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1

THE EFFECTS OF COUMARIN ON RADISH SEED GERMINATION AND RADICLE ELONGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coumarin is a compound that inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. This inhibitory effect may confer a competitive advantage for the plants that secrete coumarin into the environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydration-dehydration of radish seed in the presence of...

2

Effect of light conditions on the contents of glucosinolates in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at determining the effect of light conditions on contents of glucosinolates (GLS) in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed. The seeds were germinated in light and dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 7 days. As compared to the nongerminated seeds, in seeds exposed to light and germinated for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days the content of total GLS was observed to decrease by 30 to 70% depending on the species. Germination in conducted the dark for the respective periods of time resulted in decreases of total GLS not exceeding 25%. The changes in the concentration of total GLS were attributed to aliphatic GLS predominating in seeds, yet in the case of white mustard to sinalbin belonging to aralkyl glucosinolates. Although seeds germinated in the dark, as compared to those exposed to light, were characterized by a higher total content of indole GLS, the percentage contribution of that group of compounds in white mustard, red radish, and white radish remained at a similar level, irrespective of germination time. Only in the case of rapeseed was the percentage of the sum of indole GLS observed to increase from 17 to up to 45% once the seeds were exposed to light and to 50% once they were germinated in the dark. PMID:18771273

Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna; Koz?owska, Halina

2008-10-01

3

Watermelon Seed Germination  

E-print Network

Watermelon Seed Germination Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service BP-62 Seed Germination of the necessary genetic material or chromosomes. These seed, known as triploid, have special germination requirements. This bulletin addresses triploid watermelon seed germination and transplant production. First

4

Radishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radishes have roots. These roots help the radishes absorb nutrients and water from the soil. The radish and root are buried underneath the soil. The green leaves are above soil to gather sunlight for the plant.

N/A N/A (None; )

2007-07-04

5

Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc

Daohui Lin; Baoshan Xing

2007-01-01

6

Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.  

PubMed

In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts. PMID:19343955

Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

2009-03-01

7

Easy PEAsy Seed Germination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners determine the necessary conditions for pea seed germination. This activity encourages learners to make predictions and think about how they might investigate the effects of variables like light, temperature, and moisture.

Paul Dyson

2012-04-09

8

Seed dormancy and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy and germination are complex adaptive traits of higher plants that are influenced by a large number of genes and environmental factors. Studies of genetics and physiology have shown the important roles of the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in the regulation of dormancy and germination. More recently, the use of quantitative genetics and mutant approaches has allowed

Maarten Koornneef; Leónie Bentsink; Henk Hilhorst

2002-01-01

9

Estimation of scavenging capacity of melatonin and other antioxidants: contribution and evaluation in germinated seeds.  

PubMed

Seven edible seeds for the levels of melatonin, phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity were evaluated during germination process. Radical scavenging parameters were also studied in standard antioxidants to understand their antiradical actions. Germination brought about significant increases of total phenol compounds in all edible seeds, showing red cabbage, radish and broccoli the highest contents (21.6, 20.4 and 16.4 mg GAE/g DW, respectively). The concentration of melatonin is greatly variable in edible seeds, exhibiting significant increases during germination. The highest levels were found in red cabbage (857 pg/g DW) radish (536 pg/g DW) and broccoli (439 pg/g DW). The germinated seeds which had the highest levels of polyphenols and melatonin were those that showed the most relevant antiradical activities (>97%). This information is valuable for the incorporation of red cabbage, radish and broccoli germinated seeds into the diet to promote potential health benefits. PMID:25306336

Aguilera, Yolanda; Herrera, Teresa; Benítez, Vanesa; Arribas, Silvia M; López de Pablo, Angel L; Esteban, Rosa M; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

2015-03-01

10

Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.  

PubMed

In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts. PMID:12747683

Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

2003-05-01

11

Pre-soaking of seeds enhances pressure inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds.  

PubMed

The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at a level of 600 MPa at 20 degrees C to decontaminate crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were evaluated. Salmonella was generally more pressure-resistant than E. coli O157:H7 on clover and radish seeds except on broccoli seeds where the trend was reversed. In addition, the application of HHP differentially affected seeds' germinability and the order of pressure tolerance of the seeds was such that red clover>crimson clover approximately broccoli >radish seeds with final germination percentages ranging from 85-100% while their untreated counterparts had final germination percentages of 99-100%. Pre-soaking the different types of seeds in water for 30, 60 or 90 min at ambient temperature followed by HHP at 600 MPa for 2 or 5 min at 20 degrees C significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the pressure inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Moreover, the ability of HHP-treated seeds to germinate also varied as a function of the pre-soaking duration and the seed type. Pre-soaking radish and broccoli seeds for 30 min prior to HHP (2 or 5 min) resulted in germination percentages of seeds displayed higher germination potential when pre-soaked for 60 min at 20 degrees C prior to HPP (5 min) with final germination percentages of 94%, although their yield was substantially lower than their untreated counterparts. Red clover seeds pre-soaked for 60 min at 4 degrees C followed by HPP at 600 MPa for 5 min at 20 degrees C produced germination percentages of 91 and 95% after 3 and 8 days of sprouting compared to 99 and 100% respectively for untreated seeds. In addition, this condition did not significantly (P>0.05) reduce the sprout yield. The treatment also resulted in a reduction of a 5 log initial load of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to an undetectable level (neither pathogen was detected in 2-g seed samples after enrichment). PMID:20018397

Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

2010-02-28

12

Cactus seed germination: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review tries to give a general overview of the available information on cactus seed germination. First, information about the family Cactaceae is discussed, concerning aspects such as distribution and general characteristics. Seed distinctive features are mentioned, such as colour, form, and size. Aspects of seed physiology, such as germination and dormancy, as well as seed dynamics including dispersal,

Mariana Rojas-Aréchiga; Carlos Vázquez-Yanes

2000-01-01

13

PHYSIOLOGY AND BIO – CHEMISTRY OF GERMINATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEEDS – V PROTEIN AND SUGAR CONTENTS OF SEEDS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SPECTRAL BANDS OF LIGHT  

PubMed Central

The estimation of total protein and total sugars of cucumber, mango, paddy, radish and tomato seeds in dry, wet and germinating conditions were studied. Also the results are discussed in the light of possible physiological and bio – chemical change taking place inside the seeds during the process of absorption and germination. PMID:22557525

Majumder, A. K.; Boissya, C. L.

1986-01-01

14

Synergistic inhibitory effects of vanillic and p -hydroxybenzoic acids on radish and grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radish and grain sorghum germination and sorghum growth were inhibited in a synergistic manner by combinations of vanillic andp-hydroxybenzoic acids. At threshold inhibition levels, 2.5 × 10-3 M vanillic acid-treated radish seeds had 71 % of control germination after 24 hr and 2.5 × 10-3 Mp-hydroxybenzoic acid-treated radish yielded 95% germination. A mixture of 2.5 × 10-3 M of each

Frank A. Einhellig; James A. Rasmussen

1978-01-01

15

Compounds That Promote Seed Germination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The two molecules for this month come from the section Compound in Smoke Provides the Spark for Germination in the article about "Research Advances" by Angela G. King. These molecules have been demonstrated to stimulate seed germination under various conditions. The butenolide moiety is frequently encountered in natural products. An interesting approach to the synthesis of such molecules can be found in this Organic Letters article (accessed January 2005).

16

Seed Development and Germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

17

[Metabolic control of seed germination].  

PubMed

We have used proteomics to better characterize germination and early seedling vigor in sugarbeet. Our strategy includes (1) construction of proteome reference maps for dry and germinating seeds of a high-vigor reference seed lot; (2) investigation of the specific tissue accumulation of proteins (root, cotyledon, perisperm); (3) investigation of changes in protein expression profiles detected in the reference seed lot subjected to different vigor-modifying treatments, e.g. aging and/or priming. More than 1 000 sugarbeet seed proteins have been identified by LC/MS-MS mass spectrometry (albumins, globulins and glutelins have been analyzed separately). Due to the conservation of protein sequences and the quality of MS sequencing (more than 10 000 peptide sequences have been obtained), the success rate of protein identification was on the average of 80%. This is to our knowledge the best detailed proteome analysis ever carried out in seeds. The data allowed us to build a detailed metabolic chart of the sugarbeet seed, generating new insights into the molecular mechanisms determining the development of a new seedling. Also, the proteome of a seed-storage tissue as the perisperm is described for the first time. PMID:18980744

Catusse, Julie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Job, Claudette; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Job, Dominique

2008-01-01

18

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2013-01-01

19

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2011-01-01

20

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2014-01-01

21

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2010-01-01

22

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2012-01-01

23

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2013-01-01

24

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2014-01-01

25

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2010-01-01

26

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2012-01-01

27

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2011-01-01

28

Proteomics of rice seed germination  

PubMed Central

Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles, and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies. PMID:23847647

He, Dongli; Yang, Pingfang

2013-01-01

29

Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.  

PubMed

We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65°C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55°C/25-65% RH ?60°C/25-45% RH ?65°C/25% RH <55°C/85% RH =60°C/65% RH <55°C/100% RH =60°C/85-100% RH =65°C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65°C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0logCFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

2015-05-18

30

GERMINATION OF SEEDS OF DIFFUSE KNAPWEED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to further define the environmental requirements for safesites for germination of seeds (achenes) of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.). Germination temperature profiles were developed for diffuse knapweed seeds collected from sites in the Great Basin and Colo...

31

Seed germination characteristics of Halogeton glomeratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogeton glomeratus (Bieb.) C.A. Mey, an annual forb in the family Chenopodiaceae, is widely distributed in the inland salt deserts of western North America. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of NaCl and temperature on seed germination and the recovery of germination responses after transfer to distilled water. Seeds of H. glomeratus were germinated at various temperature regimes (5-15°C,

M. Ajmal Khan; Bilquees Gul; Darrell J. Weber

2001-01-01

32

Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

33

Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 ?l O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

2003-05-01

34

Are Radishes Really Allelopathic to Lettuce?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment that challenges the claim that sprouting radish seedlings release chemicals into the environment that inhibit germination of lettuce seeds. Reports that although no simple allelopathic demonstration was observed, the experiment provides fertile ground for further experimentation in inquiry-based laboratory experiences. (JRH)

Santaniello, Catherine M.; Koning, Ross E.

1996-01-01

35

The oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments for earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and often germinated in orbit in order to study gravity effects on developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds and respiration. In orbit the formation of a water layer around the seed may further limit oxygen availability. Therefore, the oxygen content of the available gas volume is one of the limiting factors for seed germination. In preparation for an upcoming shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware. We tested per seed chamber (gas volume = 14 mL, O2 = 2.9 mL) between 4 to 32 seeds glued to germination paper by 1% (w/v) gum guar. A lexan cover and a gasket hermetically sealed each of the eight chambers. For imbibition of the seeds a previously optimized amount of distilled water was dispensed through sealed inlets. The seedlings were allowed to grow for either 32 to 48 h on a clinostat or without microgravity simulation. Then their root length was measured. With 32 seeds per chamber, four times the intended number of seeds for the flight, the germination rate decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%. Experiments on the germination and root length in controlled atmospheres (5, 10, 15 and 21% O2 ) suggest that germination and growth for two days requires about 200 :l of O (1 mL air) per seed. Our2 experiments correlate oxygen dependency from seed mass and germination temperature, and analyze accumulation of gaseous metabolites (supported by NASA grant NAG10-0190).

Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

36

Repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mung bean and radish seeds.  

PubMed

The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on the seeds prior to sprouting. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments with various chemicals to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 populations inoculated onto mung bean and radish seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. The treatment time was 20 sec for quick hot and 20 sec for quick chilling in one repeat. Likewise up to five repeats were done throughout the experiments. The chemicals used for this study were electrolyzed acidic (EO) water, phytic acid (0.05%), oxalic acid (3%), surfcera(R), and alpha-torino water(R), and distilled water was used as control. The quick hot treatment was done with 75 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, and the chilling temperature was 0 degrees C. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of this treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments on germination yield. It was found that repeating treatment at 75 degrees C for two or three repeats with phytic acid and oxalic acid could reduce 4.38-log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g of E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. EO water and distilled water were found equally effective at 75 degrees C for four or five repeats to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. However, alpha-torino water(R) and surfcera(R) were not found effective in comparison to other sanitizers used in this experiment. Irrespective of sanitizer used, the germination yield of the mung bean seed was not affected significantly. On the other hand, distilled water, EO water, and alpha-torino water(R) at 75 degrees C for five repeats were found effective in reducing 5.80-log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in radish seeds; however, the germination yield of the seed was affected significantly. Therefore, repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments could be useful to decontaminate mung bean seeds intended for sprout production. PMID:19061368

Bari, Md Latiful; Sugiyama, Jun; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

2009-01-01

37

SEED GERMINATION AND VIABILITY OF WYOMING SAGEBRUSH IN NORTHERN NEVADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Seed size and germination behavior affect performance of early seedlings. The purpose of this study was to investigate rela- tionships between seed size and germination percentage, germina- tion rate, time course of germination and seed viability in Wyo- ming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young). Working hypotheses were: 1) for single seeds, germination percentages and rates

Carlos A. Busso; Mónica Mazzola; Barry L. Perryman

2005-01-01

38

Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.  

PubMed

Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation between seedlot hardiness and rate of germination. Germination rate and freezing tolerance of Douglas-fir and western red cedar seedlots was negatively correlated. There was a significant correlation between LT50 after 10 days in the growth chamber and minimum spring temperature at the location of seedlot origin for interior spruce and three seedlots of western red cedar, but no relationship was apparent for lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. PMID:14652223

Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

2003-12-01

39

Effects of Air Temperature on Seed Germination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity begins as a classroom investigation, but may extend to a field investigation where students will determine the effects of air temperature on seed germination. This is accomplished by developing investigative questions, recording, and analyzing data.

Amy MacArthur

40

Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and down-regulation) of 74 proteins were observed during germination sensu stricto (i.e. prior to radicle emergence) and the

K. Gallardo; C. Job; S. P. C. Groot; M. Puype; H. Demol; J. Vandekerckhove; D. Job

2003-01-01

41

Determination of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters that describe isothermal seed germination: A student research project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students under the supervision of a faculty member can collect data and fit the data to the theoretical mathematical model that describes the rate of isothermal seed germination. The best-fit parameters are interpreted as an initial substrate concentration, product concentration, and the autocatalytic reaction rate. The thermodynamic model enables one to calculate the activation energy for the substrate and product, the activation energy for the autocatalytic reaction, and changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibb's free energy. Turnip, lettuce, soybean, and radish seeds have been investigated. All data fit the proposed model.

Hageseth, Gaylord T.

1982-02-01

42

Interaction of microwaves and germinating seeds  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary investigation measured the internal metabolic process by ATP production. Leakage of ions and organic material from germinating seeds indicated that membranes are a target of microwaves and heat. Electron photo-micrographs showed an increase in damage to membranes as heat and microwave treatments were increased. The second phase of this investigation was concerned with determining some of the biological activity at the initiation of germination of wheat seed, Triticum aestivum L., using a resonating microwave cavity oscillating at 9.3 GHz as a probe. Direct current conductivity measurements were also made on the seeds as a means of confirming the observations made with the microwave cavity.

Shafer, F.L.

1987-01-01

43

Hormonal and molecular events during seed dormancy release and germination  

E-print Network

Hormonal and molecular events during seed dormancy release and germination Gerhard Leubner on Seeds, Salamanca, Spain, 12-16 May 2002 Symposium Seed Dormancy and Germination #12;Leubner-Metzger (2003) - page 2 Introduction Seed germination of species with 'coat-imposed' dormancy is determined

Leubner, Gerhard

44

Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy  

PubMed Central

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a key role in various events of seed life. In orthodox seeds, ROS are produced from embryogenesis to germination, i.e., in metabolically active cells, but also in quiescent dry tissues during after ripening and storage, owing various mechanisms depending on the seed moisture content. Although ROS have been up to now widely considered as detrimental to seeds, recent advances in plant physiology signaling pathways has lead to reconsider their role. ROS accumulation can therefore be also beneficial for seed germination and seedling growth by regulating cellular growth, ensuring a protection against pathogens or controlling the cell redox status. ROS probably also act as a positive signal in seed dormancy release. They interact with abscisic acid and gibberellins transduction pathway and are likely to control numerous transcription factors and properties of specific protein through their carbonylation. PMID:19513212

El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

2008-01-01

45

Promotion of Seed Germination by Cyanide  

PubMed Central

Potassium cyanide at 3 ?m to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form ?-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. ?-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 ?-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from ?-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-14C is much lower than of cyanide. Radioactive tracer in K14CN shows uptake of about 1.5 ?moles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high 14C activity in ?-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN3 at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN3 inhibit O2 consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form ?-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis. PMID:16658492

Taylorson, R. B.; Hendricks, S. B.

1973-01-01

46

Improved germination of the seeds of whistling pine (Casuarina equisetifolia)  

E-print Network

Agronomy Improved germination of the seeds of whistling pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) Forst- rinaceae) to germinate faster or in greater numbers than under natural conditions. Percentage germination, and application of 0.1 mM IAA solution. Incubating soaked seeds in continuous red light caused the germination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Precision metering of germinated seeds  

E-print Network

seeds was developed. Viscous fluid was used to suspend the seeds and convey them through the system. Operation of the system began with the seeds suspended in a tank. They were forced to flow in single file through a tube. A two position valve... actuated by an electrical solenoid was used to mechanically capture individual seeds. Air was used to eject the seeds from the system. A new single file device employing dilution flow was tested at rates as high as ten seeds per second. It produced...

Elliot, Gregory Lawrence

1990-01-01

48

Dynamics of maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed development in wild radish (Raphanus sativus)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Variability in embryo development can influence the rate of seed maturation and seed size, which may have an impact on offspring fitness. While it is expected that embryo development will be under maternal control, more controversial hypotheses suggest that the pollen donor and the embryo itself may influence development. These latter possibilities are, however, poorly studied. Characteristics of 10-d-old embryos and seeds of wild radish (Raphanus sativus) were examined to address: (a) the effects of maternal plant and pollen donor on development; (b) the effects of earlier reproductive events (pollen tube growth and fertilization) on embryos and seeds, and the influence of embryo size on mature seed mass; (c) the effect of water stress on embryos and seeds; (d) the effect of stress on correlations of embryo and seed characteristics with earlier and later reproductive events and stages; and (e) changes in maternal and paternal effects on embryo and seed characteristics during development. Methods Eight maternal plants (two each from four families) and four pollen donors were crossed and developing gynoecia were collected at 10 d post-pollination. Half of the maternal plants experienced water stress. Characteristics of embryos and seeds were summarized and also compared with earlier and later developmental stages. Key Results In addition to the expected effects of the maternal plants, all embryo characters differed among pollen donors. Paternal effects varied over time, suggesting that there are windows of opportunity for pollen donors to influence embryo development. Water-stress treatment altered embryo characteristics; embryos were smaller and less developed. In addition, correlations of embryo characteristics with earlier and later stages changed dramatically with water stress. Conclusions The expected maternal effects on embryo development were observed, but there was also evidence for an early paternal role. The relative effects of these controls may change over time. Thus, there may be times in development when selection on the maternal, paternal or embryo contributions to development are more and less likely. PMID:20519237

Diggle, P. K.; Abrahamson, N. J.; Baker, R. L.; Barnes, M. G.; Koontz, T. L.; Lay, C. R.; Medeiros, J. S.; Murgel, J. L.; Shaner, M. G. M.; Simpson, H. L.; Wu, C. C.; Marshall, D. L.

2010-01-01

49

An investigation of the phototropic effect on seedling orientation in a microgravity environment: A student involvement project. [radish germination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microgravity growth chamber was designed to investigate the phototropic response of radish seedlings. Enclosed in a one fourth inch thick, hexagonal, fiberglass-foam spacepak nineteen inches across corners, the experiment consists of a growth chamber and germination tray, a water reservoir and solenoid valve, a fluorescent light for photo simulation, a Minolta X700 camera with programmable back, a 50 mm macro lens and flash, a battery pack, and a computer controller. Two temperature sensors and one light sensor located in the walls of the growth chamber provide temperature and illumination data. A computer provides 8 K command and 34 K data storage capability. The experiment was not activated during the STS flight because a malfunctioning latching relay stuck and reduced the battery power level.

Barainca, J. W.

1984-01-01

50

Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds.  

PubMed

Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous national and international standards for their production and distribution, there is a lack of data pertaining to the microbiological safety of microgreens. In this study, sprouts and microgreens were produced from radish seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157: H7 or O104: H4 and E. coli populations on the harvested products compared to assess the potentials of product contamination from contaminated seeds during sprouting and microgreen production. Both E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 grew rapidly during sprouting, reaching levels of 5.8-8.1 log cfu/g and 5.2-7.3 log cfu/g, respectively, depending on the initial inoculation levels of the seeds (1.5-4.6 log cfu/g and 0.8-4.3 log cfu/g on radish seeds, respectively). In comparison, E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 populations on harvested microgreens ranged from 0.8 to 4.5 log cfu/g and from 0.6 to 4.0 log cfu/g, respectively. Although harvested microgreens carried significantly less (P < 0.001) E. coli than sprouts germinated from seeds inoculated at the same levels, proliferation of E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 occurred during both sprouting and microgreen growth. PMID:25084646

Xiao, Zhenlei; Nou, Xiangwu; Luo, Yanguang; Wang, Qin

2014-12-01

51

Seed germination ecology in southwestern Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination responses of species from the native plant communities of southwestern Western Australia can be related to syndromes\\u000a of life history, fire response, and seed storage, and also to factors related to environmental stress. The Mediterranean-type\\u000a climate of the region with periodic drought and recurrent fires affects the production of viable seeds in plants of limited\\u000a stature and rooting depth.

David T. Bell; Julie A. Plummer; Susan K. Taylor

1993-01-01

52

Original article The influence of seed age on germinative response  

E-print Network

Original article The influence of seed age on germinative response to the effects of fire in Pinus was to understand the germinative response to fire of three species of seeds of different ages. An experi- ment was also performed. Significant differences were observed between the species. The germinative behaviour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Autotoxic inhibition of seed germination by Typha latifolia : an evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Typha latifolia were exposed to leaf extracts, leaf pieces, and soil water from adult plants of T. latifolia. In liquid culture, only extracts of concentration greater than or equal to 3% (dry weight to volume) inhibited seed germination. Adding soil to the liquid cultures increased the inhibition of seed germination by extracts. The inhibitory effects of extracts were

James B. Grace

1983-01-01

54

Role of H?O? in pea seed germination.  

PubMed

The imbibition of pea seeds with hydrogen peroxide H?O? increased the germination as well as the seedling growth, producing an invigoration of the seeds. We propose that H?O? could acts as signaling molecule in the beginning of seed germination involving specific changes at proteomic, transcriptomic and hormonal levels. These findings have practical implication in the context of seed priming technologies to invigorate low vigour seeds. PMID:22415047

Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José Antonio; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

2012-02-01

55

Inhibitory effect of myrigalone A on seed germination 1 Myrigalone A inhibits Lepidium sativum seed germination by interference with  

E-print Network

Inhibitory effect of myrigalone A on seed germination 1 Myrigalone A inhibits Lepidium sativum seed herbicide) and different terpenes on the endosperm rupture of germinating Lepidium sativum seeds. S2 The effect of myrigalone A (MyA) and plant hormones on the endosperm rupture of Lepidium sativum

Leubner, Gerhard

56

Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

2012-01-01

57

Seed germination in temperate rain forest species of southern Chile: chilling and gap-dependency germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy gap and chilling requirements for seed germination were assessed in 61 and 44 species, respectively, in the temperate\\u000a rain forest of southern Chile. Germination assays within canopy gap and understorey were carried out under natural conditions.\\u000a Germination tests in cold stratified and non-stratified seeds were performed under laboratory conditions. Seeds were collected\\u000a of common trees, shrubs, vines and perennial

Javier A. Figueroa

2003-01-01

58

Seed germination characteristics of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. viridulus (Astereae, Asteraceae)  

SciTech Connect

Rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. ssp. viridulus) may prove to be a source of high-quality cis-isoprene rubber, but its establishment is limited by a lack of information on seed germination. Consequently, seeds were germinated at alternating temperatures (5-15, 5-25, 15-25, and 20-30 C) in light and dark as well as constant temperatures (15-40 C with 5-C increments) to determine temperature response. Seeds were also germinated in solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000, salinity regimes at all the above-mentioned temperatures to determine salinity and temperature interaction. The hormones GA/sub 3/ and kinetin were used to study their effect on overcoming salt- and temperature-induced germination inhibition. Seeds of C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus were very sensitive to low temperature. Best germination was achieved at 25 and 30 C, but these seeds also germinated at a higher temperature (35 C). The seeds of rabbit brush germinated at both constant and alternating temperatures. Light appears to play little or no role in controlling germination of the seeds of rubber rabbitbrush. However, seeds of rabbitbrush were sensitive to salinity, and seed germination was progressively inhibited by increase in salt concentration, although a few seeds still germinated at the highest saline level. Progressively higher concentrations of polyethylene glycol also progressively inhibited germination. Suppression of seed germination induced by high salt concentrations and high temperatures can be partially alleviated by the application of either GA/sub 3/ or kinetin. 34 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Khan, M.A.; Sankhla, N.; Weber, D.J.; McArthur, E.D.

1987-04-30

59

7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Germination standards for vegetable seeds...Vegetable Seeds § 201.31 Germination standards for vegetable seeds...interstate commerce. The following germination standards for vegetable...

2014-01-01

60

7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Germination standards for vegetable seeds...Vegetable Seeds § 201.31 Germination standards for vegetable seeds...interstate commerce. The following germination standards for vegetable...

2012-01-01

61

7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Germination standards for vegetable seeds...Vegetable Seeds § 201.31 Germination standards for vegetable seeds...interstate commerce. The following germination standards for vegetable...

2011-01-01

62

7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Germination standards for vegetable seeds...Vegetable Seeds § 201.31 Germination standards for vegetable seeds...interstate commerce. The following germination standards for vegetable...

2013-01-01

63

Seed germination of GA-insensitive sleepy1 mutants does not require RGL2 protein disappearance in Arabidopsis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination is a complex developmental process regulated by phytohormones. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits seed germination, whereas gibberellin (GA) stimulates seed germination. In tomato and Arabidopsis, GA is clearly required for seed germination. Recent evidence suggests tha...

64

Nitric oxide accelerates seed germination in warm-season grasses.  

PubMed

The nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly promoted germination of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv Kanlow) in the light and in the dark at 25 degrees C, across a broad range of concentrations. SNP also promoted seed germination in two other warm-season grasses. A chemical scavenger of NO inhibited germination and blocked SNP stimulation of seed germination. The phenolic (+)-catechin acted synergistically with SNP and nitrite in promoting seed germination. Acidified nitrite, an alternate NO donor also significantly stimulated seed germination. Interestingly, sodium cyanide, potassium ferricyanide and potassium ferrocyanide at 200 microM strongly enhanced seed germination as well, whereas potassium chloride was without effect. Ferrocyanide and cyanide stimulation of seed germination was blocked by an NO scavenger. Incubation of seeds with a fluorescent NO-specific probe provided evidence for NO production in germinating switchgrass seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA) at 10 microM depressed germination, inhibited root elongation and essentially abolished coleoptile emergence. SNP partially overcame ABA effects on radicle emergence but did not overcome the effects of ABA on coleoptile elongation. Light microscopy indicated extension of the radicle and coleoptiles in seeds maintained on water or on SNP after 2 days. In contrast, there was minimal growth of the radicle and coleoptile in ABA-treated seeds even after 3-4 days. These data indicate that seed germination of warm-season grasses is significantly influenced by NO signaling pathways and document that NO could be an endogenous trigger for release from dormancy in these species. PMID:16369800

Sarath, Gautam; Bethke, Paul C; Jones, Russell; Baird, Lisa M; Hou, Guichuan; Mitchell, Robert B

2006-05-01

65

Effect of fungicide on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because fungal infection may complicate both the logistics and the interpretation of germination tests, seeds are sometimes treated with chemical fungicides. Fungicides may reduce the germination rate and/or germination percentage, and should be avoided unless fungal contamination is severe enough ...

66

Patterns of seed germination in Californian serpentine grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of nine Californian serpentine annual species and one perennial grass was examined as a function of soil and litter cover and seasonal timing of rainfall. Germination responses varied with the date of moisture application, and the patterns of variation differed among species. Germination occurred in waves over time, but in most of the species, virtually all the seeds had

S. L. Gulmon

1992-01-01

67

Germination ecology and seed population dynamics of Digitalis purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination ecology and the dynamics of the generative reproduction in populations of Digitalis purpurea L. were investigated in the field as well as in experiments. Germination of fresh seeds in the dark on moist filter paper appeared to differ between populations. These differences were eliminated when a moist natural soil functioned as germination substrate. An interaction between the spectral

J. van Baalen

1982-01-01

68

[Seed population dynamics and germination characteristics of Eupatorium adenophorum].  

PubMed

With bare land, farmland, and masson pine forestland in the Eupatorium adenophorum- invaded area of Dechang County, Sichuan Province as test habitats, this paper studied the seed population dynamics of E. adenophorum at the levels of seed rain and seed bank, and its seed germination characteristics under effects of light and soil medium. The results showed that in the three habitats, the seed population of E. adenophorum only existed from March to June, and reached its peak by the end of April. The annual seed rainfall in bare land habitat amounted to 2.4 x 10(5) individuals per square meter, and all the seeds were distributed in the soil layer above 2 cm. The thousand seed weight and seed activity of E. adenophorum in bare land habitat were significantly higher than those in another two habitats. No active seed was found in the three habitats by the first ten days of July. Under artificial light condition, full light had some inhibitory effects on seed germination, while 28% of full light gave the highest germination rate. Sandy loam soil was more favorable for the seed germination, while in un-reclaimed red soil, both the germination velocity and germination rate were the lowest. PMID:16964927

Wang, Wenqi; Wang, Jinjun; Zhao, Zhimo

2006-06-01

69

In vitro culture and germination of terrestrial Asian orchid seeds.  

PubMed

Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and many of its species are highly valuable as herbal medicines and to the horticultural industry. To meet commercial requirements and to conserve natural resources, in vitro seed germination has been utilized to produce large quantities of uniform seedlings. In general, terrestrial orchid seeds are more difficult to germinate and grow than epiphytic orchids. Terrestrial orchid seeds have a hardened seed coat and more stringent requirements for germination in vitro. In this chapter, we document the timing of seed collection and pretreatments for improving in vitro germination of some terrestrial Asian orchids. The process of in vitro germination is demonstrated, including (1) the culture of immature seeds; (2) the culture of mature seeds; and (3) subsequent seedling development. For immature seed culture, optimal timing of seed harvest is key to maximizing germination; for mature seed culture, selection of adequate pretreatment conditions (i.e., the duration and concentrations of pretreatment solutions) is essential to improve germination. PMID:21207261

Lee, Yung-I

2011-01-01

70

Investigating the Influence of Karrikins on Seed Germination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has identified a karrikin (a butenolide derative) known as 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, formed from burning cellulose, that stimulates seed germination. Here, I present ideas on how to investigate the influence of karrikins on seed germination in the laboratory.

de Beer, Josef

2012-01-01

71

The germination characteristics of Scrophularia marilandica L. (Scrophulariaceae) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations on seeds of Scrophularia marilandica L. were undertaken to determine their germination requirements. Seeds were collected from three naturally occurring sites\\u000a and one greenhouse-grown population in London, Ontario in September and October of 1997. Some were set to germinate immediately\\u000a after collection; others were stored in or on soil outside and\\/or under controlled laboratory conditions before testing. Germination\\u000a was

Robert E. Nurse; Paul B. Cavers

2008-01-01

72

Effect of fungicide on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different water potentials (-0.033 and -0.7 MPa) and found that treating

Robert D Cox; Lance H Kosberg; Nancy L Shaw; Stuart P Hardegree

2011-01-01

73

Effect of fungicide on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different water potentials (-0.033 and -0.7 MPa) and found that treating

Robert D Cox; Lance H Kosberg; Nancy L Shaw; Stuart P Hardegree

2011-01-01

74

Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by smoke. While the mechanism behind smoke-induced germination is not known, it appears that smoke may be involved in overcoming different blocks to germination in different species. For example, in Emmenanthe penduliflora, NO2 in smoke was sufficient to induce germination, and most forms of physical or chemical scarification also induced germination. For Romneya coulteri, NO2 alone failed to induce germination, and scarified seeds required addition of gibberellic acid. In Dicentra chrysantha, none of these treatments, nor smoke alone, induced germination, but germination was triggered by a combination of soil burial followed by smoke treatment. Smoke-stimulated species differed substantially in the duration of smoke exposure required to induce germination, and this was inversely correlated with tolerance to smoke exposure. We suggest that such differences in response may affect postfire community structure.

Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

1998-01-01

75

Variation in seed and germination characteristics among Juniperus procera populations in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in seed and germination characteristics among nine Juniperus procera populations in Ethiopia were evaluated. Bulk seed samples were collected and examined for variations in number of seeds per cone, seed length, width, 1000-seed weight and germination in the laboratory and nursery. In the laboratory, the effect of light conditions on seed germination was tested by incubating the seeds under

Negash Mamo; Mebrate Mihretu; Miftah Fekadu; Mulualem Tigabu; Demel Teketay

2006-01-01

76

Rapid and Effective Germination Methods for Overcoming Seed Dormancy in Annual Canarygrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediterranean climates (P. aquatica) (Carlson et al., 1996). Dormancy in pedigreed Phalaris seed can lead to unsatisfactory Seed dormancy, thetemporary failure of aviable seed germination in seed testing. The objective was to determine the effec- to germinate (Simpson, 1990), reduces germination per- tiveness of recommended germination methods in overcoming seed dormancy in annual canarygrass (P. canariensis L.). In 2003, 'CDC

M. A. Matus-Cádiz; P. Hucl

2005-01-01

77

Thermoinhibition uncovers a role for strigolactones in Arabidopsis seed germination.  

PubMed

Strigolactones are host factors that stimulate seed germination of parasitic plant species such as Striga and Orobanche. This hormone is also important in shoot branching architecture and photomorphogenic development. Strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants in model systems, unlike parasitic plants, only show seed germination phenotypes under limited growth condition. To understand the roles of strigolactones in seed germination, it is necessary to develop a tractable experimental system using model plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we report that thermoinhibition, which involves exposing seeds to high temperatures, uncovers a clear role for strigolactones in promoting Arabidopsis seed germination. Both strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants showed increased sensitivity to seed thermoinhibition. The synthetic strigolactone GR24 rescued germination of thermoinbibited biosynthetic mutant seeds but not a signaling mutant. Hormone analysis revealed that strigolactones alleviate thermoinhibition by modulating levels of the two plant hormones, GA and ABA. We also showed that GR24 was able to counteract secondary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde island (Cvi). Systematic hormone analysis of germinating Striga helmonthica seeds suggested a common mechanism between the parasitic and non-parasitic seeds with respect to how hormones regulate germination. Thus, our simple assay system using Arabidopsis thermoinhibition allows comparisons to determine similarities and differences between parasitic plants and model experimental systems for the use of strigolactones. PMID:22173099

Toh, Shigeo; Kamiya, Yuji; Kawakami, Naoto; Nambara, Eiji; McCourt, Peter; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro

2012-01-01

78

Allelopathy due to purine alkaloids in tea seeds during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  During imbibition of whole tea seeds (6 days) two purine alkaloids, caffeine and theobromine, did not decrease in the seed\\u000a coats and there was no increase in the seeds. In parallel with and after the breaking of seed coats there was a gradual release\\u000a of caffeine from coats of germinating seeds. By contrast, when the seed was freed from the

T. Suzuki; G. R. Waller

1987-01-01

79

Recovery and Germination of Grass Seeds Ingested by Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of bluebunch wheatgrass (Psuedoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Love) and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda Presl.) were fed to Holstein heifers in different amounts to investigate the effects of seed feeding level and seed size on the recovery and germinability of passed seed. Animals were fed 60,000, 30,000,15,000, and 7,500 seeds of each species. Passed seeds were recovered from dungcollected daily

Ferhat Gokbulak

2006-01-01

80

Effects of Gut Passage, Feces, and Seed Handling on Latency and Rate of Germination in Seeds Consumed by  

E-print Network

Effects of Gut Passage, Feces, and Seed Handling on Latency and Rate of Germination in Seeds, and germination rates of 18 species consumed by capuchins. For five of the most commonly swallowed seed species, we determined germination rates and average time to germination (latency) for seeds ingested

Fedigan, Linda M.

81

Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs  

SciTech Connect

Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

2002-06-01

82

Seed Germination of Gastrodia elata Using Symbiotic Fungi, Mycena osmundicola  

PubMed Central

The germination rate and longevity of seeds of Gastrodia elata Blume have been observed for 48 weeks using Mycena osmundicola strain H-21, one of fungi stimulating seed germination. Storage condition of post-harvest seeds was observed in the different temperature ranges of -30?, -5?, 5? and 30? for 48 weeks. After storage period of 48 weeks, the germination rate of G. elata was 65.7% at 5? and 71.6% at -5?, respectively. Although the germination rate of G. elata was 77.3% for 11 weeks at 25?, the germination rate had been decreased gradually to 49.3% at 13 weeks, 0.3% at 23 weeks and then 0% at 25 weeks. The germination rate was reached to the level of 10% for 2 weeks at -30? and then decreased to 0%. PMID:24039475

Kim, Yong-Il; Chang, Kwang-Joon; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Hur, Hyeon; Hong, In-Pyo; Shim, Jae-Ouk; Lee, Tae-Soo; Lee, Ji-Yul

2006-01-01

83

In vitro germination of cherimoya ( Annona cherimola Mill.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro germination procedure for cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) seeds, cv. ‘Fino de Jete’, is described. Intact seeds were sterilized and soaked for 24h and subsequently cultured in the dark at 30°C, on paper bridges in liquid medium supplemented with 8.67?M gibberellic acid. With this procedure, on average more than 80% of the seeds germinated after 6 weeks all

I. M. G Padilla; C. L Encina

2003-01-01

84

Germination of Cynara seeds ; effect of light and temperature and function of the endosperm  

E-print Network

Germination of Cynara seeds ; effect of light and temperature and function of the endosperm Yehuda SUMMARY The germination behaviour of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) seeds is described. Germination of this tissue did not affect subsequent germination at 20° of seeds which previously failed to germinate at 30

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

SEED HYDRATION-DEHYDRATION IN AN ALLELOCHEMICAL AFFECTS SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coumarin is an allelochemical widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Several researchers have reported that, depending on the concentration, this plant compound inhibits or delays germination, and will inhibit or stunt radicle elongation. However, the seed germination and seedling growth...

