Note: This page contains sample records for the topic germination plant growth from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Composition for accelerating seed germination and plant growth  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Lipo Chitooligosaccharide (LCO) [NodBj-V(C18:1,Mefuc)] isolated from Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 532C was able to stimulate seed germination/seedling emergence, or in the case of potato, sprouting, of a number of crop plants representing eight distantly related plant families (Poaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceac, Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae) of plants, at 25 and/or at 15.degree. C. It also promoted sprouting potato minitubers. Other LCOs [NodRM-V(C.sub.16:2,5) and LCO from R. leguminosarum] were also shown to also display growth-promoting effects on the tested crop plants. The compositions comprising at least one LCO are shown to be effective in promoting growth under both laboratory and field conditions. The invention thus also relates to methods for promoting seed germination and/or seedling emergence and/or growth of plants comprising subjecting the seeds and/or plants to an effective amount of an agricultural composition comprising at least one LCO.

2005-12-27

2

The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P.putida strain R-168, P.fluorescens strain R-93, P.fluorescens DSM 50090, P.putida DSM291, A.lipoferum DSM 1691, A.brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed Inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination

A. Gholami; S. Shahsavani; S. Nezarat

2009-01-01

3

Effect of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth of three salinity plants.  

PubMed

Seeds of three halophyte species included Limonium sinense Kuntze, Glycine soja sieb. and Sorghum sudanense Stapf. were used to investigate the effects of different salinity concentrations on their germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, relative germination rate, relative salt-injury rate, radicle length and hypocotyl length. Results showed that seeds of G. soja can germinate well and rapidly at lower level of salt (< 200 mmol L(-1)), 50 mmol L(-1) salt concentrations is better to S. sudanense, suitable salt concentrations was beneficial to germinate of S. sudanense seeds. Seeds of L. sinense and S. sudanense can germinate at higher level of salt (400 mmol L(-1)). Three plant seeds had different physiological mechanism for germination under salt stress, radicle hypocotyl ratio of L. sinense and S. sudanense increased with increasing salt suggested that they had the higher tolerance in shoot growth under NaCl stress, which is perhaps the reason for their wide utilisation for saline soil rehabilitation. PMID:18819537

Li, Yan

2008-05-01

4

EFFECTS OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON JASMONIC ACID INDUCED INHIBITION OF SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF BARLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gibberellic acid, kinetin, benzyladenine, ethylene, 24- epibrassinolide and polyamines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine) on jasmonic acid inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of barley were studied. All of the plant growth regulators studied were determined to have a succesful performance in reversing of the inhibitory effects of jasmonic acid on the seed germination and seedling growth.

Kudret KABAR; Semra KILIÇ

5

Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three salt- marsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable

J. L. Espinar; L. V. Garcia; L. Clemente

2005-01-01

6

Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three saltmarsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management.

Espinar, J. L.; Garcia, L. V.; Clemente, L.

2005-01-01

7

Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

Downs, R. J.; And Others

8

Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

Downs, R. J.; And Others

9

Phytotoxic effects of 21 plant secondary metabolites on Arabidopsis thaliana germination and root growth.  

PubMed

This study investigated potential phytotoxic effects on germination and root growth of 21 plant secondary metabolites (sinapinic, syringic, vanillic, ferulic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic, gallic, gentisic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and trans-cinnamic acids, and eucalyptol, quercetin, vanillin, syringaldehyde, rutin, 2-benzoxazolinone, protocatechualdehyde, tyrosol, juglone, and L-mimosine) in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. Eleven of the 21 molecules showed significant inhibitory effects on germination, and 17 inhibited root growth. Inhibitory effects on root growth were more evident when nutrients were not added. We present dose response curves for germination effects and IC50 values for each compound, along with possible explanations of the observed inhibitory actions in terms of molecular structure. PMID:17577597

Reigosa, M J; Malvido-Pazos, E

2007-07-01

10

Effects of wastewater from olive processing on seed germination and early plant growth of different vegetable species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wastewater from olive processing on seed germination and early plant growth of different vegetable species were examined. Three types of wastewater at different concentrations were tested: raw wastewater, wastewater with organic matter removed and deionized wastewater.Results generally indicate an inhibitory effect on seed germination and early plant growth by all treatments containing any kind of wastewater. Of

J. D. Perez; E. Esteban; M. Gomez

1986-01-01

11

Elimination of the Adverse Effects of Urea Fertilizer on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Early Plant Growth in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly increasing importance of urea fertilizer in world agriculture has stimulated research to find methods of reducing the problems associated with the use of this fertilizer. One of these problems is that urea has adverse effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and early plant growth in soil. Because there is evidence that these adverse effects are caused largely, if

John M. Bremner; Michael J. Krogmeier

1988-01-01

12

Effects of silver nanoparticle exposure on germination and early growth of eleven wetland plants.  

PubMed

The increasing commercial production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has led to concerns over the potential adverse impacts of these ENPs on biota in natural environments. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used ENPs and are expected to enter natural ecosystems. Here we examined the effects of AgNPs on germination and growth of eleven species of common wetland plants. We examined plant responses to AgNP exposure in simple pure culture experiments (direct exposure) and for seeds planted in homogenized field soils in a greenhouse experiment (soil exposure). We compared the effects of two AgNPs-20-nm polyvinylpyrrolidine-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) and 6-nm gum arabic coated silver nanoparticles (GA-AgNPs)-to the effects of AgNO(3) exposure added at equivalent Ag concentrations (1, 10 or 40 mg Ag L(-1)). In the direct exposure experiments, PVP-AgNP had no effect on germination while 40 mg Ag L(-1) GA-AgNP exposure significantly reduced the germination rate of three species and enhanced the germination rate of one species. In contrast, 40 mg Ag L(-1) AgNO(3) enhanced the germination rate of five species. In general root growth was much more affected by Ag exposure than was leaf growth. The magnitude of inhibition was always greater for GA-AgNPs than for AgNO(3) and PVP-AgNPs. In the soil exposure experiment, germination effects were less pronounced. The plant growth response differed by taxa with Lolium multiflorum growing more rapidly under both AgNO(3) and GA-AgNP exposures and all other taxa having significantly reduced growth under GA-AgNP exposure. AgNO(3) did not reduce the growth of any species while PVP-AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of only one species. Our findings suggest important new avenues of research for understanding the fate and transport of NPs in natural media, the interactions between NPs and plants, and indirect and direct effects of NPs in mixed plant communities. PMID:23091638

Yin, Liyan; Colman, Benjamin P; McGill, Bonnie M; Wright, Justin P; Bernhardt, Emily S

2012-10-16

13

Effects of Silver Nanoparticle Exposure on Germination and Early Growth of Eleven Wetland Plants  

PubMed Central

The increasing commercial production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has led to concerns over the potential adverse impacts of these ENPs on biota in natural environments. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used ENPs and are expected to enter natural ecosystems. Here we examined the effects of AgNPs on germination and growth of eleven species of common wetland plants. We examined plant responses to AgNP exposure in simple pure culture experiments (direct exposure) and for seeds planted in homogenized field soils in a greenhouse experiment (soil exposure). We compared the effects of two AgNPs–20-nm polyvinylpyrrolidine-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) and 6-nm gum arabic coated silver nanoparticles (GA-AgNPs)–to the effects of AgNO3 exposure added at equivalent Ag concentrations (1, 10 or 40 mg Ag L?1). In the direct exposure experiments, PVP-AgNP had no effect on germination while 40 mg Ag L?1 GA-AgNP exposure significantly reduced the germination rate of three species and enhanced the germination rate of one species. In contrast, 40 mg Ag L?1 AgNO3 enhanced the germination rate of five species. In general root growth was much more affected by Ag exposure than was leaf growth. The magnitude of inhibition was always greater for GA-AgNPs than for AgNO3 and PVP-AgNPs. In the soil exposure experiment, germination effects were less pronounced. The plant growth response differed by taxa with Lolium multiflorum growing more rapidly under both AgNO3 and GA-AgNP exposures and all other taxa having significantly reduced growth under GA-AgNP exposure. AgNO3 did not reduce the growth of any species while PVP-AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of only one species. Our findings suggest important new avenues of research for understanding the fate and transport of NPs in natural media, the interactions between NPs and plants, and indirect and direct effects of NPs in mixed plant communities.

Yin, Liyan; Colman, Benjamin P.; McGill, Bonnie M.; Wright, Justin P.; Bernhardt, Emily S.

2012-01-01

14

Increased growth and germination success in plants following hydrogen sulfide administration.  

PubMed

This study presents a novel way of enhancing plant growth through the use of a non-petroleum based product. We report here that exposing either roots or seeds of multicellular plants to extremely low concentrations of dissolved hydrogen sulfide at any stage of life causes statistically significant increases in biomass including higher fruit yield. Individual cells in treated plants were smaller (~13%) than those of controls. Germination success and seedling size increased in, bean, corn, wheat, and pea seeds while time to germination decreases. These findings indicated an important role of H2S as a signaling molecule that can increase the growth rate of all species yet tested. The increased crop yields reported here has the potential to effect the world's agricultural output. PMID:23614010

Dooley, Frederick D; Nair, Suven P; Ward, Peter D

2013-04-17

15

BIOSTIMULANT EFFECT ON SEED GERMINATION, SEEDLING VIGOR AND INITIAL GROWTH OF COTTON PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of Stimulate® (0.009 % of citocinine, 0.005 % of gibberelic acid, 0.005 % of indolbutyric acid, and 99.98 % of inert ingredients) applied to seeds, on seed germination, seedling vigor and initial growth of cotton plants, cv BRS 201. Rates of 3.5; 7.0; 10.5; 14.0; 17.5 and 21.0 mL of

Caio Márcio; Guimarăes Santos; Elvis Lima Vieira

16

Effect of carbon nanomaterials on the germination and growth of rice plants.  

PubMed

For the successful diverse applications of different nanomaterials in life sciences, it is necessary to understand the ultimate fate, distribution and potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials. Phytotoxicity studies using higher plants is an important criterion for understanding the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. We studied the effects of engineered carbon nanomaterials of various dimensionalities (carbon nanotubes, C60, graphene) on the germination of rice seeds. A pronounced increase in the rate of germination was observed for rice seeds in the presence of some of these carbon nanostructures, in particular the nanotubes. Increased water content was observed in the carbon nanomaterial treated seeds during germination compared to controls. The germinated seeds were then grown in a basal growth medium supplemented with carbon nanomaterials for studying their impact on further seedling growth. Treated seedlings appeared to be healthier with well-developed root and shoot systems compared to control seedlings. Our results indicate the possible use for carbon nanomaterials as enhancers in the growth of rice seedlings. PMID:22755040

Nair, Remya; Mohamed, M Sheikh; Gao, Wei; Maekawa, Toru; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Kumar, D Sakthi

2012-03-01

17

Effects of non-carbonaceous meteoritic extracts on the germination, growth and chlorophyll content of edible plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted an investigation on the effects that the extracts of a non-carbonaceous meteorite could have on the germination and growth of plants and the ability of non-carbonaceous meteoritic resource to serve as nutrient source for young plants of edible types. Selected plants were two dicotyledons (Lycopersicon esculentum and Daucus carota) and one monocotyledon (Zea mays). Solution cultures were

Vicente Marcano; Paula Matheus; Cesyen Cedeńo; Nelson Falcon; Ernesto Palacios-Prü

2005-01-01

18

Interaction between hydrogen peroxide and plant hormones during germination and the early growth of pea seedlings.  

PubMed

Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased the germination percentage of pea seeds, as well as the growth of seedlings in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of H(2)O(2) on seedling growth was removed by incubation with 10 microm ABA. The H(2)O(2)-pretreatment produced an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POX) and ascorbate oxidase (AAO). The increases in these ascorbate-oxidizing enzymes correlated with the increase in the growth of the pea seedlings as well as with the decrease in the redox state of ascorbate. Moreover, the increase in APX activity was due to increases in the transcript levels of cytosolic and stromal APX (cytAPX, stAPX). The proteomic analysis showed that H(2)O(2) induced proteins related to plant signalling and development, cell elongation and division, and cell cycle control. A strong correlation between the effect of H(2)O(2) on plant growth and the decreases in ABA and zeatin riboside (ZR) was observed. The results suggest an interaction among the redox state and plant hormones, orchestrated by H(2)O(2), in the induction of proteins related to plant signalling and development during the early growth of pea seedlings. PMID:20102539

Barba-Espin, G; Diaz-Vivancos, P; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Albacete, A; Faize, L; Faize, M; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Hernández, J A

2010-01-20

19

Responses to salt stress in Juncus acutus and J. maritimus during seed germination and vegetative plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to increasing salinity, during seed germination and vegetative plant growth, were studied in two related species of Juncus, J. maritimus and J. acutus. In both species, germination was optimal in the absence of salt, reduced by about 50% in the presence of 200 mM NaCl, and completely inhibited by NaCl concentrations above 300 mM. Previous exposure of the seeds to salt,

Monica Boscaiu; Genoveva Ballesteros; Miguel A. Naranjo; Oscar Vicente; Herminio Boira

2011-01-01

20

Spent mushroom substrates as component of growing media for germination and growth of horticultural plants.  

PubMed

This research work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in the production of horticultural seedlings replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species with different salt sensitivities, the less sensitive being tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Muchamiel), the moderately salt-sensitive being courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Afrodite F1) and the most salt-sensitive being pepper (Capsicum annum L. var. Lamuyo F1) were grown in 12 media containing SMS of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (SMS-AB) and Pleurotus ostreatus (SMS-PO)) or a mixture of both 50% (v/v) (SMS-50), as well as peat in various ratios. The proportions of each residue in the mixtures elaborated with peat were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% v/v residue. A substrate of 100% peat was used as control. The experiment was arranged in a completely-randomised design with two replicates per treatment under greenhouse conditions. Prior to sowing, some physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties of the growing media were determined and seed germination and fresh weight of seedling were also measured. In most of the cases, the addition of SMS to the growing media produced an increase in the pH values, salt contents, macro and micronutrient concentrations and a decrease in the water holding capacity contents in comparison to peat, whereas great differences were found in the air capacity values between SMS-based substrates and peat. Up to 75% SMS can be used in mixtures with peat for seed germination of the plant species studied. Regarding the most suitable SMS-based substrates for plant growth, any substrate could be used for tomato seedling production. However, all SMS-AB-based substrates and the media containing low dose of SMS-PO and SMS-50 were adequate for growth of courgette and pepper. PMID:19409775

Medina, E; Paredes, C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Moral, R

2009-05-05

21

Effects of plant hormones and 20-hydroxyecdysone on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seed germination and seedlings growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is the major phytoecdysteroid of about 6% of plants. Its role in plant physiology has not been fully elucidated. In this work we studied the effects of 20E application on some morphological and biochemical parameters of tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum, seed during germination and seedling development (5 d). We compared the 20E effects with the action of phytohormones: gibberellic

Ahmed Bakrim; Mostapha Lamhamdi; Fouad Sayah; Fatiha Chibi

2007-01-01

22

Role of Substances Formed during Germination in the Growth of Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN this laboratory, v. Hausen1 showed in her doctoral thesis that if the cotyledons of a pea plant are removed after a germination period of five to nine days, and the cotyledonless seedling is transferred into a sterile nutrient solution (the sterile culture system of Virtanen and v. Hausen2), it grows at first poorly and small chlorophyll-containing leaves are formed;

Artturi I. Virtanen; Synnöve Saubert-V. Hausen

1949-01-01

23

4. The role of plant growth regulators in the germination of forest tree seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a role for PGRs in the germination of forest tree seeds, it must be demonstrated that PGRs are involved in the mechanisms that control the induction of and release from dormancy, and also that these mechanisms are operative in the seeds of woody plants. Four currently known concepts of seed dormancy are reviewed, citing the published evidence relating

C. L. Leadem

1987-01-01

24

Mycorrhizal fungi of Vanilla: diversity, specificity and effects on seed germination and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the germination of orchid seeds. However, the specificity of orchids for their mycorrhizal fungi and the effects of the fungi on orchid growth are controversial. Mycorrhizal fungi have been studied in some tem- perate and tropical, epiphytic orchids, but the symbionts of tropical, terrestrial orchids are still unknown. Here we study diversity, specificity and function

Andrea Porras-Alfaro; Paul Bayman

2007-01-01

25

Pre-germination temperature and the survivorship and onward growth of Mediterranean fire-following plant species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of heat shock in the induction of seed germination for numerous Mediterranean fire-following plant species is well documented. However, the influence of pre-germination heating of seeds upon seedling survivorship and onward growth has not been studied. The aim of the experiments described here was to investigate how a range of heat treatments affects seedling survivorship and onward growth for six common fire-following Mediterranean plant species ( Anthyllis vulneraria, Cistus creticus, C. salvifolius, Hippocrepis unisiliquosa, Pinus brutia and P. halepensis). In the first experiment, seeds of five species were heated to temperatures ranging between 80°C and 120°C (at 10°C intervals) for 10 min and subsequent seedling growth monitored over 8 weeks. Survivorship for two pine species ( Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia) was reduced after seeds were heated above 90°C. Onward growth for Pinus halepensis and the legume, Anthyllis vulneraria, was negatively affected by increasing pre-germination temperature. Survivorship and growth for both Cistus species was unaffected by heating seeds up to 110°C. The second experiment examined more closely seedling performance of Hippocrepis unisiliquosa seedlings when seeds were heated to temperatures ranging between 50°C and 90°C (at 10°C intervals) for 5, 10, 15 and 20 mins. Increasing pre-germination temperature and the length of time seeds were exposed to heating significantly reduced seedling growth rates in this species. The effect of fire on seedling emergence, growth and survivorship in the field is discussed with reference to the adaptation of the six species to post-fire regeneration and the patterns of seedling regeneration observed in the field.

Hanley, Mick E.; Fenner, Michael

1998-04-01

26

Cadmium-induced stress on the seed germination and seedling growth of Brassica napus L., and its alleviation through exogenous plant growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its prolific growth, oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) can be grown advantageously for phytoremediation of the lands contaminated by industrial wastes. Therefore, toxic effect\\u000a of cadmium on the germination of oilseed rape, the capability of plants for cadmium phytoextraction, and the effect of exogenous\\u000a application of plant growth regulators to mitigate phytotoxicity of cadmium were investigated. For the

Huabing Meng; Shujin Hua; Imran Haider Shamsi; Ghulam Jilani; Yuanlong Li; Lixi Jiang

2009-01-01

27

Fluazifop-p-butyl herbicide: Implications for germination, emergence and growth of Australian plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were implemented to collect information related to the effects of fluazifop-p-butyl (active chemical in grass selective herbicides, Fusilade® and Fusilade Forte™) on seed germination, seedling emergence, growth and health of species native to southwest Australia (a grass and non-grasses), together with several co-occurring introduced species (grasses and a non-grass). Experiments investigated effects of herbicide concentrations, seed burial depths,

Deanna P. Rokich; Jack Harma; Shane R. Turner; Rohan J. Sadler; Beng H. Tan

2009-01-01

28

Cinnamic acid amides from Chenopodium album: effects on seeds germination and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven cinnamic acid amides have been isolated from Chenopodium album. The structures have been attributed by means of their spectral data. One of them, N-trans-4-O-methylferuloyl 4?-O-methyldopamine, is described for the first time. Their effects on germination and growth of dicotyledons Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomato) and of monocotyledon Allium cepa L. (onion) as standard target species

Francesca Cutillo; Brigida D'Abrosca; Marina DellaGreca; Cinzia Di Marino; Annunziata Golino; Lucio Previtera; Armando Zarrelli

2003-01-01

29

Seed borne nature of Azotobacter chroococcum in chilli (Capsicum annum) and its role in seed germination and plant growth.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out on seed borne nature of Azotobacter chroococcum in chilli and their role in plant growth at the Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. Azotobacter chroococcum were isolated from both surface sterilized and unsterilized seeds of 14 varieties of chilli at different stages of fruit maturity. Inoculation with these strains increased the seed germination, root, shoot length and total dry matter content of chilli plants significantly in both sterilized and unsterilized soil., the results of which are presented. PMID:16961202

Bhat, J M; Alagawadi, A R

30

Action of plant growth regulators and salinity on seed germination of Ceratoides lanata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell is a shrub with numerous annual branchlets from the family Chenopodiaceae and is widely distributed in brackish water playas of northern Utah. Seeds had no dormancy, and about 90% of the seeds germinated in nonsaline control. Seed germination decreased with the increase in salinity, and more than 10% of the seeds germinated at 900 mmol\\/L

M. Ajmal Khan; Bilquees Gul; Darrell J. Weber

2004-01-01

31

Incorporation of plant growth regulators into the priming solution improves sugar beet germination, emergence and seedling growth at low-temperature.  

PubMed

In a series of experiments, impact of inclusion of plant growth regulators into the KNO3 priming solution on low temperature seed germination, emergence percentage and seedling growth of sugar beet was investigated. Seeds were primed in 3% KNO3 solution for 6 days at 25 degrees C in darkness containing one of the following: 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mM acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) or 1, 3, 5 or 10 microM methyl jasmonated (MeJA). A non-primed treatment was also included in the experiment. Priming seeds in the presence or absence of plant growth regulators in general improved final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate (G50) and germination synchrony (G10-90) at 15 degrees C compared with non-primed seeds which had an FGP of 42%, G50 of 11.3 days and G10-90 of 11.7 days. Priming seeds in KNO3 solution containing 0.05 mM of ASA resulted in the highest germination percentage (89%), fastest germination rate (G50 = 5.3 days) and the most synchronous germination (G10-90 = 10.7 days). Emergence percentages were the highest for the seeds primed in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA (83%) and 3 microM MeJA (81%) while non-primed seeds had an emergence percentage of 40%. Fastest emergence rate (E50) were also obtained from seeds primed in KNO3 supplemented with 3 microM MeJA (E50 = 14.4 days) and 0.05 mM ASA (E50 = 14.4 days). Shoot fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly affected by treatments and priming in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA resulted in highest seedling shoot fresh and dry weight. These results indicate that priming seeds in 0.05 mM of ASA or 3 microM MeJA incorporated into the KNO3 solution can be more effective than KNO3 alone to improve low temperature germination performance of seeds and subsequent seedling growth. PMID:19090156

Govahi, Mostafa; Arvin, Mohammad Javad; Saffari, Ghazaleh

2007-10-01

32

EFFECT OF COMPATIBLE OSMOTICA AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY STRESS ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF ALLENROLFEA OCCIDENTALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allenrolfea occidentalis, a perennial halophytic shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae is widely distributed in the inland salt marshes and salt playas of western United States. Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of compatible osmotica (betaine and proline) and growth regulators (gibberellic acid and kinetin) in alleviating salinity stress on the seed germination of A. occidentalis. Seed germination decreased with

BILQUEES GUL; M. AJMAL KHAN

2008-01-01

33

Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc

Daohui Lin; Baoshan Xing

2007-01-01

34

Enhancing Effect of Shimizuomyces paradoxus on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Canola, Plant Growth of Cucumber, and Harvest of Tomato  

PubMed Central

Shimizuomyces paradoxus showed no inhibitory effect against plant pathogen fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani. The S. paradoxus culture filtrate showed higher seed germination and seedling growth rates in canola than distilled water and potato-dextrose broth. A conidial suspension of 1.0×104/mL resulted in the highest growth stimulating effects on total plant length, and fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots in cucumber, when compared to the highest suspension concentration. Total plant length and shoot weight increased with the foliar spray treatment, and root length and root weight increased by simultaneous treatments of soil drenching and foliar spray in cucumber. Lower concentrations of the S. paradoxus conidial suspension increased the harvest of tomato fruit.

Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Park, Ki-Byung; Han, Sang-Kuk

2011-01-01

35

Effect of temperature, cultivar and plant tissue on the germination of, and hyphal growth from, ascospores of Leptosphaeria maculans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptosphaeria maculans, which causes blackleg (phoma stem canker) on canola (oilseed rape), is an important pathogen worldwide. To assist in standardising\\u000a inoculation procedures for resistance screening, studies were conducted on the conditions that influence germination of ascospores.\\u000a Germination of, and hyphal growth from, ascospores of L. maculans were studied at 5-20°C on agar-coated slides, detached leaves and cotyledons of five

B. Naseri; J. A. Davidson; E. S. Scott

2008-01-01

36

Effects of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on germination, growth and nutrient uptake of coastal dune plants.  

PubMed

Seagrass meadows play an important role in marine ecosystems. A part of seagrass production is also exported to adjacent coastal terrestrial systems, possibly influencing their functioning. In this work we experimentally analyzed the effect of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on plant germination, growth, and nutrient uptake of two plant species (Cakile maritima and Elymus farctus) that grow on upper beaches and fore dunes along the Mediterranean coasts. We compared plants growing in simple sand (control) with those growing in a substrate enriched with P. oceanica wrack (treatment) in laboratory. P. oceanica wrack doubled the N substrate pool and kept the substrate humid. Plants growing in the treated substrate grew faster, were twice as large as those growing in the control substrate, while tissues were enriched in N and P (Cakile by the 1.3 fold in N and 2.5 fold in P; Elymus by 1.5 fold in N and 2 fold in P). Our results suggest a positive effect of seagrass litter for the enhancing of dune species, highlighting its role for the conservation of coastal dune ecosystems. PMID:23894678

Del Vecchio, Silvia; Marbŕ, Núria; Acosta, Alicia; Vignolo, Clara; Traveset, Anna

2013-07-23

37

Germination growth response of different plant species to the allelochemical L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the seed germination response of different plant families to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), one of the strongest allelochemicals in nature. Three types of responses in terms of colouration changes on filter paper were obtained; black and gray (Gramineae and Compositae), no change (Leguminosae, Brassicaceae, and Cucurbitaceae) and an obstructed-circle around the seeds with black

Eiji Nishihara; Mohammad Masud Parvez; Hiroshi Araya; Yoshiharu Fujii

2004-01-01

38

Toxicity of Metal Elements on Germination and Seedling Growth of Widely Used Medicinal Plants Belonging to Hyacinthaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South Africa, pollution of agricultural soils is on the increase primarily due to excessive application of fertilizers,\\u000a sewage disposal and mining activities. This study was done to determine the effect of trace elements (Cu, Zn) and heavy metals\\u000a (Cd, Pb, Hg) on germination and seedling development of Bowiea volubilis, Eucomis autumnalis and Merwilla natalensis. These medicinal plant species are

M. G. Kulkarni; W. A. Stirk; C. Southway; J. Van Staden

2007-01-01

39

Interactive effects of salt and alkali stresses on seed germination, germination recovery, and seedling growth of a halophyte Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinization and alkalinization frequently co-occur in nature, but there is little information on the interactive effects of salt and alkali stresses on plants. Seed germination and early seedling growth are crucial stages for plant establishment. We investigated the interactive effects of salt and alkali stresses on seed germination, germination recovery and seedling growth of a halophyte Spartina alterniflora. Seed

R. Li; F. Shi; K. Fukuda

2010-01-01

40

Germination and growth of wheat in simulated Martian atmospheres.  

PubMed

One design for a manned Mars base incorporates a bioregenerative life support system based upon growing higher plants at a low atmospheric pressure in a greenhouse on the Martian surface. To determine the concept's feasibility, the germination and initial growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was evaluated at low atmospheric pressures in simulated Martian atmosphere (SMA) and in SMA supplemented with oxygen. Total atmospheric pressures ranged from 10 to 1013 mb. No seeds germinated in pure SMA, regardless of atmospheric pressure. In SMA plus oxygen at 60 mb total pressure, germination and growth occurred but were lower than in the Earth atmosphere controls. PMID:11537561

Schwartzkopf, S H; Mancinelli, R L

1991-01-01

41

Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhizal on Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare ([Dierbach] D'Arcy and Eshbaugh) germination under stressing abiotic conditions.  

PubMed

Capsicum annuum var. aviculare to Tarahumara and Papago Indians and farmers of Sonora desert is a promising biological and commercial value as a natural resource from arid and semiarid coastal zones. Traditionally, apply synthetic fertilizers to compensate for soil nitrogen deficiency. However, indiscriminate use of these fertilizers might increase salinity. The inoculation by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represents an alternative as potential bio fertilizer resources for salty areas. Seeds ecotypes from four areas of Sonora desert (Mazocahui, Baviacora, Arizpe, La Tortuga), in order to inoculate them with one species of PGPB and AMF. Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB and AMF growth factors measured on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length, and produced biomass (fresh and dry matter). The results indicated that from four studied ecotypes, Mazocahui was the most outstanding of all, showing the highest germination under saline and non-saline conditions. However, the PGPB and AMF influenced the others variables evaluated. This study is the first step to obtain an ideal ecotype of C. a. var. aviculare, which grows in the northwest of México and promoting this type of microorganisms as an efficient and reliable biological product. Studies of the association of PGPB and AMF with the C. a. var. aviculare-Mazocahui ecotype are recommended to determine the extent to which these observations can be reproduced under field conditions. PMID:20447830

Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Castellanos-Cervantes, T; García-Hernández, José Luís; Tarazňn-Herrera, Mario Antonio; Moreno Medina, Salomňn; Gerlach Barrera, Luis Ernesto

2010-04-23

42

Comparison of the seed germination effects of synthetic analogs of strigol, gibberellic acid, cytokinins, and other plant growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four synthetic multiring analogs of strigol, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone that promotes germination of dormant seeds ofStriga (witchweed), were found to stimulate germination of dormantLactuca (lettuce) seeds. The effects on light-sensitive and light-insensitive lettuce seeds were concentration-dependent and exceeded those produced by equimolar (0.1 mM) solutions of gibberellic acid. Strigol and epistrigol promoted lettuce seed germination to a lesser

Judith M. Bradow; William J. Connick; Armand B. Pepperman

1988-01-01

43

Interaction of jasmonic acid with some plant growth regulators in the control of apple (Malus domestica) embryo germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryos isolated from dormant apple seeds were treated with jasmonic acid (JA), gibberellin A3 (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen cyanide in darkness and in light. The chemicals were present in the culture medium continuously and simultaneously or applied for 2 days and in different sequences. All treatments stimulated embryo germination except ABA, which was strongly inhibitory. Additive effects of

Rajiv Ranjan; Stanislaw Lewak

1994-01-01

44

Germination, growth and nodulation of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenu Greek) under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we analyzed the effects of salinity on seed germination, growth and nodulation of fenugreek plants. The germination of fenugreek seeds was not affected by salt concentrations lower than 140 mM. Two saline tolerant indigenous rhizobia strains were isolated from the root nodules of fenugreek grown in two different soils. The two rhizobial strains were tested for their

Hanaa Abdelmoumen; Mustapha Missbah El Idrissi

2009-01-01

45

Salinity Tolerance of Phaseolus Species during Germination and Early Seedling Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

lary rise and evaporation of soil water during the dry season or from salinity of irrigation waters. Salinity tolerance during germination and early seedling growth Salinity impairs seed germination, reduces nodule for- was evaluated for 24 accessions representing four wild Phaseolus mation, retards plant development and reduces crop species (P. angustissimus A. Gray, P. filiformis Bentham, P. leptosta- yield (Greenway

Jeannette S. Bayuelo-Jimenez; Richard Craig; Jonathan P. Lynch

46

Temperature effect on seed germination, seedling root development and growth of several vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature and nutrition on seed germination and plant growth of different plant species. The nutrition studies of vegetables showed a normal response to fertilization rates on deficient soils at temperatures above their critical minimum. At soil temperatures below this little or no response was obtained to increased P concentration. Plant growth as

Gerald E. Wilcox; Charles L. Pfeiffer

1990-01-01

47

STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS ON SEED GERMINATION AND PLANT GROWTH ON ALFALFA PLANT (Medicago sativa) GROWN IN SOLID MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies have shown that alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa) can grow in some heavy metal- contaminated soils. Based on that, we studied the individual effects of several doses of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) on the growth of live alfalfa plants using solid media. The doses used in this study were 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm. The

J. R. Peralta; J. L. Gardea-Torresdey; K. J. Tiemann; E. Gómez; S. Arteaga; E. Rascon; J. G. Parsons

48

In vitro germination of wheat proembryos to fertile plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Wheat proembryos were excised 7 days after anthesis and germinated to normal fertile plants with an efficiency of 90%. These embryos had clearly differentiated shoot apical meristems and represent an interesting model system for studies of meristem biology. A combination of two media with different osmolarities allowed the continued development of the embryos before induction of germination. Normal germination occurred

Victor A. Iglesias; Andreas Gisel; Ingo Potrykus; Christof Sautter

1994-01-01

49

Effect of Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense Strains on the Germination and Seedlings Growth of the Giant Columnar Cardon Cactus (Pachycereus pringlei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild Cardon cactus seeds were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strains Cd and Sp-245 to improve seed germination and seedling growth parame- ters. Differential germination responses were related to the bacterial strain. A. brasilense Cd (the type strain for the species A. brasilense) significantly decreased seed germination. A. brasilense Sp245 (a known beneficial bacteria for cereal plants) significantly increased the germination

MARIA-ESTHER PUENTE; YOAV BASHAN

1993-01-01

50

Winery wastewater inhibits seed germination and vegetative growth of common crop species.  

PubMed

The ability to reuse winery wastewater would be of significant benefit to the wine industry, as it could potentially be a cost-effective method of wastewater management, whilst at the same time providing a valuable water resource. This study investigated the effects of different dilutions of a semi-synthetic winery wastewater on the growth and germination of four common crop species in a glasshouse study; barley (Hordeum vulgare), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), lucerne (Medicago sativa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica). The wastewater caused a significant delay in the germination of lucerne, millet and phalaris, although overall germination percentage of all species was not affected. Vegetative growth was significantly reduced in all species, with millet being the most severely affected. The germination index of barley correlated very highly (r(2)=0.99) with barley biomass, indicating that barley seed germination bioassays are highly relevant to plant growth, and therefore may be of use as a bioassay for winery wastewater toxicity. PMID:20452120

Mosse, Kim P M; Patti, Antonio F; Christen, Evan W; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

2010-03-01

51

Effects of light, hydropriming and abiotic stress on seed germination, and shoot and root growth of pyrethrum ( Tanacetum cinerariifolium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor germination and seedling establishment are major problems in arid and semi-arid environments, and these characteristics are considered to be important factors in later plant growth and yield. Laboratory experiments were conducted on freshly harvested pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) seeds to investigate the effects of light (influenced by the seeding method) and seed hydropriming on germination, and shoot and root growth

J. Li; L. Y. Yin; M. A. Jongsma; C. Y. Wang

2011-01-01

52

Effects of rootzone CO2 and O2 levels on seed germination and stolon growth of Cynodon dactylon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of rootzone CO2 and O2 levels on seed germination and plant growth is not fully defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of supraoptimal CO2 in combination with different O2 concentrations on seed germination and the growth of pre-rooted stolon segments of Cynodon dactylon. Seeds of “Princess 77” were germinated in specialized airtight

Aimilia-Eleni Nikolopoulou; Panayiotis A. Nektarios; Georgios Aivalakis; Marco Volterrani; Ioannis Chronopoulos

2012-01-01

53

Oxalate, germins, and higher-plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Earlier surveys (1, B. G. Lane. [1991] FASEB J. 5, 2983-2901; 2, B. G. Lane. [1994] FASEB J. 8, 294-301) helped to uproot entrenched views of plant oxalate as a static substance. It is now recognized that oxalate oxidases (OXOs) found in the "true cereals" (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye, wheat), the so-called germin OXOs (G-OXOs), or simply germins, are involved in cereal defence responses to invasion by fungal pathogens and that they show promise of being valuable agents of plant defence in dicotyledons, where they are not found naturally. G-OXOs have very peculiar properties: (a) their water-soluble oligomeric structures and enzymic activity are stable during SDS-PAGE and nitrocellulose blotting, (b) their undenatured water-soluble forms are refractory to the action of broad-specificity proteases, (c) their water-insoluble forms occur abundantly (approximately 50%) in the extracellular matrix (cell walls) of wheat, and probably in varying amounts in the cell walls of other true cereals. Transfer of the wheat G-OXO coding element to dicotyledons has been found, in all cases so far examined, to result in improved resistance to fungal pathogens. The possible nature of the improved resistance is discussed in relation to (a) generation of microcidal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide when the G-OXOs act on oxalate, (b) elicitation of hypersensitive cell death at lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, (c) formation of effective barriers against predator penetration by the hydrogen-peroxide-mediated lignification of cell walls, and (d) destruction of oxalate, which is an inhibitor of the hypersensitive response, a strategy of particular importance in the case of ubiquitous predator organisms such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which secrete high concentrations of oxalate as a toxin. PMID:12049198

Lane, Byron G

2002-02-01

54

Effects of acidity on tree pollen germination and tube growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have indicated that pollen germination and tube growth are adversely affected by air pollutants. Pollutants may inhibit the function of pollen by reducing the number of pollen grains which germinate, by reducing the maximum length to which the pollen tubes grow, or by interfering with the formation of the generative cell. The paper reports on studies that are

J. S. Jacobson; D. M. Van Rye; J. P. Lassoie

1985-01-01

55

How Plants Make Light Work of Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is one of a series of articles designed to help science teachers keep current on ideas in specific areas in biology. Contained is information on how plants use light for growth, seed germination, and flowering. (PB)

Kendrick, R. E.

