilot study, but may also be relevant as risk factors. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct more extensive studies on soldiers participating in military operations to verify the results of this pilot study. PMID:23798980

  15. Illness in a redeployed soldier.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dana R

    2007-05-01

    Overseas deployments place military personnel at risk for tropical diseases not typically observed on the U.S. mainland. This case describes the first reported case of brucellosis returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. A 31-year-old infantry soldier complained of a 6-week history of headaches, relapsing fever, and constitutional symptoms since returning from Iraq. This soldier was determined to have the only reported case of brucellosis, but was one of many soldiers at risk from eating unpasteurized cheese on the local economy. Although malaria and leishmaniasis continue to be the most common deployment-related illnesses, brucellosis must also be considered in the differential of any redeployed soldier with headache, fever, and body aches. Public health as well as command elements must reinforce their role in preventing exposure to this pathogen. PMID:17521107

  16. Reflections on suicide among soldiers.

    PubMed

    Jobes, David A

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers the Nock et al. review article (this issue) and provides additional perspectives pertaining to current concerns about Soldier suicides. The review article is relevant to the current Army STARRS research project, which is one of the most significant scientific undertakings in the history of suicide research. The review is an outstanding and thorough consideration of psychosocial risk and protective factors that may be related to Soldier suicide. While Army STARRS is a landmark effort, the author does note the need for innovation and alternative approaches to addressing alarming increases in Soldier suicides. Indeed, the dramatic increase seen in Soldier suicides over the past several years poses one of the more vexing challenges that the field of suicidology has faced to date. To this end, the author explores some alternative considerations that were not particularly featured in the review article. Some of these considerations include perspectives on military culture in relation to conventional suicide prevention as well as exciting developments emerging from clinical trial treatment research using suicidal military samples. It is argued that the magnitude of the current problem requires both innovative approaches and a sound scientific foundation to meaningfully impact and reduce the unprecedentedly high rates of Soldier suicide. PMID:23631543

  17. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ning; Zhang, Jianjiang; Song, Zhixin; Tang, Jinhua; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP)-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters. PMID:26633442

  18. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ning; Zhang, Jianjiang; Song, Zhixin; Tang, Jinhua; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP)-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters. PMID:26633442

  19. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  20. The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

  1. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  2. Left Behind: Children of Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerles, Joe F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…

  3. Early Pragmatic Differentiation in Japanese and German: A Case Study of a Developing Trilingual Child in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nibun, Yukari; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    While acquisition of more than one language from birth is a relatively common phenomenon, whether children under two years of age use their languages in a differentiated manner has not yet been established. The current study investigates the pragmatic differentiation of a child who lives in Australia and was acquiring two minority languages,…

  4. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless. PMID:26864226

  5. Identification of Missing Norwegian World War II Soldiers, in Karelia Russia.

    PubMed

    Morild, Inge; Hamre, Stian S; Huel, Rene; Parsons, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    This article presents the multidisciplinary effort in trying to identify the skeletal remains of 100 Norwegian soldiers serving in the German army, killed in Karelia Russia in 1944, from the recovery of the remains through the final identification using DNA. Of the 150 bone samples sent for DNA testing, 93 DNA profiles were obtained relating to 57 unique individuals. The relatives could not be directly contacted as the soldiers were considered as traitors to Norway; therefore, only 45 reference samples, relating to 42 cases of the missing, were donated. DNA matches for 14 soldiers and 12 additional body part re-associations for these individuals were found. Another 24 bone samples were re-associated with 16 individuals, but no familial match was found. More than six decades after the end of WWII, DNA analysis can significantly contribute to the identification of the remains. PMID:25808977

  6. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T.; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Results Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−), power (−), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches. PMID:24808938

  7. Singing about Soldiers in German Schools, from 1890 to 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Katharine

    2016-01-01

    A crucial historical intersection of war and education asks how schooling contributed to convincing people to fight and to sacrifice their own lives, and those of their loved ones, in wars. This article addresses this question by asking how primary schools, in one country, namely Germany, over several tumultuous generations, used songs to teach…

  8. [The foundation of the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education – Paul Schroeder’s road to foundation chairman].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Klaus; Fangerau, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of this professional association lays its focus on the developments which contributed to the society’s formal foundation during the time of the patient killings in Germany after 1939. Methodologically the study follows strategies of historical network analysis including the main actors of the foundation process. The foundation of this society can be seen as the result of the interaction of a) the Reichs-Health-Agency, its president Hans Reiter, and Fritz Rott as National Socialist health politicians, b) the scientific development geared to this policy of a young discipline that shared its knowledge base as well as its medical ‘object’ with established specialties like psychiatry and pediatrics, c) a postulated need for character studies, prognosis and selection, and d) personal as well as professional-political interests of the main protagonists Schroeder and Villinger. Once more it is obvious that medicine and politics were not only interwoven, but in certain areas in accordance with each other. Borders could rather be established between social regulatory “instances”. The foundation of the DGKH (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinderpsychiatrie und Heilpädagogik; German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education) is an example of a ‘radical regulatory reasoning’ according to Raphael, that by means of “institutional arrangements at medium level” (Raphael, 2001) was supposed to implement the ‘new National-Socialist order’. PMID:26618481

  9. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  10. Paediatrics and the doctor-soldier.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2012-08-01

    Sick and injured children, like combatants wounded by shot and shell in war, are disproportionately represented in the tallies of both man-made and national disasters. Paediatricians have a particularly proud heritage of military service, a nexus dating in Australia from the early 19th century. This paper traces this link between service to children in peacetime and the care of servicemen, women and children in times of war and disaster. The extraordinary record of Australian 'paediatric' doctors who also served in the Gallipoli Campaign (1915) is documented as an illustration of this duality. Paediatricians who serve in the Defence Reserves and in civilian non-government organisations which respond to disasters and civil wars have special credentials in their advocacy for the protection of children enmeshed in conflict or disaster. Such applies particularly to the banning of the recruitment and use of child soldiers; support for children caught up in refugee and illegal immigrant confrontations; and continued advocacy for greater international compliance with the Ottawa Convention to ban the use of anti-personnel landmines. Volunteering for such service must occur in cold 'down time', ensuring that paediatricians are trained in disaster and conflict response, when such challenges inevitably confront the paediatricians of the future. PMID:22471873

  11. The Life of a Civil War Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

  12. [The former soldiers becoming first aid trainers].

    PubMed

    Prieur, Joël

    2015-12-01

    The Order of Malta France is organising, through an innovative partnership with the French Army, the training of first aid instructors aimed at former soldiers injured in combat. One soldier, who received multiple wounds in Lebanon in 2011, describes his training experience. PMID:26654504

  13. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  14. In-patient, short-term group psychotherapy – a therapeutic option for Bundeswehr soldiers?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Peter; Kröger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. Method: 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. Results: In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales therapy resulted in significant improvements as compared with the initial values. The control group did not show any significant changes, the therapy group was significantly superior to the control group in the scales of MMPI-K and the GSI-Scale of the SCL-90-R. For soldiers with a stress-reactive disorder (F43), no differences in efficacy could be identified compared with the other diagnosis groups. Conclusion: The results were considered to indicate that in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy may, in combination with additional setting components, be helpful in improving psychological symptoms in German soldiers. The indication range of group therapy offered to Bundeswehr soldiers should be expanded to also include primary prophylaxis and the treatment of mental-health problems following deployments abroad, if applicable. PMID:19742280

  15. Effects of soldier-derived terpenes on soldier caste differentiation in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Schmelz, Eric A; Rocca, James R; Scharf, Michael E

    2009-02-01

    Primer pheromones play key roles in regulating division of labor, which is a fundamental and defining aspect of insect sociality. Primer pheromones are chemical messengers that transmit hormone-like messages among colony members; in recipients, these messages can either induce or suppress phenotypic caste differentiation. Here, we investigated soldier caste-derived chemicals as possible primer pheromones in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, a species for which no primer pheromones have yet been identified. We determined that soldier head extracts (SHE), when provided to totipotent workers along with the insect morphogenetic juvenile hormone (JH), significantly enhanced soldier caste differentiation. When applied alone, however, SHE had no impacts on caste differentiation, survivorship, or any other aspect of worker biology. These findings support a function of soldier chemicals as primer pheromones that enhance the action of the endogenous JH. In accord with previous studies, gamma-cadinene and the corresponding aldehyde, gamma-cadinenal, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses as the two most abundant components of R. flavipes SHE. Validative bioassays with commercially available cadinene confirmed activity. Several other terpenes, previously identified in R. flavipes soldiers, also were found to be active. These findings reveal a novel primer pheromone-like function for soldier-derived terpenes in termites and further suggest convergent evolution of terpene functions in enhancing JH-dependent soldier caste differentiation. PMID:19198947

  16. Venomous protease of aphid soldier for colony defense.

    PubMed

    Kutsukake, Mayako; Shibao, Harunobu; Nikoh, Naruo; Morioka, Mizue; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Ohgiya, Satoru; Fukatsu, Takema

    2004-08-01

    In social aphids, morphological, behavioral, and physiological differences between soldiers and normal insects are attributed to differences in gene expression between them, because they are clonal offspring parthenogenetically produced by the same mothers. By using cDNA subtraction, we identified a soldier-specific cysteine protease of the family cathepsin B in a social aphid, Tuberaphis styraci, with a second-instar soldier caste. The cathepsin B gene was specifically expressed in soldiers and first-instar nymphs destined to be soldiers. The cathepsin B protein was preferentially produced in soldiers and showed a protease activity typical of cathepsin B. The cathepsin B mRNA and protein were localized in the midgut of soldiers. For colony defense, soldiers attack enemies with their stylet, which causes paralysis and death of the victims. Notably, after soldiers attacked moth larvae, the cathepsin B protein was detected from the paralyzed larvae. Injection of purified recombinant cathepsin B protein certainly killed the recipient moth larvae. From these results, we concluded that the cathepsin B protein is a major component of the aphid venom produced by soldiers of T. styraci. Soldier-specific expression of the cathepsin B gene was found in other social aphids of the genus Tuberaphis. The soldier-specific cathepsin B gene showed an accelerated molecular evolution probably caused by the action of positive selection, which had been also known from venomous proteins of other animals. PMID:15277678

  17. Soldier/robot team acoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The future battlefield will require an unprecedented level of automation in which soldier-operated, autonomous, and semi-autonomous ground, air, and sea platforms along with mounted and dismounted soldiers will function as a tightly coupled team. Sophisticated robotic platforms with diverse sensor suites will be an integral part of the Objective Force, and must be able to collaborate not only amongst themselves but also with their manned partners. The Army Research Laboratory has developed a robot-based acoustic detection system that will detect and localize on an impulsive noise event, such as a sniper's weapon firing. Additionally, acoustic sensor arrays worn on a soldier's helmet or equipment can enhance his situational awareness and RSTA capabilities. The Land Warrior or Objective Force Warrior body-worn computer can detect tactically significant impulsive signatures from bullets, mortars, artillery, and missiles or spectral signatures from tanks, helicopters, UAVs, and mobile robots. Time-difference-of-arrival techniques can determine a sound's direction of arrival, while head attitude sensors can instantly determine the helmet orientation at time of capture. With precision GPS location of the soldier, along with the locations of other soldiers, robots, or unattended ground sensors that heard the same event, triangulation techniques can produce an accurate location of the target. Data from C-4 explosions and 0.50-Caliber shots shows that both helmet and robot systems can localize on the same event. This provides an awesome capability - mobile robots and soldiers working together on an ever-changing battlespace to detect the enemy and improve the survivability, mobility, and lethality of our future warriors.

  18. [Reception and involvement of soldiers' families].

    PubMed

    Vautier, Virginie; Delahaye, Aline; Gorin, Cécile; Charlot, Annette; Clervoy, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Faced with a mental health crisis, the intervention of nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists is rarely limited to an individual approach. Our team has chosen to structure and systematise the involvement of the families of hospitalised soldiers.A family psychotherapy consultation has also been reinforced in orderto favourthe inclusion of the families of soldiers in crisis. These two tools are complementary and have enabled us to enrich the multidisciplinary work within the unit, as well as the relationship with the patients and families confronted with a crisis. PMID:25975165

  19. 32 CFR 584.2 - Family support and child custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Family support and child custody. 584.2 Section... SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.2 Family support and child custody. (a) General. (1) This chapter requires soldiers to provide financial support to family members and to obey court orders on...

  20. 32 CFR 584.2 - Family support and child custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Family support and child custody. 584.2 Section... SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.2 Family support and child custody. (a) General. (1) This chapter requires soldiers to provide financial support to family members and to obey court orders on...

  1. 32 CFR 584.2 - Family support and child custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Family support and child custody. 584.2 Section... SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.2 Family support and child custody. (a) General. (1) This chapter requires soldiers to provide financial support to family members and to obey court orders on...

  2. 32 CFR 584.2 - Family support and child custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Family support and child custody. 584.2 Section... SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.2 Family support and child custody. (a) General. (1) This chapter requires soldiers to provide financial support to family members and to obey court orders on...

  3. 32 CFR 584.2 - Family support and child custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Family support and child custody. 584.2 Section... SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.2 Family support and child custody. (a) General. (1) This chapter requires soldiers to provide financial support to family members and to obey court orders on...

  4. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  5. Letters of a Slave Turned Union Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humanities, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the influx of Black soldiers into the Union army following the Emancipation Proclamation. Concentrates on the case of Private Spotswood Rice. Provides a short history of Rice, including copies of Rice's letters to his enslaved daughters, the daughter's slaveholders, and an angry retort from the slaveowner to the federal commander in…

  6. Soldiers: A Suitable Case for Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Examines the soldier's world in order to illuminate their potential psychotherapeutic need. Briefly explores the history of therapeutic treatment from the Russo-Japanese War to modern conflicts as well as covering operations other than war, such as peacekeeping in Northern Ireland. Specific conditions are considered, and some general points are…

  7. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  8. The black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), used to estimate the postmortem interval in a case in Amapá State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Luz, José R; Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Constantino, Reginaldo

    2008-03-01

    The black soldier-fly (Hermetia illucens) is a generalist detritivore which is commonly present in corpses in later stages of decomposition and may be useful in forensic entomology. This paper describes the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) based on the life cycle of the black soldier-fly in a case in northern Brazil. A male child was abducted from his home and 42 days later his corpse was found in an advanced stage of decay. Two black soldier-fly larvae were found associated with the body. The larvae emerged as adults after 25-26 days. Considering the development cycle of H. illucens, the date of oviposition was estimated as 24-25 days after abduction. Since H. illucens usually (but not always) colonizes corpses in more advanced stages of decay, this estimate is consistent with the hypothesis that the child was killed immediately after abduction. PMID:18366584

  9. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore, German departments must…

  10. Latino Soldiering: The Red, White, and Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Latinos--particularly Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans--are known as exemplary soldiers. The record shows they have always answered the call to duty proudly and willingly no matter the cause or the burden. That is why they have won so many Congressional Medals of Honor. There are currently about 85,000 Hispanics on active military duty.…

  11. Dealing with the disturbed soldier in primary care.

    PubMed

    Carter, P A; Willman, A S; Kuber, A

    2003-06-01

    Medical Officers are often called to review violent or disturbed soldiers in barracks or in their homes. Management of the acutely disturbed soldier differs from the acutely disturbed civilian in that, whilst drug therapy will be largely similar, application of the Mental Health Acts (1) varies depending on the soldier's situation and, in some cases, the Acts do not apply at all. In addition, the rules on the arrest and detention of soldiers have changed considerably since the introduction of Human Rights legislation (2). PMID:12929517

  12. MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL SHOWING INSCRIPTION ON FRONT ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  13. Conscious Presence and Self Control as a measure of situational awareness in soldiers – A validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and

  14. Epidemiology of colds in military units during a German out-of-area mission in Kosovo (former Yugoslavia).

    PubMed

    Völker, Hans-Ullrich

    2007-08-01

    In the opinion of soldiers and unit surgeons, specific environmental and climatic conditions in the mission in the former Yugoslavia increase the incidence of severe infections of the respiratory tract (so-called "Kosovo Cough"). Proof is pending. Thus, colds were analyzed during Bundeswehr operations in the province of Kosovo. Over a period of 4 weeks in January 2003, all German soldiers who reported for medical treatment or requested medicine were registered. Patients provided information about their disease as well as information about smoking habits, etc. Two hundred three soldiers (9.2% of all) were treated for a cold. Although 72 soldiers (35.5%) complained about a subjectively perceived unusually long and severe clinical course, all infections proved uncomplicated from an objective viewpoint. The findings are inconsistent with an increased incidence of colds. There was no indication of the existence of the so-called "Kosovo Cough." PMID:17803087

  15. Integrated soldier power and data system (ISPDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, Roman; Forrester, Thomas; Lee, Kang; Stephens, Robert; Lai, Anthony; Zahzah, Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the body-worn Integrated Soldier Power and Data System (ISPDS), a configurable node for plug-in wired or wireless server/client or peer-to-peer computing with accommodations for power, sensor I/O interfaces, and energy harvesting. The enabling technology increases the efficacy of uniformed personnel and first responders and provides an option for reducing force structure associated with the need for hardware network infrastructure to enable a mobile digital communications architecture for dismounted troops. The ISPDS system addresses the DoD's need for an "intelligent" power control system in an effort to increase mission duration and maximize the first responders and warfighter's effectiveness without concern for the available energy resources (i.e., batteries). ISPDS maximizes durability and survivability, assesses influences that affect performance, and provides the network backbone and mobile node hardware. POC is producing two vest-integrated variants, one each for the U.S. Army PEO Ground Soldier and the Air Soldier, with each including state-of-the-art low-profile and robust wearable connectors, cabling, and harnesses, and an integrated low-profile power manager and conformal battery for data and power distribution. The innovative intelligent power controller (IPC), in the form of the ISPDS firmware and power sensing and control electronics, will enable ISPDS to optimize power levels both automatically and in accordance with manually set preferences. The IPC module is power dense and efficient, and adaptively provides lossless transfer of available harvested photovoltaic energy to the battery. The integrated systems were tested for suitable electrical, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and environmental performance as outlined in military standards such as MIL-STD- 810G and MIL STD-461F.

  16. Soldier evaluation of the virtual reality Iraq.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A; Rizzo, Albert A; Swanson, Robert; Duma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Repeated combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan are resulting in increased rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel. Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for this disorder, some personnel do not significantly respond to treatment, possibly due to poor activation of the trauma memory or a lack of emotional engagement during therapy. In addition, some service members do not seek mental healthcare due to treatment stigma. Researchers recently developed a virtual reality (VR) Iraq to attempt to improve activation of the traumatic memory during exposure therapy and to provide a treatment approach that may be more appealing to some service members, relative to traditional face-to-face talk therapy. Initial validation of the application requires an assessment of how well it represents the experiences of previously deployed service members. This study evaluated the realism of the VR Iraq application according to the subjective evaluation of 93 U.S. Army soldiers who returned from Iraq in the last year. Those screening negative for PTSD used and evaluated a VR tactical convoy and a VR dismounted patrol in a simulated Middle Eastern city. Results indicated that 86% of soldiers rated the overall realism of the VR convoy as ranging from adequate to excellent. Eighty-two percent of soldiers reported adequate-to-excellent overall realism of the city environment. Results provide evidence that the VR Iraq presents a realistic context in which VR exposure therapy can be conducted. However, clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of VR exposure therapy for Iraq veterans with PTSD. PMID:19199854

  17. 15. NORTHEAST CORNER, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD THE GYMNASIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHEAST CORNER, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD THE GYMNASIUM, SHOWING EAST DITCH AND A SECTION OF LOW WALL. No date, probably ca. 1935. Photographer unknown. Original silver gelatin print measures 13.1 cm by 7.3 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  18. 13. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home Near Sandusky, (New York: The Albertype Co.), 1894) VIEW EAST, COTTAGE 'L', (UPPER LEFT COTTAGE 'F', COTTAGE 'G'; UPPER RIGHT COTTAGE UNKNOWN) - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, Cottage L, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  19. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  20. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  1. Posttraumatic headaches in civilians, soldiers, and athletes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randolph W

    2014-05-01

    Posttraumatic headaches are one of the most common and controversial secondary headache types. After mild head injury, more than 50% of people develop a postconcussion syndrome which has been controversial for more than 150 years. Headache is estimated as present in 30% to 90% of patients after mild head injury. Most headaches are of the tension type, although migraines can increase in frequency or occur acutely or chronically de novo. A review is provided of headaches in civilians, soldiers after blast trauma, athletes, and post-craniotomy including pathogenesis. The treatments are the same as for the primary phenotypes. PMID:24703532

  2. Constrictive Bronchiolitis in Soldiers Returning from Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    King, Matthew S.; Eisenberg, Rosana; Newman, John H.; Tolle, James J.; Harrell, Frank E.; Nian, Hui; Ninan, Mathew; Lambright, Eric S.; Sheller, James R.; Johnson, Joyce E.; Miller, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Background In this descriptive case series, 80 soldiers from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, with inhalational exposures during service in Iraq and Afghanistan were evaluated for dyspnea on exertion that prevented them from meeting the U.S. Army's standards for physical fitness. Methods The soldiers underwent extensive evaluation of their medical and exposure history, physical examination, pulmonary-function testing, and high-resolution computed tomography (CT). A total of 49 soldiers underwent thoracoscopic lung biopsy after noninvasive evaluation did not provide an explanation for their symptoms. Data on cardiopulmonary-exercise and pulmonary-function testing were compared with data obtained from historical military control subjects. Results Among the soldiers who were referred for evaluation, a history of inhalational exposure to a 2003 sulfur-mine fire in Iraq was common but not universal. Of the 49 soldiers who underwent lung biopsy, all biopsy samples were abnormal, with 38 soldiers having changes that were diagnostic of constrictive bronchiolitis. In the remaining 11 soldiers, diagnoses other than constrictive bronchiolitis that could explain the presenting dyspnea were established. All soldiers with constrictive bronchiolitis had normal results on chest radiography, but about one quarter were found to have mosaic air trapping or centrilobular nodules on chest CT. The results of pulmonary-function and cardiopulmonary-exercise testing were generally within normal population limits but were inferior to those of the military control subjects. Conclusions In 49 previously healthy soldiers with unexplained exertional dyspnea and diminished exercise tolerance after deployment, an analysis of biopsy samples showed diffuse constrictive bronchiolitis, which was possibly associated with inhalational exposure, in 38 soldiers. PMID:21774710

  3. [Injured soldiers and their quality of life].

    PubMed

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Tan, Edward C T H; Lely, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This is a commentary on the article entitled 'Dutch military casualties of the war in Afghanistan - Quality of life and level of participation after rehabilitation' by de Kruijff and colleagues, published in the Dutch Journal of Medicine (Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, NTvG). The article addresses a very relevant issue: the impact of war injuries on a wounded soldier's recovery, quality of life and level of participation after rehabilitation. The choice was made to compare soldiers wounded during their mission in Uruzgan with the Dutch general trauma population by means of the 'Injury Severity Score' (ISS) and the 'Abbreviated Injury Scale' (AIS) score. As mechanisms of trauma in the military setting (e.g. war injuries such as blast and penetrating trauma; blunt trauma in civilians), their resulting injuries and their psychological context differ strongly from those encountered in the Dutch general population, the question arises whether such a comparison is the optimal choice. We encourage the authors to follow up on this study and in doing so, to correct for type of injury and to integrate findings from the military-psychology field of expertise into the outcome. PMID:22929755

  4. Error Patterns in Young German Children's "Wh"-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmerse, Daniel; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article we report two studies: a detailed longitudinal analysis of errors in "wh"-questions from six German-learning children (age 2 ; 0-3 ; 0) and an analysis of the prosodic characteristics of "wh"-questions in German child-directed speech. The results of the first study demonstrate that German-learning children…

  5. [Recommendations for the diagnosis and prevention of infectious diseases in pediatric and adolescent refugees in Germany : Statement of the German Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, the Society of Tropical Pediatrics and International Child Health, and the Professional Association of Pediatricians].