86

Proteomic insights into seed germination in response to environmental factors.  

PubMed

Seed germination is a critical process in the life cycle of higher plants. During germination, the imbibed mature seed is highly sensitive to different environmental factors.However, knowledge about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the environmental effects on germination has been lacking. Recent proteomic work has provided invaluable insight into the molecular processes in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zeamays), tea (Camellia sinensis), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) under different treatments including metal ions (e.g. copper and cadmium), drought, low temperature, hormones, and chemicals (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ?-amanitin), as well as Fusarium graminearum infection. A total of 561 environmental factor-responsive proteins have been identified with various expression patterns in germinating seeds. The data highlight diverse regulatory and metabolic mechanisms upon seed germination, including induction of environmental factor-responsive signaling pathways, seed storage reserve mobilization and utilization, enhancement of DNA repair and modification, regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis, modulation of cell structure, and cell defense. In this review, we summarize the interesting findings and discuss the relevance and significance for our understanding of environmental regulation of seed germination. PMID:23986916

Tan, Longyan; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Tai; Dai, Shaojun

2013-06-01

87

Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.  

PubMed

Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar. PMID:21565777

Tatár, S

2010-01-01

88

Stratifying, partially redrying and storing Douglas-fir seeds : effects on growth and physiology during germination  

E-print Network

during germination * Marlene DE MATOS MALAVASI, and D.P. LAVEN Susan G. STAFFORD ERD.P. LAVENDER tment the germination percentage of interior-source seeds but hastened germination speed for seeds from both sources seed vigor, as reflected by germination speed and seedling length and dry weight, yet redried seeds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Volatile Metabolites Controlling Germination in Buried Weed Seeds  

PubMed Central

Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea [L.] Roth), and wild mustard (Brassica kaber [D.C.] L. C. Wheeler) seeds exhibited decreased germination with increased planting depth in soil. Flushing the soil for 2 minutes each day with air overcame the inhibition. A sealed in vitro system was used to sample the volatile components produced by weed seeds. Inhibition of seed germination was accompanied by decreased O2 levels and production of volatile metabolites identified as acetaldehyde, ethanol, and acetone. The effectiveness of these compounds in reducing germination was dependent on O2 levels. PMID:16658159

Holm, Robert E.

1972-01-01

90

MATURITY AND TEMPERATURE AFFECTS THE GERMINATION OF STYRAX JAPONICUS SEEDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of seed maturity, warm (18oC) or cold (5.5oC) temperature, and gibberellic acid (GA3) on seed germination of Styrax japonicus Sieb. et. Zucc was investigated. Seed maturity and morphological changes were observed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI). Fruits harvested on July 22,...

91

Tansley review Seed dormancy and the control of germination  

E-print Network

(GA), scarification, and various technologies for seed enhancement like priming (Benech-Arnold, 2004; Halmer, 2004). However, while seed enhancements like priming may overcome dormancy to improveTansley review Seed dormancy and the control of germination William E. Finch-Savage1 and Gerhard

Leubner, Gerhard

92

Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

Stallings, William M.

1993-01-01

93

Seed germination and root elongation as indicators of exposure of wetland seedlings to metals  

SciTech Connect

Wetland ecosystems have often been impacted by the addition of hazardous waste materials. Methods are needed to evaluate the effect of these substances on wetland ecosystems and the organisms within them. This study evaluates the response of various wetland plant species to representative contaminants (cadmium, nickel, atrazine, anthracene, and tetrachloroethylene). Species tested include Caphalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush), Saururus cernuus (lizard`s tail), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Sparganium americanum (bur-reed), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash). To the authors` knowledge these species have rarely if ever been used in toxicological assays. The endpoints used are germination and root elongation. Preliminary studies using a petri dish system have shown decreased germination at the highest metal concentration (50mg/L) and decreased root elongation in the higher metal concentrations (10, 25, and 50mg/L). Interference from the carrier was observed in the organic tests. Root elongation studies using the metals are being continued using tubes with various sand and vermiculite mixes into which freshly germinated seeds are placed. Species with the best responses will be tested in the field at the Savannah River Site, SC, and also with fuel oil. Lettuce (Lactuca saliva) and radish (Raphanus sativus) are being tested alongside the wetland species as reference organisms for which tests are well established.

Sutton, H.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hook, D.D.; Klaine, S.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

94

Seed dormancy and germination—emerging mechanisms and new hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Seed dormancy has played a significant role in adaptation and evolution of seed plants. While its biological significance is clear, molecular mechanisms underlying seed dormancy induction, maintenance and alleviation still remain elusive. Intensive efforts have been made to investigate gibberellin and abscisic acid metabolism in seeds, which greatly contributed to the current understanding of seed dormancy mechanisms. Other mechanisms, which might be independent of hormones, or specific to the seed dormancy pathway, are also emerging from genetic analysis of “seed dormancy mutants.” These studies suggest that chromatin remodeling through histone ubiquitination, methylation and acetylation, which could lead to transcription elongation or gene silencing, may play a significant role in seed dormancy regulation. Small interfering RNA and/or long non-coding RNA might be a trigger of epigenetic changes at the seed dormancy or germination loci, such as DELAY OF GERMINATION1. While new mechanisms are emerging from genetic studies of seed dormancy, novel hypotheses are also generated from seed germination studies with high throughput gene expression analysis. Recent studies on tissue-specific gene expression in tomato and Arabidopsis seeds, which suggested possible “mechanosensing” in the regulatory mechanisms, advanced our understanding of embryo-endosperm interaction and have potential to re-draw the traditional hypotheses or integrate them into a comprehensive scheme. The progress in basic seed science will enable knowledge translation, another frontier of research to be expanded for food and fuel production. PMID:24904627

Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

95

Ecological genetics of seed germination regulation in Bromus tectorum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of seed germination phenology is an important aspect of the life history strategy of invading annual plant species.\\u000a In the obligately selfing winter annual grass Bromus tectorum, seeds are at least conditionally dormant at dispersal in early summer and lose dormancy through dry-afterripening. Patterns\\u000a of germination response at dispersal vary among populations and sometimes across years within populations. To

Susan E. Meyer; Phil S. Allen

1999-01-01

96

Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Response during Arabidopsis Seed Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hormone-mediated control of plant growth and development involves both synthesis and response. Previous studies have shown that gibberellin (GA) plays an essential role in Arabidopsis seed germination. To learn how GA stimulates seed germination, we performed comprehensive analyses of GA biosynthesis and response using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray analysis. In addition, spatial correlations between GA biosynthe-

Mikihiro Ogawa; Atsushi Hanada; Yukika Yamauchi; Ayuko Kuwahara; Yuji Kamiya; Shinjiro Yamaguchi

2003-01-01

97

G Protein Signaling in the Regulation of Arabidopsis Seed Germination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seed germination and early seedling growth are regulated by an intricate network of hormonal signaling pathways. The plant hormones gibberellic acid (GA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) are important positive regulators of these processes, whereas the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a potent negative regulator. In Arabidopsis, analysis of mutant plants has implicated heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) components in regulation of seed germination by all three of these hormones.

Sarah M. Assmann (Penn State University; Biology Department REV)

2005-11-01

98

Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and down-regulation) of 74 proteins were observed during germination sensu stricto (i.e. prior to radicle emergence) and the

Karine Gallardo; Claudette Job; Steven P. C. Groot; Magda Puype; Hans Demol; Joel Vandekerckhove; Dominique Job

2001-01-01

99

Methods toward improving 'Grande Rio 66' pepper seed germination  

E-print Network

METHODS TOWARD IMPROVING 'GRANDE RIO 66' PEPPER SEED GERMINATION A Thesis by BARBARA ANNA ROGERS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1980 Major Subject: Horticulture METHODS TONARD IMPROVING 'GRANDE RIO 66' PEPPER SEED GERMINATION A Thesis by BARBARA ANNA ROGERS Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of epartment em er Member May 1980 ABSTRACT...

Rogers, Barbara Anna

1980-01-01

100

Seed Priming Effects on Germination, Growth and Yield of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient seedling stand establishment is one of the major obstacles for achieving potential yield of dry direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, seed priming technique was explored for improving germination and crop performance of dry direct-seeded rice. Seed-priming treatments used during the investigation included untreated control, hydro-priming, water hardening, and osmo-hardening with KCl. Priming reduced mean germination

G. Mahajan; R. S. Sarlach; S. Japinder; M. S. Gill

2011-01-01

101

Protocol to Sterilize & Charcoal-Germinate Maize Seeds 1 PROTOCOL TO STERILIZE AND CHARCHOAL-GERMINATE MAIZE SEEDS  

E-print Network

Protocol to Sterilize & Charcoal-Germinate Maize Seeds 1 PROTOCOL TO STERILIZE AND CHARCHOAL plates De-colorizing charcoal (Acros Organics) available from Fisher, Catalog # AC17153-0010 Materials: Autoclaved forceps and spoon (for scooping charcoal) *Prior to germination, autoclave forceps, spoon

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

102

Trace gas emissions and smoke-induced seed germination  

SciTech Connect

Dormant seeds of a California chaparral annual were induced to germinate by smoke or paper. Nitrogen oxides induced 100 percent vapors emitted from smoke-treated sand or treated water samples inducing. Smoke germination in a manner similar to smoke germination were comparable in acidity and concentration of nitrate and nitrite to nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2})-treated samples. Vapors from smoke-treated and NO{sub 2}-treated filter paper had comparable NO{sub 2} flux rates. Chaparral wildfires generate sufficient nitrogen oxides from combustion of organic matter or from postfire biogenic nitrification to trigger germination of Emmerianthe penduliflora. Nitrogen oxide-triggered germination is not the result of changes in imbibition, as is the case with heat stimulated seeds.

Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J. [Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-05-23

103

TISSUE-SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS EXPRESSED IN GERMINATING ARABIDOPSIS SEEDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple regulatory protein genes expressed in germinating Arabidopsis seeds were identified by screening Arabidopsis enhancer-trap lines (Thomas Jack lines, 1,130 pools of 10 lines, CS31086, Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center) for '-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression in seeds. The ide...

104

Seed germination ecology of the aquatic winter annual Hottonia inflata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly collected seeds of Hottonia inflata were buried in soil under flooded conditions in May 1991 and exposed to seasonal temperature cycles for 39 months. Seeds were exhumed at 1-, 2- or 4-month intervals and tested for germination on moist sand in light (14 h daily photoperiod) and in continuous darkness under 1212 h thermoperiods of 156, 2010, 2515, 3015

Carol C. Baskin; Jerry M. Baskin; Edward W. Chester

1996-01-01

105

Action of plant growth regulators and salinity on seed germination of Ceratoides lanata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell is a shrub with numerous annual branchlets from the family Chenopodiaceae and is widely distributed in brackish water playas of northern Utah. Seeds had no dormancy, and about 90% of the seeds germinated in nonsaline control. Seed germination decreased with the increase in salinity, and more than 10% of the seeds germinated at 900 mmol\\/L

M. Ajmal Khan; Bilquees Gul; Darrell J. Weber

2004-01-01

106

Seed longevity and fire: germination responses of an exotic perennial herb in NW Patagonian grasslands (Argentina).  

PubMed

Fire affects grassland composition by selectively influencing recruitment. Some exotic species can increase their abundance as a consequence of fire-stimulated seed germination, but response may depend on seed age. Rumex acetosella L. (Polygonaceae, sheep's sorrel) is a cosmopolitan herb that has invaded NW Patagonia's grasslands. This species forms persistent soil seed banks and increases after disturbances, particularly fire. We studied how fire and seed longevity influence R. acetosella germination. In 2008, we conducted laboratory experiments where we exposed different-aged seeds (up to 19 years old) to heat, smoke, charcoal, ash and control treatments. Total percentage germination and mean germination time depended on both seed age and fire treatment. Germination of younger seeds decreased with increasing temperature. There was no general pattern in germination responses of different-aged seeds to smoke, charcoal and ash. While smoke improved the germination of fresh seeds, charcoal decreased germination. Germination of untreated seeds was negatively correlated with seed age, and mean germination time increased with seed age. In most treatments, fresh seeds had lower germination than 1-5-year-old seeds, indicating an after-ripening requirement. Smoke stimulates R. acetosella germination, causing successful recruitment during post-fire conditions. Fresh seeds are particularly responsive to fire factors, possibly because they have not experienced physical degradation and are more receptive to environmental stimuli. Knowing the colonisation potential from the soil seed bank of this species during post-fire conditions will allow us to predict their impact on native communities. PMID:21973326

Franzese, J; Ghermandi, L

2011-11-01

107

Repression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR10 by microRNA160 is critical for seed germination and  

E-print Network

Repression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR10 by microRNA160 is critical for seed germination and post-germination important roles in seed germination and post-germination. Transgenic plants expressing an miR160-resistant sensu stricto germination and post-germination, mARF10 mutant seeds and plants were hypersensitive

Montgomery, Tai

108

Storage in cerrado soil and germination of Psychotria vellosiana (Rubiaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

The regeneration of plant communities from seed depends, to a large extent, on the capacity of the seed remaining viable in the soil. The viability and germination of artificially buried Psychotria vellosiana seeds in cerrado soil were studied, with the purpose of discovering some physio-ecological aspects of dispersed seeds and evaluating their potential to constitute a soil seed bank. Seed samples were placed in nylon envelopes and buried in the soil of a Cerrado reserve at two different depths and sites. Buried seeds were retrieved periodically and tested for germination along with dry-stored seeds. In general, there was a reduction in seed germination with storage time, both in soil and dry stored conditions, and in some assays exhumed seeds germinated faster than dry stored ones. In general the soil storage favoured seed viability of ungerminated seeds as compared to dry stored ones, with the seeds remaining partially viable after 10 months of storage. The lack of germination of viable seeds suggests that seeds showed true dormancy and/or required an extended time to germinate. It was observed that some seeds had germinated while buried and such in situ germination tended to increase with rainfall. The water availability in the soil might be a limiting factor for successful germination of P. vellosiana in the field, and the seeds may constitute a persistent soil seed bank in the cerrado as dispersed seeds remain viable in the soil until the following period of seed dispersal. PMID:16906303

Araújo, C G; Cardoso, V J M

2006-05-01

109

CONSERVED AND DIVERGENT TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF SEED GERMINATION, AND THE REGULATORY ROLES OF GIBBERELLIN AND ABSCISIC ACID IN BARLEY GERMINATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination and early seedling growth is a complex biological process requiring closely coordinated expression of numerous genes and pathways. Gibberellin and abscisic acid play central roles in regulating seed germination. To gain insight into the global transcriptional control of seed germina...

110

Seed germination of five mountain steppe species of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data on the germination traits of five perennials (Allium polyrrhizum, Agropyron cristatum, Arenaria meyeri, Artemisia frigida and Artemisia santolinifolia) widespread in the mountain steppes of southern Mongolia. Germination and seed viability were assessed at three alternate temperatures (8\\/4°C, 20\\/10°C, 32\\/20°C), three levels of osmotic stress (deionized water; ?0.5MPa, ?1MPa Mannitol solution), and under conditions of alternate light\\/darkness

K. Ronnenberg; K. Wesche; M. Pietsch; I. Hensen

2007-01-01

111

Intrapopulation variation in Abutilon theophrasti seed mass and its relationship to seed germinability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between seed mass variation and germinability in ten Abutilon theophrasti Medic. plants from a single agricultural population was examined under controlled environmental conditions. Seeds were collected in the autumn of 1995 and dry-stored in paper bags at 4°C until the start of trials in the spring of 1998. For each plant, between 549 and 1000 randomly selected seeds

Hameed A. Baloch; Antonio DiTommaso; Alan K. Watson

2001-01-01

112

Oxygen Consumption by Germinating Seeds Advisor: Dr. Neil Budko (n.v.budko@tudelft.nl)  

E-print Network

Oxygen Consumption by Germinating Seeds Advisor: Dr. Neil Budko (n.v.budko@tudelft.nl) Problem) by the Fytagoras B.V. (Leiden): "Seed germination in most seeds depends on the availability of oxygen. Living seeds commences. The availability of oxygen to the embryo in the seed depends on the oxygen concentration around

Vuik, Kees

113

Seasonal pattern of germination and seed longevity in the invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum  

E-print Network

Seasonal pattern of germination and seed longevity in the invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum., Pysek P., Pergl J., Perglová I. & Jarosík V. (2006): Seasonal pattern of germination and seed longevity temperature regimes and dry storage on germination of H. mantegazzianum (Apiaceae, native to Caucasus) seeds

Kratochvíl, Lukas

114

Concentration and localization of zinc during seed development and germination in wheat  

E-print Network

Concentration and localization of zinc during seed development and germination in wheat Levent during germination, and (3) develop a rapid visual Zn screening method for seed and flour samples. In all- nantly located in the embryo and aleurone parts of the seeds. After 36 h of germination, the coleoptile

Yanikoglu, Berrin

115

Abstract. Increased ethylene evolution accompanies seed germination of many species including Pisum  

E-print Network

Abstract. Increased ethylene evolution accompanies seed germination of many species including Pisum and embryonic axis of germinating pea seeds. An early onset and sequential induction of ACC biosynthesis when radicle emergence was just complete. Treatment of germinating seeds with ethylene alone

Leubner, Gerhard

116

Distinct expression patterns of -1,3-glucanases and chitinases during the germination of Solanaceous seeds  

E-print Network

Distinct expression patterns of -1,3-glucanases and chitinases during the germination patterns of -1,3-glucanases ( Glu) and chitinases (Chn) were investigated during the seed germination during the germination of Cestroideae- type seeds. Glu accumulation in imbibed Cestroideae- type seeds

Leubner, Gerhard

117

7 CFR 201.29 - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound or less.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29 Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...containers of 1 pound or less which have a germination equal to or better than the...

2013-01-01

118

Effect of seed passage through vertebrate frugivores' guts on germination: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of seeds to germinate after ingestion by frugivores is important for the population dynamics of some plant species and significant for the evolution of plant-frugivore interactions. In this paper the effects of different vertebrates on seed germination of nearly 200 plant species are reviewed, searching for patterns that predict the circumstances in which germination of seeds is enhanced,

Anna Traveset

1998-01-01

119

7 CFR 201.29 - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound or less.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29 Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...containers of 1 pound or less which have a germination equal to or better than the...

2014-01-01

120

7 CFR 201.29 - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound or less.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29 Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...containers of 1 pound or less which have a germination equal to or better than the...

2010-01-01

121

7 CFR 201.29 - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound or less.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29 Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...containers of 1 pound or less which have a germination equal to or better than the...

2011-01-01

122

7 CFR 201.29 - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound or less.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29 Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1...containers of 1 pound or less which have a germination equal to or better than the...

2012-01-01

123

Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7 plays a role in seed germination.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7 (Atnudt7) mutants exhibit reduced seed germination phenotype following after-ripening. The role of AtNUDT7 in seeds and during early stages of imbibition was examined. Seeds of Atnudt7-1 and Col-0 following 3 days of imbibition were used to profile changes in NADH- and ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase enzyme activities, expression of nudix family genes closely related to AtNudt7, and AtNUDT7 protein levels. Changes in pyridine nucleotides, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species and poly(ADP-ribose) levels in after-ripened seeds and 1 day after imbibition were also analyzed. Changes in AtNUDT7 gene expression, protein levels and enzyme activities in WT seeds and during early stages of imbibition were correlated. Atnudt7-1 seeds lacked NADH pyrophosphohydrolase activity that led to very high catabolic redox charge. Abscisic acid (ABA) levels were higher in Atnudt7-1 mutant while salicylic acid, gibberellic acid, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were higher in WT seeds. In Atnudt7-1, there was excess ROS accumulation 1 day after imbibition. PAR levels were significantly higher in Atnudt7-1 mutant when compared to WT during imbibition. Based on these observations, we conclude NADH pyrophosphohydrolase activity conferred by AtNUDT7 is important for NAD:NADH homeostasis in seeds. Perturbations to this key redox couple alter ABA and ROS levels in the seeds that in turn lowers germination. PMID:24504697

Zeng, Xin; Li, Yong-Fang; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

2014-05-01

124

Accumulation and degradation of thiamin-binding protein and level of thiamin in wheat seeds during seed maturation and germination.  

PubMed

Changes in the levels of thiamin-binding globulin and thiamin in wheat seeds during maturation and germination were studied. The thiamin-binding activity of the seed proteins increased with seed development after flowering. The thiamin content of the seeds also increased with development. Thiamin-binding activity decreased during seed germination. On the other hand, immunological analysis using an antibody directed against the thiamin-binding protein isolated from wheat seeds showed that the thiamin-binding globulin accumulated in the aleurone layer of the seeds during maturation, and then the protein was degraded and disappeared during seed germination. These results suggested that the thiamin-binding globulin of wheat seeds was synthesized and accumulated in the aleurone layer of the seeds with seed development, similar to the thiamin-binding albumin in sesame seeds, and that thiamin bound to the thiamin-binding globulin in the dormant wheat seeds for germ growth during germination. PMID:15215587

Watanabe, Katsumi; Nishida, Naoko; Adachi, Takashi; Ueda, Motoko; Mitsunaga, Toshio; Kawamura, Yukio

2004-06-01

125

Mycoheterotrophic germination of Pyrola asarifolia dust seeds reveals convergences with germination in orchids.  

PubMed

Dust seeds that germinate by obtaining nutrients from symbiotic fungi have evolved independently in orchids and 11 other plant lineages. The fungi involved in this 'mycoheterotrophic' germination have been identified in some orchids and non-photosynthetic Ericaceae, and proved identical to mycorrhizal fungi of adult plants. We investigated a third lineage, the Pyroleae, chlorophyllous Ericaceae species whose partial mycoheterotrophy at adulthood has recently attracted much attention. We observed experimental Pyrola asarifolia germination at four Japanese sites and investigated the germination pattern and symbiotic fungi, which we compared to mycorrhizal fungi of adult plants. Adult P. asarifolia, like other Pyroleae, associated with diverse fungal species that were a subset of those mycorrhizal on surrounding trees. Conversely, seedlings specifically associated with a lineage of Sebacinales clade B (endophytic Basidiomycetes) revealed an intriguing evolutionary convergence with orchids, some of which also germinate with Sebacinales clade B. Congruently, seedlings clustered spatially together, but not with adults. This unexpected transition in specificity and ecology of partners could support the developmental transition from full to partial mycoheterotrophy, but probably challenges survival and distribution during development. We discuss the physiological and ecological traits that predisposed to the repeated recruitment of Sebacinales clade B for dust seed germination. PMID:22642263

Hashimoto, Yasushi; Fukukawa, Satoru; Kunishi, Ayako; Suga, Haruhisa; Richard, Franck; Sauve, Mathieu; Selosse, Marc-André

2012-08-01

126

Chaparral & Fire Ecology: Role of Fire in Seed Germination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity that incorporates the concepts of plant structure and function and ecology is described. Students investigate the reasons why some California chaparral seeds germinate only after a fire has burned the surrounding chaparral. The procedure, discussion and analysis questions, expected results, potential problems, and additional activities…

Steele, Nancy L. C.; Keeley, Jon E.

1991-01-01

127

Sulfur dioxide effects on petunia pollen germination and seed set  

SciTech Connect

Information pertaining to SO/sub 2/ effects on sexual reproduction is extremely limited even though this complex process is critical especially in annual species. This study reports the SO/sub 2/ effect on both in vitro and in vivo pollen germination characteristics and in vivo seed set in Petunia hybrida Vilm.

Linskens, H.F.; van Megen, Y.; Pfahler, P.L.; Wilcox, M.

1985-05-01

128

Response of soybean seed germination to cadmium and acid rain.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) pollution and acid rain are the main environmental issues, and they often occur in the same agricultural region. Nevertheless, up to now, little information on the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain action on crops were presented. Here, we investigated the combined effect of Cd(2+) and acid rain on the seed germination of soybean. The results indicated that the single treatment with the low level of Cd(2+) (0.18, 1.0, 3.0 mg L(-1)) or acid rain (pH ?3.0) could not affect the seed germination of soybean, which was resulted in the increased activities of peroxidase and catalase. The single treatment with the high concentration of Cd(2+) (>6 mg L(-1)) or acid rain at pH 2.5 decreased the activities of peroxidase and catalase, damaged the cell membrane and then decreased the seed germination of soybean. Meanwhile, the same toxic effect was observed in the combined treatment with Cd(2+) and acid rain, and the combined treatment had more toxic effect than the single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain. Thus, the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain had more potential threat to the seed germination of soybean than the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain. PMID:21479540

Liu, Ting Ting; Wu, Peng; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing

2011-12-01

129

Interspecific Variations in Seed Germination of Corylopsis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was initiated to investigate the difference in germination pattern between C. coreana Uyeki and C. sinensis var. calvescens Rehder & E. H. Wilson responding to a warm (WS) and cold stratification (CS), and to study the effect of different WS temperatures interacting with different duratio...

130

[Grain filling dynamics and germination characteristics of Bupleurum chinense seeds].  

PubMed

Bupleurum chinense used in the study were cultivated in the experimental fields of Gansu agricultural University for three years. The seeds of B. chinense were collected every 3 days 10 d after the blossom. The result showed that the 1 000-grain fresh weight reached the maximum 43 d after the blossom and then decreased rapidly, at the mature period the fresh weight of seeds were falling to the same level of the dry weight. The dynamic change of the grain dry matter accumulation showed as an S-shape curve, the rapid increase stage was 25-34 d following the flower, and the grain filling was ended 46 d after blossom. Grain filling rate was under the law "fast-slow-fast-slow". And there were two peaks of grain filling rate appeared, after reached the second peak 28 d after the flower the filling rate decreased rapidly and stayed steadily 43 d after flowering. The dehydration rate was also measured at its maximum 43 d following flower. The indexes of seeds all reached the top 52 days following the blossom, when the germination rate reached the peak (34.33%) and water content of seeds was near 10%. The rate of germination and the 1 000-graid weight of seed showed significant positive correlation, while the water content of seeds was found significant negatively correlation with germination percentage. So the best time for harvest should be 52 d after flowering (9 month), the seeds collected at that time showed both high quality and germination rate. PMID:25612430

Jin, Xin; Ren, Bing; Cao, Ai-Nong; Jin, Xiao-Jun

2014-10-01

131

Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

2012-07-01

132

Effect of cadmium on germination, amylases and rate of respiration of germinating pea seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of embryonic axis of germinating pea seeds (Pisum sativum cv. Bonneville) was significantly inhibited by as low as 0.25 mM cadmium and the elongation of the radicle was affected more severely than that of the plumule. Total amylolytic activity, as well as activities of ?- and ?-amylases, diminished progressively with increasing concentrations of the metal in the media. The

L. K. Chugh; S. K. Sawhney

1996-01-01

133

Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

2013-11-01

134

Methods to Promote Germination of Dormant Setaria viridis Seeds  

PubMed Central

Setaria viridis has recently emerged as a promising genetic model system to study diverse aspects of monocot biology. While the post-germination life cycle of S. viridis is approximately 8 weeks long, the prolonged dormancy of freshly harvested seeds can more than double the total time required between successive generations. Here we describe methods that promote seed germination in S. viridis. Our results demonstrate that treating S. viridis seeds with liquid smoke or a GA3 and KNO3 solution improves germination rates to 90% or higher even in seeds that are 6 days post-harvest with similar results obtained whether seeds are planted in soil or on gel-based media. Importantly, we show that these treatments have no significant effect on the growth of the adult plant. We have tested these treatments on diverse S. viridis accessions and show variation in their response. The methods described here will help advance research using this model grass species by increasing the pace at which successive generations of plants can be analyzed. PMID:24748008

Sebastian, Jose; Wong, Mandy Ka; Tang, Evan; Dinneny, José R.

2014-01-01

135

Methods to promote germination of dormant Setaria viridis seeds.  

PubMed

Setaria viridis has recently emerged as a promising genetic model system to study diverse aspects of monocot biology. While the post-germination life cycle of S. viridis is approximately 8 weeks long, the prolonged dormancy of freshly harvested seeds can more than double the total time required between successive generations. Here we describe methods that promote seed germination in S. viridis. Our results demonstrate that treating S. viridis seeds with liquid smoke or a GA3 and KNO3 solution improves germination rates to 90% or higher even in seeds that are 6 days post-harvest with similar results obtained whether seeds are planted in soil or on gel-based media. Importantly, we show that these treatments have no significant effect on the growth of the adult plant. We have tested these treatments on diverse S. viridis accessions and show variation in their response. The methods described here will help advance research using this model grass species by increasing the pace at which successive generations of plants can be analyzed. PMID:24748008

Sebastian, Jose; Wong, Mandy Ka; Tang, Evan; Dinneny, José R

2014-01-01

136

Interactions of Light and a Temperature Shift on Seed Germination  

PubMed Central

Germination of Rumex obtusifolius L. seeds is potentiated to an observable degree in 2 minutes by a single shift in temperature from 20 to 35 C. Half-maximal potentiation requires less than 32 minutes at the higher temperature. Similar sensitivities to shifts in temperature were observed for seeds of Barbarea vulgaris, R.Br. B. verna (Mill.) Asch., and Lepidium virginicum L. A shift in temperature interacts strongly with change in form of phytochrome induced by light on germination of the four kinds of seeds. The potentiated effects for R. obtusifolius are only moderately affected by 40 ?m cycloheximide. Both the temperature shift and light actions are apparently independent of processes of synthesis necessary for growth. PMID:16657910

Taylorson, R. B.; Hendricks, S. B.

1972-01-01

137

Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation.  

PubMed

Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Jianyexianfeng No. 1') seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (P < 0.05) in abundance in at least one germination treatment. Nineteen proteins increasing and one protein decreasing in abundance during germination had higher abundance in germinated 15°C, 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, and 25°C in KNO3 seeds than in ungerminated 25°C seeds. Gene expression of 12 of those proteins correlated well with the protein accumulation. Methionine metabolism, ethylene production, lipid mobilization, cell elongation, and detoxification of aldehydes were revealed to be potentially related to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. PMID:25736209

Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

2015-04-01

138

Allelopathic interactions of resident tussock grassland species on germination of oversown seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of freeze-dried shoot and fresh root-soil materials from several tussock grassland species on the germination of seed of white clover, red clover, lucerne, lotus, browntop, chewings fescue, and cocksfoot were compared.Most materials markedly depressed germination of grass seed, but promoted or depressed germination of legume seed.Raoulia spp. promoted germination most, and Trifolium spp., Anthoxanthum odoratum, and Poa laevis depressed

D. Scott

1975-01-01

139

Teaching Through Trade Books: Secrets of Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From a tiny radish seed to a giant coconut, seeds come in a multitude of shapes and sizes. They all share one amazing secret: the potential to grow into a new plant when conditions are right. In this month's column, students observe a variety of seeds, match seeds to the plants they grow into, explore what seeds need to germinate and grow, and design investigations with seeds.

Emily Morgan

2009-02-01

140

Effect of day length on germination of seeds collected in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Day length control can effectively limit seed germination to favorable seasons, but this phenomenon has been studied in relatively few wild plants. I tested species from interior Alaska for day length control of germination under controlled conditions, and I also monitored germination phenology in natural habitats. Unstratified and cold-stratified seeds were germinated on short (13 h) and long (22 h) day length and in the dark at constant and alternating temperatures. On long day length, unstratified Ledum decumbens and Saxifraga tricuspidata seeds germinated from 5??C to 20??C, but on short day length few or no seeds germinated at 5??C and 10??C and germination was reduced at higher temperatures. Unstratified seeds of Diapensia lapponica and Chamaedaphne calyculata germinated only at 15??C and 20??C on long day length, and short day length completely inhibited germination. Cold stratification widened the temperature range for germination on both long and short day lengths, but germination was still lower on short than long day length. Germination phenology in natural habitats was consistent with germination in controlled conditions. In these species, short day length and low temperatures interact to inhibit germination in the fall. After overwintering, seeds germinate in the spring at low temperatures and on long day lengths. The inhibitory effect of short day length is not important in the spring because day length is already long at snowmelt.

Densmore, R.V.

1997-01-01

141

A simulation model for seasonal changes in dormancy and germination of weed seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model has been developed to simulate the annual dormancy cycle of seeds of light-requiring species in the seed bank and the germination of exhumed seeds after irradiation. Simulation of dormancy and germination is based on a physiological model concerning the action of phytochrome in the seed. Dormancy is related to the amount of a hypothetical phytochrome receptor, which fluctuates

L. M. Vleeshouwers; H. J. Bouwmeester

2001-01-01

142

Photoinhibition of germination in grass seed--implications for prairie revegetation.  

PubMed

Germination photoinhibition is not a recognized cause of revegetation failure; yet prolonged sunlight exposure can inhibit germination of several grass species. This research addressed susceptibility to photoinhibition of selected native grass species used to restore Canadian prairies, and reclamation treatments to alter environmental conditions in order to release seeds from photoinhibition. Under laboratory conditions effects of photoinhibition were tested on the ability of seeds to germinate at low water potential and effects of daily alternating temperatures and nitrates to break photoinhibition. Whether surficial mulch can release seeds from photoinhibition was assessed in a field experiment. Germination photoinhibition was evident in Festuca hallii and Koeleria macrantha seeds even under very low irradiances. The prolonged exposure to light decreased germination rates and ability of seeds to germinate at low water potentials. Daily fluctuating temperatures released a fraction of Bromus carinatus and Elymus trachycaulus seeds from photoinhibition yet did not improve F. hallii or K. macrantha germinability. Nitrates failed to break seed photoinhibition in all species tested. In the field experiment, mulched F. hallii seeds (covered with an erosion control blanket) showed a tenfold increase in germination percentages relative to seeds exposed to direct sunlight, indicating the facilitative effects of mulching on attenuation of the light environment. We conclude that germination photoinhibition as a cause of emergence failures in land reclamation where seed is broadcast or shallow seeded should be recognized and germination photoinhibition included in the decision making process to select revegetation seeding techniques. PMID:24794519

Mollard, Federico P O; Naeth, M Anne

2014-09-01

143

Carbonhydrate Content and Root Growth in Seeds Germinated Under Salt Stress: Implications for Seed Conditioning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugars and sugar alcohols have well documented roles in salt tolerance in whole plants and maturing seeds. Less is known, however, about possible effects of these compounds during germination. Seeds from mannitol-accumulating salt-tolerant celery [Apium graveloens L. var. dulce (P. Mill.) DC], non...

144

Seed germination and life history syndromes in the California chaparral  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Syndromes are life history responses that are correlated to environmental regimes and are shared by a group of species (Stebbins, 1974). In the California chaparral there are two syndromes contrasted by the timing of seedling recruitment relative to wildfires. One syndrome, here called the fire-recruiter or refractory seed syndrome, includes species (both resprouting and non-resprouting) which share the feature that the timing of seedling establishment is specialized to the first rainy season after fire. Included are woody, suffrutescent and annual life forms but no geophytes have this syndrome. These species are linked by the characteristic that their seeds have a dormancy which is readily broken by environmental stimuli such as intense heat shock or chemicals leached from charred wood. Such seeds are referred to as “refractory” and dormancy, in some cases, is due to seed coat impermeability (such seeds are commonly called hardseeded), but in other cases the mechanism is unknown. Seeds of some may require cold stratification and/or light in addition to fire related stimuli. In the absence of fire related cues, a portion or all of a species’ seed pool remains dormant. Most have locally dispersed seeds that persist in the soil seed bank until the site burns. Dispersal of propagules is largely during spring and summer which facilitates the avoidance of flowering and fruiting during the summer and fall drought. Within a life form (e.g., shrub, suffrutescent, etc.), the seeds of these species have less mass than those of species with non-refractory seeds and this possibly reflects the environmental favorableness of the postfire environment for seedling establishment. Regardless of when fire occurs, germination is normally delayed until late winter or early spring. In the absence of fire, or other disturbance, opportunities for population expansion are largely lacking for species with this syndrome. The other syndrome, here called the fire-resister or non-refractory seed syndrome, includes species that are resilient to frequent fires (mostly by vegetative resprouting), but require fire-free periods for recruiting new seedlings. Included are shrubs, subshrubs, suffrutescents, lianas, geophytes and annuals. All are linked by the characteristic that their seeds germinate in the absence of cues related to wildfires. In many cases no form of seed dormancy is present and the seeds germinate soon after dispersal; consequently these species do not accumulate a persistent seed bank. Germination and seedling establishment is independent of fire and thus opportunities for population expansion are also independent of fire. The demographic pattern of seedling recruitment varies with the life form. For shrubs, seedling recruitment may be restricted to sites free of fire for periods of a hundred years or more. Recruitment appears to require relatively mesic conditions and this may account for the patchy distribution of these species within the matrix of relatively arid sites. Finding such sites has selected for propagules specialized for wind or animal dispersal; the majority are bird dispersed. These shrub species all disperse fruits in fall and winter and this may have been selected to take advantage of migratory birds as well as to time dispersal to the winter rains typical of the mediterranean-climate. Germination typically occurs within several weeks of the first fall or winter rains. Maturation of flowers and fruits during the summer and fall drought may account for the distribution of these species on more mesic sites. Seed mass of these species is large and this may have been selected to provide an advantage to seedlings establishing under the canopy of this dense shrub community.

Keeley, J.E.