1981-01-01

56

How Plants Make Light Work of Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is one of a series of articles designed to help science teachers keep current on ideas in specific areas in biology. Contained is information on how plants use light for growth, seed germination, and flowering. (PB)|

Kendrick, R. E.

1981-01-01

57

Mechanisms associated with tolerance to flooding during germination and early seedling growth in rice (Oryza sativa)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Flooding slows seed germination, imposes fatalities and delays seedling establishment in direct-seeded rice. This study describes responses of contrasting rice genotypes subjected to flooding or low oxygen stress during germination and discusses the basis of tolerance shown by certain cultivars. Methods In one set of experiments, dry seeds were sown in soil and either watered normally or flooded with 10 cm of water. Seedling survival and shoot and root growth were assessed and seed portions of germinating seedlings were assayed for soluble sugars and starch concentrations. The whole germinating seedlings were assayed for amylase and peroxidase activities and for ethylene production. Activities of enzymes associated with anaerobic respiration were examined and gene expression was analysed separately with seeds germinating under different amounts of dissolved oxygen in dilute agar. Key Results Flooding during germination reduced survival but to a lesser extent in tolerant genotypes. Starch concentration in germinating seeds decreased while sugar concentration increased under flooding, but more so in tolerant genotypes. Amylase activity correlated positively with elongation (r = 0·85 for shoot and 0·83 for root length) and with plant survival (r = 0·92). Tolerant genotypes had higher amylase activity and higher RAmy3D gene expression. Ethylene was not detected in seeds within 2 d after sowing, but increased thereafter, with a greater increase in tolerant genotypes starting 3 d after sowing. Peroxidase activity was higher in germinating seeds of sensitive genotypes and correlated negatively with survival. Conclusions Under low oxygen stress, tolerant genotypes germinate, grow faster and more seedlings survive. They maintain their ability to use stored starch reserves through higher amylase activity and anaerobic respiration, have higher rates of ethylene production and lower peroxidase activity as germinating seeds and as seedlings. Relevance of these traits to tolerance of flooding during germination and early growth is discussed.

Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Ella, Evangelina S.; Vergara, Georgina V.; Mackill, David J.

2009-01-01

58

Rhizonin A from Burkholderia sp. KCTC11096 and its growth promoting role in lettuce seed germination.  

PubMed

We isolated and identified a gibberellin-producing Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096 from agricultural field soils. The culture filtrate of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) significantly increased the germination and growth of lettuce and Chinese cabbage seeds. The ethyl acetate extract of the PGPR culture showed significantly higher rate of lettuce seed germination and growth as compared to the distilled water treated control. The ethyl acetate fraction of the Burkholderia sp. was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained for the first time from a Burkholderia sp. the plant growth promoting compound rhizonin A (1), which was characterized through NMR and MS techniques. Application of various concentrations of 1 significantly promoted the lettuce seed germination as compared to control. PMID:22759911

Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Kamran, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

2012-07-03

59

Precocious Germination during In Vitro Growth of Soybean Seeds 1  

PubMed Central

Immature Glycine max (L.) Merrill seeds were grown and matured in liquid medium at 25°C under fluorescent light. In standard medium containing minerals, 146 millimolar sucrose and 62.5 millimolar glutamine (osmolality 0.24), precocious germination seldom occurred with a starting seed size of less than 300 milligrams fresh weight. Frequency of precocious germination increased with increased starting seed size. Sucrose concentration strongly affected precocious germination while glutamine concentration had no effect. Starting with 300 to 350 milligrams fresh weight seeds, treatments which reduced the sucrose concentration or lowered the osmolality of the culture medium stimulated precocious germination, and increased the fresh weight growth but not the dry weight growth of seeds. Increasing the osmolality to 0.38 with sucrose or mannitol prevented precocious germination without reducing dry weight accumulation in seeds. In medium with initially low osmolality, precocious germination was inhibited by addition of 1 to 100 micromolar abscisic acid to the medium without a reduction in seed growth. During growth and maturation of large soybean seeds in vitro, precocious germination and other abnormal tissue growth can be prevented by high sucrose or mannitol concentrations in the medium or by addition of abscisic acid.

Obendorf, Ralph L.; Wettlaufer, Scott H.

1984-01-01

60

Seed germination and salinity tolerance in plant species growing on saline wastelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven plant species including three chenopods:Suaeda fruticosa, Kochia indica, Atriplex crassifolia and four grasses:Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon, Polypogon monspeliensis, Desmostachya bipinnata, varied greatly in their seed germination and growth responses to soil moisture or salinity. The germination percentage of\\u000a each species was significantly lower at soil moisture level of 25 % of water holding capacity than at the levels ranging

K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; M. A. K. Lodhi; K. H. Sheikh

1996-01-01

61

Precocious pollen germination in Arabidopsis plants with altered callose deposition during microsporogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollination is essential for seed reproduction and for exchanges of genetic information between individual plants. In angiosperms,\\u000a mature pollen grains released from dehisced anthers are transferred to the stigma where they become hydrated and begin to\\u000a germinate. Pollen grains of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana do not germinate inside the anther under normal growth conditions. We report two Arabidopsis lines that produced

Bo Xie; Xiaomin Wang; Zonglie Hong

2010-01-01

62

Growth patterns for etiolated soybeans germinated under spaceflight conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the GENEX (GENe EXpression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87), six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to initiate the process of seed germination on-orbit and subsequently transferred them to four light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight plants (N = 177), (2) the corresponding ground control population (N = 183), plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions (N = 93). No significant morphological differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. Some causes underlying this phenomenon are speculated on.

Levine, Howard G.; Piastuch, William C.

63

Quaking Aspen--Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although freshly dispersed aspen seeds germinate quickly and nearly completely over a broad range of temperatures, early growth of seedlings is highly sensitive to availability of water, temperature, and physical and chemical conditions of the seedbed.

W. T. McDonough

1979-01-01

64

The role of nitric oxide in the germination of plant seeds and pollen.  

PubMed

Two complex physiological processes, with opposite positions in the plant's life-cycle, seed and pollen germination, are vital to the accomplishment of successful plant growth and reproduction. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the intersection of NO signalling with the signalling pathways of ABA, GA, and ethylene; plant hormones that control the release of plant seeds from dormancy and germination. The cross-talk of NO and ROS is involved in the light- and hormone-specific regulation of seeds' developmental processes during the initiation of plant ontogenesis. Similarly to seed germination, the mechanisms of plant pollen hydration, germination, tube growth, as well as pollen-stigma recognition are tightly linked to the proper adjustment of NO and ROS levels. The interaction of NO with ROS and secondary messengers such as Ca(2+), cAMP and cGMP discovered in pollen represent a common mechanism of NO signalling. The involvement of NO in both breakpoints of plant physiology, as well as in the germination of spores within fungi and oomycetes, points toward NO as a component of an evolutionary conserved signalling pathway. PMID:21893253

Šírová, Jana; Sedlá?ová, Michaela; Piterková, Jana; Luhová, Lenka; Pet?ivalský, Marek

2011-04-06

65

Strigolactones as Germination Stimulants for Root Parasitic Plants  

PubMed Central

Witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are the two most devastating root parasitic plants belonging to the family Orobanchaceae and are causing enormous crop losses throughout the world. Seeds of these root parasites will not germinate unless they are exposed to chemical stimuli, ‘germination stimulants’ produced by and released from plant roots. Most of the germination stimulants identified so far are strigolactones (SLs), which also function as host recognition signals for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a novel class of plant hormones inhibiting shoot branching. In this review, we focus on SLs as germination stimulants for root parasitic plants. In addition, we discuss how quantitative and qualitative differences in SL exudation among sorghum cultivars influence their susceptibility to Striga.

Yoneyama, Koichi; Awad, Ayman A.; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Takeuchi, Yasutomo

2010-01-01

66

Effect of salinity on seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological characteristics of Perilla frutescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt stress is one of the major environmental factors limiting crop growth and yield. To understand the effect of salt stress on plant growth, we investigated the response of three perilla varieties (Suyin 1, Ziye 7, and Ziye 10) to NaC1 exposure at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mM in terms of seed germination, seedling growth, root

Zhijun Zhang; Huizhen Li; Shaojun Qiao; Xin Zhang; Peipei Liu; Xiliang Liu

2012-01-01

67

Effect of salinity on seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological characteristics of Perilla frutescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt stress is one of the major environmental factors limiting crop growth and yield. To understand the effect of salt stress on plant growth, we investigated the response of three perilla varieties (Suyin 1, Ziye 7, and Ziye 10) to NaC1 exposure at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mM in terms of seed germination, seedling growth, root

Zhijun Zhang; Huizhen Li; Shaojun Qiao; Xin Zhang; Peipei Liu; Xiliang Liu

2011-01-01

68

Effect of gasoline diesel fuel mixture on the germination and the growth of Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gasoline fuel\\/diesel mixture on the germination of seeds of Vigna unguiculata, the survival of the seedlings and the growth of the plant were evaluated in this study. It involved adding 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ml of mixture of equal proportions of the two petroleum products to 5000 g of soil and sowing seeds of the

K. L. Njoku; M. O. Akinola; B. G. Taiwo

2009-01-01

69

Allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regards to importance and abundance of Amaranthus retroflexus weed in fields an experiment was conducted using CRD based factorial design with three replications to study the allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus in 2008-2009. Treatments were: harvesting stage of extracted sorghum (vegetative, flowering and seed filling stage), extracted plant part (leaf, stem, root

M. Yarnia; M. B. Khorshidi Benam; E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi

2009-01-01

70

In Vivo Effects of Barbituates on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple, low-cost experimental system can be used to demonstrate the "in vivo" effects of barbituates on seed germination and seedling growth behavior in different plant species. Lipid solubility and concentration of individual barbituates both affect the response. List of materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are…

Kordan, H. A.

1984-01-01

71

Inhibitive effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare) on germination and growth of seedling quack grass (Agropyrum repens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelopathy is defined as the direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effects of one plant on another through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) contains water soluble allelochemicals that inhibit the germination and growth of other species. This characteristic could be used in weed management programmes. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine (i)

ZOHEIR Y ASHRAFI; SEDIGHEH SADEGHI; HAMID R MASHHADI

72

Evidence of Chemical Interactions on Germination and Seedling Growth in Annual Forage Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor establishment of forage legumes may result when they are sown with annual grasses in mixtures. Our objective was to determine the importance of allelopathy as a mechanism of interference between seed germination and seedling growth. Laboratory studies were conducted using two grasses (donor plants): oat (Avena sativa L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and five annual legumes (target

A. Iannucci

2007-01-01

73

Study of allelopathical effects of barley on inhibition of germination and growth of seedling green foxtail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelopathy is defined as the direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effects of one plant on another through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) contains watersoluble allelochemicals that inhibit the germination and growth of other species. This characteristic could be used in weed management programs. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects

Zoheir Y Ashrafi; Sedigheh Sadeghi; Hamid R Mashhadi; Hassa M Alizade

74

Effect of Water uptake on Germinability in Seeds of Some Medicinal Plants, Uttarakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three important medicinal plants of Uttarakhand, India were used in the present study. The effect of different imbibitions time and percentage were first time reported on seed germination and early seedling growth in Withenia somnifera, Pyracantha crinulata and Andographis paniculata. The initial weight of 800 seeds from each species were taken and dipped in water for imbibition. In every 3rd

Anoop Badoni; Mayank Nautiyal; Kiran Gusain; Manpreet Kaur; Rakhi Dhiman; Chetna Bisht; J. S. Chauhan

75

The effect of gravity on plant germination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An axis clinostat was constructed to create micro and negative gravity also a rotated flat disk was constructed with different rotation rates to give increased gravity, by centrifugal force up to 48g. Rice seeds were grown on agar in tubes at the constant air temperature of 20 degC under an average light condition of 110 mumol/m^2/sec(PPF). Humidity was not controlled but was maintained above 90%. Since the tube containers were not large enough for long cultivation, shoot and root growth were observed every 12 hours until the sixth day from seeding. The lengths of shoots and roots for each individual plant were measured on the last day. The stem lengths were increased by microgravity but the root lengths were not. Under the negative gravity, negative orthogeotropism and under micro gravity, diageotropism was observed. No significant effect of increased gravity was observed on shoot and root growth.

Takakura, T.; Goto, E.; Tanaka, M.

1996-01-01

76

Impact of fly ash soil amendment on seed germination, seedling growth and metal composition of Vicia faba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash disposal is a major problem in and around thermal power plants. In order to find out a solution to this problem, a study was conducted to test fly ash suitability for application to agricultural soils in a definite proportion for better plant growth. While lower application of fly ash enhanced seed germination as well as seedling growth, higher

S. N Singh; Kamla Kulshreshtha; K. J Ahmad

1997-01-01

77

Interactions of trans -cinnamic acid, its related phenolic allelochemicals, and abscisic acid in seedling growth and seed germination of lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds have been identified as the most common allelochemicals produced by higher plants. Inhibitions of cinnamic acid, its related phenolic derivatives, and abscisic acid (ABA) on seedling growth and seed germination of lettuce were studied.trans-Cinnamic acid, ando-,m-, andp-coumaric acids inhibited the growth of etiolated seedlings of lettuce at concentrations higher than 10-4 M and seed germination above 10-3 M.

Hai-Hang Li; Masafumi Inoue; Hiroyuki Nishimura; Junya Mizutani; Eiji Tsuzuki

1993-01-01

78

Germination requirements of New Zealand native plants: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of our knowledge of the germination requirements of seeds of indigenous New Zealand plants is presented. A search of the literature reveals information, in varying detail, on only 113 species, some 5% of the estimated total of vascular plants, most of them from forest habitats. The New Zealand flora, much of it now endangered, represents a unique genetic

D. W. Fountain; H. A. Outred

1991-01-01

79

Acceleration of germination and early growth of wheat and bean seedlings grown under various magnetic field and osmotic conditions.  

PubMed

Magnetic field (MF) can have different effects on plant metabolism depending on its application style, intensity, and environmental conditions. This study reports the effects of different intensities of static MF (4 or 7 mT) on seed germination and seedling growth of bean or wheat seeds in different media having 0, 2, 6, and 10 atmosphere (atm) osmotic pressure prepared with sucrose or salt. The germination percentages of the treated seeds were compared with untreated seeds germinated in different osmotic pressure during 7 days of incubation. The application of both MFs promoted the germination ratios of bean and wheat seeds, regardless of increasing osmotic pressure of sucrose or salt. Growth data measured on the 7th day showed that the treated plants grew faster than control. After 7 days of incubation, the mean length of treated seedlings was statistically higher than control plants in all the media. The greatest germination and growth rates in both plants were from the test groups exposed to 7 mT MF. Strikingly, effects of static MF on germination and growth increased positively with increasing osmotic pressure or salt stress compared to their respective controls. On the other hand, MF application caused an increase in dry biomass accumulation of root and shoots of both seedlings; however, this effect was found statistically important in all the conditions for wheat but not for bean, in general. PMID:19681058

Cakmak, Turgay; Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Erdal, Serkan

2010-02-01

80

Effects of Acidity on Tree Pollen Germination and Tube Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the northeastern hardwood forests in North America are exposed repeatedly to acidic rainfall at pH values below 5.0. Pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization, important parts of the reproductive process, are sensitive to changes in their ...

D. M. Van Ryn J. S. Jacobson

1984-01-01

81

Toxicity of diesel fuel to germination, growth and colonization of Glomus intraradices in soil and in vitro transformed carrot root cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is the use of selected plants to decontaminate polluted environments. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may potentially be useful for phytoremediation, but it is not known how petroleum hydrocarbons influence AMF spore germination and hyphal growth. To address this question, germination of spores and germ tube growth of Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith and Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith were

Jennifer L. Kirk; Peter Moutoglis; John Klironomos; Hung Lee; Jack T. Trevors

2005-01-01

82

Effects of application of Rhodopseudomonas sp. on seed germination and growth of tomato under axenic conditions.  

PubMed

Purple nonsulfur bacteria were isolated from river sediments and their growth promoting capabilities on tomato were examined. Isolated strains KL9 and BL6 were identified as Rhodopseudomonas spp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Rhodopseudomonas strain KL9 maximally produced 5.56 mM/ min/mg protein and 67.2 microM/min/mg protein of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), respectively, which may be one of the mechanisms of plant growth enhancement. The germination percentage of tomato seed, total length, and dry mass of germinated tomato seedling increased by 30.2%, 71.1%, and 270.8%, respectively, compared with those of the uninoculated control 7 days after inoculation of strain KL9. The lengths of the root and shoot of germinated seedling treated with 3 mM tryptophan, a precursor of IAA, increased by 104.4% and 156.5%, respectively, 7 days after inoculation of strain KL9. Rhodopseudomonas KL9 increased 123.5% and 54% of the root and shoot lengths of germinated seedling, respectively, treated with 15 mM glycine and succinate, precursors of ALA. This plant growth promoting capability of purple nonsulfur bacteria may be a candidate for a biofertilizer in agriculture. PMID:18092464

Koh, Rae-Hyun; Song, Hong-Gyu

2007-11-01

83

Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on germination, growth and chlorophyll amounts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds.  

PubMed

Germination activities, various growth parameters (primary root length, hypocotyl length, primary leaf length, plant length and increase in fresh weight) and chlorophyll (a+b) amounts of cucumber seeds exposed to 0, 10(-5), 10(-4), 10(-3) and 0.5x 10(-2) M aqueous solutions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for 48 h were established. While 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA significantly prevented germination activity of the seeds, other concentrations did not produce any effect, either positive or negative. Meanwhile, 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA inhibited radicle growth of the germinated seeds, while 10(-5) M ASA increased radicle growth. Other concentrations of ASA did not affect radicle growth. The following findings were obtained from the one-week seedlings exposed to ASA for 48 h: 0.5x10(-2) M ASA prevented growth (lengthening) of root, hypocotyl, leaf and plant and increased chlorophyll (a+b) amount with an increase in fresh weight. Contrary to 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA application, these features of the seedlings (except for the leaf length) were encouraged by 10(-5) M ASA. 10(-3)) M ASA only prevented root growth and reduced chlorophyll (a+b) amount. Other concentrations of ASA did not bring about any positive or negative effect on the features studied. PMID:19090202

Canakci, Songül; Munzuro?lu, Omer

2007-09-01

84

Regulation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) arginase in developing seedling tissue during germination and post-germinative growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

After seed germination, hydrolysis of storage proteins provides a nitrogen source for the developing seedling. In conifers the majority of these reserves are located in the living haploid megagametophyte tissue. In the developing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling an influx of free amino acids from the megagametophyte accompanies germination and early seedling growth. The major component of this amino

Christopher D. Todd; Janice E. K. Cooke; Robert T. Mullen; David J. Gifford

2001-01-01

85

Salt tolerance at germination and vegetative growth involves different mechanisms in barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli L.) mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we describe the selection and characterization of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.) mutants (fows B) with vegetative salt tolerance as compared to a previously described mutant with salt tolerant germination (fows A3). Salt tolerance of both types of mutants was characterized in two distinctive stages of plant development, germination\\u000a and vegetative growth. About 46% of fows A3

Gaber M. AbogadallahMamdouh; Mamdouh M. Serag; Taha M. El-Katouny; W. Paul Quick

2010-01-01

86

Plant Growth Regulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plant growth regulators, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and ethylene, are investigated in this learning activity to demonstrate how these chemicals (hormones) affect plant growth and development.

This page authored by Jim Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma, based on original activities by Long Ashton Research Station, KScience, Cynthia Herbrandson, Kellogg Community College, Ross Koning, Eastern Connecticut State University, and A.G. Scientific, Inc.

87

INTERACTION OF METHYL-TERT BUTYL ETHER AND WATER STRESS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOIL MICROCOSMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread contaminant in surface and ground water in the United States. Frequently irrigation is used to water fields to germinate planted seeds and sustain plant growth. A likely possibility exists that water used may have some MTBE. Our s...

88

Effect of sodium?vinasse application on seed germination and growth of three species differing in salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The produced vinasse from molasses of sugar beets contains high amounts of nitrogen, potassium, and sodium (Na?vinasse). In a pot experiment involving plant species of different tolerance to soil salts (cotton, corn, and beans), applications up to 10 t vinasse ha did not significantly affect the seed germination, and had a positive effect on plant growth of all species. Increasing

J. H. Assimakopoulos

2000-01-01

89

Genetic variation in germination, growth, and survivorship of red maple in response to subambient through elevated atmospheric CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in plant response to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) may have influenced paleo-vegetation dynamics and could determine how future elevated CO2 drives plant evolution and ecosystem productivity. We established how levels of relatedness - the maternal family, population, and provenance - affect variation in the CO2 response of a species. This 2-year growth chamber experiment focused on the germination,

JACQUELINE E. M OHAN; J AMES S. C LARK

90

Effect of magnetic field on seed germination and seedling growth of sunflower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of a variable magnetic field, magnetically treated water and a combination of both these factors on the germination of seeds and the final mass at the initial stage of growth sunflower plants was presented. Investigations were carried out in pots filled with sand, tin an air-conditioned plant house with no access to daylight using fluorescent light as illumination. A statistical significance positive impact was achieved for the samples subjected to the interaction of both stimulating factors simultaneously, the magnetic field and the impact of treated water several times on the speed of seed germination and final plant mass. Negative impacts were obtained for the majority of the test cases, for the magnetically treated water, the short duration of activity of the magnetic field and for the connection of the magnetic field and low-flow times.

Matwijczuk, A.; Kornarzy?ski, K.; Pietruszewski, S.

2012-07-01

91

Rice germination and seedling growth in the absence of oxygen  

PubMed Central

Background Higher plants are aerobic organisms which suffer from the oxygen deficiency imposed by partial or total submergence. However, some plant species have developed strategies to avoid or withstand severe oxygen shortage and, in some cases, the complete absence of oxygen (tissue anoxia) for considerable periods of time. Scope Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the few plant species that can tolerate prolonged soil flooding or complete submergence thanks to an array of adaptive mechanisms. These include an ability to elongate submerged shoot organs at faster than normal rates and to develop aerenchyma, allowing the efficient internal transport of oxygen from the re-emerged elongated shoot to submerged parts. However, rice seeds are able to germinate anaerobically by means of coleoptile elongation. This cannot be explained in terms of oxygen transport through an emerged shoot. This review provides an overview of anoxic rice germination that is mediated through coleoptile rather than root emergence. Conclusions Although there is still much to learn about the biochemical and molecular basis of anaerobic rice germination, the ability of rice to maintain an active fermentative metabolism (i.e. by fuelling the glycolytic pathway with readily fermentable carbohydrates) is certainly crucial. The results obtained through microarray-based transcript profiling confirm most of the previous evidence based on single-gene studies and biochemical analysis, and highlight new aspects of the molecular response of the rice coleoptile to anoxia.

Magneschi, Leonardo; Perata, Pierdomenico

2009-01-01

92

Lead phytotoxicity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination and seedlings growth.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant extremely toxic to plants and other living organisms including humans. To assess Pb phytotoxicity, experiments focusing on germination of wheat seeds were germinated in a solution containing Pb (NO(3))(2) (0.05; 0.1; 0.5; 1g/L) during 6 days. Lead accumulation in seedlings was positively correlated with the external concentrations, and negatively correlated with morphological parameters of plant growth. Lead increased lipid peroxidation, enhanced soluble protein concentrations and induced a significant accumulation of proline in roots. Esterase activity was enhanced in the presence of lead, whereas ?-amylase activity was significantly inhibited. Antioxidant enzymes activities, such as, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase were generally significantly increased in the presence of lead in a dose-dependent manner. The present results thus provide a model system to screen for natural compounds able to counteract the deleterious effects of lead. PMID:21333942

Lamhamdi, Mostafa; Bakrim, Ahmed; Aarab, Ahmed; Lafont, René; Sayah, Fouad

2011-01-12

93

Genome Sequence of Serratia plymuthica Strain S13, an Endophyte with Germination- and Plant-Growth-Promoting Activity from the Flower of Styrian Oil Pumpkin.  

PubMed

The bacterium Serratia plymuthica strain S13 was demonstrated to colonize various plant-associated microhabitats and to suppress damping-off diseases. The completed genome sequence has a size of 5.5 Mb, containing 4,957 putative protein-encoding regions, and will be used to identify genetic determinants enabling the bacterium to escort a plant's entire life cycle. PMID:23929484

Müller, Henry; Fürnkranz, Michael; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

2013-08-08

94

Impact of osmotic stress on seed germination and seedling growth in black gram (Phaseolus mungo).  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to see the impact of osmotic stress as it is one of the main cause in various soil and water disorders in agricultural field crops, speciallythe seed germination and seedling growth. The osmotic stress was generated using PEG-6000 and the seed germination, seedling growth were evaluated including the status of pigments i.e. chlorophyll (a, b and total), total carotenoids, pheophytin (a, b and total) and different enzymes like amylase, peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. The various osmotic potentials generated (-2, -5 and -10 bars) showed significant decrease in germination percentage as at the osmotic potential of -10 bars it was observed 70 in comparison to 90% of control. All the seedling growth parameter also showed inhibition with increase in osmotic potential. Increase in osmotic stress decreased Chlorophyll 'a', while Chlorophyll 'b' was increased in -5 bars while total chlorophyll showed decrease in -5 bars osmotic potential. Total carotenoids and pheophytin (a, b and total) were highly increased in -5 bars and decreased in -10 bars osmotic concentration. Enzymatic activity was found to be decreased in amylase while peroixidase, catalase and SOD were increased at different osmotic gradients in comparison to control. The data observed in the experiment can be helpful to assess the impact of any kind of osmotic stress on plant growth and development in crops. PMID:21387929

Pratap, Veer; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

2010-09-01

95

Textile Effluents Affected Seed Germination and Early Growth of Some Winter Vegetable Crops: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess as to whether treated textile effluent could be safely used to irrigate some winter vegetables, growth\\u000a room experiments were conducted. Varying levels of treated and untreated textile effluents were applied to germinating seeds\\u000a of some winter vegetables and their effect was evaluated on germination and early growth stage using seed germination, growth,\\u000a and biochemical attributes. From

Abida Rehman; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Habib-ur-Rehman Athar

2009-01-01

96

The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and growth of seedlings under impact of zinc salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals are necessary because of migration of heavy metals in LSS. Microbial associations are able to stimulate growth of plants, to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metal salts. The goal of this work was to investigate effect of microbial associations on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO4. The results of investigations showed that:Zinc salt had an adverse effect on germination of wheat seeds, beginning with concentrations of 8 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) and higher.Microbial associations (concentrations -104 to 107 cells/ml) were able to decrease (partly or completely) the adverse effect of ZnSO4 on germination of wheat seeds.Concentrations (104-107 cells/ml) of microbial associations were able to decrease partly the adverse effect of zinc salts (intervals: from 1 to 32 MP?) on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase.The root system of plants was more sensitive to the adverse effect of ZnSO4 than shoots of plants.

Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

2009-04-01

97

[Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].  

PubMed

Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area. PMID:24066549

Zhang, Hai-Yan

2013-06-01

98

The Differential Effect of Synthetic Plant Growth Substances and other Compounds upon Plant Species. I. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses to alpha -Naphthylacetic Acid and Compounds of the General Formula arylOCH2COOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and small-scale experiments in soil are described in which alpha -naphthylacetic acid in solution, incorporated dry in fine sand and in ammonium sulphate, has been applied to oats (Avena sativa L.) and yellow charlock (Brassica Sinapis Visiani) at seed sowing and during early growth stages. Concentrations which kill the charlock leave the oats unharmed. Details are given of other

W. G. Templeman; W. A. Sexton

1946-01-01

99

Water potential affects Coniothyrium minitans growth, germination and parasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.  

PubMed

Water availability is an important environmental factor which has major effects on fungal activity. The effects of osmotic (KCl amended agar) and matric Polyethylene glycol ((PEG) 8000 amended agar) potentials over the range -0.1 to -5.0MPa on mycelial growth and conidial germination of eight isolates of the sclerotial parasite Coniothyrium minitans was assessed. The influence of soil water potential on the ability of three selected isolates (LU112, LU545, and T5R42i) to parasitise sclerotia of the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was determined. For all eight C. minitans isolates, decreasing osmotic and matric potentials caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination. Isolates were more sensitive to decreasing matric potential than osmotic potential. Across the isolates, growth at an osmotic potential of -5.0MPa was 30-70% of the growth seen in the control, whereas less than 20% of the control growth was seen at the corresponding matric potential. Across all isolates no conidial germination was seen at matric potential of -5.0MPa. The C. minitans isolates varied in their sensitivity to decreasing water potentials. Mycelial growth and conidial germination of three isolates (LU112, Conio, and CH1) were more tolerant of low osmotic potential and matric potential with respect to mycelial growth. Isolates T5R42i and LU430 were least tolerant. In contrast, conidial germination of isolates Conio, LU545, and T5R42i were less sensitive to decreasing matric potential. Soil water potential was seen to affect infection and viability of sclerotia by the three C. minitans isolates. Isolate LU545 reduced sclerotial viability over a wider water potential range (-0.01 to -1.5MPa) compared with LU112 (-0.01 to -1.0MPa), with isolate T5R42i being intermediate. Indigenous soil fungi (Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys rosea) were recovered from sclerotia but did not result in reduction in sclerotial viability. The relevance of these results in relation to biocontrol activity of C. minitans in soil is discussed. PMID:21872184

Jones, E Eirian; Stewart, Alison; Whipps, John M

2011-07-07

100

Plant Growth Regulators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

Nickell, Louis G.

1978-01-01

101

Plant Growth Regulators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)|

Nickell, Louis G.

1978-01-01

102

Do high-nickel leaves shed by the nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale inhibit seed germination of competing plants?  

PubMed

Elemental allelopathy suggests that nickel (Ni)-rich leaves shed by hyperaccumulators inhibit the germination and growth of nearby plant species. Here, the germination of eight herbaceous species following addition of Alyssum murale biomass or Ni(NO3)2, with the same Ni level added to soil, was assessed. The distribution of Ni in soil was tested by determining Ni phytoavailability and speciation over time. Phytoavailable Ni in soil amended with biomass declined rapidly over time due to Ni binding to iron (Fe)/manganese (Mn) oxides in the soil. No significant effects on seed germination were observed. Unlike the Ni complex in Alyssum biomass, more Ni remained soluble and phytoavailable in soil amended with Ni(NO3)2, thus significantly inhibiting seed germination. High-Ni leaves shed by hyperaccumulators did not appear to create a 'toxic zone' around the plants and inhibit germination or growth of competing plants. The lack of an allelopathic effect was probably related to low Ni availability. PMID:17244045

Zhang, Lan; Angle, J Scott; Chaney, Rufus L

2007-01-01

103

Karrikins: A new family of plant growth regulators in smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karrikins are a chemically defined family of plant growth regulators discovered in smoke from burning plant material. Karrikins are potent in breaking dormancy of seeds of many species adapted to environments that regularly experience fire and smoke. The recent discovery that karrikins trigger seed germination and control seedling growth in taxa that would rarely experience fire indicates that their significance

Sheila D. S. Chiwocha; Kingsley W. Dixon; Gavin R. Flematti; Emilio L. Ghisalberti; David J. Merritt; David C. Nelson; Julie-Anne M. Riseborough; Steven M. Smith; Jason C. Stevens

2009-01-01

104

QTL analysis of seed germination and pre-emergence growth at extreme temperatures in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Enhancing the knowledge on the genetic basis of germination and heterotrophic growth at extreme temperatures is of major importance for improving crop establishment. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out at sub- and supra-optimal temperatures at these early stages in the model Legume Medicago truncatula. On the basis of an ecophysiological model framework, two populations of recombinant inbred lines were chosen for the contrasting behaviours of parental lines: LR5 at sub-optimal temperatures (5 or 10°C) and LR4 at a supra-optimal temperature (20°C). Seed masses were measured in all lines. For LR5, germination rates and hypocotyl growth were measured by hand, whereas for LR4, imbibition and germination rates as well as early embryonic axis growth were measured using an automated image capture and analysis device. QTLs were found for all traits. The phenotyping framework we defined for measuring variables, distinguished stages and enabled identification of distinct QTLs for seed mass (chromosomes 1, 5, 7 and 8), imbibition (chromosome 4), germination (chromosomes 3, 5, 7 and 8) and heterotrophic growth (chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 8). The three QTL identified for hypocotyl length at sub-optimal temperature explained the largest part of the phenotypic variation (60% together). One digenic interaction was found for hypocotyl width at sub-optimal temperature and the loci involved were linked to additive QTLs for hypocotyl elongation at low temperature. Together with working on a model plant, this approach facilitated the identification of genes specific to each stage that could provide reliable markers for assisting selection and improving crop establishment. With this aim in view, an initial set of putative candidate genes was identified in the light of the role of abscissic acid/gibberellin balance in regulating germination at high temperatures (e.g. ABI4, ABI5), the molecular cascade in response to cold stress (e.g. CBF1, ICE1) and hypotheses on changes in cell elongation (e.g. GASA1, AtEXPA11) with changes in temperatures based on studies at the whole plant scale.