    PubMed

    Pfeil, J; Kobbe, R; Trapp, S; Kitz, C; Hufnagel, M

    2016-05-01

    Child and adolescent refugees in Germany represent a particularly vulnerable social group and treating infectious diseases forms a crucial part of providing their medical care. From an infectious diseases perspective, refugees themselves, as a result of their difficult personal circumstances, are the ones at highest risk. Even in crisis situations, medical practitioners are medically and ethically obliged to provide a high standard of care. The guidelines presented here propose recommendations for diagnosing and preventing infectious diseases among refugees under 18 in Germany. The guidelines are intended to assist in optimizing vaccine protection and treatment of diseases while taking into consideration factors such as refugees' challenging living conditions, cultural differences and potential language barriers.Upon refugees' arrival at the first housing sites, it is recommended that a basic clinical screening (and not just a brief visual inspection) be provided in order to identify and initiate treatment for acute medical problems and potentially contagious diseases (including tuberculosis), as well as to close gaps in vaccination coverage. Documentation of the clinical findings is critical, both to avoid redundant investigations and to optimize individual medical care. For this, an effective communication system must be established.Once refugees have been transferred into their destination community, outpatient and inpatient care providers should collaborate to bring refugees up-to-date with all vaccines recommended by STIKO (German Standing Committee on Vaccination). The same high standard of medical care should be delivered to refugees as would be to the general population. Due to the high prevalence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO) in the refugees' countries of origin, MRO screening is recommended for most patients receiving inpatient care. PMID:27138489

  6. Hydrologic data for Soldier Creek Basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data collected in the Soldier Creek basin in northeastern Kansas are available on magnetic tape in card-image format. Data on the tape include water discharge in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; rainfall in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; concentrations and particle sizes of suspended sediment; particle sizes of bed material; ground-water levels; and chemical quality of water in concentrations of selected constituents. The data-collection system includes: (1) 7 recording streamflow stations; (2) 5 recording rainfall stations; (3) 51 nonrecording rainfall stations located within and adjacent to the basin; (4) 31 ground-water observation wells (two recording); and (5) intermittent chemical quality of water and sediment sampling sites. Examples of the information on magnetic tape for each type of data collected are presented in computer-printout format. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  8. FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, WITH HEADSTONES IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  9. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  10. Closeup of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, Italy, Argentina, and Britain, view to southwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  11. Caffeine use among active duty US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Stavinoha, Trisha; McGraw, Susan; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2012-06-01

    Eighty-percent of the US adult population regularly consumes caffeine, but limited information is available on the extent and patterns of use. Caffeine use is a public health issue and its risks and benefits are regularly considered in scientific literature and the lay media. Recently, new caffeine-containing products have been introduced and are widely available on Army bases and are added to rations to maintain cognitive performance. This study surveyed caffeine consumption and demographic characteristics in 990 US Army soldiers. Data were weighted by age, sex, rank, and Special Forces status. Total caffeine intake and intake from specific products were estimated. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between caffeine use and soldier demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Eighty-two percent of soldiers consumed caffeine at least once a week. Mean daily caffeine consumption was 285 mg/day (347 mg/day among regular caffeine consumers). Male soldiers consumed, on average, 303 mg/day and females 163 mg/day (regular consumers: 365 mg/day for male soldiers, 216 mg/day for female soldiers). Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake. Among young males, energy drinks were the largest source of caffeine intake, but their intake was not greater than older males. Regression analysis indicated an association of higher caffeine intake with male sex, white race, and tobacco use (P<0.01). Most soldiers consume caffeine in levels accepted as safe, but some consume greater quantities than recommended, although definitive information on safe upper limits of caffeine intake is not available. Labels of caffeine-containing products should provide caffeine content so individuals can make informed decisions. PMID:22709816

  12. The Soldiers in Societies: Defense, Regulation, and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    The presence of reproductively altruistic castes is one of the primary traits of the eusocial societies. Adaptation and regulation of the sterile caste, to a certain extent, drives the evolution of eusociality. Depending on adaptive functions of the first evolved sterile caste, eusocial societies can be categorized into the worker-first and soldier-first lineages, respectively. The former is marked by a worker caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose primary function is housekeeping, and the latter is highlighted by a sterile soldier caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose task is predominantly colony defense. The apparent functional differences between these two fundamentally important castes suggest worker-first and soldier-first eusociality are potentially driven by a suite of distinctively different factors. Current studies of eusocial evolution have been focused largely on the worker-first Hymenoptera, whereas understanding of soldier-first lineages including termites, eusocial aphids, gall-dwelling thrips, and snapping shrimp, is greatly lacking. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on biology, morphology, adaptive functions, and caste regulation of the soldier caste. In addition, we discuss the biological, ecological and genetic factors that might contribute to the evolution of distinct caste systems within eusocial lineages. PMID:24644427

  13. Head-mounted display systems and the special operations soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, Rodney B.

    1998-08-01

    In 1997, the Boeing Company, working with DARPA under the Smart Modules program and the US Army Soldier Systems Command, embarked on an advanced research and development program to develop a wearable computer system tailored for use with soldiers of the US Special Operations Command. The 'special operations combat management system' is a rugged advanced wearable tactical computer, designed to provide the special operations soldier with enhanced situation awareness and battlefield information capabilities. Many issues must be considered during the design of wearable computers for a combat soldier, including the system weight, placement on the body with respect to other equipment, user interfaces and display system characteristics. During the initial feasibility study for the system, the operational environment was examined and potential users were interviewed to establish the proper display solution for the system. Many display system requirements resulted, such as head or helmet mounting, Night Vision Goggle compatibility, minimal visible light emissions, environmental performance and even the need for handheld or other 'off the head' type display systems. This paper will address these issues and other end user requirements for display systems for applications in the harsh and demanding environment of the Special Operations soldier.

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus among Iranian soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Esfahani, Ali Aliakbar; Hassannia, Hadi; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of HAV immunity among Iranian soldiers and determine whether vaccination should be given to military draftees. Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is highly contagious in individuals living in crowded conditions such as military centers. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited data about HAV prevalence among Iranian soldiers. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1554 soldiers were recruited through a random clustering sampling. Serum anti-HAV antibody was measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: A total of 1554 male soldiers with age ranged from 18 to 34 years (mean age: 21.2±1.9 years) at baseline were evaluated. Overall, 80.3% of the analyzed specimens were anti-HAV seropositive. Seroprevalence rates significantly increased with the age. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vaccination for HAV is not necessary for Iranian military draftees. However, the vaccination is recommended for high-risk groups, including anti-HAV seronegative soldiers. PMID:27099669

  15. Intragenomic Conflict over Soldier Allocation in Polyembryonic Parasitoid Wasps.

    PubMed

    Rautiala, Petri; Gardner, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the selection pressures that have driven the evolution of sterile insect castes has been the focus of decades of intense scientific debate. An amenable empirical test bed for theory on this topic is provided by the sterile-soldier caste of polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. The function of these soldiers has been a source of controversy, with two basic hypotheses emerging: the "brood-benefit" hypothesis that they provide an overall benefit for their siblings and the "sex-ratio-conflict" hypothesis that the soldiers mediate a conflict between brothers and sisters by killing their opposite-sex siblings. Here, we investigate the divergent sex-ratio optima of a female embryo's maternal-origin and paternal-origin genes, to determine the potential for, and direction of, intragenomic conflict over soldiering. We then derive contrasting empirically testable predictions concerning the patterns of genomic imprinting that are expected to arise out of this intragenomic conflict, for the brood-benefit versus the sex-ratio-conflict hypothesis of soldier function. PMID:27028082

  16. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.16 Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers'...

  17. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.16 Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers'...

  18. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    2000-09-28

    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  19. Childhood and Capability Deprivation in Germany: A Quantitative Analysis Using German Socio-Economic Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wust, Kirsten; Volkert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Child poverty has been widely discussed in Germany since the publication of the third official Poverty and Wealth Report of the German government in 2008 which--inter alia--focused on the situation of children and families. However, child poverty is not only caused by low household incomes and impacts of child poverty are not only restricted to…

  20. The effects of functional limitations on soldier common tasks.

    PubMed

    Bacon, John R; Armstrong, Thomas J; Brininger, Teresa L

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the findings associated with the ability of an individual to perform the United States Army's Common Soldier Tasks of: "Maintaining an M16-Series Rifle" , "Protect Yourself from Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Injury or Contamination with Mission-Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) Gear", and "Protect Yourself from Chemical and Biological (CB) Contamination Using Your Assigned Protective Mask." The analysis was conducted using data compiled from videos of a Soldier performing the given tasks at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The findings reflect the opinions of researchers in identifying potential elements, which impose abnormal, irregular, and/or extraneous effort when performing the tasks as outlined in STP-21-1-SMCT - Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks: Skill Level I. PMID:22316761

  1. Multispectral and hyperspectral advanced characterization of soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Kastek, Mariusz; Chamberland, Martin; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Farley, Vincent; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    The requirements for soldier camouflage in the context of modern warfare are becoming more complex and challenging given the emergence of novel infrared sensors. There is a pressing need for the development of adapted fabrics and soldier camouflage devices to provide efficient camouflage in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive project to develop new materials and fabrics to further improve the camouflage efficiency of soldiers. The developed materials shall feature visible and infrared properties that make these unique and adapted to various military context needs. This paper presents the details of an advanced measurement campaign of those unique materials where the correlation between multispectral and hyperspectral infrared measurements is performed.

  2. 38 CFR 1.515 - To commanding officers of State soldiers' homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... State soldiers' homes. 1.515 Section 1.515 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.515 To commanding officers of State soldiers' homes. When a request is received in a... State soldiers' home for information other than information relative to the character of the...

  3. 38 CFR 1.523 - To commanding officers of State soldiers' homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State soldiers' homes. 1.523 Section 1.523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Records § 1.523 To commanding officers of State soldiers' homes. When a request is received in a... State soldiers' home for information other than information relative to the character of the...

  4. [Psychological impact on French soldiers in the Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Erwan; de Montleau, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The many constraints and psychologically demanding situations to which French soldiers are subjected (living conditions, operational pace, scenes of exaction, hostile crowds, combat situations) have justified a psychiatrist being posted to the theatre of operation Sangaris, in the Central African Republic, soon after the military intervention began. While the psychiatrist's activity is typical of psychiatry in operational situations,.the configuration of the conflict- a civil war - and its impact on the psyche of the soldiers making up the task force have resulted in these practices being adapted and acknowledgement of the need to update skills. PMID:25975167

  5. Predictors of Change in Substance Abuse Status in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Mehrazmay, Alireza; Karambakhsh, Alireza; Salesi, Mahmood; Heydari, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Military service is a stressful task that influences the life style of army personnel. Several factors can make soldiers less capable of coping with stressful events; so they may try to start drug abuse or increase in the amount or diversity of substance abuse. Understanding factors responsible for this misbehavior among soldiers is crucial for their commanders to modify these factors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the predictors of change in substance abuse status in soldiers. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted to evaluate the substance abuse status among Iranian soldiers in 2010. The target population was the soldiers who had spent at least 3 months of their military service. Cluster sampling was done from army service garrisons in 12 provinces in Iran. A total of 3960 soldiers were selected with different levels of education and age. Data gathering was done with demographic questionnaires, Texas Christian university (TCU) drug screen II and ASI questionnaire (fifth edition). Four types of dependent variables were defined: “improvement”, “without change”, “deterioration”, and “severe deterioration”. Backward ordinal regression analysis was done and P values, OR, and SE were calculated by SPSS19 software. Results: Totally, 6.7% of soldiers improved, 82% remained without change, 6.1% deteriorated, and 5.2% severely deteriorated with regard to their substance abuse. Modifiable predictors were distance from home lower than 200 km (OR =1.54), bad relationship with commanders (OR = 1.88), service place dissatisfaction (OR = 1.39), and always feeling lonely (OR = 1.83). Non-modifiable factors were alcohol use within family and friends (P = 0.000); psychiatric drug use history (OR = 1.72); suicidal attempt history (OR = 1.31); divorce, separation, and extramarital contact (P = 0.001); unemployment (P = 0.019); leisure time dissatisfaction (P = 0.004); living alone (OR = 2.43); and substance abuse

  6. [German military surgeons in deployment abroad: life and working conditions].

    PubMed

    Hauer, T; von Lübken, F; Johann, M; Schreyer, C; Hartmann, V; Kollig, E; Willy, C

    2010-02-01

    Since 1992 the German Bundeswehr has been deployed for securing peace and peacekeeping abroad. Since then 83 German soldiers have been killed and overall 129 wounded in action as of 07.12.2009. In Northern Afghanistan the German Bundeswehr runs a combat support hospital (role 3) in Mazar-e-Sharif providing a multidisciplinary capability profile. Furthermore, there are two role 2 medical treatment facilities for primary surgical trauma care located in Kunduz and Feyzabad. In these role 2 facilities life saving procedures and damage control operations are performed in order to enable rapid evacuation to a higher level of care. Thereby military surgeons are often confronted with various medical and logistic challenges. The German Navy also has two equivalent role 2 medical treatment facilities (Naval Rescue Centers) aboard its two combat support ships (CSS) "Berlin" and "Frankfurt am Main" to support maritime task groups operating worldwide. These floating field hospitals provide an indispensable asset in the medical emergency care of naval operations with difficult space-time factors. Due to the specific operating alliance between CSS and Naval Rescue Center, special operations as well as evacuation and humanitarian missions following disasters near the coastline can be effectively accomplished. PMID:20094699

  7. Low Enteric Colonization with Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Soldiers Returning from Deployments- Experience from the Years 2007-2015.

    PubMed

    Frickmann, Hagen; Wiemer, Dorothea; Frey, Claudia; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Podbielski, Andreas; Köller, Thomas; Warnke, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This assessment describes the enteric colonization of German soldiers 8-12 weeks after returning from mostly but not exclusively subtropical or tropical deployment sites with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Between 2007 and 2015, 828 stool samples from returning soldiers were enriched in nonselective broth and incubated on selective agars for Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), VRE and MRSA. Identification and resistance testing of suspicious colonies was performed using MALDI-TOF-MS, VITEK-II and agar diffusion gradient testing (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). Isolates with suspicion of ESBL were characterized by ESBL/ampC disc-(ABCD)-testing and molecular approaches (PCR, Sanger sequencing). Among the returnees, E. coli with resistance against third-generation cephalosporins (37 ESBL, 1 ESBL + ampC, 1 uncertain mechanism) were found in 39 instances (4.7%). Associated quinolone resistance was found in 46.2% of these isolates. Beta-lactamases of the blaCTX-M group 1 predominated among the ESBL mechanisms, followed by the blaCTX-M group 9, and blaSHV. VRE of vanA-type was isolated from one returnee (0.12%). MRSA was not isolated at all. There was no clear trend regarding the distribution of resistant isolates during the assessment period. Compared with colonization with resistant bacteria described in civilians returning from the tropics, the colonization in returned soldiers is surprisingly low and stable. This finding, together with high colonization rates found in previous screenings on deployment, suggests a loss of colonization during the 8- to 12-week period between returning from the deployments and assessment. PMID:27598775

  8. German Language Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This guide presents the philosophy, goals, and objectives, as well as the scope and sequence of German instruction at four levels for the public schools of Hawaii. The emphasis is on cultural awareness and communicative competence in German. The goals, objectives, and performance expectations are presented as guides from which teachers can derive…

  9. Headstart German Program. Cumulative Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary lists the vocabulary words used in the ten modules of the German Headstart program. It is a German-English and English-German glossary. The module number in which each word first occurs is given. (AMH)

  10. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Building Resilience in a Challenging Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornum, Rhonda; Matthews, Michael D.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members)…

  11. TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  12. AFRICANAMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AFRICAN-AMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN TWO OF THE 1916 STABLES. PHOTOGRAPH IS LOOKING TO THE WEST AND WAS TAKEN IN 1928 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1928.00.00.13, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  13. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: Family Skills Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John M.; Gottman, Julie S.; Atkins, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Field combat stress clinics and research have identified the signature event that precedes thoughts of suicide and homicide in combat soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan: a distressing personal relationship event with a stateside partner. In response to this alarming information, we have identified critical factors and precipitating incidents as well…

  14. Deployments, Stress, and Soldiers' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perot, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…

  15. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  16. Radio and the Black Soldier during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckiffe, Donald; Murray, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the representation of race in the electronic media. Traces particular social, political, and institutional pressure influencing the production of the figure of the black soldier in U.S. radio during World War II. Shows how it served to varying degrees the immediate interests of the black press, the federal government,…

  17. Active Army and Army Reserve Soldiers: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkan, JoJo T.; And Others

    A study determined whether chemical operations specialists at skill level 1 differ in terms of aptitude, job knowledge, job confidence, and perceptions of task difficulty, task importance, task frequency, and task training, depending on whether the specialists are active U.S. Army soldiers or are in the Army Reserve. The subjects for whom complete…

  18. Digestive enzymes from workers and soldiers of termite Nasutitermes corniger.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thâmarah de Albuquerque; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Dornelles, Leonardo Prezzi; Amorim, Poliana Karla; Sá, Roberto Araújo; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The digestive apparatus of termites may have several biotechnological applications, as well as being a target for pest control. This report discusses the detection of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase), hemicellulases (β-xylosidase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and β-d-xylanase), α-amylase, and proteases (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and keratinase-type) in gut extracts from Nasutitermes corniger workers and soldiers. Additionally, the effects of pH (3.0-11.0) and temperature (30-100°C) on enzyme activities were evaluated. All enzymes investigated were detected in the gut extracts of worker and soldier termites. Endoglucanase and β-xylanase were the main cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Zymography for proteases of worker extracts revealed polypeptides of 22, 30, and 43kDa that hydrolyzed casein, and assays using protease inhibitors showed that serine proteases were the main proteases in worker and soldier guts. The determined enzyme activities and their response to different pH and temperature values revealed that workers and soldiers contained a distinct digestive apparatus. The ability of these termites to efficiently digest the main components of lignocellulosic materials stimulates the purification of gut enzymes. Further investigation into their biotechnological potential as well as whether the enzymes detected are produced by the termites or by their symbionts is needed. PMID:25026598

  19. The spined soldier bug: an important biocontrol agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a generalist predator known to feed on over 75 insect species, several of which are important invasive insect pests. A substantial body of knowledge from our research studies on the ecology of this predator will be present...

  20. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  1. Learning about the Civil War through Soldiers' Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how students in an American history class learned about the Civil War through soldiers' letters. Letters from the Civil War era come in a variety of styles and syntax. Some are easy to read while others are extremely difficult to transcribe. But every one of them speaks to the reader, revealing an unknown entity from another…

  2. Telemedicine in US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon; Jain, Ram; Berry-Caban, Cristobal

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective study of a telemedicine clinic for active duty US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes was conducted. Fifty-one consecutive patients (mean age 33.9 years) were enrolled into the clinic. All soldiers with known or newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes received three weekly office visits for intensive diabetes education. After this, all communication occurred via a messaging system consisting of texting, web-based download, and/or email to a diabetes management team. For urgent matters, 24/7 direct paging or telephone access was provided. Routine adjustments in insulin dosing were accomplished via email. Soldiers were followed for a mean of 17.1 months. Baseline, three-month, and end of study glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values were 9.8, 7.3, and 6.9, respectively. There were no significant differences in end of study A1C levels between patients with known vs. newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, nor were there any differences between those patients who received insulin via pump therapy vs. multiple daily injections. Telemedicine was safe and effective in lowering A1C levels in US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26033845

  3. An Ex-Soldier Finds a New Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Matthew Reilly's roundabout journey to college took a painful, decisive turn after a nighttime crash in Iraq. In 2008, six months into his first combat tour with the Army, Mr. Reilly and nine soldiers from his platoon were pursuing an insurgent when their armored fighting vehicle slammed into a roadblock. It was 2 o'clock in the morning, and fresh…

  4. Missing: Critical and Skeptical Perspectives on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James Campbell

    2011-01-01

    The author read with interest, and concern, the January 2011 issue of the "American Psychologist". The "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" addressed a hugely consequential national issue and offered a vision for psychological resilience along with an elaborate set of supporting articles, concluding with some comments on "Objections"…

  5. Exposure to recurrent combat stress: combat stress reactions among Israeli soldiers in the Lebanon War.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M; Jakob, B R

    1987-05-01

    This study examined the impact of repeated exposure to combat on combat stress reaction (CSR). Soldiers diagnosed with CSR during the Lebanon War (N = 382) were compared with a matched control group of soldiers who fought in the same units but did not manifest symptoms of CSR (N = 334). CSR in the Lebanon War was found to be related to the psychological outcome the soldier experienced in previous wars. The CSR rate in the Lebanon War was higher in soldiers who had experienced an episode of CSR in a previous war than in soldiers with no past combat experience. However, CSR rates were lower among soldiers who had not had an episode of CSR in a previous war than among soldiers with no prior combat experience. High intensity of combat in Lebanon was found to increase both the detrimental and favourable effects of prior combat experience. PMID:3602235

  6. Understanding the elevated suicide risk of female soldiers during deployments

    PubMed Central

    Street, A. E.; Gilman, S. E.; Rosellini, A. J.; Stein, M. B.; Bromet, E. J.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Little, R. J. A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Ursano, R. J.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Method Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004–2009 (n = 975 057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier’s occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier’s unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier’s pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. Results The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100 000 person-years) was 3.1–3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100 000 person-years) was 0.9–1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1–6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9–2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. Conclusions These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women. PMID:25359554

  7. Helping American Soldiers in Time of War: Reply to Comments on the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    Seligman responds to the comments made about the January 2011 "American Psychologist" "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" (CSF). Seligman proposed an entire issue of on the topic of CSF to encourage psychologists to come to the aid of our government, and he urges psychologists not to be discouraged by this tactic. He and his coauthors…

  8. Armed conflict and child health

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Summary Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented. PMID:21393303

  9. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  10. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2015-11-01

    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  11. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  12. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Home Guard Soldiers During Military Service and Civilian Life.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2016-07-01

    Soldiers are encouraged to be physically active, and thereby maintain or increase their fitness level to meet job-related physical demands. However, studies on objectively measured physical activity (PA) in soldiers are scarce, particular for reserve soldiers. Hence, the aim of this study was to present PA data on Norwegian Home Guard (HG) soldiers. A total of 411 HG soldiers produced acceptable PA measurements (SenseWear Armband Pro2) during civilian life, of which 299 soldiers also produced acceptable data during HG military training. Reference data on total energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps per day, and minutes of PA in three different metabolic equivalent categories are presented. The HG soldiers produced more minutes of moderate PA during HG military training compared to civilian life, but less vigorous and very vigorous PA. Furthermore, HG soldiers were more physically active during civilian week days compared to weekend days. The presented reference data can be used for comparisons against other groups of soldiers. Our data indicate that aerobic demands during HG military training were not very high. Promoting PA and exercise could still be important to ensure HG soldiers are physically prepared for more unforeseen job tasks. PMID:27391624

  13. Everyday Pedagogical Practices in Mathematical Play Situations in German "Kindergarten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This study describes situations in German daycare facilities (Kindergarten) in which the development of mathematical thinking in children is specifically encouraged through examination of common play objects. Using micro-sociological methods of analysis, the mathematical potential of such interactions between teacher and child is elaborated within…

  14. Child Language; A Book of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Adon, Aaron, Ed.; Leopold, Werner F., Ed.