1991-01-01

145

Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes.  

PubMed

In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic mechanisms play a regulatory role. Here, we demonstrate that the over-expression of chromatin remodeling ATPase genes (AtCHR12 or AtCHR23) reduced the frequency of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana up to 30% relative to the wild-type seeds. On the other hand, single loss-of-function mutations of the two genes did not affect seed germination. The reduction of germination in over-expressing mutants was more pronounced in stress conditions (salt or high temperature), showing the impact of the environment. Reduced germinations upon over-expression coincided with increased transcript levels of seed maturation genes and with reduced degradation of their mRNAs stored in dry seeds. Our results indicate that repression of AtCHR12/23 gene expression in germinating wild-type Arabidopsis seeds is required for full germination. This establishes a functional link between chromatin modifiers and regulatory networks towards seed maturation and germination. PMID:24839909

Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Folta, Adam; Muras, Aleksandra; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

2015-02-01

146

Protein mobilization in germinating mung bean seeds involves vacuolar sorting receptors and multivesicular bodies.  

PubMed

Plants accumulate and store proteins in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) during seed development and maturation. Upon seed germination, these storage proteins are mobilized to provide nutrients for seedling growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of protein degradation during seed germination. Here we test the hypothesis that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins play a role in mediating protein degradation in germinating seeds. We demonstrate that both VSR proteins and hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized de novo during mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed germination. Immunogold electron microscopy with VSR antibodies demonstrate that VSRs mainly locate to the peripheral membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), presumably as recycling receptors in day 1 germinating seeds, but become internalized to the MVB lumen, presumably for degradation at day 3 germination. Chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with VSR antibodies have identified the cysteine protease aleurain as a specific VSR-interacting protein in germinating seeds. Further confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrate that VSR and aleurain colocalize to MVBs as well as PSVs in germinating seeds. Thus, MVBs in germinating seeds exercise dual functions: as a storage compartment for proteases that are physically separated from PSVs in the mature seed and as an intermediate compartment for VSR-mediated delivery of proteases from the Golgi apparatus to the PSV for protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:17322331

Wang, Junqi; Li, Yubing; Lo, Sze Wan; Hillmer, Stefan; Sun, Samuel S M; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

2007-04-01

147

Water Uptake and Distribution in Germinating Tobacco Seeds Investigated in Vivo by Nuclear Magnetic  

E-print Network

Water Uptake and Distribution in Germinating Tobacco Seeds Investigated in Vivo by Nuclear Magnetic of germinating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seeds was studied spatially and temporally by in vivo 1 H and the radicle show the highest hydration. Germination of tobacco follows a distinct pattern of events: rupture

Leubner, Gerhard

148

Induction of Oxidative Stress by Sunflower Phytotoxins in Germinating Mustard Seeds  

E-print Network

Induction of Oxidative Stress by Sunflower Phytotoxins in Germinating Mustard Seeds Krystyna Oracz the phytotoxic effect of sunflower on physiological and biochemical processes during germination of mustard seeds germination, but only phytotoxins caused an increase in the cell membrane permeability, MDA level, H2O2

Leubner, Gerhard

149

Beyond gibberellins and abscisic acid: how ethylene and jasmonates control seed germination  

E-print Network

REVIEW Beyond gibberellins and abscisic acid: how ethylene and jasmonates control seed germination of a species in a particular ecosystem. Adaptation of germination to abiotic stresses and changing germination and acts as an antagonist of ABA. Far less is known about jasmonates in seeds for which we

Leubner, Gerhard

150

Germination and storage of recalcitrant seeds of some tropical forest tree species  

E-print Network

Germination and storage of recalcitrant seeds of some tropical forest tree species F. Corbineau D and Roberts, 1979). The aim of the present study was to analyze the germination of some recalci- trant seeds (Guttiferae) collected in the dense forest near Kourou, French Guiana. Germination tests were performed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Integration of light and abscisic acid signaling during seed germination and early seedling development  

E-print Network

Integration of light and abscisic acid signaling during seed germination and early seedling, The Netherlands, and approved January 31, 2008 (received for review November 13, 2007) Seed germination, and light. After germination, the young seedling must rapidly establish its root system

Deng, Xing-Wang

152

Aquatic Botany 66 (2000) 169180 Seed germination of two Everglades species, Cladium  

E-print Network

Aquatic Botany 66 (2000) 169­180 Seed germination of two Everglades species, Cladium jamaicense The germination requirements of Cladium jamaicense Crantz and Typha domingensis Pers. were studied under block design. The average incubation period needed for seeds to germinate was shorter for T. domingensis

Brix, Hans

2000-01-01

153

Seed Germination of Triglochin Maritima as Influenced by Salinity and Dormancy Relieving Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglochin maritima had only 40 % germination in distilled water, but germination was substantially enhanced when seeds were exposed to ethephon, fusicoccin, proline, kinetin, and thiourea. Also, the effect of low salinity on germination was alleviated by fusicoccin, kinetin, nitrate and thiourea, whereas, the reduction in germination at high salinity was partially countered by ethephon, kinetin, thiourea and nitrate.

M. A. Khan; I. A. Ungar

2001-01-01

154

The role of mallard ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos ) in distribution and germination of seeds of the submerged hydrophyte Najas marina L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of passage ofNajas marina L. seeds through the digestive system of the common mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) on their germinability was investigated. Most of the seeds (~70%), which were consumed by the birds were digested. However, germination of the remaining seeds was remarkably improved. Germination of seeds whose seed coats were mechanically cracked was also higher than

Moshe Agami; Yoav Waisel

1986-01-01

155

Effect of seed weight, light regime and substratum microsite on germination and seedling growth of Quercus semiserrata Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Quercus semiserrata Roxb. vary widely in weight, and can be classi- fied into small (<5 g), intermediate (5 to 8 g) and heavy (>8 g) classes. Heavy seeds contain greater reserves of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and energy than intermediate-weight and small seeds. Seed weight has a strong effect on germination. Heavy seeds germinate early and show better germination

M. L. KHAN; UMA SHANKAR

156

Seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum alleviates biotic, abiotic, and physiological stresses in germinating seeds and seedlings.  

PubMed

Trichoderma spp. are endophytic plant symbionts that are widely used as seed treatments to control diseases and to enhance plant growth and yield. Although some recent work has been published on their abilities to alleviate abiotic stresses, specific knowledge of mechanisms, abilities to control multiple plant stress factors, their effects on seed and seedlings is lacking. We examined the effects of seed treatment with T. harzianum strain T22 on germination of seed exposed to biotic stress (seed and seedling disease caused by Pythium ultimum) and abiotic stresses (osmotic, salinity, chilling, or heat stress). We also evaluated the ability of the beneficial fungus to overcome physiological stress (poor seed quality induced by seed aging). If seed were not under any of the stresses noted above, T22 generally had little effect upon seedling performance. However, under stress, treated seed germinated consistently faster and more uniformly than untreated seeds whether the stress was osmotic, salt, or suboptimal temperatures. The consistent response to varying stresses suggests a common mechanism through which the plant-fungus association enhances tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses as well as biotic stress. A common factor that negatively affects plants under these stress conditions is accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), and we tested the hypothesis that T22 reduced damages resulting from accumulation of ROS in stressed plants. Treatment of seeds reduced accumulation of lipid peroxides in seedlings under osmotic stress or in aged seeds. In addition, we showed that the effect of exogenous application of an antioxidant, glutathione, or application of T22, resulted in a similar positive effect on seed germination under osmotic stress or in aged seed. This evidence supports the model that T. harzianum strain T22 increases seedling vigor and ameliorates stress by inducing physiological protection in plants against oxidative damage. PMID:20649416

Mastouri, Fatemeh; Björkman, Thomas; Harman, Gary E

2010-11-01

157

Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10?mg/L, NaCl at 50?mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50?mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

2014-01-01

158

Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10?mg/L, NaCl at 50?mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50?mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

2014-01-01

159

THE ROLE OF THE SLEEPY1 (SLY1) F-BOX GENE IN GA REGULATION OF SEED GERMINATION IN ARABIDOPSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, June 28-July 2, 2006, Madison, WI. Abstract #378. Seed germination is a complex developmental process regulated by phytohormones. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits seed germination, whereas gibberellin (GA) stimulates seed germinat...

160

Enhanced germination of artificial seeds by marine cynobacterial extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an improved artificial seed system by using a hot-water extract from a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902. Carrot somatic embryos (Daucus carota L.) were divided into two size categories (> 800 µm and 425–800 µm). High frequency germination (91%) was obtained using the large somatic embryos encapsulated in calcium alginate gel containing 400 mg 1-1 of

Hitoshi Wake; Akinobu Akasaka; Hironori Umetsu; Yoshihiro Ozeki; Koichiro Shimomura; Tadashi Matsunaga

1992-01-01

161

Response of Soybean Seed Germination to Cadmium and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) pollution and acid rain are the main environmental issues, and they often occur in the same agricultural region.\\u000a Nevertheless, up to now, little information on the combined pollution of Cd2+ and acid rain action on crops were presented. Here, we investigated the combined effect of Cd2+ and acid rain on the seed germination of soybean. The results indicated

Ting Ting Liu; Peng Wu; Li Hong Wang; Qing Zhou

162

Seed Germination of a Halophytic Grass Aeluropus lagopoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeluropus lagopoides(Linn.) Trin. Ex Thw. (Poaceae) is a perennial grass distributed from coastal Sindh and Balochistan to saline flats of Punjab, Pakistan. Seeds collected from an inland population ofA. lagopoides located on the University of Karachi campus were germinated under various levels of salinity (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500m M NaCl) and temperature regimes (10\\/20, 15\\/25, 20\\/30 and

Salman Gulzar; M. Ajmal Khan

2001-01-01

163

Dynamic Histone Acetylation of Late Embryonic Genes during Seed Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone acetylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression in plants and eukaryotes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs)\\u000a are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from histones, which is associated with the repression of gene expression.\\u000a To study the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of gene expression during seed germination, trichostatin A (TSA),\\u000a a specific inhibitor of

Helen H. Tai; George C. C. Tai; Tannis Beardmore

2005-01-01

164

The effect of seed source, light during germination, and cold-moist stratification on seed germination in three species of Echinacea for organic production.  

PubMed

Organic production of one of the most popular botanical supplements, Echinacea, continues to expand in the U.S. Echinacea seeds typically show a high degree of dormancy that can be broken by ethephon or gibberelic acid (GA), but these methods are currently disallowed in organic production. In order to determine the efficacy of non-chemical seed treatments, we evaluated the effect of varying seed source and supplying light, with and without cold-moist stratification, on seed germination of the three most important medicinal species of Echinacea, E. angustifolia DC, E. purpurea (L) Moench, and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. Treatments included cold-moist stratification under 24 h light, 24 h dark, and 16/8 h light/dark to break seed dormancy. We found that germination was greater in the E. purpurea and E. pallida seeds from a commercial organic seed source compared to a public germplasm source. When seeds were not cold-moist stratified, 16-24 h light increased germination in E. angustifolia only. Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida seeds that were cold-moist stratified under 16-24 h of light for 4 wk had a significantly greater percentage and rate of germination compared to seeds germinated in the dark. Therefore, cold-moist stratification under light conditions is recommended as a method to break seed dormancy and increase germination rates in organic production of Echinacea. PMID:17160141

Romero, Fredy R; Delate, Kathleen; Hannapel, David J

2005-10-01

165

Effect of volatile and gaseous metabolites of germinating pea seeds on Micromycetes.  

PubMed

Differences in the effect of volatile and gaseous metabolites of germinating pea seeds on the germination of spores of Mucor racemosus and macroconidia of Fusarium oxysporum are described. Germination of spores of M. racemosus was inhibited by seed metabolites whereas germination of macroconidia of F. oxysporum was stimulated during the first two days and inhibition occurred only after further two days of germination of the seeds. A pronounced inhibition of germination of spores of both micromycetes took place due to absorption of CO2 from volatile and gaseous metabolites. Absorption of some components of seed metabolites in a KMnO4 solution led to a decrease of the inhibitory effect on germination of spores of M. racemosus and stimulatory effect on germination of macroconidia of F. oxysporum. PMID:6769770

Catská, V

1980-01-01

166

Osmoconditioning and storage of native Texas wildflower seed to improve the rate and uniformity of germination  

E-print Network

AS AFFECTED BY OSMOCONDITIONING AND STORAGE 52 V. THE EFFECTS OF PRIMING ON GAILLARDIA PULCHELLA AND GAILLARDIA ARISTATA LABORATORY GERMINATION AND GREENHOUSE EMERGENCE 71 VI. THE GERMINATION RESPONSE OF FOUR SPECIES OF PRIMED WILDFLOWER SEEDS 90...

Samfield, Dina Margaret

1988-01-01

167

Germination dramatically increases isoflavonoid content and diversity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.  

PubMed

The effect of germination on bioactive components in legume seeds was investigated in terms of the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents. Germination increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of most seeds. Particularly in chickpea seeds, the isoflavone contents increased by over 100 fold, mainly due to the increase of formononetin and biochanin A level. As a result, these two compounds were conveniently isolated from the germinated seeds in preparative scale and structurally confirmed by UV-vis, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. Isoflavonoid fingerprints analyzed by HPLC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS demonstrated that germination could significantly increase isoflavonoids diversity. Twenty-five isoflavonoids were detected and identified tentatively. These include 20 isoflavones, 2 isoflavanones, and 3 pterocarpan phytoalexins. Total isoflavonoid content of germinated chickpea was approximately 5-fold of that of germinated soybean. Our findings suggest that the germinated chickpea seeds could serve as a promising functional food rich in isoflavonoids. PMID:22816801

Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Feng, Shengbao; Liu, Yuancai; He, Guangyuan; Yioe, Yoecelyn; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

2012-09-01

168

-Helophyte germination in a coastal marsh: gut-passage by ducks changes seed response -315 Question:Inseedswhichareregularlyconsumedbywaterbirds  

E-print Network

- Helophyte germination in a coastal marsh: gut-passage by ducks changes seed response - 315 platyrhynchos). Both the ingested seeds (passage) and non-ingested seeds (controls) were exposed, in germination percentage germination, the duration of the dormancy period and the germination speed were com- puted

Green, Andy J.

169

Exposure of maize seeds to stationary magnetic fields: Effects on germination and early growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the exposure of maize seeds to stationary magnetic fields on germination and early growth has been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were magnetically exposed to one of two magnetic field strengths, 125 or 250mT for different periods of time. Mean germination time and the time required to obtain 10, 25, 50, 75 and 90% of seeds to

Mercedes Flórez; Maria Victoria Carbonell; Elvira Martínez

2007-01-01

170

Interaction of accelerated aging and p-coumaric acid on crimson clover seed germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several phenolic acids, including p-coumaric acid, have been described as allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination or seedling growth. Accelerated seed aging (high temperature (41 C) and high humidity (100%)) reduces germination and seedling vigor, and provides some indication as to seed g...

171

Effects of Seed Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth Under Water Stress in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

For disclosing the effects of seed priming with water and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on physiological characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the seeds of 4 rice cultivars were treated with H2O and different concentrations of PEG before germination. Primed or nonprimed (control) seeds were then germinated under drought stress conditions simulated with PEG in a serious of concentrations. The contents

Yuan-Yuan SUN; Yong-Jian SUN; Ming-Tian WANG; Xu-Yi LI; Xiang GUO; Rong HU; Jun MA

2010-01-01

172

Seed Priming with Polyamines Improves the Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Fine Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-sowing polyamine seed treatments were employed in fine rice (Oryza sativa) to explore the possibility of improving germination and early seedling growth. Fine rice (cv. Super-basmati) seeds were soaked in 10 and 20 ppm aerated solutions of spermidine, putrescine and spermine for 48-h at 28 ± 2 C. Polyamine seed treatments resulted in earlier, synchronized and enhanced germination. Improvement in

Muhammad Farooq; Shahzad M. A. Basra; H. Rehman; M. Hussain

2008-01-01

173

Quantifying the oxygen sensitivity of seed germination using a population-based threshold model  

E-print Network

temperatures decreased the minimum O2 threshold, as did after- ripening. Seed priming generally reducedQuantifying the oxygen sensitivity of seed germination using a population-based threshold model, F-75252 Paris cedex 05, France Abstract Seeds vary widely in the sensitivity of germination

Bradford, Kent

174

Influence of factors affecting germination on respiration of Phacelia tanacetifolia seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of the seeds of Phacelia tanacetifolia is inhibited by light. Removal of that part of the covering structures of the seeds which directly covers the radicle allows full germination in light. The rate of O2 uptake in the seeds increases following imbibition, and reaches the same steady rate in light and in darkness after 3 hr. From the 14

Shepley S. C. Chen

1970-01-01

175

Germination of yaupon (Ilex vomitoria Ait.) seed  

E-print Network

found concerning the level of respiration based on oxygen uptake. Ives (1923), using hisrochea!ical tests, found no sugars in the endosperm of freshly-harvested seed of American holly. Lipids were the ma)or storage product. As the lipid content...- mately 2G and 50 weeks af ter anthesis (Pigure 1), were similar to photom', . rographs of Jensen (1955). Later pi. ctuzes rake. a. t the time of gem;. jna jon by Jenser. show tbe embryo and cotyj edcns much elongated an apir al m. . risc m...

Fleming, Carl Michael

1970-01-01

176

Germination, Respiration, andAdenylate Energy Charge of Seeds atVarious OxygenPartial Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theeffect of02partial pressure onthegermination andtherespiration of12cultivated species wasstudied. Thereciprocal ofthetime necessary toobserve rootlet emergence in50%oftheseeds wasusedtoapproach thegermination rate. Themaximumgermination andrespiration rates werereached inmostseeds at02pressures close tothat ofair. Decreasing the02pressure produced agradual decrease ofthegermination rate. Theseeds could beclassed intwogroups according totheir response to IOW02pressures. Group Iincludes lettuce, sunflower, radish, turnip, cabbage, flax, andsoybean: at02pressures close to2kilopascals, the germination inthis group wasstopped

PHILIPPE RAYMOND

177

Proteomic analysis of seed germination under salt stress in soybeans*  

PubMed Central

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a salt-sensitive crop, and its production is severely affected by saline soils. Therefore, the response of soybean seeds to salt stress during germination was investigated at both physiological and proteomic levels. The salt-tolerant cultivar Lee68 and salt-sensitive cultivar N2899 were exposed to 100 mmol/L NaCl until radicle protrusion from the seed coat. In both cultivars, the final germination percentage was not affected by salt, but the mean germination times of Lee68 and N2899 were delayed by 0.3 and 1.0 d, respectively, compared with controls. In response to salt stress, the abscisic acid content increased, and gibberellic acid (GA1+3) and isopentenyladenosine decreased. Indole-3-acetic acid increased in Lee68, but remained unchanged in N2899. The proteins extracted from germinated seeds were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 staining. About 350 protein spots from 2-DE gels of pH range 3 to 10 and 650 spots from gels of pH range 4 to 7 were reproducibly resolved, of which 18 protein spots showed changes in abundance as a result of salt stress in both cultivars. After matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the differentially expressed proteins, the peptide mass fingerprint was searched against the soybean UniGene database and nine proteins were successfully identified. Ferritin and 20S proteasome subunit ?-6 were up-regulated in both cultivars. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) 9, GST 10, and seed maturation protein PM36 were down-regulated in Lee68 by salt, but still remained at a certain level. However, these proteins were present in lower levels in control N2899 and were up-regulated under salt stress. The results indicate that these proteins might have important roles in defense mechanisms against salt stress during soybean seed germination. PMID:21726057

Xu, Xiao-yan; Fan, Rui; Zheng, Rui; Li, Chun-mei; Yu, De-yue

2011-01-01

178

Role of nano-SiO2 in germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum seeds Mill.)  

PubMed Central

Agricultural biotechnology is very familiar with the properties of nanomaterial and their potential uses. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to test the beneficial effects of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2: size- 12 nm) on the seed germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv Super Strain B). Application of nSiO2 significantly enhanced the characteristics of seed germination. Among the treatments, 8 g L?1 of nSiO2 improved percent seed germination, mean germination time, seed germination index, seed vigour index, seedling fresh weight and dry weight. Therefore, it is very clear that nSiO2 has a significant impact on the seed germination potential. These findings could provide that alternative source for fertilizer that may improve sustainable agriculture. PMID:24596495

Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.

2013-01-01

179

Role of nano-SiO2 in germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum seeds Mill.).  

PubMed

Agricultural biotechnology is very familiar with the properties of nanomaterial and their potential uses. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to test the beneficial effects of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2: size- 12 nm) on the seed germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv Super Strain B). Application of nSiO2 significantly enhanced the characteristics of seed germination. Among the treatments, 8 g L(-1) of nSiO2 improved percent seed germination, mean germination time, seed germination index, seed vigour index, seedling fresh weight and dry weight. Therefore, it is very clear that nSiO2 has a significant impact on the seed germination potential. These findings could provide that alternative source for fertilizer that may improve sustainable agriculture. PMID:24596495

Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H

2014-01-01

180

Internal dispersal of seeds by waterfowl: effect of seed size on gut passage time and germination patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long distance dispersal may have important consequences for gene flow and community structure. The dispersal of many plants depends on transport by vertebrate seed dispersers. The shapes of seed shadows produced by vertebrates depend both on movement patterns of the dispersers and on the dynamics and effects of passage through the disperser’s gut (i.e. the retention time, survival and germination of ingested seeds). A combination of experiments with captive waterbirds and aquatic plant seeds was used to analyse the following: (a) the effects of inter- and intra-specific variation in seed size and duck species on seed retention time in the gut and (b) the relationship between retention time and the percent germination and germination rates of seeds. Among the three Scirpus species used, those with smaller seeds showed higher survival after ingestion by birds and longer retention times inside their guts than those with larger seeds. For Potamogeton pectinatus, only seeds from the smaller size class (<8 mg) survived ingestion. Retention time affected the percent germination and germination rate of Scirpus seeds but in a manner that varied for the different plant and bird species studied. We recorded both linear and non-linear effects of retention time on percent germination. In addition, germination rate was positively correlated with retention time in Scirpus litoralis but negatively correlated in Scirpus lacustris. Small seed size can favour dispersal over larger distances. However, the effects of retention time on percent germination can modify the seed shadows produced by birds due to higher percent germination of seeds retained for short or intermediate periods. The changes in dispersal quality associated with dispersal distance (which is expected to be positively related to retention time) will affect the probability of seedling establishment over longer distances and, thus, the spatial characteristics of the effective seed shadow.

Figuerola, Jordi; Charalambidou, Iris; Santamaria, Luis; Green, Andy J.

2010-06-01

181

Seed Priming Advances the Germination of Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of common Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) soaked for 4 days at 20°c in water had faster germination than untreated seeds provided the hydrated seeds were not dried before planting. Drying these hydrated seeds greatly decreased percentage germination. Seeds primed (?1.5 MPa, 4 days, 20°c) matrically in fine vermiculite or osmotically in KNO3 or polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) had

Wallace G. Pill; Timothy K. Korengel

1997-01-01

182

Dormancy patterns, germination ecology, and seed-bank types of twenty temperate fen grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination ecology, including primary and secondary dormancy, mortality of seeds, and seed-bank type, of 20 fen grassland\\u000a species from Northern Germany was investigated using a combination of burial and germination experiments. To analyze primary\\u000a dormancy and effects of after-ripening (dry storage for 28 days) on freshly matured seeds, germination was measured at two\\u000a fluctuating temperature regimes (15\\/25°C and 5\\/15°C)

Kai Jensen

2004-01-01

183

Effect of salinity and chemical factors on seed germination in the halophyte Crithmum maritimum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of the halophyte Crithmum maritimum L. were exposed to salt stress and chemical pretreatments in order to improve germination. Seeds submitted to salt stress\\u000a did not germinate but they recovered rapidly upon transfer to distilled water, recovery being higher after a low salinity\\u000a pretreatment. Chemical treatments resulted in differential effects on seed germination. Known dormancy breakers such as potassium

Laetitia Meot-Duros; Christian Magné

2008-01-01

184

Effects of Neotyphodium Fungi on Lolium multiflorum Seed Germination in Relation to Water Availability  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Temperate endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium sp.) grasses have been shown to exhibit an ecological advantage over endophyte-uninfected grasses under abiotic stressful conditions. It is predicted that endophyte-infected plant populations will display higher rates of germination and proportion of germinated seeds under limiting water conditions. • Methods The hydrotime regression model was used to describe the effect of Neotyphodium endophyte on seed germination of Lolium multiflorum at different water potentials. Additionally, seed mortality after water stress exposure was estimated in endophyte-infected and -uninfected seeds. • Key Results Endophyte infection inhibited seed germination at all water potentials. The hydrotime model described satisfactorily the germination responses, and revealed that endophyte-free seeds exhibited higher rates of and final percentage germination, probably due to a lower base water potential compared with endophyte-infected seeds. However, Neotyphodium endophyte conferred a higher rate of survival in those seeds that remained ungerminated when exposed to highly water stress conditions. • Conclusions Changes produced by Neotyphodium endophyte in L. multiflorum seeds might affect fitness in particular ecological scenarios. For example, the presence of the endophyte may curtail seed germination when water is limiting, reducing the risk of seedling death. Conversely, endophyte-free seeds would display an enhanced germination, ensuring a more rapid seedling establishment if later water conditions do not restrict plant growth. PMID:16446287

GUNDEL, P. E.; MASEDA, P. H.; VILA-AIUB, M. M.; GHERSA, C. M.; BENECH-ARNOLD, R.

2006-01-01

185

Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Method Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Key Results Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. Conclusions The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds. PMID:22975287

Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

2012-01-01

186

Seed dormancy\\/germination traits of seven Persicaria species and their implication in soil seed-bank strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to predict species-specific potential to form persistent soil seed-banks and to characterize the dynamics of their seed-banks, the seed dormancy\\/germination traits of seven Persicaria ( Polygonum s.lat.) species sharing lakeshore habitats in central Japan were examined. Strict light requirements for seed germination were not observed in any of the species examined. Although all species required moist chilling (0–6

Sachiko Araki; Izumi Washitani

2000-01-01

187

Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seed size affects germination response to coumarin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be more effectively controlled than large-seeded species. The stu...

188

7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29a Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage of hard seed...

2011-01-01

189

7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29a Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage of hard seed...

2013-01-01

190

7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29a Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage of hard seed...

2010-01-01

191

7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29a Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage of hard seed...

2014-01-01

192

7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29a Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more...be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage of hard seed...

2012-01-01

193

Seed germination regulation and field seed bank carryover in shadscale ( Atriplex confertifolia : Chenopodiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory germination studies with 15 collections ofAtriplex confertifolia, a dominant shrub of North American salt deserts, we found that seeds were dormant and largely unresponsive to chilling at dispersal but became chilling-responsive through dry after-ripening. Collections from warm desert habitats were more chilling-responsive and after-ripened more rapidly than those from cold desert habitats. In a field seed bank experiment,

Susan E. Meyer; Stephanie L. Carlson; Susan C. Garvin

1998-01-01

194

Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

Božena, Šerá; Michal, Šerý; Vit?zslav, Štrañák; Petr, Špatenka; Milan, tichý

2009-12-01

195

Effect of Light on Seed Germination of Eight Wetland Carex Species  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims In wetland plant communities, species-specific responses to pulses of white light and to red?:?far-red light ratios can vary widely and influence plant emergence from the seed bank. Carex species are the characteristic plants of sedge meadows of natural prairie wetlands in mid-continental USA but are not returning to restored wetlands. Little is known about how light affects seed germination in these species—information which is necessary to predict seed bank emergence and to develop optimal revegetation practices. The effects of light on germination in eight Carex species from prairie wetlands were investigated. • Methods Non-dormant seeds of eight Carex species were used to determine the influence of light on germination by examining: (a) the ability of Carex seeds to germinate in the dark; (b) the effect of different lengths of exposures to white light on germination; (c) whether the effect of white light can be replaced by red light; and (d) whether the germination response of Carex seeds to white or red light is photoreversible by far-red light. • Key Results Seeds of C. brevior and C. stipata germinated >25?% in continuous darkness. Germination responses after exposure to different lengths of white light varied widely across the eight species. Carex brevior required <15?min of white light for ?50?% germination, while C. hystericina, C. comosa, C. granularis and C. vulpinoidea required ?8?h. The effect of white light was replaced by red light in all species. The induction of germination after exposure to white or red light was reversed by far-red light in all species, except C. stipata. • Conclusions The species-specific responses to simulated field light conditions suggest that (a) the light requirements for germination contribute to the formation of persistent seed banks in these species and (b) in revegetation efforts, timing seed sowing to plant community development and avoiding cover crops will improve Carex seed germination. PMID:16905568

KETTENRING, KARIN M.; GARDNER, GARY; GALATOWITSCH, SUSAN M.

2006-01-01

196

Small Heat Shock Proteins Can Release Light Dependence of Tobacco Seed during Germination1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) function as ATP-independent molecular chaperones, and although the production and function of sHSPs have often been described under heat stress, the expression and function of sHSPs in fundamental developmental processes, such as pollen and seed development, have also been confirmed. Seed germination involves the breaking of dormancy and the resumption of embryo growth that accompany global changes in transcription, translation, and metabolism. In many plants, germination is triggered simply by imbibition of water; however, different seeds require different conditions in addition to water. For small-seeded plants, like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), light is an important regulator of seed germination. The facts that sHSPs accumulate during seed development, sHSPs interact with various client proteins, and seed germination accompanies synthesis and/or activation of diverse proteins led us to investigate the role of sHSPs in seed germination, especially in the context of light dependence. In this study, we have built transgenic tobacco plants that ectopically express sHSP, and the effect was germination of the seeds in the dark. Administering heat shock to the seeds also resulted in the alleviation of light dependence during seed germination. Subcellular localization of ectopically expressed sHSP was mainly observed in the cytoplasm, whereas heat shock-induced sHSPs were transported to the nucleus. We hypothesize that ectopically expressed sHSPs in the cytoplasm led the status of cytoplasmic proteins involved in seed germination to function during germination without additional stimulus and that heat shock can be another signal that induces seed germination. PMID:25604531

Koo, Hyun Jo; Park, Soo Min; Kim, Keun Pill; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong-Kon; Xinli, Xia

2015-01-01

197

Effects of chemical desiccation and early harvesting on Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seed germination  

E-print Network

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at two locations over two years in Texas. Objectives of these experiments were to study effects of chemical desiccation and seed maturity at harvest on sorghum seed germination. Sorghum plants were...

Gouveia, Sergio

1994-01-01

198

G Protein Signaling in the Regulation of Rice Seed Germination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seed germination and early seedling growth are regulated by an intricate network of hormonal signaling pathways. The plant hormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are particularly important positive and negative regulators of these processes, respectively. In the cereal rice, mutant analysis has implicated heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein) signaling in GA-stimulated expression of several genes, including expression of the gene encoding the hydrolytic enzyme ?-amylase, which breaks down carbohydrate reserves and thus mobilizes nutrients that nourish the young seedling.

Sarah M. Assmann (Penn State University; Biology Department REV)

2005-11-15

199

Proteomics of seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination and vigor.  

PubMed

Proteomics, the large-scale study of the total complement of proteins in a given sample, has been applied to all aspects of seed biology mainly using model species such as Arabidopsis or important agricultural crops such as corn and rice. Proteins extracted from the sample have typically been separated and quantified by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify the proteins in the gel spots. In this way, qualitative and quantitative changes in the proteome during seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination, dormancy release, vigor alteration and responses to environmental factors have all been studied. Many proteins or biological processes potentially important for each seed process have been highlighted by these studies, which greatly expands our knowledge of seed biology. Proteins that have been identified to be particularly important for at least two of the seed processes are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the cytoskeleton, glycolysis, protein biosynthesis, post-translational modifications, methionine metabolism, and late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins. It will be useful for molecular biologists and molecular plant breeders to identify and study genes encoding particularly interesting target proteins with the aim to improve the yield, stress tolerance or other critical properties of our crop species. PMID:25461695

Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan; Møller, Ian Max

2015-01-01

200

Interaction Effects of Seed Mass and Temperature on Germination in Australian Species of Frankenia (Frankeniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed size and number theories have been proposed to explain the advantages of having many small versus a few large seeds\\u000a in plants. In particular, seed germination is predicted to be shaped by temperature, and may differ for small and large seeds.\\u000a In this study, we experimentally test germination at different temperatures in 12 species of arid zone plants

Lyndlee C. Easton; Sonia Kleindorfer

2008-01-01

201

Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

2014-02-01

202

Nutritional potential and functional properties of germinated mung bean, pea and lentil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mung bean, pea and lentil seeds were germinated for 72 hr and 120 hr at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C) to determine the changes in their chemical composition, antinutritional factors, in vitro digestibility and functional properties. Germination caused a significant (p p p p p p < 0.05) improved with increase in germination time while fat absorption decreased.

T. A. El-Adawy; E. H. Rahma; A. A. El-Bedawey; A. E. El-Beltagy

2003-01-01

203

Physiological and antioxidant responses of three leguminous species to saline environment during seed germination stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the physiological behaviors and antioxidant responses of Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis and Astragalus adsurgens to saline environment during seed germination stage. At 300 mM NaCl treatments, the final germination percentage of M. officinalis was much higher than that of M. sativa and of A. adsurgens and the initiation of germination process of A. adsurgens was 5 days

Xiaoshan Wang; Guoqi Zhao; Hongru Gu

204

DISPERSAL OF WETLAND PLANT SEEDS BY MALLARDS: INFLUENCE OF GUT PASSAGE ON RECOVERY, RETENTION, AND GERMINATION  

E-print Network

, AND GERMINATION Chanpen Wongsriphuek1 , Bruce D. Dugger2 , and Anne M. Bartuszevige3 1 Department of Biology to enhance dispersal. We used controlled feeding and germination experiments to investigate recovery, retention time, and germination for the seeds of 10 wetland plant species (Chenopodium album, Digitaria

Dugger, Bruce

205

Survival and germination of Mediterranean grassland species after simulated sheep ingestion: ecological correlates with seed traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large amounts of viable seeds from Mediterranean grassland species have been found in herbivore dung; however which species produce seeds that can survive and germinate after ingestion by herbivores is still not well understood. This paper evaluates the importance of seed size, shape and coat impermeability in the endozoochorous dispersal process of 20 abundant species from central Iberian rangelands. Seed survival, germination percentages and germination speed were analysed in controlled experiments on the chewing and gut passage process by inserting seeds in the rumen of fistulated sheep, followed by simulated acid-pepsin digestion. Higher germination percentages in the control than the simulated sheep ingestion treatment were found in 75% of seeds. All species showed lower survival following the treatment, two species had a higher germination speed and five had a lower rate. Large-seeded species generally had higher survival percentages than small-seeded species. Species with impermeable seed coats had higher germination percentages following treatment although no significant differences were noted for either seed survival or germination speed.

Peco, B.; Lopez-Merino, L.; Alvir, M.

2006-09-01

206

Ethylene-, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

SciTech Connect

Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by a 2-week germination period in light (16 hours per day) at 25 C, could induce >95% seed germination in E. angustifolia. This was a significantly higher percentage of germination over a shorter period of time than any other method examined or previously described. This treatment also synchronized germination, with most viable seeds germinating in <1 week after being placed at 25 C in the light. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

Feghahati, S.M.J.; Reese, R.N. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). Dept. of Biology and Microbiology)

1994-07-01

207

Structural requirements of strigolactones for germination induction of Striga gesnerioides seeds.  

PubMed

Strigolactones are highly potent germination stimulants for seeds of the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche spp. 4-Hydroxy-GR24 and 4-acetoxy-GR24 were prepared and their abilities to induce seed germination of Striga gesnerioides evaluated. Optically active (8bR,2'R)-isomers induced germination, although the racemic diastereomers were inactive. In contrast, the stereoisomer of GR24 with the same configuration induced negligible germination. Some stereoisomers of GR24 and its analogues acted as effective antagonists for induction of seed germination by cowpea root exudates. These results suggest that both an oxygenated substituent at C-4 and the configuration of the tricyclic lactone and the D-ring are essential structural requirements for induction of germination in S. gesnerioides seeds. PMID:21819156

Ueno, Kotomi; Fujiwara, Mami; Nomura, Saki; Mizutani, Masaharu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

2011-09-14

208

Seed biology of Australian arid zone species: Germination of 18 species used for rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revegetation of disturbed land, particularly in arid environments, is often hindered by low seedling establishment. Information on seed biology and germination cues of keystone species is lacking, particularly in arid Australia; a major zone for mining developments. This study investigated seed characteristics and germination of 18 common species required for rehabilitation of disturbed areas at Shark Bay Salt in the

L. E. Commander; D. J. Merritt; D. P. Rokich; K. W. Dixon

2009-01-01

209

Recurrent selection for increased seed germination in sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water is essential for plant growth and under field conditions is often inadequate for satisfactory seed germination and seedling growth. The objective of this research was to improve the seed germination of sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) lines ‘AB-medium Syn-0’ and ‘CD-tall Syn-0’ at low ...

210

DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY AND TRIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHESIS IN GERMINATING CASTOR SEED COTYLEDONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The central importance of storage lipid breakdown in providing carbon and energy during seed germination has been demonstrated by the isolation of genes encoding the enzymes involved in fatty acid '-oxidation. In contrast, little is known about the ability of germinating seeds to synthesize triacyl...

211

SEED GERMINATION AND ROOT ELONGATION TOXICITY TESTS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE EVALUATION: METHODS DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Seed germination tests measure soil toxicity directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents which may be present in site-samples. n the seed germination toxicity test, site-soil is mixed with a reference soil to yield exposure co...