Dias, Paula Menna Barreto; Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; Durr, Carolyne; Huguet, Thierry; Demilly, Didier; Wagner, Marie-Helene

2010-01-01

105

EFFECTS OF ALUMINIUM (Al 3+ ) ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of different concentrations of aluminium (Al 3+ ) on seed germination of high yielding varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated. Al 3+ at 500 ppm had inhibitory effect on seed germination, seedling growth and its dry matter. Relatively higher root and shoot dry matter in Sonlika, Fang-60 and lower in Baw-923 and Protiva were found. Root growth

A. N. M. ALAMGIR; SUFIA AKHTER

2009-01-01

106

The effect of insecticides on growth, germination and cuticle degrading enzyme production by Isaria fumosorosea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of six chemical insecticides on growth, sporulation, conidial germination and cuticle degrading enzyme production by Isaria fumosorosea were investigated under laboratory conditions. Maximum reduction in vegetative growth, sporulation and conidial germination in relation to the control treatment was observed for Chloranthraniliprole whereas Indoxacarb proved to be the safest insecticide causing lowest reduction in these parameters. Chloranthraniliprole, Chlorpyrifos and

Shaukat Ali; Zhen Huang; Shixing Zou; Muhammad Hamid Bashir; Zeqing Wang; Shunxiang Ren

2012-01-01

107

Allelopathic Effects of Some Crop Residues on the Germination and Growth of Maize (Zea mays L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from sorghum stem and rice husks were examined on the germination and growth of maize. The extracts brought about considerable inhibitions in the germination of maize seeds and in the growth of radical and plumule. In both extracts, the degree of inhibition increased with the increase in the concentrations of the extracts thus suggesting

J. Kayode; J. M. Ayeni

108

Response in germination and seedling growth in Phaseolus mungo under salt and drought stress.  

PubMed

The effect of salt and drought stress at the water potentials of-2, -4,-6and -8 bars induced by NaCl and PEG 6000 (Polyethylene glycol 6000) each, on germination and early seedling growth, were investigated for two varieties (PU-19 and Type-9). Electrical conductivity (EC) value of the NaCl solutions were 4.5, 8.8, 12.7 and 16.3 dS m(-1). Germination percentage, root and shoot length, and seedling fresh and dry weight were measured in the study. The objective was to determine genotypic differences among P. mungo varieties in terms of salt and drought stress and to determine factors (salt toxicity or osmotic stress due to PEG) inhibiting seed germination. The germination results revealed that the genotypes significantly differed for salt and drought stress. PU-19 appeared to be more tolerant to salt and drought stress comparable to var Type-9. Both NaCl and PEG inhibited germination and seedling growth in both the varieties, but the effects of NaCI compared to PEG was less on germination and seedling growth. All varieties were able to germinate at all NaCl levels without significant decrease in germination, while a drastic decrease in germination was recorded at -6 and -8 bars of PEG. It was concluded that inhibition in germination at equivalent water potential of NaCl and PEG was mainly due to an osmotic effect rather than salt toxicity. PMID:21046993

Garg, Gunjan

2010-05-01

109

Fluorine, its effect on plant growth and its relation to the availability to plants of phosphorus in phosphate rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To learn the effect of soluble fluorine compounds on seed germination, plant growth, and phosphate availability, solution cultures, pot tests, etc., were made at the Arkansas Experiment Station with Sudan grass, cowpeas, soybeans, red clover, and white Dutch clover as test plants. Concentrations of fluorine as large as 50 ppm did not seem to decrease significantly the germination of any

R. P. BARTHOLOMEW

1935-01-01

110

Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.  

PubMed

The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control. PMID:22803337

Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

2012-06-01

111

Germination characteristics of six plant species growing on the Hanford Site. [Disturbed land revegetation feasibility studies  

SciTech Connect

Six plant species (Siberian and thickspike wheatgrass, cheatgrass, sand dropseed, Indian ricegrass, and Russian thistle) found on the Hanford Site were studied as part of an investigation into the revegetation of disturbed areas. Germination response to three environmental parameters (soil moisture, soil temperature, and planting depth) were measured. Results indicated that when a polyethylene glycol solution was used to control the osmotic potential of the imbibition media, no significant decrease in germination rate occurred down to -3.0 bars. However, below -7.0 bars all species experienced a decrease in germination. When germinated in soil, all species except Russian thistle exhibited a significant decrease in germination rate at -0.3 bars. Russian thistle was the only species tested that exhibited germination at a soil temperature of 1/sup 0/C. All species gave optimum germination at temperatures between 10 and 15/sup 0/C. Thickspike wheatgrass was the only species tested which was able to germinate and emerge from a planting depth of greater than 2 inches. If supplemental moisture is provided, a shallow planting would be advisable for those species tested. If not overcome by pretreatment prior to planting, seed dormancy may be a significant factor which will reduce the germination potential of some species tested.

Cox, G.R.; Kirkham, R.R.; Cline, J.F.

1980-03-01

112

[Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].  

PubMed

Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation. PMID:20118648

Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

2010-02-01

113

Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice ( Oryza sativa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd) tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination

Jun-yu HE; Yan-fang REN; Cheng ZHU; De-an JIANG

2008-01-01

114

Effect of electroplating factory effluent on the germination and growth of hyacinth bean and mustard. [Dolichos lablab; Brassica compestris  

SciTech Connect

The effect of electroplating factory effluent in different concentrations (viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0%) on the germination and growth of hyacinth beans (Dolichos lablab) and mustard seeds (Brassica compestris) was studied. The germination of seeds was delayed with the increase of effluent concentration and the germination of mustard seeds was totally inhibited at 1.5% effluent concentration while hyacinth bean seeds tolerated the effluent up to 2.5% concentration. The metal content in the hyacinth bean plants increased with increasing effluent concentration but after 1.0% effluent concentration, the concentration of all the metals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe) decreased in the plants except Cr, which increased throughout. Percentage germination, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, and shoot length of the plants were also analyzed. Cd, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb were not detectable in the hyacinth bean plants.

Ajmal, M.; Khan, A.U.

1985-12-01

115

Factors and mechanisms influencing seed germination in a wetland plant sawgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) is the predominant plant and vegetation community in the Florida Everglades. Germination of sawgrass seeds in the laboratory\\u000a or nursery has been difficult and problematic, yet little is known about the physiological mechanistic regulation of the sawgrass\\u000a seed germination process. In the present study, we examined the factors and mechanisms that influence sawgrass seed germination.\\u000a We found

James Webb; ShiLi Miao; Xing-Hai Zhang

2009-01-01

116

Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.  

PubMed

Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels. PMID:17928137

Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

2007-09-06

117

Effects of acidity on tree Pollen germination and tube growth. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the northeastern hardwood forests in North America are exposed repeatedly to acidic rainfall at pH values below 5.0. Pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization, important parts of the reproductive process, are sensitive to changes in their chemical environment. Accordingly, the authors investigated the effects of acidity on pollen germination and tube elongation of four northeastern tree species: flowering

D. M. Van Ryn; J. S. Jacobson

1984-01-01

118

Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings: effects of soil moisture variability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination and seedling growth, survivorship, and final biomass and their responses to varying numbers of days between watering were studied in two grass and six forb species native to the U.S. Central Plains grasslands. Our object was to assess the potential role of germination and seedling g...

119

A high-throughput seed germination assay for root parasitic plants  

PubMed Central

Background Some root-parasitic plants belonging to the Orobanche, Phelipanche or Striga genus represent one of the most destructive and intractable weed problems to agricultural production in both developed and developing countries. Compared with most of the other weeds, parasitic weeds are difficult to control by conventional methods because of their life style. The main difficulties that currently limit the development of successful control methods are the ability of the parasite to produce a tremendous number of tiny seeds that may remain viable in the soil for more than 15 years. Seed germination requires induction by stimulants present in root exudates of host plants. Researches performed on these minute seeds are until now tedious and time-consuming because germination rate is usually evaluated in Petri-dish by counting germinated seeds under a binocular microscope. Results We developed an easy and fast method for germination rate determination based on a standardized 96-well plate test coupled with spectrophotometric reading of tetrazolium salt (MTT) reduction. We adapted the Mosmann’s protocol for cell cultures to germinating seeds and determined the conditions of seed stimulation and germination, MTT staining and formazan salt solubilization required to obtain a linear relationship between absorbance and germination rate. Dose–response analyses were presented as applications of interest for assessing half maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of germination stimulants (strigolactones) or inhibitors (ABA), respectively, using four parameter logistic curves. Conclusion The developed MTT system is simple and accurate. It yields reproducible results for germination bioassays of parasitic plant seeds. This method is adapted to high-throughput screenings of allelochemicals (stimulants, inhibitors) or biological extracts on parasitic plant seed germination, and strengthens the investigations of distinctive features of parasitic plant germination.

2013-01-01

120

Germination and Growth of a Vegetable Exposed to Very Severe Environmental Conditions Experimentally Induced by High Voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission power lines are required in order to reduce transmission energy losses, and to transfer more power across long distances. However, the ecological and biological influence of UHV lines has not been documented well. Possible influences of UHV lines are: electro-magnetic field, ozone, NOx, and ion shower. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the germination and growth of Raphanus sativus L.cv. Kaiware-daikon exposed to an experimental environment in which all the above influences at very severe intensity levels were working simultaneously. Several environmental conditions severer than those predicted for future UHV lines were set up, using a high voltage at 60 Hz. The germination and growth of this plant were suppressed under the experimental conditions used, the suppression being greater the severer the conditions. When the electric field is strong, corona discharge occurs at the tip of the plant.

Aoki, Takashi; Ikezawa, Shunjiro

1982-09-01

121

Does Germination Success Differ with Respect to Seed Mass and Germination Season? Experimental Testing of Plant Functional Trait Responses to Grassland Management  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant functional trait responses to processes such as grassland management have been analysed frequently; however, the scaling-up from individual traits to the outcomes of vegetation dynamics has seldom been tested. In this experiment, germination success was studied with respect to the relationships between grassland management (mowing and grazing), as well as abandonment, and two traits that are relevant for seedling recruitment: seed mass and germination season. On the basis of discussions in the literature and indirect trait analyses in our previous studies, the following hypotheses are proposed: (1) with respect to seed mass, mowing and grazing favour the germination of small seeds, whereas after abandonment the germination success of larger seeds is higher; and (2) with respect to germination season, mowing and grazing favour autumn-germinating seeds, whereas succession promotes spring-germinating seeds. Methods The germination experiment took place in a semi-natural, dry grassland in north-east Germany. Seeds of eight herbaceous species that differ with respect to seed mass and germination season were sown in mown, grazed and abandoned plots. Germination success was documented during the following year. Key Results and Conclusions Contrary to the hypothesis, germination of small seeds was not promoted by mowing or grazing and they germinated relatively more often than expected in the abandoned plots. A relationship between abandonment and gaps of bare soil below the vegetation cover that favour germination of small seeds was likely, but could not be proved statistically. It is possible that the small seeds suffered less from predation. Mowing favoured autumn germination, which could be explained by the removal of biomass in late summer. Contrary to our expectation, there was relatively more spring germination after grazing than after mowing, yet vegetation height was smallest in spring. Generally, germination season was found to be related to the temporal occurrence of favourable light conditions.

Kahmen, S.; Poschlod, P.

2008-01-01

122

Influences of vermicomposts, produced by earthworms and microorganisms from cattle manure, food waste and paper waste, on the germination, growth and flowering of petunias in the greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vermicomposts have been shown to promote the germination, growth, and yields of plants. This paper aims to demonstrate the effects of vermicomposts produced from three types of wastes on growth and flowering of petunias which are an important U.S. flowering crop.Vermicomposts, produced commercially from cattle manure, food wastes and paper wastes, were substituted at a range of different concentrations into

Norman Q. Arancon; Clive A. Edwards; Andrei Babenko; John Cannon; Paola Galvis; James D. Metzger

2008-01-01

123

Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew during the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment.

Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, Richard; Jahns, Gary

1988-12-01

124

Microgravity effects on plant growth and lignification.  

PubMed

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew under the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment. PMID:11539286

Cowles, J R; Lemay, R; Jahns, G

1988-01-01

125

Effect of plant roots on the germination of microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of germination of microsclerotia by exudates from plant roots may be important for the control ofV. dahliae. Laboratory experiments with root observation boxes were carried out to assess the influence of root tips of seven crop species and cultivars on the germination of microsclerotia ofVerticillium dahliae in soil under controlled conditions. The root density of crops was measured in

L. Mol

1995-01-01

126

Effects of aqueous extract of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) on seed germination and radicle elongation of Monochoria vaginalis var. plantaginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the allelopathic potentials of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) on seed germination and radicle elongation of Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) Presl var. plantaginea (Roxb.) Solms-Laubat. To compare the relative allelopathic potentials of rice plants at different growth stages, aqueous extracts of dried tissues were obtained from the seeds, husks, and seedlings harvested 10, 20,

Shun Kawaguchi; Koichi Yoneyama; Takao Yokota; Yasutomo Takeuchi; Masaru Ogasawara; Makoto Konnai

1997-01-01

127

Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is critical for pollen germination and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

ENT1 of Arabidopsis thaliana was the first member of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family to be identified in plants and characterized as a cellular, high-affinity nucleoside importer. Evidence is presented here for a tonoplast localization of ENT1 based on proteome data and Western blot analyses. Increased export of adenosine from reconstituted tonoplast preparations from 35S:ENT1 mutants compared with those from the wild type and ENT1-RNAi mutants support this view. Furthermore, increased vacuolar adenosine and vacuolar 2'3'-cAMP (an intermediate of RNA catabolism) contents in ENT1-RNAi mutants, but decreased contents of these metabolites in 35S:ENT1 over-expresser mutants, were observed. An up-regulation of the salvage pathway was detected in the latter mutants, leading to the conclusion that draining the vacuolar adenosine storage by ENT1 over-expression interferes with cellular nucleotide metabolism. As a consequence of the observed metabolic alterations 35S:ENT1 over-expresser mutants exhibited a smaller phenotypic appearance compared with wild-type plants. In addition, ENT1:RNAi mutants exhibited significantly lower in vitro germination of pollen and contained reduced internal and external ATP levels. This indicates that ENT1-mediated nucleosides, especially adenosine transport, is important for nucleotide metabolism, thus influencing growth and pollen germination. PMID:21642237

Bernard, Carsten; Traub, Michaela; Kunz, H-Henning; Hach, Stefanie; Trentmann, Oliver; Möhlmann, Torsten

2011-06-03

128

Pyrimidine degradation influences germination seedling growth and production of Arabidopsis seeds  

PubMed Central

PYD1 (dihydropyrimidine dehydogenase) initiates the degradation of pyrimidine nucleobases and is located in plastids. In this study, a physiological analysis of PYD1 employing T-DNA knockout mutants and overexpressors was carried out. PYD1 knockout mutants were restricted in degradation of exogenously provided uracil and accumulated high uracil levels in plant organs throughout development, especially in dry seeds. Moreover, PYD1 knockout mutants showed delayed germination which was accompanied by low invertase activity and decreased monosaccharide levels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of seed germination, and ABA-responsive genes were deregulated in PYD1 knockout mutants. Together with an observed increased PYD1 expression in wild-type seedlings upon ABA treatment, an interference of PYD1 with ABA signalling can be assumed. Constitutive PYD1 overexpression mutants showed increased growth and higher seed number compared with wild-type and knockout mutant plants. During senescence PYD1 expression increased to allow uracil catabolism. From this it is concluded that early in development and during seed production PYD1 is needed to balance pyrimidine catabolism versus salvage.

Cornelius, Stefanie; Witz, Sandra; Rolletschek, Hardy; Mohlmann, Torsten

2011-01-01

129

Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is critical for pollen germination and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

ENT1 of Arabidopsis thaliana was the first member of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family to be identified in plants and characterized as a cellular, high-affinity nucleoside importer. Evidence is presented here for a tonoplast localization of ENT1 based on proteome data and Western blot analyses. Increased export of adenosine from reconstituted tonoplast preparations from 35S:ENT1 mutants compared with those from the wild type and ENT1-RNAi mutants support this view. Furthermore, increased vacuolar adenosine and vacuolar 2?3?-cAMP (an intermediate of RNA catabolism) contents in ENT1-RNAi mutants, but decreased contents of these metabolites in 35S:ENT1 over-expresser mutants, were observed. An up-regulation of the salvage pathway was detected in the latter mutants, leading to the conclusion that draining the vacuolar adenosine storage by ENT1 over-expression interferes with cellular nucleotide metabolism. As a consequence of the observed metabolic alterations 35S:ENT1 over-expresser mutants exhibited a smaller phenotypic appearance compared with wild-type plants. In addition, ENT1:RNAi mutants exhibited significantly lower in vitro germination of pollen and contained reduced internal and external ATP levels. This indicates that ENT1-mediated nucleosides, especially adenosine transport, is important for nucleotide metabolism, thus influencing growth and pollen germination.

Bernard, Carsten; Traub, Michaela; Kunz, H-Henning; Hach, Stefanie; Trentmann, Oliver; Mohlmann, Torsten

2011-01-01

130

Lead phytotoxicity on wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination and seedlings growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant extremely toxic to plants and other living organisms including humans. To assess Pb phytotoxicity, experiments focusing on germination of wheat seeds were germinated in a solution containing Pb (NO3)2 (0.05; 0.1; 0.5; 1g\\/L) during 6 days. Lead accumulation in seedlings was positively correlated with the external concentrations, and negatively correlated with morphological parameters of plant

Mostafa Lamhamdi; Ahmed Bakrim; Ahmed Aarab; René Lafont; Fouad Sayah

2011-01-01

131

Studies on salt tolerance of pigeon pea cultivars 1. Germination, seedling growth and some physiological changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve germplasm cultivars of pigeon pea were screened for their tolerance to salinity during germination and early seedling\\u000a growth. Germination, seedling growth and studies on proteins, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and free proline accumulation indicated\\u000a that the cultivars ICP 7035 and 7065 showed high degree of tolerance to 0·4% salinity. These two tolerant cultivars showed\\u000a lowered derangements in their

G Gururaja Rao; K V Ramana Rao; G Rajeswara Rao

1981-01-01

132

Effects of Seed-borne Fungi on Germination and Seedling Growth of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus nigricans inocula (1 & 0.1 g L -1 distilled water) and a seed dressing fungicide Seedplus® (1.25 g 500 g-1 seeds) on germination and seedling growth of watermelon (cv. Chaliston gray) was investigated. It was confirmed that the combined inocula with higher density caused significantly poor germination and seedling growth (P ? 0.05)

S. T. ANJORIN; M. MOHAMMED

133

Salinity and seed germination patterns in coastal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed germination behaviour of a number of coastal species suggests that they can be separated into three categories, whose response to salinity shows some correlation with habitat. All but two germinated well in fresh water. After immersion for several days in 1\\/2, full, and 1 1\\/2 strength seawater all recover at least partly. Dune species are more adversely affected

S. R. J. Woodell

1985-01-01

134

Toxic effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) on seed germination and growth and DPPH-scavenging activity in Brassica rapa var. turnip.  

PubMed

Toxicity of heavy metal is a wide spread environmental problem affecting all life forms including plants. In the present study the toxic effects of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) on seed germination rate (%), germination index (G-index) and growth (mm) of Brassica rapa var. turnip have been investigated. The seeds were soaked either in distilled water (control) or in aqueous solutions of Cd, Cr and Pb (1 g/l, 2.5 g/l and 5 g/l) at 4°C in dark for 24 hours. Prior to inoculation onto MS0 medium, the soaked seeds were either washed with sterile distilled water or inoculated without washing on solidified MS0 medium at 25 ± 2°C with 16/8-hour photoperiod in a growth chamber to germinate in vitro. Such stress conditions revealed that by increasing the concentration of heavy metals, the germination rate (%), G-index value and growth (mm) decreased significantly, suggesting their toxic effect on B. rapa var. turnip. This study further revealed that experiment with seed washing resulted in less toxicity of selected heavy metals on germination and growth of B. rapa var. turnip, as compared to experiment without washing. However, the resulting toxicity order of the selected heavy metals remained the same (Cd > Cr > Pb). Significant decrease has been observed in seed viability and germination potential and finally heavy metals completely ceased further growth and development of plants. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity revealed that significantly higher activity was observed in control plants without heavy metals treatment. Furthermore, the Cd-treated plants showed decreased antioxidant activity. Cr and Pb were less toxic as compared to Cd (control > Pb > Cr > Cd). This study revealed that selected heavy metals not only affected plant development but also disturbed plant metabolic pathways. PMID:22872632

Siddiqui, Maryam Mehmood; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Mohammad; Mahmood, Tariq

2012-08-01

135

Velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) extracts: impact on Meloidogyne incognita survival and on Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa germination and growth.  

PubMed

Velvetbean (Mucuna spp.) is a summer annual that has been used as a cover crop to reduce erosion, fix nitrogen and suppress weeds and plant-parasitic nematodes. Crude aqueous extracts (1:15 dry weight plant/volume water) were made from velvetbean plant parts, and various concentrations of the extracts were evaluated in vitro for toxicities to different stages of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and for suppression of hypocotyl and root growth and inhibition of germination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Germination was only affected by the full-strength extract from leaf blades. Lettuce root growth was the most sensitive indicator of allelopathic activity of the plant part extracts. Lettuce and tomato root growth was more sensitive to the extract from main roots than to extracts of other plant parts, with lethal concentration (LC50) values of 1.2 and 1.1% respectively. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was less sensitive to extracts from velvetbean than the juvenile (J2) stage. There was no difference among LC50 values of the extracts from different plant parts against the egg stage. Based on LC50 values, the extract from fine roots was the least toxic to J2 (LC50 39.9%), and the extract from vines the most toxic (LC50 7.8%). The effects of the extracts were nematicidal because LC50 values did not change when the extracts were removed and replaced with water. PMID:16953489

Zasada, Inga A; Klassen, Waldemar; Meyer, Susan L F; Codallo, Maharanie; Abdul-Baki, Aref A

2006-11-01

136

Germination Characteristics of Six Plant Species Growing on the Hanford Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six plant species (Siberian and thickspike wheatgrass, cheatgrass, sand dropseed, Indian ricegrass, and Russian thistle) found on the Hanford Site were studied as part of an investigation into the revegetation of disturbed areas. Germination response to t...

G. R. Cox R. R. Kirkham J. F. Cline

1980-01-01

137

Effects of copper on germination, growth and sporulation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum.  

PubMed

The effects of copper (Cu(2+)) on spore germination, vegetative growth and sporulation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum, which is capable to causing texture and flavour defects in Emmental cheese, were studied. Spore suspensions of three different strains were used as starting material for two experimental set-ups. The first studied the effects of supplemented (0-30 ppm) copper in RCM medium during spore germination and vegetative growth of C. tyrobutyricum measured by plating. The second set-up studied the effects of copper (0-30 ppm) in RCM medium during growth and sporulation of C. tyrobutyricum as measured by optical density at 550 nm and by platings after heat treatment of the samples respectively. Inhibition of germination, vegetative growth and sporulation processes by copper was strain-dependent. Both sporulation and germination were more sensitive than vegetative growth of C. tyrobutyricum to the inhibitory effects of copper. Copper, at the concentrations investigated in this study, inhibits spore germination of C. tyrobutyricum strains. Consequently copper may reduce the risk of late blowing spoilage from in the germination of C. tyrobutyricum spores during the ripening period of Emmental cheese. PMID:20227610

Mato Rodriguez, L; Alatossava, T

2010-01-25

138

GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF PLANT-GROWTH PROMOTION IN ARABIDOPSIS TRIGGERED BY VOLATILE CHEMICALS FROM RHIZOBACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a wide range of root-colonizing bacteria that can enhance plant growth by increasing seed germination, plant weight, and crop yields. Some PGPR strains regulate plant growth by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid...

139

The importance of ethanolic fermentation for primary root growth of germinating rice under anoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between primary root growth and ethanolic fermentationwas investigated in five cultivars of germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds subjected to 48 h-anoxic stress. The anoxic stressinhibited the growth of all rice cultivars, however, there were significantdifferences in the growth among the cultivars. The stress increased alcoholdehydrogenase activities and ethanol concentrations in the roots of all ricecultivars but there

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

2001-01-01

140

Enhancement of germination, growth, and photosynthesis in soybean by pre-treatment of seeds with magnetic field.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of static magnetic fields on the seeds of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. var: JS-335) by exposing the seeds to different magnetic field strengths from 0 to 300 mT in steps of 50 mT for 30, 60, and 90 min. Treatment with magnetic fields improved germination-related parameters like water uptake, speed of germination, seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigor indices of soybean seeds under laboratory conditions. Improvement over untreated control was 5-42% for speed of germination, 4-73% for seedling length, 9-53% for fresh weight, 5-16% for dry weight, and 3-88% and 4-27% for vigor indices I and II, respectively. Treatment of 200 mT (60 min) and 150 mT (60 min), which were more effective than others in increasing most of the seedling parameters, were further explored for their effect on plant growth, leaf photosynthetic efficiency, and leaf protein content under field conditions. Among different growth parameters, leaf area, and leaf fresh weight showed maximum enhancement (more than twofold) in 1-month-old plants. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at the J-I-P phase. The total soluble protein map (SDS-polyacrylamide gel) of leaves showed increased intensities of the bands corresponding to a larger subunit (53 KDa) and smaller subunit (14 KDa) of Rubisco in the treated plants. We report here the beneficial effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatment for improving germination parameters and biomass accumulation in soybean. PMID:21381047

Shine, M B; Guruprasad, K N; Anand, Anjali

2011-03-04

141

[Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on substrate and germination of higher plants seeds].  

PubMed

The investigation had the aim to evaluate the effects of low doses (< 1-10 cGy) of ionizing radiation on the physical-chemical qualities of high-purification water. It had also the goal to study germination rate and energy and sprouting of four species of higher plants exposed directly and indirectly (watering) to alpha- and beta-radiation from radionuclids sources. When compared with intact water, after exposure to beta-particles electrical currents in water-filled containers consistently tended upward and downward after exposure to alpha-particles. Radiation-induced changes in water parameters were observed throughout the experiment with higher plant seeds. Evaluation of the effect of irradiated water on sprouting showed that plant sensitivity varied with species and depended on type of radiation particles. Neither alpha- nor beta particles affected the wheat sprouts; however, both types of particles inhibited growth of mustard and accelerated growth of lentil and haricot Mash as compared with control crops. The investigation suggests that plant species for space greenhouses should be selected with account of their radioresistance and radiosensitivity. PMID:19055006

Tsetlin, V V; Levinskikh, M A; Nefedova, E L; Derendiaeva, T A; Fedotova, I V

142

cAMP signalling is involved in growth, germination, mycoparasitism and secondary metabolism in Trichoderma virens.  

PubMed

An adenylate-cyclase-encoding gene, tac1, of Trichoderma virens, a soil fungus used in the biocontrol of plant pathogens, has been cloned and sequenced. The tac1 ORF spanned 7032 bp, encoding a protein of 2153 aa, which shared an identity of 65 % with the adenylate cyclase of Colletotrichum lagenarium. Deletion of tac1, through double-crossover homologous recombination, lowered the intracellular cAMP levels to below the detection limit. The mutants showed only 5-6 % of the wild-type growth rate on agar, but grew normally in shake culture. The mutants did not sporulate in darkness, and the spores failed to germinate in water. In the confrontation assay, the mutants did not overgrow the test plant pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp. Against Pythium sp., the mutants produced a clear zone of inhibition in the confrontation assay. HPLC analysis and bioassay showed reduced secondary metabolite production in the mutants. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), the genes that were underexpressed in the mutants were identified. Based on an array of 53 SSH library clones, 11 clones were identified as strongly downregulated in the Deltatac1 mutants; of these 11 clones, nine sequences were homologous to secondary metabolism-related gene sequences. Therefore, cAMP signalling positively regulates secondary metabolism in T. virens. This is believed to be the first direct genetic study on the role of cAMP signalling in a Trichoderma sp. Tac1 is also believed to be the first regulatory protein to be identified in T. virens that is involved in growth, germination, mycoparasitism and secondary metabolism. PMID:17526831

Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kale, Sharad P

2007-06-01

143

Red spruce germination and growth in soil-mediated regeneration microcosms under acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

In the past three decades, atmospheric pollution has caused substantial problems for the environment as well as for many biological processes. The objective of this study focuses on red spruce (Picea ruben Sarg.) regeneration potential and chemical change within the soil-water-plant continuum following simulated acid rain treatments. Inceptisols from three forests at 1735, 1920, and 2015 m at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina had lower pH, bulk density, and higher organic matter, and base cations as altitude increased. Red spruce seeds were collected from two nearby standing trees at the 1735 m site. A strip-split-split plot experiment was constructed using soils from the two lower elevations, which support natural red spruce stands. Besides a control (pH 5.6, NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratio 0.10), eight treatments corresponding to two pHs (3.5 and 4.2) with four NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratios (0.20, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.67) each were used. Seedling emergence and growth, chemistry of soil. Soil leachate, and plant tissue were analyzed to test soil differences and treatment effects of acidity, nitrate, and sulfate. Temporal patterns of germination respond more to soil than to rain chemistry, but significant interactions were found. Besides higher survival, faster germinating seedlings in the 1735 m soil also produced more complex root system and more biomass. Lower root-to-shoot ratios at more acidic treatments suggest a negative effect of acidity on root growth. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that factors controlling overall soil chemistry were dominated by soil origin, then by rain pH.

Ho, M.

1992-01-01

144

The rice Osmyb4 gene enhances tolerance to frost and improves germination under unfavourable conditions in transgenic barley plants.  

PubMed

The Osmyb4 rice gene, coding for a transcription factor, proved to be efficient against different abiotic stresses as a trans(cis)gene in several plant species, although the effectiveness was dependent on the host genomic background. Eight barley transgenic lines carrying the rice Osmyb4 gene under the control of the Arabidopsis cold inducible promoter cor15a were produced to test the efficiency of this gene in barley. After a preliminary test, the best performing lines were subjected to freezing at -11°C and -12°C. Frost tolerance was assessed measured the F(v)/F(m) parameter widely used to indicate the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry in the dark adapted state. Three transgenic lines showed significantly increased tolerance. These selected lines were further studied under a complex stress applying cold and hypoxia at germinating stage. In these conditions the three selected transgenic lines outperformed the wild type barley in terms of germination vigour. The transgenic plants also showed a significant modification of their metabolism under cold/hypoxia conditions as demonstrated through the assessment of the activity of key enzymes involved in anoxic stress response. None of the transgenic lines showed dwarfism, just a slight retarded growth. These results provide evidence that the cold dependent expression of Osmyb4 can efficiently improved frost tolerance and germination vigour at low temperature without deleterious effect on plant growth. PMID:22246661

Soltész, Alexandra; Vágújfalvi, Attila; Rizza, Fulvia; Kerepesi, Ildikó; Galiba, Gábor; Cattivelli, Luigi; Coraggio, Immacolata; Crosatti, Cristina

2012-01-14

145

Seed germination, growth, and osmotic adjustment in response to NaCl in a rare succulent halophyte from southeastern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some issues of the autoecology of Halocnemum strobilaceum (a rare succulent halophyte that occurs in southeastern Spain) are examined, particularly the germination process and the\\u000a first stages of plant development. In regards to germination, this species shows the general pattern of halophytes under increased\\u000a salt stress (reduced germination and germination rate). What stands out is the extreme

Juan A. Pujol; José F. Calvo; Luis Ramírez-Díaz

2001-01-01

146

Effects of NaCl on the Germination, Seedling Growth and Water Uptake of Triticale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of information about the effects of salinity on vegetative growth of triticale prompted us to study the salt tolerance levels of 3 newly registered cultivars, Karma-2000, Presto, and Tatl›cak-97. Moreover, the relative importance of the osmotic or toxic effects of NaCl on seed germination are not clear in triticale. In this study, germination percentage, seedling fresh and dry

Mehmet ATAK; Mehmet Demir KAYA; Gamze KAYA; Yakup ÇIKILI

147

Method for Promoting Plant Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a method of promoting plant growth and more particularly to the use of certain synthetic brassinosteroids to promote plant cell elongation and cell division and thereby increase the vegetative growth of plants.

W. J. Meudt M. J. Thompson N. Mandava J. F. Worley

1980-01-01

148

The promotive effect of smoke derived from burnt native vegetation on seed germination of Western Australian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of dormant seed to cold smoke derived from burnt native vegetation had a positive influence on germination in one or more seed provenances in 45 out of 94 species of native Western Australian plants that are normally hard to germinate. When tested under controlled conditions some species showed earlier germination in smoke treatments than controls; in others smoke-treated seeds

Kingsley W. Dixon; Shauna Roche; John S. Pate

1995-01-01

149

The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of Zink salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life support systems LSS for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems including biological recycling Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS Development and studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals has good prospects and necessity because of migration of heavy metals in LSS Microbial associations are able to stimulate plants growth to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metals salts The goal of this work was to investigate microbial associations action on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO 4 The results of investigations showed 1 Zink salt had negative action on germination of wheat seeds beginning with concentrations - 8 MPC Maximum Permissible Concentration and higher 2 Microbial associations concentrations -10 4 -- 10 6 cells ml were able to decrease partly or completely the negative action of ZnSO 4 on germination of wheat seeds 3 Concentrations 10 4 -- 10 5 cells ml of microbial associations were able to decrease the negative action of Zink salts intervals from 2 to 32 MPA on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase 4 Root system of plants was more sensible to the negative action of ZnSO 4 than shoots of plants

Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Mikheeva, G. A.

150

Analysis of directional root growth patterns from corn and soybean seeds germinated in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JOSE (JASON Outreach Seed Experiment) payload was the first plant experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). It consisted of having an on-orbit watering of eight transparent seed pouches each of which contained 6 individual seeds of either soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) or corn ( Zea mays ). The seeds were glued to a germination paper substrate using a 1.2% guar glue solution. The payload was launched on the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-97; ISS Flight 4A) on 11/30/00 and transferred to the ISS on 12/8/00. The eight seed pouches were each watered with 12 mL of distilled water on 1/5/01. Two pouches containing corn plus two pouches containing soybean seeds were maintained in the light after watering. Two additional seed pouches of each species were maintained in the dark after watering. Digital photography was used to document the growth of the germinating seedlings in space. The images were down-linked to a world wide web site for dissemination to students. "Within" species differences (between the light and dark grown seedlings) as well as "between" species differences (comparing corn and soybean) were observed. By day 4 (post-imbibition) there was a clear phototropic effect in the light-grown corn seedlings, each, possessing a green shoot which grew upward towards the light source. In contrast, the dark-grown corn shoots were neither green (since chlorophyll synthesis had not been induced by light) nor were they growing in a uniform direction. For day 4 soybean seedlings, the only difference evident between those germinated under the light vs dark conditions was a slight greening up of the seeds maintained in the presence of light. For both the corn and soybean seedlings, roots grew in a random fashion, with some moving in an upward direction and others progressing downward, reflecting the lack of a gravitropic response which is the primary (earth-based) mechanism controlling the direction of root growth. By day 7 the initial 12 mL of water added to each pouch was greatly diminished, although noticeably less so in the soybean pouches. This was presumably due to the faster and overall greater growth exhibited by the corn seedlings, which resulted in a more rapid utilization of the available water. There was also a more pronounced greening-up of the light-exposed soybean seedlings than was evident at day 4, with both the cotylendons and hypocotyl regions showing signs of chlorophyll synthesis. This work was supported under NASA Contract NAS10-002001.

Levine, H.; Tynes, G.; Norwood, K.

151

Effect of brassinosteroids on salinity stress induced inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 24-epibrassinolide and 28-homobrassinolide on the inhibitionof germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa) induced bysalinity stress was studied. Brassinosteroids were found to reverse theinhibitory effect on germination and seedling growth. The activation ofseedling growth by brassinosteroids under salinity stress was associatedwith enhanced levels of nucleic acids and soluble proteins.