    The present volume is designed to help the student of child language, especially the beginning student, discover the high points of American and international research, such as French, German, Hebrew, Polish, and Russian. The selections in this reader are intended as an introduction to various fields of child language and to different theories and…

  15. Satisfaction of active duty soldiers with family dental care.

    PubMed

    Chisick, M C

    1997-02-01

    In the fall of 1992, a random, worldwide sample of 6,442 married and single parent soldiers completed a self-administered survey on satisfaction with 22 attributes of family dental care. Simple descriptive statistics for each attribute were derived, as was a composite overall satisfaction score using factor analysis. Composite scores were regressed on demographics, annual dental utilization, and access barriers to identify those factors having an impact on a soldier's overall satisfaction with family dental care. Separate regression models were constructed for single parents, childless couples, and couples with children. Results show below-average satisfaction with nearly all attributes of family dental care, with access attributes having the lowest average satisfaction scores. Factors influencing satisfaction with family dental care varied by family type with one exception: dependent dental utilization within the past year contributed positively to satisfaction across all family types. PMID:9038028

  16. Mental health care use by soldiers conducting counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Applewhite, Larry; Keller, Nathan; Borah, Adam

    2012-05-01

    Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mental health files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mental health program that can respond to a wide range of mental health problems. PMID:22645874

  17. Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A

    2008-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is a promising treatment for a variety of anxiety disorders and has recently been extended to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, the authors briefly review the rationale for VRE and its key processes. They illustrate the treatment with an active-duty Army soldier diagnosed with combat-related PTSD. Six sessions of VRE were provided using an immersive simulation of a military convoy in Iraq. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were reduced at posttreatment relative to pretreatment reports, as assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24. The case outcomes parallel those reported in the research with other disorders and suggest the applicability of VRE in treating active duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD. PMID:18612993

  18. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  19. Observations and insights about strengthening our soldiers SOS.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Barbara G; Castro, Carl

    2011-06-01

    The Special Issue (June 2011) of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings titled Strengthening Our Soldiers (SOS) and Their Families: Contemporary Psychological Advances Applied to Wartime Problems revealed the following important concerns: 1) Who is at risk for psychological sequelae during and following service in the U.S. military? 2) How to deliver the best treatment for our soldiers and veterans with PTSD, Traumatic Brain Injury and Pain? 3) How to train the trainers? and 4) What are the current priorities for service delivery, research and funding? Assessment strategies and tools are provided to assist in identification of suicidal ideation and behaviors, alcohol abuse in spouses, posttraumatic stress disorders, depression, brain injuries and post-concussion syndrome, as well as positive growth experiences. Empirically validated Cognitive Processing and Prolonged Exposure treatments are described as are the empirical results already in evidence in our military populations. The innovative use of Virtual Reality and Telehealth applications is demonstrated in both army and naval settings for preparing and reducing trauma in affected soldiers. The Functional and Occupational Rehabilitation Treatment (FORT) Program and its role in returning function to injured soldiers with musculoskeletal pain and motion restrictions, while also leading to reductions of anxiety, depression and use of medical services, is described. A critique about providing service-research for children's reactions to their parent's deployments and family functioning during separation and reintegration is provided. The need for theoretical-empirical approaches to understanding pain-behavior, anxiety dysregulation as it impacts the brain function and structure is provided by experts in pain, neuropsychology, brain circuitry and anxiety management of multiple traumas. This final paper in SOS provides commentary on SOS and describes possible future implications of current

  20. Soldier sentenced for exposing eight sex partners to HIV.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    An HIV-positive Army soldier at Fort Benning, GA was sentenced to 15 years in prison after admitting to having unprotected sex with at least 8 women. [Name removed] pleaded guilty at his court martial to charges of aggravated assault, sodomy, adultery, and disobeying orders. The women said [name removed] never told them that he was HIV-positive. Four of the women became pregnant. One miscarried, and one delivered an HIV-infected baby. PMID:11365240

  1. Spiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andy; Hardy, Ian C W; Taylor, Peter D; West, Stuart A

    2007-04-01

    The existence of spiteful behaviors remains controversial. Spiteful behaviors are those that are harmful to both the actor and the recipient, and they represent one of the four fundamental types of social behavior (alongside selfishness, altruism, and mutual benefit). It has generally been assumed that the conditions required for spite to evolve are too restrictive, and so spite is unlikely to be important. This idea has been challenged in recent years, with the realization that localized competition can relax the conditions required for spite to evolve. Here we develop a theoretical model for a prime candidate for a spiteful behavior, the production of the sterile soldier caste in polyembryonic wasps. Our results show that (a) the biology of these soldiers is consistent with their main role being to mediate conflict over the sex ratio and not to defend against competitors and (b) greater conflict will occur in more outbred populations. We also show that the production of the sterile soldier caste can be classed as a spiteful behavior but that, to an extent, this is merely a semantic choice, and other interpretations such as altruism or indirect altruism are valid. However, the spite interpretation is useful in that it can lead to a more natural interpretation of relatedness and facilitate the classification of behaviors in a way that emphasizes biologically interesting differences that can be empirically tested. PMID:17427122

  2. ``The problem child of Kiel Observatory'' - The rise and fall of the largest meridian circle in Germany (German Title: "Das Schmerzenskind der Kieler Sternwarte" - Aufstieg und Fall des größten Meridiankreises Deutschlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühning, Felix

    Between 1902 and 1905, the A. Repsold and Sons Company built the largest meridian circle instrument of the German Empire for Kiel Observatory. Its director, Paul Harzer, intended to carry out ambitious astrometric programmes with this instrument, and had it equipped with some unusual novelties. After the elimination of teething troubles, changing observational staff carried out until 1914 numerous positional astronomical measurements, whose reduction, however, was carried out with long delay. Grave constructional errors were discovered only in the 1920s, and led to a stop of all observational programs. This article gives a report on the rise and fall of this major instrument.

  3. Supplemental genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol intake in active duty army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Sepowitz, John J; Fauser, Kristina R; Meyer, Stephanie A; Jackson, Steven J

    2015-05-01

    Previous reports indicate that the majority of U.S. Army soldiers consume dietary supplements (DSs) > 1 time/wk. However, these studies did not evaluate phytonutrient supplementation. A growing literature suggests inclusion of phytonutrients in DSs may pose a risk for toxicity, which could impact the performance of soldier duties, as well as long-term health and wellness. This study was conducted to assess and understand soldiers' motivations to consume phytonutrient-containing DSs, specifically genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive mixed-methods design using a survey and semistructured interviews. There were 436 soldiers stationed at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington who completed the survey, from which 36 soldiers completed an interview. Overall, 34% of soldiers reported taking a single or multicomponent phytonutrient DS > 1 time/wk, from which 41 soldiers took >1 supplement/wk. Soldiers' reasons for use included unsure (54%), weight loss (12%), and other, unspecified (24%). The majority of interviewees did not consume DSs based on inclusion of genistein, quercetin, or resveratrol. The majority of soldiers, in our study, appear unable to rationalize their phytonutrient DS choices. Findings from this study illuminate the need for future research to further explore DS practices within military populations and encourage informed use of DSs. PMID:25939109

  4. Combined foraging strategies and soldier behaviour in Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A

    2016-05-01

    A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain. PMID:26992372

  5. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  6. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  7. German Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehme, Robert; And Others

    This guide delineates the scope and sequence of German instruction in both junior and senior high schools indicating instructional goals in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of the foreign language behavioral objectives in the guide, the manual…

  8. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies. PMID:25572422

  9. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64–0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71–0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63–0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad. PMID:26959327

  10. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-03-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad. PMID:26959327

  11. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-01

    Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies. PMID:25572422

  12. Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals. PMID:17696308

  13. Assessment for the U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: The Global Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher; Park, Nansook; Castro, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology and the U.S. military have a long history of collaboration. The U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program aims to measure the psychosocial strengths and assets of soldiers as well as their problems, to identify those in need of basic training in a given domain as well as those who would benefit from advanced training, and…

  14. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    PubMed

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home. PMID:27386620

  15. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy--Implications of Science Education Research for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Colin

    1984-01-01

    Categorizes researchers as tinkers, tailors, soldiers, and spies and discusses how each group contributes to the improvement of science education. Tinkers direct attention to content of children's minds; tailors focus on cognitive processes and development; spies consider classroom interactions; and soldiers believe best solutions come from those…

  16. LIGHT SENSITIVITY IN WORKERS AND SOLDIERS OF THE FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE, COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS SHIRAKI (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photo-sensitivity of the Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was tested in workers, pre-soldiers, and soldiers of various ages. Preferred foraging locations under laboratory bioassay conditions were also determined in response to various light regimens. Workers, pre-soldi...

  17. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  18. Substance use by soldiers who abuse their spouses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Sullivan, Kristen; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Rentz, E Danielle

    2010-11-01

    Data on 7,424 soldier spouse abuse offenders were analyzed to determine the prevalence of substance use during abusive incidents, and to examine differences between substance-using and non-substance-using offenders. Results showed that 25% of all offenders used substances during abusive incidents, with males and non-Hispanic Whites being more likely to hav e used substances. Substance-using offenders were more likely to perpetrate physical spouse abuse and more severe spouse abuse. These findings underscore the importance of educating military personnel (including commanders) about links between substance use and domestic violence, and of coordinating preventive and therapeutic substance abuse and violence-related interventions. PMID:21097964

  19. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness and the future of psychology.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Fowler, Raymond D

    2011-01-01

    Psychology responded to the national needs in World War I and World War II and was itself transformed. National need calls a third time: unprecedented levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide, and anxiety along with a need for a resilient Army capable of meeting the persistent warfare of the foreseeable future. As a large part of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, positive psychology is meeting this need with new tests, with new fitness courses, and with resilience training. These developments may transform the practice of psychology and psychology's relation to medicine and education. PMID:21219053

  20. Examining the results of certain effects of high altitude on soldiers using modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    von Tersch, Robert; Birch, Harry

    2009-10-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom conducted in the high mountains of Afghanistan posed new challenges for U.S. and coalition forces. The high mountains with elevations up to 25,000 feet and little to no road access limited the use of combat vehicles and some advanced weaponry. Small unit actions became the norm and soldiers experienced the effect of high elevation, where limited oxygen and its debilitating effects negatively impacted unacclimated soldiers. While the effects of high altitude on unacclimated soldiers are well documented, the results of those effects in a combat setting are not as well known. For this study, the authors focused on 3 areas: movement speed, response time, and judgment; used a state-of-the-art constructive modeling and simulation (M&S) tool; simulated a combat engagement with less capable unacclimated and fully capable acclimated soldiers; and captured the results, which scaled increased casualties for unacclimated and decreased casualties for acclimated soldiers. PMID:19891222

  1. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0–1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  2. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    PubMed

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass. PMID:22606806

  3. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  4. Soldier detection using unattended acoustic and seismic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, P.; Hengy, S.; Hamery, P.

    2012-06-01

    During recent military conflicts, as well as for security interventions, the urban zone has taken a preponderant place. Studies have been initiated in national and in international programs to stimulate the technical innovations for these specific scenarios. For example joint field experiments have been organized by the NATO group SET-142 to evaluate the capability for the detection and localization of snipers, mortars or artillery guns using acoustic devices. Another important operational need corresponds to the protection of military sites or buildings. In this context, unattended acoustic and seismic sensors are envisaged to contribute to the survey of specific points by the detection of approaching enemy soldiers. This paper describes some measurements done in an anechoic chamber and in free field to characterize typical sounds generated by the soldier activities (walking, crawling, weapon handling, radio communication, clothing noises...). Footstep, speech and some specific impulsive sounds are detectable at various distances from the source. Such detection algorithms may be easily merged with the existing weapon firing detection algorithms to provide a more generic "battlefield acoustic" early warning system. Results obtained in various conditions (grassy terrain, gravel path, road, forest) will be presented. A method to extrapolate the distances of detection has been developed, based on an acoustic propagation model and applied to the laboratory measurements.

  5. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0-1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  6. Socioeconomic Differences in the Health of Black Union Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates patterns of socioeconomic difference in the wartime morbidity and mortality of black Union Army soldiers. Among the factors that contributed to a lower probability of contracting and dying from diseases were (1) lighter skin color, (2) a non-field occupation, (3) residence on a large plantation, and (4) residence in a rural area prior to enlistment. Patterns of disease-specific mortality and timing of death suggest that the differences in the development of immunity against diseases and in nutritional status prior to enlistment were responsible for the observed socioeconomic differences in wartime health. For example, the advantages of light-skinned soldiers over dark-skinned and of enlisted men formerly engaged in non-field occupations over field hands resulted from differences in nutritional status. The lower wartime mortality of ex-slaves from large plantations can be explained by their better-developed immunity as well as superior nutritional status. The results of this paper suggest that there were substantial disparities in the health of the slave population on the eve of the Civil War. PMID:22933827

  7. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  8. The Impact of Unit Membership on Smoking Among Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Anderson, James A; Riviere, Lyndon A; McGurk, Dennis; Sipos, Maurice L

    2016-01-01

    Cultural, organizational, and dyadic influences have been found to be associated with smoking in the military while group-level influences have been identified in the general population. However, there are few studies examining group-level influences in the military and none using group-level analyses. Such studies are essential for understanding how to optimally forestall or cease smoking. This study, using mixed effects modelling, examined whether unit membership influenced smoking behavior in soldiers from brigade combat teams. Unit membership was assessed in 2008 to 2009 at the company level (n = 2204) and in 2012 at the platoon level (n = 452). Smoking was assessed by the number of daily cigarettes smoked (range: 0-99) with smoking status (nonsmoker vs. smoker) and smoking level (none, smoker, and heavy [20 + cigarettes/day]) as the outcomes. For both samples, unit membership was not significantly associated with a soldier's propensity to smoke when comparing either all smokers to nonsmokers or heavy smokers to smokers. These results suggest typical military unit-level training programs are unlikely to be the most effective mode of intervention for smoking prevention or cessation. Smoking rates in the military may be influenced instead by small group or individual relationships or by overall military culture. PMID:26741472

  9. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  10. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  11. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  12. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  13. Prevalence and Impact of Short Sleep Duration in Redeployed OIF Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Luxton, David D.; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Design: Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90–180 days after completing a 6–15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. Setting: US Army Infantry Post. Subjects: All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. Conclusions: SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions. Citation: Luxton DD; Greenburg D; Ryan J; Niven A; Wheeler G; Mysliwiec V. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1189-1195. PMID:21886356

  14. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  15. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  16. Could comprehensive soldier fitness have iatrogenic consequences? A commentary.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2013-04-01

    Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) is a public health program intended to improve US Army service personnels' resilience to military stressors including combat and operational experiences. The program uses psychological and behavioral strategies that have been shown to enhance resilience in children and adolescents. CSF has many modules that target a variety of dimensions of wellness. One of the core themes to CSF is the promotion of optimism and positive reframing of challenging situations. To date, the CSF program has not been critically and independently evaluated. This commentary argues that an emphasis on positive emotions and optimism could be maladaptive for post-combat recovery. Clinical and public behavioral health practitioners and researchers can play an important role in evaluating CSF psychological strategies. PMID:23229522

  17. Synthetic cannabinoid and cathinone use among US soldiers.

    PubMed

    Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Kleinschmidt, Paul E; Rao, Dinesh S; Jenkins, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    New hallucinogenic drugs of abuse, known generically as "spice" and "bath salts," have become readily available in the United States. Spice is one of many names that refers to a variety of synthetic cannabinoids that act on the body in a way similar to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A large and complex variety of synthetic cannabinoids, most often cannabicyclohexanol, JWH-018, JWH-073, or HU-210, are used in an attempt to avoid the laws that make cannabis illegal, making synthetic cannabis a designer drug. Bath salts, on the other hand, is one of many names for a group of cathinone-containing hallucinogens that produces sympathomimetic effects in its users. Both have become popular among those seeking chemical euphorias with decreased chance of detection. Consequently, both have become a problem for maintaining mentally fit Soldiers, unit readiness, and morale in the US armed forces. PMID:23007932

  18. Robots Save Soldiers' Lives Overseas (MarcBot)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center mobile communications platform designs for future lunar missions led to improvements to fleets of tactical robots now being deployed by U.S. Army. The Multi-function Agile Remote Control Robot (MARCbot) helps soldiers search out and identify improvised explosive devices. NASA used the MARCbots to test its mobile communications platform, and in working with it, made the robot faster while adding capabilities -- upgrading to a digital camera, encrypting the controllers and video transmission, as well as increasing the range and adding communications abilities. They also simplified the design, providing more plug-and-play sensors and replacing some of the complex electronics with more trouble-free, low-cost components. Applied Geo Technology, a tribally-owned corporation in Choctaw, Mississippi, was given the task of manufacturing the modified robots. The company is now producing 40 units per month, 300 of which have already been deployed overseas.

  19. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  20. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  1. Evaluation of the performance of females as light infantry soldiers.

    PubMed

    Finestone, Aharon S; Milgrom, Charles; Yanovich, Ran; Evans, Rachel; Constantini, Naama; Moran, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161-163 cm) than males (174 cm, CI 173-176), had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2-19.6 kg) than males (12.6 kg, 11.3-13.8 kg), had lower [Formula: see text]O2max (36.8 mL·min(-1) ·kg(-1), CI 35.8-37.78 mL·min(-1) ·kg(-1)) than males (50.48 mL·min(-1) ·kg(-1), CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min(-1) ·kg(-1)), had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2-26.5%) than males (2.3%, CI 0.3-8.2%), and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9-47.7%) than males (24.7%, CI 16.0-35.2%). Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22-34% for females and 37% CI 26-48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers. PMID:25215282

  2. Soldier load carriage: historical, physiological, biomechanical, and medical aspects.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Reynolds, Katy L; Harman, Everett

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews historical and biomedical aspects of soldier load carriage. Before the 18th century, foot soldiers seldom carried more than 15 kg while on the march, but loads have progressively risen since then. This load increase is presumably due to the weight of weapons and equipment that incorporate new technologies to increase protection, firepower, communications, and mobility. Research shows that locating the load center of mass as close as possible to the body center of mass results in the lowest energy cost and tends to keep the body in an upright position similar to unloaded walking. Loads carried on other parts of the body result in higher energy expenditures: each kilogram added to the foot increases energy expenditure 7% to 10%; each kilogram added to the thigh increases energy expenditure 4%. Hip belts on rucksacks should be used whenever possible as they reduce pressure on the shoulders and increase comfort. Low or mid-back load placement might be preferable on uneven terrain but high load placement may be best for even terrain. In some tactical situations, combat load carts can be used, and these can considerably reduce energy expenditure and improve performance. Physical training that includes aerobic exercise, resistance training targeted at specific muscle groups, and regular road marching can considerably improve road marching speed and efficiency. The energy cost of walking with backpack loads increases progressively with increases in weight carried, body mass, walking speed, or grade; type of terrain also influences energy cost. Predictive equations have been developed, but these may not be accurate for prolonged load carriage. Common injuries associated with prolonged load carriage include foot blisters, stress fractures, back strains, metatarsalgia, rucksack palsy, and knee pain. Load carriage can be facilitated by lightening loads, improving load distribution, optimizing load-carriage equipment, and taking preventive action to reduce

  3. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Finestone, Aharon S.; Milgrom, Charles; Yanovich, Ran; Evans, Rachel; Constantini, Naama; Moran, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm) than males (174 cm, CI 173–176), had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg) than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg), had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1·kg−1) than males (50.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1·kg−1), had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5%) than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%), and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7%) than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%). Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers. PMID:25215282

  4. In search of racial types: soldiers and the anthropological mapping of the Romanian nation, 1914–44

    PubMed Central

    TURDA, MARIUS

    2013-01-01

    Turda’s article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania’s ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims. PMID:24363459

  5. In search of racial types: soldiers and the anthropological mapping of the Romanian nation, 1914-44.

    PubMed

    Turda, Marius

    2013-02-01

    Turda's article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania's ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims. PMID:24363459

  6. Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

  7. A Cup of Salt for an O. D.: "Dog Soldiers" as Anti-Apocalypse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Stephen H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Robert Stone's "Dog Soldiers," a novel written out of the author's experiences in Vietnam in 1973, and its refusal to present an ultimate apocalyptic vision of history. Contrasts it with other modern works pervaded by apocalyptic anxiety. (DMM)

  8. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  9. Headstart German Program. Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the seventh module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use all the services of a German post-office, such as…

  10. BASIC (SPOKEN) GERMAN IDIOM LIST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PFEFFER, J. ALAN

    THIRD IN A SERIES OF RELATED STUDIES UNDERTAKEN TO ARRIVE AT THE CORE ELEMENTS OF SPOKEN GERMAN, THIS LIST IS BASED ON THE LATEST COMPUTER TECHNIQUES IN FREQUENCY ANALYSIS. AN INTRODUCTION EXAMINES AND REDEFINES THE CONCEPT OF IDIOMATIC PATTERNS. THE BODY OF THE TEXT LISTS, BY FREQUENCY AND RANGE, 1,100 OF THE MOST COMMON IDIOMS IN SPOKEN GERMAN.…

  11. Mediums and messages: an argument against biotechnical enhancement of soldiers in the armies of liberal democracies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Assuming that one believes that individuals and states can morally defend values, beliefs, and institutions with force (in short, that just wars are morally possible), one logically wants just combatants to possess the physical, mental, and spiritual capacities that will enable them to win the war. On the other hand, being a just combatant in a just war does not morally entitle that combatant to do anything to win that war. The moral requirement for just combatants to fight justly is codified in international law of war and in state-specific legal documents such as the United States Uniform Code of Military Justice. While it is almost unequivocally clear to soldiers and civilians who soldiers cannot harm in the performance of their duties, and why these people are exempt from harm, it is less clear what the state itself (assuming throughout the discussion that the state is a just combatant in a just war) can morally do to its own soldiers to enhance their chances of victory: can the state do anything to soldiers to give them an advantage on the field of battle? For United States soldiers and their counterparts in most Western liberal democracies, the answer is obviously no. Deeply embedded social and cultural norms in Western democracies mandate that the state set and enforce rigid lines which drill sergeants and earnest commanders cannot cross, even in the name of combat readiness, grounding these norms in notion of basic rights appealed to in the U.S. Constitution. In this essay, I argue against some types of drug-induced internal biotechnical enhancement of soldiers on the grounds that, in the present state of technology, it is not reasonable to suppose that the military can perform such enhancement operations on soldiers without causing irrevocable psychological damage that would certainly and unjustifiably alienate the soldiers from the very society they serve. PMID:15856579

  12. Clonal mixing in the soldier-producing aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paul C D; Whitfield, John A; Foster, William A; Amos, William

    2002-08-01

    Illuminating the genetic relationships within soldier-producing aphid colonies is an essential element of any attempt to explain the evolution of the altruistic soldier caste. Pemphigus spyrothecae is a soldier-producing aphid that induces galls on the leaf petioles of its host (trees of the genus Populus). At least a quarter of the aphids within the clonally produced gall population are morphologically and behaviourally distinct first-instar soldiers that defend the gall population from predation. Using field trapping and microsatellites, we investigated the degree of clonal mixing within natural gall populations. Field trapping in the UK showed that all the migrants of P. spyrothecae and of two other Pemphigus species were wingless first-instar soldiers. The average degree of mixing estimated from trapping P. spyrothecae migrants was 0.68% (range = 0-15%). Microsatellite genotyping of 277 aphids from 13 galls collected in Italy revealed an average mixing level of 10.4% (range = 0-59%). Six galls contained more than one clone (range = 2-5 clones). Non-kin aphids were not restricted to the soldier caste but were evenly distributed across instars. An additional gall, from which 527 occupants were genotyped, contained 12 non-kin aphids distributed among nine clones, showing that clonal diversity can be high even when mixing is very low. These observations suggest that although soldiers migrate regularly and can moult and reproduce within foreign galls, clonal mixing in this species is generally low and is unlikely to provide a barrier to the evolution of investment by the aphid clones in an altruistic soldier caste. PMID:12144671

  13. Abuses of the girl child in some African societies: implications for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Doris Deedei

    2006-01-01

    The definition of a child in African societies varies. From the moment the girl child can talk and walk, she is allocated responsibilities within the family. Westernized cultures view such responsibilities as forms of abuse. Thus, various reports had been written about girl children and had been critical of African societies without acknowledging that Africa is a very large continent. This paper sets out to identify, explore, and present potential areas of abuse of the girl child, for example, female circumcision, child slaves, rape survivors, child soldiers, child prostitution, teenage pregnancy, and arranged marriages. This paper suggests strategies that healthcare professionals could initiate in situations where a girl child is being abused. PMID:16512869

  14. The handheld multifunctional thermal imager and surveillance instrument of Jena-Optronik within the German project: IDZ-Infanterist der Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, U.; Zinner, M.; Fiksel, T.; Krellner, I.; Glasser, W.; Heinrich, J.

    2007-04-01

    Today armed forces of a number of countries develop land warrior integrated, modular combat systems the so called Ground Soldier System. The German version is called "IDZ-Infanterist der Zukunft". This high-technically equipped soldier will have some outstanding capabilities which are based on technical components. One of them will be a handheld multifunctional thermal observation instrument. This light weighted instrument includes a thermal imager which detects an object in 4000m, recognizes it in 3000m and identifies it in 1500m. The IR Image channel can be superposed with the visual daylight image what is taken by an integrated CCD-camera. The image is seen trough a biocular viewer on two Organic Light Emmitting Displays. With the laser range finder which works up to 4000m and the Digital Magnetic Compass it is possible to measure distances and angles and so the own and the target object's positions. This information as well as live time video sequences can be transferred wireless to the soldiers C4I-system. The instrument is based on the surveillance platform NYXUS which was developed in close collaboration with the German Bundeswehr. The NYXUS includes additionally GPS, goniometer and northfinding gyroscope which makes it a precise and irreplaceable tool for nowadays armed forces. The instrument is developed and produced by Jena-Optronik GmbH.

  15. An examination of successful soldier postdeployment transition from combat to garrison life.

    PubMed

    Fink, David S; Gallaway, M Shayne; Millikan, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that combat exposures and deployment-related stressors have negative implications on soldiers' postdeployment health and well-being. The current study aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of organizational and social support on the success of soldiers' postdeployment reintegration. In this study, 2,922 U.S. soldiers were surveyed from a brigade combat team at 90-120 days postdeployment, measuring soldiers' perceptions of postdeployment transition home, occupational and social support, stigma and barriers associated with accessing behavioral health care, and previous behavioral health care. Logistic regression analysis indicated that soldiers reporting a positive postdeployment transition home (n = 1,776; 61%) was significantly associated with leadership perceptions, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.02, 1.39], unit cohesion, AOR = 1.29, 95% CI [1.09, 1.53], personal support, AOR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.23, 1.52], perceived levels of stigma, AOR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.65, 0.82] barriers to accessing care, AOR = 0.86, 95% CI [0.76, 0.97], and previously accessing behavioral health care, AOR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.28, 0.43]. These findings suggest redeploying soldiers may benefit from programs aimed at improving self-efficacy and coping through fostering occupational and social support, with special concern taken to reduce stigma and barriers to care across the Army. PMID:24375732

  16. Sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and soldier caste in a polyembryonic wasp.

    PubMed

    Uka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takuma; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement. Female soldiers are more aggressive than male soldiers, and their numbers increase upon invasion of the host by other parasites. In this report, in vivo and in vitro competition assays were used to test whether females have a toxic humoral factor; if so, then its strength was compared with that of males. We found that females have a toxic factor that is much weaker than that of males. Our results imply sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and larval soldiers. We discuss how this sexual complementarity guarantees adaptive advantages for both males and females despite the one-sided killing of male reproductives by larval female soldiers in a mixed-sex brood. PMID:27385149

  17. Trends in Mental Health Services Utilization and Stigma in US Soldiers From 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Joshua E.; Thomas, Jeffrey L.; Bray, Robert M.; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L.; Brown, Janice M.; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y.; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. Methods. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12 835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22 627). Results. HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Conclusions. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention. PMID:25033143

  18. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  19. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  20. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  1. Development and evaluation of portable and wearable fuel cells for soldier use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampan, T.; Shah, D.; Cook, C.; Novoa, J.; Shah, S.