212

Measuring Effects of Music, Noise, and Healing Energy Using a Seed Germination Bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure biologic effects of music, noise, and healing energy without human preferences or placebo effects using seed germination as an objective biomarker. Methods: A series of five experiments were performed utilizing okra and zucchini seeds germinated in acoustically shielded, thermally insulated, dark, humid growth chambers. Conditions compared were an un- treated control, musical sound, pink noise, and healing

Katherine Creath; Gary E. Schwartz

2004-01-01

213

Myrigalone A Inhibits Lepidium sativum Seed Germination by Interference with Gibberellin Metabolism and Apoplastic  

E-print Network

Myrigalone A Inhibits Lepidium sativum Seed Germination by Interference with Gibberellin Metabolism to be a phytotoxin impeding seedling growth. We found that MyA inhibited Lepidium sativum L. seed germination Endosperm rupture Gibberellin metabolism Lepidium sativum Myrica gale Phytotoxicity Reactive oxygen

Leubner, Gerhard

214

Regulation of Seed Germination in the Close Arabidopsis Relative Lepidium sativum: A Global Tissue-Specific  

E-print Network

Regulation of Seed Germination in the Close Arabidopsis Relative Lepidium sativum: A Global Tissue, China (X.W.) The completion of germination in Lepidium sativum and other endospermic seeds (e the embryo (Finch-Savage and Leubner-Metzger, 2006). In both Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Lepidium

Leubner, Gerhard

215

Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.  

PubMed

Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice. PMID:25273891

Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

2014-11-01

216

RGL2 PROTEIN DOES NOT DISAPPEAR DURING SLY1 MUTANT SEED GERMINATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The SLEEPY1 (SLY1) and RGA-like2 (RGL2) genes play an important role in the regulation of seed germination by GA in Arabidopsis. The control of seed dormancy and germination is critical for plant survival and important for proper stand establishment in crop species. The plant hormone gibberelli...

217

Effect of the Striga Germination Stimulant on the Respiration of Striga Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been shown previously1 that the natural stimulating substance which promotes the germination of the seeds of Striga hermonthica is capable of causing extension growth of pea root segments. Should this be the only function of this stimulating substance in the germination process of the seeds of Striga hermonthica, then it is difficult to account for some of its

K. B. Vallance

1949-01-01

218

Control of Seed Germination by Abscisic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The physical mechanism of seed germination and its inhibition by abscisic acid (ABA) in Brassica napus L. was investigated, using volumetric growth (= water uptake) rate (dV/dt), water conductance (L), cell wall extensibility coefficient (m), osmotic pressure (?i), water potential (?i), turgor pressure (P), and minimum turgor for cell expansion (Y) of the intact embryo as experimental parameters. dV/dt, ?i, and ?i were measured directly, while m, P, and Y were derived by calculation. Based on the general equation of hydraulic cell growth [dV/dt = Lm/(L + m) (?? - Y), where ?? = ?i - ? of the external medium], the terms (Lm/(L + m) and ?i - Y were defined as growth coefficient (kG) and growth potential (GP), respectively. Both kG and GP were estimated from curves relating dV/dt (steady state) to ? of osmotic test solutions (polyethylene glycol 6000). During the imbibition phase (0-12 hours after sowing), kG remains very small while GP approaches a stable level of about 10 bar. During the subsequent growth phase of the embryo, kG increases about 10-fold. ABA, added before the onset of the growth phase, prevents the rise of kG and lowers GP. These effects are rapidly abolished when germination is induced by removal of ABA. Neither L (as judged from the kinetics of osmotic water efflux) nor the amount of extractable solutes are affected by these changes. ?i and ?i remain at a high level in the ABA-treated seed but drop upon induction of germination, and this adds up to a large decrease of P, indicating that water uptake of the germinating embryo is controlled by cell wall loosening rather than by changes of ?i or L. ABA inhibits water uptake by preventing cell wall loosening. By calculating Y and m from the growth equation, it is further shown that cell wall loosening during germination comprises both a decrease of Y from about 10 to 0 bar and an at least 10-fold increase of m. ABA-mediated embryo dormancy is caused by a reversible inhibition of both of these changes in cell wall stability. PMID:16664118

Schopfer, Peter; Plachy, Claudia

1985-01-01

219

Seed size variation in the palm Euterpe edulis and the effects of seed predators on germination and seedling survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraspecific variation in seed size is common in wild plant populations and has important consequences for the reproductive success of individual plants. Multiple, often conflicting evolutionary forces mediated by biotic as well as abiotic agents may maintain such a variation. In this paper we assessed seed size variation in a population of the threatened, commercially important palm Euterpe edulis in southeast Brazil. We investigated (i) how this variation affects the probability of attack by vertebrate and invertebrate post-dispersal seed predators, and (ii) if seed size influences the outcome of seeds damaged by beetles in terms of seed germination and early survival of seedlings. Euterpe edulis seeds varied in diameter from 8.3 to 14.1 mm. Neither insects nor rodents selected the seeds they preyed upon based on seed size. Seed germination and total, shoot and root biomasses of one-year seedlings were significantly and positively affected by seed size. Root biomass and seedling survival were negatively affected by seed damage caused by a scolytid beetle ( Coccotrypes palmarum) whose adults bore into seeds to consume part of the endosperm, but do not oviposit on them. Seed size had a marginally significant effect on seedling survival. Therefore, if any advantage is accrued by E. edulis individuals producing large seeds, this is because of greater seed germination success and seedling vigor. If this is so, even a relatively narrow range of variation in seed size as observed in the E. edulis population studied may translate into differential success of individual plants.

Pizo, Marco A.; Von Allmen, Christiane; Morellato, L. Patricia C.

2006-05-01

220

Morpho-anatomy, imbibition, viability and germination of the seed of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae).  

PubMed

Seed biology is a relevant aspect of tropical forests because it is central to the understanding of processes of plant establishment, succession and natural regeneration. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is a timber tree from South America that produces large seeds with thin weak teguments, which is uncommon among legumes. This study describes the morphology and anatomy of the seed coat, the viability, imbibition, and germination in this species. Seeds used during the essays came from 10 trees that grow naturally in Horco Molle, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Seed morphology was described from a sample of 20 units. The seed coat surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Transverse sections of hydrated and non-hydrated seeds were employed to describe the histological structure of the seed coat. Hydration, viability and germination experiments were performed under laboratory controlled conditions; and the experimental design consisted of 10 replicas of 10 seeds each. Viability and germination tests were conducted using freshly fallen seeds and seeds stored for five months. Morphologically the seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are circular to subcircular, laterally compressed, smooth, bright brown and have a horseshoe fissure line (= pleurogram) on both sides. The seed coat comprises five tissue layers and a double (external and internal) cuticle. The outer cuticle (on the epidermis) is smooth and interrupted by microcracks and pores of variable depth. The epidermis consists of macroesclereids with non-lignified secondary walls. This layer is separated from the underlying ones during seed hydration. The other layers of internal tissues are comprised of osteosclereids, parenchyma, osteosclereids, and macrosclereids. The percentage of viable seeds was 93%, decreasing to 75% in seeds with five months old. Seed mass increased 76% after the first eight hours of hydration. Germination percentage was 75% after 76 hours. Germination of seeds stored for five months decreased to 12%. The results showed that seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are highly permeable and germinate directly without a dormant period. PMID:24027911

Varela, Rodolfo Omar; Albornoz, Patricia Liliana

2013-09-01

221

Phytochrome Regulation and Differential Expression of Gibberellin 3Hydroxylase Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive studies on the roles of phytochrome in photostimulated seed germination, the mechanisms downstream of the photoreceptor that promote germination are largely unknown. Previous studies have indicated that light-induced germination of Arabidopsis seeds is mediated by the hormone gibberellin (GA). Using RNA gel blot analyses, we studied the regulation of two Arabidopsis genes, GA4 and GA4H (for GA4 homolog),

Shinjiro Yamaguchi; Maria W. Smith; Robert G. S. Brown; Yuji Kamiya; Tai-ping Sun

1998-01-01

222

Effects of stress temperatures of germination on polyamine titers of soybean seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36°C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at 76 and 90 hours. The polyamines (PAs), cadaverine (Cad), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), agmatine (Agm), and spermine (Spin) were quantified by HPLC using a cation exchange column and an electrochemical detector. Cad, Put, Agm, and Spd declined as the germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Conversely, Spin increased considerably with an increase in temperature. Total germination was reduced from 97.2 to 92.5% as germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Germination time did not affect Cad, Agm and Spm, and total germination, however, the interaction between temperature and germination time for Put and Spd concentrations was significant. In the second study, changes in PA concentrations, seedling growth, germination time (t50), fresh and dry weight, and moisture content were measured in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of soybean seeds germinated at 10 and 25°C through six stages of germination dry seed (DS), testa split (TS), radicle at 10 mm (Ra-10), root hairs visible (RHV), secondary root primordia (SRP), and complete seedling (CS). The concentrations of Cad and Put in the embryonic axis, were significantly higher in seeds germinated under low temperature than in seeds at 25°C (approximately 10 and 3 fold respectively). However, this difference was not observed until the last three stages of germination. The stage of germination also influenced the levels of these polyamines. The concentrations of Cad and Put detected at the CS stage were 50 and 18 fold respectively, relative to the initial concentrations found at the DS stage. Spd levels in seeds under stress temperatures also increased, but to a lesser extent compared to Cad and Put. Differences in Spd concentrations between temperatures were observed only at the CS stage. Agm concentrations were higher at 25 than at 10°C at SRP and CS. Spm concentrations of seeds germinated at 25°C remained higher during the first four stages of development but at the end of germination, seeds at 10°C had higher quantities of Spm. In the cotyledons, Polyamines tended to decline with stages of germination, regardless of the temperature. However, Agm levels increased in the cotyledons of soybean seeds. Maximum dry weight and seedling growth was found at RHV, SRP, and CS. Maximum levels of Cad and Put were also found during these stages. Spd increased with both temperatures from DS to Ra-10, thereafter, Spd levels in seeds at 10°C continued increasing while seeds at 25°C declined. High and low stress germination temperatures caused significant changes in polyamine concentrations, reduced germination and seedling growth of soybean seeds.

Pineda-Mejia, Renan

223

Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds.  

PubMed

With the expansion of the world population, the environmental pollution and toxicity by chemicals raises concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, acids and heavy metals in the natural resources like soil, water and air thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting both plants and animals. Heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt, chromium and mercury are important environmental pollutants that cause toxic effects to plants; thus, lessening productivity and posing dangerous threats to the agro-ecosystems. They act as stress to plants and affect the plant physiology. In this review, we have summarized the effects of heavy metals on seeds of different plants affecting the germination process. Although reports exist on mechanisms by which the heavy metals act as stress and how plants have learnt to overcome, the future scope of this review remains in excavating the signaling mechanisms in germinating seeds in response to heavy metal stress. PMID:24082715

Sethy, Sunil Kumar; Ghosh, Shyamasree

2013-07-01

224

Seed aging, delayed germination and reduced competitive ability in Bromus tectorum  

E-print Network

Seed aging, delayed germination and reduced competitive ability in Bromus tectorum Kevin J. Rice1 pro- duced seed from meadow steppe and sagebrush steppe populations of an annual grass (Bromus tectorum) to in- vestigate the importance of seed age on seedling vigor and competitive ability. Aged seed

Rice, Kevin

225

Effect of the activation of germination processes on the sensitivity of seeds towards physical sanitation treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical treatments of seeds to eradicate pathogens have the risk of reducing vitality of the seeds. Seed lots may differ in sensitivity to these treatments, therefore factors influencing this sensitivity, including the physiological condition of the seeds, should be identified. In this study priming was used to mimic the effect of pre-harvest onset of germination on the sensitivity to these

S. P. C. Groot; Y. E. Birnbaum; C. Kromphard; G. Forsberg; N. Rop; S. Werner

2008-01-01

226

Effect of passage through duck gut on germination of fennel pondweed seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrates are important seed dispersers for many plants. In addition to transport of seeds, ingestion often affects the proportion or rate of seed germination. We present one of the first studies comparing the effects of different waterbird species on the seeds of a subcosmopolitan pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus. We also present the first comparison of the effects of digestion by ducks

Luis Santamaría; Iris Charalambidou; Jordi Figuerola; Andy J. Green

2002-01-01

227

Campanulaceae: a family with small seeds that require light for germination  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Campanulaceae is a large cosmopolitan family, but is understudied in terms of germination, and seed biology in general. Small seed mass (usually in the range 10–200 µg) is a noteworthy trait of the family, and having small seeds is commonly associated with a light requirement. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light on germination in 131 taxa of the Campanulaceae family, from all five continents of its distribution. Methods For all taxa, seed germination was tested in light (8 or 12 h photoperiod) and continuous darkness under constant and alternating temperatures. For four taxa, the effect of light on germination was examined over a wide range of temperatures on a thermogradient plate, and the possible substitution of the light requirement by gibberellic acid and nitrate was examined in ten taxa. Key Results For all 131 taxa, seed germination was higher in light than in darkness for every temperature tested. Across species, the light requirement decreased significantly with increasing seed mass. For larger seeded species, germination in the dark reached higher levels under alternating than under constant temperatures. Gibberellic acid promoted germination in darkness whereas nitrates partially substituted for a light requirement only in species showing some dark germination. Conclusions A light requirement for germination, observed in virtually all taxa examined, constitutes a collective characteristic of the family. It is postulated that smaller seeded taxa might germinate only on the soil surface or at shallow depths, while larger seeded species might additionally germinate when buried in the soil if cued to do so by fluctuating temperatures. PMID:24232382

Koutsovoulou, Katerina; Daws, Matthew I.; Thanos, Costas A.

2014-01-01

228

Only seed size matters for germination in different populations of the dimorphic Tragopogon pratensis subsp. pratensis (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Many studies have focused on the ecology of seed dimorphism, the production of two seed types by a single plant. Morphology and seed size are usually correlated, but how morphology affects germination percentage and seedling growth is poorly understood. Here we explicitly separate these effects for nine populations of the dimorphic species Tragopogon pratensis subsp. pratensis. Larger seeds yielded higher germination percentages, yet seed morphology had no additional direct effect on germination. Neither seed size nor seed morphology affected seedling growth. Neither germination nor seedling growth varied among populations, but seed head varied significantly. Results show that germination is mainly controlled by seed size rather than by seed morphology. This study is one of the few to distinguish explicitly between seed size and seed morphology effects on ecological characteristics and suggests that seed dimorphism may exert its ecological effects predominantly through its correlated size. PMID:21652419

van Mölken, Tamara; Jorritsma-Wienk, Linda D; van Hoek, Paul H W; de Kroon, Hans

2005-03-01

229

Seed Dispersal and Germination Traits of 70 Plant Species Inhabiting the Gurbantunggut Desert in Northwest China  

PubMed Central

Seed dispersal and germination were examined for 70 species from the cold Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China. Mean and range (3 orders of magnitude) of seed mass were smaller and narrower than those in other floras (5–8 orders of magnitude), which implies that selection favors relatively smaller seeds in this desert. We identified five dispersal syndromes (anemochory, zoochory, autochory, barochory, and ombrohydrochory), and anemochorous species were most abundant. Seed mass (F = 3.50, P = 0.01), seed size (F = 8.31, P < 0.01), and seed shape (F = 2.62, P = 0.04) differed significantly among the five dispersal syndromes and barochorous species were significantly smaller and rounder than the others. There were no significant correlations between seed mass (seed weight) (P = 0.15), seed size (P = 0.38), or seed shape (variance) (P = 0.95) and germination percentage. However, germination percentages differed significantly among the dispersal syndromes (F = 3.64, P = 0.01) and seeds of ombrohydrochorous species had higher germination percentages than those of the other species. In the Gurbantunggut Desert, the percentage of species with seed dormancy was about 80%. In general, our studies suggest that adaptive strategies in seed dispersal and germination of plants in this area are closely related to the environment in which they live and that they are influenced by natural selection forces. PMID:25485296

Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying; Duan, Shimin; Wang, Xiyong

2014-01-01

230

Biorhythms in conifer seed germination during extended J.P. Barnett1 N.I. Mamonov2  

E-print Network

Biorhythms in conifer seed germination during extended storage J.P. Barnett1 N.I. Mamonov2 ! U A proportion of sound seeds of conifer species do not germinate during certain periods of the year, even when conditions are favorable. Mamonov et al., (1986) report that the non-germinating seeds have apparently

Boyer, Edmond

231

In Vivo Cell Wall Loosening by Hydroxyl Radicals during Cress Seed Germination and Elongation Growth1[W][OA  

E-print Network

In Vivo Cell Wall Loosening by Hydroxyl Radicals during Cress Seed Germination and Elongation, including seed germination, elongation growth, and fruit ripening. Here, we report direct in vivo evidence for hydroxyl radical (×OH)-mediated cell wall loosening during plant seed germination and seedling growth. We

Leubner, Gerhard

232

[Effect of acid rain on seed germination of rice, wheat and rape].  

PubMed

Rice, wheat and rape seeds were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0 levels for 7 days in order to understand the effects of acid rain on seed germination of various acid-fast plant. The germination test showed that seed germination was absolutely inhibited at pH 2.0 for three species. Rice and wheat seeds germinated abnormally at pH 2.5. WhenpH values above 3.0, percentage germination, germination energy, germination index, vigor index of rice, wheat and rape seeds increased in relation with decreased acidity levels. In contrast, the percentage of abnormal germination of rice and wheat decreased. The experiment data about physiological aspect demonstrated that water absorption rate, respiratory rate and storage reserve transformation rate of rice, wheat and rape seeds also increased with increased pH values. The storage loss of rice and wheat increased with increased pH values but that of rape decreased. Inhibition index of shoot and root length of three kinds of seeds decreased in relation with increased pH values. The amplitude difference of index of rice was lower than that of wheat, and wheat was lower than that of rape. The experiment data showed that rice had stronger fastness than wheat and rape, wheat had stronger fastness than rape under acid rain stress. PMID:15859434

Zeng, Qing-ling; Huang, Xiao-hua; Zhou, Qing

2005-01-01

233

Germination Responses to Water Potential in Neotropical Pioneers Suggest Large-seeded Species Take More Risks  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In neotropical forests, very small-seeded pioneer species (<0·1 mg seed mass) recruit preferentially in small tree fall gaps and at gap edges, but large-seeded pioneers do not. Since water availability is related to gap size, these differences in microsite preference may reflect in part species-specific differences in germination at reduced water potentials. Methods For 14 neotropical pioneer species, the hypothesis is tested that small-seeded species, with shallow initial rooting depths, reduce the risks associated with desiccation by germinating more slowly and at higher water potentials than large-seeded species. Key Results Germination occurred both more quickly and at lower water potentials with increasing seed mass. For example, Ochroma pyramidale (seed mass 5·5 mg) had a time to 50 % germination (T50) of 2·8 d and a median base potential for germination (?b50) of ?1·8 MPa while Clidemia quinquenervia (seed mass 0·017 mg) had a T50 of 17·6 d and ?b50 of ?1·1 MPa. Conclusions These data suggest that small-seeded species germinate only in comparatively moist microsites, such as small canopy gaps, which may reduce the risk of drought-induced mortality. Conversely, large-seeded species are able to germinate in the drier environment of large gaps, where they benefit by enhanced seedling growth in a high irradiance environment. The positive association of seed size and canopy gap size for optimal seedling establishment is maintained by differential germination responses to soil water availability coupled with the scaling of radicle growth rate and seed size, which collectively confer greater drought tolerance on large-seeded species. PMID:18840874

Daws, Matthew I.; Crabtree, Lora M.; Dalling, James W.; Mullins, Christopher E.; Burslem, David F. R. P.

2008-01-01

234

Effects of seed burial on germination, protein mobilisation and seedling survival in Dodonaea viscosa.  

PubMed

Ecological restoration of disturbed areas requires substantial knowledge of the germination of native plants and the creation of novel methods to increase seedling establishment in the field. We studied the effects of soil matrix priming on the germination of Dodonaea viscosa seeds, which exhibit physical dormancy. To this end, we buried both pre-scarified (in H2SO4, 3 min) and non-pre-scarified seeds in the Parque Ecológico de la Ciudad de México. After seeds were unearthed, they were post-scarified for 0, 2, 6 and 10 min and their germination percentages compared to the germination of a control batch of laboratory-stored seeds. For both control and unearthed seeds, the protein pattern was determined in the enriched storage protein fraction in SDS-PAGE gels stained with Coomassie blue. Percentage germination increased as the scarification time increased. Pre-scarification significantly increased percentage germination of post-scarified seeds in relation to the control and non-pre-scarified seeds. In seeds unearthed from the forest site, the buried pre-scarified seeds had relatively high percentage germination, even in the absence of post-scarification treatment. A 48-kDa protein was not found in unearthed, pre-scarified seeds nor in the control germinated seeds, indicating that mobilisation of this protein occurred during soil priming. Burying seeds for a short period, including the beginning of the rainy season, promoted natural priming, which increased protein mobilisation. Functionally, priming effects were reflected in high percentage seedling survival in both the shade house and the field. Seed burial also reduced the requirement for acidic post-scarification. PMID:24148161

Benítez-Rodríguez, L; Gamboa-deBuen, A; Sánchez-Coronado, M E; Alvarado-López, S; Soriano, D; Méndez, I; Vázquez-Santana, S; Carabias-Lillo, J; Mendoza, A; Orozco-Segovia, A

2014-07-01

235

A high-throughput seed germination assay for root parasitic plants  

PubMed Central

Background Some root-parasitic plants belonging to the Orobanche, Phelipanche or Striga genus represent one of the most destructive and intractable weed problems to agricultural production in both developed and developing countries. Compared with most of the other weeds, parasitic weeds are difficult to control by conventional methods because of their life style. The main difficulties that currently limit the development of successful control methods are the ability of the parasite to produce a tremendous number of tiny seeds that may remain viable in the soil for more than 15 years. Seed germination requires induction by stimulants present in root exudates of host plants. Researches performed on these minute seeds are until now tedious and time-consuming because germination rate is usually evaluated in Petri-dish by counting germinated seeds under a binocular microscope. Results We developed an easy and fast method for germination rate determination based on a standardized 96-well plate test coupled with spectrophotometric reading of tetrazolium salt (MTT) reduction. We adapted the Mosmann’s protocol for cell cultures to germinating seeds and determined the conditions of seed stimulation and germination, MTT staining and formazan salt solubilization required to obtain a linear relationship between absorbance and germination rate. Dose–response analyses were presented as applications of interest for assessing half maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of germination stimulants (strigolactones) or inhibitors (ABA), respectively, using four parameter logistic curves. Conclusion The developed MTT system is simple and accurate. It yields reproducible results for germination bioassays of parasitic plant seeds. This method is adapted to high-throughput screenings of allelochemicals (stimulants, inhibitors) or biological extracts on parasitic plant seed germination, and strengthens the investigations of distinctive features of parasitic plant germination. PMID:23915294

2013-01-01

236

EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING DURATION AND TEMPERATURE ON SEED GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the effect of different seed priming techniques on germination and early growth of two wheat cultivars (Azar-2 and Sardari 101) an experiment was conducted at the Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Research Institute, Karaj, Iran. Seeds were primed for 12, 24 and 36 hours at three temperature (20, 23 and 28°C) in seven priming media

Leila Yari; Majid Aghaalikani; Fardin Khazaei

2010-01-01

237

Seed trait changes in dispersers' guts and consequences for germination and seedling growth.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of a frugivore as a disperser of a plant is greatly determined by how fruits and seeds are handled in its mouth and its digestive tract. Although a number of studies have investigated the effect of avian ingestion on germination, we still know very little about the modifications to seeds during ingestion and the specific consequences on plant fitness. Here we investigate for the first time the different mechanisms by which germination patterns of seeds are modified following ingestion by frugivores. Specifically, we examine changes in seed mass, water content, permeability, seed coat thickness, texture, and resistance in two common Mediterranean fleshy-fruited plants, Phillyrea angustifolia and Myrtus communis, after ingestion by Eurasian Blackbirds, Turdus merula. We found a number of differences between the plant species: Phillyrea seeds lost mass, mainly due to water loss, and had thinner coats after gut passage, but Myrtus seeds did not. Seeds of both species showed increased permeability, while Myrtus seeds in particular became less resistant to breakage. No quantifiable changes in seed coat texture were detected in either species, although this trait was partly associated with differences in germination rate in Phillyrea. High intraspecific plant variation was found for most seed traits measured. Seed passage through birds' guts sped up germination in both species, especially in Myrtus. Increased permeability in seeds of both species following ingestion resulted in a higher germination rate. Moreover, seeds with thick coats (and in the case of Phillyrea, harder coats) germinated at a slower rate and produced seedlings that also grew more slowly, indicating a cost of coat thickness and/or hardness for seedling emergence. Results obtained here contribute to explaining the great heterogeneity in germination responses among and within plant species and the large variety of factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the plants, that influence such responses. PMID:18376551

Traveset, Anna; Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Pías, Beatriz

2008-01-01

238

Toxicity of Cu, Pb, and Zn on Seed Germination and Young Seedlings of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seeds and young seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum\\u000a L.) under exposure to Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were studied by employing a hydroponic experiment. Addition of Cu\\u000a or Pb or Zn to the solution inhibited seed germination, plumule and radicle elongation. The toxic of metals to seed germination\\u000a parameters can be arranged in the rank order of inhibition

Haiou Wang; Guangrong Zhong; Guoqing Shi; Fangting Pan

2010-01-01

239

ACC conversion to ethylene by sunflower seeds in relation to maturation, germination and thermodormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene was studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Mirasol) seeds in relation to germinability. Ethylene production from ACC decreased during seed maturation, and non-dormant mature seeds were practically unable to synthesize ethylene until germination and growth occurred, indicating that ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) activity developed during tissue imbibition and growth. ACC conversion

F. Corbineau; R. M. Rudnicki; D. Côme

1989-01-01

240

The role of avian frugivores in germination of seeds of fleshy-fruited invasive alien plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many highly invasive plant species have fleshy fruits which are eaten by native frugivorous animals. These frugivores play\\u000a an important role in long-distance seed dispersal, and may also affect germination success. The aim of this study was to determine\\u000a whether generalist frugivores enhance or decrease seed germination of invasive alien species through pulp removal or seed\\u000a coat abrasion, besides serving

Lorinda A. Jordaan; Steven D. Johnson; Colleen T. Downs

2011-01-01

241

Heterogeneity of catalase in maturing and germinated cotton seeds.  

PubMed

To investigate possible charge and size heterogeneity of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Deltapine 62), extracts of cotyledons from different developmental ages were subjected to nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Special precautions (e.g. fresh homogenates, reducing media) were necessary to prevent artefacts due to enzyme modification during extraction and storage. When the gels were stained for enzyme activity, two distinct electrophoretic forms of catalase were resolved in extracts of maturing and mature cotton seeds. In germinated seeds, three additional cathodic forms were detected revealing a total of five electrophoretic variants. In green cotyledons, the two anodic forms characteristic of ungerminated seeds were less active; whereas, the most cathodic form was predominant. All forms of catalase were found in isolated glyoxysomes. Corresponding electrophoretic patterns were found on Western blots probed with anticatalase serum; no immunoreactive, catalytically inactive forms were detected. Western blots of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels revealed only one immunoreactive (55 kilodaltons) polypeptide in cotton extracts of all developmental ages. Results from isoelectric focusing and Ferguson plots indicate that the electrophoretic variants of catalase are charge isomers with a molecular weight of approximately 230,000. PMID:16664956

Kunce, C M; Trelease, R N

1986-08-01

242

Phase-sequence of redroot pigweed seed germination responses to ethylene and other stimuli.  

PubMed

Phase-sequence studies showed that light, ethylene, and high temperature each enhanced germination of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds when given during the first 24 hours of seed imbibition. Responses were maximal during the first 12 hours. After 48 hours all three stimuli given together caused 75% germination but each alone was ineffective. The main influence of water potential on seed germination occurred at about 24 hours, but the influence of CO(2) extended into the second and third days. Germination was reduced by water stress (-4 bars) or CO(2)-free air, but ethylene reversed the reduction even when administered after several days incubation. This suggested that environmental and hormonal factors affected redroot pigweed seeds at two distinct stages in the sequence of germination events. PMID:16661865

Schonbeck, M W; Egley, G H

1981-07-01

243

?-Amylase from Starchless Seeds of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum and Its Localization in Germinating Seeds  

PubMed Central

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds do not contain starch as carbohydrate reserve. Synthesis of starch is initiated after germination. A ?-amylase from ungerminated fenugreek seeds was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 210 fold with specific activity of 732.59 units/mg. Mr of the denatured enzyme as determined from SDS-PAGE was 58 kD while that of native enzyme calculated from size exclusion chromatography was 56 kD. Furthermore, its identity was confirmed to be ?-amylase from MALDI-TOF analysis. The optimum pH and temperature was found to be 5.0 and 50°C, respectively. Starch was hydrolyzed at highest rate and enzyme showed a Km of 1.58 mg/mL with it. Antibodies against purified Fenugreek ?-amylase were generated in rabbits. These antibodies were used for localization of enzyme in the cotyledon during different stages of germination using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Fenugreek ?-amylase was found to be the major starch degrading enzyme depending on the high amount of enzyme present as compared to ?-amylase and also its localization at the periphery of amyloplasts. A new finding in terms of its association with protophloem was observed. Thus, this enzyme appears to be important for germination of seeds. PMID:24551136

Srivastava, Garima; Kayastha, Arvind M.

2014-01-01

244

Germination rate of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds relative to storage methods and periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the optimal storage method and longest possible storage period of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds, we examined post-storage germination rates using different storage methods and periods for P. japonicus seeds harvested in Korean coastal waters. P. japonicus seeds are classified as recalcitrant seeds with an average moisture content of 45.4%. Germination rates of P. japonicus seeds stored in seawater at 4 °C, seawater at room temperature with air supply, and an aquarium with continuous seawater circulation ranged from 35.0% to 43.5%, whereas seeds stored in seawater at 30°C, a refrigerator at -20°C, and a desiccator at room temperature did not germinate. Seeds stored at 4°C maintained germination rates of 72.5˜73.0% until 30 days of storage, but showed rapidly decreasing germination rates after 60 days and no germination after 180 days. Since few studies have investigated seed storage of P. japonicus, these results will serve as useful data for seed-based P. japonicus habitat restoration.

Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop; Son, Min Ho

2014-03-01

245

Regulatory monoubiquitination of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in germinating castor oil seeds.  

PubMed

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly regulated enzyme situated at the core of plant C-metabolism. Although its anaplerotic role and control by allosteric effectors, reversible phosphorylation, and oligomerization have been well documented in the endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS), relatively little is known about PEPC in germinating COS. The initial phase of COS germination was accompanied by elevated PEPC activity and accumulation of comparable amounts of pre-existing 107-kDa and inducible 110-kDa immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides (p107 and p110, respectively). A 440-kDa PEPC heterotetramer composed of an equivalent ratio of non-phosphorylated p110 and p107 subunits was purified from germinated COS. N-terminal microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and immunoblotting revealed that both subunits arose from the same gene (RcPpc3) that encodes the p107 subunit of a phosphorylated 410-kDa PEPC homotetramer in developing COS but that p110 is a monoubiquitinated form of p107. Tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of a diglycinated tryptic peptide identified Lys-628 as p110's monoubiquitination site. This residue is conserved in vascular plant PEPCs and is proximal to a PEP-binding/catalytic domain. Incubation with a human deubiquitinating enzyme (USP-2 core) converted the p110:p107 PEPC heterotetramer into a p107 homotetramer while significantly reducing the enzyme's K(m)(PEP) and sensitivity to allosteric activators (hexose-Ps, glycerol-3-P) and inhibitors (malate, aspartate). Monoubiquitination is a non-destructive and reversible post-translational modification involved in the control of diverse processes such as transcription, endocytosis, and signal transduction. The current study demonstrates that tissue-specific monoubiquitination of a metabolic enzyme can also occur and that this modification influences its kinetic and regulatory properties. PMID:18728004

Uhrig, R Glen; She, Yi-Min; Leach, Craig A; Plaxton, William C

2008-10-31

246

4',4?,7,7?-tetra-O-methylcupressuflavone inhibits seed germination of Lactuca sativa.  

PubMed

Biflavonoids have been isolated from a wide variety of plant species, but little is known about their native biological functions. Here we report a possible ecological role for biflavonoids by describing the isolation of the biflavonoid 4',4?,7,7?-tetra-O-methylcupressuflavone (1) from Araucaria columnaris and its inhibitory effect on seed germination. Compound 1 was isolated from needles of a single A. columnaris specimen and inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa seeds in a culture-dish assay; it was also detected in soil samples under the canopy where reduced germination was observed, but not in a location away from the canopy where germination was uninhibited. PMID:24628372

DeForest, Jacob C; Du, Lin; Joyner, P Matthew

2014-04-25

247

Seed flotation and germination of salt marsh plants: The effects of stratification, salinity, and/or inundation regime  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of cold stratification and salinity on seed flotation of eight salt marsh species. Four of the eight species were tested for germination success under different stratification, salinity, and flooding conditions. Species were separated into two groups, four species received wet stratification and four dry stratification and fresh seeds of all species were tested for flotation and germination. Fresh seeds of seven out of eight species had flotation times independent of salinity, six of which had average flotation times of at least 50 d. Seeds of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens had the shortest flotation times, averaging 24 and 26 d, respectively. Following wet stratification, the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds in higher salinity water (15 and 36 ppt) was reduced by over 75% and germination declined by more than 90%. Wet stratification reduced the flotation time of Distichlis spicata seeds in fresh water but increased seed germination from 2 to 16% in a fluctuating inundation regime. Fresh seeds of Iva frutescens and S. alternflora were capable of germination and therefore are non-dormant during dispersal. Fresh seeds of I. frutescens had similar germination to dry stratified seeds ranging 25-30%. Salinity reduced seed germination for all species except for S. alterniflora. A fluctuating inundation regime was important for seed germination of the low marsh species and for germination following cold stratification. The conditions that resulted in seeds sinking faster were similar to the conditions that resulted in higher germination for two of four species. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.

2009-01-01

248

Nitric oxide implication in the control of seed dormancy and germination  

PubMed Central

Germination ability is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and antagonistic effects. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent dormancy-releasing agent in many species, including Arabidopsis, and has been suggested to behave as an endogenous regulator of this physiological blockage. Distinct reports have also highlighted a positive impact of NO on seed germination under sub-optimal conditions. However, its molecular mode of action in the context of seed biology remains poorly documented. This review aims to focus on the implications of this radical in the control of seed dormancy and germination. The consequences of NO chemistry on the investigations on both its signaling and its targets in seeds are discussed. NO-dependent protein post-translational modifications are proposed as a key mechanism underlying NO signaling during early seed germination. PMID:24065970

Arc, Erwann; Galland, Marc; Godin, Béatrice; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loïc

2013-01-01

249

Seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana phyA\\/phyB double mutants is under phytochrome control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the photocontrol of seed germination in the phyA\\/ phyB double mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. Dormant phyA\\/ phyB seeds showed a red\\/far-red light (R\\/FR)-reversible induction of seed germination. This suggests the involvement of at least one other phytochrome, phyC, D, and\\/or E, in controlling seed germi- nation. We designated this spectrally active phytochrome in phyA\\/ phyB as phyX.

Christoph Poppe; Eberhard Schafer

1997-01-01

250

Development of a Threshold Model to Predict Germination of Populus tomentosa Seeds after Harvest and Storage under Ambient Condition  

PubMed Central

Effects of temperature, storage time and their combination on germination of aspen (Populus tomentosa) seeds were investigated. Aspen seeds were germinated at 5 to 30°C at 5°C intervals after storage for a period of time under 28°C and 75% relative humidity. The effect of temperature on aspen seed germination could not be effectively described by the thermal time (TT) model, which underestimated the germination rate at 5°C and poorly predicted the time courses of germination at 10, 20, 25 and 30°C. A modified TT model (MTT) which assumed a two-phased linear relationship between germination rate and temperature was more accurate in predicting the germination rate and percentage and had a higher likelihood of being correct than the TT model. The maximum lifetime threshold (MLT) model accurately described the effect of storage time on seed germination across all the germination temperatures. An aging thermal time (ATT) model combining both the TT and MLT models was developed to describe the effect of both temperature and storage time on seed germination. When the ATT model was applied to germination data across all the temperatures and storage times, it produced a relatively poor fit. Adjusting the ATT model to separately fit germination data at low and high temperatures in the suboptimal range increased the models accuracy for predicting seed germination. Both the MLT and ATT models indicate that germination of aspen seeds have distinct physiological responses to temperature within a suboptimal range. PMID:23658654

Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Song, Song-Quan

2013-01-01

251

A season- and gap-detection mechanism regulates seed germination of two temperate forest pioneers.  

PubMed

The survival of seedlings in temperate climate habitats depends on both temporal and spatial factors. The interaction between an internal seed dormancy mechanism and the ruling environmental conditions allows accurate cueing of germination. We analysed how environmental signals interact in seeds of temperate forest pioneer species, increasing the seed's chances of germinating in the right place at the right time. Digitalis purpurea and Scrophularia nodosa are two small-seeded herbaceous species that typically grow in vegetation gaps in European temperate forests. Seeds of both species are partially dormant at the time of dispersal in summer. This primary dormancy is released in autumn and early winter, resulting in a minimal level of physiological dormancy by late winter and early spring. We observed that physiological dormancy was induced again in seeds exhumed in late spring and in summer. Experiments in laboratory conditions revealed that primary dormancy in seeds of S nodosa was broken by cold stratification, whereas primary dormancy in D. purpurea seeds was broken by both a cold and a warm stratification. The two species differed in their response to the tested gap-detection signals, as light was the most important factor stimulating germination of D. purpurea, and seeds of S. nodosa germinated best when subjected to daily fluctuating temperatures. This study clearly indicates that the ability to germinate in response to gap-detection signals changes seasonally in temperate forest pioneers. Additionally, seeds of both species responded differently to these environmental signals, probably reflecting differences in the regeneration niche. PMID:22188020

Vranckx, G; Vandelook, F

2012-05-01

252

Proteome analysis of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) seeds dormancy breaking and germination: influence of abscisic and gibberellic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Seed dormancy is controlled by the physiological or structural properties of a seed and the external conditions. It is induced as part of the genetic program of seed development and maturation. Seeds with deep physiological embryo dormancy can be stimulated to germinate by a variety of treatments including cold stratification. Hormonal imbalance between germination inhibitors (e.g. abscisic acid) and

Tomasz A Paw?owski

2009-01-01

253

Cross-species approaches to seed dormancy and germination: conservation and biodiversity of ABA-regulated mechanisms  

E-print Network

- dormant seeds was not known. Seed germination of Lepi- dium sativum (`garden cress') is controlled by ABA. Tissue-specific analysis of LesaDOG1 transcript levels in L. sativum seeds showed that they are degraded of germination timing of non- dormant L. sativum seeds. The possible involvement of the ABA-related transcription

Leubner, Gerhard

254

Morphology, ecophysiology and germination of seeds of the neotropical tree Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae).  