S. Anuradha; S. Seeta Ram Rao

2001-01-01

152

Mechanisms of plant growth stimulation by humic substances: The role of organo-iron complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulatory effects of humic substances (HS) on plant growth have been observed and widely documented. Studies have often shown positive effects on seed germination, root initiation and total plant biomass. The consistency of these observations has been uncertain, predominantly due to the lack of understanding of the plant growth promotion mechanism. Often these effects have been attributed to a direct

Y. Chen; C. E. Clapp; H. Magen

2004-01-01

153

Light and nitrate effects on seed germination of Mediterranean plant species of several functional groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-fire conditions are characterized by enhanced light and the availability of nitrogenous compounds in the soil. It is\\u000a not known, however, to what extent light or nitrogenous compounds control the germination response of species growing in burned\\u000a areas and, in particular, whether functional groups of plants differ in their response. The germination response to light\\u000a and nitrate was tested for

B. Luna; J. M. Moreno

2009-01-01

154

Plant responses to aqueous effluents derived from in situ fossil fuel processing. I. Development of screening methods. [Effects of oil shale waste water on plant growth and seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible mechanisms for bioeenvironmental contact of aqueous effluents derived from in situ oil shale processing include accidental, episodic exposure resulting from failure of a containment, leakage during transfer or treatment processes, or contamination and subsurface migration of ground waters to a surface outlet. The magnitude of plant responses and phytotoxic effects resulting from such exposure has not been but needs

Q. D. Skinner; T. S. Moore; R. O. Asplund; T. C. Sexton; D. S. Farrier

1979-01-01

155

Water Potential and Ionic Effects on Germination and Seedling Growth of Two Cold Desert Shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested expectations that two desert shrubs would differ in germination and seedling relative growth rate (RGR) responses to Na and Cs stress. The study species, Chrysothamnus nauseosusssp. consimilis and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (hereafter referred to by genus), differ in their distribution along salinity gradients, with Chrysothamnusinhabiting only less saline areas. In growth chamber studies, declining Cs (20.82 to 22.71 MPa)

Geraldine L. Dodd; Lisa A. Donovan

1999-01-01

156

Calcium - a central regulator of pollen germination and tube growth.  

PubMed

Pollen tubes grow rapidly by very fast rates and reach extended lengths to bring about fertilization during plant reproduction. The pollen tube grows exclusively at its tip. Fundamental for such local, tip-focused growth are the presence of internal gradients and transmembrane fluxes of ions. Consequently, vegetative pollen tube cells are an excellent single cell model system to investigate cell biological processes of vesicle transport, cytoskeleton reorganization and regulation of ion transport. The second messenger Ca(2+) has emerged as a central and crucial modulator that not only regulates but also integrates the coordination each of these processes. In this review we reflect on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of Ca(2+) function in pollen tube growth, focusing on its role in basic cellular processes such as control of cell growth, vesicular transport and intracellular signaling by localized gradients of second messengers. In particular we discuss new insights into the identity and role of Ca(2+) conductive ion channels and present experimental addressable hypotheses about their regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled:12th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:23072967

Steinhorst, Leonie; Kudla, Jörg

2012-10-13

157

Germination behaviour of seeds from herbicide treated plants of Chenopodium album L.  

PubMed

The carry-over effect of sub-lethal herbicides was investigated on the germination of seeds collected from surviving Chenopodium album plants, which had received 1/8, 1/8 twice, 1/8 three times, 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 doses of either pre-emergence ioxynil or post-emergence bentazone in a previous onion (Allium cepa) crop. Seeds were also collected from surviving C. album plants, which had received 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 of either pre-emergence pendimethalin, propachlor and linuron, or 1/8, 1/8 twice, 1/8 three times, 1/4, 1/2, 1/1 of post-emergence ioxynil or linuron in a previous leek (Allium porrum) crop. Seeds of surviving plants were collected and tested for germination at temperature of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C. The effect of different temperatures on the total number of germinated seeds was significant. Germination was minimum at low temperatures (5 degrees C or 10 degrees C). Herbicides did not show any effect on germination of C. album and resulted in the same final germination percentage as seeds collected from the unsprayed control plots. PMID:19893909

Tanveer, Asif; Nadeem, Muhammad A; Ali, Asghar; Tahir, Muhammad; Zamir, Muhammad S I

2009-12-01

158

[Effects of Larix gmelini aqueous extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of Juglans mandshurica].  

PubMed

In this study, Juglans mandshurica seeds were drenched in different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 g x kg(-1)) aqueous extracts from adult Larix gmelini root, bark, branch and leaf for one week, and cultured in greenhouse in mid-April, 2004. The germination rate and germination index were calculated 18 days later, and the seedling's height and collar diameter were measured on August 1st. The results suggested that 25 g x kg(-1) root and 12.5 g x kg(-1) bark and branch aqueous extracts of L. gmelini could significantly increase the seed germination rate and germination index of J. mandshurica (P < 0.05), and 12.5 g x kg(-1) root and bark aqueous extracts could significantly increase the seedling height and collar diameter (P < 0.05). High concentrations of L. gmelini leaf aqueous extract could significantly promote the seed germination and seedling growth of J. mandshurica, but the promotion effect decreased gradually with decreasing concentration of leaf aqueous extract. The promotion of L. gmelini aqueous extracts to J. mandshurica seed germination and seedling growth might be related to the allelopathy between these two tree species. PMID:16964959

Yang, Lixue

2006-06-01

159

Rotary Plant Growth Accelerating Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus for increasing plant yields by effectively removing the growing plants from the constraints of gravity and increasing the plant yield per unit of space is described. The apparatus is comprised of cylindrical plan...

R. D. Dedolph

1975-01-01

160

Effects of aqueous extracts of Paeonia decomposita seeds on germination and some metabolic activities associated with growth of wheat seedlings.  

PubMed

Paeonia decomposita is a perennial deciduous shrub with great ornamental and medicinal values. Unfortunately, the distribution region, population size and individual numbers of P. decomposita rapidly decrease in the wild. It is a particularly rare, highly endangered, protective plant endemic to Southwest China. To understand the causes of seed dormancy of P. decomposita, the effects of aqueous extracts of the seed coat, endosperm of P. decomposita on germination, seedling growth and amylases activities of wheat seeds were examined in this paper. The results showed that the seed, especially the endosperm tissue of P. decomposita contained substances that strongly suppressed seed germination. The crude extract of endosperm of P. decomposita, which significantly reduced the activities of ? and ?-amylase, showed a more significant inhibition than that of seed coat at the same dose. It was concluded that the presence of inhibitory substances in seed, especially in endosperm tissue, seem to be responsible for P. decomposita seed dormancy. PMID:22963917

Song, Hui-Xing; Liu, Guang-Li; Chen, Qi-Bing

2012-09-01

161

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS, COW DUNG AND COW URINE ON CONIDIAL GERMINATION OF BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of conidial germination of Bipolaris sorokiniana was tested using eight ethanolic plant extracts, ten aqueous plant extracts in combination with cow dung and five aqueous plant extracts in combination with cow urine. Hundred percent of conidial germination was inhibited with the application of ethanolic extracts of Adhatoda vasica (leaf) and Zingiber officinale (rhizome) at 2.5% concentration. After the treatment

Nargis Akhter; Ferdousi Begum; Shahidul Alam

2006-01-01

162

Overexpression of Arabidopsis Plasmodesmata Germin-Like Proteins Disrupts Root Growth and Development[C][W  

PubMed Central

In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems.

Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Kang, Byung-Ho; Zeng, Fanchang; Lucas, William J.

2012-01-01

163

Overexpression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmata germin-like proteins disrupts root growth and development.  

PubMed

In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems. PMID:22960910

Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Kang, Byung-Ho; Zeng, Fanchang; Lucas, William J

2012-09-07

164

Plant hormone interactions during seed dormancy release and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses mainly on eudicot seeds, and on the interactions between abscisic acid (ABA), gibber- ellins (GA), ethylene, brassinosteroids (BR), auxin and cytokinins in regulating the interconnected molecular processes that control dormancy release and germi- nation. Signal transduction pathways, mediated by environmental and hormonal signals, regulate gene expression in seeds. Seed dormancy release and germination of species with coat

Birgit Kucera; Marc Alan Cohn; Gerhard Leubner-Metzger

2005-01-01

165

Seed Germination and Reproductive Features of Lysimachia minoricensis (Primulaceae), a Wild-extinct Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysimachia minoricensis is one of the few Mediterranean endemic plants (Minorca, Balearic islands) that has gone extinct in the wild but which persists as extant germplasm or cultivated plants in several botanical gardens. Reproductive features (seed set, number of seeds per capsule, seed weight) and germination responses to constant temperatures, sea water and dry-heat pre-treatments were investigated to determine the

JOSEP A. R OSSELLO; MA R IA

2002-01-01

166

Nod factors stimulate seed germination and promote growth and nodulation of pea and vetch under competitive conditions.  

PubMed

Nod factors are lipochitooligosaccharide (LCO) produced by soil bacteria commonly known as rhizobia acting as signals for the legume plants to initiate symbiosis. Nod factors trigger early symbiotic responses in plant roots and initiate the development of specialized plant organs called nodules, where biological nitrogen fixation takes place. Here, the effect of specific LCO originating from flavonoid induced Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GR09 culture was studied on germination, plant growth and nodulation of pea and vetch. A crude preparation of GR09 LCO significantly enhanced symbiotic performance of pea and vetch grown under laboratory conditions and in the soil. Moreover, the effect of GR09 LCOs seed treatments on the genetic diversity of rhizobia recovered from vetch and pea nodules was presented. PMID:21723717

Kidaj, Dominika; Wielbo, Jerzy; Skorupska, Anna

2011-07-01

167

Seed size and germination response: a relationship for fire-following plant species exposed to thermal shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal shock is well known to be an important stimulus for the germination of soil-stored seeds in fire-prone plant communities. Nevertheless, while the overall germination response of different species is known to vary, the interaction between seed size and germination to a range of thermal-shock temperatures is poorly understood. This interaction may be important in regulating post-fire plant community establishment,

M. E. Hanley; J. E. Unna; B. Darvill

2003-01-01

168

Gibberellic acid and kinetin partially reverse the effect of water stress on germination and seedling growth in chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percent germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. PBG-1) decreased with increasing concentrations of exogenous polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). With 15% PEG in the growth medium germination was only 33% while with 10% PEG it was 58% as compared to 93% in control. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin to medium containing 10% PEG increased

Satvir Kaur; Anil K. Gupta; Narinder Kaur

1998-01-01

169

Flavonols Stimulate Development, Germination, and Tube Growth of Tobacco Pollen 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of anther-derived substances on pollen function was studied using pollen produced by in vitro culture of immature pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and petunia (Petunia hybrida). Addition of conditioned medium consisting of diffusates from in situ matured pollen strongly increased pollen germination frequency and pollen tube growth, as well as seed set after in situ pollination. Thin-layer chromatography and depletion of phenolic substances by Dowex treatment indicated that flavonols are present in the diffusate and may be the active compounds. When added to the germination medium, flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin) but not other flavonoids strongly promoted pollen germination frequency and pollen tube growth in vitro. The best results were obtained at very low concentrations of the flavonols (0.15-1.5 ?m), indicating a signaling function. The same compounds were also effective when added during pollen development in vitro. Images Figure 1 Figure 5

Ylstra, Bauke; Touraev, Alisher; Moreno, Rosa Maria Benito; Stoger, Eva; van Tunen, Arjen J.; Vicente, Oscar; Mol, Joseph N. M.; Heberle-Bors, Erwin

1992-01-01

170

Plant growth and development  

SciTech Connect

The growth and development responses of most terrestrial plants to more CO/sub 2/ cannot be determined from information available now. The patterns and levels of stresses in the natural biosphere simply have not been duplicated in the laboratory. Only a few species and cultivars have been tested and there is great genetic diversity in the primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of CO/sub 2/ on plants. For example, there are almost no data, anywhere, that can be used to assess what more CO/sub 2/ will do to whole mature trees (Kramer 1981). Somewhat more is known of agricultural and horticultural crops, but not in stressed environments. Quantitative information on integrative and cumulative effects can only be gained by experiment when whole plants are grown from seed to maturity, and by mathematical simulation of whole plant growth. Both approaches are needed, the former to gain real information on major genotypes, the latter to provide the ability to extrapolate to the nearly infinite number of combinations of genotypes, soils, climate zones, weather patterns, etc. Essential research needs in this field are defined, and most necessary research is identified. 73 references, 4 figures.

Baker, D.N.; Enoch, H.Z.

1983-01-01

171

[Membrane potential changes during pollen germination and tube growth].  

PubMed

We applied quantitative fluorescent microscopy to study membrane potential alterations during pollen germination and in growing pollen tube. Two voltage-sensitive dyes were applied: DiBAC4(3) was used to detect average membrane potential values in pollen grains and isolated protoplasts; Di-4-ANEPPS gave an option of membrane potential mapping on pollen protoplast and pollen tube surfaces. We have found out that tobacco pollen grain activation is accompanied by hyperpolarization of the vegetative cell plasma membrane by about 8 mV. Lily pollen protoplasts were significantly hyperpolarized (-108 mV) with respect to the pollen grains (-23 mV) from which they were isolated. We found polar distribution of the membrane potential along the protoplast surface, and longitudinal potential gradient along the pollen tube. In the presence of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (1 mM) or its activator fusicoccin (1 microM), the longitudinal voltage gradient altered but did not disappear. Anion channel blocker, NPPB (40 microM), fully discarded the gradient in pollen tubes. Obtained results give evidence of the plasma membrane hyperpolarization during pollen germination and uneven potential distribution on pollen grain and tube surfaces. Inhibitory analysis showed involvement of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and anion channels in membrane potential regulation. PMID:19950860

Bre?gina, M A; Smirnova, A V; Matveeva, N P; Ermakov, I P

2009-01-01

172

Anaerobiosis and ethanol effects on germination, growth, and protein synthesis of five Echinochloa species  

SciTech Connect

Five Echinochloa species, encompassing a spectrum from flood tolerant to flood intolerant, were studied to determine the mechanisms of anaerobic germination and growth. Seeds were germinated in air or N{sub 2}, plus 0, 1 or 3% ethanol, and germination rates and growth measurements recorded for 7 days. In air or N{sub 2} increasing ethanol levels did not affect total germination per se, although the rate of germination was delayed in N{sub 2}. Shoot/root lengths in air were highest for tolerant species and increased with increasing ethanol, whereas, in intolerant species, shoot/root lengths decreased with increasing ethanol. Aerobic vs. anaerobic polypeptide profiles of each of the species were compared by SDS/PAGE. For all species, the number of polypeptides decreased under anaerobiosis and several quantitative differences were apparent relative to the aerobic profile. In addition, amino acid incorporation into protein was analyzed by ({sup 35}S)-Met labeling of 3 day old seedlings grown in air or N{sub 2}. Significant protein synthesis was measured in tolerant seedlings under N{sub 2} and several polypeptides were specifically induced. These results are being compared with labeling patterns of the other semi-tolerant and intolerant Echinochloa species to determine their importance in flooding tolerance.

Dybiec, L.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA)); Rumpho, M.E.; Kennedy, R.A. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1989-04-01

173

Method of regulating plant growth  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for producing a growth regulating effect in a plant which comprises applying to the plant an effective amount, with respect to the plant being treated, of cinchoninic acid or a derivative thereof.

Starke; George Robert (Perkasie, PA); Cooke; Anson Richard (Hatfield, PA)

1977-02-22

174

Plant growth in expanded perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and physical properties of expanded perlite as a growth medium are described.The growth of cress in perlite receiving additions of inorganic fertilisers is described and assessed. Only slightly less growth was made in perlite fortified with plant nutrients than in a good potting soil.The medium is simple to handle and is suitable for the growth of plants in

T. M. Morrison; D. C. McDonald; Jean A. Sutton

1960-01-01

175

EFFECTS OF WETTING/DRYING CYCLES AND ALLELOCHEMICALS ON GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF ITALIAN RYEGRASS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant residues on the soil surface may produce allelochemicals that hinder germination and/or seedling development. Wetting and drying caused by intermittent rainfall may increase the susceptibility of seedlings to the effects of allelochemicals. The effects of wetting and drying cycles and exposu...

176

Analysis of directional root growth patterns from corn and soybean seeds germinated in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JOSE (JASON Outreach Seed Experiment) payload was the first plant experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). It consisted of having an on-orbit watering of eight transparent seed pouches each of which contained 6 individual seeds of either soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) or corn ( Zea mays ). The seeds were glued to a germination paper substrate

H. Levine; G. Tynes; K. Norwood

2002-01-01

177

Change in protein content during seed germination of a high altitude plant Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.  

PubMed

Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (=Sinopodophyllum hexandrum) is a high-altitude medicinal plant exploited for its etoposides which are potential anticancer compounds. An effective, conventional propagation method is by seed. However, seed germination is erratic, and seedling survival is low. A marginal increase in Podophyllum seed germination was attained with organic solvents. In the present study an attempt was made to decipher the physiological and biochemical barriers in terms of change in proteins during seed germination of Podophyllum. Comparative 2-DE analysis between un-germinated (dormant) and germinating seeds revealed nearly 113 differentially expressed proteins, whereas Peptide Mass Fingerprint (PMF) analysis of 97 protein spots revealed appearance of 27 proteins, up-accumulation of 11 proteins, down-accumulation of 19 proteins and disappearance of 40 proteins with germination. Identified 59 proteins in the homology search were involved in metabolism (carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism; 20 proteins), ABA/GA signaling (17 proteins) and stress (15 proteins) related proteins. Seven proteins were with unknown function. Two-DE, and MS/MS analysis in conjunction with semi-quantitative RT-PCR data of cell wall hydrolyzing genes, revealed that in Podophyllum the radicle protrusion occurs might be because of the up-accumulation of cell wall hydrolases i.e. ?-1, 3-glucanase and XET which weakens the thick walled micropylar endosperm. PMID:23153791

Dogra, Vivek; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

2012-11-12

178

PHYTOTOXICITY OF MIMOSINE AND ALBIZZIINE ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mimosine and albizziine are two toxic, non-protein amino acids found in several legume species. Both compounds have been shown to inhibit seed germination and seedling growth, but no comparative study of the two compounds has been conducted. In the present study the 10-3 M concentration of both com...

179

Effects of Orocol TL (a corrosion inhibitor) on germination and growth of bush beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a continuing series of studies conducted to determine the environmental effects of hexavalent chromium from cooling tower drift on biological systems, the potential for germination and growth effects in bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Bush Blue Lake) from hexavelent chromium in Orocol TL (a proprietary chromated, zinc-phosphate compound added to DOE cooling water systems for corrosion

Parr

1982-01-01

180

Temperature requirements for germination, germ tube growth and appressorium formation of urediospores of Hemileia vastatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements for germination, germ tube growth and appressorium formation of urediospores ofHemileia vastatrix, the causal organism of coffee leaf rust, were investigated by applying treatments with constant temperatures, ranging from 10 to 31°C, and with variable temperatures. Observations were made after 4, 6, 8 and 24 h of incubation of the spores in distilled water on glass slides. The lower

E. J. De Jong; A. B. Eskes; J. G. J. Hoogstraten; J. C. Zadoks

1987-01-01

181

Short Communication: Effects of X-Rays on Growth and Germinal Tissue of Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to measure the growth and germinal tissue responses of young bull calf whose testi- cles were exposed to different levels of high energy, pulsed beams (X rays). Treatments (absorbed doses) were 0, 1530, 1980, 3060, or 6300 rads. Body weights were measured monthly for 10 mo; testosterone concen- trations were measured in mo 2 and

R. L. Belyea; R. D. Curry; G. A. Mesyats; A. L. Filatov; T. E. Clevenger; M. A. Miller; R. S. Youngquist

2001-01-01

182

Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals have been widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, creating ion influx/efflux for ionic balance and synthesizing small peptides. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. Metals come from the natural weathering processes of the earth's crust, industrial discharge, pest or disease control agents applied to plants, urban run-off, mining, soil erosion, sewage effluents, air pollution fallout and other sources. Plants can be affected directly by air pollutants, as well as indirectly through the contamination of soil and water. At the same time, plant is a member of the food chain and may create a risk for man and animals through contamination of food supplies. In recent years a considerable progress has been made in the assay of trace elements in environmental plant samples. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew on sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues from phosphate fertilizers. No reports were accessible to us on the direct effect of tested metals (Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Cd) on seed germination and root growth. The paucity of literature initiated our present work. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the acute toxicity of five metals (Cr[sup 6+], Cd[sup 2+], Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], As[sup 5+]) which are widely spread in the environment and are widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. As the testing subject, mustard seeds (Sinapis alba) were used and their germination and root growth were observed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Fargasova, A. (Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Czech Republic))

1994-03-01

183

Effect of Fungicides and Plant Extracts on the Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose  

PubMed Central

In Northern Bangladesh, generally mango trees are planted as agroforest that gives higher Net Present Value (NPV) than traditional agriculture. Mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is seen as a very destructive and widely distributed disease, which results in poor market value. Five fungicides such as Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Thiovit and Redomil were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Dithane M-45 and Redomil were the most effective when the conidia were immersed for 10~20 minutes at 500~1000 ppm concentrations. Antifungal activities of 13 plant extracts were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides was completely inhibited in Curcuma longa (leaf and rhizome), Tagetes erecta (leaf) and Zingiber officinales (rhizome) after 15 minutes of incubation respectively.

Imtiaj, Ahmed; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Alam, Shahidul; Parvin, Rehana; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda; Kim, Sang-Beom

2005-01-01

184

Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1  

SciTech Connect

We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

2011-03-01

185

Alleviation of salt stress by plant growth regulators and IAA producing bacteria in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of phytohormone producing bacteria and plant growth regulators on germination and seedling growth of wheat under\\u000a saline conditions were studied. Seed dormancy enforced by salinity (100 mM NaCl) was substantially alleviated and the germination\\u000a was promoted by gibberellin, auxin, zeatin, and ethephon from 54 to 97%. The IAA producing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aureantiaca TSAU22, Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU6 and Pseudomonas

Dilfuza Egamberdieva

2009-01-01

186

Seed germination during floatation and seedling growth of Carapa guianensis , a tree from flood-prone forests of the Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae), a hard wood tree from the Brazilian Amazon, has large recalcitrant seeds that can germinate and establish in both flood-free (terra-firme) and flood-prone (várzea) forests. These seeds, although large, can float. This study was designed to experimentally examine seed longevity under floating conditions ex-situ and its effects on subsequent germination and seedling growth. Many seeds germinated

Fábio R. Scarano; Tânia S. Pereira; Giselle Rôças

2003-01-01

187

Temperature characteristics in seed germination and growth of Zostera japonica Ascherson & Graebner from Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal water temperature in seed germination and the upper critical water temperature in seedling growth were determined\\u000a for Zostera japonica collected from Ago Bay, Japan. The relationship between the seed germination rates and seed storage period (0, 30, and 60 days)\\u000a at 0°C was also examined. The optimal water temperature in seed germination was in the range 15–20°C regardless of

Mahiko Abe; Keigo Yokota; Akira Kurashima; Miyuki Maegawa

2009-01-01

188

Influence of temperature and watering frequencies on seed germination and seedling growth of Ornithogalum longibracteatum and Tulbaghia violacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature and watering frequencies on seedling growth were investigated in Ornithogalum longibracteatum and Tulbaghia violacea. Temperature had a significant influence on seed germination with low (10°C) and high (40°C) temperatures resulting in poor germination in both species. The optimum temperature for seed germination of O. longibracteatum and T. violacea was 22.9 and 26.8°C, respectively. Seedling survival rate

M. G. Kulkarni; S. G. Sparg; J. van Staden

2005-01-01

189

INCIPIENT GERMINATION IN HEAVY SUSPENSIONS OF SPORES OF BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS AT SUBMINIMAL GROWTH TEMPERATURES  

PubMed Central

Curran, Harold R. (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.), and Michael J. Pallansch. Incipient germination in heavy suspensions of spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus at subminimal growth temperatures. J. Bacteriol. 86:911–918. 1963.—By use of spore (plate) counts and permeability to stain, labilization was followed periodically in heavy suspensions of washed Bacillus stearothermophilus 1518 spores incubated at different temperatures. Although vegetative proliferation did not occur below 38 C, incipient germination was rapid down to 20 C and much slower and incomplete at 14 C. Dilution of the suspension materially reduced the degree and rate of labilization. The degree of washing and use of deionized water had no appreciable influence upon early development of the spores. The results are discussed from the point of view of the possible origin and nature of the germination stimulant. Images

Curran, Harold R.; Pallansch, Michael J.

1963-01-01

190

Strigolactones Negatively Regulate Mesocotyl Elongation in Rice during Germination and Growth in Darkness  

PubMed Central

Strigolactones (SLs) are newly discovered plant hormones that regulate plant growth and development including shoot branching. They also stimulate symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Rice has at least three genes that are involved in SL synthesis (D10, D17/HTD1 and D27) and at least two genes that are involved in SL signaling (D3) and SL signaling or downstream metabolism (D14/D88/HTD2). We observed that mesocotyl elongation in darkness was greater in rice mutants defective in these genes than in the wild type. Exogenous application of a synthetic SL analog, GR24, rescued the phenotype of mesocotyl elongation in the SL-deficient mutants, d10-1, d17-1 and d27-1, in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect mesocotyl lengths of the SL-insensitive mutants, d3-1 and d14-1. No significant differences in cell length were found between the d mutants and the wild type, except for some cells on the lower half of the d3-1 mesocotyl that were shortened. On the other hand, the number of cells in the mesocotyls was 3- to 6-fold greater in the d mutants than in the wild type. Treatment with GR24 reduced the number of cells in the d10-1 mesocotyl to the wild-type level, but did not affect the number of cells in the d3-1 and d14-1 mesocotyls. These findings indicate that SLs negatively regulate cell division, but not cell elongation, in the mesocotyl during germination and growth of rice in darkness.

Hu, Zhongyuan; Yan, Haifang; Yang, Jinghua; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Maekawa, Masahiko; Takamure, Itsuro; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Nakazono, Mikio

2010-01-01

191

Seed germination of ornamental plants: A greenery plan contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased urbanization, coupled with harsh climatic condition presents difficulties in ornamental plant introduction and selection. Selection of plant materials is crucial in landscaping, as the plants should be well-adapted to the harsh environment. Selection of heat- and drought- tolerant plants is the efficient method for the execution of landscape projects locally especially when they are properly selected, placed and maintained.

M. K. Suleiman

2003-01-01

192

Arabidopsis fatty acid desaturase FAD2 is required for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth.  

PubMed

Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown. In this work, we provide the evidence that FAD2, an endoplasmic reticulum localized ?-6 desaturase, is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Using vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the leaves of wild-type (Col-0) and the loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, fad2, which lacks the functional FAD2, we examined the fatty acid composition and Na+-dependent H+ movements of the isolated vesicles. We observed that, when compared to Col-0, the level of vacuolar and plasma membrane polyunsaturation was lower, and the Na+/H+ exchange activity was reduced in vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles isolated from fad2 mutant. Consistent with the reduced Na+/H+ exchange activity, fad2 accumulated more Na+ in the cytoplasm of root cells, and was more sensitive to salt stress during seed germination and early seedling growth, as indicated by CoroNa-Green staining, net Na+ efflux and salt tolerance analyses. Our results suggest that FAD2 mediated high-level vacuolar and plasma membrane fatty acid desaturation is essential for the proper function of membrane attached Na+/H+ exchangers, and thereby to maintain a low cytosolic Na+ concentration for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:22279586

Zhang, Jiantao; Liu, Hua; Sun, Jian; Li, Bei; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Hongxia

2012-01-18

193

Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Desaturase FAD2 Is Required for Salt Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown. In this work, we provide the evidence that FAD2, an endoplasmic reticulum localized ?-6 desaturase, is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Using vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the leaves of wild-type (Col-0) and the loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, fad2, which lacks the functional FAD2, we examined the fatty acid composition and Na+-dependent H+ movements of the isolated vesicles. We observed that, when compared to Col-0, the level of vacuolar and plasma membrane polyunsaturation was lower, and the Na+/H+ exchange activity was reduced in vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles isolated from fad2 mutant. Consistent with the reduced Na+/H+ exchange activity, fad2 accumulated more Na+ in the cytoplasm of root cells, and was more sensitive to salt stress during seed germination and early seedling growth, as indicated by CoroNa-Green staining, net Na+ efflux and salt tolerance analyses. Our results suggest that FAD2 mediated high-level vacuolar and plasma membrane fatty acid desaturation is essential for the proper function of membrane attached Na+/H+ exchangers, and thereby to maintain a low cytosolic Na+ concentration for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis.

Sun, Jian; Li, Bei; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Hongxia

2012-01-01

194

Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and kinetin as ways to promote corn growth and yield in a short-growing-season area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The base temperature for germination of corn is approximately 10°C, which results in slow germination and emergence of corn crops sown into cool soils. The effects of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and kinetin on grain and sweet corn emergence, plant growth and yield were studied under short season conditions in 1996 and 1997. Two PGPR strains (Serratia proteamaculans 1-102 and Serratia

B. Pan; Y. M. Bai; S. Leibovitch; D. L. Smith

1999-01-01

195

Growth, Development and Reproduction -- Exploring and explaining germination, growth and development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 32-page booklet, containing complete instructions for activities at each life cycle stage. The booklet also includes important background information about plant physiology and how to grow Fast Plants.A Growth, Development and Reproduction kit is available. You can also conduct all the investigations explained in the booklet using seeds from a packet of Standard Wisconsin Fast Plants seeds (or seeds from Fast Plants you grow yourself) and your own potting mix and growing system.Either way, you'll need to plan for providing adequate light. Learn about all these factors in the How to Grow files on this website.

Program, The W.

196

Conserved Features of Germination and Polarized Cell Growth: A Few Insights from a Pollen-Fern Spore Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background The germination of both pollen and fern spores results in the emergence of a cell—pollen tube from pollen, rhizoid from spore—that grows in a polar fashion, primarily at its apical end. In both of these tip-growing cells, the delivery of secretory vesicles to the growing end is guided in part by a calcium gradient, with calcium entering at the tip where it is most highly concentrated. The similarities between the two systems extend beyond tip-focused calcium gradients to encompass signalling pathways and elements including calmodulin, nitric oxide, annexins and Rop-GTPases. Scope and Aims This review is limited to those pathways and elements that function similarly in fern and pollen systems based on currently available evidence. The aim is to illustrate the common mechanisms by which tip growth occurs, facilitate further investigations into this area, and examine the implications for the evolutionarily conserved control of tip growth. Conclusions The interplay of calcium, nitric oxide and other effectors in both pollen and fern spores suggests certain signalling pathways became important regulators of germination and growth early in the evolution of land plants. Both large- and small-scale comparative genomic methods have shown to be promising in their ability to find new and relevant comparisons for further research. Cross-species comparisons may serve to speed up this process by highlighting both basic pathways and system-specific deviations.

Bushart, Thomas J.; Roux, Stanley J.

2007-01-01

197

Effect of three insecticides and two herbicides on rice (Oryza sativa) seedling germination and growth.  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. However, it is also a valuable tool in assessing toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. For more than 20 years, it has been an approved species for standardized phytotoxicity experiments. The objective of this study is to determine germination and radicle (root) and coleoptile (shoot) growth of rice seeds exposed to three insecticides and two herbicides, commonly used in the agricultural production landscape. Although no germination effects of pesticide exposure were observed, significant growth effects were noted between pesticide treatments. Coleoptile growth was significantly (p ? 0.05) lowered in metolachlor/atrazine mixture, diazinon, and lambda-cyhalothrin exposures when compared with controls. Radicles of fipronil-exposed seeds were significantly larger (p ? 0.05) when compared with controls. This research contributes to the phytotoxicity assessment database, in addition to laying the foundation for the use of rice as a phytoremediation tool for agricultural pesticide runoff. PMID:20387062

Moore, M T; Kröger, R

2010-04-13

198

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis L.) ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic influence of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis L. on the germination (%) and seedling growth (fresh and dry weight) of wheat have been determined. It was noted that aqueous extracts at a concentration of 10, 15 and 20% had inhibitory effect on wheat germination and effect was found significantly higher than control treatment. Fresh and dry weight of

Muhammad Ayyaz Khan; Iqtidar Hussain; Ejaz Ahmad Khan

2009-01-01

199

Temperature and seed weight affect the germination of peach rootstock seeds and the growth of rootstock seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of five cultivars of peach rootstocks were assessed to determine the effect of seed quality and temperature on germination and seedling growth. The weight of each seed and its surrounding endocarp was determined. Based on weight, the seeds were divided into four quartiles, stratified, and grown at 23°C with a 16h photoperiod. The percentage of seeds germinating over an

P. J Malcolm; P Holford; W. B McGlasson; S Newman

2003-01-01

200

Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

2006-01-01

201

[Viability and germination characteristics of canopy-stored seeds of plants in sand dune area].  

PubMed

The study on the viability and germination characteristics of canopy-stored seeds remained in canopy until next May after maturation of 10 plants species in Horqin sandy land showed that more than 80% of the canopy-stored seeds of psammophytes such as Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia wudanica and A. halodendron had viability, while less than 80% or even less than 30% of non-psammophytes seeds had viability. The canopy-stored seeds of psammophytes presented a rapid germination pattern. The canopy seed bank made the seed release of psammophytes postponed until the windy season ended and the rainy season started, when the seeds had high viability and could germinate rapidly. The canopy seed bank is one of ways for psammophytes to adapt drift sand and seasonal drought. PMID:18464627

Ma, Jun-Ling; Liu, Zhi-Min

2008-02-01

202

Germination and Seedling Growth of Perennial Ryegrass in Acid Sulfate Soil Treated by Pyrite Nano-Encapsulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trial pot experiment was conducted to validate the effect of encapsulation in reduction of acid rock drainage. Six different treatments were performed: A = control, four times spraying of distilled water; B = four times of 0.01 M H2O2; C = once-encapsulated and three times spraying of distilled water; D = twice-encapsulated and twice spraying of distilled water; E = three times-encapsulated and once spraying of distilled water and F = four times-encapsulated for the acid sulfate soil with pyrite bearing andesite powder and sand. After the encapsulation treatment, the perennial ryegrass (Loium perenne) was sowed to evaluate germination rate and growth for three months. The leachate was examined for the chemical properties. The leachate from the A pot (control) is characterized as acidic (pH below 3) and high concentrations of SO4-2: 12,022 mg/L, Al: 85.8 mg/L and Mn: 34.1 mg/L which can be toxic effect to the plant growth. However, the leachate from encapsulated pots showed near neutral (pH 6 to 7) and low concentrations of SO4-2 (below 3,000 mg/L), Al (below 45mg/L) and Mn (24 gm/L). The frequency of encapsulation treatment is related to reduction of acidic drainage. It was hard to identify the significant difference of the seed germination rate of ryegrass between the treatments, although root and shoot growth showed three times difference between the control (1.90g/pot) and four times encapsulated treatment (6.33g/pot) after 2 month growth. It is suggested that encapsulation of pyrite in acid sulfate soil causes the reduction of acidic drainage resulting in the higher growth of herbaceous plants.

Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yi, J.; Kim, T.