    2014-08-01

    A number of fuel cell systems have been recently developed to meet the U.S. Army's soldier power requirements. The operation and performance of these systems are discussed based on laboratory results and limited soldier evaluation. The systems reviewed are primarily intended for soldier use in an austere environment with minimum access to resupply and vehicular transportation. These applications require high power and energy density sources that are portable (300 W) and wearable (20 W) to minimize the soldier's load burden. Based on soldier field evaluations of portable fuel cell systems, improvements in power density and compatibility with logistical fuels are required to be successfully deployed. For soldier worn applications, a novel chemical hydride system has shown significant advances in power and energy density while maintaining a small form factor. The use of a high energy dense fuel cartridge (800 Wh kg-1) based on AlH3 (Alane) thermolysis, allows a power density of (28 W kg-1) which offers promising weight savings compared to the standard military batteries.

  2. Postdeployment mental health screening: an application of the Soldier Adaptation Model.

    PubMed

    Harmon, S Cory; Hoyt, Timothy V; Jones, Michael D; Etherage, Joseph R; Okiishi, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Global War on Terrorism and its corresponding frequent and long deployments have resulted in an increase in mental health concerns among active duty troops. To mitigate these impacts, the Department of Defense has implemented postdeployment screening initiatives designed to identify symptomatic soldiers and refer them for mental health care. Although the primary purpose of these screenings is to identify and provide assistance to individuals, macrolevel reporting of screening results for groups can assist Commanders, who are charged with ensuring the wellbeing of their soldiers, to make unit-level interventions. This study assesses the utility of a metatheory of occupational stress, the Soldier Adaptation Model, in organizing feedback information provided to Army Commanders on their units' postdeployment screening results. The results of a combat brigade of 2319 soldiers who completed post-deployment screening following return from Iraq were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling to assess the Soldier Adaptation Model's use for macrolevel reporting. Results indicate the Soldier Adaptation Model did not strengthen the macrolevel reporting; however, alcohol use and reckless driving were found to mediate the relationship between combat exposure and numerous mental health symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, anger, depression, anxiety, etc.). Research and practice implications are discussed. PMID:22594125

  3. [Haeckel: a German Darwinian?].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) is often considered the most renowned Darwinian in his country since, as early as 1862, he declared that he accepted the conclusions Darwin had reached three years before in On the Origin of Species, and afterwards, he continuously proclaimed himself a supporter of the English naturalist and championed the evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, if we examine carefully his books, in particular his General Morphology (1866), we can see that he carries on a tradition very far from Darwin's thoughts. In spite of his acceptance of the idea of natural selection, that he establishes as an argument for materialism, he adopts, indeed, a conception of evolution that is, in some respects, rather close to Lamarck's views. He is, thus, a good example of the ambiguities of the reception of Darwinism in Germany in the second part of the 19th century. PMID:19281944

  4. 76 FR 65927 - Certification and Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., October 4, 2011. Billing code 4710-10-P ] TD25OC11.004 ] TD25OC11.005 ] TD25OC11.006 ] TD25OC11.007 [FR... respect to Yemen; and further determine that it is in the national interest of the United States to...

  5. 77 FR 61509 - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... determination in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 28, 2012. [FR... prohibition in section 404(a) of the CSPA with respect to Libya, South Sudan, and Yemen; and further...

  6. 78 FR 63365 - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 30, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-25122... under the Peacekeeping Operations authority for logistical support and troop stipends. I hereby...

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior Among Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Stein, Murray B.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Ursano, Robert J.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The suicide rate among US Army soldiers has increased substantially in recent years. OBJECTIVES To estimate the lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic, Army career, and psychiatric predictors of suicidal behaviors among nondeployed US Army soldiers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A representative cross-sectional survey of 5428 nondeployed soldiers participating in a group self-administered survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. RESULTS The lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts are 13.9%, 5.3%, and 2.4%. Most reported cases (47.0%–58.2%) had pre-enlistment onsets. Pre-enlistment onset rates were lower than in a prior national civilian survey (with imputed/simulated age at enlistment), whereas post-enlistment onsets of ideation and plans were higher, and post-enlistment first attempts were equivalent to civilian rates. Most reported onsets of plans and attempts among ideators (58.3%–63.3%) occur within the year of onset of ideation. Post-enlistment attempts are positively related to being a woman (with an odds ratio [OR] of 3.3 [95% CI, 1.5–7.5]), lower rank (OR = 5.8 [95% CI, 1.8–18.1]), and previously deployed (OR = 2.4–3.7) and are negatively related to being unmarried (OR = 0.1–0.8) and assigned to Special Operations Command (OR = 0.0 [95% CI, 0.0–0.0]). Five mental disorders predict post-enlistment first suicide attempts in multivariate analysis: pre-enlistment panic disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0–0.8]), pre-enlistment posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0–0.7]), post-enlistment depression (OR = 3.8 [95% CI, 1.2–11.6]), and both pre- and post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder (OR = 3.7–3.8). Four of these 5 ORs (posttraumatic stress disorder is the exception) predict ideation, whereas only post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder predicts attempts among ideators. The population

  8. Examination of the Effectiveness of Predictors for Musculoskeletal Injuries in Female Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Kodesh, Einat; Shargal, Eyal; Kislev-Cohen, Rotem; Funk, Shany; Dorfman, Lev; Samuelly, Gil; Hoffman, Jay R.; Sharvit, Nurit

    2015-01-01

    The amount of training days lost to injury during military training has highlighted the need to identify a screening tool to predict injury. One hundred and fifty-eight female soldiers from the Combat Fitness Instructor Course (CFIC) of the Israel Defense Forces volunteered to participate in this study. All soldiers were free of orthopedic and neurologic conditions for at least one month before the study. All participants performed a battery of measurements during the first week of the course. Measures included anthropometric, functional movement screen (FMS), power performances (counter movement jump [CMJ], drop jump, single leg triple hop jump [SLTH], 10-m sprint) and a 2K run. Injury data was collected throughout the 3 month course. Median tests were used to compare between injured/non-injured soldiers. Chi-square and/or logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between various predictors and injury. Percent body fat [%BF] was higher (p = 0.04), distance for SLTH was less for both left and right legs (p = 0.029, p = 0.047 respectively) and 2K run was slower (p =0.044) in injured compared to non-injured soldiers. No differences between groups were noted in total FMS score, however more zero scores in one or more movement pattern were found in the injured group (51.35 % vs. 30.5% p=0.0293). Only %BF, 2K run and SLTH distance were significant predictors of injury (p = 0.05, p = 0.02, p =0.016 respectively). The results of this study indicated that the FMS total score is not a predictor of injury in female soldiers in a CFIC. We found that %BF, SLTH, 2K run time, 10 meter sprint time and zero scores differentiated between injured and non-injured soldiers. In addition, %BF, 2K run and SLTH were each found to be separate predictors of injury. Further research is needed to determine threshold scores that predict injury. Key points A total of 145 injuries were reported during the three month Combat Fitness Instructor Course in a female soldiers

  9. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  10. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. PMID:26243802

  11. Desert Storm syndrome: sick soldiers and dead children?

    PubMed

    Doucet, I

    1994-01-01

    Ill-health has been reported by many soldiers and others deployed in the Persian Gulf during the Gulf War of 1991. Iraqi children have also been reported as suffering from an undiagnosed wasting disease. Little conclusive information has come to light; this paper reviews what is known at present, largely from anecdotal reports. Symptoms reported differ from post-traumatic stress syndrome as reported after previous conflicts; some are suggestive of a direct effect on the immune system. Various possible causes are examined, including post-traumatic stress disorder, infection, prophylactic medication, exposure to chemical and biological warfare agents, exposures resulting from oil spills and fires, and exposure to depleted uranium ammunition. The latter was used extensively for the first time in the Gulf War, and is manufactured and test-fired in Britain. The passive role of the British government in following up such reports is noted, in contrast with the more active official responses in the United States. It is suggested that Desert Storm Syndrome is one example of multiple assault upon the body's immune system. PMID:7935166

  12. Behavior modeling through CHAOS for simulation of dismounted soldier operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubink, Emiel; Aldershoff, Frank; Lotens, Wouter; Woering, Arend

    2008-04-01

    One of the major challenges in human behavior modeling for military applications is dealing with all factors that can influence behavior and performance. In a military context, behavior and performance are influenced by the task at hand, the internal (cognitive and physiological) and external (climate, terrain, threat, equipment, etc.) state. Modeling the behavioral effects of all these factors in a centralized manner would lead to a complex rule-base that is difficult to maintain or expand. To better cope with this complexity we have developed the Capability-based Human-performance Architecture for Operational Simulation (CHAOS). CHAOS is a multi-agent system for human behavior modeling that is based on pandemonium theory. Every agent in CHAOS represents a specific part of behavior, such as 'reaction to threat' or 'performing a patrol task'. These agents are competing over a limited set of resources that represent human capabilities. By combining the element of competition with multiple limited resources, CHAOS allows us to model stress, strain and multi-tasking in an intuitive manner. The CHAOS architecture is currently used in firefighter and dismounted soldier simulations and has shown itself to be suitable for human behavior and performance modeling.

  13. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure. PMID:12076006

  14. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... go to the caregiver's home. Finally, there are child care centers. You need to choose the one that works for your family. It is important to get to know your child's caregivers. They will be a big part of ...

  15. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of " ...

  16. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described. (Author/VWL)

  17. The Demand for Business German: A Survey of German-American Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    1997-01-01

    Reports the results of a large-scale survey on the demand for business German in German-American companies. Results showed German proficiency was not considered a key qualification, but a significant portion of oral communication in these companies took place in German. German proficiency was most needed in management and marketing departments.…

  18. Division of Labor in German Dual-Earner Families: Testing Equity Theoretical Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klumb, Petra; Hoppmann, Christiane; Staats, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of 52 German dual-earner couples with at least 1 child younger than 5 years, we tested the effects of an unequal division of labor on relationship satisfaction. We analyzed diary reports of time allocated to productive activities according to the actor-partner-interdependence model. Hierarchical linear models showed that rather than…

  19. Sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and soldier caste in a polyembryonic wasp

    PubMed Central

    Uka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takuma; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers’ ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement. Female soldiers are more aggressive than male soldiers, and their numbers increase upon invasion of the host by other parasites. In this report, in vivo and in vitro competition assays were used to test whether females have a toxic humoral factor; if so, then its strength was compared with that of males. We found that females have a toxic factor that is much weaker than that of males. Our results imply sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and larval soldiers. We discuss how this sexual complementarity guarantees adaptive advantages for both males and females despite the one-sided killing of male reproductives by larval female soldiers in a mixed-sex brood. PMID:27385149

  20. Antifungal activity in thrips soldiers suggests a dual role for this caste.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Christine; Caravan, Holly; Chapman, Thomas; Nipperess, David; Dennison, Siobhan; Schwarz, Michael; Beattie, Andrew

    2012-08-23

    The social insect soldier is perhaps the most widely known caste, because it often exhibits spectacular weapons, such as highly enlarged jaws or reinforced appendages, which are used to defend the colony against enemies ranging in size from wasps to anteaters. We examined the function of the enlarged forelimbs of soldiers (both male and female) of the eusocial, gall-inhabiting insect Kladothrips intermedius, and discovered that they have little impact on their ability to repel the specialized invading thrips Koptothrips species. While the efficacy of the enlarged forelimb appears equivocal, we show that soldiers secrete strong antifungal compounds capable of controlling the specialized insect fungal pathogen, Cordyceps bassiana. Our data suggest that these thrips soldiers have evolved in response to selection by both macro- and micro-organisms. While it is unknown whether specialized fungal pathogens have been major selective agents in the evolution of the soldier caste in general, they were probably present when sociality first evolved and may have been the primordial enemies of social insects. PMID:22496077

  1. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E

    2012-10-01

    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment. PMID:23113444

  2. A soldier suffering from PTSD, treated by controlled stress exposition using virtual reality and behavioral training.

    PubMed

    Tworus, Radosław; Szymanska, Sylwia; Ilnicki, Stanisław

    2010-02-01

    This article presents a case of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a 30-year-old soldier of the Polish Military Contingent in Iraq who narrowly escaped death three times. The first time occurred when during a change of guard he was unintentionally shot by his colleague. The projectile penetrated the victim's helmet, slid along its internal shell curvature, and left the shell causing only a scratch on the scalp skin. Another traumatic event was experienced by the soldier a month after the first incident. As a guard of honor, he was "shot" in the same rear head area with a cap of a cream tube, inadvertently stepped on by a colleague. The third event occurred a couple of days later, during a rocket attack on the Diwaniyah base. After this incident the soldier was evacuated to the Clinic of Psychiatry and Combat Stress in Warsaw. Multiform PTSDs that developed in this soldier are described in this work. The course of his comprehensive therapy during his two stays, with a total duration of 8 months, in the clinic is discussed. Also, a detailed description of the therapy controlled exposition to combat stressors in virtual reality (VR), supplemented with behavioral training consisting of desensitization of an aversive reaction to contact with a weapon at a shooting range is presented. The comprehensive treatment activities resulted in full remission of the PTSD symptoms. The soldier continues his service in a logistic support unit. PMID:20528300

  3. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. PMID:26633668

  4. Camouflage simulation and effectiveness assessment for the individual soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepfinger, Lisa B.

    1990-09-01

    The mission of the Individual Protection Directorate of the U. S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center is to develop clothing and equipment to protect the individual combat soldier against battlefield chemical, ballistic, surveillance, environmental and nuclear hazards. In an effort to meet our countersurveillance mission, the Terrain Analysis Systn was developed by Natick in conjunction with Decilog, Inc., Melville, New York. The Terrain Analysis System was developed to satisfy the need for a scientific method of designing camouflage patterns based on natural terrain reflectance data. It functions as a portable, abridged spectrophotometer to obtain spectral refltance data in the visible and near-infrared on any scene of interest. Data is collected on videotape in the field, digitized into the computer back in the laboratory, and spectral reflectance factors determined for each pixel in the scene. The 1976 CIE L*a*b* color coordinates are calculated and the image is clustered to a user-specific number of color domains. Camouflage patterns can be designed based on these domains, and visual camouflage evaluations can be made by overlaying the designed patterns on any desired background scene. Additional capabilities include calculation of values analogous to the CIE values, which use infrared film or an image intensifier as the observer. The Terrain Analysis System is also capable of analyzing video data taken through an image intensifier or thermal imager and calculating the probability of detection of a user-defined target against the background. "What if" cases can be run to determine the detection probability under other sets of conditions, such as a detector with a different spectral response or under different atmospheric conditions.

  5. New German abortion law agreed.

    PubMed

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  6. Trauma and current posttraumatic stress symptoms in elderly German women who experienced wartime rapes in 1945.

    PubMed

    Kuwert, Philipp; Klauer, Thomas; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Dudeck, Manuela; Schomerus, Georg; Freyberger, Harald J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the persistent trauma impact and significant posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of very elderly German women who survived the mass rapes committed by soldiers at the end of World War II. A total of 27 women were recruited, interviewed, and then administered a modified Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. They all reported a very severe degree of trauma exposure in 1945; 19% reported significant current posttraumatic stress symptoms indicating a possible posttraumatic stress disorder at the time of the study, and 30% fulfilled the criteria of a current partial posttraumatic stress disorder. The results highlight the necessity for prevention and treatment programs for women exposed to wartime rapes in current conflict settings worldwide, and the need to identify and treat posttraumatic conditions in the elderly generation of all countries exposed to World War II trauma. PMID:20531125

  7. Counseling Adult Learners for New Careers: The Motivations and Barriers Associated with Postsecondary Educational Participation of Soldiers in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Clinton M.

    A qualitative case study approach with individual and focus group interviews identified senior enlisted Army soldiers' primary motivations and perceived barriers to postsecondary education participation. The 92 interviewees shared these common characteristics: they were enlisted soldiers, were older, attended college part time, worked full time,…

  8. 77 FR 6865 - Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star- Spangled Banner... Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin products: Introductory Product price Regular price Infantry... Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar Special N/A 51.95 Set Star-Spangled Banner Proof Silver Dollar 49.95...

  9. 3 CFR 8945 - Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument 8945 Proclamation 8945 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8945 of March 25, 2013 Proc. 8945 Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National MonumentBy the President...

  10. Interaction of Combat Exposure and Unit Cohesion in Predicting Suicide-Related Ideation among Post-Deployment Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mary M.; Gallaway, Michael Shayne; Millikan, Amy M.; Bell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among U.S. Army soldiers. Suicide-related ideation, which is associated with suicide attempts and suicide, can cause considerable distress. In a sample of 1,663 recently redeployed soldiers, we used factor analysis and structural equation modeling to test the associations between combat exposure, unit…

  11. Expansion of presoldier cuticle contributes to head elongation during soldier differentiation in termites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugime, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kota; Watanabe, Dai; Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miura, Toru

    2015-12-01

    In termites, the soldier caste possesses morphological features suitable for colony defence, despite some exceptions. Soldiers are differentiated via two moultings through a presoldier stage with dramatic morphogenesis. While a number of morphological modifications are known to occur during the presoldier moult, growth and morphogenesis seem to continue even after the moult. The present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, carried out morphological and histological investigations on the developmental processes during the presoldier stage that is artificially induced by the application of a juvenile hormone analogue. Measurements of five body parameters indicated that head length significantly increased during the 14-day period after the presoldier moult, while it did not increase subsequently to the stationary moult (pseudergate moult as control). Histological observations also showed that the cuticular development played a role in the presoldier head elongation, suggesting that the soft and flexible presoldier cuticle contributed to the soldier morphogenesis in termites.

  12. Military morality transformed: weapons and soldiers on the nineteenth-century battlefield.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gervase

    2011-01-01

    The increased lethality of nineteenth-century “arms of precision” caused military formations to disperse in combat, transforming the ordinary soldier from a near automaton, drilled to deliver random fire under close supervision, into a moral agent who exercised a degree of choice about where, when, and how to fire his weapon. The emerging autonomy of the soldier became a central theme in contemporary tactical debates, which struggled to reconcile the desire for discipline with the individual initiative necessary on the battlefield. This tactical conundrum offers revealing insights about human aggression and mass violence. Its dark legacy was the propagation of military values into civilian society, thus paving the way for the political soldiers of the twentieth century. PMID:21584989

  13. Hospitalizations for fall-related injuries among active-duty Army soldiers, 1980–1998

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Bell, Nicole S.; Yore, Michelle M.; Amoroso, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD) were used to describe 28,352 fall-related hospitalizations among active-duty Army soldiers between 1980 and 1998. Soldiers who were younger than age 26, single, and had a high school education or less were at greatest risk. Falls from a height were more likely to be fatal than other types of falls, accounting for 88% of all fatalities. In cases where duty status was known, 64% of the falls took place while the soldier was on duty and half of these occurred during training. The most common type of fall during training was fall from a height (37%). Falls on stairs and ladders accounted for 49% of all off-duty falls. Future research should include identification of specific behavioral and occupational risk factors for falls, particularly those occurring during training activities, and falls occurring off duty. PMID:12441580

  14. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. PMID:26210140

  15. Expansion of presoldier cuticle contributes to head elongation during soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Sugime, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kota; Watanabe, Dai; Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miura, Toru

    2015-12-01

    In termites, the soldier caste possesses morphological features suitable for colony defence, despite some exceptions. Soldiers are differentiated via two moultings through a presoldier stage with dramatic morphogenesis. While a number of morphological modifications are known to occur during the presoldier moult, growth and morphogenesis seem to continue even after the moult. The present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, carried out morphological and histological investigations on the developmental processes during the presoldier stage that is artificially induced by the application of a juvenile hormone analogue. Measurements of five body parameters indicated that head length significantly increased during the 14-day period after the presoldier moult, while it did not increase subsequently to the stationary moult (pseudergate moult as control). Histological observations also showed that the cuticular development played a role in the presoldier head elongation, suggesting that the soft and flexible presoldier cuticle contributed to the soldier morphogenesis in termites. PMID:26573631

  16. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    PubMed

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished. PMID:12343177

  17. Characteristics of soldiers with self-harm in the israeli defense forces.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Leah; Fruchter, Eyal; Spiegel, Dror Ortasse; Shoval, Gal; Mann, J John; Zalsman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of soldier death in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) in peace time. Suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are risk factors for death by suicide in civilian studies and therefore their predictive value needs to be determined in the military. All army screening, psychometric and demographic data on consecutive cases of IDF soldier self-harm during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale was used retrospectively to classify self-harm as suicidal or NSSI. The Suicide Ideation Scale and the Suicide Intent Scale were scored retrospectively by trained clinical psychologists. A total of 107 soldiers reported self-harm during the study period, comprising 70 SA and 37 with NSSI. The most prevalent diagnosis was personality disorder (n = 48). Soldiers with any mood/anxiety disorders comprised the smallest group (n = 21) and included major depression, dysthymia, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Soldiers with NSSI (n = 37) did not differ in any of the characteristics from those who attempted suicide (n = 70). Unlike the well-known female dominance in both SA and NSSI patients in other settings, males dominated this army sample in both groups. Soldiers with self-harm (both SA and NSSI) cannot be easily distinguished by any demographics or specific psychological attributes detectable at induction, and the scales used in suicide research cannot predict an attempt or NSSI. Unlike civilian samples, males dominated attempter and NSSI groups and the reason for this may be multifactorial. These retrospective findings, if replicated, indicate the need for different screening strategies at induction into the military. PMID:25310569

  18. Tergal glands in termite soldiers of the subfamily Syntermitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives; Laranjo, Lara Teixeira

    2012-02-01

    The subfamily Syntermitinae comprises 14 genera of termites that are exclusively neotropical. The present study reports morphological data about mandibulate nasute soldiers from termite species belonging to three different genera within this subfamily. We describe tergal glands that were present under all tergites of soldiers of the following species: Cornitermes cumulans, Procornitermes araujoi, Syntermes nanus, and Syntermes wheeleri. The tergal glands were composed of class 2 and class 3 cells. Class 2 cells never reached the cuticle and were located below a flat layer of epidermal cells. Class 3 cells, composed of secretory cells and canal cells, were sporadic, whereas class 2 secretory cells were abundant. Secretory cells of class 3 were narrow and their cytoplasms were filled with several clear, oval-shaped vesicles with limiting membranes. The ultrastructure of class 2 cells showed well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, elongated mitochondria, several electron-lucent vesicles, and electron-dense granules that contain paracrystalline structures in S. nanus. Scanning electron micrographs displayed pores, campaniform sensilla and hairs in the outer cuticle of the soldier tergites. We hypothesize that soldier tergal glands may be involved in the production of defensive compounds, which occur in similar glands of certain cockroaches, or of primer pheromones, that might act in the regulation of soldier differentiation in the termite colony. To date, tergal glands have only been described in termite imagoes, and their occurrence in these soldiers of basal Syntermitinae implies a specific role in this caste that is still speculative and needs to be clarified. PMID:22088389

  19. The complete mitogenome of the soldier crab Mictyris longicarpus (Latreille, 1806) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Mictyridae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The Mictyris longicarpus (soldier crab) complete mitochondrial genome sequence is reported making it the first for the family Mictyridae and the second for the superfamily Ocypodoidea. The mitogenome is 15,548 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The soldier crab mitogenome gene order is characteristic of brachyuran crabs with a base composition of 36.58% for T, 19.15% for C, 32.43% for A and 11.83% for G, with an AT bias of 69.01%. PMID:25423510

  20. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present. PMID:24318779

  1. Current Suicidal Ideation among Treatment-Engaged Active Duty Soldiers and Marines

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Villatte, Jennifer L.; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Atkins, David C.; Flaster, Aaron; Comtois, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined suicidal ideation among 399 active duty Soldiers and Marines engaged in mental health treatment. Using a generalized linear model controlling for demographic and military factors, depression, and positive traumatic brain injury screen, we confirmed our hypothesis that self-report measures of current PTSD symptoms uniquely predicted suicidal ideation. The association between PTSD severity and suicidal ideation was moderated by gender with women at higher risk as PTSD severity increased. Female Soldiers and Marines with high levels of PTSD should receive additional monitoring and intervention. Self-report measures may aid with risk assessment and identify symptom-related distress associated with suicide risk. PMID:27170848