PubMed

Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae) is of economic and cultural importance for communities in the Colombian Pacific and Amazon regions, where it is cultivated and mature fruits are highly appreciated and consumed. Since there is a lack of knowledge of the seed physiology of this species, we describe here the germination behavior and morphometry of seeds of Alibertia patinoi, and relate them to its habitat. Fruits were collected from a mixed food crop and a commercial plantation in Guaimía village, Buenaventura, Colombia, a tropical rain forest area. We measured length, width, thickness, mass (n = 1 400), and moisture content of seeds (n = 252). Primary dormancy tests were conducted (n = 200), followed by imbibition (n=252) and germination dynamics, under different conditions of light and temperature specific to understory and forest clearings (n = 300 seeds). Finally, seed storage behavior was established (n = 100 seeds). We observed that size and mass of seeds had a narrow range of values that did not differ within or among fruits and that the species did not exhibit primary dormancy. The seeds are recalcitrant, and recently harvested seeds exhibited higher seed moisture content (ca. 44%) and continuous metabolism. The seed germination percentage was observed to be higher under the specific dense canopy forest light and temperature conditions; furthermore, neither enriched far-red light nor darkness conditions inhibited germination. We concluded that rapid germination could be the establishment strategy of this species. Also, the physiological traits (i.e., rapid germination rate, low germination requirements, absence of primary dormancy, and recalcitrant behavior) and seed size and mass, suggest that A. patinoi is adapted to conditions of mature tropical rain forests. PMID:23885573

Escobar Escobar, Diego Fernando; Torres, Alba Marina

2013-06-01

255

Ingestion and dispersal: direct and indirect effects of frugivores on seed viability and germination of Corema album (Empetraceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gulls, blackbirds and rabbits on the viability and germination of Corema album seeds are compared. Frugivores can affect seed viability and germination (1) directly, through the effect of ingestion and (2) indirectly, dispersing seeds to different sites with different conditions. These two major factors in the quality of a seed disperser are not necessarily concordant in direction and magnitude. Gulls and blackbirds have similar direct effects, being much better than those of rabbits, due to the low probability of germination of seeds within rabbit pellets. Seed germination occurs mainly in the open ground, particularly in the sparse scrub, and is very low under vegetation cover. This pattern becomes crucial determining the indirect effects of seed dispersers that will depend on their capacity to carry seeds to the most suitable sites for germination. Gulls and rabbits disperse most of seeds to open ground, exerting a positive indirect effect on germination, whereas blackbirds disperse seeds mainly under shrubs, thus exerting a negative indirect effect. Direct and indirect effects on seed germination are concordant for gulls but discordant for blackbirds and rabbits. Gulls were the best dispersers; the overall probability of germination for a seed dispersed by gulls was 17.59%. The quality of blackbirds and rabbits was relatively low (3.49% and 1.17%, respectively). Frugivores seem to be essential for germination of C. album seeds, not as much for their direct effects but for their ability to carry seeds to suitable sites.

Calviño-Cancela, María

2004-07-01

256

Dynamics and partitioning of the ionome in seeds and germinating seedlings of winter oilseed rape.  

PubMed

Germination and seedling establishment are among the most critical phases in the development of plants, and seed vigour has become an important trait for the selection of robust crop cultivars. Little is known about the potentially limiting role of mineral nutrients in early metabolic and developmental processes during germination. Therefore, we assessed the ionome and relative distribution of mineral elements in different seed and seedling tissues of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and monitored the internal allocation of nutrients during germination. In seeds, cotyledons harboured the main pool of K, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, whereas the seed coat contained most of the Ca, Na, B, Cu and Mo. Although the early root and hypocotyl tissue expanded first, concentrations of most elements were initially low. Re-allocation of elements to the root/hypocotyl tissue from other pools set in two days after seed imbibition and was most rapid for K. Relative to the critical deficiency levels of vegetative tissues, seed tissues were particularly low in B, K and Fe. Further analyses of the ionome of seeds and seedlings, grouped according to their germination efficiency, indicated that in particular low S, Mg and Ca coincided with germination failure. This study documents highly dynamic changes in the ionome of seed and seedling tissues and provides evidence for potentially limiting elements during early germination and seedling establishment in rapeseed. PMID:23939714

Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2013-09-01

257

Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three saltmarsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management.

Espinar, J.L.; Garcia, L.V.; Clemente, L.

2005-01-01

258

Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Salvia aegyptiaca L. (Lamiaceae)  

PubMed Central

Salvia aegyptiaca is a xerophytic perennial herb belongs to the Lamiaceae family commonly used for medicinal purposes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the effects of temperature and salinity on seed germination and recovery responses after transferring to distilled water. Temperatures between 10 and 40 °C seem to be favourable for the germination of this species. Germination was inhibited by either an increase or decrease in temperature from the optimum (30 °C). The highest germination percentages were obtained at 0 mM NaCl; however, the increase of solution osmolalities progressively inhibited seed germination. The germination rate decreased with an increase in salinity for most of tested temperatures, but comparatively higher rates were obtained at 30 °C. Salt stress decreased both the percentage and the rate of germination. An interaction between salinity and temperature yielded no germination at 300 mM NaCl. By experimental transfer to distilled water, S. aegyptiaca seeds that were exposed to moderately saline conditions recovered and keep their ability to germinate mostly at low temperatures. At 300 mM NaCl, germination recovery decreased with increasing temperature and it was completely inhibited at 40 °C. PMID:23961132

Gorai, Mustapha; Gasmi, Hayet; Neffati, Mohamed

2011-01-01

259

Expression of an Expansin Is Associated with Endosperm Weakening during Tomato Seed Germination1  

E-print Network

Expression of an Expansin Is Associated with Endosperm Weakening during Tomato Seed Germination1 three expansin genes that are expressed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds during of seeds of tomato (Lyco- persicon esculentum Mill.) and other Solanaceae (Sa´nchez et al., 1990; Dahal et

Bradford, Kent

260

Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5°C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20%

Duan Chuanren; Wang Bochu; Liu Wanqian; Chen Jing; Lian Jie; Zhao Huan

2004-01-01

261

Evaluation of factors that influence Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) seed germination and emergence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A perennial species in its native range, Benghal dayflower (BD) in North America establishes annually from seed. BD has the unique ability to produce aerial and subterranean flowers and seeds; information on how various environmental factors affect BD aerial and subterranean seed germination and eme...

262

Improved germination of pansy seed at high temperatures by priming with salt solutions  

E-print Network

and nonprimed seeds. Pansy seeds (Viola x wittrockiana 'Majestic Giant Blue Shade' and 'Crystal Bowl Sky Blue') were primed with several salts and PEG 15,000 at - 1.0 and - 2.0 MPa, for 3, 6, or 9 days at 23 C. Total percent germination (G) of nonprimed seeds...

Yoon, Beyoung-Han

1995-01-01

263

SOYBEAN SEED STORAGE RESERVE DIGESTION AND ITS REGULATION DURING GERMINATIVE GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alteration of soybean seed composition to meet the requirements of functional foods has been carried out for many years and some achievements have been attained. As the seed composition is altered by conventional breeding or by biotechnology, seed germination and subsequent seedling vigor might decr...

264

Effect of seed priming on germination characteristics, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase activities of four amaranth cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaranth is a C4 crop with increasing potential for cultivation in Iran. Amaranth is a very nutritious crop due to high quality amino acids and minerals in its seeds. Seed priming known as pre-sowing treatment which improve germination characteristics and results in uniform seed emergence. Peroxides (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) are two plant enzymes and play very important role in

A. Moosavi; R. Tavakkol Afshari; F. Sharif-Zadeh; A. Aynehband

2009-01-01

265

Expression of 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 Is Essential for Thermoinhibition of Lettuce Seed Germination  

E-print Network

therefore require seed priming and cooling by sprinkler irrigation to overcome thermoinhibition for cropExpression of 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 Is Essential for Thermoinhibition of Lettuce Seed Germination but Not for Seed Development or Stress ToleranceC W Heqiang Huo,a Peetambar Dahal,a Keshavulu

Bradford, Kent

266

4. The role of plant growth regulators in the germination of forest tree seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a role for PGRs in the germination of forest tree seeds, it must be demonstrated that PGRs are involved in the mechanisms that control the induction of and release from dormancy, and also that these mechanisms are operative in the seeds of woody plants. Four currently known concepts of seed dormancy are reviewed, citing the published evidence relating

C. L. Leadem

1987-01-01

267

[Effects of light intensity on seed germination and seedling early growth of Shorea wantianshuea].  

PubMed

With shading experiment, this paper studied the seed germination and seedling early growth of Shorea wantianshuea, a representative species in Xishuangbanna seasonal rain forest under different light intensity and forest habitat. The results showed that both 100% light and deepest shading did not facilitate the germination of S. wantianshuea seed, while medium shading accelerated the seed germination. Gap center was more appropriate to the seed germination than gap edge and under-canopy. The seeds in gap center had the highest germination rate and rapid germination. Under partially shading, the seedling height, diameter of basal stem, and leaf area per seedling were in their peak, while the root-shoot ratio decreased with increasing shading and achieved its maximum under 100% light. The specific leaf area increased with increasing shading in a certain range, and peaked under 4.2% light. Gap center was beneficial to the early seedling growth, with all growth parameters except root-shoot ratio peaked there. The effects of environmental factors, mainly light intensity and quality, on the seed germination and seedling growth of S. wantianshuea were discussed. PMID:17396494

Yan, Xing-fu; Cao, Min

2007-01-01

268

AtEXP2 Is Involved in Seed Germination and Abiotic Stress Response in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Expansins are cell wall proteins that promote cell wall loosening by inducing pH-dependent cell wall extension and stress relaxation. Expansins are required in a series of physiological developmental processes in higher plants such as seed germination. Here we identified an Arabidopsis expansin gene AtEXPA2 that is exclusively expressed in germinating seeds and the mutant shows delayed germination, suggesting that AtEXP2 is involved in controlling seed germination. Exogenous GA application increased the expression level of AtEXP2 during seed germination, while ABA application had no effect on AtEXP2 expression. Furthermore, the analysis of DELLA mutants show that RGL1, RGL2, RGA, GAI are all involved in repressing AtEXP2 expression, and RGL1 plays the most dominant role in controlling AtEXP2 expression. In stress response, exp2 mutant shows higher sensitivity than wild type in seed germination, while overexpression lines of AtEXP2 are less sensitive to salt stress and osmotic stress, exhibiting enhanced tolerance to stress treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that AtEXP2 is involved in the GA-mediated seed germination and confers salt stress and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:24404203

Yan, An; Wu, Minjie; Yan, Limei; Hu, Rui; Ali, Imran; Gan, Yinbo

2014-01-01

269

The effect of fruit age on seed germinability of a heterocarpic species, Atriplex sagittata.  

PubMed

Atriplex sagittata is an annual heterocarpic plant that produces three different fruit types (termed A, B, and C). To examine the consequence of heterocarpy on germinability patterns over long time periods, we compared seed germinability of different fruit types that had been stored for up to 8 years. While germinability of non-dormant type C fruits in distilled water was high (up to 100 %) in the first 2 years, it rapidly decreased over time. Dormant fruit types A and B showed increased germinability up to 7 years, though loss of germinability was lower for type B than for type A fruits. Eight-year-old fruits of all types had significantly lower germinability than younger fruits, probably due to loss of viability. Heterocarpy, therefore, ensures that emergence rates for seedlings of A. sagittata will be maintained over relatively long periods, even in years of strong disturbance when all adult plants may be destroyed. The experiment further showed that germinability of all fruit types in high concentrations of salt, as compared with water treatment, changed over the course of 8 years. Whilst dormant types (A and B) of A. sagittata show increased germinability with age of the seed in water treatment, they significantly lose germinability over time with salinity treatment. Type C fruit was not influenced by salt in the first year, but germinability rapidly decreased with time. It follows that the species is able to germinate under high salt concentration in the first year, but this advantage gradually disappears. PMID:15570477

Mandák, B; Holmanová, S

2004-11-01

270

[Impact of priming on seed germination and seedling growth of Oldenlandia diffusa under drought stress].  

PubMed

Current study was carried out to optimize the priming condition of Oldenlandia diffusa seeds, and improve germination rate and seed vigor of 0. diffusa seeds under drought conditions. Uniform design was used to optimize the concentration and priming time of three priming materials (PEG, KNO3, GA3). Different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to simulate drought stress. The seedling was cultured in 1/4 Hoagland medium for 30 d. The results showed that seed priming treatment with 366 mg x kg(-1) GA3 for 1h resulted in significant increase in germination rate, germination index, vigor, root length, plant height and biomass of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress (15% PEG), while seed priming with 3.0% KNO3 for 1 h showed little effect on germination and growth of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress. Seed priming treatment with appropriate GA3 concentration and priming time could enhance seed germination and drought resistance of O. diffusa in seedling stage. PMID:25039170

Zhu, Zai-Biao; Lu, Wei-Wei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Cao, Ya-Yue; Feng, Shan; Ning, Zi-Jun

2014-04-01

271

Using hyperspectral imaging to determine germination of native Australian plant seeds.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability to accurately and non-destructively determine the germination of three native Australian tree species, Acacia cowleana Tate (Fabaceae), Banksia prionotes L.F. (Proteaceae), and Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson (Myrtaceae) based on hyperspectral imaging data. While similar studies have been conducted on agricultural and horticultural seeds, we are unaware of any published studies involving reflectance-based assessments of the germination of tree seeds. Hyperspectral imaging data (110 narrow spectral bands from 423.6nm to 878.9nm) were acquired of individual seeds after 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50days of standardized rapid ageing. At each time point, seeds were subjected to hyperspectral imaging to obtain reflectance profiles from individual seeds. A standard germination test was performed, and we predicted that loss of germination was associated with a significant change in seed coat reflectance profiles. Forward linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to select the 10 spectral bands with the highest contribution to classifications of the three species. In all species, germination decreased from over 90% to below 20% in about 10-30days of experimental ageing. P50 values (equal to 50% germination) for each species were 19.3 (A. cowleana), 7.0 (B. prionotes) and 22.9 (C. calophylla) days. Based on independent validation of classifications of hyperspectral imaging data, we found that germination of Acacia and Corymbia seeds could be classified with over 85% accuracy, while it was about 80% for Banksia seeds. The selected spectral bands in each LDA-based classification were located near known pigment peaks involved in photosynthesis and/or near spectral bands used in published indices to predict chlorophyll or nitrogen content in leaves. The results suggested that seed germination may be successfully classified (predicted) based on reflectance in narrow spectral bands associated with the primary metabolism function and performance of plants. PMID:25752861

Nansen, Christian; Zhao, Genpin; Dakin, Nicole; Zhao, Chunhui; Turner, Shane R

2015-04-01

272

Project Explorer: Get Away Special #007. [alloy solidification, seed germination, crystal growth, and radio transmission of payload data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tentatively scheduled to fly on STS-17 (41G), this get away special aims to demonstrate amateur radio transmissions to global ground stations in the English language. Experiments No. 1, 2, and 3 use the micro-gravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the germination of radish seeds, and the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution. Flight results are to be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 (the Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment - MARCE) features radio transmissions and also provides timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor obtains real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements within the GAS canister. These data are to be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they are converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception. The support structure for the G #007 experiments consists of two primary plates and four bumper assemblies.

Henderson, A. J., Jr.

1984-01-01

273

A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.

Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.

2010-01-01

274

Effects of waterlogging on seed germination of three Mediterranean oak species: Ecological implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water saturation during prolonged periods of time generates a negative impact on nearly all terrestrial plants. In Mediterranean woodlands, precipitation can be very abundant during the wet season, inducing temporary soil waterlogging, coinciding with the seed dispersal and germination time of many species. We investigated the effects of waterlogging on seed germination and early root growth of three coexisting oak species ( Quercus canariensis, Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica), by completely flooding of seeds for various periods of time. The three oak species showed a certain level of tolerance to waterlogging, only being affected those seeds subjected for long periods of submersion (over 30 days). Waterlogging during prolonged periods of time decreased the probability of seed germination in the three oak species, lengthened the time to germination, and hampered root development in two of the studied species. The main differences between oak species occurred in terms of root growth ( Q. canariensis being the less affected, and Q. suber the most); these differential responses could be related to a species rank of waterlogging tolerance. Thus inter-specific differences in germination responses to waterlogging could contribute to explain, at least partially, species habitat and distribution patterns across landscapes. Seed mass also played an important role on different aspects of germination, though its relative importance varied as function of species and waterlogging treatment. The tolerance to stress induced by waterlogging increased with seed mass, but only in the case of Q. canariensis.

Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Marañón, Teodoro

2009-05-01

275

Germination of native grasses The fall burn consumed all the litter and left bare soil in which seeded  

E-print Network

Germination of native grasses The fall burn consumed all the litter and left bare soil in which seeded grass germinated. Cool wet weather followed the fall burn. Spring conditions were too wet to burn evenly, but the season dried out too quickly for germination to occur. A. Fall burn plot with seeded

Muir, Patricia

276

Characterization of Percent Seed Germination for Native Switchgrass Accessions Collected from New York, Pennsylvania, and the Northeast  

E-print Network

Characterization of Percent Seed Germination for Native Switchgrass Accessions collected in both 2010 and 2011. In 2010, seed lots from each plant were germinated germination (each characteristic was scaled from 1-5) were tested at low temperatures (20C day

Pawlowski, Wojtek

277

Effects of fruit position on fruit mass and seed germination in the alien species Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae)  

E-print Network

Effects of fruit position on fruit mass and seed germination in the alien species Heracleum of position of fruit on a plant affects the germination characteristics of seed of Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae), a Caucasian species invasive in Europe, and the germination potential of this species

Kratochvíl, Lukas

278

G. Leubner-Metzger et al.: -1,3-Glucanase and tobacco seed germination Planta (1996) 199: 282-288  

E-print Network

G. Leubner-Metzger et al.: ß-1,3-Glucanase and tobacco seed germination - 1 - Planta (1996) 199,3-glucanase induction in tobacco seed germination Gerhard Leubner-Metzger, Corinne Fründt, Frederick Meins, Jr I ß-1,3- glucanases are induced by GA4 in the dark in association with germination. As in the light

Leubner, Gerhard

1996-01-01

279

Sense transformation reveals a novel role for class I b-1,3-glucanase in tobacco seed germination  

E-print Network

Sense transformation reveals a novel role for class I b-1,3-glucanase in tobacco seed germination in tobacco seed germination, is preceded by induction of class I b-1,3-glucanase (bGLUI) in the micropylar evidence that bGLUI contributes to endosperm rupture. Over-expression of bGLUI during germination also

Leubner, Gerhard

280

Genetic control of germination and the effects of accelerated aging in mountain hemlock seeds and its relevance to gene conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic control of germination parameters and the effects of accelerated aging in mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana [Bong.] Carr.) seeds were investigated using standard germination tests and simulated aging, respectively. Germination parameters were studied on seeds collected from individual trees from two natural populations (Sooke and San Juan) located on southern Vancouver Island, BC. Strong genetic control was confirmed by the

Y. A. El-Kassaby; D. G. W. Edwards

1998-01-01

281

Transcriptome analysis during seed germination of elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Jimai 20  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat seed germination directly affects wheat yield and quality. Although transcriptome and proteome analyses during seed germination have been reported in some crop plant species, dynamic transcriptome characterization during wheat seed germination has not been conducted. We performed the first comprehensive dynamic transcriptome analysis during different seed germination stages of elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Jimai 20 using the Affymetrix Wheat Genome Array. Results A total of 61,703 probe sets representing 51,411 transcripts were identified during the five seed germination stages of Jimai 20, of which 2,825 differential expression probe sets corresponding to 2,646 transcripts with different functions were declared by ANOVA and a randomized variance model. The seed germination process included a rapid initial uptake phase (0–12 hours after imbibition [HAI]), a plateau phase (12–24 HAI), and a further water uptake phase (24–48 HAI), corresponding to switches from the degradation of small-molecule sucrose to the metabolism of three major nutrients and to photosynthesis. Hierarchical cluster and MapMan analyses revealed changes in several significant metabolism pathways during seed germination as well as related functional groups. The signal pathway networks constructed with KEGG showed three important genes encoding the phosphofructokinase family protein, with fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase located at the center, indicating their pivotal roles in the glycolytic pathway, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenesis, respectively. Several significant pathways were selected to establish a metabolic pathway network according to their degree value, which allowed us to find the pathways vital to seed germination. Furthermore, 51 genes involved in transport, signaling pathway, development, lipid metabolism, defense response, nitrogen metabolism, and transcription regulation were analyzed by gene co-expression network with a k-core algorithm to determine which play pivotal roles in germination. Twenty-three meaningful genes were found, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis validated the expression patterns of 12 significant genes. Conclusions Wheat seed germination comprises three distinct phases and includes complicated regulation networks involving a large number of genes. These genes belong to many functional groups, and their co-regulations guarantee regular germination. Our results provide new insight into metabolic changes during seed germination and interactions between some significant genes. PMID:24410729

2014-01-01

282

A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.  

PubMed

Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin ?-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature. PMID:25270993

Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

2015-05-01

283

STRESS TEST WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE: SUGAR BEET SEED GERMINATION IN SOLUTION REFLECTS RELATIVE EMERGENCE POTENTIAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Investigation of sugar beet seed germination in water, hydrogen peroxide, and other solutions has revealed insights into the mechanism of seedling vigor in beets. Results showed that germination in solution reflected the relative emergence potential of sugar beet in the field. Experiments at East ...

284

Toward characterizing seed vigor in alfalfa through proteomic analysis of germination and priming.  

PubMed

Alfalfa, the most widely grown leguminous crop in the world, is generally exposed to severe salinity stress in Tunisia, notably affecting its germination performance. Toward a better understanding of alfalfa seed vigor, we have used proteomics to characterize protein changes occurring during germination and osmopriming, a pretreatment that accelerates germination and improves seedling uniformity particularly under stress conditions. The data revealed that germination was accompanied by dynamic changes of 79 proteins, which are mainly involved in protein metabolism, cell structure, metabolism, and defense. Comparative proteomic analysis also revealed 63 proteins specific to osmopriming, 65 proteins preferentially varying during germination, and 14 proteins common to both conditions. Thus, the present study unveiled the unexpected finding that osmopriming cannot simply be considered as an advance of germination-related processes but involves other mechanisms improving germination such as the mounting of defense mechanisms enabling osmoprimed seeds to surmount environmental stresses potentially occurring during germination. The present results therefore provide novel avenues toward understanding the mechanisms of invigoration of low vigor seeds by priming treatments that are widely used both in commercial applications and in developing countries (on farm seed priming) to better control crop yields. PMID:21755932

Yacoubi, Rafika; Job, Claudette; Belghazi, Maya; Chaibi, Wided; Job, Dominique

2011-09-01

285

Influence of physico-chemical parameters of the aquatic medium on germination of Eichhornia crassipes seeds.  

PubMed

The germination of seeds of Eichhornia crassipes in locations distant from the foci of infestation may be a means of dispersal of this invasive plant. Nonetheless, no modern studies have examined the influence of single components on germination, although the influence of temperature, oxygen and redox potential was examined in earlier studies. The effects of pH, conductivity, nitrate, phosphate, potassium, calcium, iron and boron on germination of E. crassipes were determined in seed germination tests. The results showed that external input of nutrients influences germination, since neither pH nor conductivity alone had any effect, but there was a significant increase in germination in growth media containing phosphorus at 3.95 mg·l(-1) (P/L; 95.5%) and boron at 10 mg·l(-1) (B/L; 97.5%); at higher concentrations, the latter was toxic. These findings contribute to knowledge of factors controlling the germination of E. crassipes seeds. Consequently, E. crassipes seeds would find very good conditions for germination in water classified as hypereutrophic, which may play a decisive role in expansion of this plant. PMID:21668605

Albano Pérez, E; Ruiz Téllez, T; Sánchez Guzmán, J M

2011-07-01

286

Raffinose and Stachyose Metabolism are not Required for Efficient Soybean Seed Germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which include raffinose and stachyose, are thought to be an important source of energy during seed germination. In contrast to their potential for promoting germination, RFOs represent anti-nutritional units for monogastric animals when consumed as a compone...

287

Environmental signals for seed germination reflect habitat adaptations in four temperate Caryophyllaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Requirements for dormancy break and seed germination are specific for all species and depend chiefly on phylogeny, geographical distribution, habitat preference and life cycle. Studying germina- tion requirements of closely related species with a similar geographic distribution allows one to attribute variation in germination requirements to differences in habitat preference between the species. 2. We investigated requirements for

F. Vandelook; D. Van de Moer; J. A. Van Assche

2008-01-01

288

Soil warming increases plant species richness but decreases germination from the alpine soil seed bank.  

PubMed

Global warming is occurring more rapidly above the treeline than at lower elevations and alpine areas are predicted to experience above average warming in the future. Temperature is a primary factor in stimulating seed germination and regulating changes in seed dormancy status. Thus, plant regeneration from seed will be crucial to the persistence, migration and post disturbance recruitment of alpine plants in future climates. Here, we present the first assessment of the impact of soil warming on germination from the persistent alpine soil seed bank. Contrary to expectations, soil warming lead to reduced overall germination from the soil seed bank. However, germination response to soil temperature was species specific such that total species richness actually increased by nine with soil warming. We further explored the system by assessing the prevalence of seed dormancy and germination response to soil disturbance, the frequency of which is predicted to increase under climate change. Seeds of a significant proportion of species demonstrated physiological dormancy mechanisms and germination of several species appeared to be intrinsically linked to soil disturbance. In addition, we found no evidence of subalpine species and little evidence of exotic weed species in the soil, suggesting that the soil seed bank will not facilitate their invasion of the alpine zone. In conclusion, changes in recruitment via the alpine soil seed bank can be expected under climate change, as a result of altered dormancy alleviation and germination cues. Furthermore, the alpine soil seed bank, and the species richness therein, has the potential to help maintain local species diversity, support species range shift and moderate species dominance. Implications for alpine management and areas for further study are also discussed. PMID:23505066

Hoyle, Gemma L; Venn, Susanna E; Steadman, Kathryn J; Good, Roger B; McAuliffe, Edward J; Williams, Emlyn R; Nicotra, Adrienne B

2013-05-01

289

ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination  

PubMed Central

Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8?-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs) has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8?-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination. PMID:23531630

Arc, Erwann; Sechet, Julien; Corbineau, Françoise; Rajjou, Loïc; Marion-Poll, Annie

2013-01-01

290

Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms play specific roles for seed germination and seed yield structure in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen (N) remobilization from reserves to sinks is essential for seedling establishment and seed production. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is up-regulated during both seed germination and seed filling in plants. However, the specific roles of the individual GS1 isogenes with respect to N remobilization, early seedling vigour, and final seed productivity are not known. In this study, impairment of seed germination and seedling establishment is demonstrated in the single knockout mutant gln1;2, and the double knockout mutant gln1;1:gln1;2. The negative effect of Gln1;2 deficiency was associated with reduced N remobilization from the cotyledons and could be fully alleviated by exogenous N supply. Following reproductive growth, both the single and double Gln1;2-knockout mutants showed decreased seed yield due to fewer siliques, less seeds per silique, and lower dry weight per seed. The gln1;1 single mutant had normal seed yield structure but primary root development during seed germination was reduced in the presence of external N. Gln1;2 promoter–green fluorescent protein constructs showed that Gln1;2 localizes to the vascular cells of roots, petals, and stamens. It is concluded that Gln1;2 plays an important role in N remobilization for both seedling establishment and seed production in Arabidopsis. PMID:25316065

Guan, M.; Møller, I. S.; Schjoerring, J. K.

2015-01-01

291

Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms play specific roles for seed germination and seed yield structure in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) remobilization from reserves to sinks is essential for seedling establishment and seed production. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is up-regulated during both seed germination and seed filling in plants. However, the specific roles of the individual GS1 isogenes with respect to N remobilization, early seedling vigour, and final seed productivity are not known. In this study, impairment of seed germination and seedling establishment is demonstrated in the single knockout mutant gln1;2, and the double knockout mutant gln1;1:gln1;2. The negative effect of Gln1;2 deficiency was associated with reduced N remobilization from the cotyledons and could be fully alleviated by exogenous N supply. Following reproductive growth, both the single and double Gln1;2-knockout mutants showed decreased seed yield due to fewer siliques, less seeds per silique, and lower dry weight per seed. The gln1;1 single mutant had normal seed yield structure but primary root development during seed germination was reduced in the presence of external N. Gln1;2 promoter-green fluorescent protein constructs showed that Gln1;2 localizes to the vascular cells of roots, petals, and stamens. It is concluded that Gln1;2 plays an important role in N remobilization for both seedling establishment and seed production in Arabidopsis. PMID:25316065

Guan, M; Møller, I S; Schjoerring, J K

2015-01-01

292

Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds.  

PubMed

Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20% (incubated in light) and the mean time germination (MTG) was reduced from 18 to 6.6 days. On the basis of layers-removed, chilling and continuous light gave significantly higher germination rate (up to 70%). Compare the data of seeds chilled by 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days, the maximum germination rate (up to 70%) achieved at 18-days chilling treatment. Further increases in the chilling period could slightly improve germination. Exogenous application of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/L GA3 or BA in the previous pretreatment increased germination to 78, 90 and 84% or 76, 86 and 84%, respectively. Obviously, the best concentration of GA or BA is 0.3 mg/L. And the GA3 or BA treatment shortened the MTG to about 4 days. The influence of sound stimulation was also tested in the experiment. The result showed that one 100 dB and 1000 Hz sound wave (sine-wave) was beneficial to the germination of E. angustifolia seeds. PMID:15342019

Chuanren, Duan; Bochu, Wang; Wanqian, Liu; Jing, Chen; Jie, Lian; Huan, Zhao

2004-09-01

293

Seed dormancy and germination of Ficus lundellii and tropical forest restoration.  

PubMed

We investigated seed dormancy and germination in Ficus lundellii Standl. (Moraceae), a native species of Mexico's Los Tuxtlas tropical rain forest. In an 8-h photoperiod at an alternating diurnal (16/8 h) temperature of 20/30 degrees C, germination was essentially complete (96%) within 28 days, whereas in darkness, all seeds remained dormant. Neither potassium nitrate (0.05-0.2%) applied continuously nor gibberellic acid applied either continuously (10-200 ppm) or as a 24 hour pretreatment (2000 ppm) induced germination in the dark. Germination in the light was not reduced by a 24-h hydrochloric acid (0.1-1%) pretreatment, but it was reduced both by a 24-h pretreatment with either H(2)O(2) (0.1-5 M) or 5% HCl, or by more than 5 days of storage at 40 degrees C (4.5% seed water content). In a study with a 2-dimensional temperature gradient plate, seeds germinated fully and rapidly in the light at a constant temperature of 30 degrees C, and fully but less rapidly in the light at alternating temperatures with low amplitudes (< 12 degrees C) about the optimal constant temperature. The base, optimal and ceiling temperatures for rate of germination were estimated as 13.8, 30.1 and 41.1 degrees C, respectively. In all temperature regimes, light was essential for the germination of F. lundellii seeds. PMID:16203717

Garcia, Ximena; Hong, Tran D; Ellis, Richard H

2006-01-01

294

Exogenous application of gibberellins to hasten yaupon seed germination for surface mine reclamation  

E-print Network

EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GIBBERELLINS TO HASTEN YAUPON SEED GERMINATION FOR SURFACE MINE RECLAMATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER MARC WHATLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE DECEMBER 1988 Major Subject: Forestry EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GIBBERELLINS TO HASTEN YAUPON SEED GERMINATION FOR SURFACE MINE RECLAMATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER MARC WHATLEY Approved as to style...

Whatley, Christopher Marc

1988-01-01

295

Lipid components of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in composition of total and neutral lipids (NL) as well as glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds, germinated in the dark at 25°C for 10 d, were studied. Total lipids constituted 34.0% of the dry matter of borage seeds. During germination, the content\\u000a of total lipids was decreased by 95%. NL accounted for

S. P. J. Namal Senanayake; Fereidoon Shahidi

2000-01-01

296

Action Spectra for Phytochrome A- and B-Specific Photoinduction of Seed Germination in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana of wild type (wt), and phytochrome A (PhyA)- and B (PhyB)-mutants in terms of incubation time and environmental light effects. Seed germination of the wt and PhyA-null mutant (phyA) was photoreversibly regulated by red and far-red lights of 10-1,000 mu mol m-2 when incubated in darkness for 1-14 hr, but no

Tomoko Shinomura; Akira Nagatani; Hiroko Hanzawa; Mamoru Kubota; Masakatsu Watanabe; Masaki Furuya

1996-01-01

297

Seed Priming and Water Potential Effects on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Germination and Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-optimal soybean crop establishment is a common occurrence on farmers’ fields due to poor germination and emergence. Two experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of increasing germination of soybean varieties through seed priming. The first experiment was aimed at determining the effects of water potentials (0, -10, -100, -200, -500, -1500 kPa), seed treatments (non-primed, primed, primed and 12-hour

F. S. Murungu; E. Zuva; T. Madanzi; I. Matimati; Z. P. Dube

2005-01-01

298

Mode of phytochrome B action in the photoregulation of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Arabidopsis thaliana seeds imbibed for a short duration show phytochrome B (PhyB)-specific photo-induction of germination. Using this system, the relationship was determined between the amount of PhyB in seeds and photon energy required for PhyB-specific germination in two transgenic Arabidopsis lines transformed with either the Arabidopsis PhyB cDNA (ABO) or the rice PhyB cDNA (RBO). Immunochemical detection of PhyB

Tomoko Shinomura; Hiroko Hanzawa; Eberhard Schafer; Masaki Furuya

1998-01-01

299

Biochemical and biophysical changes associated with magnetopriming in germinating cucumber seeds.  

PubMed

Seeds of cucumber were exposed to static magnetic field strength from 100 to 250 mT for 1, 2 or 3 h. Germination-percentage, rate of germination, length of seedling and dry weight increased by 18.5, 49, 34 and 33% respectively in magnetoprimed seeds compared to unexposed seeds. Among different magnetic field doses, 200 mT for 1 h showed significant effect on germination parameters and hence selected for studying changes in water uptake, (1)H transverse relaxation time (T(2)), hydrolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzyme system in germinating seeds. Water uptake and T(2) values were significantly higher in treated seeds during imbibition. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes, amylase and protease were greater than the untreated controls by 51% and 13% respectively. Superoxide radicals also enhanced by 40% and hydrogen peroxide by 8% in magnetically exposed seeds. In magetoprimed seeds, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (8%), catalase (83%) and glutathione reductase (77%) over control was recorded. We report that magnetopriming of dry seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for seed invigoration in cucumber. Unlike other priming treatments seed is not required to be dehydrated after priming, allowing easy storage. PMID:22683465

Bhardwaj, Jyotsna; Anand, Anjali; Nagarajan, Shantha

2012-08-01

300

QTLs for Seed Vigor-Related Traits Identified in Maize Seeds Germinated under Artificial Aging Conditions  

PubMed Central

High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R2>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes. PMID:24651614

Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, ShuLei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

2014-01-01

301

Effects of gut passage, feces, and seed handling on latency and rate of germination in seeds consumed by capuchins (Cebus capucinus).  