2007-05-01

203

Nitric Oxide Participates in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Germination and Tube Growth Partly via cGMP In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) plays essential roles in many biotic and abiotic stresses in plant development procedures, including pollen tube growth. Here, effects of NO on cold stress inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in Camellia sinensis were investigated in vitro. The NO production, NO synthase (NOS)-like activity, cGMP content and proline (Pro) accumulation upon treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO, NOS inhibitor L-NNA, NO donor DEA NONOate, guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor ODQ or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor Viagra at 25°C (control) or 4°C were analyzed. Exposure to 4°C for 2 h reduced pollen germination and tube growth along with increase of NOS-like activity, NO production and cGMP content in pollen tubes. DEA NONOate treatment inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependent manner under control and reinforced the inhibition under cold stress, during which NO production and cGMP content promoted in pollen tubes. L-NNA and cPTIO markedly reduced the generation of NO induced by cold or NO donor along with partly reverse of cold- or NO donor-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Furthermore, ODQ reduced the cGMP content under cold stress and NO donor treatment in pollen tubes. Meanwhile, ODQ disrupted the reinforcement of NO donor on the inhibition of pollen germination and tube growth under cold condition. Additionally, Pro accumulation of pollen tubes was reduced by ODQ compared with that receiving NO donor under cold or control condition. Effects of cPTIO and L-NNA in improving cold-treated pollen germination and pollen tube growth could be lowered by Viagra. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of cPTIO and L-NNA on Pro accumulation were partly reversed by Viagra. These data suggest that NO production from NOS-like enzyme reaction decreased the cold-responsive pollen germination, inhibited tube growth and reduced Pro accumulation, partly via cGMP signaling pathway in C. sinensis.

Zhu-Ge, Qiang; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Wei-Dong; Fang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xing-Hui

2012-01-01

204

Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

2001-06-01

205

Effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L.  

PubMed

Present study deals the effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L. seeds. Results revealed that untreated PMDE was highly toxic in nature carrying high BOD, COD values along with high metals content. But, after bacterial treatment, these values were reduced by 64.58 and 74.20%, respectively. It was observed that 40% untreated PMDE has no inhibitory effect on seed germination but 60, 80 and 100% PMDE has inhibited 20, 40 and 60% germination, respectively while 100% germination was recorded up to 60% treated PMDE. Moreover, 40 and 60% PMDE has shown deleterious effects on seedling growth parameter and seeds treated with 80 and 100% PMDE showed no root development. However, 20% bacteria treated PMDE was found most suitable for plant growth possibly due to presence of optimum level of nutrients. Further, Phaseolus seeds treated with 60 and 80% untreated PMDE showed reduced amylase activity and no amylase activity was observed in seeds treated with 100% untreated PMDE. But, seeds treated with bacterial degraded PMDE showed amylase activity and molecular weight of alpha-amylase enzyme determined by SDS-PAGE was approximately 47.5, 46 and 44.5 kDa, respectively. PMID:20483537

Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Chandra, Ram

2010-05-18

206

Effect of autoclave sterilization of a tropical andept on seed germination and seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Steam sterilization of a Typic Dystrandept in Costa Rica resulted in a six-fold increase in extractable Mn, to levels often considered toxic. Seeds of eight species, comprised of six successional taxa and two cultivars (soybean,Glycine max and raddish,Raphanus sativus) were planted in the sterilized soil and in unsterilized soil after delays of 1, 8, 15, and 28 days. Germination

G. Williams-Linera; J. J. Ewel

1984-01-01

207

Effects of extract liquid of SLS made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice and wheat are the main candidate crops in the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) of China, for they are traditional food in Asia. Thus the recycling of their straws is an important issue in our BLSS, and it is a vital way to biologically process them into the soil like substrate (SLS) first and then reuse them in the plant cultivation system to achieve their recycle in BLSS. However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic effects. And so far, it is also not clear that what kind of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in the BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the extract liquid of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat mixed straw was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil: water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with the deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, root fresh weight, seedling fresh weight and other indicates. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll and hormone content of rice, the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated and the preventive methods of this phenomenon was explored. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on the SLS made from the above three kinds of raw materials was evaluated and the proper raw materials to be processed into SLS to grow rice were determined.

Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Wenting; Liu, Hong; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan

208

Stimulatory effect of peat on spore germination and hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of peat extract solutions on spore germination and hyphal growth of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall were investigated. Spores were incubated in extract solutions of peat from China and peat moss from Canada, which were prepared at a weight ratio of 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:50 and 1:100 for each substrate according to the weight

Nan Ma; Kazuhira Yokoyama; Takuya Marumoto

2006-01-01

209

Effect of electrostatic field on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorbus pohuashanesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of electrostatic field (ESF) treatment on seed germination and seedling growth\\u000a of Sorbus pohuashanesis. The experiments were arranged by uniform design computed by the Data Processing System (DPS), including three levels of\\u000a seeds soaking time, four levels of ESF intensity and four levels of ESF treatment time, with 12 treatments. Ten seeds

Ling Yang; Hai-long Shen

2011-01-01

210

Germination and initial growth of tree seedlings on deforested and natural forest soil at Dulhazara, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The destruction of natural forest is increasing due to urbanization, industrialization, settlement and for the agricultural expansion over last few decades, and studies for their recovery need to be undertaken. With this aim, this comparative study was designed to see the effects of deforested soil on germination and growth performance of five different tree species. In the experiment, five species namely Gmelina arborea, Swietenia mahagoni, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Acacia auriculiformis and Syzygium grande were germinated for six weeks on seedbeds and raised in pots (25cm diameter, 30cm height), that were filled with two soil and type of land use: deforested and adjacent natural forest of Dulhazara Safari Park. Growth performance of seedling was observed up to 15 months based on height, collar diameter and biomass production at the end. Our results showed that the germination rate was almost similar in both type of land uses. Height growth of D. turbinatus, G. arborea and S. mahagoni seedlings was almost similar and A. auriculi formis and S. grande lower in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil, while collar diameter ofA. auriculi formis, G. arborea, S. grande and S. mahagoni lower and D. turbinatus similar in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. After uprooting at 19 months, S. mahagoni seedlings were showed significantly (p< or =0.05) higher oven dry biomass, D. turbinatus and A. auriculiformis higher, while G. arborea showed significantly (p< or =0.05) lower and S. grande almost similar oven dry biomass in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. Oven dry biomass of D. turbinatus seedlings at 19 month age in deforested soil was 21.96g (n=5) and in natural forest soil 18.86g (n=5). However, differences in germination rate and growth performance for different tree species indicated that soil are not too much deteriorated through deforestation at Dulhazara and without any failure such deforested lands would be possible to bring under forest through plantation. PMID:23342503

Hossain, M Mohitul

2012-12-01

211

Effect of Three Insecticides and Two Herbicides on Rice ( Oryza sativa ) Seedling Germination and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. However, it is also a valuable tool in assessing toxicity of organic\\u000a and inorganic compounds. For more than 20 years, it has been an approved species for standardized phytotoxicity experiments.\\u000a The objective of this study is to determine germination and radicle (root) and coleoptile (shoot) growth of rice

M. T. MooreR; R. Kröger

2010-01-01

212

Activity of insect juvenile hormone III: seed germination and seedling growth studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Juvenile hormones are sesquiterpenoids that regulate developmental processses such as metamorphosis and reproduction in insects.\\u000a Insect juvenile hormone III (JH III), methyl-10R,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2E,6E-dodecadienoate, has also been identified in two sedge species, Cyperus iria and C. aromaticus (Toong et al. 1988). Potential allelopathic activity of this compound and the structurally related sesquiterpenoid farnesol was investigated\\u000a using seed germination and seedling growth

Jacqueline C. Bede; Stephen S. Tobe

2000-01-01

213

Germination, Growth, and Nodulation of Sesbania rostrata Grown in Pb\\/Zn Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sesbania rostrata   in pure and amended Pb\\/Zn tailings. About 90% of seeds of S. rostrata germinated in pure Pb\\/Zn tailings, which contained high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd. Although seedling growth suffered\\u000a from the adverse environment of Pb\\/Zn tailings, they became established on tailings stands, in the greenhouse, as well as\\u000a on the actual tailings dam, and completed

Z. Y. Yang; J. G. Yuan; G. R. Xin; H. T. Chang; M. H. Wong

1997-01-01

214

Arabidopsis FIMBRIN5, an actin bundling factor, is required for pollen germination and pollen tube growth.  

PubMed

Actin cables in pollen tubes serve as molecular tracks for cytoplasmic streaming and organelle movement and are formed by actin bundling factors like villins and fimbrins. However, the precise mechanisms by which actin cables are generated and maintained remain largely unknown. Fimbrins comprise a family of five members in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterized a fimbrin isoform, Arabidopsis FIMBRIN5 (FIM5). Our results show that FIM5 is required for the organization of actin cytoskeleton in pollen grains and pollen tubes, and FIM5 loss-of-function associates with a delay of pollen germination and inhibition of pollen tube growth. FIM5 decorates actin filaments throughout pollen grains and tubes. Actin filaments become redistributed in fim5 pollen grains and disorganized in fim5 pollen tubes. Specifically, actin cables protrude into the extreme tips, and their longitudinal arrangement is disrupted in the shank of fim5 pollen tubes. Consequently, the pattern and velocity of cytoplasmic streaming were altered in fim5 pollen tubes. Additionally, loss of FIM5 function rendered pollen germination and tube growth hypersensitive to the actin-depolymerizing drug latrunculin B. In vitro biochemical analyses indicated that FIM5 exhibits actin bundling activity and stabilizes actin filaments. Thus, we propose that FIM5 regulates actin dynamics and organization during pollen germination and tube growth via stabilizing actin filaments and organizing them into higher-order structures. PMID:21098731

Wu, Youjun; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Ruihui; Qu, Xiaolu; Ren, Sulin; Chen, Naizhi; Huang, Shanjin

2010-11-23

215

Lead-induced phytotoxicity mechanism involved in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

The mechanism of lead-inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth was investigated in wheat cv. Xihan 2 subjected to different Pb(NO(3))(2) concentrations. High concentrations of lead and exogenous H(2)O(2) significantly inhibited seed germination and the growth of roots and shoots. Dimethylthiourea, catalase or diphenylene iodonium could reverse lead-inhibitory effects on seed germination. Significant elevated H(2)O(2) generation was observed in germinating seeds exposed to lead. Analysis using fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate showed significantly increased H(2)O(2) level in the root tissue in response to lead treatment. Nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside could alleviate the Pb-inhibitory effects on seed germination and shoot growth, which was blocked by guanylyl cyclase inhibitor methylene blue. Therefore, NADH-dependent generation of extracellular H(2)O(2) is responsible for Pb-inhibitory effect on seed germination, the protection of exogenous NO against lead toxicity involved in seed germination and seedlings shoot growth may be associated with cGMP signaling pathway. PMID:20833428

Yang, Yingli; Wei, Xueling; Lu, Jin; You, Jia; Wang, Wenrui; Shi, Ruxia

2010-09-15

216

Ecotoxicological effects of polycyclic musks and cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat ( Triticum aestivum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single and joint toxic effects of polycyclic musks including 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (AHTN) and cadmium (Cd) on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were investigated. The results showed that the toxicity sequence of HHCB toxic to wheat seed germination and seedling growth was similar to that of AHTN, that is, germination rate > shoot elongation >

Cuihong Chen; Qixing Zhou; Yanyu Bao; Yaning Li; Ping Wang

2010-01-01

217

Tomato pollen respiration in relation to in vitro germination and pollen tube growth under favourable and stress-inducing temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato pollen germination, pollen tube growth and respiratory activity were recorded during incubation in a liquid medium\\u000a for 7 h over a temperature range of 15–35°C. Although the initial rate of respiration was highest at 30°C, both at 30°C and\\u000a 35°C respiration decreased after the first hour of incubation due to high temperature impairment of germination and pollen\\u000a tube growth. The

I. C. Karapanos; K. A. Akoumianakis; C. M. Olympios; Harold Christopher Passam

2010-01-01

218

Chemical Control of Plant Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

219

Germination of Fusarium oxysporum in root exudates from tomato plants challenged with different Fusarium oxysporum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of microconidia from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum to root exudates from tomato plants inoculated with different pathogenic and non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains was studied. Root exudates from non-inoculated tomatoes highly stimulated the microconidial germination of the two\\u000a tomato pathogens, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici strain Fol 007 and F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici strain Forl 101587. In root exudates

Siegrid Steinkellner; Roswitha Mammerler; Horst Vierheilig

2008-01-01

220

Quinones as plant growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of benzoquinone, naphthaquinone and anthraquinone on the growth of tomato callus, whole plants of tomato and on rooting of mungbean cuttings were studied. Naphthaquinone effects on some oxidases and on the isozyme patterns of peroxidases in all the three systems were also observed. Quinones increased callus growth, the number of roots initiated in mungbean cuttings and the growth

Suiata Ranade; S. B. David

1985-01-01

221

Gamma radiation effects on seed germination, growth and pigment content, and ESR study of induced free radicals in maize (Zea mays).  

PubMed

The effects of gamma radiation are investigated by studying plant germination, growth and development, and biochemical characteristics of maize. Maize dry seeds are exposed to a gamma source at doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. Our results show that the germination potential, expressed through the final germination percentage and the germination index, as well as the physiological parameters of maize seedlings (root and shoot lengths) decreased by increasing the irradiation dose. Moreover, plants derived from seeds exposed at higher doses (?0.5 kGy) did not survive more than 10 days. Biochemical differences based on photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) content revealed an inversely proportional relationship to doses of exposure. Furthermore, the concentration of chlorophyll a was higher than chlorophyll b in both irradiated and non-irradiated seedlings. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy used to evaluate the amount of free radicals induced by gamma ray treatment demonstrates that the relative concentration of radiation-induced free radicals depends linearly on the absorbed doses. PMID:23996407

Marcu, Delia; Damian, Grigore; Cosma, Constantin; Cristea, Victoria

2013-06-09

222

Inhibition of Orobanche crenata Seed Germination and Radicle Growth by Allelochemicals Identified in Cereals.  

PubMed

Orobanche crenata is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in important grain and forage legume crops. Cereals have been reported to inhibit O. crenata parasitism when grown intercropped with susceptible legumes, but the responsible metabolites have not been identified. A number of metabolites have been reported in cereals that have allelopathic properties against weeds, pests, and pathogens. We tested the effect of several allelochemicals identified in cereals on O. crenata seed germination and radicle development. We found that 2-benzoxazolinone, its derivative 6-chloroacetyl-2-benzoxazolinone, and scopoletin significantly inhibited O. crenata seed germination. Benzoxazolinones, l-tryptophan, and coumalic acid caused the stronger inhibition of radicle growth. Also, other metabolites reduced radicle length, this inhibition being dose-dependent. Only scopoletin caused cell necrotic-like darkening in the young radicles. Prospects for their application to parasitic weed management are discussed. PMID:24044614

Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego

2013-10-01

223

Comparison of germination, growth, photosynthetic responses and metal uptake between three populations of Spartina densiflora under different soil pollution conditions.  

PubMed

Spartina densiflora has demonstrated a high tolerance to heavy metal contamination and a high capacity for accumulating metal in its tissues. In the Gulf of Cadiz this species has colonized habitats with different degrees of metal pollution. The aim of this study is to analyse the responses of populations of Spartina densiflora to this pollution. Germination, growth, photosynthesis and metal uptake of two populations of Spartina densiflora collected from contaminated sites (Odiel and Tinto marshes) and of one population from a clean site (Piedras marshes) were examined through two reciprocal experiments, in which seeds and adult plants were exposed to metal-contaminated and uncontaminated soil under greenhouse conditions. The seeds of Spartina densiflora were able to germinate in all sediments with little differences between populations, even in more contaminated soils. However, these conditions decreased the growth and survival of the seedlings to a similar degree for all populations. Likewise, no differences were recorded in relation to physiological and metal uptake. Contrarily, in the adult experiment, we found that the Odiel population differed from the other populations in growth and metal uptake, with overall greater values. These differences in growth were strongly supported by lower photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance in the Piedras and Tinto populations. The reduction in photosynthetic performance was largely due to the reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentration in both populations. Despite these differences, there was insufficient evidence to support that Spartina has evolved to heavy-tolerant ecotypes, since all Spartina densiflora populations proved to have a great capacity for accumulating heavy metals in its roots. Nonetheless, this finding suggests that the Odiel population could have a greater phytoremediation potential. PMID:21762986

Mateos-Naranjo, E; Andrades-Moreno, L; Redondo-Gómez, S

2011-07-16

224

SUPPRESSOR OF MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 1 Controls Seed Germination and Seedling Development in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Abiotic chemical signals discovered in smoke that are known as karrikins (KARs) and the endogenous hormone strigolactone (SL) control plant growth through a shared MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)-dependent pathway. A SL biosynthetic pathway and candidate KAR/SL receptors have been characterized, but signaling downstream of MAX2 is poorly defined. A screen for genetic suppressors of the enhanced seed dormancy phenotype of max2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) led to identification of a suppressor of max2 1 (smax1) mutant. smax1 restores the seed germination and seedling photomorphogenesis phenotypes of max2 but does not affect the lateral root formation, axillary shoot growth, or senescence phenotypes of max2. Expression of three transcriptional markers of KAR/SL signaling, D14-LIKE2, KAR-UP F-BOX1, and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE1, is rescued in smax1 max2 seedlings. SMAX1 is a member of an eight-gene family in Arabidopsis that has weak similarity to HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 101, which encodes a caseinolytic peptidase B chaperonin required for thermotolerance. SMAX1 and the SMAX1-like (SMXL) homologs are differentially expressed in Arabidopsis tissues. SMAX1 transcripts are most abundant in dry seed, consistent with its function in seed germination control. Several SMXL genes are up-regulated in seedlings treated with the synthetic SL GR24. SMAX1 and SMXL2 transcripts are reduced in max2 seedlings, which could indicate negative feedback regulation by KAR/SL signaling. smax1 seed and seedling growth mimics the wild type treated with KAR/SL, but smax1 seedlings are still responsive to 2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one (KAR2) or GR24. We conclude that SMAX1 is an important component of KAR/SL signaling during seed germination and seedling growth but is not necessary for all MAX2-dependent responses. We hypothesize that one or more SMXL proteins may also act downstream of MAX2 to control the diverse developmental responses to KARs and SLs.

Stanga, John P.; Smith, Steven M.; Briggs, Winslow R.; Nelson, David C.

2013-01-01

225

Tolerance of anaerobic conditions caused by flooding during germination and early growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Rice is semi-aquatic, adapted to a wide range of hydrologies, from aerobic soils in uplands to anaerobic and flooded fields in waterlogged lowlands, to even deeply submerged soils in flood-prone areas. Considerable diversity is present in native rice landraces selected by farmers over centuries. Our understanding of the adaptive features of these landraces to native ecosystems has improved considerably over the recent past. In some cases, major genes associated with tolerance have been cloned, such as SUB1A that confers tolerance of complete submergence and SNORKEL genes that control plant elongation to escape deepwater. Modern rice varieties are sensitive to flooding during germination and early growth, a problem commonly encountered in rainfed areas, but few landraces capable of germination under these conditions have recently been identified, enabling research into tolerance mechanisms. Major QTLs were also identified, and are being targeted for molecular breeding and for cloning. Nevertheless, limited progress has been made in identifying regulatory processes for traits that are unique to tolerant genotypes, including faster germination and coleoptile elongation, formation of roots and leaves under hypoxia, ability to catabolize starch into simple sugars for subsequent use in glycolysis and fermentative pathways to generate energy. Here we discuss the state of knowledge on the role of the PDC-ALDH-ACS bypass and the ALDH enzyme as the likely candidates effective in tolerant rice genotypes. Potential involvement of factors such as cytoplasmic pH regulation, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species scavenging and other metabolites is also discussed. Further characterization of contrasting genotypes would help in elucidating the genetic and biochemical regulatory and signaling mechanisms associated with tolerance. This could facilitate breeding rice varieties suitable for direct seeding systems and guide efforts for improving waterlogging tolerance in other crops.

Miro, Berta; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.

2013-01-01

226

Germination associated with season and sunlight for Tamaulipan thornscrub plants in north-eastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed germination was investigated for 47 herbaceous and woody species, representative of the Tamaulipan thornscrub flora of north-eastern Mexico. More than half of the species had similar germination under spring and autumn conditions, 17 species showed a higher germination percentage under autumn rain conditions. No species had more seeds germinating under spring rain conditions. Germination season response was independent of

Enrique Jurado; José Navar; Horacio Villalón; Marisela Pando

2001-01-01

227

Salinity Eff ects on Seed Germination and Vegetative Growth of Greens-Type Poa annua Relative to Other Cool-Season Turfgrass Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed germination and vegetative growth stud- ies were conducted to determine relative salinity tolerance of greens-type Poa annua L. com- pared with other cool-season turfgrass spe- cies. Effects of increasing salinity stress on fi nal germination percentage (FGP), germination rate (GR), clipping yield dry weight (CYD), verdure dry weight (VD), root dry weight (RD), and the longest root length (LRL)

Jing Dai; David R. Huff; Maxim J. Schlossberg

2009-01-01

228

Control of wild oat (Avena fatua) using some phenolic compounds I - Germination and some growth parameters.  

PubMed

The percentage of germination of wild oat was significantly inhibited by increasing the concentrations of phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid was the most effective compound which completely inhibited germination at a concentration of 3.0 mM. At the same time, wheat and barley were slightly affected with different concentrations of the four phenolic compounds. The percentage of germination of wheat significantly decreased with increasing of ferulic acid reaching a maximum inhibition at 3.0 mM concentration. On the other hand, the germination of wheat was not affected with the other three phenolic compounds. The percentage of germination of barley was not affected with all phenolic compounds except for hydroxy phenolic acetic acid which has significant effect at a concentration of 3.0 mM. Salicylic acid significantly inhibited the growth parameters gradually in wild oat, wheat and barley. The shoot/root ratio was decreased in wild oat and barley, while the ratio increased in wheat. The growth parameters were completely inhibited at 3.0 mM of ferulic acid for both wild oat and wheat but slightly inhibited for barley. The shoot/root ratio was increased in all concentrations of ferulic acid except at 3.0 mM which was completely inhibited for both wild oat and wheat, while the ratio was increased in all treatments of ferulic acid in the case of barley. The growth parameters were highly significant and decreased in wild oat, wheat and barley with increasing the concentrations of hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxyphenyl acetic acid. The shoot/root ratio was not changed in all concentrations except at 3.0 mM in the case of wild oat, the ratio was decreased at 2.0 and 3.0 mM in the case of wheat, while the ratio increased in most of hydroxybenzoic acid concentrations in the case of barley. The shoot/root ratio was increased with increasing of the hydroxyphenyl acetic acid concentrations. PMID:23961157

Almaghrabi, Omar A

2011-09-21

229

Cold radiofrequency plasma treatment modifies wettability and germination speed of plant seeds.  

PubMed

We report the possibility to modify the wetting properties of the surfaces of a diversity of seeds including: lentils (Lens culinaris), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum, species C9) by cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment. Air plasma treatment leads to the dramatic decrease in the apparent contact angle. Moreover, the speed of germination and yield (germination rate) of seeds can be modified by preliminary plasma treatment. The change in the wetting properties of seeds is at least partially due to oxidation of their surface under plasma treatment. Significant growth of the peaks corresponding to the nitrogen containing groups in the mass spectra of air plasma treated seeds was registered by TOF-SIMS spectroscopy. PMID:23077725

Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

2012-10-17

230

Cold Radiofrequency Plasma Treatment Modifies Wettability and Germination Speed of Plant Seeds  

PubMed Central

We report the possibility to modify the wetting properties of the surfaces of a diversity of seeds including: lentils (Lens culinaris), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum, species C9) by cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment. Air plasma treatment leads to the dramatic decrease in the apparent contact angle. Moreover, the speed of germination and yield (germination rate) of seeds can be modified by preliminary plasma treatment. The change in the wetting properties of seeds is at least partially due to oxidation of their surface under plasma treatment. Significant growth of the peaks corresponding to the nitrogen containing groups in the mass spectra of air plasma treated seeds was registered by TOF-SIMS spectroscopy.

Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

2012-01-01

231

Cold Radiofrequency Plasma Treatment Modifies Wettability and Germination Speed of Plant Seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the possibility to modify the wetting properties of the surfaces of a diversity of seeds including: lentils (Lens culinaris), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum, species C9) by cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment. Air plasma treatment leads to the dramatic decrease in the apparent contact angle. Moreover, the speed of germination and yield (germination rate) of seeds can be modified by preliminary plasma treatment. The change in the wetting properties of seeds is at least partially due to oxidation of their surface under plasma treatment. Significant growth of the peaks corresponding to the nitrogen containing groups in the mass spectra of air plasma treated seeds was registered by TOF-SIMS spectroscopy.

Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

2012-10-01

232

Cadmium stress affects seed germination and seedling growth in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench by changing the activities of hydrolyzing enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed germination, one of the most important phases in the life cycle of a plant, is highly responsive to existing environment.\\u000a Hydrolyzing enzymes play a major role in the mobilization of food reserves by hydrolyzing carbohydrates, proteins and fats.\\u000a This paper reports on the effect of Cd toxicity on seed germination and the activities of hydrolyzing enzymes, like acid phosphatases

Saritha V. Kuriakose; M. N. V. Prasad

2008-01-01

233

Flooding and Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Issue is based on the 7th Conference of the International Society for Plant Anaerobiosis (ISPA), held in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 12-16 June 2001. The papers describe and analyse many of the responses that plants display when subjected to waterlogging of the soil or deeper submergence. These responses may be injurious or adaptive, and are discussed at various levels

J. R. Goodin; T. T. Kozlowski

1986-01-01

234

The Strigolactone Germination Stimulants of the Plant-Parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. Are Derived from the Carotenoid Pathway1  

PubMed Central

The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation.

Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Beale, Michael H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

2005-01-01

235

Aspergillus fumigatus catalytic glucokinase and hexokinase: expression analysis and importance for germination, growth, and conidiation.  

PubMed

Fungi contain several hexokinases, which are involved either in sugar phosphorylation or in carbon source sensing. Glucose and fructose phosphorylations appear to rely exclusively on glucokinase and hexokinase. Here, we characterized the catalytic glucokinase and hexokinase from the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and showed that both enzymes display different biochemical properties and play different roles during growth and development. Glucokinase efficiently activates glucose and mannose but activates fructose only to a minor extent. Hexokinase showed a high efficiency for fructose activation but also activated glucose and mannose. Transcript and activity determinations revealed high levels of glucokinase in resting conidia, whereas hexokinase was associated mainly with the mycelium. Consequentially, a glucokinase mutant showed delayed germination at low glucose concentrations, whereas colony growth was not overly affected. The deletion of hexokinase had only a minor impact on germination but reduced colony growth, especially on sugar-containing media. Transcript determinations from infected mouse lungs revealed the expression of both genes, indicating a contribution to virulence. Interestingly, a double-deletion mutant showed impaired growth not only on sugars but also on nonfermentable nutrients, and growth on gluconeogenic carbon sources was strongly suppressed in the presence of glucose. Furthermore, the glkA hxkA deletion affected cell wall integrity, implying that both enzymes contribute to the cell wall composition. Additionally, the absence of either enzyme deregulated carbon catabolite repression since mutants displayed an induction of isocitrate lyase activity during growth on glucose-ethanol medium. Therefore, both enzymes seem to be required for balancing carbon flux in A. fumigatus and are indispensable for growth under all nutritional conditions. PMID:20453072

Fleck, Christian B; Brock, Matthias

2010-05-07

236

Aspergillus fumigatus Catalytic Glucokinase and Hexokinase: Expression Analysis and Importance for Germination, Growth, and Conidiation?†  

PubMed Central

Fungi contain several hexokinases, which are involved either in sugar phosphorylation or in carbon source sensing. Glucose and fructose phosphorylations appear to rely exclusively on glucokinase and hexokinase. Here, we characterized the catalytic glucokinase and hexokinase from the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and showed that both enzymes display different biochemical properties and play different roles during growth and development. Glucokinase efficiently activates glucose and mannose but activates fructose only to a minor extent. Hexokinase showed a high efficiency for fructose activation but also activated glucose and mannose. Transcript and activity determinations revealed high levels of glucokinase in resting conidia, whereas hexokinase was associated mainly with the mycelium. Consequentially, a glucokinase mutant showed delayed germination at low glucose concentrations, whereas colony growth was not overly affected. The deletion of hexokinase had only a minor impact on germination but reduced colony growth, especially on sugar-containing media. Transcript determinations from infected mouse lungs revealed the expression of both genes, indicating a contribution to virulence. Interestingly, a double-deletion mutant showed impaired growth not only on sugars but also on nonfermentable nutrients, and growth on gluconeogenic carbon sources was strongly suppressed in the presence of glucose. Furthermore, the glkA hxkA deletion affected cell wall integrity, implying that both enzymes contribute to the cell wall composition. Additionally, the absence of either enzyme deregulated carbon catabolite repression since mutants displayed an induction of isocitrate lyase activity during growth on glucose-ethanol medium. Therefore, both enzymes seem to be required for balancing carbon flux in A. fumigatus and are indispensable for growth under all nutritional conditions.

Fleck, Christian B.; Brock, Matthias

2010-01-01

237

Bean Plants: A Growth Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching plant growth to seventh-grade life science students has been interesting for the author because she grew up in a rural area and always had to help in the garden. She made many assumptions about what her rural and suburban students knew. One year she decided to have them grow plants to observe the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit…

West, Donna

2004-01-01

238

Phytochrome, Plant Growth and Flowering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fi...

R. W. King D. J. Bagnall

1994-01-01

239

Bean Plants: A Growth Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching plant growth to seventh-grade life science students has been interesting for the author because she grew up in a rural area and always had to help in the garden. She made many assumptions about what her rural and suburban students knew. One year she decided to have them grow plants to observe the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit…

West, Donna

2004-01-01

240

A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)

Oxlade, E.

1985-01-01

241

A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)|

Oxlade, E.

1985-01-01

242

Phospholipids as Plant Growth Regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the potential to use phospholipids and lysophospholipids as plant growth regulators is discussed. Recent evidence shows that phospholipids and phospholipases play an\\u000a important signalling role in the normal course of plant development and in the response of plants to abiotic and biotic stress.\\u000a It is apparent that phospholipase A (PLA), C (PLC) and D (PLD), lysophospholipids, and

A. Keith Cowan

2006-01-01

243

Allelopathic and bioherbicidal potential of Cladonia verticillaris on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.  

PubMed

Responses to germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) submitted to organic extracts and purified compounds of Cladonia verticillaris ("salambaia") were analyzed in this work. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions using extracts and pure compounds at different concentrations. None of the assays showed any influence on the germination of L. sativa seeds using C. verticillaris extracts; however, modifications in leaf area and seedling hypocotyl and root development occurred. In the growth experiments, seedlings exposed to ether or acetone extract showed diminished hypocotyl growth in detriment to the root stimulus, compared to controls. Increases in extract concentrations led to the formation of abnormal seedlings. To determine the allelochemicals of C. verticillaris, its principal components, fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids, were isolated and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When the seedlings were exposed to the two acids separately, presented increased leaf area at all concentrations. In contrast, hypocotyl and root stimulus was observed only in the presence of protocetraric acid at different concentrations. Fumarprotocetraric as well as protocetraric acids, isolated and purified from C. verticillaris and Parmotrema dilatatum respectively, influenced the development of L. sativa seedlings at high concentrations, indicating a possible bioherbicide potential of these acids. PMID:22835725

Tigre, R C; Silva, N H; Santos, M G; Honda, N K; Falcăo, E P S; Pereira, E C

2012-07-25

244

?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) homeostasis regulates pollen germination and polarized growth in Picea wilsonii.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid found in a wide range of organisms. Recently, GABA accumulation has been shown to play a role in the stress response and cell growth in angiosperms. However, the effect of GABA deficiency on pollen tube development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that specific concentrations of exogenous GABA stimulated pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii, while an overdose suppressed pollen tube elongation. The germination percentage of pollen grains and morphological variations in pollen tubes responded in a dose-dependent manner to treatment with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP), a glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor, while the inhibitory effects could be recovered in calcium-containing medium supplemented with GABA. Using immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the actin cables were disorganized in 3-MP treated cells, followed by the transition of endo/exocytosis activating sites from the apex to the whole tube shank. In addition, variations in the deposition of cell wall components were detected upon labeling with JIM5, JIM7, and aniline blue. Our results demonstrated that calcium-dependent GABA signaling regulates pollen germination and polarized tube growth in P. wilsonii by affecting actin filament patterns, vesicle trafficking, and the configuration and distribution of cell wall components. PMID:23900837

Ling, Yu; Chen, Tong; Jing, Yanping; Fan, Lusheng; Wan, Yinglang; Lin, Jinxing

2013-07-31

245

Spore germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination of dormant spores of Bacillus species is the first crucial step in the return of spores to vegetative growth, and is induced by nutrients and a variety of non-nutrient agents. Nutrient germinants bind to receptors in the spore’s inner membrane and this interaction triggers the release of the spore core’s huge depot of dipicolinic acid and cations, and

Peter Setlow

2003-01-01

246

Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction[C][W  

PubMed Central

Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M.; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

2012-01-01

247

Whole-Plant Growth Stage Ontology for Angiosperms and Its Application in Plant Biology1[OA  

PubMed Central

Plant growth stages are identified as distinct morphological landmarks in a continuous developmental process. The terms describing these developmental stages record the morphological appearance of the plant at a specific point in its life cycle. The widely differing morphology of plant species consequently gave rise to heterogeneous vocabularies describing growth and development. Each species or family specific community developed distinct terminologies for describing whole-plant growth stages. This semantic heterogeneity made it impossible to use growth stage description contained within plant biology databases to make meaningful computational comparisons. The Plant Ontology Consortium (http://www.plantontology.org) was founded to develop standard ontologies describing plant anatomical as well as growth and developmental stages that can be used for annotation of gene expression patterns and phenotypes of all flowering plants. In this article, we describe the development of a generic whole-plant growth stage ontology that describes the spatiotemporal stages of plant growth as a set of landmark events that progress from germination to senescence. This ontology represents a synthesis and integration of terms and concepts from a variety of species-specific vocabularies previously used for describing phenotypes and genomic information. It provides a common platform for annotating gene function and gene expression in relation to the developmental trajectory of a plant described at the organismal level. As proof of concept the Plant Ontology Consortium used the plant ontology growth stage ontology to annotate genes and phenotypes in plants with initial emphasis on those represented in The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Gramene database, and MaizeGDB.

Pujar, Anuradha; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Ilic, Katica; Vincent, Leszek; Avraham, Shulamit; Stevens, Peter; Zapata, Felipe; Reiser, Leonore; Rhee, Seung Y.; Sachs, Martin M.; Schaeffer, Mary; Stein, Lincoln; Ware, Doreen; McCouch, Susan

2006-01-01

248

OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth  

PubMed Central

Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65–/–) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth.

Zhang, Qifa

2013-01-01

249

OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth.  