  2. Malaria and World War II: German malaria experiments 1939-45.

    PubMed

    Eckart, W U; Vondra, H

    2000-06-01

    The epidemiological and pharmacological fight against malaria and German malaria research during the Nazi dictatorship were completely under the spell of war. The Oberkommando des Heeres (German supreme command of the army) suffered the bitter experience of unexpected high losses caused by malaria especially at the Greek front (Metaxes line) but also in southern Russia and in the Ukraine. Hastily raised anti-malaria units tried to teach soldiers how to use the synthetic malaria drugs (Plasmochine, Atebrine) properly. Overdoses of these drugs were numerous during the first half of the war whereas in the second half it soon became clear that it would not be possible to support the army due to insufficient quantities of plasmochine and atebrine. During both running fights and troop withdrawals at all southern and southeastern fronts there was hardly any malaria prophylaxis or treatment. After war and captivity many soldiers returned home to endure heavy malaria attacks. In German industrial (Bayer, IG-Farben) and military malaria laboratories of the Heeres-Sanitäts-Akademie (Army Medical Academy) the situation was characterised by a hasty search for proper dosages of anti-malaria drugs, adequate mechanical and chemical prophylaxis (Petroleum, DDT, and other insecticides) as well as an anti-malaria vaccine. Most importantly, large scale research for proper atebrine and plasmochine dosages was conducted in German concentration camps and mental homes. In Dachau Professor Claus Schilling tested synthetic malaria drugs and injected helpless prisoners with high and sometimes lethal doses. Since the 1920s he had been furiously looking for an anti-malaria vaccine in Italian mental homes and from 1939 he continued his experiments in Dachau. Similar experiments were also performed in Buchenwald and in a psychiatric clinic in Thuringia, where Professor Gerhard Rose tested malaria drugs with mentally ill Russian prisoners of war. Schilling was put to death for his criminal

  3. Regular/Irregular is Not the Whole Story: The Role of Frequency and Generalization in the Acquisition of German Past Participle Inflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szagun, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of German participle inflection was investigated using spontaneous speech samples from six children between 1 ; 4 and 3 ; 8 and ten children between 1 ; 4 and 2 ; 10 recorded longitudinally at regular intervals. Child-directed speech was also analyzed. In adult and child speech weak participles were significantly more frequent than…

  4. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  5. Headstart German Program. Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the sixth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to familiarize the student with expressions connected with various kinds of…

  6. A Functional Syntax of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Edward G.

    Students in intermediate language courses, especially conversational courses, can benefit from a simple set of instructions for combining words and phrases into sentences. A description of the basic concepts determining word order in German--the fundamental sequence of clause elements, the "infrastructure," and the movement rules by which the…

  7. Saving German Studies, via Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, William Collins; Kagel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    By most accounts, the position of German studies in the American academy is no longer secure. To a large extent, that is due to reasons beyond the control of individual faculty or departments, including the general crisis faced by the humanities and the diminished importance in the eyes of the public of literary criticism, a vital part of the…

  8. Headstart German Program. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the fifth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 3 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use and understand: (1) courtesy expressions; (2) time…

  9. Headstart German Program. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the ninth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. The single unit in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to familiarize the student with some of the terminology used by military personnel in…

  10. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  11. Foreign Language: German for Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This short course in conversational German is designed to teach a student to speak simply for his own pleasure. Through games and songs, short dialogues, and basic phrases and sentences, the student learns to tell time, to count, and to ask and answer various questions about the weather, school, family, friends, and special interests. Basic…

  12. From Business to Technological German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, H. M.

    Because many of the Georgia Institute of Technology students taking business German come from the sciences and engineering, the business language textbook used has been supplemented with more technologically oriented instructional materials. Highly technical texts are too advanced at the second year language learning stage, so one teacher selected…

  13. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  14. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. PMID:25530416

  15. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Vision for Psychological Resilience in the U.S. Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, George W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The stress and strain on the U.S. Army's community due to nearly a decade of protracted war is well documented in the press and in scientific literature. In response, the Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is a preventive program that seeks to enhance psychological resilience among all members of the Army community, which includes…

  16. Bringing Science to Bear: An Empirical Assessment of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Paul B.; McBride, Sharon; Bliese, Paul D.; Adler, Amy B.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the U.S. Army's effort to empirically validate and assess the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. The empirical assessment includes four major components. First, the CSF scientific staff is currently conducting a longitudinal study to determine if the Master Resilience Training program and the Comprehensive…

  17. From "Rebel" to "Returnee:" Daily Life and Reintegration for Young Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah; Aryemo, Filder

    2009-01-01

    In war's aftermath, many young soldiers attempt to reintegrate and reestablish their lives. Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) programs are a priority intervention for youth in postconflict countries; yet there is little evidence to suggest what aids reintegration. This research uses qualitative methodology to describe the issues…

  18. Smoking is a predictor of depression onset among National Guard soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Renee D; Prescott, Marta; Tamburrino, Marijo; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the relationship between smoking and depression in a sample of American soldiers. Persistent, active smoking is associated with increased risk of incident depression at follow up. History of smoking in the absence of current smoking at baseline was not associated with depression at follow-up. PMID:23291043

  19. Panic escape polyethism in worker and soldier Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg; Gautam, Bal K; Chen, Jie; Bhatta, Dependra

    2016-04-01

    Termites were the first animal to form societies. Two hundred million years of evolution provide for a multitude of innate social behaviors that can be experimentally dissected. These fine-tuned patterns of behavior are especially interesting when observing group decision making in the panic mode. In this study, we examined behavioral patterns of termites under panic conditions to gain insight into how an escape flow self-organizes. One hundred worker and 10 soldier Coptotermes formosanus were released into agar plates. After a disturbance was created most workers followed each other and ran along the wall of dishes, thus forming a unidirectional escape flow, whereas soldiers showed a significantly higher frequency of moving to the center of the arena or on periphery of the escape flow as compared to workers. Agonistic behavior was usually observed as soldiers moved to center or periphery. This is the first report on the behavioral repertoire of termites when panicked, with details on the behavioral polymorphism of workers and soldiers during an escape. PMID:25630524

  20. Charles Pinckney: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Although the second youngest person of those who would sign the U.S. Constitution, Charles Pinckney stood out as one of the most active members of the Constitutional Convention, and over 30 of the U.S. Constitution's provisions can be traced to his pen. This booklet on Pinckney is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the…

  1. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Charles Cotesworth Pinckney was a wealthy South Carolinian whose profound sense of public duty obliged him to risk everything to assume a mantle of political and military leadership during the period of rebellion. This booklet on Pinckney is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews…

  2. William Few: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Exhibiting the characteristic of self-reliance vital for survival on the American frontier, William Few, a self-educated man and lawyer, had natural abilities that included leadership and organization, and these abilities led him into a long political career. This booklet on Few is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the…

  3. Richard Dobbs Spaight: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    The preservation of liberty was Richard Dobbs Spaight's political lodestar while he firmly supported an effective central government and fought for the Bill of Rights. This booklet on Spaight is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews covers his youth in Ireland, his military…

  4. Richard Bassett: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Richard Bassett's experiences as a politician and soldier during the Revolutionary War broadened his political horizons for the War had demonstrated to him the need for greater regional and national cooperation if the political and economic promises of independence for the United States were to be realized. This booklet on Bassett is one in a…

  5. George Washington: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Possessed of an extraordinary strength of character and a wealth of public virtues, George Washington exhibited integrity, self-discipline, and a devotion to duty that made him the natural leader in the task of nation building. This booklet on Washington is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the U.S. Constitution. The…

  6. Abraham Baldwin: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Although his father was an illiterate blacksmith, Abraham Baldwin demonstrated how academic achievement opened opportunities in colonial society, and he later became a fervent missionary of public education. This booklet on Baldwin is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews his education,…

  7. Hugh Williamson: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    As a scholar of international renown, Hugh Williamson came into contact with some of the leading intellectuals of the patriot cause and their political ideas transformed him into an adroit politician and leader. This booklet on Williamson is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who later signed the U.S. Constitution. The booklet reviews…

  8. Labral gland in soldiers of the neotropical termite Cornitermes cumulans (Isoptera: Termitidae: Syntermitinae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2014-09-01

    Cornitermes cumulans is a termite species of the subfamily Syntermitinae with a nasute mandibulate soldier caste, members of which are morphologically equipped with structures and organs specialized for the defence of the colony. We investigated the labrum of soldiers of C. cumulans and described the labral gland, an exocrine structure present in this appendage. The labrum of C. cumulans soldiers presented two distinct regions, the hyaline tip and the proximal region connected to the head. The hyaline tip exhibited a thick cuticle composed of a loose endocuticle involving an epithelium of class 1 cells, which synthesize the glandular product into a subcuticular space that function as a reservoir prior to release the final secretion. The proximal region of the labrum had an epithelium composed of class 1 and class 3 cells, which released the secretion onto both ventral and dorsal surfaces. The ultrastructure showed abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen in the class 1 cells, whereas the class 3 cells had many electron-lucent vesicles that varied in size. We associated the labral gland with the production of toxic substances that may act inside enemy wounds made by the soldiers' mandibles. Other possible functions for the labral secretion are also discussed. PMID:24981212

  9. Vision-based semi-autonomous outdoor robot system to reduce soldier workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Al; Rodgers, Michael H.

    2001-09-01

    Sensors and computational capability have not reached the point to enable small robots to navigate autonomously in unconstrained outdoor environments at tactically useful speeds. This problem is greatly reduced, however, if a soldier can lead the robot through terrain that he knows it can traverse. An application of this concept is a small pack-mule robot that follows a foot soldier over outdoor terrain. The solder would be responsible to avoid situations beyond the robot's limitations when encountered. Having learned the route, the robot could autonomously retrace the path carrying supplies and munitions. This would greatly reduce the soldier's workload under normal conditions. This paper presents a description of a developmental robot sensor system using low-cost commercial 3D vision and inertial sensors to address this application. The robot moves at fast walking speed and requires only short-range perception to accomplish its task. 3D-feature information is recorded on a composite route map that the robot uses to negotiate its local environment and retrace the path taught by the soldier leader.

  10. The Impact of Soldier Quality on Performance in the Army. Technical Report 708.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, David K.

    To justify its labor force quality requirements, the Army sought to demonstrate an empirical link between Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores and soldier performance. The first data set contained written and hands-on tests on several weapons systems from the Army's training schools. The second data set used the Skill Qualifications Tests…

  11. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  12. The assessment of genetic variability among spined soldier bug (Pentatomidae: Hemiptera) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spined soldier bug Podisus maculiventris (Say) is a predatory hemipteran found in North America. It is an important biological control agent for agricultural and forest pests. This polyphagous predator mainly preys upon the eggs and larvae of the lepidopteran and coleopteran species. To assess th...

  13. Soldier-Scholars. Higher Education in the AEF, 1917-1919.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornebise, Alfred E.

    At the end of World War I, a system of education was created for the soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) who remained in Europe. This book documents the history of the ventures, organized by the Young Mens Christian Association and the army, that provided educational opportunities for two million men awaiting return to home.…

  14. The spined soldier bug Podisus: an important commercial and natural predator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris is an important generalist predator of many species of insect pests in different horticultural crops. We studied the effects of temperature, prey preference, reproduction in laboratory and field studies, and population dynamics. We found the following ge...

  15. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  16. Reading at the Front: Books and Soldiers in the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Marcella P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…

  17. A Re-Entry Program for Peacekeeping Soldiers: Promoting Personal and Career Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Marvin J.; Black, Timothy G.; McLean, Holly B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a program developed to assist with military personnel's transition back into Canadian society by aiding with their personal and career readjustment. Group-based life review and therapeutic enactment counseling interventions are used to identify critical incidents and facilitate the resolution of stress-related reactions soldiers have…

  18. Stress and counterproductive work behavior: multiple relationships between demands, control, and soldier indiscipline over time.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jennifer S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Salvi, Angela D; Adler, Amy B

    2009-07-01

    Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT) suggests that under high levels of stress, employees are more prone to committing indiscipline. As few studies have examined this relationship over time, the authors conducted a six-wave longitudinal study examining the relationship of soldiers' indiscipline with work demands and control. The study included archival data collected quarterly over 2 years from 1,701 soldiers representing 10 units in garrison (Germany and Italy), in training rotations (Grafenwoehr, Germany), and on peacekeeping deployments (Kosovo, Kuwait). No main effects were found for work overload, and the findings for the moderating effects of control were contradictory. Within each time point, as work overload increased, soldiers who felt less control committed more indiscipline, supporting CRT. Over time, however, as work overload increased, soldiers who perceived less control 6 months earlier committed less indiscipline. Additionally, the authors found reverse causal effects for control such that prior perceptions of a lack of control were associated with indiscipline and prior incidents of indiscipline with less control. PMID:19586221

  19. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars.This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers. PMID:19643016

  20. Testing the stress-buffering effects of self engagement among soldiers on a military operation.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Bliese, Paul D

    2003-04-01

    The present research examined whether self engagement moderated the stressor-strain relationship in a sample of U.S. soldiers deployed on a peacekeeping mission to Bosnia. Given that individuals were nested within groups (Army companies), we examined the relationships of interest using multilevel random coefficient models. The results of these analyses revealed that self engagement interacted with three different stressors (lower amounts of sleep, work stress, family stress) in the prediction of psychological distress. In support of self engagement as a buffer against stress, when stressors were low (high amounts of sleep, low levels of work stress, and family stress), soldiers reported relatively low levels of psychological distress and physical symptoms, regardless of whether they were engaged in or disengaged from their job. However, when stressor levels were high, soldiers who were engaged in their job reported less elevation in reports of psychological distress than soldiers who were disengaged from their job. The results are discussed in terms of the potential mechanisms by which self engagement might protect individuals from stressful circumstances. PMID:12693517

  1. William Jackson: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    All 39 delegates to the Constitutional Convention signed the U.S. Constitution in September 1787, but the 40th signature, that of William Jackson, the Secretary of the Convention, authenticated the results of the session in Philadelphia. This booklet on Jackson is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who signed the U.S. Constitution, and…

  2. Spousal aggression by U.S. Army female soldiers toward employed and unemployed civilian husbands.

    PubMed

    Newby, John H; Ursano, Robert J; McCarroll, James E; Martin, Laurie T; Norwood, Ann E; Fullerton, Carol S

    2003-07-01

    Aggression by a random sample of female soldiers (N = 1,185) toward their employed (n = 840) and unemployed (n = 345) civilian husbands was measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale. When age, race, rank, years married, and the number of previous marriages were held constant, severe aggression toward unemployed male spouses was significantly greater than toward employed spouses. PMID:12921209

  3. The Civil War Soldier: Romantic and Realist. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Jay; And Others

    This social studies unit provides an impressionistic study of the Civil War soldier and of his changing attitudes toward that war. It contrasts the periods of his optimism early in the war and his nostalgic recollection of events after the war with the despair he experienced from 1862 to 1865. The materials are essentially anecdotal in character…

  4. Physiological and Medical Aspects That Put Women Soldiers at Increased Risk for Overuse Injuries.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Fleischmann, Chen; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval

    2015-11-01

    Anthropometric and physiological factors place female soldiers at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Average aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at a disadvantage compared with men in performing military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights, or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier. Their smaller size, skeletal anatomy, and different bone geometry also predispose women to a higher incidence of exercise-related injuries. Consequently, the attrition rate of female soldiers in combat units is higher than that of their male counterparts. This review summarizes the literature on gender-related physiological and anatomical differences that put female soldiers at an increased risk of exercise-related injuries. PMID:26506172

  5. Cyclic Gun--Human Evolution: Soldiers, Guns, Machine Logic, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Guns, slug-throwing weapons, have evolved as humans have increased their grasp of the mechanical arts. In the near future, however, it seems likely that soldiers' rifles operating at punishing cyclic rates of fire face the limits of physics and materials science--heat and speed will cost accuracy and distance. This article considers not only the…

  6. Using Artifacts to Understand the Life of a Soldier in World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Staci

    2009-01-01

    For years, when the author taught about World War II, she used primary and secondary source readings, she presented Power Points, and had her students watch newsreels and other video clips. Today, her students interact with actual artifacts from history so that they can draw conclusions and gain understanding about what the soldiers' lives were…

  7. Evolution of low-profile and lightweight electrical connectors for soldier-worn applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is <0.3 in. - a significant reduction from the 2.5 in. average height of conventional connectors. Electrical connections can be made with one hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.

  8. Impact of Military Deployment and Distance Learning on Soldier-Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, August T.

    2013-01-01

    Soldiers face complex challenges, issues, and decisions when pursuing distance learning while deployed. These challenges are encountered frequently while completing undergraduate and graduate degree programs on active duty overseas. Many learning programs and benefits are available and utilized by military online learners in a war zone. Education…

  9. Male and Female Soldiers' Beliefs about the "Appropriateness" of Various Jobs for Women in the Army.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savell, Joel M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to (1) document the expanding role of women in the U.S. Army and (2) determine whether soldiers in 1974 believed that certain military jobs were appropriate for women and whether those beliefs were related to respondent sex, rank, and expectation of leaving the army before retirement. An examination of army records revealed…

  10. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  11. Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

  12. The Foreign Workers and Foreign Workers' German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackshire-Belay, Carol

    Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…

  13. The German Speaking Test: Utility and Caveats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the utility of the German Speaking Test (GST) as a general test of German foreign-language proficiency, examining whether it can be used effectively in classroom and institutional foreign-language settings and how proficiency ratings based on the GST relate to examinees' real-world German communicative abilities. Caveats regarding the…

  14. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  15. Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Nour, Ibtisam El; Al-Said, Basma

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families. PMID:22375265

  16. Remote monitoring of soldier safety through body posture identification using wearable sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subir; Quwaider, Muhannad

    2008-04-01

    The physical safety and well being of the soldiers in a battlefield is the highest priority of Incident Commanders. Currently, the ability to track and monitor soldiers rely on visual and verbal communication which can be somewhat limited in scenarios where the soldiers are deployed inside buildings and enclosed areas that are out of visual range of the commanders. Also, the need for being stealth can often prevent a battling soldier to send verbal clues to a commander about his or her physical well being. Sensor technologies can remotely provide various data about the soldiers including physiological monitoring and personal alert safety system functionality. This paper presents a networked sensing solution in which a body area wireless network of multi-modal sensors can monitor the body movement and other physiological parameters for statistical identification of a soldier's body posture, which can then be indicative of the physical conditions and safety alerts of the soldier in question. The specific concept is to leverage on-body proximity sensing and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based mechanism that can be applied for stochastic identification of human body postures using a wearable sensor network. The key idea is to collect relative proximity information between wireless sensors that are strategically placed over a subject's body to monitor the relative movements of the body segments, and then to process that using HMM in order to identify the subject's body postures. The key novelty of this approach is a departure from the traditional accelerometry based approaches in which the individual body segment movements, rather than their relative proximity, is used for activity monitoring and posture detection. Through experiments with body mounted sensors we demonstrate that while the accelerometry based approaches can be used for differentiating activity intensive postures such as walking and running, they are not very effective for identification and

  17. [The disease and treatment of the frontline soldiers in Han dynasty].

    PubMed

    Min, Hookie

    2015-04-01

    This paper purports to identify and analyze the medical information of the frontline soldiers in the Northwest borderland provinces of Han Dynasty, especially Juyan and Dunhuang region, through an heuristic reading of the Juyan Bamboo Slips and the Dunhuang Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty. My findings are as follows. The most frequent disease found in the bamboo slips was the external injury. The injury of the frontline soldiers mainly occurred from the quarrels among armed soldiers using weapons. The bamboo slips also demonstrate that the quarrels usually arose due to the fierce tension caused by the frontier line service such as heavy guard activity and labour duty. Undernourishment and chronic stress the soldiers suffered might be another reasons. The second most common disease harassing the soldiers was exogenous febrile disease. In most cases reviewed in this paper, the exogenous febrile disease was usually concurrent with complex symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, etc. The bamboo slips show that the exogenous febrile disease was related to the harsh climate of the Northwest provinces, featuring extremely dry weather and the large magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations. In addition, the annual temperature range in the Northwest province was huge, fluctuating between very cold and dry winter and very hot and dry summer. The third most common disease this study identified was the disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. However, these two types of disease were virtually indistinguishable in the bamboo slips, because the ancient Chinese chroniclers did not distinguish them, usually dubbing both diseases simply 'abdominal pain.' It should be mentioned that a few slips mention contagious disease such as dysentery and dermatolosis, and sudden death, as well. Overall, the bamboo slips demonstrate extremely poor status of the soldiers' heath condition and poor medical environment surrounding the soldiers stationing in the Northwest

  18. Document of the Month: German Propaganda Leaflets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, CeCe; Alexander, Mary

    1978-01-01

    Excerpts from two propaganda leaflets distributed by Germany during World War I to demoralize American soldiers. Teaching suggestions encourage students to examine the leaflets' tone, guess who the authors might have been, and analyze the leaflets as examples of a propaganda technique. (AV)

  19. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make ... and unable to feel pain during the operation. During ...

  20. Human factors considerations of IR sensors for the Canadian Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frim, John; Bossi, Linda; Tack, Dave

    2009-05-01

    The Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP) is the cornerstone of Canada's future soldier modernization effort, which seeks to "significantly enhance tactical level individual and team Lethality, Mobility and C4I performance in the complex, network-enabled, command-centric, effects-based digitized battlespace." This capital acquisition project is supported by a number of R&D Technology Demonstration Projects within Defence R&D Canada. Several of these projects focus on the human factors aspects of future technologies, such as IR sensors. The Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) project examined the performance impact of NVGs, LWIR imaging systems, and fused systems (both optical and digital fusion) on target detection, recognition and identification. NVGs were shown to provide good identification performance while LWIR systems excelled in detection tasks. Fused systems show promise of augmenting the respective stand alone capabilities of each sensor type, but more work is required to optimize fusion algorithms. The Soldier Integrated Headwear Technology Demonstration (SIHS TD) project is looking at the human factors aspects of mounting a range of vision enhancement sensors on a helmet, including optimal placement of both sensors and displays with respect to center of mass, total head borne weight, and visual offset and parallax issues. Overall headwear system weight should be less than 2.5 kg, and if an offset from the eye is required then a horizontal offset (vice vertical or oblique) of the sensor appears most acceptable. These findings have implications on the design of future IR and fused sensor systems for dismounted soldiers.

  1. Integration of an intelligent systems behavior simulator and a scalable soldier-machine interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tony; Manteuffel, Chris; Brewster, Benjamin; Tierney, Terry

    2007-04-01

    As the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) introduce emerging technologies and new force structures to the battlefield, soldiers will increasingly face new challenges in workload management. The next generation warfighter will be responsible for effectively managing robotic assets in addition to performing other missions. Studies of future battlefield operational scenarios involving the use of automation, including the specification of existing and proposed technologies, will provide significant insight into potential problem areas regarding soldier workload. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is currently executing an Army technology objective program to analyze and evaluate the effect of automated technologies and their associated control devices with respect to soldier workload. The Human-Robotic Interface (HRI) Intelligent Systems Behavior Simulator (ISBS) is a human performance measurement simulation system that allows modelers to develop constructive simulations of military scenarios with various deployments of interface technologies in order to evaluate operator effectiveness. One such interface is TARDEC's Scalable Soldier-Machine Interface (SMI). The scalable SMI provides a configurable machine interface application that is capable of adapting to several hardware platforms by recognizing the physical space limitations of the display device. This paper describes the integration of the ISBS and Scalable SMI applications, which will ultimately benefit both systems. The ISBS will be able to use the Scalable SMI to visualize the behaviors of virtual soldiers performing HRI tasks, such as route planning, and the scalable SMI will benefit from stimuli provided by the ISBS simulation environment. The paper describes the background of each system and details of the system integration approach.

  2. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  3. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

  5. Daily uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction.

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Roth, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peacekeeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peacekeeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d(-1) for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. PMID:17567762

  6. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendless, or even suicidal If your family has developed a pattern of responding to disagreements with physical or emotional abuse If you or your spouse or child use alcohol or other drugs to feel better ...

  7. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    Children's healthy development depends on safe and positive experiences when they are very young. If you work or go to school, you want to know that your child is in good hands while you are away. You may ...