PubMed

One of the key measures of the effectiveness of primary seed dispersal by animals is the quality of seed dispersal (Schupp: Plant Ecol 107/108 [1993] 15-29). We present data on quality of seed dispersal by two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica to test the hypothesis that capuchin seed handling results in effective primary dispersal for some fruit species they consume. We examined seed handling for 27 plant species, and germination rates of 18 species consumed by capuchins. For five of the most commonly swallowed seed species, we determined germination rates and average time to germination (latency) for seeds ingested and defecated by capuchins and compared these to seeds removed directly from fruit and planted. For the same five species, we compared germination rates and latency for passed seeds planted in capuchin feces to those cleaned of feces and planted in soil. For three of five species, differences in proportion of germinated seeds were significantly higher for gut passed seeds than for controls. For four of five species, germination latency was significantly faster for gut passed seeds than for controls. Feces had either no effect on seed germination rate or precluded germination. Data presented here support the hypothesis that white-faced capuchins are effective primary dispersers. PMID:19140195

Valenta, Kim; Fedigan, Linda M

2009-04-01

302

Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Chaffy-Seeded Grasses at Negative Water Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

chaffy-seeded grasses can be debearded, i.e., removal ofthehairsandawn(Ahringet al.,1964)orprocessedto Drought is the most frequent cause of stand establishment failure remove all appendages leaving only caryopses (Beisel, of native grasses. An experiment was conducted to determine the interactions of seed processing and simulated dry conditions on seed 1985). When conditions are favorable, planting caryop- germination and seedling growth of five chaffy-seeded,

T. L. Springer

2005-01-01

303

Thermal niche for in situ seed germination by Mediterranean mountain streams: model prediction and validation for Rhamnus persicifolia seeds  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Mediterranean mountain species face exacting ecological conditions of rainy, cold winters and arid, hot summers, which affect seed germination phenology. In this study, a soil heat sum model was used to predict field emergence of Rhamnus persicifolia, an endemic tree species living at the edge of mountain streams of central eastern Sardinia. Methods Seeds were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C) after different periods (up to 3 months) of cold stratification at 5 °C. Base temperatures (Tb), and thermal times for 50 % germination (?50) were calculated. Seeds were also buried in the soil in two natural populations (Rio Correboi and Rio Olai), both underneath and outside the tree canopy, and exhumed at regular intervals. Soil temperatures were recorded using data loggers and soil heat sum (°Cd) was calculated on the basis of the estimated Tb and soil temperatures. Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy (PD), increasing final germination and widening the range of germination temperatures, indicative of a Type 2 non-deep PD. Tb was reduced from 10·5 °C for non-stratified seeds to 2·7 °C for seeds cold stratified for 3 months. The best thermal time model was obtained by fitting probit germination against log °Cd. ?50 was 2·6 log °Cd for untreated seeds and 2·17–2·19 log °Cd for stratified seeds. When ?50 values were integrated with soil heat sum estimates, field emergence was predicted from March to April and confirmed through field observations. Conclusions Tb and ?50 values facilitated model development of the thermal niche for in situ germination of R. persicifolia. These experimental approaches may be applied to model the natural regeneration patterns of other species growing on Mediterranean mountain waterways and of physiologically dormant species, with overwintering cold stratification requirement and spring germination. PMID:24201139

Porceddu, Marco; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

2013-01-01

304

Integration of Auxin and Salt Signals by the NAC Transcription Factor NTM2 during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

Seed germination is regulated through elaborately interacting signaling networks that integrate diverse environmental cues into hormonal signaling pathways. Roles of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid in germination have been studied extensively using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants having alterations in seed germination. Auxin has also been implicated in seed germination. However, how auxin influences germination is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that auxin is linked via the IAA30 gene with a salt signaling cascade mediated by the NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 transcription factor NTM2/Arabidopsis NAC domain-containing protein 69 (for NAC with Transmembrane Motif1) during seed germination. Germination of the NTM2-deficient ntm2-1 mutant seeds exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity. However, the salt resistance disappeared in the ntm2-1 mutant overexpressing the IAA30 gene, which was induced by salt in a NTM2-dependent manner. Auxin exhibited no discernible effects on germination under normal growth conditions. Under high salinity, however, whereas exogenous application of auxin further suppressed the germination of control seeds, the auxin effects were reduced in the ntm2-1 mutant. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of auxin on germination, germination of YUCCA 3-overexpressing plants containing elevated levels of active auxin was more severely influenced by salt. These observations indicate that auxin delays seed germination under high salinity through cross talk with the NTM2-mediated salt signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:21450938

Park, Jungmin; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Je-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

2011-01-01

305

Seed germination of cirsium arvense and Lepidium latifolium: Implications for management of montane wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cirsium arvense and Lepidium latifolium are species that can aggressively invade wetland margins and potentially reduce biodiversity and alter ecosystem function. Although expansion of these species primarily occurs via rhizomatous growth, seeds are thought to be important in initial establishment. We conducted this study to investigate differences in seed germination of C. arvense and L. latifolium in montane wetlands of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. We used germination chambers to simulate environmental conditions (photoperiod, day/night temperature) during three periods of the growing season at each site and evaluated seed germination in relation to three soil moisture levels and two soil depths. A combination of shallow (<1 cm) seed burial and wet conditions resulted in the greatest germination probability of C. arvense (x = 63.0%), 95% CI = 41.2-80.5%), whereas deep (2-3 cm) seed burial and saturated moisture conditions resulted in almost no germination (x?? = 0.3%, 95% CI = 0.1-1.3%). The maximum germination probability of 44.0% (CI = 28.1-61.4%) for L. latifolium also occurred in the shallow burial and wet treatment; however, only effects of seed burial were significant (P < 0.05). The estimated mean germination probability of deeply buried seeds was <1.0% (CI = 0.3-1.4%) compared to 32% (CI = 19.7-47.9%) for shallowly buried seeds. Our results suggest that each species has the ability to germinate at similar rates throughout the growing season and across a large portion of the moisture gradient. This suggests that management actions, including water-level manipulations, at any time during the growing season may stimulate germination. Although burial of seed to depths of 2-3 cm reduced the germination potential of both species, the use of mechanical implements may be problematic in established stands because new plants of both species easily sprout from root buds. Further, disturbance resulting from such actions diminishes the density and vigor of other plants already present, which may ultimately decrease the competitive resistance of the disturbed environment to invasion by outside species. Detection of new invasions is a critical component of any integrated weed management program. Our results indicate that the incidence of C. arvense and L. latifolium germination is most likely in areas with seeds that are within 1 cm of the soil surface and soil moisture is 75-100% of field capacity for extended periods. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Laubhan, M.K.; Shaffer, T.L.

2006-01-01

306

Cytochrome C oxidase activity in germinating Phaseolus vulgaris l. seeds: Effects of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome c oxidase is a key bioenergetic enzyme required for seed germination. The enzyme was isolated from 2-day germinating beans and biochemically compared to its bovine heart counterpart. Carbon monoxide, which binds to the heme a{sub 3} site of cytochrome c oxidase, we used to probe O{sub 2} utilization activity in isolated enzyme, mitochondrial particles, and whole seeds. Bean seeds under 80% CO/20% O{sub 2} exhibited 46% growth inhibition as determined by root length. Reversible, dose-dependent partial inhibition of bean seed mitochondrial respiration was observed in the presence of CO; heart mitochondria had a more sensitive, less reversible response. Effects of CO on bean and bovine heart enzyme were similar. The close correlation of CO effects observed on seedling growth, mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome oxidase activity indicate an important role for this enzyme during the early stages of seed germination.

Caughey, W.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA)); Sowa, S.; Roos, E.E.

1989-04-01

307

A study of the effects of micro-gravity on seed germination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study will identify characteristics of seed germination dependent upon gravity. To accomplish this objective, four different seed types will be germinated in space and then be compared to a control group germinated on Earth. Both the experimental and control groups will be analyzed on the cellular level for the size of cells, structural anomalies, and gravitational effects. The experiment will be conducted in a Get Away Special Canister (GAS Can no. 608) owned by the U.S. Space and Rocket Center and designed for students. The GAS Can will remain in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle with minimal astronaut interaction.

Klein, Lynn Suzanne; Mckibben, Mark; Brain, David A.; Johnson, Theodore C.; Dannenberg, Konrad K.

1992-01-01

308

Seed germination, seedling emergence, seed persistence and triflusulfuron-methyl sensitivity in Galinsoga parviflora and G. quadriradiata.  

PubMed

Galinsoga quadriradiota Ruiz and Pavon (hairy galinsoga) and Galinsogo parviflora Cav. (smaliflower galinsoga, gallant soldier) are very troublesome weeds in many vegetable row crops in Europe. In order to optimize further management strategies for Galinsoga control in-depth study of germination biology was performed. Germination experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of light and alternating temperatures on germination of a large set of Galinsoga populations. Seedling emergence was investigated by burying seeds at different depths in a sand and sandy loam soil. Dormancy of fresh achenes harvested in autumn was evaluated by studying germination response in light at 25/20 degrees C with and without nitrate addition. Seed longevity was investigated in an accelerated ageing experiment by exposing seeds to 45 degrees C and 100% relative humidity. A dose-response pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to evaluate the effectiveness of triflusulfuron-methyl, applied at the one leaf pair stage, for controlling Belgian Galinsoga populations. Galinsoga seeds required light for germination; light dependency varied among populations. Seedling emergence decreased drastically with increasing burial depth. Maximum depth of emergence varied between 4 and 10mm depending on soil type and population. In a sandy soil, emergence percentages were higher and seedlings were able to emerge from greater depths than in a sandy loam soil. Freshly produced G. parviflora seeds showed a varying but high degree of primary dormancy and were less persistent than G. quadriradiata seeds which lack primary dormancy. Galinsoga parviflora populations were more sensitive to triflusulfuron-methyl than G. quadriradiata populations. The lack of primary dormancy, high seed persistence and lower herbicide sensitivity may explain the higher distribution and abundance of G. quadriradiata over G. parviflora populations in Belgium. Overall, features such as lack of primary dormancy of freshly harvested G. quadriradiata seeds and light dependency for germination may be used to optimize and develop Galinsoga management strategies. PMID:25151846

De Cauwer, B; Devos, R; Claerhout, S; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

2013-01-01

309

Genome-wide association mapping unravels the genetic control of seed germination and vigor in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Rapid and uniform seed germination is a crucial prerequisite for crop establishment and high yield levels in crop production. A disclosure of genetic factors contributing to adequate seed vigor would help to further increase yield potential and stability. Here we carried out a genome-wide association study in order to define genomic regions influencing seed germination and early seedling growth in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). A population of 248 genetically diverse winter-type B. napus accessions was genotyped with the Brassica 60k SNP Illumina genotyping array. Automated high-throughput in vitro phenotyping provided extensive data for multiple traits related to germination and early vigor, such as germination speed, absolute germination rate and radicle elongation. The data obtained indicate that seed germination and radicle growth are strongly environmentally dependent, but could nevertheless be substantially improved by genomic-based breeding. Conditions during seed production and storage were shown to have a profound effect on seed vigor, and a variable manifestation of seed dormancy appears to contribute to differences in germination performance in B. napus. Several promising positional and functional candidate genes could be identified within the genomic regions associated with germination speed, absolute germination rate, radicle growth and thousand seed weight. These include B. napus orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes SNOWY COTYLEDON 1 (SCO1), ARABIDOPSIS TWO-COMPONENT RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR4), and ARGINYL-t-RNA PROTEIN TRANSFERASE 1 (ATE1), which have been shown previously to play a role in seed germination and seedling growth in A. thaliana.

Hatzig, Sarah V.; Frisch, Matthias; Breuer, Frank; Nesi, Nathalie; Ducournau, Sylvie; Wagner, Marie-Helene; Leckband, Gunhild; Abbadi, Amine; Snowdon, Rod J.

2015-01-01

310

Effects of different pretreatments on germination of Prunus serotina seed sources.  

PubMed

Establishing intensive plantations of fast growing hardwood tree species that have high market values in the forest industry can narrow the gap between Turkey's demand and the supply of quality hardwood products. Black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) is a fast growing hardwood species with a high market value. Introducing and intensively growing black cherry (BC) in Turkey may significantly reduce the country's quality wood shortage. Adequate seed germination constitutes the first essential step for successful establishments. In this paper effects of different pretreatments, including artificial and natural stratification, on the seeds of different BC seed sources (SSs) were studied. Pretreatments had substantial effects on the dormancy breaking and germination behaviours of the SSs. Consecutive periods of complex warm and cold artificial stratification regimes longer than 90 days or natural stratification (where seeds were assumed to be naturally exposed to this complexity) resulted in best dormancy breaking and, in turn, germination among all pretreatments. Deeper dormancy and reduced germination rates of some BC seeds as the altitude of the source increases might suggest an ecological adaptive strategy of the species. BC may have deeper morphophysiological dormancy than is commonly believed. Seed size may have a positive effect on seed germination. PMID:17717993

Esen, Derya; Yildiz, Oktay; Sarginci, Murat; Isik, Kani

2007-01-01

311

Identification of a soybean MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 homolog involved in regulation of seed germination.  

PubMed

Seed germination is an important event in the life cycle of seed plants, and is controlled by complex and coordinated genetic networks. Many genes involved in the regulation of this process have been identified in different plant species so far. Recent studies in both Arabidopsis and wheat have uncovered a new role of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT) in seed germination. Here, we reported a homolog of MFT in soybean (GmMFT) which strongly expressed in seeds. Detailed expression analysis showed that the mRNA level of GmMFT increased with seed development but declined during seed germination. The transcription of GmMFT also responded to exogenous application of ABA and GA3. Ectopic expression of GmMFT CDS in Arabidopsis moderately inhibited seed germination. All these evidences suggest that GmMFT may be a negative regulator of seed germination. PMID:24932489

Li, Qing; Fan, Chengming; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Xu; Wu, Faqiang; Hu, Ruibo; Fu, Yongfu

2014-01-01

312

Comparative effect of NaCl and seawater on seed germination of Suaeda salsa and Atriplex centralasiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed germination in annual halophytes usually occurs when soil salinity levels are low and soil moisture is relatively high\\u000a [1]. Optimum germination of halophyte seeds is often obtained under freshwater and inhibited by increasing salinity concentrations\\u000a [2–4], but the ability to germinate at higher salinities is varied with species, for example Salicornia herbacea germinated\\u000a at 1,700 mM NaCl [5], Arthrocnemum

Xiaojing Liu; Hailong Qiao; Weiqiang Li; Toshiaki Tadano; M. Ajmal Khan

313

Transcriptional Dynamics of Two Seed Compartments with Opposing Roles in Arabidopsis Seed Germination1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Seed germination is a critical stage in the plant life cycle and the first step toward successful plant establishment. Therefore, understanding germination is of important ecological and agronomical relevance. Previous research revealed that different seed compartments (testa, endosperm, and embryo) control germination, but little is known about the underlying spatial and temporal transcriptome changes that lead to seed germination. We analyzed genome-wide expression in germinating Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds with both temporal and spatial detail and provide Web-accessible visualizations of the data reported (vseed.nottingham.ac.uk). We show the potential of this high-resolution data set for the construction of meaningful coexpression networks, which provide insight into the genetic control of germination. The data set reveals two transcriptional phases during germination that are separated by testa rupture. The first phase is marked by large transcriptome changes as the seed switches from a dry, quiescent state to a hydrated and active state. At the end of this first transcriptional phase, the number of differentially expressed genes between consecutive time points drops. This increases again at testa rupture, the start of the second transcriptional phase. Transcriptome data indicate a role for mechano-induced signaling at this stage and subsequently highlight the fates of the endosperm and radicle: senescence and growth, respectively. Finally, using a phylotranscriptomic approach, we show that expression levels of evolutionarily young genes drop during the first transcriptional phase and increase during the second phase. Evolutionarily old genes show an opposite pattern, suggesting a more conserved transcriptome prior to the completion of germination. PMID:23858430

Dekkers, Bas J.W.; Pearce, Simon; van Bolderen-Veldkamp, R.P.; Marshall, Alex; Widera, Pawe?; Gilbert, James; Drost, Hajk-Georg; Bassel, George W.; Müller, Kerstin; King, John R.; Wood, Andrew T.A.; Grosse, Ivo; Quint, Marcel; Krasnogor, Natalio; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Holdsworth, Michael J.; Bentsink, Leónie

2013-01-01

314

Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

2012-03-01

315

The transcriptomes of dormant leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperature are differentially affected by a germination-enhancing pretreatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed dormancy is an important stage in the life cycle of many non-domesticated plants, often characterized by the temporary failure to germinate under conditions that normally favor the process. Pre-treating dormant imbibed seeds at a constant temperate accelerated germination of leafy spurge seeds ...

316

Seed germination in weedy Brassica campestris and its hybrids with B. napus: Implications for risk assessment of transgenic oilseed rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the germination behaviour of the following types of seeds: weedy Brassica campestris, oilseed rape (Brassica napus),\\u000a B. campestris (?) × B. napus (?), B. napus (?) × B. campestris (?) and, finally, seeds harvested on B. napus (?) × B. campestris\\u000a (?) hybrids in open pollination with B. campestris and B. napus. The seeds were germinated in Petri

Lars Landbo; Rikke B. Jørgensen

1997-01-01

317

Thioredoxin-Linked Proteins Are Reduced during Germination of Medicago truncatula Seeds1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Germination of cereals is accompanied by extensive change in the redox state of seed proteins. Proteins present in oxidized form in dry seeds are converted to the reduced state following imbibition. Thioredoxin (Trx) appears to play a role in this transition in cereals. It is not known, however, whether Trx-linked redox changes are restricted to cereals or whether they take place more broadly in germinating seeds. To gain information on this point, we have investigated a model legume, Medicago truncatula. Two complementary gel-based proteomic approaches were followed to identify Trx targets in seeds: Proteins were (1) labeled with a thiol-specific probe, monobromobimane (mBBr), following in vitro reduction by an NADP/Trx system, or (2) isolated on a mutant Trx affinity column. Altogether, 111 Trx-linked proteins were identified with few differences between axes and cotyledons. Fifty nine were new, 34 found previously in cereal or peanut seeds, and 18 in other plants or photosynthetic organisms. In parallel, the redox state of proteins assessed in germinating seeds using mBBr revealed that a substantial number of proteins that are oxidized or partly reduced in dry seeds became more reduced upon germination. The patterns were similar for proteins reduced in vivo during germination or in vitro by Trx. In contrast, glutathione and glutaredoxin were less effective as reductants in vitro. Overall, more than half of the potential targets identified with the mBBr labeling procedure were reduced during germination. The results provide evidence that Trx functions in the germination of seeds of dicotyledons as well as monocotyledons. PMID:17513483

Alkhalfioui, Fatima; Renard, Michelle; Vensel, William H.; Wong, Joshua; Tanaka, Charlene K.; Hurkman, William J.; Buchanan, Bob B.; Montrichard, Françoise

2007-01-01

318

Molecular and physiological dissection of enhanced seed germination using short-term low-concentration salt seed priming in tomato.  

PubMed

Seed germination is the initial step of plant development. Seed priming with salt promotes seed germination in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.); however, the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the enhancement of seed germination by priming remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the following in seeds both during and after priming treatment: the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) concentrations; the expression of genes encoding ABA catabolic and GA biosynthesis enzymes, including 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A), copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) and GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox); and endosperm cap weakening enzymes, including expansin (EXP), class I ?-1,3-glucanase (GulB), endo-?-mannanase (MAN) and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XTH). Tomato seeds were soaked for 24 h at 25 °C in the dark in 300 mM NaCl (NaCl-priming) or distilled water (hydro-priming). For both priming treatments, the ABA content in the seeds increased during treatment but rapidly decreased after sowing. Both during and after the priming treatments, the ABA levels in the hydro-primed seeds and NaCl-primed seeds were not significantly different. The expression levels of SlGA20ox1, SlGA3ox1 and SlGA3ox2 were significantly enhanced in the NaCl-primed seeds compared to the hydro-primed seeds. The GA(4) content was quantifiable after both types of priming, indicating that GA(4) is the major bioactive GA molecule involved in tomato seed germination. The GA(4) content was significantly higher in the NaCl-primed seeds than in the hydro-primed seeds 12 h after sowing and thereafter. Additionally, the peak expression levels of SlEXP4, SlGulB, SlMAN2 and SlXTH4 occurred earlier and were significantly higher in the NaCl-primed seeds than in the hydro-primed seeds. These results suggest that the observed effect of NaCl-priming on tomato seed germination is caused by an increase of the GA(4) content via GA biosynthetic gene activation and a subsequent increase in the expression of genes related to endosperm cap weakening. PMID:22305065

Nakaune, Makoto; Hanada, Atsushi; Yin, Yong-Gen; Matsukura, Chiaki; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Ezura, Hiroshi

2012-03-01

319

[Seed germination characteristics of parasitic plant and its host recognition mechanisms].  

PubMed

Parasitic plants are widely distributed in various ecological environments, with different growth habits and host recognition mechanisms. This paper discussed the distinctive seed germination characteristics of root parasitic plants such as Orobanche and Striga, summarized the signals for parasitic seed germination discovered up to now, and reviewed the effects of various germination signals, plant hormones and several fungal metabolites on the host recognition of parasitic plants, as well as the respiration characteristics during the conditioning, and the activating mechanism of the signals for parasitic seed germination. The induction of various differentiated calli in different Orobanche species, and the establishment of novel in vitro aseptic infection system and its application in the host recognition of parasitic plants were also discussed, with the present problems in researching the recognition mechanisms between parasitic plants and hosts put forward, and the further work prospected. PMID:16706065

Song, Wenjian; Jin, Zonglai; Cao, Dongdong; Tang, Guixiang; Zhou, Weijun

2006-02-01

320

Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylation in developing seeds and germinating seedlings of wheat  

SciTech Connect

Uridine- and thymidine-phosphorylating enzymes were measured in developing and germinating seeds of Triticum aestivum v. Arthur and T. aestivum v. Lemhi. Because crude extracts were to be used in the developmental study, characteristics of unpurified nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPTase) were examined. In the developmental study with two varieties of wheat, NPTase activity was found to be very low in all of the true seed tissues during seed maturation. Uridine-phosphorylating activity was due to primarily to uridine kinase. Thymidine phosphorylation was very low in all tissues throughout seed maturation, with a brief appearance by thymidine kinase in the developing embryo. In germinating seeds, uridine-phosphorylating activity was present from earliest stages of germination but showed a decrease in activity followed by a recovery after 48 hours inbibition. Experiments using ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicated that uridine kinase was present during early germination but had disappeared by 96 hours. Uridine phosphorylation at later stages of germination was accomplished by NTPase. Thymidine phosphorylation did not begin until after 36 hours of germination and was the result of NPTase activity.

Rowe, M.L.

1988-01-01

321

Programmed cell death (PCD): an essential process of cereal seed development and germination  

PubMed Central

The life cycle of cereal seeds can be divided into two phases, development and germination, separated by a quiescent period. Seed development and germination require the growth and differentiation of new tissues, but also the ordered disappearance of cells, which takes place by a process of programmed cell death (PCD). For this reason, cereal seeds have become excellent model systems for the study of developmental PCD in plants. At early stages of seed development, maternal tissues such as the nucellus, the pericarp, and the nucellar projections undergo a progressive degeneration by PCD, which allows the remobilization of their cellular contents for nourishing new filial tissues such as the embryo and the endosperm. At a later stage, during seed maturation, the endosperm undergoes PCD, but these cells remain intact in the mature grain and their contents will not be remobilized until germination. Thus, the only tissues that remain alive when seed development is completed are the embryo axis, the scutellum and the aleurone layer. In germinating seeds, both the scutellum and the aleurone layer play essential roles in producing the hydrolytic enzymes for the mobilization of the storage compounds of the starchy endosperm, which serve to support early seedling growth. Once this function is completed, scutellum and aleurone cells undergo PCD; their contents being used to support the growth of the germinated embryo. PCD occurs with tightly controlled spatial-temporal patterns allowing coordinated fluxes of nutrients between the different seed tissues. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the tissues undergoing PCD in developing and germinating cereal seeds, focussing on the biochemical features of the process. The effect of hormones and redox regulation on PCD control will be discussed. PMID:25120551

Domínguez, Fernando; Cejudo, Francisco J.

2014-01-01

322

Ethylene, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by

S. M. J. Feghahati; R. N. Reese

1994-01-01

323

Effects of various treatments on seed germination and growth of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) plays an important role in Mediterranean landscape. It is commercially propagated by grafting which requires the generation of seedlings. However, its seeds are very recalcitrant and need pretreatment for germination. In this study, carob seeds harvested from both wild a...

324

INTERACTION OF ACCELERATED AGING AND P-COUMARIC ACID ON CRIMSON CLOVER SEED GERMINATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several phenolic acids, including p-coumaric acid, have been described as allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination or seedling growth. Whether, in forage species, these effects are exacerbated by environmental stressors is not known. Accelerated seed aging (high temperature (41 C) and high...

325

Effects of accelerated aging and p-coumaric on crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatium L.) seed germination.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several phenolic acids, including p-coumaric acid, have been described as allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination or seedling growth. Whether these effects are exacerbated in forage species by environmental stressors is unknown. Accelerated seed aging (high temperature (41 C) and high hum...

326

Effects of Thermoperiod on Recovery of Seed Germination of Halophytes from Saline Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of seed germination from NaCl salinity of desert shrubs (Haloxylon recurvum and Suaeda fruticosa, and the herbs Zygophyllum simplex and Triglochin maritima was studied under various thermoperiods. The percentage of unger- minated seeds that recovered when they were transferred to distilled water varied significantly with variation in species and thermoperiods. Zygophyllum simplex had little recovery from all NaCl concentrations

M. Ajmal Khan; Irwin A. Ungar

1997-01-01

327

Cheatgrass germination at three seed maturity stages from five plant communities in northwestern Nevada  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The invasive exotic plant cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), has invaded numerous plant communities throughout the Intermountain West. Our goal was to test whether cheatgrass seed in different phenotypic stages and site characteristics differ in germination. Cheatgrass seed from sites dominated by Wyom...

328

Effects of Light, Cold Storage, and Temperature on Seed Germination of Golden Thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L., family Asteraceae), is used as both a medicinal plant and a vegetable in the Mediterranean region. Although the plant grows in the wild, information to promote seed germination is needed for the cultivation necessary to meet demand. In this study, seed from two wild-grown and one cultivated source were used to determine the effect of

Ali Osman Sari; Mehmet Tutar

2010-01-01

329

Thioredoxin-linked proteins are reduced during germination of medicago truncatula seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Germination of cereals is accompanied by extensive change in the redox state of seed proteins. Proteins present in oxidized (S-S) form in dry seeds are converted to the reduced (SH) state following imbibition. Thioredoxin (Trx) appears to play a role in this transition in cereals. It is not known, h...

330

PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF LIPASE FROM GERMINATING SEEDS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lipase present in the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. was isolated, partially purified, and some of its properties studied. Lipase activity was detected in both the dormant and germinating seeds. The lipase hydrolysed palm kernel, coconut, and olive oils at comparable rates (approximately 5 µg FFA...

331

Potential Link Between Contents of Fatty Acids and Soybean Seed Germination Rate Under Early Production System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean seed produced from the Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) in the Midsouth often has low germination with poor seed quality. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on a silt-loam -soil at the Delta Research and Extension Center, Stonevi...

332

Seed dispersal and germination patternsin a rare Mediterranean island endemic ( Anchusa crispa Viv., Boraginaceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse and discuss patterns of seed dispersal and germination of a rare endemic plant species, Anchusa crispa Viv. (Boraginaceae) from Corsica and Sardinia. This coastal plant inhabits dunes and back-dunes, and currently numbers only a few thousand individuals which generally occur in isolated populations. This study included experiments conducted in the field in Corsica and also under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Short-distance dispersal of A. crispa is performed by ants, both by myrmecochory and dyszoochory. The invasion of an exotic species of ant, Linepithema humile, could locally modify the dispersal system and possibly the population dynamics of A. crispa. Long-distance dispersal may occur by water transport since seeds can germinate after at least 1 week of immersion in seawater and readily float on the surface. Burial of seeds is favourable for germination, percentage germination being maximised at a depth of 1-2 cm below the soil surface. A. crispa has a seed bank of about ten viable seeds per m 2, which may contribute to the survival of this species which exists in small populations with a short life span. Due to its seed dispersal and germination patterns, the conservation of this species will necessitate that human disturbance, which can destabilise the surface of the sand is prevented and that new populations are introduced to favourable sites.

Quilichini, Angélique; Debussche, Max

2000-12-01

333

Morpho-colorimetric analysis and seed germination of Brassica insularis Moris (Brassicaceae) populations.  

PubMed

Brassica insularis is a perennial plant growing on both coastal and inland cliffs. Three seed lots from Sardinia were analysed using an image analysis system to detect differences in seed morphology, both within and among populations. Germination requirements at constant (5-25 °C) and alternating temperatures (25/10 °C), both in light and in darkness, were evaluated for all populations. In addition, the effect of a dry after-ripening period (90 days at 25 °C) was also investigated. Morpho-colorimetric analysis clearly identified seeds from different populations and discriminated three chromatic categories for seeds belonging to the Isola dei Cavoli coastal population, but not for the inland Masùa and the coastal Planu Sartu. Inter-population variability was also observed in germination behaviour. B. insularis seeds germinated, with percentages up to 60%, in a wide range of temperatures (5-25 °C), and neither light nor dry after-ripening affected final germination percentages. Moisture content measurements were made for seeds of each colour, but there were no particular differences among colours. Inter-populational variability in germination behaviour may be a survival strategy for species growing under unpredictable environmental conditions, such as under Mediterranean climate, while heteromorphy may be due to independent evolutionary divergence processes of the Isola dei Cavoli population. PMID:25174700

Santo, A; Mattana, E; Grillo, O; Bacchetta, G

2015-03-01

334

Opposing Actions of Light in Seed Germination of Poa pratensis and Amaranthus arenicola  

PubMed Central

Action spectra were measured for suppression of germination of Poa pratensis L. and Amaranthus arenicola I. M. Johnston seed under prolonged or continuous irradiation. The action maxima for both types of seeds are near 720 nm. The maxima are unchanged in position or magnitude in the presence of radiation in the region of 600 to 670 nm adequate to maintain phytochrome predominantly in the far-red-absorbing form. A reversible potentiation of germination to change in form of phytochrome was observed for both seeds. The bearing of these findings on a high-energy regulatory light response is discussed. PMID:16657003

Hendricks, S. B.; Toole, V. K.; Borthwick, H. A.

1968-01-01

335

Effect of hydration and dehydration cycles on seed germination of Aster kantoensis (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Aster kantoensis Kitamura (Compositae) were experimentally exposed to different cycles of hydration and dehydration: 3H1D (cycles of 3-d hydration and 1-d dehydration periods), 2H3D, 2H1D, 1H3D, 1H2D, and 1H1D. Under continuous hydration (control), all viable seeds germinated within 9 d. However, all viable seeds ex- posed to the 3H1D, 2H3D, and 2H1D cycles germinated within 36, 50, and

Mitsuko Kagaya; Takashi Tani; Naoki Kachi

2005-01-01

336

A method for the imbibition and germination of wheat seeds in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for the reliable germination in space of wheat seeds on porous tube nutrient delivery systems. Germination paper strips were loosely rolled into cylinders and two seeds inserted close to the outer edges of each cylinder. This configuration: 1) directed the emerging shoots upward and roots downward, 2) was efficient in wicking moisture from the porous tubes, and 3) provided open areas for oxygen diffusion. Cotton tufts were inserted into the bottom crevices of the cylinders to fix the seeds in a mid-level position and cylinders were then storable (indefinitely) prior to the preprogrammed (on-orbit) initiation of imbibition. This method extends both the upper and lower ends of acceptable moisture levels for successful seed germination, increasing the probability of success for spaceflight applications where moisture availability is more variable than on Earth.

Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

337

Synthesis and seed germination stimulating activity of some imino analogs of strigolactones.  

PubMed

Strigolactones are germination stimulants for seeds of the root parasitic weeds, Striga and Orobanche spp. The imino analog of GR24 showed moderate germination stimulating activity against the seeds of S. hermonthica. The seed germination stimulating activity of some phenyliminoacetates and phenyliminoacetonitriles was also examined. The degree of activity of the phenyliminoacetate was less than that of the phenylacrylates. On the other hand, the degree of activity of the phenyliminoacetonitrile was comparable to that of the phenylacrylonitriles. Among the tested compounds, the 3-pyridyliminoacetonitrile showed higher activity against the seeds of O. crenata than GR24. These findings demonstrate that it is not always essential to have the Michael acceptor of the C-D ring junction moiety which has been proposed to react with nucleophilic species presented at the target site to enhance the activity. PMID:17986793

Kondo, Yuki; Tadokoro, Eriko; Matsuura, Mayuko; Iwasaki, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Miyake, Hideyoshi; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sasaki, Mitsuru

2007-11-01

338

Constructing the metabolic and regulatory pathways in germinating rice seeds through proteomic approach.  

PubMed

Construction of metabolic and regulatory pathways from proteomic data can contextualize the large-scale data within the overall physiological scheme of an organism. It is an efficient way to predict metabolic phenotype or regulatory style. We did protein profiling in the germinating rice seeds through 1-DE via LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy. In total, 673 proteins were identified, and could be sorted into 14 functional groups. The largest group was metabolism related. The metabolic proteins were integrated into different metabolic pathways to show the style of reserves mobilization and precursor preparation during the germination. Analysis of the regulatory proteins indicated that regulation of redox homeostasis and gene expression also play important roles for the rice seed germination. Although transcription is unnecessary for the germination, it could ensure the rapidity and uniformity of germination. On the contrary, translation with the stored mRNA is required for the germination. This study will help us to further understand the metabolic style, regulation of redox homeostasis, and gene expression during rice seed germination. PMID:21630451

He, Dongli; Han, Chao; Yao, Jialing; Shen, Shihua; Yang, Pingfang

2011-07-01

339

Seed dormancy and germination in Jeffersonia dubia (Berberidaceae) as affected by temperature and gibberellic acid.  

PubMed

The genus Jeffersonia, which contains only two species, has a trans-Atlantic disjunct distribution. The aims of this study were to determine the requirements for breaking dormancy and germination of J. dubia seeds and to compare its dormancy characteristics with those of the congener in eastern North America. Ripe seeds of J. dubia contain an underdeveloped embryo and were permeable to water. In nature, seeds were dispersed in May, while embryos began to grow in September, and were fully elongated by late November. Germination started in March of the next year, and seeds emerged as seedlings soon after germination. In laboratory experiments, incubation at high temperatures (25 °C, 25/15 °C) for at least 8 weeks was required to initiate embryo growth, while a transfer to moderate temperatures (20/10 °C, 15/6 °C) was needed for the completion of embryo growth. At least 8 weeks at 5 °C was effective in overcoming physiological dormancy and for germination in seeds after the embryos had fully elongated. Thus, both high and low temperatures were essential to break dormancy. Gibberellic acid (GA3 ) treatment could substitute for the high temperature requirement, but not for the low temperature requirement. Based on the dormancy-breaking requirements, it is confirmed that the seeds have deep simple morphophysiological dormancy. This dormancy type is similar to that of seeds of the eastern North American species J. diphylla. Although seeds require 10-11 months from seed dispersal to germination in nature, under controlled conditions they required only 3 months after treatment with 1000 mg·l(-1) GA3 , followed by incubation at 15/6 °C. This represents practical knowledge for propagation of these plants from seed. PMID:25319374

Rhie, Y H; Lee, S Y; Kim, K S

2015-03-01

340

Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.  

PubMed

Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa. PMID:25511044

Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

2014-01-01

341

Phosphorylation of the transcriptional regulator MYB44 by mitogen activated protein kinase regulates Arabidopsis seed germination.  

PubMed

The phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) have antagonistic roles in the control of seed germination and seedling development. We report here that the transcriptional regulator MYB44 has a role in the control of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. High levels of the MYB44 transcript are found in dry seeds but the transcript levels decrease during germination. The decrease in transcript level during germination is inhibited by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). MYB44 is phosphorylated by both recombinant and native forms of MPK3 and MPK6 at Ser(53) and Ser(145). Transgenic overexpression of MYB44 results in increased sensitivity of seed germination to ABA or PAC treatment. The PAC-insensitive germination phenotype of the myb44 mutant is complemented by overexpression of wild type MYB44 but not by overexpression of a mutant protein that lacks the MPK-target serines indicating that phosphorylation of MYB44 by MPKs is required for its biological function. PMID:22704933

Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Hoang, My Hanh Thi; Kim, Ho Soo; Lee, Kyunghee; Liu, Xiao-Min; Kim, Sun Ho; Bahk, Sunghwa; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Chung, Woo Sik

2012-07-13

342

ESTs Analysis Reveals Putative Genes Involved in Symbiotic Seed Germination in Dendrobium officinale  

PubMed Central

Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e-5). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids. PMID:23967335

Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

2013-01-01

343

The transcriptomes of dormant leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperature are differentially affected by a germination-enhancing pretreatment.  

PubMed

Seed dormancy is an important stage in the life cycle of many non-domesticated plants, often characterized by the temporary failure to germinate under conditions that normally favor the process. Pre-treating dormant imbibed seeds at a constant temperate accelerated germination of leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperatures. However, dormant seeds will also germinate without a pre-treatment, albeit at a much slower rate, which gives rise to longer periods of imbibition before germination. Transcriptome analyses on seeds exposed to prolonged imbibition highlighted pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and interacting networks of genes involved in plant defense. In addition to the many pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis enriched with down-regulated genes upon germination, there were also numerous pathways enriched with up-regulated genes associated with energy metabolism, such as glycolysis. Transcriptome data further suggest that metabolism and signaling by the plant hormones ethylene, gibberellin, and abscisic acid are involved in the developmental transition from dormancy to germination. More specifically, sub-network enrichment analysis identified ABI3 as a central hub of a sub-network at germination including several down-regulated genes such as DELLA (i.e., RGL2), which represses gibberellin signaling processes required for germination. The 595-fold increase in the expression of ACC oxidase (ACO4) at germination also suggests an important role for ethylene biosynthesis in germinating leafy surge seeds. Furthermore, the 10-578-fold difference in expression of many genes such as HY5 and Histone H3 between two populations at germination, which were treated with and without a constant temperature germination-enhancing pretreatment, revealed disparate impacts on various biosynthetic, growth, signaling, and response processes. Overall, our results indicate a constant temperature pretreatment (20°C for 21d) is not required for germination of leafy spurge seeds at an alternating temperature. However, the presence or absence of the pretreatment does affect the rate of germination and the germination transcriptional programs. PMID:23261266

Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Horvath, David P; Do?ramaci, Münevver; Anderson, James V

2013-04-15

344

Modeling Analysis on Germination and Seedling Growth Using Ultrasound Seed Pretreatment in Switchgrass  

PubMed Central

Switchgrass is a perennial C4 plant with great potential as a bioenergy source and, thus, a high demand for establishment from seed. This research investigated the effects of ultrasound treatment on germination and seedling growth in switchgrass. Using an orthogonal matrix design, conditions for the ultrasound pretreatment in switchgrass seed, including sonication time (factor A), sonication temperature (factor B) and ultrasound output power (factor C), were optimized for germinating and stimulating seedling growth (indicated as plumular and radicular lengths) through modeling analysis. The results indicate that sonication temperature (B) was the most effective factor for germination, whereas output power (C) had the largest effect on seedling growth when ultrasound treatment was used. Combined with the analyses of range, variance and models, the final optimal ultrasonic treatment conditions were sonication for 22.5 min at 39.7°C and at an output power of 348 W, which provided the greatest germination percentage and best seedling growth. For this study, the orthogonal matrix design was an efficient method for optimizing the conditions of ultrasound seed treatment on switchgrass. The electrical conductivity of seed leachates in three experimental groups (control, soaked in water only, and ultrasound treatment) was determined to investigate the effects of ultrasound on seeds and eliminate the effect of water in the ultrasound treatments. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of seed leachates during either ultrasound treatment or water bath treatment was significantly higher than that of the control, and that the ultrasound treatment had positive effects on switchgrass seeds. PMID:23071756

Wang, Quanzhen; Chen, Guo; Yersaiyiti, Hayixia; Liu, Yuan; Cui, Jian; Wu, Chunhui; Zhang, Yunwei; He, Xueqing

2012-01-01

345

Morphology, physiology and environmental effects of triploid watermelon seed germination  

E-print Network

-part approach to the problem. First, the morphology of the seed coat was examined. In the morphology section, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the basic structural differences in the seed coat. Seed components characteristics were also...