PubMed

Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65-/-) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth. PMID:23918968

Huang, Jianyan; Zhao, Xiaobo; Cheng, Ke; Jiang, Yunhe; Ouyang, Yidan; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

2013-08-01

250

Nickel in plant growth and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relationship of nickel to plants in regard to absorption, translocation and accumulation and its estimation in plant material\\u000a has been presented. Nickel is usually absorbed in the ionic form, but is presumably chelated by organic carriers before translocation\\u000a takes place. Nickel content of various plants has been tabulated. Nickel stimulates, and is as well toxic to, the germination\\u000a of

D. Mishra; M. Kar

1974-01-01

251

A RING finger E3 ligase gene, Oryza sativa Delayed Seed Germination 1 (OsDSG1), controls seed germination and stress responses in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed germination is an important character for plant growth and seed quality. We identified a rice mutant that was delayed\\u000a in its germination. There, T-DNA was inserted into Oryza sativa Delayed Seed Germination 1 (OsDSG1), causing a recessive null mutation. Overexpression of the gene enhanced seed germination. OsDSG1 is most similar to Arabidopsis AIP2, an E3 ligase targeting ABI3.Yeast two-hybrid

Gi-Gyeong Park; Jong-Jin Park; Jinmi Yoon; Sun-Nam Yu; Gynheung An

2010-01-01

252

EFFECT OF NANOSCALE ZINC OXIDE PARTICLES ON THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of nanoscale zinc oxide particles on plant growth and development. In view of the widespread cultivation of peanut in India and in other parts of the globe and in view of the potential influence of zinc on its growth, this plant was chosen as the model system. Peanut seeds were separately treated

T. N. V. K. V. Prasad; P. Sudhakar; Y. Sreenivasulu; P. Latha; V. Munaswamy; K. Raja Reddy; T. S. Sreeprasad; P. R. Sajanlal; T. Pradeep

2012-01-01

253

The impact of competition and litter accumulation on germination success in a model of annual plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model of one type of annual plant dynamics is proposed and discussed. The model is based on individual agents Monte Carlo simulations. We take into account, the plant requirements for external resources (sunshine, moisture etc.), competition among plants and the influence of accumulated dead biomass on the plant germination and seed production. We show that the density of plants could have oscillatory character, with periods depending on the rate of biomass reduction. Investigations on the temporal changes in the spatial distribution of plants show some clustering and moreover persistence of patterns during the oscillations. The average number of seeds produced by a plant in a year versus density of plants has a power-law type character. The obtained results are compared with field data and findings in other theoretical models. Agreement with experimental data is found, at least on a qualitative level. We have been also able to add new arguments in the long debate about the existence or not of oscillations in plant dynamics.

Ka¸cki, Zygmunt; P?kalski, Andrzej

2011-07-01

254

Effects of aqueous eucalyptus extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in three wheat cultivar seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Evaluation of allelopathic effects of this plant on other near cultivations especially wheat is the aim of this study. Effects of water extracts of eucalyptus leaves examined on germination and growth of three wheat cultivar seeds and seedlings. Results showed that: germination percentage strongly decreased, leaf and root lengths also affected and dry and wet weights of both roots and shoots showed similar change patterns. Activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase as antioxidant enzymes in roots and shoots measured. Activity of peroxidases increased in stress conditions and roots showed more increased enzyme activity than leaves. Activity of polyphenoloxidases increased only in one of three cultivars and again roots showed more activity of this enzyme in response to eucalyptus extract. Suggest that detoxification process were conducted mainly in roots of seedlings. PMID:19090161

Ziaebrahimi, L; Khavari-Nejad, R A; Fahimi, H; Nejadsatari, T

2007-10-01

255

Increase of seed germination, growth and membrane integrity of wheat seedlings by exposure to static and a 10-KHz electromagnetic field.  

PubMed

There is a large body of experimental data demonstrating various effects of magnetic field (MF) on plants growth and development. Although the mechanism(s) of perception of MF by plants is not yet elucidated, there is a possibility that like other stimuli, MF exerts its effects on plants by changing membrane integrity and conductance of its water channels, thereby influencing growth characteristics. In this study, the seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kavir) were imbibed in water overnight and then treated with or without a 30-mT static magnetic field (SMF) and a 10-kHz electromagnetic field (EMF) for 4 days, each 5 h. Water uptake of seeds reduced 5 h of the treatment with EMF but did not show changes in SMF treatment. Exposure to both magnetic fields did not affect germination percent of the seeds but increased the speed of germination, compared to the control group. Treatment with EMF significantly reduced seedling length and subsequently vigor index I, while SMF had no effects on these parameters. Both treatments significantly increased vigor index II, compared to the control group. These treatments also remarkably increased catalase activity and proline contents of seedlings but reduced the activity of peroxidase, the rate of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakages of membranes. The results suggest promotional effects of EMFs on membrane integrity and growth characteristics of wheat seedlings. PMID:23343429

Payez, Atefeh; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Hajnorouzi, Abazar; Rajabbeigi, Elham

2013-01-23

256

Salt tolerance of two differently drought-tolerant wheat genotypes during germination and early seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Osmotic and specific ion effect are the most frequently mentioned mechanisms by which saline substrates reduce plant growth.\\u000a However, the relative importance of osmotic and specific ion effect on plant growth seems to vary depending on the drought\\u000a and\\/or salt tolerance of the plant under study. We studied the effects of several single salts of Na+ and Ca2+?NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4,

A. Mozafar; J. R. Goodin

1986-01-01

257

Effect of constant temperatures on germination, radial growth and virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae to three species of African tephritid fruit flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperatureon conidial germination, mycelial growth, andsusceptibility of adults of three tephritidfruit flies, Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) andC. cosyra (Walker) to six isolatesof Metarhizium anisopliae were studied inthe laboratory. There were significantdifferences among the isolates in the effect oftemperature on both germination and growth.Over 80% of conidia germinated at 20, 25 and30°C, while between 26 and 67%

Susan Dimbi; Nguya K. Maniania; Slawomir A. Lux; Jones M. Mueke

2004-01-01

258

Adverse effects of chromium oxide nano-particles on seed germination and growth in Triticum aestivum L.  

PubMed

In this study, seeds of Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) were exposed to 0-100 microg/mL chromium oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3, Nps) to study the phytotoxic effects on seed germination and seedling growth. It has been observed that 25-100 microg/mL Cr2O3, Nps inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth in concentration dependent manner. The present study suggests that release of Cr2O3, Nps in environment may adversely affect the wheat production. PMID:21485872

Vajpayee, Poornima; Khatoon, Imrana; Patel, Chandra Bali; Singh, Gulshan; Gupta, Kailash Chand; Shanker, Rishi

2011-02-01

259

Differential chlorate inhibition of Chaetomium globosum germination, hyphal growth, and perithecia synthesis.  

PubMed

Chaetomium globosum Kunze:Fr is a dermatophytic, dematiaceous fungus that is ubiquitous in soils, grows readily on cellulolytic materials, and is commonly found on water-damaged building materials. Chlorate affects nitrogen metabolism in fungi and is used to study compatibility among anamorphic fungi by inducing nit mutants. The effect of chlorate toxicity on C. globosum was investigated by amending a modified malt extract agar (MEA), oat agar, and carboxymethyl cellulose agar (CMC) with various levels of potassium chlorate (KClO(3)). C. globosum perithecia production was almost completely inhibited (90-100 %) at low levels of KClO(3) (0.1 mM) in amended MEA. Inhibition of perithecia production was also observed on oat agar and CMC at 1 and 10 mM, respectively. However, hyphal growth in MEA was only inhibited 20 % by 0.1-100 mM KClO(3) concentrations. Hyphal growth was never completely inhibited at the highest levels tested (200 mM). Higher levels of KClO(3) were needed on gypsum board to inhibit perithecia synthesis. In additional experiments, KClO(3) did not inhibit C. globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum expansum, and airborne fungal spore germination. The various fungal spores were not inhibited by KClO(3) at 1-100 mM levels. These results suggest that C. globosum perithecia synthesis is more sensitive to chlorate toxicity than are hyphal growth and spore germination. This research provides basic information that furthers our understanding about perithecia formation and may help in developing control methods for fungal growth on building materials. PMID:22903379

Biles, Charles L; Wright, Desiree; Fuego, Marianni; Guinn, Angela; Cluck, Terry; Young, Jennifer; Martin, Markie; Biles, Josiah; Poudyal, Shubhra

2012-08-19

260

Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress*  

PubMed Central

Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize. The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w/v) chitosan solutions at 15 °C on the growth and physiological changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan had no significant effect on germination percentage under low temperature stress, it enhanced germination index, reduced the mean germination time (MGT), and increased shoot height, root length, and shoot and root dry weights in both maize lines. The decline of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative permeability of the plasma membrane and the increase of the concentrations of soluble sugars and proline, peroxidase (POD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were detected both in the chilling-sensitive and chilling-tolerant maize seedlings after priming with the three concentrations of chitosan. HuangC was less sensitive to responding to different concentrations of chitosan. Priming with 0.50% chitosan for about 60~64 h seemed to have the best effects. Thus, it suggests that seed priming with chitosan may improve the speed of germination of maize seed and benefit for seedling growth under low temperature stress.

Guan, Ya-jing; Hu, Jin; Wang, Xian-ju; Shao, Chen-xia

2009-01-01

261

Germination inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The presence of germination-inhibiting substances in plants seems to be a wide-spread phenomenon. They occur in all parts\\u000a of plants —in fruit pulp, fruit coats, endosperm, seed coat, embryo, leaves, bulbs and roots. They are non-specific in their\\u000a effects.\\u000a \\u000a Besides inhibitors, high osmotic pressure and acid pH are often partly responsible for the germination inhibition caused by\\u000a sap, juices and

Michael Evenari

1949-01-01

262

Plant hormones and plant growth regulators in plant tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This is a short review of the classical and new, natural and synthetic plant hormones and growth regulators (phytohormones)\\u000a and highlights some of their uses in plant tissue culture. Plant hormones rarely act alone, and for most processes— at least\\u000a those that are observed at the organ level—many of these regulators have interacted in order to produce the final effect.

Thomas Gaspar; Claire Kevers; Claude Penel; Hubert Greppin; David M. Reid; Trevor A. Thorpe

1996-01-01

263

PLANT GROWTH IN IRRADIATED SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is made of the growth of subterranean clover in two soils, ; Urrbrae red-brown earth and Mount Compass pcdzolized sand, sterilized by heat, ; propylene oxide, and irradiation. Plating of the soil at both planting and ; harvesting showed that heat and irradiation treated soils were sterile, whereas ; the soils treated with propylene oxide were not. In

G. D. Bowen; A. D. Rovira

1961-01-01

264

Exudation of an allelopathic substance lepidimoide from seeds during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidimoide promotes growth of the cockscomb hypocotyl. It is exuded from germinating seeds of various plant species into their culture environment. The mode of exudation of lepidimoide from seeds into the culture solution, using sunflower and buckwheat seeds, was studied in relation to seed germination. In the dry seeds, about 75% of the lepidimoide was found in the seed coat

Kosumi Yamada; Seiji Kosemura; Shosuke Yamamura; Koji Hasegawa

1997-01-01

265

Long-living lotus: germination and soil {gamma}-irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring.  

PubMed

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been cultivated as a crop in Asia for thousands of years. An ?1300-yr-old lotus fruit, recovered from an originally cultivated but now dry lakebed in northeastern China, is the oldest germinated and directly (14)C-dated fruit known. In 1996, we traveled to the dry lake at Xipaozi Village, China, the source of the old viable fruits. We identified all of the landmarks recorded by botanist Ichiro Ohga some 80 yr ago when he first studied the deposit, but found that the fruits are now rare. We (1) cataloged a total of 60 lotus fruits; (2) germinated four fruits having physical ages of 200-500 yr by (14)C dating; (3) measured the rapid germination of the old fruits and the initially fast growth and short dormancy of their seedlings; (4) recorded abnormal phenotypes in their leaves, stalks, roots, and rhizomes; (5) determined ?-radiation of ?2.0 mGy/yr in the lotus-bearing beds; and (6) measured stratigraphic sequences of the lakebed strata. The total ?-irradiation of the old fruits of 0.1-3 Gy (gray, the unit of absorbed dosage defined as 1 joule/kg; 1 Gy = 100 rad), evidently resulting in certain of the abnormal phenotypes noted in their seedlings, represents the longest natural radiobiology experiment yet recorded. Most of the lotus abnormalities resemble those of chronically irradiated plants exposed to much higher irradiances. Though the chronic exposure of the old fruits to low-dose ?-radiation may be responsible in part for the notably weak growth and mutant phenotypes of the seedlings, it has not affected seed viability. All seeds presumably repair cellular damage before germination. Understanding of repair mechanisms in the old lotus seeds may provide insight to the aging process applicable also to other organisms. PMID:21669732

Shen-Miller, J; Schopf, J William; Harbottle, Garman; Cao, Rui-Ji; Ouyang, Shu; Zhou, Kun-Shu; Southon, John R; Liu, Guo-Hai

2002-02-01

266

Effects of temperature on urediniospore germination, germ-tube growth, and initiation of infection in soybean by phakopsora isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of temperature on urediniospore germination and germ-tube growth were compared among four isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, one each from Taiwan, Zimbabwe, Hawaii, and Brazil, in addition to an isolate of P. meibomiae from Puerto Rico. Also compared were the effects of temperature during a...

267

Chlorophyll in desiccated seeds of a euhalophyte, Suaeda physophora, and its significancy in plant adaptation to salinity during germination.  

PubMed

The seed cotyledons of a euhalophyte, Suaeda physophora, were found to be dark green. The pigment extracted from the cotyledons was proved to be chlorophyll for the absorption spectra curve of extracts the same as that for leaves. Photosynthetic oxygen-exchanging could be detected after the seeds were moistened for 6 h. Microstructure of organelles in cotyledons of ungerminated seeds was detected by transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical pigmentation was used to investigate the degree of damage on the membrane of radicles. A xerophyte, Haloxylon persicum, whose cotyledons of desiccated seeds also contain chlorophyll was used as a comparative species. The results showed that S. physophora maintained the ultra-structure of chloroplasts, the integrity of plasma membranes of radicles kept much better than that of H. persicum, which showed the great adaptability to salinity of the euhalophyte even at the seed-germination stage. Seeds were incubated in 0 and 700 mmol/L NaCl for 10 days in darkness at 20 degrees C, then ungerminated seeds in NaCl solution were transferred to deionised water and reincubated for another 8 days and was recorded the germination recovery. Dry seeds moistened with deionised water germinated gradually in the dark and germination was maximal after 3 or 4 d. Seeds at 700 mmol/L NaCl for 10 d and transferred back to deionised water germinated abruptly, most seeds germinated in one day and photosynthesis was also detected. It is concluded that recovery germination of S. physophora ensured the seeds could germinate rapidly after salinity declines, for example under the mild but transitory favorable edaphic condition in early spring. Photosynthesis function in seeds might also promoted radicle growth and seedling establishment. PMID:18785586

Li, Yang; Zhang, ShiRong; Song, Jie; Wu, ChenXi; Tian, ChangYan; Feng, Gu

2008-05-01

268

Plant-in-chip: Microfluidic system for studying root growth and pathogenic interactions in Arabidopsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a microfluidic platform for the hydroponic growth of Arabidopsis plants with high-resolution visualization of root development and root-pathogen interactions. The platform comprises a set of parallel microchannels with individual input/output ports where 1-day old germinated seedlings are initially placed. Under optimum conditions, a root system grows in each microchannel and its images are recorded over a 198-h period. Different concentrations of plant growth media show different root growth characteristics. Later, the developed roots are inoculated with two plant pathogens (nematodes and zoospores) and their physicochemical interactions with the live root systems are observed.

Parashar, Archana; Pandey, Santosh

2011-06-01

269

Overexpression of the Vacuolar Sugar Carrier AtSWEET16 Modifies Germination, Growth, and Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Here, we report that SUGARS WILL EVENTUALLY BE EXPORTED TRANSPORTER (SWEET16) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is a vacuole-located carrier, transporting glucose (Glc), fructose (Fru), and sucrose (Suc) after heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The SWEET16 gene, similar to the homologs gene SWEET17, is mainly expressed in vascular parenchyma cells. Application of Glc, Fru, or Suc, as well as cold, osmotic stress, or low nitrogen, provoke the down-regulation of SWEET16 messenger RNA accumulation. SWEET16 overexpressors (35SPro:SWEET16) showed a number of peculiarities related to differences in sugar accumulation, such as less Glc, Fru, and Suc at the end of the night. Under cold stress, 35SPro:SWEET16 plants are unable to accumulate Fru, while under nitrogen starvation, both Glc and Fru, but not Suc, were less abundant. These changes of individual sugars indicate that the consequences of an increased SWEET16 activity are dependent upon the type of external stimulus. Remarkably, 35SPro:SWEET16 lines showed improved germination and increased freezing tolerance. The latter observation, in combination with the modified sugar levels, points to a superior function of Glc and Suc for frost tolerance. 35SPro:SWEET16 plants exhibited increased growth efficiency when cultivated on soil and showed improved nitrogen use efficiency when nitrate was sufficiently available, while under conditions of limiting nitrogen, wild-type biomasses were higher than those of 35SPro:SWEET16 plants. Our results identify SWEET16 as a vacuolar sugar facilitator, demonstrate the substantial impact of SWEET16 overexpression on various critical plant traits, and imply that SWEET16 activity must be tightly regulated to allow optimal Arabidopsis development under nonfavorable conditions. PMID:24028846

Klemens, Patrick A W; Patzke, Kathrin; Deitmer, Joachim; Spinner, Lara; Le Hir, Rozenn; Bellini, Catherine; Bedu, Magali; Chardon, Fabien; Krapp, Anne; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

2013-09-12

270

Cloning and analysis of genes regulating plant cell growth  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this work are to identify, clone and analyze genes involved in the regulation of plant cell growth. To do this, we have induced tumors on Arabidopsis thaliana by exposing seed or germinating seedlings to ionizing radiation. The tumors which developed on the plants derived from these seed were excised and established in culture. Unlike normal tissue explants, the tumors are able to grow on hormone-free medium suggesting changes in growth control (either hormonal or other) induced by the radiation exposure. This progress report describes work aimed at characterizing these tumors at the physiological and cellular levels and at determining the molecular basis of the changes leading to the tumorous phenotype.

Not Available

1989-12-01

271

Ion dynamics and its possible role during in vitro pollen germination and tube growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One of the most interesting aspects of plant fertilization is the growth and orientation of the pollen tube from the stigma to the ovary. Considerable research has been carried out in this field but little is yet known about the mechanisms involved in the growth process. Recent research has been focused on the regulation of molecular events in order

J. A. Feijó; R. Malhó; G. Obermeyer

1995-01-01

272

Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Salvia aegyptiaca L. (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia aegyptiaca is a xerophytic perennial herb belongs to the Lamiaceae family commonly used for medicinal purposes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the effects of temperature and salinity on seed germination and recovery responses after transferring to distilled water. Temperatures between 10 and 40°C seem to be favourable for the germination of this species. Germination was inhibited by

Mustapha Gorai; Hayet Gasmi; Mohamed Neffati

2011-01-01

273

Comparisons of germination traits of alpine plants between fellfield and snowbed habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the seed-germination responses of 27 alpine species with reference to habitat type (fellfield and snowbed), temperature (five regimes), and light requirement. About 70% of species showed >40% germination at warm temperatures without cold stratification. However, a moist-chilling treatment markedly improved the germination percentages in most species, especially under cool conditions. Thus, cold stratification effectively reduced the temperature requirement

Yoshiko Shimono; Gaku Kudo

2005-01-01

274

Modeling the effect of density-dependent chemical interference upon seed germination.  

PubMed

A mathematical model is presented to estimate the effects of phytochemicals on seed germination. According to the model, phytochemicals tend to prevent germination at low seed densities. The model predicts that at high seed densities they may increase the probability of seed germination and the number of germinating seeds. Hence, the effects are reminiscent of the density-dependent effects of allelochemicals on plant growth, but the involved variables are germination probability and seedling number. The results imply that it should be possible to bypass inhibitory effects of allelopathy in certain agricultural practices and to increase the efficiency of nature conservation in several plant communities. PMID:18648596

Sinkkonen, Aki

2006-08-08

275

Modeling the effect of density-dependent chemical interference upon seed germination.  

PubMed

A mathematical model is presented to estimate the effects of phytochemicals on seed germination. According to the model, phytochemicals tend to prevent germination at low seed densities. The model predicts that at high seed densities they may increase the probability of seed germination and the number of germinating seeds. Hence, the effects are reminiscent of the density-dependent effects of allelochemicals on plant growth, but the involved variables are germination probability and seedling number. The results imply that it should be possible to bypass inhibitory effects of allelopathy in certain agricultural practices and to increase the efficiency of nature conservation in several plant communities. PMID:19330163

Sinkkonen, Aki

2005-04-01

276

Silencing of the pollen-specific gene NTP303 and its family members in tobacco affects in vivo pollen tube growth and results in male sterile plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seed plants, successful fertilization requires correct regulation of pollen tube growth. At germination and during growth, the pollen tube interacts with tissues from the pistil while the pollen tube extends via tip growth. Despite the fact that much research has been devoted to the mechanisms regulating pollen tube growth, many aspects are currently unknown. Previously, we have isolated a

Peter de Groot; Koen Weterings; M. W. H. J. de Been; Floyd Wittink; Raymond Hulzink; J. B. M. Custers; Marinus van Herpen; George Wullems

2004-01-01

277

Control of seed germination in transgenic plants based on the segregation of a two-component genetic system  

PubMed Central

We have developed a repressible seed-lethal (SL) system aimed at reducing the probability of transgene introgression into a population of sexually compatible plants. To evaluate the potential of this method, tobacco plants were transformed with an SL construct comprising gene 1 and gene 2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens whereby gene 1 was controlled by the seed-specific phaseolin promoter modified to contain a binding site for the Escherichia coli TET repressor (R). The expression of this construct allows normal plant and seed development but inhibits seed germination. Plants containing the SL construct were crossed with plants containing the tet R gene to derive plant lines where the expression of the SL construct is repressed. Plant lines that contained both constructs allowed normal seed formation and germination, whereas seeds in which the SL construct was separated from the R gene through segregation did not germinate. The requirements of such a method to efficiently control the flow of novel traits among sexually compatible plants are discussed.

Schernthaner, Johann P.; Fabijanski, Steven F.; Arnison, Paul G.; Racicot, Martine; Robert, Laurian S.

2003-01-01

278

Influences of interyear rainfall variability and microhabitat on the germinable seed bank of annual plants in a sandy Monte Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

We addressed the effects of growing-season rainfall of two consecutive years and of two microhabitats on seed density and floristic composition of the germinable seed bank of annual plants in a sandy desert. We hypothesised that seed composition and density is affected by the presence of vegetated patches, but that this effect varies according to rainfall. We predict an overall

L. Quevedo-Robledo; E. Pucheta; Y. Ribas-Fernández

2010-01-01

279

Plant extracts containing caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid inhibit zoospore germination of Phytophthora spp. pathogenic to Theobroma cacao  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most important species of Phytophthora worldwide causing black pod disease of cacao are P. palmivora, P. megakarya, and P. capsici. Chemicals are effective in controlling this disease but more natural methods would be preferred. One alternative is to use natural plant extracts. Rosemary and lavender leaf extracts were found to be effective in reducing germination of P. capsici,

Timothy L. Widmer; Nathalie Laurent

2006-01-01

280

The probability of germination and establishment in discrete density-dependent plant populations with a seed bank: a correction formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ignoring a seed bank in unstructured population models of annual plants is investigated under the assumption of ecological equilibrium. It is demonstrated that if delayed germination is an important life-history strategy and seed mortality in the seed bank is relatively low then it is important to take the effect of the seed bank into account. A formula

Christian Damgaard

2005-01-01

281

Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize.\\u000a The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w\\/v) chitosan solutions at 15 °C on the growth and physiological\\u000a changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan

Ya-jing Guan; Jin Hu; Xian-ju Wang; Chen-xia Shao

2009-01-01

282

Mechanism of plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Plant growth results from interaction of roots and shoots with the environment. The environment for roots is the soil or planting medium which provide structural support as well as water and nutrients to the plant. Roots also support the growth and functions of a complex of microorganisms that can have a profound effect on the growth anti survival of plants. These microorganisms constitute rhizosphere microflora and can be categorized as deleterious, beneficial, or neutral with respect to root/plant health. Beneficial interactions between roots and microbes do occur in rhizosphere and can be enhanced. Increased plant growth and crop yield can be obtained upon inoculating seeds or roots with certain specific root-colonizing bacteria- 'plant growth promoting rhizobacteria'. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which plant growth promoting rhizobacteria may stimulate plant growth. PMID:12561941

Gupta, A; Gopal, M; Tilak, K V

2000-09-01

283

Plant cell growth in tissue.  

PubMed

Cell walls are part of the apoplasm pathway that transports water, solutes, and nutrients to cells within plant tissue. Pressures within the apoplasm (cell walls and xylem) are often different from atmospheric pressure during expansive growth of plant cells in tissue. The previously established Augmented Growth Equations are modified to evaluate the turgor pressure, water uptake, and expansive growth of plant cells in tissue when pressures within the apoplasm are lower and higher than atmospheric pressure. Analyses indicate that a step-down and step-up in pressure within the apoplasm will cause an exponential decrease and increase in turgor pressure, respectively, and the rates of water uptake and expansive growth each undergo a rapid decrease and increase, respectively, followed by an exponential return to their initial magnitude. Other analyses indicate that pressure within the apoplasm decreases exponentially to a lower value after a step-down in turgor pressure, which simulates its behavior after an increase in expansive growth rate. Also, analyses indicate that the turgor pressure decays exponentially to a constant value that is the sum of the critical turgor pressure and pressure within the apoplasm during stress relaxation experiments in which pressures within the apoplasm are not atmospheric pressure. Additional analyses indicate that when the turgor pressure is constant (clamped), a decrease in pressure within the apoplasm elicits an increase in elastic expansion followed by an increase in irreversible expansion rate. Some analytical results are supported by prior experimental research, and other analytical results can be verified with existing experimental methods. PMID:20739609

Ortega, Joseph K E

2010-08-25

284

Germination and Initial Growth of Fagus orientalis Seedling under Different Stand Canopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germination and early growth of Fagus orientalis seedling were studied in four stands with different canopy closures (closed, semi-closed, relatively-opened and opened stands) under a dominant beech forest, located in north of Iran. For this purpose, 196 beech seed-sown plastic pots (in four plots of 49 units) were set up under each canopy closure. In the beginning of the first growing season germination rate ranged between 78.1 and 84.7% in different stands but there was no statistically significant difference of this term in the stands. In the end of the first growing season survival rate of seedlings was 73.9-76.1% under closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased significantly to 31.7 and 18.0% under relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Shoot length was, in the order 70 and 90 mm in closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased to 40 and 30 mm in relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Vitality appeared mostly with high quality in closed and semi-closed stands and with low quality in relatively-opened and opened stands. Leaf biomass reduced in closed stand. There was an increase for leaf area in semi-closed stand and for Specific Leaf Weight (SLW) in relatively-opened and opened stands. Generally, the investigation shows that in the first growing season most characteristics of beech seedling were benefited from more favorable conditions in the denser stands (closed and semi-closed canopies).

Tabari, Masoud

285

Germination and seedling growth in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) cultivars under salinity conditions.  

PubMed

In four grasspea varieties include ardabil, sharekord, mashhad and zanjan, the effects of different salinity concentrations on seed germination percent, proline concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA), germination index, radicle and hypocotyl length and weight were studied. Result showed that salinity had significant effects on seed germination percentage and germination index. The most and least of germination percentage were observed in 6 and 18 dS m(-1), respectively. Salinity had significantly effect on radicle and hypocotyl length, dry and fresh weight, MDA and proline concentration of seedlings. Salinity had not effect on dry weight of seedling. Increasing salinity reduced radicle and hypocotyl length, dry and fresh weight of seedlings and enhanced proline and malondialdehyde in them. Sharkord cultivar had the most germination percentage at 18 dS m(-1) sodium chloride. Sharkord and ardabil varieties were the most tolerance and sensitive varieties to salinity stress, respectively. PMID:19070028

Mahdavi, B; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres

2007-01-15

286

Biology of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Younger students can learn about plant biology. Topics include characteristics of living things, germination and growth, the basic parts of plants, photosynthesis, reproduction, and ecological adaptations of plants. The information presented can also be ordered as a video.

2005-01-01

287

From Seed Germination to Flowering, Light Controls Plant Development via the Pigment Phytochrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth and development are regulated by interactions between the environment and endogenous developmental programs. Of the various environmental factors controlling plant development, light plays an especially important role, in photosynthesis, in seasonal and diurnal time sensing, and as a cue for altering developmental pattern. Recently, several laboratories have devised a variety of genetic screens using Arabidopsis thaliana to dissect

J. Chory; M. Chatterjee; R. K. Cook; T. Elich; C. Fankhauser; J. Li; P. Nagpal; M. Neff; A. Pepper; D. Poole; J. Reed; V. Vitart

1996-01-01

288

Alleviation of salt stress-induced inhibition of seed germination in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) by ethylene and glutamate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene is an important plant gas hormone, and the amino acid Glu is emerging as a messenger molecule in plants. To evaluate the role of ethylene and Glu in seed germination and radicle growth under salt stress, effects of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), Ethephon and Glu on germination and radicle growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in the absence and

Chenshuo Chang; Baolan Wang; Lei Shi; Yinxin Li; Lian Duo; Wenhao Zhang

2010-01-01

289

Studies on the effects of certain salts on germination, on growth of root, and on metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. Criteria of germination of wheat grains on morphological, histological and physiological bases were studied and described\\u000a to set a parameter for the assessment of germination capacity.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The effects of single salt solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, KCl, K2SO4, MgCl2 and MgSO4 on germination of wheat grains were investigated, and it was found that:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a a) \\u000a \\u000a The germination capacity decreased with

A. Fathy Younis; M. A. Hatata

1971-01-01

290

Nitric oxide stimulates seed germination and de-etiolation, and inhibits hypocotyl elongation, three light-inducible responses in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Seed germination, greening of etiolated plants and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation are stimulated by light, which is sensed\\u000a by various types of photoreceptor. Nitric oxide (NO) has proven to be a bioactive molecule, especially in mammalian cells\\u000a and, most recently, in plants. Like some phytochrome-dependent processes, many NO-mediated ones are accomplished through increases\\u000a in cGMP levels. Given these similarities,

María Verónica Beligni; Lorenzo Lamattina

2000-01-01

291

Respective roles of the glutamine synthetase\\/glutamate synthase cycle and glutamate dehydrogenase in ammonium and amino acid metabolism during germination and post-germinative growth in the model legume Medicago truncatula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine the respective roles of the couple glutamine synthetase\\/glutamate synthase (GS\\/GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in ammonium and amino acid metabolism during germination and post-germinative growth in the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. For this aim, amino acids were analyzed by HPLC and changes in gene expression of several enzymes involved in N and C metabolism

Gaëlle Glevarec; Sophie Bouton; Emmanuel Jaspard; Marie-Thérčse Riou; Jean-Bernard Cliquet; Akira Suzuki; Anis M. Limami

2004-01-01

292

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants, but which may grow in, on, or around plant tissues, stimulate plant growth by a plethora of mechanisms. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The search for PGPR and investigation of their modes of action are increasing at a rapid pace as efforts

J. Kevin Vessey

2003-01-01

293

Effects of azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, polyoxin B (polar) and trifloxystrobin on germination and growth of Alternaria alternata and decay in red delicious apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternaria alternata is the predominant fungal pathogen responsible for moldy-core in red delicious strains of apple. In this study, we report on the effects of the polyoxin B compound Polar, the strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin, and the sterol inhibitor difenoconazole on spore germination, mycelial growth and fruit decay on detached fruits caused by A. alternata. Germination was most sensitive

Moshe Reuveni; Dimitri Sheglov

2002-01-01

294

Ecotoxicological effects of polycyclic musks and cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum).  

PubMed

Single and joint toxic effects of polycyclic musks including 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-l,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (AHTN) and cadmium (Cd) on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were investigated. The results showed that the toxicity sequence of HHCB toxic to wheat seed germination and seedling growth was similar to that of AHTN, that is, germination rate > shoot elongation > root elongation, while the toxicity of Cd was in the sequence of root elongation > shoot elongation > germination rate, according to the LC50 and EC50 values. It is suggested that polycyclic musks and Cd had different toxicological mechanisms. Root and shoot elongation of wheat might be good bioindicators for the contamination of polycyclic musks and Cd in soil. The mixture of polycyclic musks and Cd had synergistic effects on T. aestivum according to the equi-toxic mixture approach when root elongation was selected as the toxicological endpoint. Thus, the joint toxicity of HHCB and Cd was significantly higher than the single toxicity of HHCB or Cd, which was also confirmed by the EC50 mix value of the mixture (EC50 mix = 0.530 TUmix). The EC(50mix) value of the mixture of AHTN and Cd was 0.614 TUmix, which indicated that the mixture toxicity was strengthened when AHTN coexisted with Cd. PMID:21462717

Chen, Cuihong; Zhou, Qixing; Bao, Yanyu; Li, Yaning; Wang, Ping

2010-01-01

295

Characterization of Peanut Germin-Like Proteins, AhGLPs in Plant Development and Defense  

PubMed Central

Background Germin-like superfamily members are ubiquitously expressed in various plant species and play important roles in plant development and defense. Although several GLPs have been identified in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), their roles in development and defense remain unknown. In this research, we study the spatiotemporal expression of AhGLPs in peanut and their functions in plant defense. Results We have identified three new AhGLP members (AhGLP3b, AhGLP5b and AhGLP7b) that have distinct but very closely related DNA sequences. The spatial and temporal expression profiles revealed that each peanut GLP gene has its distinct expression pattern in various tissues and developmental stages. This suggests that these genes all have their distinct roles in peanut development. Subcellular location analysis demonstrated that AhGLP2 and 5 undergo a protein transport process after synthesis. The expression of all AhGLPs increased in responding to Aspergillus flavus infection, suggesting AhGLPs' ubiquitous roles in defense to A. flavus. Each AhGLP gene had its unique response to various abiotic stresses (including salt, H2O2 stress and wound), biotic stresses (including leaf spot, mosaic and rust) and plant hormone stimulations (including SA and ABA treatments). These results indicate that AhGLPs have their distinct roles in plant defense. Moreover, in vivo study of AhGLP transgenic Arabidopsis showed that both AhGLP2 and 3 had salt tolerance, which made transgenic Arabidopsis grow well under 100 mM NaCl stress. Conclusions For the first time, our study analyzes the AhGLP gene expression profiles in peanut and reveals their roles under various stresses. These results provide an insight into the developmental and defensive roles of GLP gene family in peanut.

Wang, Tong; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Fanghe; Li, Haifen; Li, Ling; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Shanlin; Liang, Xuanqiang

2013-01-01

296

Effects of Seed Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth Under Water Stress in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

For disclosing the effects of seed priming with water and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on physiological characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the seeds of 4 rice cultivars were treated with H2O and different concentrations of PEG before germination. Primed or nonprimed (control) seeds were then germinated under drought stress conditions simulated with PEG in a serious of concentrations. The contents

Yuan-Yuan SUN; Yong-Jian SUN; Ming-Tian WANG; Xu-Yi LI; Xiang GUO; Rong HU; Jun MA

2010-01-01

297

Effects of forest fire ash on germination and early growth of four pinus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire modifies the germination of seeds of numerous species. One of the fire factors that cause these modifications is the\\u000a ash. This study analysed the germination of seeds of Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus nigra Arn. Pinus radiata D. Don and Pinus pinaster Aiton, subjected to different ash treatments, and the development of seedlings that grew in these conditions for 14

O. Reyes; M. Casal

2004-01-01

298

Impact of sugar factory effluent on the growth and biochemical characteristics of terrestrial and aquatic plants.  