  8. World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial to 'Smoky, Yorkie Doodle Dandy and Dogs of All Wars' in the Rocky River Reservation, Lakewood, Ohio. November 11, 2005

  9. Psycho-linguistic and Pedagogical Aspects in the Bilingual Education of a Child of Pre-school Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1974-01-01

    The subject of this study was a Peruvian child who learned German first and, from the age of 2 years and 10 months, was systematically exposed to Spanish. At the age of 4, he had mastered both German and Spanish to the same degree of phonic, morphological, and syntactic competence. Two weeks after the surgical removal of a brain tumor at 5 years…

  10. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  11. History of German pediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Heintzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Due to the isolation of German medicine in World War II accompanied by the destruction of many hospitals, German pediatricians did not show any serious interest in the treatment of children with congenital heart diseases, nor did they take notice of the progress achieved by Helen Taussig, Alfred Blalock and other cardiologists and surgeons in the western world. This problem was even worse in East Germany. Only a few German internists and forward-looking surgeons were able and ready to take care of this group of principally operable children in places like Bonn/Düsseldorf, Marburg/Munich, Berlin, and Hamburg. However, in the early 1950s some directors of pediatrics at university hospitals--largely motivated by the cardiac surgeons--allowed or even encouraged younger colleagues to concentrate on pediatric cardiology and to begin application of heart catheterization and angiocardiography. In 1960 a group of colleagues interested in pediatric cardiology met for the first time in Frankfurt and became the nucleus of the future "working group" (1969) and finally the "German Society of Pediatric Cardiology" (1974). By 1972 pediatric cardiology had been approved as an independent (sub)specialty. Colleagues and friends from surrounding countries (Austria, Great Britain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the Netherlands) and also from the US and some eastern countries were either members or regular guests during or between the meetings. Pediatric cardiology is now represented in Germany by specialized practitioners, trainees and assistants who work in both community and university hospitals, and in specialized departments. Due to the foresightedness of the Chief of Pediatrics, Prof. G. Joppich, the first Chair of Pediatric Cardiology was founded in Göttingen in 1960 under the direction of A. Beuren. Another model of interdisciplinary cooperation between pediatric cardiologists, bioengineers, mathematicians and computer scientists was established in Kiel in 1966. In other places

  12. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

    2013-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204

  13. More than a photo: Germans from Russia remember their familial relationships.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Most narrators of the Dakota Memories Oral History Project (DMOHP), the children and grandchildren of ethnic German immigrants from Russia, reminisce a great deal about their family relationships -- grandparent-grandchild relationships, parent-child relationships, and sibling-sibling relationships. They share memories of their grandmothers baking them delicious dough dishes, of their fathers making them labor endlessly in the fields, and of their siblings coaxing them into mischief. Through these relationships, Germans from Russia not only learned about their ethnic group's identity, but they also reshaped it into a new identity, blending their past with their present. Within the context of family relationships, these German Russian descendants forged a new identity rooted in their ethnic heritage and history, but serviceable to new, American-born generations. PMID:21898966

  14. Peers and peer-based interventions in supporting reintegration and mental health among National Guard soldiers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Paul N; Blow, Adrian J; Miller, Erin; Forman, Jane; Dalack, Gregory W; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-12-01

    National Guard soldiers experience high levels of mental health symptoms following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, yet many do not seek treatment. We interviewed 30 National Guard soldiers with prior deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan to assess mental health treatment barriers and the role of peers in treatment engagement. Interview transcripts were analyzed by a multidisciplinary research team using techniques drawn from grounded theory. The following themes were identified: (1) personal acceptance of having a mental health problem rather than treatment access is the major barrier to treatment entry; (2) tightly connected, supportive peer networks can decrease stigma related to mental health problems and encourage treatment; however, soldiers in impoverished or conflicted peer networks are less likely to receive these benefits; and (3) soldiers are generally positive about the idea of peer-based programs to improve treatment engagement, although they note the importance of leadership support, peer assignment, and unit specialty in implementing these programs. We conclude that some, but not all, naturally occurring peer networks serve to overcome stigma and encourage mental health treatment seeking by soldiers. Formal peer-based programs may assist soldiers not sufficiently benefitting from natural peer networks, although there are barriers to implementation. PMID:23397691

  15. Endocrine control of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles during worker-to-soldier differentiation in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Darrouzet, E; Labédan, M; Landré, X; Perdereau, E; Christidès, J P; Bagnères, A G

    2014-02-01

    The social organization of termites, unlike that of other social insects, is characterized by a highly plastic caste system. With the exception of the alates, all other individuals in a colony remain at an immature stage of development. Workers in particular remain developmentally flexible; they can switch castes to become soldiers or neotenics. Juvenile hormone (JH) is known to play a key role in turning workers into soldiers. In this study, we analyzed differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles among castes, paying particular attention to the transition of workers to soldiers, in the subterranean termite species Reticulitermes flavipes. CHCs have a fundamental function in social insects as they serve as cues in inter- and intraspecific recognition. We showed that (1) the CHC profiles of the different castes (workers, soldiers, nymphs and neotenics) are different and (2) when workers were experimentally exposed to a JH analog and thus induced to become soldiers, their CHC profiles were modified before and after the worker-presoldier molt and before and after the presoldier-soldier molt. PMID:24374106

  16. The Surveillance And Reconnaissance Ground Equipment (SARGE), real robots for real soldiers

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    The Joint Program Office for Unmanned Ground Vehicles and Sandia National Laboratories are developing the Surveillance And Reconnaissance Ground Equipment (SARGE) robot. The SARGE system is a second generation refinement of Sandia`s Dixie robot. A comparison of Dixie`s actual performance and the expected SARGE performance characteristics will be given. The SARGE design philosophy embraces proven technology, low power consumption, and modular sensor packages designed to meet specific mission needs. A major aspect of the SARGE program is obtaining user acceptance through ownership of the prototype hardware. A total of ten systems are being fabricated with at least eight being given to infantry battalions for their use in day to day operations. The SARGE robot is a prototype system that is not intended to meet all the needs of the infantry soldier but will provide a reliable platform which will enable the soldier to determine first hand the required capabilities for future unmanned ground vehicles on the battlefield.

  17. How leaders can influence the impact that stressors have on soldiers.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Davison, James; Bliese, Paul D; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2004-07-01

    The present review addresses the importance of leader behaviors in influencing the extent to which various stressors soldiers experience (e.g., high workload and lack of sleep) are related to different types of strains (e.g., psychological health, poor job satisfaction, and low morale). Research conducted by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in the area of leadership is reviewed. Researchers at the WRAIR have examined the role of leadership as a predictor of stress, as a buffer against the negative effects of stress, and as a variable that predicts or enables variables that have been found to decrease the adverse effects of stress (e.g., role clarity, self-efficacy, and job engagement). A key strength of the WRAIR program of research is the use of multilevel modeling to examine how perceptions of leadership at the unit level are related to unit and individual soldier well-being and motivation. PMID:15291187

  18. Serological markers for hepatitis types A and B among U.S. Arym soldiers, Germany.

    PubMed Central

    James, J J; Smith, L

    1979-01-01

    Viral hepatitis rates among U.S. Army soldiers in Europe have been found to be two to three times higher than corresponding rates for soldiers stationed in the U.S. Sera from 89 per cent of a representative Army unit with 865 members and a known hepatitis problem were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HA. The prevalence of HB markers was 20 per cent, and hepatitis A antibody was present in 25 per cent. A six-month follow-up, conducted on 260 individuals initially negative for all four tests, revealed that 11 of these were now HB seropositive, whereas none had seroconverted to anti-HA positive. The HB virus was the principal agent responsible for hepatitis in the unit surveyed. PMID:228562

  19. Historical channel-bed elevation change as a result of multiple disturbances, Soldier Creek, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Historical information on stream stage/discharge relations from eight U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations was used to analyze channel-bed elevation change along Soldier Creek, a stream affected by multiple disturbances in northeast Kansas. The analysis provided information on the spatial (location, type, magnitude) and temporal (timing, duration, trend, rate) dimensions of channel change. Channel changes determined for Soldier Creek included extensive changes resulting from channelization and changes of relatively limited extent following a flood. The results were used to document channel changes, partly reconstruct historical channel conditions, infer the causes of channel change, and estimate the occurrence of future channel changes. Copyright ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston & Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a military mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Holloway, Kevin M; Candy, Colette; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Difede, JoAnn; Rizzo, Albert A; Gahm, Gregory A

    2011-02-01

    Exposure therapy is an evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but research evaluating its effectiveness with active duty service members is limited. This report examines the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) for active duty soldiers (N = 24) seeking treatment following a deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Relative to their pretreatment self-reported symptoms on the PTSD Checklist, Military Version (M = 60.92; SD = 11.03), patients reported a significant reduction at posttreatment (M = 47.08; SD = 12.70; p < .001). Sixty-two percent of patients (n = 15) reported a reliable change of 11 points or more. This study supports the effectiveness of exposure therapy for active duty soldiers and extends previous research on VRE to this population. PMID:21294166

  1. A morphologically specialized soldier caste improves colony defense in a neotropical eusocial bee

    PubMed Central

    Grüter, Christoph; Menezes, Cristiano; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Division of labor among workers is common in insect societies and is thought to be important in their ecological success. In most species, division of labor is based on age (temporal castes), but workers in some ants and termites show morphological specialization for particular tasks (physical castes). Large-headed soldier ants and termites are well-known examples of this specialization. However, until now there has been no equivalent example of physical worker subcastes in social bees or wasps. Here we provide evidence for a physical soldier subcaste in a bee. In the neotropical stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, nest defense is performed by two groups of guards, one hovering near the nest entrance and the other standing on the wax entrance tube. We show that both types of guards are 30% heavier than foragers and of different shape; foragers have relatively larger heads, whereas guards have larger legs. Low variation within each subcaste results in negligible size overlap between guards and foragers, further indicating that they are distinct physical castes. In addition, workers that remove garbage from the nest are of intermediate size, suggesting that they might represent another unrecognized caste. Guards or soldiers are reared in low but sufficient numbers (1–2% of emerging workers), considering that <1% usually perform this task. When challenged by the obligate robber bee Lestrimelitta limao, an important natural enemy, larger workers were able to fight for longer before being defeated by the much larger robber. This discovery opens up opportunities for the comparative study of physical castes in social insects, including the question of why soldiers appear to be so much rarer in bees than in ants or termites. PMID:22232688

  2. Mental skills training with basic combat training soldiers: A group-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. PMID:26011718

  3. The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and other protozoan parasites in soldiers returning from peacekeeping missions.

    PubMed

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  4. The Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Other Protozoan Parasites in Soldiers Returning from Peacekeeping Missions

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  5. Soldier-relevant body borne load impacts minimum foot clearance during obstacle negotiation.

    PubMed

    Brown, T N; Loverro, K L; Schiffman, J M

    2016-07-01

    Soldiers often trip and fall on duty, resulting in injury. This study examined ten male soldiers' ability to negotiate an obstacle. Participants had lead and trail foot minimum foot clearance (MFC) parameters quantified while crossing a low (305 mm) and high (457 mm) obstacle with (19.4 kg) and without (6 kg) body borne load. To minimize tripping risk, participants increased lead foot MFC (p = 0.028) and reduced lead (p = 0.044) and trail (p = 0.035) foot variability when negotiating an obstacle with body borne load. While obstacle height had no effect on MFC (p = 0.273 and p = 0.126), placing the trail foot closer to the high obstacle when crossing with body borne load, resulted in greater lead (R = 0.640, b = 0.241, p = 0.046) and trail (R = 0.636, b = 0.287, p = 0.048) MFC. Soldiers, when carrying typical military loads, may be able to minimize their risk of tripping over an obstacle by creating a safety margin via greater foot clearance with reduced variability. PMID:26995036

  6. German Videos with German Subtitles: A New Approach to Listening Comprehension Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jurgen

    1988-01-01

    Adding German subtitles to German videos that are specifically aimed at aural comprehension development assists learners in acquiring new vocabulary and developing listening comprehension, and also facilitates the transition from reading to comprehending the spoken language. (Author/CB)

  7. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... may also do the procedure using a special video camera. A surgical cut in the back is ...

  8. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... Your Child's Checkup: 13 Years Your Child's Checkup: 14 Years Your Child's Checkup: 15 Years Your Child's ...

  9. Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Daniel Joseph

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

  10. Deutschunterricht und deutsche Hochlautung (German Instruction and the High German Pronunciation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelz, Heinrich P.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the questions of which pronunciation model should be used in German courses and how closely students should be expected to duplicate it. After a short history of efforts to standardize German, it is suggested that the new "Aussprache Duden" is a good basis for teaching pronunciation. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  11. Business German: The Use of Simulations in a Total Immersion German Business Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Ellen

    At Concordia College's Institute of German Studies (Minnesota), an immersion program, a 1-month course entitled "German in the Business World" concentrates on development of written and oral communication skills needed in firms dealing with German-speakers. As part of its emphasis on banking, insurance, and business, the course includes…

  12. German adaptations of ICD-10.

    PubMed

    Graubner, B; Brenner, G

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of the ICD-10, published by WHO 1992-94 in English and by DIMDI 1994/95 in German, is a very slow process. Some states introduced ICD-10 for the preparation of statistics of mortality, but only few use it for morbidity. ICD-9 is in Germany only in hospitals still in use. Much effort was put into the improvement of the official ICD-10 and the development of additional aids for more simple and better encoding of diagnoses. Thus a revision especially for ambulatory health care (ICD-10-SGBV with the incorporated ICD-10-Basisschlüssel) and a collection of German terms and expressions of diagnoses that are not at all part of the official ICD-10 (ICD-10-Diagnosenthesaurus) were published. Three years ago a conversion table ICD-9/-10 was developed which can now be harmonised with WHO's Translator. The experiences with all these instruments are satisfying. The development of methods for automatic encoding of free-text phrases of diagnoses has now been started. PMID:10725032

  13. The effect of shower/bath frequency on the health and operational effectiveness of soldiers in a field setting

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.C.; Daniels, J.I.

    1990-11-01

    Dermal disease is significant cause of morbidity among soldiers in a combat setting. For example, among American combat troops in Vietnam, disability from skin disease was one of the single most important medical causes of man-days lost from combat. Currently, the US Army makes shower or bath facilities available to soldiers in the field on a weekly basis. US Army after-action reports and anecdotal descriptions from the field indicate that this may not be an optimal regimen for the maintenance of personal hygiene, especially with respect to diseases of the skin. Determination of the optimal frequency of showering of bathing for soldiers in a combat setting is complicated by the fact of showering or bathing for soldiers in a combat setting is complicated by the fact that soldiers in the US Army may be involved in field exercise or combat in many different areas of the world with a variety of climatic conditions. Although certain aspects of the role of environmental factors in the incidence and severity of dermal disease have been documented, the role of hygiene in the potential mitigation of these effects has not been evaluated. The present project entails a comprehensive review and analysis of available literature in order to determine the health impact of shower/bath frequency for soldiers in a combat setting. An integral component of this work is an evaluation of the impact of climate, and microclimate produced by clothing, on the type, frequency, and severity of skin disease. There is relatively large body of information concerning the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps in minimizing the incidence and severity of dermal disease. This data will be evaluated to determine whether use of these soaps, or an increase in the use of cleansing agents in general, will result in a decrease in the severity and incidence of diseases of the skin for soldiers in the field. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  15. Child Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... on your child's plate fruits and vegetables Choose healthy sources of protein, such as lean meat, nuts, and eggs Serve whole-grain breads and cereals because they are high in fiber. Reduce refined grains. Broil, grill, or steam foods instead of frying them Limit fast food and ...

  16. Child CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  17. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  18. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  19. German for Communication: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jens-Peter; Grittner, Frank M.

    This guide is designed to: (1) offer a rationale for German instruction and student enrollment; (2) give suggestions for proficiency-oriented lesson planning; and (3) provide classroom activities for students at various proficiency levels. A section on promoting the study of German discusses its role as a major world language, in tourism and world…

  20. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  1. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  2. The Hypermetric Line in Germanic Alliterative Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation undertakes a complete study of the stress patterns, syntactic construction, and rhetorical style of hypermetric verse in Germanic alliterative poetry. This project allows me to fill a gap in the study of Germanic meter while simultaneously investigating the connection between metrical and literary scholarship. Hypermetric meter…

  3. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures Based…

  4. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  5. Secondary German Guidelines: Levels I, II, III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klipple, Sitha; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist schools in developing their German curriculum and to assist teachers in planning courses, units of work, and daily classroom activities. These guidelines for the teaching of German in secondary schools are based on the premises that language is communication and that language and culture are interrelated. The…

  6. German Noun Gender: A Matter of Memorization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Mark

    1976-01-01

    Determining the gender of German nouns is an awesome task for the beginning student of German. This article lists rules which might facilitate this task. The gender can sometimes be inferred from the ending of a word, sometimes by the meaning, but sometimes only through memorization. (Author/TL)

  7. Teaching German for Musicians: A Practical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Explores the opportunities for teaching German for musicians and offers it as an approach to teaching beginning German in general. A short theoretical discussion of the impact of music on foreign language learning precedes the presentation of various teaching tools and ideas that map the territory in which musical foreign language teaching can…

  8. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  9. Swiss Themes in Three "Pluricentric" German Language Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Examines three current textbooks for German as a foreign language with regard to their coverage of Switzerland as a German-speaking nation. Concludes by suggesting that pluricentric German language textbooks for beginners are rare. (Author/VWL)

  10. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  11. Health Information in German (Deutsch): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use ...

  12. 9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  13. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  14. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING T-8100. BUNKER, BUILDING T-8104, IN FOREGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  15. 4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  16. A country divided: the German debate over abortion.

    PubMed

    Glover, J

    1992-02-01

    When the Berlin Wall crumbled on November 9, 1989, few Germans could foresee the coming dramatic changes. But by 1992 Germany faced deep internal divisions as it attempted to merge 2 very different societies. One such division was over abortion. In the West, women had access to abortion services only when they met very specific criteria. In the East, access to abortion within the first trimester had been unhindered since 1972. As agreed to under unification treaty terms, the Federal Republic had until the end of 1992 to design and enact new legislation that would create a legal basis for abortion within united Germany. Under West Germany's criminal code, abortion was allowed only 1) when the physical health of the mother was in danger; 2) when abnormalities in the fetus existed; 3) in cases of rape or incest; or 4) if serious social, psychological, or economic factors made the raising of a child difficult. In the primarily Catholic southern and southwestern portions of West Germany, state governments strictly regulated the use of the social indicator clause. In East Germany abortion costs were covered by social security, and the government guaranteed access to abortion services. The widespread use of contraception kept abortion levels comparatively low to moderate in the East (350 per 1000 births). During the 1970s, as population growth rates in the East shrank to negative levels, a pronatalist policy extended maternity leaves in 1976, and women rearing 2 or more children at home received 90% of their salaries for 1 year. In the West, changes in women's status and levels of income and education have led to a decrease in the size of families. All 5 parties have reform proposals ranging from the further restriction of abortion to the complete removal of existing restrictions. A sizable majority of Germans support a liberalization of the West German criminal codes regarding abortion. PMID:12284783

  17. Knockdown of the juvenile hormone receptor gene inhibits soldier-specific morphogenesis in the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Isoptera: Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Yudai; Yaguchi, Hajime; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2015-09-01

    The Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein has been established as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. Knockdown of the Met gene caused precocious metamorphosis and suppression of ovarian development. However, the function of Met in caste development of social insects is unclear. In termites, JH acts as a central factor for caste development, especially for soldier differentiation, which involves two molts from workers via a presoldier stage. Increased JH titer in workers is needed for the presoldier molt, and the high JH titer is maintained throughout the presoldier period. Although presoldiers have the fundamental morphological features of soldiers, the nature of the cuticle is completely different from that of soldiers. We expected that JH signals via Met are involved in soldier-specific morphogenesis of the head and mandibles during soldier differentiation, especially in the presoldier period, in natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we focused on soldier differentiation in an incipient colony of the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Met homolog (ZnMet) expression in heads increased just after the presoldier molt. This high expression was reduced by ZnMet double stranded (dsRNA) injection before the presoldier molt. Although this treatment did not cause any morphological changes in presoldiers, it caused strong effects on soldiers, their mandibles being significantly shorter and head capsules smaller than those of control soldiers. Injection of ZnMet dsRNA throughout the presoldier stage did not affect the formation of soldier morphology, including cuticle formation. These results suggested that the rapid increase in ZnMet expression and subsequent activation of JH signaling just after the presoldier molt are needed for the formation of soldier-specific weapons. Therefore, besides its established role in insect metamorphosis, the JH receptor signaling also underlies soldier development in termites. PMID:26188329

  18. Chemical identification and ethological function of soldier-specific secretion in Japanese subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus (Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Kanaori, Kenji; Hojo, Masaru K; Kawada, Tatsuro; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Akino, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    We identified the soldier-specific compounds in the Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus, to clarify their ethological roles. Silica gel column chromatography separated one major soldier-specific compound in the hexane fraction accounting for 70-80% of the total amount of the fraction, while cuticular hydrocarbons constituted the rest. We identified the compound as β-selinene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Comparative GC analyses of the major exocrine glands detected the compound in the soldier's frontal gland. Both soldiers and workers made aggregation to the hexane fraction, as well as to the crushed heads and head extract of the soldiers. They did not aggregate to cuticular hydrocarbons, making it likely that β-selinene was the aggregation pheromone in this species. The opportunistic predator of this termite, Lasius japonicus, was also attracted to the compounds. The ant workers, therefore, would use the termite aggregation pheromone as a kairomone for hunting them. PMID:21897019

  19. The Effectiveness of Early Group Intervention for Military Reserves Soldiers: The Role of the Repressive Coping Style.

    PubMed

    Shoval-Zuckerman, Yael; Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Zahava; Levi, Ofir

    2015-01-01

    This study had two aims: 1. To examine whether soldiers who participated in Early Group Intervention (EGI) would show less distress and better functioning and physical health than soldiers who did not participate in EGI, and 2. To examine the contribution of the intervention to participants with repressive coping style. The sample comprised 166 male reserve soldiers who fought in the Second Lebanon War. The intervention was conducted three months after the traumatic event, was based on military protocol, and took place over the course of one day. Data were collected at two points in time (four months apart). The findings indicated that after EGI, the intervention group experienced less post-traumatic distress than did the control group. In addition, four months after the intervention, the functioning and physical health of the intervention group was significantly better than that of the control group. Notably, the intensity of post-traumatic distress before the intervention was lower among repressors and low-anxious soldiers than among soldiers in the other two groups (high-anxious and defensive). No significant differences were found after the intervention with regard to the various styles of coping with post-traumatic distress. Future clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27357553

  20. Social Organization in Parasitic Flatworms--Four Additional Echinostomoid Trematodes Have a Soldier Caste and One Does Not.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vedrenne, Ana E; Quintana, Anastasia C E; DeRogatis, Andrea M; Martyn, Kayla; Kuris, Armand M; Hechinger, Ryan F

    2016-02-01

    Complex societies where individuals exhibit division of labor with physical polymorphism, behavioral specialization, and caste formation have evolved several times throughout the animal kingdom. Recently, such complex sociality has been recognized in digenean trematodes; evidence is limited to 6 marine species. Hence, the extent to which a soldier caste is present throughout the Trematoda is sparsely documented, and there are no studies detailing the structure of a species lacking such a social structure. Here we examine colony structure for an additional 5 echinostomoid species, 4 of which infect the marine snail Cerithidea californica and 1 (Echinostoma liei) that infects the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata . For all species, we present redia morphology (pharynx and body size) and the distribution of individuals of different castes throughout the snail body. When morphological evidence indicated the presence of a soldier caste, we assessed behavior by measuring attack rates of the different morphs toward heterospecific trematodes. Our findings indicate that each of the 4 species from C. californica have a permanent soldier caste while E. liei does not. The observed intra- and inter-specific variation of caste structure for those species with soldiers, and the documentation of colony structure for a species explicitly lacking permanent soldiers, emphasizes the diverse nature of trematode sociality and the promise of the group to permit comparative investigations of the evolution and ecology of sociality. PMID:26560890

  1. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    PubMed

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public. PMID:26753867

  2. Systems of Verb Classification and Cohesion of Verb-Complement Relations as Structural Conditions on Interference in a Child's L2 Development. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zobl, Helmut

    Developmental data from the acquisition of English by a German child, aged 5, are analyzed with a view to identifying structural conditions that give rise to interference, and to determine which L2 structures are affected and which structures govern developmental changes. Word order in German and English sentences ahve reflexes in different…

  3. Group cognitive behavioral treatment in female soldiers diagnosed with binge/purge eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rinat; Yanykulovitch-Levy, Dana; Wertheim, Hadas; Gordon-Erez, Shirley; Shahimov, Meital; Weizman, Abraham; Stein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) is the recommended intervention in bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified with binge/purge (EDNOS-B/P) symptoms. There are fewer data on its application in a group format. We sought to investigate the effect of group CBT in female soldiers with B/P symptomatology in an open trial design. For this purpose we assessed 64 female soldiers serving in the Israeli Defense Force diagnosed with BN and EDNOS-B/P who participated in a group CBT format of 16 weekly sessions and one follow-up session. In this study, 42 participants (65.6%) completed treatment and 22 participants (34.4%) did not. A total of 39 treatment completers (92.8% of treatment completers) and 19 non-completers (86.4% of treatment non-completers) were assessed around 12 months after treatment. Participants completed at baseline and following treatment questionnaires assessing eating-related symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At follow-up they were assessed for eating-related symptoms. Our findings show only minimal baseline differences between treatment completers and non-completers. Significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment was shown for B/P and restrictive symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At that time, more than a third of treatment completers were abstinent from binging and more than a half from vomiting. The improvement in B/P and restricting symptoms was maintained at 1 year follow-up for treatment completers. At that time around 60% were abstinent from binging and more than 70% from vomiting. Participants not completing treatment were also improved at follow-up but to a lesser extent. The findings of the present study suggest that group CBT may be effective for the treatment of female soldiers with BN and EDNOS-B/P. PMID:27128883

  4. Cleveland Clinic intelligent mouthguard: a new technology to accurately measure head impact in athletes and soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.