Grange, Stacie Lee

2001-01-01

346

Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest, we isolated T-DNA insertion mutants. Two independent T-DNA insertion mutants for WRKY2 were hypersensitive to ABA responses only during seed germination and postgermination early growth. wrky2 mutants displayed delayed or decreased expression of ABI5 and ABI3, but increased or prolonged expression of Em1 and Em6. wrky2 mutants and wild type showed similar levels of expression for miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. Analysis of WRKY2 expression level in ABA-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants abi5-1, abi3-1, aba2-3 and aba3-1 further indicated that ABA-induced WRKY2 accumulation during germination and postgermination early growth requires ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3. Conclusion ABA hypersensitivity of the wrky2 mutants during seed germination and postgermination early seedling establishment is attributable to elevated mRNA levels of ABI5, ABI3 and ABI5-induced Em1 and Em6 in the mutants. WRKY2-mediated ABA responses are independent of miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3 are important regulators of the transcripts of WRKY2 by ABA treatment. Our results suggest that WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination developmental arrest by ABA. PMID:19622176

Jiang, Wenbo; Yu, Diqiu

2009-01-01

347

Gibberellin Signaling: a Wake-up Call for Seed Germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Making an appropriate decision to germinate is essential for the survival of plant species and is important for proper stand establishment in crop plants. Germination is regulated by the antagonistic effects to two plant hormones in Arabidopsis thaliana: abscisic acid (ABA) induces dormancy and repr...

348

Fire cue effects on seed germination of six species of northwestern Patagonian grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postfire recruitment of seedlings has been attributed to a stimulation of germination by fire-related cues. The germination response to heat shock (80 °C - 5 min), smoke (60 min), the combination of both factors and no heat no smoke (control) was studied in six native species (two dominant grasses, two dominant shrubs and two annual fugitive herbs) of northwestern Patagonian grasslands. Seeds of the grasses Festuca pallescens and Stipa speciosa and the shrub Senecio bracteolatus (Asteraceae) germinated when they were exposed to heat shock, whereas seeds of the other shrub, Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), were killed by this fire cue. In grasses, probably the glume of caryopsis protected embryos from heat. Possibly, the seed size could explain the different responses of the two shrubs. Heat combined with smoke reduced seed germination for S. speciosa and S. bracteolatus. The heat could have scarified seeds and the longer exposure to smoke could have been toxic for embryos. The same treatment increased germination of the annual fugitive herb Boopis gracilis (Calyceraceae). We concluded that fire differentially affects the seedling recruitment of the studied species in the northwestern Patagonian grasslands.

Gonzalez, S. L.; Ghermandi, L.

2012-09-01

349

Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China  

PubMed Central

Variation in seed weight is common within and among plant species, but few studies have attempted to document the pattern of seed weight and germination attributes for aquatic macrophytes at a large scale. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China. Our results showed that the average seed weight was 0.24 g per 100 seeds with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 28.4% among the eight P. pectinatus populations. The total germination fraction of seeds of P. pectinatus was relatively poor, less than 35% in seven P. pectinatus populations, and the lowest germination percentage found was only 2%. There were significant differences in seed weight, time to onset of germination, and total germination fraction among the eight different populations. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed a strongly positive correlation between seed weight and water temperature and pH. Seed weight and the maternal environmental factors significantly affected both time to initiation of germination and total germination fraction. Our results suggest that (1) seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seeds are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion.

Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

2015-01-01

350

The Effect of Seed-borne Mycoflora from Sorghum and Foxtail Millet Seeds on Germination and Disease Transmission  

PubMed Central

The seed-borne mycoflora of sorghum and foxtail millet collected from different growing areas in South Korea were isolated and taxonomically identified using dry inspection, standard blotter and the agar plate method. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo germination rates of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds of sorghum and foxtail millet using sterilized and unsterilized soil. The percent recovery of seed-borne mycoflora from the seed components of sorghum and foxtail millet seeds was determined and an infection experiment using the dominant species was evaluated for seedling emergence and mortality. A higher number of seed-borne fungi was observed in sorghum compared to that of foxtail millet. Eighteen fungal genera with 34 fungal species were identified from the seeds of sorghum and 13 genera with 22 species were identified from the seeds of foxtail millet. Five dominant species such as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Phoma sp. were recorded as seed-borne mycoflora in sorghum and 4 dominant species (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme) were observed in foxtail millet. The in vitro and in vivo germination rates were higher using disinfected seeds and sterilized soil. More seed-borne fungi were recovered from the pericarp compared to the endosperm and seed embryo. The percent recovery of seed-borne fungi ranged from 2.22% to 60.0%, and Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata and 4 species of Fusarium were isolated from the endosperm and embryo of sorghum and foxtail millet. Inoculation of the dominant seed-borne fungi showed considerable mortality of seedlings. All the transmitted seed-borne fungi might well be a primary source of infection of sorghum and foxtail millet crops. PMID:22783105

Yago, Jonar I.; Bae, Soon-do; Yoon, Young-Nam; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Nam, Min-hee

2011-01-01

351

Priming of seeds with nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates the inhibition on wheat seed germination by salt stress.  

PubMed

The effect of SNP, an NO donor, on seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. 'DK961') under salt stress was studied. The results showed that priming of seeds with 0.06 mmol/L SNP for 24 h markedly alleviated the decrease of the germination percentage, germination index, vigor index and imbibition rate of wheat seeds under salt stress. SNP significantly alleviated the decrease of the beta-amylase activity but almost did not affect the alpha-amylase activity of wheat seeds under salt stress. SNP slightly increased the alpha-amylase isoenzymes (especially isoenzyme 3) and significantly increased the beta-amylase isoenzymes (especially isoenzyme d, e, f and g). SNP pretreatment decreased Na(+) content, but increased the K(+) content, resulting in a mark increase of K(+)/Na(+) ratio of wheat seedlings under salt stress. These results suggested that NO is involved in promoting wheat seed germination under salt stress by increasing the beta-amylase activity. PMID:17556812

Duan, Pei; Ding, Feng; Wang, Fang; Wang, Bao-Shan

2007-06-01

352

Arabidopsis DET1 degrades HFR1 but stabilizes PIF1 to precisely regulate seed germination.  

PubMed

Seed is an essential propagation organ and a critical strategy adopted by terrestrial flowering plants to colonize the land. The ability of seeds to accurately respond to light is vital for plant survival. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we reveal a circuit of triple feed-forward loops adopted by Arabidopsis seeds to exclusively repress germination in dark conditions and precisely initiate germination under diverse light conditions. We identify that de-etiolated 1 (DET1), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is a central repressor of light-induced seed germination. Genetic analysis demonstrates that DET1 functions upstream of long hypocotyl in far-red 1 (HFR1) and phytochrome interacting factor 1 (PIF1), the key positive and negative transcription regulators in seed germination. We further find that DET1 and constitutive photomorphogenic 10 (COP10) target HFR1 for protein degradation by assembling a COP10-DET1-damaged DNA binding protein 1-cullin4 E3 ligase complex. Moreover, DET1 and COP10 directly interact with and promote the protein stability of PIF1. Computational modeling reveals that phytochrome B (phyB)-DET1-HFR1-PIF1 and phyB-DET1-Protease-PIF1 are new signaling pathways, independent of the previously identified phyB-PIF1 pathway, respectively mediating the rapid and time-lapse responses to light irradiation. The model-simulated results are highly consistent with their experimental validations, suggesting that our mathematical model captures the essence of Arabidopsis seed germination networks. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive molecular framework for light-regulated seed germination, improving our understanding of how plants respond to changeable environments. PMID:25775589

Shi, Hui; Wang, Xin; Mo, Xiaorong; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Shangwei; Deng, Xing Wang

2015-03-24

353

Climate warming could shift the timing of seed germination in alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Despite the considerable number of studies on the impacts of climate change on alpine plants, there have been few attempts to investigate its effect on regeneration. Recruitment from seeds is a key event in the life-history of plants, affecting their spread and evolution and seasonal changes in climate will inevitably affect recruitment success. Here, an investigation was made of how climate change will affect the timing and the level of germination in eight alpine species of the glacier foreland. Methods Using a novel approach which considered the altitudinal variation of temperature as a surrogate for future climate scenarios, seeds were exposed to 12 different cycles of simulated seasonal temperatures in the laboratory, derived from measurements at the soil surface at the study site. Key Results Under present climatic conditions, germination occurred in spring, in all but one species, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, autumn warming resulted in a significant increase in germination in all but two species. In contrast, seed germination was less sensitive to changes in spring and/or winter temperatures, which affected only three species. Conclusions Climate warming will lead to a shift from spring to autumn emergence but the extent of this change across species will be driven by seed dormancy status. Ungerminated seeds at the end of autumn will be exposed to shorter winter seasons and lower spring temperatures in a future, warmer climate, but these changes will only have a minor impact on germination. The extent to which climate change will be detrimental to regeneration from seed is less likely to be due to a significant negative effect on germination per se, but rather to seedling emergence in seasons that the species are not adapted to experience. Emergence in autumn could have major implications for species currently adapted to emerge in spring. PMID:22596094

Mondoni, Andrea; Rossi, Graziano; Orsenigo, Simone; Probert, Robin J.

2012-01-01

354

Dynamics of the antioxidant system during seed osmopriming, post-priming germination, and seedling establishment in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea).  

PubMed

Osmopriming is a pre-sowing treatment that improves seed germination performance and stress tolerance. To understand osmopriming physiology, and its association with post-priming stress tolerance, we investigated the antioxidant system dynamics during three stages: during osmopriming, post-priming germination, and seedling establishment. Spinach seeds (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale) were primed with -0.6 MPa PEG at 15°C for 8 d, and dried at room temperature for 2 d. Unprimed and primed germinating seeds/seedlings were subjected to a chilling and desiccation stresses. Seed/seedling samples were collected for antioxidant assays and germination performance and stress tolerance were evaluated. Our data indicate that: (1) during osmopriming the transition of seeds from dry to germinating state represses the antioxidant pathways (residing in dry seeds) that involve CAT and SOD enzymes but stimulates another pathway (only detectable in imbibed seeds) involving APX; (2) a renewal of antioxidant system, possibly required by seedling establishment, occurs after roughly 5 d of germination; (3) osmopriming strengthens the antioxidant system and increases seed germination potential, resulting in an increased stress tolerance in germinating seeds. Osmopriming-mediated promotive effect on stress tolerance, however, may diminish in relatively older (e.g. ~5-week) seedlings. PMID:21421363

Chen, Keting; Arora, Rajeev

2011-02-01

355

Factors affecting germinable seed yield in Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll and Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges facing orchid conservationists is to get a better understanding of seed parent fecundity. This can be especially laborious for orchids whose seed is difficult to germinate. Mature seeds ofCypripedium calceolusvar.pubescens(Willd.) Correll (Orchidaceae) have been reported to require 8 weeks pre-chilling at 4°C and a further month at 20°C to induce germination, but seeds prematurely harvested at

M H. S LIGHT; M MacCONAILL

1998-01-01

356

Germination of Dimorphic Seeds of the Desert Annual Halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae), a C4 Plant without Kranz Anatomy  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Suaeda aralocaspica is a C4 summer annual halophyte without Kranz anatomy that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia. It produces two distinct types of seeds that differ in colour, shape and size. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the dormancy and germination characteristics of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica and to develop a conceptual model of their dynamics. Methods Temperatures simulating those in the natural habitat of S. aralocaspica were used to test for primary dormancy and germination behaviour of fresh brown and black seeds. The effects of cold stratification, gibberellic acid, seed coat scarification, seed coat removal and dry storage on dormancy breaking were tested in black seeds. Germination percentage and recovery responses of brown seeds, non-treated black seeds and 8-week cold-stratified black seeds to salt stress were tested. Key Results Brown seeds were non-dormant, whereas black seeds had non-deep Type 2 physiological dormancy (PD). Germination percentage and rate of germination of brown seeds and of variously pretreated black seeds were significantly higher than those of non-pretreated black seeds. Exposure of seeds to various salinities had significant effects on germination, germination recovery and induction into secondary dormancy. A conceptual model is presented that ties these results together and puts them into an ecological context. Conclusions The two seed morphs of S. aralocaspica exhibit distinct differences in dormancy and germination characteristics. Suaeda aralocaspica is the first cold desert halophyte for which non-deep Type 2 PD has been documented. PMID:18772148

Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Dong, Ming

2008-01-01

357

Seed Germination in Relation to Salinity and Temperature in Sarcobatus Vermiculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcobatus vermiculatus (Hook) Torrey is a leaf succulent, sodium-accumulating shrub usually found in saline substrates of the Great Basin desert, Utah, USA. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of salinity (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mM NaCl) and temperature (day\\/night: 5\\/15, 10\\/20, 15\\/25, 20\\/30, and 25\\/35°C) on seed germination. S. vermiculatus showed 100% germination in non-saline

M. A. Khan; B. Gul; D. J. Weber

2002-01-01

358

Seed germination and salinity tolerance in plant species growing on saline wastelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven plant species including three chenopods:Suaeda fruticosa, Kochia indica, Atriplex crassifolia and four grasses:Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon, Polypogon monspeliensis, Desmostachya bipinnata, varied greatly in their seed germination and growth responses to soil moisture or salinity. The germination percentage of\\u000a each species was significantly lower at soil moisture level of 25 % of water holding capacity than at the levels ranging

K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; M. A. K. Lodhi; K. H. Sheikh

1996-01-01

359

Dispersal of wetland plant seeds by mallards: Influence of gut passage on recovery, retention, and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dispersal is an important process for plants, but may be particularly important for plants occurring in spatially isolated\\u000a habitats like wetlands. Variation in the geographic distribution of wetland plant species may be strongly influenced by their\\u000a ability to use waterbirds, particularly waterfowl to enhance dispersal. We used controlled feeding and germination experiments\\u000a to investigate recovery, retention time, and germination

Chanpen Wongsriphuek; Bruce D. Dugger; Anne M. Bartuszevige

2008-01-01

360

Proline Metabolism and Cross-Tolerance to Salinity and Heat Stress in Germinating Wheat Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination\\/growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Zimai 1) seeds and changes in the levels of proline and protein as well as in activities of key enzymes involved\\u000a in proline metabolism in response to salinity-, heat-stresses and their cross-stress were studied. With decreasing water potential\\u000a caused by increasing concentrations of NaCl, germination percentage, fresh weight of seedlings and protein amount

S. Q. Song; Y. B. Lei; X. R. Tian

2005-01-01

361

Developmental changes in the germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and longevity of individual seeds of Trifolium ambiguum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Using two parental clones of outcrossing Trifolium ambiguum as a potential model system, we examined how during seed development the maternal parent, number of seeds per pod, seed position within the pod, and pod position within the inflorescence influenced individual seed fresh weight, dry weight, water content, germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and subsequent longevity of individual seeds. Methods Near simultaneous, manual reciprocal crosses were carried out between clonal lines for two experiments. Infructescences were harvested at intervals during seed development. Each individual seed was weighed and then used to determine dry weight or one of the physiological behaviour traits. Key Results Whilst population mass maturity was reached at 33–36 days after pollination (DAP), seed-to-seed variation in maximum seed dry weight, when it was achieved, and when maturation drying commenced, was considerable. Individual seeds acquired germinability between 14 and 44 DAP, desiccation tolerance between 30 and 40 DAP, and the capability to become hardseeded between 30 and 47 DAP. The time for viability to fall to 50 % (p50) at 60 % relative humidity and 45 °C increased between 36 and 56 DAP, when the seed coats of most individuals had become dark orange, but declined thereafter. Individual seed f. wt at harvest did not correlate with air-dry storage survival period. Analysing survival data for cohorts of seeds reduced the standard deviation of the normal distribution of seed deaths in time, but no sub-population showed complete uniformity of survival period. Conclusions Variation in individual seed behaviours within a developing population is inherent and inevitable. In this outbreeder, there is significant variation in seed longevity which appears dependent on embryo genotype with little effect of maternal genotype or architectural factors. PMID:20228084

Hay, F. R.; Smith, R. D.; Ellis, R. H.; Butler, L. H.

2010-01-01

362

THE INFLUENCE OF STRATIFICATION, SCARIFICATION, HOT WATER AND MATERNAL PLANT ON THE GERMINATION OF JUNIPERUS EXCELSA SEEDS FROM ERITREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratification for 60 days at 5°C was found to increase the germination percentage of Juniperus excelsa seeds fom Eritrea (63%) over untreated controls grown in a greenhouse (53%) and a growth chamber (47%). Scarification with H2SO4 for 15 min did not significantly improve germination percentage over untreated controls. Treatment with hot water resulted in zero germination after 240 days, while

SCOTT JONES

1989-01-01

363

Salt Stress Effects on Respiration and Growth of Germinated Seeds of Different Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of seedlings at early growth stages of crop plants as one of the most important determinants of high yield is severely affected by soil salinity. Therefore, high germination rate and vigorous early growth under salty soils is preferred. In this study salt tolerance of wheat cultivars were examined at germination and seedling growth stages. Seeds were germinated and grown

Aliakbar Maghsoudi Moud; Kobra Maghsoudi

2008-01-01

364

Changes in germination, growth and soluble sugar contents of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds under various abiotic stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various abiotic stresses on germination rate, growth and soluble sugar content in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. CSH 6 seed embryos and endosperm during early germination was investigated. Under stress conditions germination, water potential and tissue water content decreased markedly. Subsequently, this reduction resulted in marked decreases in fresh weight both in embryos and endosperm. Conversely, a

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukhdev Singh Bhullar

2003-01-01

365

Effects of pre-treatments and temperature on seed viability and germination of Juniperus macrocarpa Sm.  

PubMed

The effects of collecting season, collection site, laboratory pre-treatments and temperatures on seed viability and germination of Juniperus macrocarpa were investigated. Ripe cones were collected in four Sardinian dune systems, in two seasons, from plant and soil. Warm (W) and cold (C) stratifications, two combinations of them (W+C, C+W), and no pre-treatment (0) were applied. Seeds were incubated in a range of constant (10-25°C) and an alternating (25/10°C) temperature regime. Seed viability was low (ca. 40%) and varied significantly according to the collecting season. Seed germination was also low (ca. 10%), the 0 and W were the most effective pre-treatments on stimulating germination. The best germination temperature, without any pre-treatment, was 15°C (ca. 20%). J. macrocarpa seeds are dormant and the achieved results suggested that the presence of secondary dormancy is induced by cold stratification. Spring appeared to be the best season for seed collecting, whereas autumn was the best for sowing. These results give new findings for restoration activities on this species. PMID:24841961

Pinna, Maria Silvia; Mattana, Efisio; Cañadas, Eva Maria; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

2014-05-01

366

Reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid and ethylene interact to regulate sunflower seed germination.  

PubMed

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed dormancy is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can be alleviated by incubating dormant embryos in the presence of methylviologen (MV), a ROS-generating compound. Ethylene alleviates sunflower seed dormancy whereas abscisic acid (ABA) represses germination. The purposes of this study were to identify the molecular basis of ROS effect on seed germination and to investigate their possible relationship with hormone signalling pathways. Ethylene treatment provoked ROS generation in embryonic axis whereas ABA had no effect on their production. The beneficial effect of ethylene on germination was lowered in the presence of antioxidant compounds, and MV suppressed the inhibitory effect of ABA. MV treatment did not alter significantly ethylene nor ABA production during seed imbibition. Microarray analysis showed that MV treatment triggered differential expression of 120 probe sets (59 more abundant and 61 less abundant genes), and most of the identified transcripts were related to cell signalling components. Many transcripts less represented in MV-treated seeds were involved in ABA signalling, thus suggesting an interaction between ROS and ABA signalling pathways at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results shed new light on the crosstalk between ROS and plant hormones in seed germination. PMID:24811898

El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Sajjad, Yasar; Bazin, Jérémie; Langlade, Nicolas; Cristescu, Simona M; Balzergue, Sandrine; Baudouin, Emmanuel; Bailly, Christophe

2015-02-01

367

[Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].  

PubMed

The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity. PMID:24455890

Polevik, N D

2013-01-01

368

The Radish Party  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Radish Party inquiry is designed to teach the importance and relevance of soil organic matter to young students. In this investigation, students grow radishes in three different kinds of soils: sand, sand plus nutrients, and potting soil (soil that includes organic matter). The experience described here was conducted with first- and…

Piotrowski, Jeff; Mildenstein, Tammy; Dungan, Kathy; Brewer, Carol

2007-01-01

369

Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

2014-07-01

370

Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean  

PubMed Central

Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120?W of cold plasma for 15?s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80?W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean. PMID:25080862

Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

2014-01-01

371

Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean.  

PubMed

Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean. PMID:25080862

Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

2014-01-01

372

Effects of a warmer climate on seed germination in the subarctic  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In a future warmer subarctic climate, the soil temperatures experienced by dispersed seeds are likely to increase during summer but may decrease during winter due to expected changes in snow depth, duration and quality. Because little is known about the dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of subarctic species, how warming may influence the timing and level of germination in these species was examined. Methods Under controlled conditions, how colder winter and warmer summer soil temperatures influenced germination was tested in 23 subarctic species. The cold stratification and warm incubation temperatures were derived from real soil temperature measurements in subarctic tundra and the temperatures were gradually changed over time to simulate different months of the year. Key Results Moderate summer warming (+2·5 °C) substantially accelerated germination in all but four species but did not affect germination percentages. Optimum germination temperatures (20/10°C) further decreased germination time and increased germination percentages in three species. Colder winter soil temperatures delayed the germination in ten species and decreased the germination percentage in four species, whereas the opposite was found in Silene acaulis. In most species, the combined effect of a reduced snow cover and summer warming resulted in earlier germination and thus a longer first growing season, which improves the chance of seedling survival. In particular the recruitment of (dwarf) shrubs (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Betula nana), trees (Alnus incana, Betula pubescens) and grasses (Calamagrostis lapponica, C. purpurea) is likely to benefit from a warmer subarctic climate. Conclusions Seedling establishment is expected to improve in a future warmer subarctic climate, mainly by considerably earlier germination. The magnitudes of the responses are species-specific, which should be taken into account when modelling population growth and migration of subarctic species. PMID:19443459

Milbau, Ann; Graae, Bente Jessen; Shevtsova, Anna; Nijs, Ivan

2009-01-01

373

[A comparative study on seed germination of 15 grass species in Keeqin Sandyland].  

PubMed

A laboratory study was made on the germination characteristics of freshly-collected seeds of grass species at the Wulanaodu area of Keeqin Sandyland in Eastern Inner-Mongolia. Of the 15 species examined, 8 species including Clinelymus dahuricus, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Pappophorum boreale, Spodiopogon sibiricus, Phragmites communis, Chloris virgata, Arundinella hirta, Pennisetum alopecuroides had a germination rate of over 80%, but 4 species including Echinochloa hispidula, Hemarthria compressa, Tragus berteronianus and Setaria viridis had a value of less than 10%. Spodiopogon sibiricus, Eragrostis pilosa, Phragmites communis, Chloris virgata, Clinelymus dahuricus, Pappophorum boreale, Digitaria cilliaris and Cleistogenes squrrosa began to germinate within 1-3 days after the test began, while Setaria viridis, Tragus berteronianus and Hemarthria compressa failed to germinate in a period of more than 10 days. For the species such as Digitaria cilliaris, Echinochloa hispidula, Phragmites communis, Eragrostis pilosa and Spodiopogon sibiricus, their germination period was less than 10 days, while Clinelymus dahuricus and Pappophorum boreale had a germination period of more than 20 days. The days required for half the final germination rate to be reached were: 2 days for Chloris virgata, 3 days for Phragmites communis, 4 days for Spodiopogon sibiricus, 5 days for Clinelymus dahuricus and Cleistogenes squarrosa, 7 days for Arundinella hirta and Pappophorum boreale, and 10 days for Pennisetum alopecuriodes. Compared with the Sheffield region in Britain, the Wulanaodu area of Kerqin Sandyland had a higher proportion of annul grasses with a low germination rate and a longer germination period, and the perennial grasses at the Wulanaodu area had an approximately same germination rate, but a longer germination period. During germination, ruderals showed the potential for risk-sharring, and thus, they had a relatively higher disturbance-resistance capacity. PMID:14732991

Liu, Zhimin; Li, Xuehua; Li, Rongping; Jiang, Deming; Cao, Chengyou

2003-09-01

374

In vitro seed germination of economically important edible bamboo Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro.  

PubMed

An in vitro propagation protocol using mature seeds of D. membranaceus was successfully established. Scarcity of seeds in bamboos because of their long flowering periods and irregular seed set resulting in low viability and germination potential, motivated us to undertake the present study. The effects of sterilants, light conditions, exogenous application of plant growth regulators and temperature in overcoming germination barriers in ageing seeds of bamboo were studied. It was found that HgCl2 (0.1%) along with bleach (15%) was more effective in raising aseptic cultures. Dark conditions, high temperatures around 30 degrees C and soaking of seeds in GA3 solution (50 ppm) overnight stimulated high percent of seed germination with corresponding increase in shoot length (2.7 +/- 0.7 mm) and number of sprouts (2.1 +/- 0.7) per explants during culture initiation. 6-benzylaminopurine acted synergistically with kinetin to give optimum germination rate of 70 +/- 13.9% as compared to 63.13% when used individually. For prolonged maintenance of cultures, 2% sucrose was found to be suitable for promoting photomixotrophic micropropagation. Following this procedure, about 65% survival of plantlets could be achieved during hardening. Biochemically seeds consume starchy endosperm for emergence of radicle which is taken as a sign of germination as also evident from the present study. Loss of viability and vigour after a year was confirmed by Tetrazolium chloride test. Micropropagation protocol developed here will ensure regeneration of large number of plants in a relatively short time. Conclusively, in vitro propagation protocol developed in D. membranaceus using mature seeds as an explants is reported for the first time. PMID:23441484

Brar, Jasmine; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

2013-01-01

375

Seed germination ecology of Polymnia canadensis (Asteraceae), a monocarpic species of the North American Temperate Deciduous Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed germination of Polymnia canadensis was studied in relation to its wide variation in life history and its ecology as a mostly facultative biennial, a life cycle type that is rare in stable forest habitats in eastern North America. The seed dormancy and germination characteristics of P. canadensis were like some other herbaceous woodland species of diverse life cycle

Martin H. Bender; Jerry M. Baskin; Carol C. Baskin

2003-01-01

376

EFFECT OF COMPATIBLE OSMOTICA AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY STRESS ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF ALLENROLFEA OCCIDENTALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allenrolfea occidentalis, a perennial halophytic shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae is widely distributed in the inland salt marshes and salt playas of western United States. Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of compatible osmotica (betaine and proline) and growth regulators (gibberellic acid and kinetin) in alleviating salinity stress on the seed germination of A. occidentalis. Seed germination decreased with

BILQUEES GUL; M. AJMAL KHAN

2008-01-01

377

Effects of phthalate ester treatment on seed germination and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phaseolus radiatus L.  

PubMed

Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate on seed germination rate and antioxidant enzymes activities of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) were investigated. Results showed that under the treatment with 10 mg/kg of phthalate esters (PAEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase (CAT) activities were higher than those of the control (p > 0.05). But SOD and CAT activities decreased with the PAEs concentrations and the treatment duration, and were significantly lower than those of the control (p < 0.05). Effect of PAEs stress on SOD activity in germinating seeds of mung bean displayed a significant dose-effect relationship. PMID:24535285

Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Chongbang; Liu, Shuyuan

2014-05-01

378

DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination.  

PubMed

Seed germination is an important life-cycle transition because it determines subsequent plant survival and reproductive success. To detect optimal spatiotemporal conditions for germination, seeds act as sophisticated environmental sensors integrating information such as ambient temperature. Here we show that the delay of germination 1 (DOG1) gene, known for providing dormancy adaptation to distinct environments, determines the optimal temperature for seed germination. By reciprocal gene-swapping experiments between Brassicaceae species we show that the DOG1-mediated dormancy mechanism is conserved. Biomechanical analyses show that this mechanism regulates the material properties of the endosperm, a seed tissue layer acting as germination barrier to control coat dormancy. We found that DOG1 inhibits the expression of gibberellin (GA)-regulated genes encoding cell-wall remodeling proteins in a temperature-dependent manner. Furthermore we demonstrate that DOG1 causes temperature-dependent alterations in the seed GA metabolism. These alterations in hormone metabolism are brought about by the temperature-dependent differential expression of genes encoding key enzymes of the GA biosynthetic pathway. These effects of DOG1 lead to a temperature-dependent control of endosperm weakening and determine the optimal temperature for germination. The conserved DOG1-mediated coat-dormancy mechanism provides a highly adaptable temperature-sensing mechanism to control the timing of germination. PMID:25114251

Graeber, Kai; Linkies, Ada; Steinbrecher, Tina; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ture?ková, Veronika; Ignatz, Michael; Sperber, Katja; Voegele, Antje; de Jong, Hans; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

2014-08-26

379

DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination  

PubMed Central

Seed germination is an important life-cycle transition because it determines subsequent plant survival and reproductive success. To detect optimal spatiotemporal conditions for germination, seeds act as sophisticated environmental sensors integrating information such as ambient temperature. Here we show that the DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) gene, known for providing dormancy adaptation to distinct environments, determines the optimal temperature for seed germination. By reciprocal gene-swapping experiments between Brassicaceae species we show that the DOG1-mediated dormancy mechanism is conserved. Biomechanical analyses show that this mechanism regulates the material properties of the endosperm, a seed tissue layer acting as germination barrier to control coat dormancy. We found that DOG1 inhibits the expression of gibberellin (GA)-regulated genes encoding cell-wall remodeling proteins in a temperature-dependent manner. Furthermore we demonstrate that DOG1 causes temperature-dependent alterations in the seed GA metabolism. These alterations in hormone metabolism are brought about by the temperature-dependent differential expression of genes encoding key enzymes of the GA biosynthetic pathway. These effects of DOG1 lead to a temperature-dependent control of endosperm weakening and determine the optimal temperature for germination. The conserved DOG1-mediated coat-dormancy mechanism provides a highly adaptable temperature-sensing mechanism to control the timing of germination. PMID:25114251

Graeber, Kai; Linkies, Ada; Steinbrecher, Tina; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ture?ková, Veronika; Ignatz, Michael; Sperber, Katja; Voegele, Antje; de Jong, Hans; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

2014-01-01

380

Proteomic and functional analyses of Nelumbo nucifera annexins involved in seed thermotolerance and germination vigor.  

PubMed

Annexins are multifunctional proteins characterized by their capacity to bind calcium ions and negatively charged lipids. Although there is increasing evidence implicating their importance in plant stress responses, their functions in seeds remain to be further studied. In this study, we identified a heat-induced annexin, NnANN1, from the embryonic axes of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) using comparative proteomics approach. Moreover, the expression of NnANN1 increased considerably in response to high-temperature treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the transcripts of NnANN1 were detected predominantly during seed development and germination in sacred lotus, implicating a role for NnANN1 in plant seeds. Ectopic expression of NnANN1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to heat stress in transgenic seeds. In addition, compared to the wild-type seeds, transgenic seeds ectopically expressing NnANN1 exhibited improved resistance to accelerated aging treatment used for assessing seed vigor. Furthermore, transgenic seeds showed enhanced peroxidase activities, accompanied with reduced lipid peroxidation and reduced ROS release levels compared to the wild-type seeds. Taken together, these results indicate that NnANN1 plays an important role in seed thermotolerance and germination vigor. PMID:22167260

Chu, Pu; Chen, Huhui; Zhou, Yuliang; Li, Yin; Ding, Yu; Jiang, Liwen; Tsang, Edward W T; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

2012-06-01

381

Effect of flooding and draw-down disturbance on germination from a seashore meadow seed bank  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of flooding and draw-down on the germination from the coastal grassland seed banks and to determine whether the effect of flooding varies between the delta and the seashore. Seed bank samples were collected from three shore transects in SW Finland, two on the shore of the Baltic Sea and one on the delta of River Kokema??enjoki. Samples were germinated in non-flooded and flooded conditions for over a month, after which both treatments were maintained in non-flooded conditions. A total of 9267 seedlings of 47 species germinated and mean density of seeds in the soil was ca. 84 000/m2. Most of the seedlings were monocots (98%) and perennials (98%). Ca. 30-40% of the species found in the above-ground vegetation had a seed bank including the majority of the most abundant species. The number of seeds and species richness increased as the organic layer became thicker. The organic layer was thicker in the seashore samples and the seed bank was significantly larger than in the delta. The flooding and draw-down treatment significantly increased the number of germinating seedlings in the seashore and also increased species richness in two transects, one in the delta and the other in the seashore. Two species, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani and Typha latifolia, had significantly higher germination in the flooded treatment than in the non-flooded. Apparently, many species in these coastal grasslands have adapted to flood disturbance and for seeds of some species flooding may work as a positive signal, possibly breaking dormancy.

Jutila, H.M.

2001-01-01

382

Strategies for Adaptation of Suaeda physophora, Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon persicum to a Saline Environment During Seed-Germination Stage  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Germination is very important for plant establishment in arid regions. The strategies taken by halophytes during the seed germination stage to adapt to saline environments in an arid zone were investigated in Suaeda physophora (euhalophyte), Haloxylon ammodendron (xero-halophyte) and Haloxylon persicum (xerophyte). • Methods Seeds of S. physophora, H. ammodendron and H. persicum were exposed to a range of iso-osmotic NaCl and PEG solutions. Seed germination in, and recovery germination from, high NaCl were recorded. The effects of iso-osmotic NaCl and PEG on seed water uptake and changes in ion content were measured. In addition, the structure of seeds and Na+ distribution in the seed coat and embryos of dry seeds were investigated. • Key Results The relative increase in fresh weight of germinating seeds was markedly reduced in ?2·24?MPa PEG compared with that in ?2·24?MPa NaCl, while the opposite trend was found in concentration of K+ during the initial 9?h for all species. Haloxylon ammodendron and S. physophora had a higher recovery germination from ?3·13?MPa NaCl compared with H. persicum. Seeds of all species had no endosperm. More Na+ was compartmentalized in the seed coats of the two halophytic species compared with that in the xerophyte H. persicum. • Conclusions The effect of NaCl on seed germination was due to both osmotic stress and ion toxicity for the three species. High soil salinity and a high content of Na+ in seeds may induce more seeds to remain ungerminated in S. physophora and H. ammodendron. Morphological structure and adaptation to salinity during seed germination may determine the geographical distribution of H. ammodendron and S. physophora in certain saline regions. PMID:16002418

SONG, JIE; FENG, GU; TIAN, CHANGYAN; ZHANG, FUSUO

2005-01-01

383

Expression of genes related to tolerance to low temperature for maize seed germination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize maize lines tolerant to cold temperatures during the germination process. Seeds from lines with different levels of tolerance to low temperatures were used; 3 lines were classified as tolerant and 3 as susceptible to low germination temperatures. A field was set up to multiply seeds from selected lines. After the seeds were harvested and classified, we conducted physiological tests and analyzed fatty acid content of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and eicosenoic acids. In proteomic analysis, the expression of heat-resistant proteins, including catalase, peroxidase, esterase, superoxide dismutase, and ?-amylase, were evaluated. Transcript analysis was used to measure the expression of the genes AOX1, AOX2, ZmMPK-17, and ZmAN-13. The material showing the highest susceptibility to low germination temperatures contained high saturated fatty acid content. Expression of ?-amylase in seeds soaked for 72 h at a temperature of 10°C was lower than expression of ?-amylase when soaked at 25°C for the same amount of time. We observed variation in the expression of heat-resistant proteins in seeds of the lines evaluated. The genes AOX and Zm-AN13 were promising for use in identifying maize materials that are tolerant to low germination temperatures. PMID:25867416

Silva-Neta, I C; Pinho, E V; Veiga, A D; Pìnho, R G; Guimarães, R M; Caixeta, F; Santos, H O; Marques, T L

2015-01-01

384

Induction of oxidative stress by sunflower phytotoxins in germinating mustard seeds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the phytotoxic effect of sunflower on physiological and biochemical processes during germination of mustard seeds (Sinapis alba L. cv. Nakielska). To exclude the involvement of osmotic stress in seed reaction to phytotoxic compounds, we compared the effect of 10% (w/v) water extract from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Ogrodowy) leaves and 28.4% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 solution characterized by an equal Psi = -1 MPa. We evaluated (1) the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase; (3) membrane permeability; and (4) level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Both, sunflower compounds and PEG solutions inhibited mustard seed germination, but only phytotoxins caused an increase in the cell membrane permeability, MDA level, H2O2 concentration, and alterations in activities of antioxidant enzymes. Our results demonstrate that despite the activation of the antioxidant system by sunflower phytotoxins, reactive oxygen species accumulation caused cellular damage, which resulted in the decrease of germinability and gradual loss of seed vigor. It seems that the negative effect of sunflower on germination of mustard seeds is mostly because of its toxicity and not to its contribution to osmotic potential. PMID:17216362

Oracz, Krystyna; Bailly, Christophe; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Côme, Daniel; Corbineau, Francoise; Bogatek, Renata

2007-02-01

385

HFR1 sequesters PIF1 to govern the transcriptional network underlying light-initiated seed germination in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Seed germination is the first step for seed plants to initiate a new life cycle. Light plays a predominant role in promoting seed germination, where the initial phase is mediated by photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). Previous studies showed that phytochrome-interacting factor1 (PIF1) represses seed germination downstream of phyB. Here, we identify a positive regulator of phyB-dependent seed germination, long hypocotyl in far-red1 (HFR1). HFR1 blocks PIF1 transcriptional activity by forming a heterodimer with PIF1 that prevents PIF1 from binding to DNA. Our whole-genomic analysis shows that HFR1 and PIF1 oppositely mediate the light-regulated transcriptome in imbibed seeds. Through the HFR1-PIF1 module, light regulates expression of numerous genes involved in cell wall loosening, cell division, and hormone pathways to initiate seed germination. The functionally antagonistic HFR1-PIF1 pair constructs a fail-safe mechanism for fine-tuning seed germination during low-level illumination, ensuring a rapid response to favorable environmental changes. This study identifies the HFR1-PIF1 pair as a central module directing the whole genomic transcriptional network to rapidly initiate light-induced seed germination. PMID:24179122

Shi, Hui; Zhong, Shangwei; Mo, Xiaorong; Liu, Na; Nezames, Cynthia D; Deng, Xing Wang

2013-10-01

386

Polyamines, IAA and ABA during germination in two recalcitrant seeds: Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant growth regulators play an important role in seed germination. However, much of the current knowledge about their function during seed germination was obtained using orthodox seeds as model systems, and there is a paucity of information about the role of plant growth regulators during germination of recalcitrant seeds. In the present work, two endangered woody species with recalcitrant seeds, Araucaria angustifolia (Gymnosperm) and Ocotea odorifera (Angiosperm), native to the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, were used to study the mobilization of polyamines (PAs), indole-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. Methods Data were sampled from embryos of O. odorifera and embryos and megagametophytes of A. angustifolia throughout the germination process. Biochemical analyses were carried out in HPLC. Key Results During seed germination, an increase in the (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio was recorded in embryos in both species. An increase in IAA and PA levels was also observed during seed germination in both embryos, while ABA levels showed a decrease in O. odorifera and an increase in A. angustifolia embryos throughout the period studied. Conclusions The (Spd + Spm) : Put ratio could be used as a marker for germination completion. The increase in IAA levels, prior to germination, could be associated with variations in PA content. The ABA mobilization observed in the embryos could represent a greater resistance to this hormone in recalcitrant seeds, in comparison to orthodox seeds, opening a new perspective for studies on the effects of this regulator in recalcitrant seeds. The gymnosperm seed, though without a connective tissue between megagametophyte and embryo, seems to be able to maintain communication between the tissues, based on the likely transport of plant growth regulators. PMID:21685432

Pieruzzi, Fernanda P.; Dias, Leonardo L. C.; Balbuena, Tiago S.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; dos Santos, André L. W.; Floh, Eny I. S.