PubMed

The physico-chemical characteristics of sugar industry effluent were measured and some were found to be above those limits permissible in the Indian irrigation water standard. A pot study was initially conducted to study the effects of different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) of sugar factory effluent on seed germination, seedling growth and biochemical characteristics of green gram and maize. A similar study was also carried out using the aquatic plants, water hyacinth and water lettuce. The higher effluent concentrations (above 60%) were found to affect plant growth, but diluted effluent (up to 60%) favored seedling growth. PMID:18784897

Ayyasamy, P M; Yasodha, R; Rajakumar, S; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P; Rahman, P K S M; Lee, Sanghoon

2008-09-11

299

Dynamic adaption of metabolic pathways during germination and growth of lily pollen tubes after inhibition of the electron transport chain.  

PubMed

Investigation of the metabolome and the transcriptome of pollen of lily (Lilium longiflorum) gave a comprehensive overview of metabolic pathways active during pollen germination and tube growth. More than 100 different metabolites were determined simultaneously by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and expressed genes of selected metabolic pathways were identified by next-generation sequencing of lily pollen transcripts. The time-dependent changes in metabolite abundances, as well as the changes after inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, revealed a fast and dynamic adaption of the metabolic pathways in the range of minutes. The metabolic state prior to pollen germination differed clearly from the metabolic state during pollen tube growth, as indicated by principal component analysis of all detected metabolites and by detailed observation of individual metabolites. For instance, the amount of sucrose increased during the first 60 minutes of pollen culture but decreased during tube growth, while glucose and fructose showed the opposite behavior. Glycolysis, tricarbonic acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle, starch, and fatty acid degradation were activated, providing energy during pollen germination and tube growth. Inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain by antimycin A resulted in an immediate production of ethanol and a fast rearrangement of metabolic pathways, which correlated with changes in the amounts of the majority of identified metabolites, e.g. a rapid increase in ?-aminobutyric acid indicated the activation of a ?-aminobutyric acid shunt in the tricarbonic acid cycle, while ethanol fermentation compensated the reduced ATP production after inhibition of the oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:23660836

Obermeyer, Gerhard; Fragner, Lena; Lang, Veronika; Weckwerth, Wolfram

2013-05-09

300

Ammonia volatilization from urea-application influenced germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice.  

PubMed

Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding. PMID:22454611

Qi, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Shah, Farooq; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Liu, Hongyan; Nie, Lixiao

2012-02-01

301

Effect of seed mass on germination and growth in three dominant species in southern Brazilian coastal dunes.  

PubMed

The effect of seed mass on germination and growth was tested in fresh-seeds of Blutaparon portulacoides, Panicum racemosum, and Spartina ciliata, selected at random in southern Brazilian populations. The seed mass varied within a population of the three species. Both B. portulacoides and P. racemosum showed normal frequency distribution of seed mass, while S. ciliata did not. Significant differences were observed in seed germination between large and small seeds of all species. In all species the capacity of seedling elongation was greater in seedlings of large seeds than those of small ones. Relative growth rate of seedlings of P. racemosum and S. ciliata decreased with time in all seed mass size-classes. On the other hand, the relative growth rate of B. portulacoides seedlings increased during the first 40 days. Seed mass is an important biological factor, affecting seed germination, seedling elongation, and growth of these species, and favoring large seeds, specially in areas of active sand accretion like coastal dunes. PMID:12530178

Cordazzo, C V

2002-11-05

302

Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice  

PubMed Central

Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding.

Qi, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Shah, Farooq; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Liu, Hongyan; Nie, Lixiao

2012-01-01

303

Effect of oil pollution of soil on germination, growth, and nutrient uptake of corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of crude oil pollution of soil on the growth of plants and uptake of nutrients was investigated by growing corn (Zea mays L.) on a soil polluted by crude petroleum. The levels of the crude oil application varied from 0 to 10.6 percent by weight of soil. Three corn crops were raised in succession, each for a period

E. J. Udo; A. A. A. Feyemi

1975-01-01

304

Influence of calcinated starfish powder on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the calcium absorption efficacy of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) in sawdust medium supplemented with starfish powder and to determine the effect of starfish powder as calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of starfish powder was achieved at the temperature ranging from 560.1 to 649.5 degrees C. A 1% supplementation of starfish powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 1% calcinated starfish powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 256.0+/-16.3 in the fruiting body of P. eryngii without extension of spawn run period and the retardation of the days to primordial germination. PMID:19733611

Choi, Ung-Kyu; Bajpai, Vivek K; Lee, Nan-Hee

2009-09-04

305

Growth and yield of sweet corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars in response to planting date and plastic mulch in a short-season environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimum soil temperature required for sweet corn (Zea mays L.) germination is rarely achieved during spring planting in Newfoundland (NL), Canada. Plastic mulches have been used to improve establishment and hasten maturity during the short production season. The effects of cultivar, plastic mulch and planting date on plant growth, yield and quality traits of sweet corn were studied in

A. B. Kwabiah

2004-01-01

306

Effects of Copper Sulfate on Typha latifolia Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Aqueous and Sediment Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vascular macrophyte Typha latifolia Linnaeus (common cattail) may be a sentinel for evaluating potential phytotoxicity to rooted aquatic macrophytes in aquatic\\u000a systems. To further evaluate the potential utility of this species, T. latifolia seed germination, shoot growth, and root elongation were measured in 7-day aqueous exposures using mean measured aqueous\\u000a copper concentrations of 10.0, 23, 41, 62, 174, and

S. L. Muller; D. B. Huggett

2001-01-01

307

Effect of different pre-sowing treatments on seed germination percentage and growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed morphology, germination and seedlings growth of Acacia auriculiformis were studied. The experiment was conducted in the nursery of Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline, Khulna University,\\u000a Bangladesh. Matured seeds of the species were collected from healthy trees of road side plantation from different areas of\\u000a Khulna District, Bangladesh and treated with five pre-sowing treatments (control, immersion in cold water, immersion

Salim Azad; Mizanur Rahman Manik; Shamin Hasan; Abdul Matin

2011-01-01

308

POLLEN GERMINATION, VIABILITY AND TUBE GROWTH IN FOURTEEN CULTIVATED AND WILD SPECIES OF CUCURBIT GROWN IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen germination, viability and tube growth in fourteen species of cucurbit were examined. All the male flowers had three anthers each. The highest number of pollen grain (917.00 ? 52.69) per anther was recorded in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch ex Poir.) whereas the lowest (479.00 ? 13.14) per anther was recorded in snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.). Viable pollen was

M. Rashed Zaman

309

Rapid germination and development of Taxus baccata L. by in vitro embryo culture and hydroponic growth of seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly promising procedure to obtain seedlings of Taxus baccata L. has been developed, which involves a combination of in vitro embryo culture and growth under hydroponic conditions. Embryos isolated from freshly collected seeds were 100% sterile, even\\u000a though the seeds were not treated with acid or soaked in water prior to culturing. The embryo germination level of non-leached\\u000a seeds

Seied Ali Hosseini Tafreshi; Mansour Shariati; Mohammad Reza Mofid; Mojtaba Khayam Nekui

310

Seed dormancy and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy and germination are complex adaptive traits of higher plants that are influenced by a large number of genes and environmental factors. Studies of genetics and physiology have shown the important roles of the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in the regulation of dormancy and germination. More recently, the use of quantitative genetics and mutant approaches has allowed

Maarten Koornneef; Leónie Bentsink; Henk Hilhorst

2002-01-01

311

Endophytic bacteria isolated from orchid and their potential to promote plant growth.  

PubMed

Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin. PMID:23014841

Faria, Deise Cristina; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; de Carvalho Costa, Francisco Eduardo

2012-09-27

312

Progesterone: Its occurrence in plants and involvement in plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progesterone is a mammalian gonadal hormone. In the current study, we identified and quantified progesterone in a range of higher plants by using GC–MS and examined its effects on the vegetative growth of plants. The growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings was promoted by progesterone at low concentrations but suppressed at higher concentrations under both light and dark growth conditions.

Mayumi Iino; Takahito Nomura; Yuji Tamaki; Yumiko Yamada; Koichi Yoneyama; Yasutomo Takeuchi; Masaki Mori; Tadao Asami; Takeshi Nakano; Takao Yokota

2007-01-01

313

Arabidopsis FIMBRIN5, an Actin Bundling Factor, Is Required for Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth[W  

PubMed Central

Actin cables in pollen tubes serve as molecular tracks for cytoplasmic streaming and organelle movement and are formed by actin bundling factors like villins and fimbrins. However, the precise mechanisms by which actin cables are generated and maintained remain largely unknown. Fimbrins comprise a family of five members in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterized a fimbrin isoform, Arabidopsis FIMBRIN5 (FIM5). Our results show that FIM5 is required for the organization of actin cytoskeleton in pollen grains and pollen tubes, and FIM5 loss-of-function associates with a delay of pollen germination and inhibition of pollen tube growth. FIM5 decorates actin filaments throughout pollen grains and tubes. Actin filaments become redistributed in fim5 pollen grains and disorganized in fim5 pollen tubes. Specifically, actin cables protrude into the extreme tips, and their longitudinal arrangement is disrupted in the shank of fim5 pollen tubes. Consequently, the pattern and velocity of cytoplasmic streaming were altered in fim5 pollen tubes. Additionally, loss of FIM5 function rendered pollen germination and tube growth hypersensitive to the actin-depolymerizing drug latrunculin B. In vitro biochemical analyses indicated that FIM5 exhibits actin bundling activity and stabilizes actin filaments. Thus, we propose that FIM5 regulates actin dynamics and organization during pollen germination and tube growth via stabilizing actin filaments and organizing them into higher-order structures.

Wu, Youjun; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Ruihui; Qu, Xiaolu; Ren, Sulin; Chen, Naizhi; Huang, Shanjin

2010-01-01

314

Germination in relation to salinity in some plants of salt marshes in Otago, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination characteristics were examined for nine halophytes occurring on Otago salt marshes and were compared with two glycophytes. The seed of most halophytes remained dormant, but viable, in saline solution for at least several months. In comparison, of the two glycophyte species, one germinated in saline solution whereas the other suffered seed mortality. There was a correlation between the salt

T. R. Partridge; J. B. Wilson

1987-01-01

315

Potential effects of elevated carbon dioxide levels on seed germination of three native plant species. [Nemophila menziesii; Layia platyglossa; Clarkia rubicunda  

SciTech Connect

Germination responses of seeds of three native plant species - Nemophila menziesii H. and a. ssp. menziesii, Layia platyglossa (F. and M.) Gray ssp. platyglossa, and Clarkia rubicunda (Lindl.) Lewis and Lewis ssp. rubicunda - were investigated at atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels of 0.03%, 0.07%, 0.14%, and 0.21% in controlled greenhouse experiments. Seeds were germinated in a 1:1 (vol/vol) mixture of vermiculite and sponge rock under natural conditions of daylengths and temperatures. Elevations in CO/sub 2/ concentrations did not significantly affect the germination responses of any of the three species, but their patterns of germination differed. The data suggest that increasing CO/sub 2/ concentrations such as those anticipated in the next century may not significantly affect germination of native plant species.

St. Omer, L.; Horvath, S.M.

1983-12-01

316

PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies on the effects of humic substances (HS) on plants, under conditions of adequate mineral nutrition, consistently show stimulation of plant growth. Enhancement of root growth was usually more apparent than stimulation of shoot growth. Both increase in root length and development of secondary r...

317

Regulation of Pathogenic Spore Germination by CgRac1 in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ? ‡  

PubMed Central

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a facultative plant pathogen: it can live as a saprophyte on dead organic matter or as a pathogen on a host plant. Different patterns of conidial germination have been recognized under saprophytic and pathogenic conditions, which also determine later development. Here we describe the role of CgRac1 in regulating pathogenic germination. The hallmark of pathogenic germination is unilateral formation of a single germ tube following the first cell division. However, transgenic strains expressing a constitutively active CgRac1 (CA-CgRac1) displayed simultaneous formation of two germ tubes, with nuclei continuing to divide in both cells after the first cell division. CA-CgRac1 also caused various other abnormalities, including difficulties in establishing and maintaining cell polarity, reduced conidial and hyphal adhesion, and formation of immature appressoria. Consequently, CA-CgRac1 isolates were completely nonpathogenic. Localization studies with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-CgRac1 fusion protein showed that the CgRac1 protein is abundant in conidia and in hyphal tips. Although the CFP signal was equally distributed in both cells of a germinating conidium, reactive oxygen species accumulated only in the cell that produced a germ tube, indicating that CgRac1 was active only in the germinating cell. Collectively, our results show that CgRac1 is a major regulator of asymmetric development and that it is involved in the regulation of both morphogenesis and nuclear division. Modification of CgRac1 activity disrupts the morphogenetic program and prevents fungal infection.

Nesher, Iris; Minz, Anna; Kokkelink, Leonie; Tudzynski, Paul; Sharon, Amir

2011-01-01

318

On the Importance of the Morphology of Seed Germination for the Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Plants (O Znachenii Morfologii Prorastaniya Semyan Dlya Sistematiki Rastenii I Istorii Ikh Proiskhozhdeniya).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the paper is to stress the importance of the morphology of germination (and subsequent seedling development) for the taxonomy and phylogeny of higher plants (or more exactly the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny). One of the mos...

I. T. Vasilchenko

1968-01-01

319

On the Evolutionary Significance of the Morphological Characters of the Germination of Flowering Plants (K Voprosu Ob Evolyutsionnom Znachenii Morfologicheskikh Osobennostei Prorastaniya Tsvetkovykh Rastenii).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At present a considerable number of facts are known which indicate the great importance of investigations on the morphology of germination of flowering plants to throw light upon the history of their origin and upon their phylogenetic taxonomy. The study ...

I. T. Vasilchenko

1969-01-01

320

Evaluation of the effect of clinostat rotation on pollen germination and tube development as a tool for selection of plants in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of species and cultivar on which rely to sustain Close Loop Environmental Systems is generally approached by analysing the behaviour of plants in presence of stress (sporophytic selection). In this paper, we investigated the possibility to conduct the selection among genotypes in Space through the male gametophytic selection. Thus, we studied the effect of simulated microgravity on pollen germination and tube development of both woody and herbaceous crop species: Prunus armeniaca (apricot), P. dulcis (almond), Malus domestica (apple) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Pollen collected from just bloomed flowers was assessed for viability and incubated on the optimal growing medium in petri dishes both on a uni-axial clinostat and stationary in 1g. Then, pollen was observed under a light microscope to detect percent germination and growth direction. Histochemical analyses were performed to verify the presence and distribution of storage substances. Moreover, specific stainings and epifluorescent microscopy were applied to count nuclei, follow the migration of sperm cells and investigate the presence, size and morphology of callose plugs. Results showed that simulated microgravity affected pollen tube development. The different response showed by the various species indicates that male-gametophytic selection could be useful for the selection of plants in microgravity.

de Micco, Veronica; Scala, Michele; Aronne, Giovanna

2006-05-01

321

Comparative seed germination tests using ten plant species for toxicity assessment of a metal engraving effluent sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effluent sample was collected from the acid bath of a metal engraving plant where the sample had been pretreated with lime to pH 10.6. The sample was adjusted to pH 7.37 (and in a second test to 7.25) and diluted to a series of solutions using hard, standard water. The seed germination thod was employed to test the phytotoxicity

Wuncheng Wang; Paul H. Keturi

1990-01-01

322

Interaction between a plant-derived smoke extract, light and phytohormones on the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-derived smoke extracts mimics the effect of red light on germination in light-sensitive lettuce seeds and partially overcomes the inhibitory effect of far-red light. Interaction between a smoke extract and gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethephon was investigated. Smoke acted synergistically with GA3 and increased the sensitivity of the lettuce seeds to ABA. It seems likely that smoke affects membrane

J. Staden; A. K. Jäger; A. Strydom

1995-01-01

323

Gene expression in the soybean seed axis during germination and early seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copy-DNA clones have been obtained that distinguish eight messenger mRNAs, moderately abundant in the axes of the germinating soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedling. These clones have been used to characterize the size of the mRNAs and to anlyze the accumulation of the mRNAs at different time points and in different parts of the axis during germination and early seedling

K. Datta; H. Parker; V. Averyhart-Fullard; A. Schmidt; A. Marcus

1987-01-01

324

Chemical Mowing: Effect of Plant Growth Retardants on Plant Roots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of the plant growth regulators mefluidide and uniconazole on the root growth of Bermudagrass were assessed for 3 years using a traditional rhizotron. Two rhizotron designs were evaluated. The single rhizotron with the viewing glass side insert...

O. P. Vadhwa

1991-01-01

325

Germins and germin like proteins: an overview.  

PubMed

Molecular investigations during wheat germination have revealed unique developmentally regulated proteins, designated as germins, which show remarkable resistance to broad specificity proteases and to dissociation in SDS. Germins in cereals have an oxalate oxidase activity, which generates H2O2 from the oxidative breakdown of oxalate thereby playing a significant role in plant development and defense. Germin like proteins (GLPs) exhibit sequence and structural similarity with the cereal germins but mostly lack oxalate oxidase activity. Germins and germin like proteins (GLPs) are a class of developmentally regulated glycoproteins characterized by a beta-barrel core structure, a signal peptide, and are associated with the cell wall. GLPs exhibit a broad range of diversity in their occurrence and activity in organisms ranging from myxomycetes, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Germins and GLPs are thought to play a significant role during zygotic and somatic embryogenesis (wheat and Pinus, respectively), salt stress (barley and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), pathogen elicitation (wheat and barley), and heavy metal stress, etc. Characterization and cloning of some of the genes encoding germins and GLPs has facilitated a better understanding of their regulation and raised their potential of biotechnological application. PMID:11495276

Patnaik, D; Khurana, P

2001-03-01

326

Growth, Development and Flowering in Fast Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides extensive background information about how Fast Plants grow and develop. The distinction between growth and development is explained. Also discussed is how genetics plus interactions with the environment produce variation during growth and development.

Program, The W.

327

The pollen organelle membrane proteome reveals highly spatial-temporal dynamics during germination and tube growth of lily pollen.  

PubMed

As a first step in understanding the membrane-related dynamics during pollen grain germination and subsequent tube growth, the changes in protein abundance of membrane and membrane-associated proteins of 5 different membrane/organelle fractions were studied at physiologically important stages (0, 10, 30, 60, and 240 min) of Lilium longiflorum pollen in vitro culture. Proteins of each fraction and time point were identified by 'shot-gun' proteomics (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of more than 270 identified proteins revealed an increase in the abundance of proteins involved in cytoskeleton, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, as well as ion transport before pollen grain germination (10-30 min), whereas proteins involved in membrane/protein trafficking, signal transduction, stress response and protein biosynthesis decreased in abundance during this time. Proteins of amino acids and lipids/steroids metabolism, proteolysis, transcription, cell wall biosynthesis as well as nutrient transport showed a time-independent abundance profile. These spatiotemporal patterns were confirmed by immunodetection of specific proteins of the cellular processes membrane/protein trafficking and ion transport. Our results reveal major protein rearrangements at endomembranes and the plasma membrane before and as the pollen grains start tube growth. The spatiotemporal protein abundance changes correlate with the underlying developmental and physiological processes of the germinating pollen grain. PMID:19799449

Pertl, Heidi; Schulze, Waltraud X; Obermeyer, Gerhard

2009-11-01

328

AtTPS1-mediated trehalose 6-phosphate synthesis is essential for embryogenic and vegetative growth and responsiveness to ABA in germinating seeds and stomatal guard cells.  

PubMed

Trehalose and associated metabolites are part of the sugar signalling system in plants and have profound effects on development. Disruption of the TREHALOSE 6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS1) gene in Arabidopsis results in delayed embryo growth, altered cell wall morphology and carbon metabolism and abortion at the torpedo stage. Here we investigate the role of the TPS1 gene in post-embryonic development using two approaches. In the first we use the seed-specific ABI3 promoter to drive the TPS1 cDNA during embryo development, resulting in rescue of the embryo-lethal tps1 phenotype. Lack of expression from the ABI3::TPS1 transgene in post-germinative tps1 seedlings results in severe growth arrest, accumulation of soluble sugars and starch and leads to an increase in expression of genes related to ABA signalling. In the second approach we use TILLING (targeted induced local lesions in genomes) to generate three weaker, non-embryo-lethal, alleles (tps1-11, tps1-12 and tps1-13) and use these to demonstrate that the TPS1 protein plays a key role in modulating trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) levels in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis. All three weaker alleles give a consistent phenotype of slow growth and delayed flowering. Germination of tps1-11, tps1-12 and tps1-13 is hypersensitive to ABA with the degree of hypersensitivity correlating with the decrease in T6P levels in the different alleles. Stomatal pore aperture is regulated by ABA, and this was found to be affected in tps1-12. Our results show that the TPS1 gene product plays an essential role in regulating the growth of vegetative as well as embryogenic tissue in a mechanism involving ABA and sugar metabolism. PMID:20659274

Gómez, Leonardo D; Gilday, Alison; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Graham, Ian A

2010-09-07

329

Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some

Sorin Anghel; Constantin S. Stanescu; Dana Giosanu; Monica Flenacu; Ion Iorga-Siman

2001-01-01

330

Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.  

PubMed

This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops. PMID:16161968

Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

2005-04-01

331

Biomechanics of plant growth forms: the trouble with fossil plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among living plants, a wide range of growth forms from herbs to shrubs and large-bodied trees and lianas can be characterized by identifying different mechanical signals based on changes of structural Young's modulus (Estr) and flexural stiffness (EI) during ontogeny. Over recent years this `ontogenetic approach' has been adopted to infer growth forms of fossil plants by treating the fossil

Nick P Rowe; Thomas Speck

1998-01-01

332

A small plant-specific protein family of ABI five binding proteins (AFPs) regulates stress response in germinating Arabidopsis seeds and seedlings.  

PubMed

The transcription factor ABA-Insensitive5 (ABI5) is a key regulator of ABA signaling and stress response in Arabidopsis seeds and seedlings. Potential ABI5-interacting proteins were identified by a yeast two-hybrid screen; the most prevalent interactors were a family of four highly conserved plant-specific proteins with no domains of known function, but homology to a previously characterized ABI Five Binding Protein (AFP). This study compares expression and function of the family members. The AFPs are induced by ABA and/or dehydrating stresses in young seedlings, but the developmental timing of their induction differs. Mutations in AFP1 or AFP2 result in increased sensitivity to ABA and salt, whereas afp4 mutants are mildly ABA-resistant. AFP2, like AFP1, acts epistatically to ABI5. Reduced germination or seedling growth of the mutants under stress correlates with a higher level of ABI5 protein when compared to wild-type seedlings, but it is not clear whether this is a cause or effect of the reduced growth. Although both ABI5 and the AFPs are ABA-induced, the ABI5:AFP ratio increases at high ABA concentrations, maintaining growth inhibition under severe stress. An AFP2:GFP fusion, which complements the afp2 mutation, is nuclear-localized in seedlings exposed to stress, but becomes delocalized before being degraded following removal of stress. The AFPs may also interact to varying extents with many ABI5-related bZIP transcription factors. This study suggests that germination and seedling growth are regulated by antagonistic interactions among at least two functionally redundant families, the AFPs and the ABI5-related proteins, providing a mechanism to fine-tune seedling stress responses. PMID:18484180

Garcia, Mary Emily; Lynch, Tim; Peeters, Julian; Snowden, Chris; Finkelstein, Ruth

2008-05-17

333

Synthesis of Brassinolide: A Plant Growth Steroid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brassinolide, a growth-promoting steroid, is found in a wide variety of plants, such as corn, rice, wheat, and mustard. The plant steroid has growth-promoting activity at a concentration of 10 to the minus 9 power M. Commercial application of brassinolide...

M. E. Baker

1989-01-01

334

Spiral Growth in Plants: Models and Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis and simulation of spiral growth in plants integrates algebra and trigonometry in a botanical setting. When the ideas presented here are used in a mathematics classroom/computer lab, students can better understand how basic assumptions about plant growth lead to the golden ratio and how the use of circular functions leads to accurate…

Allen, Bradford D.

2004-01-01

335

Spiral Growth in Plants: Models and Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The analysis and simulation of spiral growth in plants integrates algebra and trigonometry in a botanical setting. When the ideas presented here are used in a mathematics classroom/computer lab, students can better understand how basic assumptions about plant growth lead to the golden ratio and how the use of circular functions leads to accurate…

Allen, Bradford D.

2004-01-01

336

Static Magnetic Field and Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the conditions of stable existence of Static Magnetic Field (SMF) the growth processes of some plants' (chickpeas, beans and lentils) seeds have been investigated in different temperatures of microenvironment. It has been established that the rate of the plant growths is affected (speeded up) by SMF that is intimately related to environmental temperature, any other environmental parameters (humidity, illumination,

Akif A. Maharramov

2007-01-01

337

Seed germination and seedling growth of Suaeda salsa under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of increasing concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6 mol l-1) of dif- ferent salts (Na2SO4, Na2CO3, MgSO4, NaCl, MgCl2) in solution and soil extract solu- tions of comparable osmotic potentials on germination of Suaeda salsa seeds was studied. Seed germination decreased significantly with increased salinity. Germina - tion inhibition was in the following order: MgCl2 >

De-Yu Duan; Wei-Qiang Li; Xiao-Jing Liu; Hua Ouyang; Ping An

338

Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants  

PubMed Central

Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1) the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2) to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3) the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays. These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after 14-21 days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions. We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution (we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply); producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants. This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar growth kinetics to soil-grown plants, but with the advantage of being a versatile platform for a myriad of physiological and molecular biological measurements on all plant tissues at all developmental stages. We present ‘tips and tricks’ for the easy adoption of this hydroponic culture system.

2013-01-01

339

Seed germination and seedling growth in a wilty mutant of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.): Effect of abscisic acid and osmotic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on seed germination and seedling growth of w?1, a wilty, ABA-deficient sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant, is described in comparison with the control line (W-1). Exogenous ABA inhibited seed germination in both genotypes; however, for some ABA concentrations, whole achenes of w-1 mutant were slightly more inhibited than the wild type; naked seeds of

Anna Lenzi; Marco Fambrini; Stefano Barotti; Claudio Pugliesi; Paolo Vernieri

1995-01-01

340

Plant growth promoting potential of bacteria isolated on N free media from rhizosphere of Cassia occidentalis.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are an attractive eco-friendly alternative to chemicals in agriculture. While the rhizospheres of crop plants have been well studied with the objective of screening PGPR, weeds, which play an important role in maintaining ecological balance, have largely been ignored. The rhizosphere of a luxuriantly growing, medicinal weed, Cassia occidentalis was analysed by enumerating PGPR on N free media from the most diverse stage of plant (determined by profiles obtained on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Each isolate was tested for other plant growth promotion assays including production of cellulase, indole acetic acid (IAA), ammonia, HCN, siderophore and chitinase to select for ones possessing multi-trait plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. Selected isolates were used for bacterization of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo to evaluate their efficacy in promoting plant's growth in seedling germination and axenic pot conditions. Thirty five isolates were analysed further for the array of PGP properties they exhibit. A total of 6 isolates were shortlisted on the basis of maximum traits positive, amount of phosphate solubilized and IAA produced. V. radiata responded well to seed bacterization during seedling germination. A maximum increase of approximately 36 and 60 % was observed for shoot and root length, respectively in V. radiata in axenic pot culture over control plants. Extensive branching of roots was also observed with isolate NL, which produced the maximum amount of IAA. Present study investigated the plant growth promoting isolates obtained on N free media in the rhizosphere of C. occidentalis, which have the potential to be used as inoculants for other crops. This provides a new dimension to the significance of weeds in agricultural ecosystems. The study opens up possibilities for utilization of this property of weeds in plant growth promotion, and subsequent enhancement of yield for agricultural crops. PMID:22806725

Arun, B; Gopinath, B; Sharma, Shilpi

2012-06-08

341

Plant hormones are versatile chemical regulators of plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant hormones are a structurally unrelated collection of small molecules derived from various essential metabolic pathways. These compounds are important regulators of plant growth and mediate responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. During the last ten years there have been many exciting advances in our understanding of plant hormone biology, including new discoveries in the areas of hormone

Aaron Santner; Luz Irina A Calderon-Villalobos; Mark Estelle

2009-01-01

342

Enhanced germination and gravitropism of soybean in a hypogeomagnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the future manned space exploration, the duration of the missions would significantly in-crease. Investigating plant growth and development under the space environmental conditions is of essential importance for the food supply projects for the astronauts. Hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF), namely, extremely low magnetic field, is one of the main characters of the space environment. Germination is the first vital step of plant growth and development, which determines the final yield of plants. The effect of HGMF on plant growth, especially early ger-mination, still remains open. In this study, we established a hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF) incubation system, the remnant magnetic field inside no more than 250 nT. Soybean seeds were incubated at 25 in HGMF, and the very beginning of soybean germination, from water ab-sorbance of cotyledon to radicle emergence, was examined within 24 h. Our results showed that the germination ratio and weight ratio of emerged soybean radicles were markedly increased during germination in HGMF. Furthermore, the tropism angle of emerged radicle with gravity in HGMF was statistically smaller than that in GMF when the radicle direction was placed opposite to gravity before germination. These results indicate that the germination and gravit-ropism of soybean is enhanced in a hypogeomagnetic environment, This is a new finding about the early seed germination in such a low environmental magnetic field which is comparable to the magnetic field of Lunar Swirls on the Moon (a few hundred nT), and it might provide new perspectives on the space science researches concerning plant growth and food supply.

Mo, Weichuan

343

Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake

Sumera Afzal Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Hyeokjun Yoon; Ho-Youn Kim; Seok-Jong Suh; Seon-Kap Hwang; Jong-Myeong Kim; In-Jung Lee; Yeon-Sik Choo; Ung-Han Yoon; Won-Sik Kong; Byung-Moo Lee; Jong-Guk Kim

2008-01-01

344

Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings.

Joe R. Cowles; Richard Lemay; Gary Jahns

1988-01-01

345

Controlled-Environment Sunlit Plant Growth Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled environment sunlit plant growth chambers have been built because of a great interest in plant responses to environmental variables under light intensities approaching those of natural sunlight conditions. Individual research projects have designed sunlit chambers that differ in size, structure, material, and environmental control systems dependent on the goals of the projects. Most literature describes plant organism responses to

L. Liu; G. Hoogenboom; K. T. Ingram

2000-01-01

346

Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.  

PubMed

We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR?×?Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil. PMID:21470980

Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

2011-04-06

347

D-type cyclins activate division in the root apex to promote seed germination in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds provide survival and dispersal capabilities by protecting the dormant mature plant embryo. Germination and resumption of development under favourable conditions requires the reinitiation of cell growth and division through poorly understood processes. Here we show that four phases of cell division activation during germination in Arabidopsis are related to external morphological changes. Cell division initiates in the root apical

Nompumelelo H. Masubelele; Walter Dewitte; Margit Menges; Spencer Maughan; Carl Collins; Rachael Huntley; Jeroen Nieuwland; Simon Scofield; James A. H. Murray

2005-01-01

348

The role of citrus volatiles in germination and growth of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatiles emitted from wounded peel tissue of various citrus cultivars had a pronounced stimulatory effect on germination and germ tube elongation of both P. digitatum and P. italicum; however, P. digitatum appeared to be more sensitive to the stimulatory action of citrus peel volatiles. When expos...

349

Effects of podocarp extracts on lettuce seed germination and seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ethanol extracts from 16 of the 17 New Zealand species in the family Podo-carpaceae on the germination of lettuce seeds and hypocotyl elongation are reported. Extracts of both juvenile and adult forms of Halocarpus kirkii and Halocarpus bidwillii were tested. Each extract was tested at three different levels: undiluted, and diluted × 10 and × 10. The

N. B. Perry; L. M. Foster; P. E. Jameson

1995-01-01

350

Effects of Colchicin and of Viscum album Preparations upon Germination of Seeds and Growth of Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE investigations of A. P. Dustin and his school1-5 have revealed an elective and extremely powerful karyokinetic action of the alkaloid colchicin upon the cells of certain specific organs and, in general, in all the germinative zones of animals, as well as upon the malignant tumours of the same. Dustin has also shown that this karyokinetic impetus is followed by

László Havas

1937-01-01

351

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Applications and Perspectives In Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizobacteria that exert beneficial effects on plant growth and development are referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In recent years, the use of PGPR to promote plant growth has increased in various parts of the world. PGPR can affect plant growth by production and release of secondary metabolites (plant growth regulators\\/phytohormones\\/biologically active substances), lessening or preventing deleterious effects

Zahir A Zahir; Muhammad Arshad; William T Frankenberger

2003-01-01

352

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHOSPHORUS FORMS AND PLANT GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

To minimize the financial and environmental costs of fertilizer phosphorus (P) applications, it is important to maximize whole-plant P-use efficiencies. Nutrient efficiencies are influenced by both the uptake and partitioning of P between pools within the plant. This study investigates the partitioning of total plant P between storage\\/metabolic P and structural P pools, and their relationships with plant growth. Lettuce

Martin R. Broadley; Amanda Burns; Ian G. Burns

2002-01-01

353

Calcium and humic acid affect seed germination, growth, and nutrient content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings under saline soil conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of calcium and humic acid on seed germination, growth and macro- and micro-nutrient contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings in saline soil conditions were evaluated. Different levels of humic acid (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg) and calcium (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg) were applied to growth media treated with 50 mg NaCl kg

Önder Türkmen; Atilla Dursun; Metin Turan; Çeknas Erdinç

2004-01-01

354

Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Response during Arabidopsis Seed Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hormone-mediated control of plant growth and development involves both synthesis and response. Previous studies have shown that gibberellin (GA) plays an essential role in Arabidopsis seed germination. To learn how GA stimulates seed germination, we performed comprehensive analyses of GA biosynthesis and response using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray analysis. In addition, spatial correlations between GA biosynthe-

Mikihiro Ogawa; Atsushi Hanada; Yukika Yamauchi; Ayuko Kuwahara; Yuji Kamiya; Shinjiro Yamaguchi

2003-01-01

355

Ethylene reduces plant gas exchange and growth of lettuce grown from seed to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring high levels of ethylene can be a problem in spaceflight and controlled environment agriculture (CEA) leading to sterility and irregular plant growth. There are engineering and safety advantages of growing plants under hypobaria (low pressure) for space habitation. The goals of this research were to successfully grow lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Buttercrunch) in a long-term study from seed to harvest under hypobaric conditions, and to investigate how endogenously produced ethylene affects gas exchange and plant growth from seed germination to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure conditions. Lettuce was grown under two levels of total gas pressure [hypobaric or ambient (25 or 101 kPa)] in a long-term, 32-day study. Significant levels of endogenous ethylene occurred by day-15 causing reductions in photosynthesis, dark-period respiration, and a subsequent decrease in plant growth. Hypobaria did not mitigate the adverse ethylene effects on plant growth. Seed germination was not adversely affected by hypobaria, but was reduced by hypoxia (6 kPa pO(2)). Under hypoxia, seed germination was higher under hypobaria than ambient total pressure. This research shows that lettuce can be grown from seed to harvest under hypobaria (?25% of normal earth ambient total pressure). PMID:22118875

He, Chuanjiu; Davies, Fred T

2011-11-26

356

Striga seed-germination activity of root exudates and compounds present in stems of Striga host and nonhost (trap crop) plants is reduced due to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi reduces stimulation of seed germination of the plant parasite Striga (Orobanchaceae). This reduction can affect not only host plants for Striga, resulting in a lower parasite incidence, but also false hosts or trap crops, which induce suicidal Striga seed germination, thereby diminishing their effectiveness. In order to better understand these AM-induced effects, we tested the influence of root colonization by different AM fungi on the seed-germination activity of root exudates of the Striga hermonthica nonhost plants cowpea and cotton on S. hermonthica. We also tested the effect of AM fungi on the seed-germination activity of the Striga gesnerioides host plant cowpea on S. gesnerioides. Moreover, we studied whether mycorrhization affects the transport of seed-germination activity to above-ground plant parts. Mycorrhization not only resulted in a lower seed germination of S. gesnerioides in the presence of root exudates of the S. gesnerioides host cowpea but also seed germination of S. hermonthica was also lower in the presence of root exudates of the S. hermonthica nonhosts cowpea and cotton. Downregulation of the Striga seed-germination activity occurs not only in root exudates upon root colonization by different AM fungi but also in the compounds produced by stems. The lowered seed-germination activity does not appear to depend on the presence of seed germination inhibitors in the root exudates of mycorrhizal plants. The implication for Striga control in the field is discussed. PMID:19238457

Lendzemo, V; Kuyper, T W; Vierheilig, H

2009-02-24

357

Plant Growth Modelling and Applications: The Increasing Importance of Plant Architecture in Growth Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

†Background Modelling plant growth allows us to test hypotheses and carry out virtual experiments concerning plant growth processes that could otherwise take years in field conditions. The visualization of growth simulations allows us to see directly and vividly the outcome of a given model and provides us with an instructive tool useful for agronomists and foresters, as well as for

THIERRY FOURCAUD; X IAOPENG Z HANG; A LEXIA S TOKES; H ANS L AMBERS; CHRISTIAN KORNER

2008-01-01

358

Field emergence and plant density of sand bluestem lines selected for increased seed germination.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) populations AB-medium Syn-1 and Syn-2, and CD-tall Syn-1 and Syn-2 were developed from populations AB-medium Syn-0 and CD-tall Syn-0 by recurrent selection for increased seed germination in low water potentials. The objective of this research was to verify if...