  5. Soldiers Preparing for New Careers: An Examination of the Motivations and Barriers Associated with Postsecondary Educational Participation of Nontraditional Students in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Clinton Mark

    A study identified and compared characteristics of enlisted soldiers who participated in postsecondary educational offerings to those who did not and identified barriers to participation for participants and nonparticipants. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 92 soldiers at one Army installation. Nonparticipants named these…

  6. Morality in Action - The Relationship between Moral Judgement and Moral Action of Israeli Reserve Soldiers Who Refused to Serve in Lebanon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Ruth

    During the Lebanon War (1982), many Israeli reserve soldiers disobeyed the command to join their units for service in Lebanon. Several of these soldiers were publicly labeled "sarvanim" meaning "refusers" in Hebrew, and were jailed in military prisons. Kohlberg's (1976) cognitive developmental approach to moralization, which views justice as a…

  7. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form in National Guard Soldiers Screening Positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbisi, Paul A.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Thuras, Paul; Reddy, Madhavi K.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF) was administered to 251 National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from deployment to Iraq. Soldiers were also administered questionnaires to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). On the basis of responses to the…

  8. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  9. Religiosity as a Moderator of Self-Efficacy and Social Support in Predicting Traumatic Stress Among Combat Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Israel-Cohen, Yael; Kaplan, Oren; Noy, Smadar; Kashy-Rosenbaum, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Based on a sample of 54 Israeli soldiers (51 % non-religious, 49 % religious) surveyed upon their return from combat, this study investigates the moderating role of religiosity as a factor that may strengthen cognitive processing tied to the belief in oneself to persevere (i.e., self-efficacy) after trauma and/or as a factor tied to enhanced external social support that religious individuals in particular may benefit from by their involvement in a religious community. Findings revealed (1) social support was tied to greater resilience within the general sample; (2) religious soldiers were less susceptible to traumatic stress than non-religious soldiers; and (3) religiosity moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and traumatic stress but not the relationship between social support and traumatic stress. Implications of findings are discussed. PMID:26815579

  10. A primer on the unique challenges of female soldiers' reproductive issues in a war-ready culture.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, April S; Duboyce, Rita L; Ritter, Joan B; Omori, Deborah J; Cooper, Barbara A; O'Malley, Patrick G

    2013-05-01

    In 1951, a U.S. Presidential Executive Order outlined regulations governing the involuntary separation of women from military service in the event of pregnancy, parenting, or giving live birth while on commissioned service. Subsequent public law and court decisions have changed the rules on female soldier pregnancy and parenting. Initially capped at 2%, maximum allowable percentage of the military, female soldiers now comprise over 14% of the U.S. active duty military, numbering over 200,000. The issues of sexuality, family planning, pregnancy, breast feeding, and family care are unique in this population and affect soldier readiness and deployment planning. Many of these challenges are amenable to physician intervention and guidance to ameliorate the barriers to service. Both clinicians and policy makers should be attentive to advancing a system that affords equal opportunity and optimizes health for all service members. PMID:23756009

  11. Extending and applying the demand-control model: the role of soldier's coping on a peacekeeping deployment.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Jessica; Adler, Amy B; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Litz, Brett T; Hölzl, Rupert

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek, 1979) by examining coping as an additional factor. It was hypothesized that perceived job control only buffered the demand-strain relationship when individuals used active coping and exacerbated the relationship when individuals used passive coping. Soldiers (N=638) were surveyed before and during a 6-month peacekeeping deployment to Kosovo. Results partially confirmed the hypotheses. Even after controlling for general psychological health at predeployment, job control moderated the relationship between demands and psychological health during deployment when soldiers used active coping. No significant 3-way interactions were found for religious coping and passive coping. Implications for demand-control modeling and potential applications of the findings to soldier and leader training are discussed. PMID:16248692

  12. Assessment of an alternative postdeployment reintegration strategy with soldiers returning from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Maurice L; Foran, Heather M; Wood, Michael D; Wright, Kathleen M; Barnhart, Vincent J; Riviere, Lyndon A; Adler, Amy B

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined behavioral health outcomes, risk behaviors, aggression, alcohol misuse, marital satisfaction, and attitudes toward reintegration associated with an alternative, front-loaded reintegration strategy compared with a more standardized reintegration process in soldiers returning from combat deployments. The type of reintegration strategy used did not predict differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol misuse, aggression, and marital satisfaction, although slightly higher reports of risk behaviors were found in the unit using the standard reintegration approach even after controlling for demographic covariates and combat exposure. These findings may help guide leadership when making decisions regarding reintegration approaches in the future. PMID:24079352

  13. Characteristics of lipid fractions of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, N A; Brodskii, E S; Kovalenko, A A; Bastrakov, A I; Kozlova, A A; Pavlov, D S

    2016-05-01

    The lipid fraction of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens was shown to contain lauric acid (38.43 wt %) and its esters, azelaic and sebacic acids, and azelaic acid dibutyl ester. The dominant compound in the group of identified glycerides was lauric acid monoglyceride (0.70 wt %). Glycerides were also represented by triglycerides and diglycerides of lauric acid. Sterols were represented primarily by phytosterols (over 75%), the major of which was alpha-sitosterol (45%). The identified lipid complex composition is apparently determined by the biological characteristics of the fly Hermetia illucens and ensures antibacterial defence of larvae and stability of lipids at changing ambient temperature. PMID:27417723

  14. Development of a capitation scale for IDF career soldiers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Weiss, Yossi; Cohen, Yossi; Shmueli, Amir

    2007-03-01

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law allocates a national healthcare budget to the sickness funds, which provide medical care to civilian population. Medical care for members of the IDF is financed through the budget of the Ministry of Defense and is not included in the national healthcare budget. Benefits provided to soldiers serving in the permanent forces are far more extensive than those provided to civilians. Because of no co-payments, poor management, and the cost-based budget, military healthcare costs in Israel are expected to exceed civilian healthcare costs, adjusting for age and sex. The present paper derives age- and sex-based capitation rates for military personnel, and compares military and civilian age-based expenditure and capitation rates. The study population comprised career soldiers and civilians aged 21-54 years. Expenses of career soldiers were calculated to provide information on the financial costs of medical services for each age group in 2003. Overall expenses for women were higher than for men in all age groups. As anticipated, the older the group, the higher the total expenditure for both men and women. In-patient care represented a higher percentage of the total costs for men (28.3%) than for women (22.1%). Emergency room care was higher for women in the 22-24 age group but comparable to that of men in higher age groups. Specialist visits represented a significantly higher percentage of the total costs for women than for men in the 22-24 and 25-34 age groups (by 6% and 15%, respectively). The difference decreased to 13% in the 35-44 age groups and, in the 45-54 age group, the difference for men was 14% higher than for women. Military costs were similar to civilian costs in the 22-24 age groups, higher in the following two groups, and lower in the 45-54 age group. Like in other organizations, military healthcare services might benefit from outsourcing. The inequality in medical services to soldiers and civilians, the over-use of the

  15. Computer graphical analysis method proves beneficial in lost soldier field deviated well application

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of using computer-generated plots of directional drilling data as a tool in planning the directional and normal drilling operations in a testat at Lost Soldier Field, WY. Emphasis is placed on their application to deviation-controlled wells in areas experiencing crooked-hole drilling. Results show that their use in conjunction with dipmeter data and structural contour maps of shallow horizons penetrated is effective in projecting wellbore trajectory. With these data, surface locations can be engineered to minimize corrective mud motor runs and to allow for optimal bit conditions. 2 refs.

  16. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  17. [Advocating "one couple with one child" being an optimal choice].

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Zhang, M C

    1981-04-01

    Zero population growth within the next 5 years in China would be reached only if many couples were not allowed to have their own child. On the other hand, if every couple were allowed to have 2 children China's population would reach 1500 million within the next 50 years. It seems advisable to advocate the "1 couple 1 child" idea; couples will have to keep in mind both the national interest and the communist ideology; social welfare to assure good living conditions for the old people will relieve the worries of parents with 1 child only. Most people are willing to follow this decision made by the Communist Party; many people declare their willingness to stick by this rule during their wedding ceremony; many couples send back their permit to have a second child, and many women choose abortion when pregnant with a second permitted pregnancy. By the end of 1979 the proportion of "1 couple 1 child" couples was 90% in many large cities; people realize that the practice of "1 couple 1 child" is the best assurance for the future of the country and of their children. This policy will not result in aging of the population, lack of manpower and shortage of soldiers; even if birth rate were 1% in 1985 the proportion of older people for the next 25 years will still be lower than that in European countries. The problem of aging of the population will not occur in this century, and population policies can always be adjusted when needed. Today's problem is to control population through the "1 couple 1 child" policy, even if it may result in many lonely old people, which is a lesser problem than too many people. Even if China has reduced its population growth by 10 million births each year from 1970 to 1979, the necessity to control population growth is still present, in the interest of the country and economic development. PMID:12311032

  18. Modeling the German energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihrig, D. F.

    2003-04-01

    It would be helpful in political discussions to get quickly and transparent assessments of the consequences of political actions on the energy market of a national economy. Computer models of any national energy market normally are written using a computer high language. But such a tool could not be transparent and the integration of actual data is complex. For this reason a transparent model concerning the German energy market was written to calculate the impact of alternative strategies of energy supply. The end energy consumption will be recorded in 4 sectors (households, low consumer, industries, traffic) and 4 service arrays (room heating, process heat, mechanical energy and light) specified for primary energy sources. To assess the primary energy requirement it is necessary to deal with more than 125 end primary energy consumption data each year. The model is based on data of the study-group of energy balances at the VDEW (Organization of German energy supplier). The data sets of the years 1993 and 1997 to 2001 are available. It is possible to define over 20 years objectives on higher energy saving in the most service arrays of each end energy consumption sector. The effects on CO2-emission of several strategies of energy saving will be calculated including commercial data and socioeconomic aspects (investment, foreign trade, energy prizes, jobs etc.). It is possible to modeling regional energy markets, too. This tool allows to assess the local impact of new strategies of energy supply on the regional economics. Of course regional calculations work with lower precision because several data have to be estimated. The model calculates over 40 years. It's possible to have a time lag and to calculate the time after realizing the objectives. The typical phases of realizing social objectives are modeled. The model is written using the tabular calculation program EXCEL. This makes the model very transparent. It is not necessary to be a computer programmer to

  19. A Prospective Cluster-Randomized Trial of Telehealth Coaching to Promote Bone Health and Nutrition in Deployed Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from previous studies suggest that inadequate consumption of calcium and vitamin D and a decrease in exercise while deployed can be detrimental to bone health. This study enrolled 234 soldiers randomized to receive one-time nutrition and exercise education pre-deployment (n = 149), or telehealth coaching (n = 85), throughout the deployment cycle. Results suggest that online educational efforts may enhance sports activity, bone turnover, and vitamin D status. Improving vitamin D status and remaining active while deployed appears to sustain healthy bone density in young soldiers. Early and aggressive educational outreach to young adults may prevent chronic musculoskeletal conditions and disabling osteoporosis later in life.

  20. Physiological strain during exercise-heat stress experienced by soldiers wearing candidate chemical protective fabric systems. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, C.B.; Santee, W.R.

    1988-06-01

    The heat-stress problem of soldiers working in warm environments wearing chemical protective clothing is well documented. The thermal insulation and low moisture permeability of such clothing severely limit the effectiveness of the body's heat dissipating mechanisms. Several foreign and domestic experimental fabric systems are now available, and the thermal and vapor transfer characteristics of some of these systems have been tested in static configurations. This technical report describes the evaluation of three experimental fabric systems for their effect on thermal strain experienced by soldiers during exercise in the heat.

  1. [Pathology and politics--Ludwig Aschoff (1866-1942) and the German way in the Third Reich].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on a prominent figure in medicine, one who had no visible political ambitions in terms of the NS-regime: Ludwig Aschoff (1866-1942), pathologist at the University of Freiburg from 1906 to 1936. The period between 1914 and 1933 is emphasized in order to show the development of his political and scientific ideas, which were intertwined from the beginning: Aschoff admired the Kaiserreich, and in World War I he tried to carry out a socio-political programme in that he examined the constitution of the German Volk by performing autopsies of almost every German soldier who had been killed in action. After 1918 he retained his conservative ideas and his medical programme which meant concentrating mainly on constitutional ideas. Although Aschoff tried to reestablish international cooperation and to support the new Republic, he ultimately did support anti-democratic ideas. This attitude proved to be a handicap with regard to his reaction to National Socialism in 1933: Although he did not become a member of the party and a strong supporter, he welcomed the new regime. Aschoff, without being aware of his role, supported the acceptance of the regime within the medical scientific community. It will be possible to obtain deeper insight into the NS-period by encouraging research on its 'mediators', for example, Ludwig Aschoff. PMID:9745373

  2. Sediment budgeting of German waterways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promny, M.

    2012-04-01

    Waterways today rarely have a sustainable sediment budget. Supply from upstream and lateral sources is blocked by barrages in many places. The transport capacity is strongly modified by means of planform and cross-section alterations. Many free-flowing river sections are subject to bed degradation, while impoundments tend to aggrade. This has consequences for the usability of navigation facilities, stability of structures (like bridge foundations and dykes) and groundwater levels. Consequently, sediment managements operations are commonplace, being challenging in economic and ecologic terms. A first step towards an improved sediment management is to establish the current sediment budget of a river. There are different methods to gain information about the sediment budget: - measurements of bed-load and suspended load transport - deductions from temporal development of bed-level development - deductions from temporal development of streamwise water-level measurements - deductions from temporal development of water-levels at gauges - bed-load tracer analyses - numerical modelling An overview of the methods used in sediment budgeting of German waterways at the Federal Institute of Hydrology will be given. Ongoing research based on the above mentioned methodology will be presented, with a special focus on the possible influence of climate change on sediment budgets.

  3. The German Model of Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masch, Nando

    1993-01-01

    The German model of bilingual education is described in terms of its history, syllabus, rationale, and aims and objectives. The essential features of the model are contrasted with other forms of bilingual education. (Contains 23 references.) (JL)

  4. First German Astronomy Ambassadors Fly On SOFIA

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two German educators, Wolfgang Vieser and Jörg Trebs, were the first to represent their country as SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors. They flew aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared...

  5. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  6. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  7. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  8. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  9. Selected List of German Reference Books for Secondary School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, John R., Comp.

    Compiled with secondary school teachers of German in mind who are asked to recommend books for a school library, this 52-item annotated bibliography lists encyclopedias, dictionaries (German-English, English-German, all-German, and specialty dictionaries), the Duden series, grammars, histories, travel books, anthologies (poetry, prose, and drama),…

  10. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000069.htm Ileostomy and your child To use the sharing features on this page, ... health counselor may help you. Caring for Your Child's Ileostomy Your child will need help and support. ...

  11. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  12. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected With Enews Subscribe Child Care Aware® of America Overview Vision & Mission Audience Partners Child Care Providers ... Public Policy Agenda 2016-2017 Child Care in America: 2016 State Fact Sheets We Can Do Better – ...

  13. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  14. Suicide among soldiers: a review of psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Deming, Charlene A; Fullerton, Carol S; Gilman, Stephen E; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C; McCarroll, James E; McLaughlin, Katie A; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future. PMID:23631542

  15. French soldiers and their correspondence: towards a history of writing practices in the First World War.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Martyn

    2003-01-01

    The years 1914-18 engendered a "sudden and irrepressible boulimia" of letter-writing, a diluvian outpouring which defied all attempts at administrative control. The massive correspondence of French soldiers, analysed and quoted in the archives of the Commission de Contrôle Postal, has already been mined by war historians. They have normally used it to carry out a kind of historical opinion poll on the mood of the trenches. This article, however, focuses less on the content of soldiers' correspondence, and more on the nature and history of letter-writing itself. It examines letters as letters, their frequency, their destinations and all the unwritten codes to which they are subject. At a time of newly acquired mass literacy, the poilus experienced the urgent need to write. Their "laconic writing" raises important questions about historical sources, their transparency and their silences. It also offers a perspective on the much debated integration of the peasantry into national life and culture. PMID:20734533

  16. [Problems of early detection of HIV infection, medical and psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers].

    PubMed

    Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel. PMID:25916037

  17. Time structures, chronomes, of soldiers' stature mimicking Hale cycle in neonatal body length.

    PubMed

    Komlos, John; Cornélissen, Germaine; Woitek, Ulrich; Otsuka, K; Halberg, Franz

    2004-10-01

    The systematic patterns in human adult physical stature are explored in connection with Wolf's relative sunspot numbers. This topic should be of interest to economists, physicians as well as physicists. There is a need for more than a check of any similarity of curves in variables approximating the economy and human stature and for more than the application of mathematical models, as done herein. Ours is at best a halting step at one frequency, presented only to document the challenge of a transdisciplinary approach to multifrequency intermodulations of hosts of variables, yet to be untangled. The circumstance that at birth some decisions concerning adult stature are already made is challenging. The signature of the environment in terms of the about 21-year Hale bipolarity cycle of Wolf's relative sunspot numbers found in adult soldiers shows that the association at birth is not a transient one, even if other evidence beyond our scope herein points to the possibility that observations on presumably healthy soldiers can be extrapolated to abnormal growth. Nonetheless, the task for those concerned with short stature could become preventive if the sensitive stages when growth may be inhibited by the environment could be found, as well as means to shield from or counter the undesirable effects. PMID:15754852

  18. Compensation for occupational injuries and diseases in special populations: farmers and soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Jun; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Some types of workers such as farmers and soldiers are at a higher risk of work-related injury and illness than workers from other occupations. Despite this fact, they are not covered under the Industrial Safety Health (ISH) Act or the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) Act. The Safety Aid System for Farmers (SASF) is a voluntary insurance scheme, and it is the only public compensation plan for self-employed farmers. Fifty percent of SASF premiums are subsidized by the Korean government. Soldiers are compensated by the Veterans' Pension (VP) Act. The approval standard of and procedure for the VP Act are provided in the Decree of VP Act, and the Council for VP Benefits determines work-relatedness in the claimed cases. Meanwhile, SASF applies the insurance clause automatically without any expert advice or additional procedures. Furthermore, compared with IACI, these programs pay fewer benefits to workers. Thus, a stronger institutional strategy is needed to maintain a safe work environment, to protect workers' health in unavoidably hazardous environments, and to compensate for work-related injuries and diseases. PMID:25006320

  19. Physiological variables and performance markers of serving soldiers from two "elite" units of the British Army.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J; Gray, Susan C; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare selected physiological variables and performance markers of soldiers from two "elite" units of the British Army. Ten soldiers from each of the two units were recruited for this study (n = 20). All participants completed three tests while carrying a 20 kg backpack load: (1) a maximal treadmill test using the Bruce protocol; (2) a 2 mile backpack run test specific to Unit A on a consistently flat tarmac road; and (3) a 29 km time-trial over hilly terrain typical of a mountainous area used by Unit B for performance assessment. Heart rate, maximal blood lactate concentration and performance (run time) were assessed during all three tests, with peak oxygen uptake also being measured during the maximal treadmill test. Measurements of anthropometry, isokinetic strength and mental toughness (MT48) were also recorded. There were no significant differences in terms of performance markers between the units (P > 0.05). Performance on the maximal treadmill test correlated with performance on the 2 mile backpack run test (r = -0.57) and 29 km time-trial (r = -0.66). Performance on the 2 mile backpack run test in turn correlated with 29 km time-trial performance (r = -0.77), accounting for 59% of the variance. In conclusion, the maximal treadmill test and the 2 mile backpack run test are useful indicators of performance on the arduous hill march and could be employed in the screening and selection of potential recruits. PMID:16611570

  20. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  1. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:19502252

  2. Life goes on: the experiences of wives of multiply-deployed National Guard soldiers.

    PubMed

    Patzel, Brenda; McBride, Maryellen; Bunting, Judith; Anno, Tony

    2013-05-01

    Whether a service member is active duty or part of the National Guard, deployment of these service members is a major issue for most families. There is limited knowledge of the experience of multiple deployments on the family. The purpose of this study was to describe experiences of wives of National Guard soldiers that were deployed more than once. Nine wives were interviewed. An analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: (1) "Life Goes On" (i.e., despite the repeated deployments, life continues at home); (2) the "Guard is a Different Animal" (i.e., life as a National Guard spouse is different from that of an active duty spouse); (3) "It's a Mind-Set" (i.e., how wives cope their husband's deployment); and (4) "Going Back Again" (i.e., wives' experiences of multiple deployments). Exploring how multiple deployments affects wives of National Guard soldiers is helpful in understanding their experiences and the adjustments that must be made in family life. Knowledge of the experiences of these wives may help in formulating more effective interventions with families who have experienced multiple deployments. PMID:23663024

  3. Psychiatric distress among spouses of National Guard soldiers prior to combat deployment.

    PubMed

    Erbes, Christopher R; Meis, Laura A; Polusny, Melissa A; Arbisi, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Background The mental health functioning of military spouses and intimate partners prior to the combat deployments of their loved ones is poorly studied. Aims Whereas service members and veterans often receive healthcare directly from the military or the Department of Veterans Affairs, family members may be more likely to present in family care settings. An understanding of mental health problems commonly occurring in this population is therefore important. Method National Guard soldiers and their spouses or cohabitating partners (n = 223 couples) were surveyed about mental health symptoms, social functioning and mental health service utilisation one to two months prior to a combat deployment to Afghanistan. Results Screening rates for partner post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, alcohol problems and social impairment were 2.4, 15.3, 3.7 and 10.7%, respectively, and were significantly higher for partners than soldiers with regards to depression and social impairment. The majority of partners screening positive for psychiatric distress did not report utilising mental health services or military support services (i.e. family readiness groups). Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23997822

  4. Suicide Among Soldiers: A Review of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Deming, Charlene A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C.; McCarroll, James E.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future. PMID:23631542

  5. [Risk factors for accidents during sports while serving in German armed forces].

    PubMed

    Gundlach, N; Sammito, S; Böckelmann, I

    2012-03-01

    In the German Armed Forces sports activities should bring the benefits of good health and trained fitness which are the hallmarks of sportsmen. In order to achieve this aim it is important to avoid accidents which negate the benefit of sports. Until today there appear to be no studies in existence which demonstrate the risk factors of sports activities undertaken while in military service. Equivalent studies on civilian sport activities are scarcely comparable. To find out risk factors for accidents with any period of recovery we followed sports accidents while on duty in a German barracks with 4,300 soldiers over a two-year period. Additionally we asked about the time needed for recovery from each accident, parameters of lifestyle, the body mass index and the possibility of a nightshift before each accident. We examined a minimum of 410 accidents. We found associations between the accidents studied and particular risk factors, including doing sports more than two times a week, being active in a fitness or sports club, having the accident together with another sportsman and doing a nightshift before the day of the accident. Bad ground conditions contributed to a large number of accidents. A body mass index of 25 and higher had a significantly prolonged time for recovery. To avoid accidents, sport and ground conditions should be adapted to each other. In addition, overweight people are not only compromised for cardiovascular and neurological diseases but also have a higher risk of needing a prolonged time for recovery, thus it is important that overweight should be avoided and not only just be treated. PMID:22422284

  6. A German Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  7. [The German occupation and health services].

    PubMed

    Gogstad, A C

    1990-12-10

    It was of considerable importance for the German occupants and their Norwegian collaborators, and for the Resistance Movement, to maintain a satisfactory status of health in the civilian population. Thus it was of common interest to keep the health services intact. Health aspects were also important elements of the nazi ideology. Recent studies of German archives reveal that the German civilian administration, Reichskommissariat, played a central role in the nazi revolution of the health services. But certain disagreements arose at an early stage between the German and Norwegian occupation administration concerning strategies of health policy. The collaborator party, Nasjonal Samling, tried to gain control over the professional organizations, but met great resistance. The Norwegian Medical Association lost 85% of its members and was reduced to an appendix of the Ministry. However, the health services were still kept under strict German control. A deterioration of the health services took place from 1944, mainly due to lack of resources because of increased German military needs. PMID:2281452

  8. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  9. German Battle Casualties: The Treatment of Functional Somatic Disorders during World War I

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    World War I witnessed the admission of large numbers of German soldiers with neurological symptoms for which there was no obvious organic cause. This posed a considerable challenge for the military and medical authorities and resulted in an active discussion on the etiology and treatment of these disorders. Current historiography is reliant on published physician accounts, and this represents the first study of treatment approaches based on original case notes. We analyzed patient records from two leading departments of academic psychiatry in Germany, those at Berlin and Jena, in conjunction with the contemporaneous medical literature. Treatment, which can be broadly classified into reward and punishment, suggestion, affective shock, cognitive learning, and physiological methods, was developed in the context of the emerging fields of animal learning and neurophysiology. A further innovative feature was the use of quantitative methods to assess outcomes. These measures showed good response rates, though most cured patients were not sent back to battle because of their presumed psychopathic constitution. While some treatments appear unnecessarily harsh from today's perspective and were also criticized by leading psychiatrists of the time, the concentration of effort and involvement of so many senior doctors led to the development of psychotherapeutic methods that were to influence the field of psychiatric therapy for decades to come. PMID:22492735

  10. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  11. Eine neue deutsche Grammatik: Moglichkeiten zur Belebung des Grammatikunterrichts in der Volksschule (A New German Grammar: Possibilities for the Enlivenment Grammar Instruction in the Elementary School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glinz, Hans

    1962-01-01

    The modern German grammar approach stresses good usage not in isolation but in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. Consequently, practice precedes analysis for the primary-level native learner. The child learns by demonstration what a sentence is and is then taught five parts of speech according to function: noun, verb, adjective, pronoun,…

  12. A Cross-Linguistic Perspective on the Acquisition of Manner of Articulation Contrasts in the Productions of Dutch and German Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Fikkert, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the acquisition of Manner of Articulation (MoA) contrasts in child language production. We analyzed spontaneous longitudinal speech data of four German and six Dutch 1- to 3-year-olds. The data suggest that the acquisition of MoA contrasts is influenced by various co-occurrence constraints at the word level.…

  13. Child Welfare Workers, Police, and Child Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Uses three different samples of child abuse and neglect complaints drawn from the files of a juvenile court, a child welfare agency, and a police department, to investigate the factors which contribute to the decision to remove a child from his/her family. (Author/CM)

  14. Impact of Childhood Abuse History on Psychological Symptoms among Male and Female Soldiers in the U.S. Army.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1996-01-01

    The psychological effects of physical-emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect were examined among 1,072 male and 305 female soldiers. Results found the females were three times more likely to have been sexually or both physically and sexually abused and that physical-emotional abuse contributed to most of the…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among National Guard Soldiers Deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Polusny, Melissa A.; DeGarmo, David S.; Khaylis, Anna; Erbes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we report findings from a 1-year longitudinal study examining the impact of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following combat deployment on National Guard soldiers' perceived parenting and couple adjustment 1 year following return from Iraq. Method: Participants were 468 Army National Guard…

  16. Validating the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist with Soldiers Returning from Combat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliese, Paul D.; Wright, Kathleen M.; Adler, Amy B.; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics…

  17. Genetic variability of spined soldier bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) sampled from distinct field sites and laboratory colonies in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), is an important biological control agent for agricultural and forest pests that preys on eggs and larvae of lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetic variability among field collected samples from Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, and Florida, ...