2011-01-01

387

Imbibition Period as the Critical Temperature Sensitive Stage in Germination of Lima Bean Seeds  

PubMed Central

Lima bean seeds (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and excised embryonic axes can be injured during imbibition at temperatures below 25°. The early imbibitional stage is critical; imbibition at 25° followed by low temperature exposure does not cause injury. Sensitivity to chilling injury is conditioned by the pre-harvest seed history. Low vigor (bleached) seeds are most sensitive to injury, the effects of which can be intensified by restricted oxygen supply during early axis growth. The seed coat, by preventing water uptake, can permit the seed to avoid injury. This protective mechanism is most effective at low temperature and high moisture stress. Immediately following low temperature imbibition, injured axes lose organic materials, probably nucleotides. This organic leachate is a potential influence on soil microorganisms and, together with the temperature sensitivity, vigor, and seed coat effect undoubtedly is important in controlling the potential variability in germination shown by a seed population. Images PMID:16656243

Pollock, B. M.; Toole, Vivian K.

1966-01-01

388

Dynamic Proteomics Emphasizes the Importance of Selective mRNA Translation and Protein Turnover during Arabidopsis Seed Germination*  

PubMed Central

During seed germination, the transition from a quiescent metabolic state in a dry mature seed to a proliferative metabolic state in a vigorous seedling is crucial for plant propagation as well as for optimizing crop yield. This work provides a detailed description of the dynamics of protein synthesis during the time course of germination, demonstrating that mRNA translation is both sequential and selective during this process. The complete inhibition of the germination process in the presence of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide established that mRNA translation is critical for Arabidopsis seed germination. However, the dynamics of protein turnover and the selectivity of protein synthesis (mRNA translation) during Arabidopsis seed germination have not been addressed yet. Based on our detailed knowledge of the Arabidopsis seed proteome, we have deepened our understanding of seed mRNA translation during germination by combining two-dimensional gel-based proteomics with dynamic radiolabeled proteomics using a radiolabeled amino acid precursor, namely [35S]-methionine, in order to highlight de novo protein synthesis, stability, and turnover. Our data confirm that during early imbibition, the Arabidopsis translatome keeps reflecting an embryonic maturation program until a certain developmental checkpoint. Furthermore, by dividing the seed germination time lapse into discrete time windows, we highlight precise and specific patterns of protein synthesis. These data refine and deepen our knowledge of the three classical phases of seed germination based on seed water uptake during imbibition and reveal that selective mRNA translation is a key feature of seed germination. Beyond the quantitative control of translational activity, both the selectivity of mRNA translation and protein turnover appear as specific regulatory systems, critical for timing the molecular events leading to successful germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24198433

Galland, Marc; Huguet, Romain; Arc, Erwann; Cueff, Gwendal; Job, Dominique; Rajjou, Loïc

2014-01-01

389

Germination traits explain soil seed persistence across species: the case of Mediterranean annual plants in cereal fields  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seed persistence in the soil under field conditions is an important issue for the maintenance of local plant populations and the restoration of plant communities, increasingly so in the light of rapidly changing land use and climate change. Whereas processes important for dispersal in space are well known, knowledge of processes governing dispersal in time is still limited. Data for morphological seed traits such as size have given contradictory results for prediction of soil seed persistence or cover only a few species. There have been few experimental studies on the role of germination traits in determining soil seed persistence, while none has studied their predictive value consistently across species. Delayed germination, as well as light requirements for germination, have been suggested to contribute to the formation of persistent seed banks. Moreover, diurnally fluctuating temperatures can influence the timing of germination and are therefore linked to seed bank persistence. Methods The role of germination speed measured by T50 (days to germination of 50 % of all germinated seeds), light requirement and reaction to diurnally fluctuating temperatures in determining seed persistence in the soil was evaluated using an experimental comparative data set of 25 annual cereal weed species. Key Results It is shown that light requirements and slow germination are important features to maintain seeds ungerminated just after entering the soil, and hence influence survival of seeds in the soil. However, the detection of low diurnally fluctuating temperatures enhances soil seed bank persistence by limiting germination. Our data further suggest that the effect of diurnally fluctuating temperatures, as measured on seeds after dispersal and dry storage, is increasingly important to prevent fatal germination after longer burial periods. Conclusions These results underline the functional role of delayed germination and light for survival of seeds in the soil and hence their importance for shaping the first part of the seed decay curve. Our analyses highlight the detection of diurnally fluctuating temperatures as a third mechanism to achieve higher soil seed persistence after burial which interacts strongly with season. We therefore advocate focusing future research on mechanisms that favour soil seed persistence after longer burial times and moving from studies of morphological features to exploration of germination traits such as reaction to diurnally fluctuating temperatures. PMID:21224268

Saatkamp, Arne; Affre, Laurence; Dutoit, Thierry; Poschlod, Peter

2011-01-01

390

Cold Radiofrequency Plasma Treatment Modifies Wettability and Germination Speed of Plant Seeds  

PubMed Central

We report the possibility to modify the wetting properties of the surfaces of a diversity of seeds including: lentils (Lens culinaris), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum, species C9) by cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment. Air plasma treatment leads to the dramatic decrease in the apparent contact angle. Moreover, the speed of germination and yield (germination rate) of seeds can be modified by preliminary plasma treatment. The change in the wetting properties of seeds is at least partially due to oxidation of their surface under plasma treatment. Significant growth of the peaks corresponding to the nitrogen containing groups in the mass spectra of air plasma treated seeds was registered by TOF-SIMS spectroscopy. PMID:23077725

Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

2012-01-01

391

Seed germination of Fragaria vesca L. From atypical ecotopes of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed formation and seed germination rate were established to be essentially higher in Fragaria vesca L. populations growing in the ecotopes which are atypical for wood strawberry than in the standard ecotopes for the species.\\u000a Having equal capabilities for cross-pollination and self-pollination, the plants exhibit higher level of xenogamy than autogamy\\u000a when growing in atypical ecotopes. Xenogamy predomination promotes the

S. O. Baturin

2009-01-01

392

Interactions of phytochrome and exogenous gibberellic acid on germination of Lamium amplexicaule L. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.) seeds, micromolar levels of gibberellic acid (GA3) introduced at the onset of imbibition markedly stimulated germination. Sensitivity to GA3 stimulation is rapidly lost if the seeds are pretreated in darkness at 15° for 1 day or more on a water substrate. Loss in responsiveness to GA3 is hastened by pretreatment in far-red or by dark

R. B. Taylorson; S. B. Hendricks

1976-01-01

393

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of germinating seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana : A non-tissue culture approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germinating seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were cocultivated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (C58Clrif) carrying the pGV3850:pAK1003 Ti plasmid. This Ti plasmid contains the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NPT II) which confers resistance to kanamycin and G418. Seeds (T1 generation) imbibed for 12 h before a 24 h exposure to Agrobacterium gave rise to the highest number of transformed progeny (T2

Kenneth A. Feldmann; M. David Marks

1987-01-01

394

Germination and Emergence of Primed Grass Seeds Under Field and Simulated-field Temperature Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed priming may enhance establishment success of cool-season range grasses which must compete with annual weeds for early spring moisture. Previous priming studies have confirmed germination rate enhancement for these species but relative treatment effects under field-temperature conditions have not been assessed. We primed seeds of thickspike wheatgrass [Elymus lanceolatus(Scribn. and J. G. Smith) Gould], bluebunch wheatgrass [Pseudoroegneria spicata(Pursh) Löve],

Stuart P. Hardegree; Steven S. Van Vactor

2000-01-01

395

Seed germination conditions and implications for establishment of an epiphyte, Aechmea bracteata (Bromeliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aechmea bracteata is a common epiphytic bromeliad found in symbiosis with many other species throughout tropical forests of Mexico and south\\u000a through Panama. Given its importance and distribution in these forests, we asked how may A. bracteata be restored to areas where they have thrived in the past? We first investigated seed viability and response of seed germination\\u000a to temperature,

Laurel K. Goode; Michael F. Allen

2009-01-01

396

Seed germination of Cirsium arvense and Lepidium latifolium : Implications for management of montane wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cirsium arvense and Lepidium latifolium are species that can aggressively invade wetland margins and potentially reduce biodiversity and alter ecosystem function.\\u000a Although expansion of these species primarily occurs via rhizomatous growth, seeds are thought to be important in initial\\u000a establishment. We conducted this study to investigate differences in seed germination of C. arvense and L. latifolium in montane wetlands of

Murray K. Laubhan; Terry L. Shaffer

2006-01-01

397

Seed Germination Ecology of Feather Lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes  

PubMed Central

Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha-1 was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

2013-01-01

398

Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].  

PubMed

Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

Chauhan, Bhagirath S

2013-01-01

399

Lifting DELLA Repression of Arabidopsis Seed Germination by Nonproteolytic Gibberellin Signaling1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

DELLA repression of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed germination can be lifted either through DELLA proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or through proteolysis-independent gibberellin (GA) hormone signaling. GA binding to the GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) GA receptors stimulates GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation, which in turn triggers DELLA protein ubiquitination and proteolysis via the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and 26S proteasome. Although DELLA cannot be destroyed in the sleepy1-2 (sly1-2) F-box mutant, long dry after-ripening and GID1 overexpression can relieve the strong sly1-2 seed dormancy phenotype. It appears that sly1-2 seed dormancy results from abscisic acid (ABA) signaling downstream of DELLA, since dormant sly1-2 seeds accumulate high levels of ABA hormone and loss of ABA sensitivity rescues sly1-2 seed germination. DELLA positively regulates the expression of XERICO, an inducer of ABA biosynthesis. GID1b overexpression rescues sly1-2 germination through proteolysis-independent DELLA down-regulation associated with increased expression of GA-inducible genes and decreased ABA accumulation, apparently as a result of decreased XERICO messenger RNA levels. Higher levels of GID1 overexpression are associated with more efficient sly1 germination and increased GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation, suggesting that GID1 down-regulates DELLA through protein binding. After-ripening results in increased GA accumulation and GID1a-dependent GA signaling, suggesting that after-ripening triggers GA-stimulated GID1-GA-DELLA protein complex formation, which in turn blocks DELLA transcriptional activation of the XERICO inhibitor of seed germination. PMID:23818171

Ariizumi, Tohru; Hauvermale, Amber L.; Nelson, Sven K.; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Steber, Camille M.

2013-01-01

400

Comparison of germination and seed vigor of sunflower in two contaminated soils of different texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoremediation as an emerging low-cost and ecologically friendly alternative to the conventional soil remediation technologies has gained a great deal of attention and into lots of research. As a kind of the methods that use of green plants to remediate heavy metals contaminated soils, the early growth status of plant seeds in the contaminated environmental directly affects the effect of phytoremediation. Germination test in the water (aqueous solution of heavy metal) is generally used for assessing heavy metal phytotoxicity and possibility of plant growth, but there is a limit. Because soil is commonly main target of phytoremediation, not the water. The bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil also depends on the texture. So soil texture is an important factor of phytoremediation effect. Sunflower is the representative species which have good tolerance to various heavy metals; furthermore, the seeds of sunflower can be used as the raw-material for producing bio-diesel. The objectives of this research were to investigate germination rate of sunflowers in various heavy metal contaminated soils and to compare the seedling vigor index (SVI) of sunflower in two contaminated soils of different texture. Sunflower (Helianthusannuus L.) seeds were obtained from a commercial market. In order to prove the soil texture effect on heavy metal contaminated soil, germination tests in soil were conducted with two different types of soil texture (i.e., loam soil and sandy loam soil) classified by soil textural triangle (defined by USDA) including representative soil texture of Korea. Germination tests in soil were conducted using KS I ISO 11260-1 (2005) for reference that sunflower seeds were incubated for 7 days in dark at 25 ± 1 Celsius degree. The target heavy metals are Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). The Ni and Zn concentrations were 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 mg-Ni/kg-dry soil, and 0, 10, 50, 100, 300, 500, 900 mg-Zn/kg-dry soil, respectively. After germination test for 7 days, germination rate of sunflower was calculated, and shoot and root lengths were also measured. According to the results of germination tests, the seeds germination rates were reduced with increasing heavy metal concentrations in both loam soil and sandy loam soil. The SVI values in loam soil in more than in sandy loam soil. Keywords: phytoremediation, sunflower, soil texture, germination test ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is supported by the Korea Ministry of the Environment as 'The GAIA (Geo-Advanced Innovative Action) Project'.

Zhao, Xin; Han, Jaemaro; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

2014-05-01

401

Cryopreservation of lipid-rich seeds: effect of moisture content and cooling rate on germination.  

PubMed

The effect of fast and slow cooling on germination of seeds from two Brassicaceae species (Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav., Brassica napus L. var. oleifera (Moench) DC cv. Bingo) and cypselas from three Compositae species (Onopordum nervosum Boiss., Onopordum acanthium L., Helianthus annuus L. cv. Viky) at different moisture contents was studied. Seed lipid content (dry weight basis) ranged from 15% (O. nervosum) to 41% (H. annuus). For each species, seeds with four moisture contents were cryopreserved either by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen or by previous cooling at 10 degrees C/min from room temperature to -50 degrees C. In three species (E. vesicaria, B. napus, and H. annuus) germination of air-dried (6.2-8.9% moisture content) seeds cooled by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen was not significantly different from germination of control seeds (air-dried, non-cooled). In the two Onorpordum species the best response among cooling treatments was observed when air-dried seeds were slowly cooled. PMID:11788852

González-Benito, E M; Pérez-García, F

2001-01-01

402

Metabolism of triacylglycerol species during seed germination in fatty acid sunflower (Helianthus annuus) mutants.  

PubMed

Sunflower mutant lines with high saturated fatty acid content (palmitic or stearic) in the oil have a completely different set of triacylglycerols (TAG), some of which were not found in standard sunflowers. For optimum seed germination, all of these new TAG species must be effectively catabolized. The behavior of the TAG composition during germination in cotyledons of all these mutant lines showed two different phases: an initial phase (between 0 and 2 days after sowing) with a higher catalytic activity and a preference for TAG containing at least two oleic acid molecules and a second phase with lower TAG degradation rate and a low preference for TAG containing two saturated fatty acids usually accompanied by linoleic acid. Despite the elevated content of saturated fatty acids in some TAG species, the total TAG degradation rate and germination process were similar in these lines, suggesting that sunflower seed lipases do not show a marked preference for any TAG species. PMID:10725147

Fernández-Moya, V; Martínez-Force, E; Garcés, R

2000-03-01

403

Seed-germination inhibition by volatile alcohols and other compounds associated withAmaranthus palmeri residues.  

PubMed

Effects of 3-pentanone and eight low molecular weight aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes identifed in the mixtures of volatiles released byAmaranthus palmeri S. Wats. (AMAPA) residues were determined on germination of onion, carrot, AMAPA, and tomato seeds. Three-day exposures to these volatiles significantly inhibited germination of these assay seeds, and the inhibition was dependent upon exposure time and concentration. Based on the degree of inhibition observed in both time- and concentration-dependent assays, the following activity series was obtained: 2-heptanol > 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol > hexanal, 1-pentanol, 3-pentanone, acetaldehyde > ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol. The activities of this group of compounds with that of 2-heptanone appear to be additive and related to test compound volatility and hydrophilicity. 2-Heptanol and 2-heptanone also significantly inhibited the germination of other species, including shepherdspurse, soybean, lettuce, alfalfa, common purslane, oats, and lovegrass. PMID:24276435

Bradow, J M; Connick, W J

1988-07-01

404

In vitro Asymbiotic Germination of Immature Seed and Formation of Protocorm by Cephalanthera falcata (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Many Orchidaceous species are threatened globally by development and over-collection from their natural habitats for horticultural purposes. Artificial propagation from seeds is difficult in most terrestrial orchids native to temperate regions. Seed production is another limiting factor in the artificial propagation for these species because of the lessened probability of pollination and the destruction of fruit by insect larvae. Members of the genus Cephalanthera are distributed across Europe, Asia and North America. C. falcata is a temperate species of East Asia and an endangered species in Japan. As successful propagation from seeds of this species has never been reported, a reproducible method is described here for seed production in situ and propagation using immature seeds in asymbiotic culture in vitro. • Methods Effects of hand-pollination and bagging treatment of ovaries were examined. Young capsules were collected every 10 d from 50 d after pollination until 120 d after pollination. Immature seeds obtained from these capsules were cultured asymbiotically on modified Kano medium and ND medium. Seed viability was examined within TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) test solution and histological observations were made on viable seeds by paraffin embedding at each collection stage. • Key Results and Conclusions Hand-pollination followed by bagging treatment of ovaries with aluminium foil was effective for insect control during fruit development, and successfully yielded capsules. Of the capsules, 74·5 % survived to full maturity. The highest frequency (39·8 %) of seed germination was obtained with seeds harvested 70 d after pollination. The frequency declined with progress of seed maturity on the mother plant. Minimal germination was observed with seeds harvested 100 d or later after pollination. Histological observation suggests that accumulation of such substances as lignin in the inner integument surrounding the embryo during seed maturation plays an important role in induction of dormancy. PMID:17071633

YAMAZAKI, JUN; MIYOSHI, KAZUMITSU

2006-01-01

405

Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. PMID:24054243

Paj?k, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Ga?kowska, Dorota; Ro?nowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

2014-01-15

406

Effects of mycorrhizal fungi on symbiotic seed germination of Pecteilis susannae (L . ) Rafin (Orchidaceae), a terrestrial orchid in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic seed germination of Pecteilis susannae (L.) Rafin was investigated using 11 fungal isolates recovered from roots of four Thai terrestrial orchids (P. susannae, Eulophia spectabilis, Paphiopedilum bellatulum and Spathoglottis affinis). Seed germination and protocorm development were evaluated up to 133 days after sowing. Protocorm development was most advanced,\\u000a up to stage 5 (elongation of the first leaf), when seeds were

Ruangwut Chutima; Bernard Dell; Saisamorn Lumyong

2011-01-01

407

Influence of temperature on fractional composition of proteins and respiration of germinating seeds of Gmelin and Siberian larch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of optimal and contrasting temperatures on the fractional composition of proteins and respiration of germinating\\u000a seeds of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) was revealed. The dominance of globulins (salt-soluble fraction) and insoluble proteins was noted in viable air-dry\\u000a seeds of larch. Optimal and contrasting temperatures of germination of seeds caused significant

O. V. Masyagina; S. G. Prokushkin; M. Yu. Sadilova

2009-01-01

408

HEAT STRESS DURING EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IMPAIRS SOYBEAN SEED GERMINATION AND VIGOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) has been applied to the Southern Central area in the U.S. to maintain soybean (Glycine max Merrill) yield by avoiding drought. However, ESPS can produce seeds with good compositional quality but low germination and vigor. Our hypothesis is that high tempera...

409

EFFECT OF WHITE FLUORESCENT LIGHT ON SEED GERMINATION, SEEDLINGS AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF PHASEOLUS SATIVUS L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soaked and dry seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were exposed to white fluorescent light originated from 30 W, 220 V fluorescent bare lamp for limited periods, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours with intervals of one hour between each two hours beside a chronic group of 4 hours continuous exposure. Records of the germination percentage starting from day 3 till

Sannaa A. I. Muss; Wafaa Kamal Tai

410

Field emergence and plant density of sand bluestem lines selected for increased seed germination.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) populations AB-medium Syn-1 and Syn-2, and CD-tall Syn-1 and Syn-2 were developed from populations AB-medium Syn-0 and CD-tall Syn-0 by recurrent selection for increased seed germination in low water potentials. The objective of this research was to verify if...

411

DOES SEED SIZE AFFECT THE RATE OF GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH IN HAIRY VETCH?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many crops there is a positive correlation between seed size and the rate of germination and seedling establishment. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, Roth) is an annual cool-season legume used primarily for soil improvement or for forage. In the Southern Great Plains its growing season is limited to...

412

In Vivo Effects of Barbituates on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple, low-cost experimental system can be used to demonstrate the "in vivo" effects of barbituates on seed germination and seedling growth behavior in different plant species. Lipid solubility and concentration of individual barbituates both affect the response. List of materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are…

Kordan, H. A.

1984-01-01

413

Determination of Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters that Describe Isothermal Seed Germination: A Student Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project for students to collect and fit data to a theoretical mathematical model that describes the rate of isothermal seed germination, including activation energy for substrate and produce and the autocatalytic reaction, and changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibb's free energy. (Author/SK)

Hageseth, Gaylord T.

1982-01-01

414

Effect of Cold Plasma Treatment on Seed Germination and Growth of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect of cold helium plasma treatment on seed germination, growth and yield of wheat. The effects of different power of cold plasma on the germination of treated wheat seeds were studied. We found that the treatment of 80 W could significantly improve seed germination potential (6.0%) and germination rate (6.7%) compared to the control group. Field experiments were carried out for wheat seeds treated with 80 W cold plasma. Compared with the control, plant height (20.3%), root length (9.0%) and fresh weight (21.8%) were improved significantly at seedling stage. At booting stage, plant height, root length, fresh weight, stem diameter, leaf area and leaf thickness of the treated plant were respectively increased by 21.8%, 11.0%, 7.0%, 9.0%, 13.0% and 25.5%. At the same time, the chlorophyll content (9.8%), nitrogen (10.0%) and moisture content (10.0%) were higher than those of the control, indicating that cold plasma treatment could promote the growth of wheat. The yield of treated wheat was 7.55 t · ha-1, 5.89% more than that of the control. Therefore, our results show that cold plasma has important application prospects for increasing wheat yield.

Jiang, Jiafeng; He, Xin; Li, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Shao, Hanliang; Xu, Qilai; Ye, Renhong; Dong, Yuanhua

2014-01-01

415

Ethylene Inhibition of Phytochrome-Induced Germination in Potentilla norvegica L. Seeds  

PubMed Central

Germination of Potentilla norvegica L. (rough cinquefoil) seeds stimulated by fluorescent irradiations of nearly 24 hours was inhibited by ethylene at <1 microliter per liter. Sensitivity to ethylene inhibition was highest during and immediately after the irradiation. By delaying ethylene treatment until about a day after the light potentiation, seeds escaped the inhibition. Ethylene inhibition may be readily reversed upon release of the gas and reirradiation of the seeds. Imbibition of seeds at 10 or 15°C, or at high temperatures of 35 and 40°C, partially prevented subsequent inhibition by ethylene. Alternating temperatures during germination nearly overcame the inhibition from 1 microliter per liter ethylene, but not higher doses. With brief red-irradiation and alternating temperatures, 0.1 microliter per liter ethylene promoted germination about 2-fold. These data suggest that ethylene may loosely associate on a site required for phytochrome action. The effect of temperature that opposed the inhibition may be to deny the association of ethylene with the site. Loose association is supported by the reversal of inhibition by gas release and increased temperature during germination. A blocking effect was shown by the failure of phytochrome to act when ethylene was present. PMID:16662113

Suzuki, Shoho; Taylorson, Ray B.

1981-01-01

416

Ethylene Inhibition of Phytochrome-Induced Germination in Potentilla norvegica L. Seeds.  

PubMed

Germination of Potentilla norvegica L. (rough cinquefoil) seeds stimulated by fluorescent irradiations of nearly 24 hours was inhibited by ethylene at <1 microliter per liter. Sensitivity to ethylene inhibition was highest during and immediately after the irradiation. By delaying ethylene treatment until about a day after the light potentiation, seeds escaped the inhibition. Ethylene inhibition may be readily reversed upon release of the gas and reirradiation of the seeds. Imbibition of seeds at 10 or 15 degrees C, or at high temperatures of 35 and 40 degrees C, partially prevented subsequent inhibition by ethylene. Alternating temperatures during germination nearly overcame the inhibition from 1 microliter per liter ethylene, but not higher doses. With brief red-irradiation and alternating temperatures, 0.1 microliter per liter ethylene promoted germination about 2-fold. These data suggest that ethylene may loosely associate on a site required for phytochrome action. The effect of temperature that opposed the inhibition may be to deny the association of ethylene with the site. Loose association is supported by the reversal of inhibition by gas release and increased temperature during germination. A blocking effect was shown by the failure of phytochrome to act when ethylene was present. PMID:16662113

Suzuki, S; Taylorson, R B

1981-12-01

417

Influence of storage, temperature, and light on germination of Japanese brome seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.), an alien annual grass, is an important component of some northern mixed-prairie communities. Understanding the relationship between environ- ment and population dynamics for this species is critical for effi- cient management of infested ranges. Our objective was to deter- mine the germination pattern of seed harvested in the Great Plains with varying collection dates, storage

MARSHALL R. HAFERKAMP; MICHAEL G. KARL; MICHAEL D. MACNEIL

418

Visualization of molecular processes associated with seed dormancy and germination using MapMan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy and germination involve the concerted operation of molecular and biochemical programmes. It has become feasible to study these processes in great detail, using the current methods for transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis. Yet, the large amounts of data generated by these methods are often dazzling and demand efficient tools for data visualization. We have used the freely available

R. V. L. Joosen; W. Ligterink; S. J. W. Dekkers; H. W. M. Hilhorst

2011-01-01

419

Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation  

PubMed Central

It is well known that graphene (G) induces nanotoxicity towards living organisms. Here, a novel and biocompatible hydrated graphene ribbon (HGR) unexpectedly promoted aged (two years) seed germination. HGR formed at the normal temperature and pressure (120 days hydration), presented 17.1% oxygen, 0.9% nitrogen groups, disorder-layer structure, with 0.38?nm thickness ribbon morphology. Interestingly, there were bulges around the edges of HGR. Compared to G and graphene oxide (GO), HGR increased seed germination by 15% root differentiation between 52 and 59% and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The metabonomics analysis discovered that HGR upregulated carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acids metabolism that determined secondary metabolism, nitrogen sequestration, cell membrane integrity, permeability, and oxidation resistance. Hexadecanoic acid as a biomarker promoted root differentiation and increased the germination rate. Our discovery is a novel HGR that promotes aged seed germination, illustrates metabolic specificity among graphene-based materials, and inspires innovative concepts in the regulation of seed development. PMID:24445438

Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

2014-01-01

420

Seed germination-influencing bioactive secondary metabolites secreted by the endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to isolate bioactive metabolites produced by a fungal endophyte from Helianthus annuus, Capsicum annuum, and Cucumis sativus and to assess their role in seed germination. Culture filtrate of the endophyte HA-3B from H. annuus was significantly inhibitory towards the germination and growth of lettuce seeds. HA-3B was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5 through molecular techniques. Different concentrations (100, 500 and 1000 ppm) of the ethyl acetate extract obtained from the culture inhibited the lettuce seed germination. The extract was subjected to column chromatography and a bioassay-guided isolation method, which yielded compounds 1, 2 and an oily fraction. The oily fraction, subjected to fractionation and spectroscopic techniques, resulted in the identification of 31 different constituents. Compounds 1 and 2 were identified and characterized through MS and NMR spectroscopic techniques as benzoic acid. The bioassay results showed that this compound significantly inhibited the growth and germination of lettuce seeds. In conclusion, assessing the role of endophytes harboring essential crop plants can help us to develop potentially eco-friendly herbicides. PMID:24352011

Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Lee, In-Jung

2013-01-01

421

Lifting DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by nonproteolytic gibberellin signaling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination can be lifted through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and proteolysis-independent GA signaling. GA-binding to the GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) GA receptors stimulates GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation which in turn triggers DELLA protein ubiq...

422

Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that graphene (G) induces nanotoxicity towards living organisms. Here, a novel and biocompatible hydrated graphene ribbon (HGR) unexpectedly promoted aged (two years) seed germination. HGR formed at the normal temperature and pressure (120 days hydration), presented 17.1% oxygen, 0.9% nitrogen groups, disorder-layer structure, with 0.38 nm thickness ribbon morphology. Interestingly, there were bulges around the edges of HGR. Compared to G and graphene oxide (GO), HGR increased seed germination by 15% root differentiation between 52 and 59% and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The metabonomics analysis discovered that HGR upregulated carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acids metabolism that determined secondary metabolism, nitrogen sequestration, cell membrane integrity, permeability, and oxidation resistance. Hexadecanoic acid as a biomarker promoted root differentiation and increased the germination rate. Our discovery is a novel HGR that promotes aged seed germination, illustrates metabolic specificity among graphene-based materials, and inspires innovative concepts in the regulation of seed development.

Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

2014-01-01

423

Carbon Dioxide Requirements for Phytochrome Action in Photoperiodism and Seed Germination 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of interrupting darkness with red light in the presence or absence of 0.03% CO2 was studied in relation to flowering of Xanthium pennsylvanicum and germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds. The results indicate that CO2 is essential for red light to be effective in either process. PMID:16659297

Bassi, Pawan K.; Tregunna, E. Bruce; Purohit, Aditya N.

1975-01-01

424

Starch grain breakdown in cotyledon cells of germinating mung bean seeds.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural aspects of the breakdown of starch grains during the mobilisation of reserves in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. seed germination are described. The starch grains show erosion from within leading to the formation of a hollow shell. The erosion is accompanied by intrusion of cytoplasm into the shell. No evidence of a vesicular transport system to or from the eroding face was found. PMID:24430969

Harris, N

1976-01-01

425

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona  

E-print Network

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona hexagona occupy saline habitats and plant performance is strongly impacted by salinity stress. We examined. hexagona by (1) growing plants in three different maternal salinity levels in a common garden, (2

Van Zandt, Peter

426

Seed Germination of Anise, Caraway, and Fennel in Heavy Metal Contaminated Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heavy metal combinations (Cd + Cu, Cd + Pb, Cd + Zn, Cu + Pb, Cu + Zn, and Pb + Zn) on seed germination and root growth in anise (Pimpinella anisum), caraway (Carum carvi), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) was investigated. Each test species was exposed to heavy metal test solutions prepared at two concentrations (the critical

Ekaterina Jeliazkova; Lyle E. Craker; Baoshan Xing

2003-01-01

427

HY5 is involved in strigolactone-dependent seed germination in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Strigolactones (SLs) function as plant hormones that mediate a myriad of developmental responses in higher plants. SLs also act as an environmental signal to stimulate seed germination of parasitic plant species of genera Striga and Orobanche. In contrast to their hormonal roles, genetic mechanisms of how SLs stimulate parasitic seed germination are largely not known. Recently, we established a method to monitor the germination-stimulating activity of SLs in Arabidopsis using temperature as environmental constraint (thermoinhibition). Here, we show that SLs require HY5, a key transcription factor for light signal transduction, to stimulate Arabidopsis seed germination during thermoinhibiton. Genetic analysis suggests the HY5 dependent signaling pathway is independent of other known SL signaling pathways. Thermoinhibibed seeds expressed low level of HY5 while GR24 increase the level at both mRNA and protein level. A role of SLs on activating crucial light signaling components such as HY5 may hint the evolution of parasitism associated with SL usage. PMID:22516816

Toh, Shigeo; McCourt, Peter; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro

2012-01-01

428

HY5 is involved in strigolactone-dependent seed germination in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Strigolactones (SLs) function as plant hormones that mediate a myriad of developmental responses in higher plants. SLs also act as an environmental signal to stimulate seed germination of parasitic plant species of genera Striga and Orobanche. In contrast to their hormonal roles, genetic mechanisms of how SLs stimulate parasitic seed germination are largely not known. Recently, we established a method to monitor the germination-stimulating activity of SLs in Arabidopsis using temperature as environmental constraint (thermoinhibition). Here, we show that SLs require HY5, a key transcription factor for light signal transduction, to stimulate Arabidopsis seed germination during thermoinhibiton. Genetic analysis suggests the HY5 dependent signaling pathway is independent of other known SL signaling pathways. Thermoinhibibed seeds expressed low level of HY5 while GR24 increase the level at both mRNA and protein level. A role of SLs on activating crucial light signaling components such as HY5 may hint the evolution of parasitism associated with SL usage. PMID:22516816

Toh, Shigeo; McCourt, Peter; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro

2012-05-01

429

Effects of drying on sunflower seed oil quality and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower seed (SunGro 380) were harvested 101 to 121 days after planting, and their moisture levels were between 43 and 15%.\\u000a The seed were dried at 35, 53, 72, and 88 C to a final moisture level of 10% or below. Drying air flow was 2000 m3\\/hr.\\/m3 seed. Temperature had no effect on peroxide values, total oil, or fatty acid

W. Herbert Morrison; J. A. Robertson

1978-01-01

430

Easy Gardening: Radishes  

E-print Network

This publication gives basic cultural information on growing radishes, a cool-season crop. Topics include site selection, soil preparation and fertilizing, varieties, planting, care during the season, harvesting, insects, diseases, and cleanup....

Masabni, Joseph

2009-04-07

431

Biogenic nanoparticle-mediated augmentation of seed germination, growth, and antioxidant level of Eruca sativa mill. varieties.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to examine the influence of biogenic nanoparticles synthesized from Tridax procumbens on different parameters of seed germination, seedling growth, and various biochemical parameters in four Eruca sativa varieties having low percentage of germination. Seeds were treated with different concentrations (30 and 40 ppm) of biogenic nanoparticles, of which 30 ppm was found to be the most effective and was therefore used for subsequent studies. Initially, the effect of biogenic nanoparticles on germination percentage, speed of germination, coefficient of germination, mean germination time, shoot and root length, fresh and dry matter, and vigor index was studied. From the experiments performed and the results obtained, it was evident that the treatment with biogenic nanoparticles decreased the electrolyte leakage and level of malondialdehyde as compared to control. The treatment with biogenic nanoparticles enhanced the levels of proline and ascorbic acid and stimulated the antioxidant enzyme activities resulting in the reduced level of reactive oxygen species. These activities were found to be variety-dependent. The possible involvement of biogenic nanoparticles in the production of new pores in seed coat during their penetration, resulting in the influx of the nutrients inside the seed, is suggested. This accelerated seed germination is followed by rapid seedling growth. The present findings indicated that biogenic nanoparticles promote seed germination in E. sativa by overcoming the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving the antioxidative defense system which finally result in increased seedling growth. PMID:25086920

Ushahra, Jyoti; Bhati-Kushwaha, Himakshi; Malik, C P

2014-09-01

432

Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.  

PubMed

In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively. PMID:21313873

Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

2010-11-01

433

The Radish Party  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radish Party inquiry is designed to teach the importance and relevance of soil organic matter to young students. In this investigation, students grow radishes in three different kinds of soils: sand, sand plus nutrients, and potting soil (soil that includes organic matter). The experience described here was conducted with first- and second-grade students, but the investigation can be adapted for students at other grade levels as well.

Carol Brewer

2007-10-01

434

Genotyping of endosperms to determine seed dormancy genes regulating germination through embryonic, endospermic, or maternal tissues in rice.  

PubMed

Seed dormancy is imposed by one or more of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissues that belong to two generations and represent two ploidy levels. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for seed dormancy as measured by gross effects on reduced germination rate or delayed germination in crop or model plants. This research developed an endosperm genotype-based genetic approach to determine specific tissues through which a mapped QTL regulates germination using rice as a model. This approach involves testing germination velocity for partially after-ripened seeds harvested from single plants heterozygous for a tested QTL and genotyping endosperms from individual germinated and nongerminated seeds with a codominant DNA marker located on the QTL peak region. Information collected about the QTL includes genotypic frequencies in germinated and/or nongerminated subpop