  18. Vitamin A-Deficiency Eye Disease Among Soldiers in the U.S. Civil War: Spectrum of Clinical Disease.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    During the U.S. Civil War, nutritional night blindness was a common problem among soldiers forced to subsist of nutritionally inadequate diets, but medical officers typically attributed this complaint to malingering and did not suspect or appreciate a dietary basis. More than 8,000 cases of night blindness were recorded among Union troops, but many cases were not tabulated because of incomplete data for black soldiers and prisoners of war. From 1864 to 1865, during which comparable data were available for both whites and blacks, the average annual cumulative incidence of night blindness was 4.3 per 1,000 troops for whites, compared with 11.0 per 1,000 troops for blacks. Affected patients had dilated pupils that were poorly responsive to candle light. Approximately 30 cases of keratomalacia were also reported among severely malnourished and emaciated soldiers with chronic diarrhea, generally within 2 weeks before death. The reported clinical manifestations are characteristic of the full range of vitamin A deficiency eye disease from night blindness to corneal ulceration and perforation. Although medical officers typically accused affected soldiers of malingering, malingering cannot account for either the observed abnormalities of pupillary reflexes, or the corneal epithelial pathology and mortality recorded in severe cases. PMID:26126247

  19. The control of Malpighian tubule secretion in a predacious hemipteran insect, the spined soldier bug Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spined soldier bugs, Podisus maculiventris, are heteropteran insects that feed voraciously on other insects, particular the soft bodied larval forms of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. The response of P. maculiventris Malpighian tubules (MT) to serotonin and known diuretic and antidiuretic peptides has b...

  20. 77 FR 4084 - Prices for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

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  1. Genetic variation in field and laboratory populations of the spined soldier bug Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is an economically important and high-valued biological control agent. There is substantial information on the biology, ecology, behavior and rearing of this stink bug. However, virtually nothing is known of its genetic variation, in natural...

  2. Black Civitas: An Examination of Carter Woodson's Contributions to Teaching about Race, Citizenship, and the Black Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.; Crowley, Ryan M.; King, LaGarrett J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors interrogate the historical meaning of the African American soldier in order to widen the discussion of race and citizenship in the field of social studies education. The article has two overarching purposes. First, the authors attend to the recent call in the field of social studies for a more rigorous analysis of…

  3. Developmental and waste reduction plasticity of three black soldier fly strains (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) raised on different livestock manures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fen; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Zheng, Longyu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2013-11-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are distributed throughout the temperate and tropic regions of the world and are known an established method for sustainably managing animal wastes. Colonies used to conduct research on the black soldier fly within the past 20 yr have predominately been established from eggs or larvae received from a colony originated from Bacon County, GA. Consequently, little is known about the phenotypic plasticity (i.e., development and waste conversion) across strains from different regions. This study compared the development of three strains of the black soldier fly (Texas; Guangzhou, China; and Wuhan, China) and their ability to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in swine, dairy, and chicken manure. The Wuhan strain appeared to be more fit. Larvae from Wuhan needed 17.7-29.9% less time to reach the prepupal stage than those from Guangzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from Wuhan weighed 14.4-37.0% more than those from Guanghzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from the Wuhan strain reduced dry matter 46.0% (swine), 40.1% (dairy), and 48.4% (chicken) more than the Guangzhou strain and 6.9, 7.2, and 7.9% more than the Texas strain. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity (e.g., development and waste conversion) varies across populations of black soldier flies and should be taken into account when selecting and establishing a population as a waste management agent in a given region of the world. PMID:24843926

  4. The Relationship of Family Satisfaction to Satisfaction with the Military Way of Life among Soldiers. Technical Report 864.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.

    This study investigated the relationship between soldiers' satisfaction with the environment for families in the Army and satisfaction with the military way of life. The report is based on a secondary analysis of the responses of a stratified random sample of 9,198 Army personnel, a sample that participated in the 1985 Department of Defense…

  5. Rates of ankle and foot injuries in active-duty U.S. Army soldiers, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robert F; Wahi, Monika M; Hill, Owen T; Kay, Ashley B

    2011-03-01

    Ankle and foot injuries (AFI) are a major cause of Active-Duty Army (ADA) soldiers' time lost from training and combat operations. We used the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database to compute the rates of AFI to identify high-risk ADA groups for the years 2000-2006. During this time, 16% of soldiers were clinically seen at least once for an AFI. Yearly, 60% to 70% of ADA soldiers with AFI had an ankle sprain/strain, and ankle sprain/strain had the highest 7-year rate of all AFIs (103 per 1,000). From 2000 to 2006, all AFI rates declined; however, enlisted male soldiers < or = 30 years of age without an advanced degree were at highest risk. A history of an AFI in the previous 2 years increased AFI rates by 93% to 160%. Our findings provide preliminary evidence for identifying specific ADA groups at high risk of AFI; these groups should be targeted for preventive interventions. PMID:21456354

  6. Barriers to Initiating and Continuing Mental Health Treatment Among Soldiers in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Naifeh, James A; Colpe, Lisa J; Aliaga, Pablo A; Sampson, Nancy A; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S; Nock, Matthew K; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2016-09-01

    U.S. Army soldiers with mental disorders report a variety of barriers to initiating and continuing treatment. Improved understanding of these barriers can help direct mental health services to soldiers in need. A representative sample of 5,428 nondeployed Regular Army soldiers participating in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers completed a self-administered questionnaire and consented to linking self-administered questionnaire data with administrative records. We examined reported treatment barriers (perceived need, structural reasons, attitudinal reasons) among respondents with current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, mental disorders who either did not seek treatment in the past year (n = 744) or discontinued treatment (n = 145). About 82.4% of soldiers who did not initiate treatment and 69.5% of those who discontinued treatment endorsed at least two barriers; 69.8% of never-treated soldiers reported no perceived need. Attitudinal reasons were cited more frequently than structural reasons among never-treated soldiers with perceived need (80.7% vs. 62.7%) and those who discontinued treatment (71.0% vs. 37.8%). Multivariate associations with sociodemographic, Army career, and mental health predictors varied across barrier categories. These findings suggest most soldiers with mental disorders do not believe they need treatment and those who do typically face multiple attitudinal and, to a lesser extent, structural barriers. PMID:27612348

  7. Storybook Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The separation from family endured by Army personnel during operations can be tough. No parent wants to be away from their children for long periods--or miss out on crucial moments in their development. For the children themselves, the pain of separation is often compounded by a lack of understanding as to why Mummy or Daddy is no longer there.…

  8. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  9. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. German-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the German word is listed first followed by the English word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  10. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. English-German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the English word is listed first followed by the German word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  11. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  12. German Teaching: The German Journal of the Association for Language Learning, 1994-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien, Alistair, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This journal focuses on teaching and learning German as a foreign language. Selected articles include the following: "Give Students Autonomy!" German in Great Britain"; "Open Access and Listening Skills"; "Communication with Computers"; "The Quest for Fluency and Accuracy"; "Binational Problem Solving"; "Foreign Language Instruction in England…

  13. β-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no known studies that have examined β-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that β-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of β-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1 ± 0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a β-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p = 0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p = 0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p = 0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p = 0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2 ± 1.0) than PL (6.5 ± 2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p = 0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p = 0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of β-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power

  14. How Effective Is Initial Military-Specific Training in the Development of Physical Performance of Soldiers?

    PubMed

    Groeller, Herbert; Burley, Simon; Orchard, Pete; Sampson, John A; Billing, Daniel C; Linnane, Denise

    2015-11-01

    The impact of basic military training (BMT) on recruit physical performance is well described. However, initial employment training (IET), the period immediately after BMT, is the final preparatory step before posting to an operational unit. There is limited evidence on the influence of this training in developing the physical attributes necessary for military duty. Therefore, this investigation determined the relative contribution of BMT and IET to develop physical capability in soldiers. Fifty-one soldiers (45 men and 6 women) were assessed at 4 time points: commencement of training (week 1), midway (week 8), at the conclusion (week 12) of BMT, and upon completion of the IET (week 18/27). Weeks 1, 12, and 18/27 are reported herein. At each time point, tasks relevant to military duties, such as 1 repetition maximum (1RM) box lift, 2 × 22 kg-jerry carry, 3.2 km of 22-kg load carriage, and preexisting assessments of military fitness, such as 20-m shuttle run, 2-minute push-ups, and sit-ups, were assessed. A subsample of recruits (n = 14) was assessed for 1RM bench press, vertical jump, 30-second high-intensity cycle ergometry, and peak treadmill oxygen consumption. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in 3.2 km of 22-kg load carriage (week 12, 1,109 ± 37 seconds; week 18/27, 1,161 ± 51 seconds), 2 × 22 kg-jerry carry (week 12, 753 ± 72 m; week 18/27, 683 ± 78 m), and 1RM bench press (week 12, 83.3 ± 16.0 kg; week 18/27, 73.2 ± 16.6 kg) was observed during IET. No change (p > 0.05) between week 12 and week 18/27 was detected in 1RM box lift, vertical jump, 30-second high-intensity cycle ergometry, sit-ups, and 20-minute shuttle run. In contrast, 2-minute push-up (week 12, 46.7 ± 2.7; week 18/27, 57.5 ± 3.1) performance increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Soldiers who participated in up to 15 weeks of additional IET did not make further physical performance gains in strength, power, and endurance or function before posting to their units. Thus, greater

  15. The effect of shower/bath frequency on the health and operational effectiveness of soldiers in a field setting

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.C.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-01-31

    Dermal disease can be a significant cause of morbidity among soldiers in a combat setting. For example, among American combat troops in Vietnam, disability from skin disease was one of the single most important medical causes of man-days lost from combat. Currently, the US Army makes shower or bath facilities available to soldiers in the field on a weekly basis. US Army after-action reports and anecdotal descriptions from the field indicate that this may not be an optimal regimen for the maintenance of personal hygiene, especially with respect to diseases of the skin. Determination of the optimal frequency of showering or bathing for soldiers in an combat setting is complicated by the fact that soldiers in the US Army may be involved in field exercises or combat in many different areas of the world with a variety of climatic conditions. Although certain aspects of the role of environmental factors in the incidence and severity of dermal disease have been documented, the role of hygiene in the potential mitigation of these effects has not been evaluated. The present project entails a comprehensive review and analysis of available literature in order to determine the health impact of shower/bath frequency for soldiers in a combat setting. An integral component of this work is an evaluation of the impact of climate, and microclimate produced by clothing, on the type, frequency, and severity of skin disease. A separate but related area of interest involves evaluating whether the use of antimicrobial soaps or similar products minimize the incidence of skin infections by decreasing populations of disease-causing microorganisms on the skin. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  17. Child Support Report, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  18. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  19. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information on events…

  20. Child Support Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2002 of the Child Support Report, which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  1. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  2. THE DIFFICULT CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROUCEK, JOSEPH S.

    THIS BOOK CONSISTS OF 16 ESSAYS BY SPECIALISTS ON PROBLEMS WHICH MAY MAKE A CHILD DIFFICULT. EACH AUTHOR DISCUSSES ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND HOW DIFFICULTIES MAY BE REDUCED. THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE CONSIDERED--(1) "THE CREATIVE CHILD" BY E.P. TORRANCE, (2) "THE INATTENTIVE CHILD" BY I.W. SCHERER, (3) "THE CHILD WITH LANGUAGE…

  3. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

  4. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  5. Evaluation of stress experienced by soldiers wearing chemical protective clothing during varying work loads in desert or tropical environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgens, G.A.; Banderet, L.E.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    A stress evaluation was conducted in a laboratory test in which the physiological and psychological reactions of soldiers were monitored while they wore either the standard battle dress overgarment (MOPPI) or the full complement of chemical protective clothing with mask (MOPPIV) and worked at low, moderate, or high work loads in simulated desert (hot and dry) or tropic (hot and humid) environments. The psychological instruments indicated greater stress responses for soldiers wearing MOPPIV than wearing MOPPI and for soldiers working at a high work load than working at a low work load. Chemical protective clothing, MOPPIV, Tropics, Desert, Psychological stress, Work load, MOPPI, Stress evaluation.

  6. Effect of heat and chemical protective clothing on the ability of a group of female soldiers to sustain performance of military cognitive tasks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, B.J.

    1987-12-01

    The author previously found that chemical protective clothing seriously degraded the performance of sedentary male soldiers doing sustained mental work in the heat. Here in an identical study, the authors examine the performance of female soldiers in protective clothing. To the author's knowledge, this is the only controlled study of its kind with women. Eighteen female soldiers trained for two weeks on cognitive tasks resembling those performed by fire direction center, forward observer, and communications personnel. Then, they performed the tasks for seven-hour periods on four successive days in hot (91 F., 61% RH) and normal (55 F., 35% RH) or (70 F., 35% RH) with and without chemical protective clothing.

  7. Effects of Command and Control Vehicle (C2V) operational environment on soldier health and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.; DeRoshia, C.; Tauso, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use NASA technology to assist the US Army in the assessment of motion sickness incidences and effects on soldier performance and mood states within the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). Specific objectives were (1) to determine if there was a significant difference between three internal configurations of the C2V and/or between seats within these vehicles; (2) to determine if there was a significant difference between the park, move, or short-halt field conditions; and (3) to validate a method of converging indicators developed by NASA to assess environmental impact of long duration spaceflight on crewmembers, using a large sample of subjects under ground-based operational conditions.

  8. Raising the clinical standard of care for suicidal soldiers: an army process improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Archuleta, Debra; Jobes, David A; Pujol, Lynette; Jennings, Keith; Crumlish, Jennifer; Lento, Rene M; Brazaitis, Katherine; Moore, Bret A; Crow, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    From 2004 to 2008, the suicide rate among US Army Soldiers increased 80%, reaching a record high in 2008 and surpassing the civilian rate for the first time in recorded history. In recent years, the rate of Army suicides rose again; the year 2012 reflects the highest rate of military suicides on record. There is a need to assess current behavioral health practices to identify both effective and ineffective practices, and to adapt services to meet the needs of the Army behavioral health patient population. This paper discusses a process improvement initiative developed in an effort to improve clinical processes for suicide risk mitigation in an Army behavioral health clinic located in the catchment area of the US Army Southern Regional Medical Command. PMID:25830799

  9. Enhanced ammonia content in compost leachate processed by black soldier fly larvae.

    PubMed

    Green, Terrence R; Popa, Radu

    2012-03-01

    Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens), feeding on leachate from decaying vegetable and food scrap waste, increase ammonia (NH (4) (+) ) concentration five- to sixfold relative to leachate unprocessed by larvae. NH (4) (+) in larva-processed leachate reached levels as high as ∼100 mM. Most of this NH (4) (+) appears to have come from organic nitrogen within the frass produced by the larvae as they fed on leachate. In nitrate-enriched solutions, BSF larvae also facilitate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. The markedly higher concentration of NH (4) (+) recovered in leachates processed with BSF larvae and concomitant diversion of nutrients into insect biomass (itself a valuable feedstock) indicate that the use of BSF larvae in processing leachate of decaying organic waste could be advantageous in offsetting capital and environmental costs incurred in composting. PMID:22238016

  10. The multilevel effects of occupational stressors on soldiers' well-being, organizational attachment, and readiness.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jennifer S; Sinclair, Robert R; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Army typifies the stressful nature of many contemporary work settings, as soldiers face a climate of increasing work demands coupled with declining resources. The authors used social identity theory to propose hypotheses regarding contextual and cross-level effects of shared stressors on individual outcomes critical to the functioning of military units (well-being, attachment, readiness). Although the authors found weak support for direct effects of shared stressors on individual outcomes, they found several compelling moderating effects for shared stressors on person-level stressor-outcome relationships. For most effects, shared stressors intensified the effects of person-level stressors on morale, commitment, and depression. However, some shared stressors exerted counterintuitive effects on stressor-outcome relationships. Implications for research and military personnel management are discussed. PMID:16060730

  11. Paralysis as a Presenting Symptom of Hyperthyroidism in an Active Duty Soldier.

    PubMed

    Jennette, John; Tauferner, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an endocrine disorder presenting with proximal motor weakness, typically greatest in the lower extremities, hypokalemia, and signs or laboratory findings consistent with hyperthyroidism. The incidence of TPP is highest in Asian males. This is a case report of a 30-year-old male active duty Soldier who presented to the emergency department complaining of several recent episodes of lower extremity paralysis. The patient underwent a workup which included serum and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and was found to be hypokalemic and hyperthyroid. Following consultation with neurology, the patient was admitted to the medicine service and treated for thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with potassium replacement and treatment of his hyperthyroidism. Since achieving a euthyroid state, he has had no recurrences of TPP. This disease should be considered in patients presenting with symmetric motor weakness and hypokalemia, whether or not symptoms of hyperthyroidism are elicited during the review of systems. PMID:26606408

  12. Perceived organizational support, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and stigma in soldiers returning from combat.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christie L; Britt, Thomas W; Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D

    2014-05-01

    Research has shown that perceived organizational support (POS), or how much employees believe their organizations value their contributions and well-being, is an important predictor of employee mental health outcomes. To support employee mental health in high-risk occupations, organizations may want to identify variables that explain the relationship between POS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using a longitudinal design and a military sample, the present study found a relationship between POS and stigma as well as PTSD symptoms. Stigma partially mediated the relationship between POS at Time 1 and PTSD symptoms at Time 2. The partial mediation indicates that a supportive environment may also create a climate of reduced stigma in which soldiers may be comfortable addressing PTSD symptoms. Both results suggest positive actions that organizations can take to support employee mental health. PMID:24364593

  13. Military Beliefs and PTSD in Active Duty U.S. Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Loew, Benjamin; Carter, Sarah; Allen, Elizabeth; Markman, Howard; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic distress after military combat is a major cost of war. One under-investigated factor potentially associated with PTSD symptoms is specific beliefs about one’s military service. This study examined post-deployment self-reports from 272 active-duty U.S. Army soldiers, to investigate potential associations between military-related PTSD symptom severity and three beliefs about the military: the importance and value ascribed to one’s own work in the Army, to current military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and to military service in general. Higher scores on these three beliefs were negatively correlated with military-related PTSD symptom severity. However, in a combined regression model that controlled for recent combat exposure, only the belief about current military operations had a significant, unique association with PTSD symptom severity. That is, more positive beliefs about the value of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan were associated with lower PTSD symptoms. PMID:25530729

  14. Intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Báo, Sônia Nair; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was studied based on 125 pupae under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 6(th) instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the prepupae were separated according to the reduction in larval length and degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. The pupal stage lasted eight days (192 hours). The process of pupation (larva/pupa apolysis) occurred in the first six hours, extroversion of the head and thoracic appendages took place between the ninth and 21(st) hours, and the pharate appeared 21 hours after completing pupation. After pupariation, four morphological phases of intra-puparial development were observed and described. PMID:25368039

  15. Bacteria mediate oviposition by the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  16. Bacteria Mediate Oviposition by the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L.; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L.; Benbow, M. Eric; Tarone, Aaron M.; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  17. An artificial light source influences mating and oviposition of black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jibin; Huang, Ling; He, Jin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Li, Jianhong; Lei, Chaoliang; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo; Yu, Ziniu

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for mass-rearing black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), in the laboratory are dependent on sunlight. Quartz-iodine lamps and rare earth lamps were examined as artificial light sources for stimulating H. illucens to mate and lay eggs. Sunlight was used as the control. Adults in the quartz-iodine lamp treatment had a mating rate of 61% of those in the sunlight control. No mating occurred when the rare earth lamp was used as a substitute. Egg hatch for the quartz-iodine lamp and sunlight treatments occurred in approximately 4 days, and the hatch rate was similar between these two treatments. Larval and pupal development under these treatments required approximately 18 and 15 days at 28°C, respectively. Development of methods for mass rearing of H. illucens using artificial light will enable production of this fly throughout the year without investing in greenhouse space or requiring sunlight. PMID:21268697

  18. An Artificial Light Source Influences Mating and Oviposition of Black Soldier Flies, Hermetia illucens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jibin; Huang, Ling; He, Jin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Li, Jianhong; Lei, Chaoliang; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo; Yu, Ziniu

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for mass-rearing black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), in the laboratory are dependent on sunlight. Quartz-iodine lamps and rare earth lamps were examined as artificial light sources for stimulating H. illucens to mate and lay eggs. Sunlight was used as the control. Adults in the quartz-iodine lamp treatment had a mating rate of 61% of those in the sunlight control. No mating occurred when the rare earth lamp was used as a substitute. Egg hatch for the quartz-iodine lamp and sunlight treatments occurred in approximately 4 days, and the hatch rate was similar between these two treatments. Larval and pupal development under these treatments required approximately 18 and 15 days at 28°° C, respectively. Development of methods for mass rearing of H. illucens using artificial light will enable production of this fly throughout the year without investing in greenhouse space or requiring sunlight. PMID:21268697

  19. Challenges in presenting high dimensional data to aid in triage in the DARPA virtual soldier project.

    PubMed

    Boyd, A D; Wright, Z C; Ade, A S; Bookstein, F; Ogden, J C; Meixner, W; Athey, B D; Morris, T

    2005-01-01

    One of the goals of the DARPA Virtual Soldier Project is to aid the field medic in the triage of a casualty. In Phase I, we are currently collecting 12 baseline experimental physiological variables and a cardiac gated Computed Tomography (CT) imagery for use in an prototyping a futuristic electronic medical record, the "Holomer". We are using physiological models and Kalman filtering to aid in diagnosis and predict outcomes in relation to cardiac injury. The physiological modeling introduces another few hundred variables. Reducing the complexity of the above into easy-to-read text to aid in the triage by the field medic is the challenge with multiple display solutions. A description of the possible techniques follows. PMID:15718701

  20. Alteration and mineralization in the eastern part of the Soldier Mountains, Camas County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Reed S.

    2001-01-01

    The eastern part of the Soldier Mountains in Camas County, south-central Idaho, is underlain principally by plutonic rocks of Cretaceous and Eocene age that locally have undergone propylitic, potassic, and muscovite-quartz alteration. Muscovite- quartz alteration is Cretaceous in age and is localized along joints and fractures, some of which are filled with quartz. Associated veins have yielded minor amounts of gold. Potassic alteration is probably both Cretaceous and Eocene in age but is weakly developed and limited in extent. Propylitic alteration is Eocene in age and is pronounced around biotite granite plutons. Despite a clear association between plutons of biotite granite and widespread propylitic alteration, mineralization associated with these rocks was minimal. Mineralized areas within more mafic Eocene plutons are characterized by veins and (or) stockworks(?) enriched in copper, molybdenum, and silver, but these areas are restricted in size and have not been productive.