359

Effect of Ultrasonic Vibrations on Plant Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earlier studies on the effects of ultrasound on plant growth failed to specify the intensities of ultrasonic vibrations in USSR. This study examines the effect of ultrasound with specified intensity, exposure time, and frequency on the seeds of several pl...

R. S. Limar

1973-01-01

360

Effect of synthetic detergents on germination of fern spores  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic detergents constitute one of the most important water pollutants by contaminating the lakes and rivers through domestic and industrial use. Considerable information is now available for the adverse effects of detergents an aquatic fauna including fish, algae, and higher aquatic plants. Marked inhibition of germination in orchids and brinjals and of seedlings growth in raddish suggest that rapidly growing systems could be sensitive to detergent polluted water. The present study of the effect of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate on germination of the spores of a fern, Diplazium esculentum aims at the understanding of the effects of water pollution on pteridophytes and the development of spore germination assay for phytoxicity evaluation.

Devi, Y.; Devi, S.

1986-12-01

361

Methods for Modulating Plant Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides methods for modulating plant height and organ shape, comprising the step of expressing a transgene in a plant, wherein the transgene encodes an ERECTA-like protein lacking an active kinase domain and wherein expression of the transg...

E. D. Shpak K. U. Torii

2004-01-01

362

Enterobacter : Role in Plant Growth Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is believed that inoculation with rhizobacteria containing plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics consequently promote\\u000a root and shoot growth. Further evaluation of these bacteria exhibiting multiple PGP traits on soil–plant system is needed\\u000a to uncover their efficacy as effective PGP rhizobacteria (PGPR) or PGP bacteria (PGPB) depending upon their nature. The genera\\u000a within the family Enterobacteriaceae that feature members described

Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Abhinav Aeron; Baldev V. Patel; Dinesh K. Maheshwari; Meenu Saraf

363

Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: A balance between inhibition and growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) germination and growth in nonsterilized potting compost of 0.1% and 1.0% w\\/w incorporation of fermenter biomass inocula of six strains of Trichoderma was investigated. Except for strains WT and T35 at 0.1 % w\\/w, all inocula inhibited germination. Biomass of strains WT, T35, 20, and 47 at 1.0% promoted shoot fresh weight, whereas

M. A. Ousley; J. M. Lynch; J. M. Whipps

1993-01-01

364

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Potential Green Alternative for Plant Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the benefits of agriculture is gaining worldwide importance and acceptance and appears to be the trend for the future. PGPR are bioresources which may be viewed as a novel and potential tool for providing substantial benefits to the agriculture. These beneficial, free-living bacteria enhance emergence, colonize roots, stimulate growth and enhance yield.

S. Niranjan Raj; H. S. SHETTY; M. S. REDDY

365

Light Measurements in Plant Growth Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROF. HEATH raises the fundamental question of the purpose of making light measurements, and I am happy to give my point of view. I think that it will eventually be possible to predict the growth rates of plants from measurements on their environments, given sufficient understanding of the principles behind the interactions between plant and environment. The models will have

K. J. McCree

1966-01-01

366

Proteomic analyses of apoplastic proteins from germinating Arabidopsis thaliana pollen  

PubMed Central

Pollen grains play important roles in the reproductive processes of flowering plants. The roles of apoplastic proteins in pollen germination and in pollen tube growth are comparatively less well understood. To investigate the functions of apoplastic proteins in pollen germination, the global apoplastic proteins of mature and germinated Arabidopsis thaliana pollen grains were prepared for differential analyses by using 2-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) saturation labeling techniques. One hundred and three proteins differentially expressed (p value ? 0.01) in pollen germinated for 6h compare with un-germination mature pollen, and 98 spots, which represented 71 proteins, were identified by LC-MS/MS. By bioinformatics analysis, 50 proteins were identified as secreted proteins. These proteins were mainly involved in cell wall modification and remodeling, protein metabolism and signal transduction. Three of the differentially expressed proteins were randomly selected to determine their subcellular localizations by transiently expressing YFP fusion proteins. The results of subcellular localization were identical with the bioinformatics prediction. Based on these data, we proposed a model for apoplastic proteins functioning in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. These results will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of pollen germination and pollen tube growth.

Ge, Weina; Song, Yun; Zhang, Cuijun; Zhang, Yafang; Burlingame, Alma L.; Guo, Yi

2011-01-01

367

Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth. PMID:24117079

Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

2014-01-01

368

Effects of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has demonstrated the low tolerance of Posidonia oceanica mature shoots to salinity variability but there is no information about the response of its seeds and seedlings to this impact. In the present study, two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of salinity variation on germination, development and survival of P. oceanica seeds and seedlings under laboratory-controlled conditions. Maximum P. oceanica seed germination occurred at the control salinity (37), while mortality was lowest for this treatment. However, no significant differences were detected with other salinity levels (39-49). In contrast, salinity appears to play an important role in seedling development. The number of blades, the length of the primary root and the maximum length of leaves of seedlings were significantly reduced with increased salinities. The results observed in the present study are consistent with those obtained for mature P. oceanica shoots, and suggest that hypersalinities, such as those associated with brine discharge of a desalination plant, may limit P. oceanica seedling recruitment, affecting the expansion and recovery of Posidonia meadows.

Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

2013-03-01

369

PGPR: Prospective Biocontrol Agents of Plant Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are indigenous to soil and the plant rhizosphere and play a major role in the biocontrol of plant pathogens. PGPR can profoundly improve seed germination, root development and water utilization by plants. These rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth directly by producing growth hormones and improving nutrient uptake or indirectly by changing microbial balance in the

ZAKI A. SIDDIQUI

370

Embryo growth, testa permeability, and endosperm weakening are major targets for the environmentally regulated inhibition of Lepidium sativum seed germination by myrigalone A  

PubMed Central

Myrigalone A (MyA) is a rare flavonoid in fruit leachates of Myrica gale, a deciduous shrub adapted to flood-prone habitats. As a putative allelochemical it inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. Using Lepidium sativum as a model target species, experiments were conducted to investigate how environmental cues modulate MyA’s interference with key processes of seed germination. Time course analyses of L. sativum testa and endosperm rupture under different light conditions and water potentials were combined with quantifying testa permeability, endosperm weakening, tissue-specific gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) contents, as well as embryo growth and apoplastic superoxide production important for cell expansion growth. Lepidium sativum testa permeability and early water uptake by imbibition is enhanced by MyA. During late germination, MyA inhibits endosperm weakening and embryo growth, both processes required for endosperm rupture. Inhibition of embryo cell expansion by MyA depends on environmental cues, which is evident from the light-modulated severity of the MyA-mediated inhibition of apoplastic superoxide accumulation. Several important key weakening and growth processes during early and late germination are targets for MyA. These effects are modulated by light conditions and ambient water potential. It is speculated that MyA is a soil seed bank-destroying allelochemical that secures the persistence of M. gale in its flood-prone environment.

2012-01-01

371

Embryo growth, testa permeability, and endosperm weakening are major targets for the environmentally regulated inhibition of Lepidium sativum seed germination by myrigalone A.  

PubMed

Myrigalone A (MyA) is a rare flavonoid in fruit leachates of Myrica gale, a deciduous shrub adapted to flood-prone habitats. As a putative allelochemical it inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. Using Lepidium sativum as a model target species, experiments were conducted to investigate how environmental cues modulate MyA's interference with key processes of seed germination. Time course analyses of L. sativum testa and endosperm rupture under different light conditions and water potentials were combined with quantifying testa permeability, endosperm weakening, tissue-specific gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) contents, as well as embryo growth and apoplastic superoxide production important for cell expansion growth. Lepidium sativum testa permeability and early water uptake by imbibition is enhanced by MyA. During late germination, MyA inhibits endosperm weakening and embryo growth, both processes required for endosperm rupture. Inhibition of embryo cell expansion by MyA depends on environmental cues, which is evident from the light-modulated severity of the MyA-mediated inhibition of apoplastic superoxide accumulation. Several important key weakening and growth processes during early and late germination are targets for MyA. These effects are modulated by light conditions and ambient water potential. It is speculated that MyA is a soil seed bank-destroying allelochemical that secures the persistence of M. gale in its flood-prone environment. PMID:22821938

Voegele, Antje; Graeber, Kai; Oracz, Krystyna; Tarkowská, Danuše; Jacquemoud, Dominique; Ture?ková, Veronika; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

2012-07-21

372

Plant Growth Modelling and Applications: The Increasing Importance of Plant Architecture in Growth Models  

PubMed Central

Background Modelling plant growth allows us to test hypotheses and carry out virtual experiments concerning plant growth processes that could otherwise take years in field conditions. The visualization of growth simulations allows us to see directly and vividly the outcome of a given model and provides us with an instructive tool useful for agronomists and foresters, as well as for teaching. Functional–structural (FS) plant growth models are nowadays particularly important for integrating biological processes with environmental conditions in 3-D virtual plants, and provide the basis for more advanced research in plant sciences. Scope In this viewpoint paper, we ask the following questions. Are we modelling the correct processes that drive plant growth, and is growth driven mostly by sink or source activity? In current models, is the importance of soil resources (nutrients, water, temperature and their interaction with meristematic activity) considered adequately? Do classic models account for architectural adjustment as well as integrating the fundamental principles of development? Whilst answering these questions with the available data in the literature, we put forward the opinion that plant architecture and sink activity must be pushed to the centre of plant growth models. In natural conditions, sinks will more often drive growth than source activity, because sink activity is often controlled by finite soil resources or developmental constraints. PMA06 This viewpoint paper also serves as an introduction to this Special Issue devoted to plant growth modelling, which includes new research covering areas stretching from cell growth to biomechanics. All papers were presented at the Second International Symposium on Plant Growth Modeling, Simulation, Visualization and Applications (PMA06), held in Beijing, China, from 13–17 November, 2006. Although a large number of papers are devoted to FS models of agricultural and forest crop species, physiological and genetic processes have recently been included and point the way to a new direction in plant modelling research.

Fourcaud, Thierry; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Stokes, Alexia; Lambers, Hans; Korner, Christian

2008-01-01

373

Involvement of the abscisic acid catabolic gene CYP707A2 in the glucose-induced delay in seed germination and post-germination growth of Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Earlier studies showed that sugars as signaling molecules play pivotal roles in the regulation of seed germination. ABA biosynthesis upregulation is suggested as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the glucose-induced delay in seed germination. In this study, the role of ABA catabolism in glucose-induced inhibition was investigated. Using Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the results show that the repression of ABA catabolism by diniconazole aggravated the glucose-induced delay in seed germination. The transcript and protein profiles of CYP707A2, a key gene encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase in ABA catabolism in Arabidopsis, were significantly decreased by exogenous glucose treatment. Transgenic experiments confirmed that the over-expression of the CYP707A2 gene alleviated the glucose-induced inhibition effect, whereas the cyp707a2 mutant seeds displayed a hypersensitivity to glucose during imbibition. Exogenous glucose also arrested the early seedling development of Arabidopsis. The CYP707A2 over-expression seedlings exhibited lower ABA levels and seemed less sensitive to exogenous glucose compared with wild type seedlings. In summary, the glucose-induced delay in seed germination and seedling development is directly related to the suppression of ABA catabolism through the repression of the CYP707A2 expression. PMID:21883251

Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Jianhua

2011-10-04

374

Plant growth with limited water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the c...

1991-01-01

375

In Vitro Propagation by Asymbiotic Seed Germination and 1,1Diphenyl2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging Activity Studies of Tissue Culture Raised Plants of Three Medicinally Important Species of Dendrobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and efficient plant propagation system has been developed by asymbiotic germination of seeds in three medicinally important Dendrobium species, namely, Dendrobium tosaense, Dendrobium moniliforme, and Dendrobium linawianum. Plants obtained from natural habitats were grown in the greenhouse. The flowers were hand pollinated. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50—74%) on half strength

Shu-Fung Lo; Satish Manohar Nalawade; Vanisree Mulabagal; Susan Matthew; Chung-Li Chen; Chao-Lin Kuo; Hsin-Sheng Tsay

2004-01-01

376

Striga seed-germination activity of root exudates and compounds present in stems of Striga host and nonhost (trap crop) plants is reduced due to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi reduces stimulation of seed germination of the plant parasite Striga (Orobanchaceae). This reduction can affect not only host plants for Striga, resulting in a lower parasite incidence, but also false hosts or trap crops, which induce suicidal Striga seed germination, thereby diminishing their effectiveness. In order to better understand these AM-induced effects, we

V. W. Lendzemo; T. W. Kuyper; H. Vierheilig

2009-01-01

377

THE EFFECT ON THE GERMINATION, RESPIRATION AND UREASE ACTIVITY IN SOYBEAN SEED WITH RADIATION BY Co60  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many reports about the effect of x-ray and Ra-radioactivity to ; the plant seeds. OMURO studied on the effect of x-ray to the germination of rice ; and the growth of Broad bean. STOKLASA studied the effect of Paradioactivity to ; the germination of Broad bean and Green pea. The effect of radiation by Co-60 on ; the

1961-01-01

378

Protein Mobilization in Germinating Mung Bean Seeds Involves Vacuolar Sorting Receptors and Multivesicular Bodies1(W)(OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants accumulate and store proteins in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) during seed development and maturation. Upon seed germination, these storage proteins are mobilized to provide nutrients for seedling growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of protein degradation during seed germination. Here we test the hypothesis that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins play a role in mediating protein

Junqi Wang; Yubing Li; Sze Wan Lo; Stefan Hillmer; Samuel S. M. Sun; David G. Robinson; Liwen Jiang

379

Chemical characterization of new oxylipins from Cestrum parqui, and their effects on seed germination and early seedling growth.  

PubMed

Isolation, chemical characterization, and phytotoxicity of five new oxylipins, together with seven already known related compounds, from Cestrum parqui L' Hérl. is reported. All the structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data, especially 1D-(1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT) and 2D-NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). The configurations of the stereogenic C-atoms were determined by the Mosher's method. The compounds have been assayed for their phytotoxicity on Lactuca sativa at concentrations ranging between 10(-4) and 10(-8) M. The results of the phytotoxicity tests on the germination and growth of the test species, obtained by a cluster analysis, showed interesting relationship between the chemical structures of the compounds and their biological effects. PMID:18816534

Fiorentino, Antonio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Dellagreca, Marina; Izzo, Angelina; Natale, Angela; Pascarella, Maria Teresa; Pacifico, Severina; Zarrelli, Armando; Monaco, Pietro

2008-09-01

380

Plant Development and Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you will find basic information on the reproduction and growth of plants; from a seed that develops into a full grown plant and then, when sexually mature, produces its own seeds. Plant development and reproduction Standard 3, objective 3 (4 th grade). Observe plant growth and relate it to soil conditions. Objectives : List the resources needed for the healthy growth of plants. Explain how a seed germinates and plants grow. Describe the ...

Elizabeth

2010-09-28

381

In vitro propagation by asymbiotic seed germination and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity studies of tissue culture raised plants of three medicinally important species of dendrobium.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient plant propagation system has been developed by asymbiotic germination of seeds in three medicinally important Dendrobium species, namely, Dendrobium tosaense, Dendrobium moniliforme, and Dendrobium linawianum. Plants obtained from natural habitats were grown in the greenhouse. The flowers were hand pollinated. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50-74%) on half strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium with 3% sucrose and solidified with 0.9% Difco agar. Active growth in the germinated seedlings was achieved by re-culturing on full strength MS basal medium supplemented with 8% banana homogenate, 8% potato homogenate, 8% coconut water, 1.5% sucrose and 0.9% Difco agar. Healthy plantlets, transferred to plastic trays containing moss or moss and tree fern, successfully acclimatized (84-100%) in the greenhouse. A marked varied response was observed in the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of in vitro propagated plants, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical using a UV spectrophotometer assay. Methanolic extracts were prepared by dissolving the powdered plant material, obtained from six months old in vitro propagated plants, each about 5 g, in boiling methanol. The percentage of scavenging effect of D. tosaense extract was 95.9% at 0.4 mg/ml concentration, whereas D. monoliforme, and D. linawianum extracts scavenged 83.4% and 92.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml. All the extracts scavenged DPPH radical significantly in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:15133256

Lo, Shu-Fung; Nalawade, Satish Manohar; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Matthew, Susan; Chen, Chung-Li; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

2004-05-01

382

How the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum Promotes Plant Growth—A Critical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 35 years of studies of Azospirillum–plant interaction, over 20 proposals were suggested for the mechanism of action by which Azospirillum spp., the most intensively studied plant growth-promoting bacteria, enhances plant growth. The proposals include a single phytohormone activity, multiple phytohormones, nitrogen fixation, assortments of small-sized molecules and enzymes, enhanced membrane activity, proliferation of the root system, enhanced

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2010-01-01

383

Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific strains of the Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida group have recently been used as seed inoculants on crop plants to promote growth and increase yields. These pseudomonads, termed plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), rapidly colonize plant roots of potato, sugar beet and radish, and cause statistically significant yield increases up to 144% in field tests1-5. These results prompted us to investigate the mechanism

Joseph W. Kloepper; John Leong; Martin Teintze; Milton N. Schroth

1980-01-01

384

Effects of Temperature on Germination of Eleven Festuca Cultivars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many studies have shown that water potential at planting affects the germination rate and final germination of Festuca cultivars. Limited information is available about the extent of variability in temperature-dependence of germination among different Fes...

A. J. Palazzo G. S. Brar

1997-01-01

385

Dredged Illinois River Sediments: Plant Growth and Metal Uptake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentation of the Illinois River in central Illinois has greatly diminished the utility and ecological value of the Peoria Lakes reach of the river. Consequently, a large dredging project has been proposed to improve its wildlife habitat and recreation potential, but disposal of the dredged sediment presents a challenge. Land placement is an attractive option. Previous work in Illinois has demonstrated that sediments are potentially capable of supporting agronomic crops due to their high natural fertility and water holding capacity. However, Illinois River sediments have elevated levels of heavy metals, which may be important if they are used as garden or agricultural soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine if these sediments could serve as a plant growth medium. A secondary objective was to determine if plants grown on sediments accumulated significant heavy metal concentrations. Our results indicated that lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.), and snap bean (Phaseolus vulagaris L. var. humillis) grown in sediment and a reference topsoil did not show significant or consistent differences in germination or yields. In addition, there was not a consistent statistically significant difference in metal content among tomatoes grown in sediments, topsoil, or grown locally in gardens. In the other plants grown on sediments, while Cd and Cu in all cases and As in lettuce and snap bean were elevated, levels were below those considered excessive. Results indicate that properly managed, these relatively uncontaminated calcareous sediments can make productive soils and that metal uptake of plants grown in these sediments is generally not a concern.

Darmody, R. G.; Marlin, J. C.; Talbott, J.; Green, R. A.; Brewer, E. F.; Stohr, C.

2004-01-01

386

Dynamical scaling analysis of plant callus growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental results for the dynamical scaling properties of the development of plant calli. We have assayed two different species of plant calli, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa, under different growth conditions, and show that their dynamical scalings share a universality class. From a theoretical point of view, we introduce a scaling hypothesis for systems whose size evolves in time. We expect our work to be relevant for the understanding and characterization of other systems that undergo growth due to cell division and differentiation, such as, for example, tumor development.

Galeano, J.; Buceta, J.; Juarez, K.; Pumarińo, B.; de la Torre, J.; Iriondo, J. M.

2003-07-01

387

Growth of Avocado Plants Under Saline Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is an important multipurpose tree crop. A study was conducted to investigate the growth and gas exchange characteristics of avocado seedlings growing under different salinity levels. Plants were grown in 4.5 liter plastic pots containing soil were subjected to 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM NaCl salinity treatments. Growth, net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal

D. M. Musyimi; G. W. Netondo; G. Ouma

2007-01-01

388

Light and the Control of Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light is the source of energy for plants, and as a result is a key environmental cue controlling\\u000a their growth. The need to reach the appropriate light environment, and then to maximise its capture, leads\\u000a to different organs showing contrasting growth regulation by light: generally negative in aerial elongating\\u000a organs (hypocotyl, internodes, petioles) and positive in photosynthetic ones (leaf blades), as well

Enrique López-Juez; Paul Devlin

389

Plant growth as an iteration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of vegetative plant growth is formulated on the base of experimental data of dry matter accumulation and distribution\\u000a in seedlings of Scots pine. The quantitative description of growth is carried out in terms of discrete dynamical systems.\\u000a Main results: if time tends to infinity, then: (1) the proportion of dry weight of assimilatory to nonassimilatory parts tends\\u000a to

W. Szlenk; W. ?elawski

390

Plant growth regulatory metabolites from novel actinomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolites from 796 isolates of aerobic actinomycetes were screened for plant growth regulatory properties using an algal bioassay. These included 266 isolates ofStreptomyces, 28 unidentified actinomycetes, and 502 isolates of “novel” actinomycetes represented by 18 genera. Algal growth inhibition of ?30% was observed with 60 isolates, 37 of which belonged to the genusStreptomyces. Among other inhibitors were 8 isolates ofActinomadura,

Saroj K. Mishra; William H. Taft; Alan R. Putnam; Stanley K. Ries

1987-01-01

391

Light Measurements in Plant Growth Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE procedure suggested by K. J. McCree1 under the above heading would only be of use if it were intended to estimate plant growth from the time-integrated values of the transformed light measurements, and in view of the many assumptions involved it would then seem more sensible to measure the growth directly. He implies that the object of measuring daylight

O. V. S. Heath

1966-01-01

392

Seed reserve composition in 19 tree species of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico and its relationship to seed germination and seedling growth  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The size and composition of seed reserves may reflect the ecological strategy and evolutionary history of a species and also temporal variation in resource availability. The seed mass and composition of seed reserves of 19 co-existing tree species were studied, and we examined how they varied among species in relation to germination and seedling growth rates, as well as between two years with contrasting precipitation (652 and 384 mm). Methods Seeds were collected from a tropical deciduous forest in the northwest of Mexico (Chamela Biological Station). The seed dry mass, with and without the seed coat, and the concentrations of lipids, nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrates for the seed minus seed coat were determined. The anatomical localization of these reserves was examined using histochemical analysis. The germination capacity, rate and lag time were determined. The correlations among these variables, and their relationship to previously reported seedling relative growth rates, were evaluated with and without phylogenetic consideration. Key Results There were interannual differences in seed mass and reserve composition. Seed was significantly heavier after the drier year in five species. Nitrogen concentration was positively correlated with seed coat fraction, and was significantly higher after the drier year in 12 species. The rate and lag time of germination were negatively correlated with each other. These trait correlations were also supported for phylogenetic independent contrasts. Principal component analysis supported these correlations, and indicated a negative association of seedling relative growth rate with seed size, and a positive association of germination rate with nitrogen and lipid concentrations. Conclusions Nitrogen concentration tended to be higher after the drier year and, while interannual variations in seed size and reserve composition were not sufficient to affect interspecific correlations among seed and seedling traits, some of the reserves were related to germination variables and seedling relative growth rate.

Soriano, Diana; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Marquez-Guzman, Judith; Kitajima, Kaoru; Gamboa-de Buen, Alicia; Huante, Pilar

2011-01-01

393

Book Review: Plant Growth and Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The technical book "Plant Growth and climate Change" (2006. James I.L. Morison and M.D. Morecroft, Eds. Blackwell Publishing. 213 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed journal HortScience. The text is well organized into nine independently-authored chapters each of whi...

394

Static Magnetic Field and Plant Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the conditions of stable existence of Static Magnetic Field (SMF) the growth processes of some plants' (chickpeas, beans and lentils) seeds have been investigated in different temperatures of microenvironment. It has been established that the rate of the plant growths is affected (speeded up) by SMF that is intimately related to environmental temperature, any other environmental parameters (humidity, illumination, soil chemical state, etc) being under control. At the same time, the highest rate of growth has been observed in beans at a range of 30, 0 +/- 2, 0 °C. Special experiments and analyses of the data obtained, testified that the plants roots occurred the main target for SMF to be affected to get increasing rate. In order to standardize experimental conditions, the SMF have been created by magnetic bars of the intensity of B, equal that of the Earth at a distance of 23 cm from a pole of a bar magnet on the line passing along the both of its poles. Taking as a basis the results, it may be concluded that SMF can affect plant growth process, being regarded as an environmental factor of ecological importance.

Maharramov, Akif A.

2007-04-01

395

Two New Chemical Plant Growth Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

BENZOYL oxide and benzoyl peroxide, as I have found, can now be added to the list of chemicals which act on plant growth like the natural hormone, auxin. Benzoyl oxide, when applied in lanoline at concentration 1 in 200 to ten dark-grown decapitated oat coleoptiles along one side, caused negative curves the mean of which was 50° after 4Ľ hours

R. Snow

1937-01-01

396

Plant Cell Growth in Tissue1[OA  

PubMed Central

Cell walls are part of the apoplasm pathway that transports water, solutes, and nutrients to cells within plant tissue. Pressures within the apoplasm (cell walls and xylem) are often different from atmospheric pressure during expansive growth of plant cells in tissue. The previously established Augmented Growth Equations are modified to evaluate the turgor pressure, water uptake, and expansive growth of plant cells in tissue when pressures within the apoplasm are lower and higher than atmospheric pressure. Analyses indicate that a step-down and step-up in pressure within the apoplasm will cause an exponential decrease and increase in turgor pressure, respectively, and the rates of water uptake and expansive growth each undergo a rapid decrease and increase, respectively, followed by an exponential return to their initial magnitude. Other analyses indicate that pressure within the apoplasm decreases exponentially to a lower value after a step-down in turgor pressure, which simulates its behavior after an increase in expansive growth rate. Also, analyses indicate that the turgor pressure decays exponentially to a constant value that is the sum of the critical turgor pressure and pressure within the apoplasm during stress relaxation experiments in which pressures within the apoplasm are not atmospheric pressure. Additional analyses indicate that when the turgor pressure is constant (clamped), a decrease in pressure within the apoplasm elicits an increase in elastic expansion followed by an increase in irreversible expansion rate. Some analytical results are supported by prior experimental research, and other analytical results can be verified with existing experimental methods.

Ortega, Joseph K.E.

2010-01-01

397

Effects of actinobacteria on plant disease suppression and growth promotion.  

PubMed

Biological control and plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes has been viewed as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Bacteria and fungi that are naturally associated with plants and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by the alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses were isolated and developed into biocontrol (BCA) and plant growth-promoting agents (PGPA). Actinobacteria are a group of important plant-associated spore-forming bacteria, which have been studied for their biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and interaction with plants. This review summarizes the effects of actinobacteria as BCA, PGPA, and its beneficial associations with plants. PMID:24092003

Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhang, Lixin; Suh, Joo-Won

2013-10-05

398

Chloroplast Growth and Replication in Germinating Spinach Cotyledons following Massive gamma-Irradiation of the Seed.  

PubMed

Spinach seeds (Spinacia oleracea L.) given massive doses of gamma-irradiation (500 krad) germinate and form a seedling with two green cotyledons and a radicle, but develop no further. Irradiated cotyledons show no increase in cell number or total DNA over a 7-day period in the light, while in control cotyledons there is a small increase in cell number and large increases in total DNA and chloroplast number. The chloroplasts of irradiated cotyledons are delayed in their division, become greatly enlarged and contain large amounts of starch. The whole population of chloroplasts subsequently undergoes a wave of division. The daughter chloroplasts show normal thylakoid development, but have some abnormal structural features caused by the radiation stress. Information on the effect of X-irradiation, ultraviolet irradiation, and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine on chloroplast replication and on chloroplast and nuclear DNA synthesis was obtained from cultured spinach leaf discs. It appears that chloroplast replication is more resistant to ionizing radiation than cell division and can proceed in the absence of nuclear DNA synthesis and greatly reduced chloroplast DNA synthesis. PMID:16659421

Rose, R; Possingham, J

1976-01-01

399

Protein mobilization in germinating mung bean seeds involves vacuolar sorting receptors and multivesicular bodies.  

PubMed

Plants accumulate and store proteins in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) during seed development and maturation. Upon seed germination, these storage proteins are mobilized to provide nutrients for seedling growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of protein degradation during seed germination. Here we test the hypothesis that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins play a role in mediating protein degradation in germinating seeds. We demonstrate that both VSR proteins and hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized de novo during mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed germination. Immunogold electron microscopy with VSR antibodies demonstrate that VSRs mainly locate to the peripheral membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), presumably as recycling receptors in day 1 germinating seeds, but become internalized to the MVB lumen, presumably for degradation at day 3 germination. Chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with VSR antibodies have identified the cysteine protease aleurain as a specific VSR-interacting protein in germinating seeds. Further confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrate that VSR and aleurain colocalize to MVBs as well as PSVs in germinating seeds. Thus, MVBs in germinating seeds exercise dual functions: as a storage compartment for proteases that are physically separated from PSVs in the mature seed and as an intermediate compartment for VSR-mediated delivery of proteases from the Golgi apparatus to the PSV for protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:17322331

Wang, Junqi; Li, Yubing; Lo, Sze Wan; Hillmer, Stefan; Sun, Samuel S M; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

2007-02-23

400

Effects of Biological Soil Crusts on Seed Bank, Germination and Establishment of Two Annual Plant Species in the Tengger Desert (N China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of biological soil crusts can affect the germination and survival of vascular plants, but the reasons are not\\u000a well investigated. We have conducted a field investigation and greenhouse experiments to test the effect of crusts on two\\u000a desert annual plants, which occur on the stabilized dunes of the Tengger Desert in N China. The results showed that biological

Xin-Rong Li; Xiao-Hong Jia; Li-Qun Long; Stefan Zerbe

2005-01-01

401

Plant growth regulators affecting in vitro cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to maximize efficiency of plant propagation via direct organogenesis, the influence of plant growth regulators on the growth and development of Stevia rebaudiana grown in vitro was studied. Results indicated that benzyl adenine increased multiplication rate, vitrification and somaclonal variation.\\u000a However, the best results were recorded with MS nutrient medium without plant growth regulators during in vitro growth

Ibrahim A. Ibrahim; Mahmoud I. Nasr; Berlanti R. Mohammed; Mohammed M. El-Zefzafi

2008-01-01

402

Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacterial ACC Deaminase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there has been only limited commercial use of plant growth-promoting bacteria in agriculture, horticulture, and silviculture. However, with recent progress toward understanding the mechanisms that these organisms utilize to facilitate plant growth, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria is expected to continue to increase worldwide. One of the key mechanisms employed by plant growth-promoting bacteria to facilitate plant

Bernard R. Glick; Biljana Todorovic; Jennifer Czarny; Zhenyu Cheng; Jin Duan; Brendan McConkey

2007-01-01

403

Seed flotation and germination of salt marsh plants: The effects of stratification, salinity, and/or inundation regime  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of cold stratification and salinity on seed flotation of eight salt marsh species. Four of the eight species were tested for germination success under different stratification, salinity, and flooding conditions. Species were separated into two groups, four species received wet stratification and four dry stratification and fresh seeds of all species were tested for flotation and germination. Fresh seeds of seven out of eight species had flotation times independent of salinity, six of which had average flotation times of at least 50 d. Seeds of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens had the shortest flotation times, averaging 24 and 26 d, respectively. Following wet stratification, the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds in higher salinity water (15 and 36 ppt) was reduced by over 75% and germination declined by more than 90%. Wet stratification reduced the flotation time of Distichlis spicata seeds in fresh water but increased seed germination from 2 to 16% in a fluctuating inundation regime. Fresh seeds of Iva frutescens and S. alternflora were capable of germination and therefore are non-dormant during dispersal. Fresh seeds of I. frutescens had similar germination to dry stratified seeds ranging 25-30%. Salinity reduced seed germination for all species except for S. alterniflora. A fluctuating inundation regime was important for seed germination of the low marsh species and for germination following cold stratification. The conditions that resulted in seeds sinking faster were similar to the conditions that resulted in higher germination for two of four species. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B. A.; Proffitt, C. E.

2009-01-01

404

Use of Composted Sewage Sludge as Horticultural Growth Media: Effects on Germination and Trace Element Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for growth media for greenhouse horticultural uses, the rising new uses of substrates, and the scarcity and cost of traditional sources, such as sphagnum peat moss in Mediterranean countries, have focused research on new substrate materials. Use of composted sewage sludges as a component of growth media could be a feasible alternative, with the benefit of their

Raul Moral; Concepción Paredes; Belen Rufete

2005-01-01

405

Circularly Polarized Light and Growth of Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of linearly polarized light on the direction of plants growth has been recently demonstrated. The state of circularly polarized (CP) light can also change when it is reflected from the surface of leaves and stems. However, the role of light handedness in the development of plants and CP light interaction with the complexes of chlorophyll molecules have still not been studied enough. In this work, the role of left CP light in the accelerated growth of lentil and pea plants is revealed and studied. The mechanism of such an enhancement is discussed in terms of the model considering transmission, absorption, and scattering of CP light on micro and macro levels of leaf organization. Theoretical modeling of light interaction with the interior of the leaf was conducted for a number of recently proposed models of organization of chlorophyll molecules and chloroplasts. All the calculations were performed by employing a 4x4 matrix method in solving Maxwell equations. It is shown that left-handed chiral organization of chlorophyll molecules can greatly enhance the absorption of light and therefore lead to the enhanced growth of the whole plant under CP light.

Shibayev, Pavel; Pergolizzi, Robert

2011-03-01

406

Bacterial Ammonia Causes Significant Plant Growth Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Many and complex plant-bacteria inter-relationships are found in the rhizosphere, since plants release a variety of photosynthetic exudates from their roots and rhizobacteria produce multifaceted specialized compounds including rich mixtures of volatiles, e.g., the bouquet of Serratia odorifera 4Rx13 is composed of up to 100 volatile organic and inorganic compounds. Here we show that when growing on peptone-rich nutrient medium S. odorifera 4Rx13 and six other rhizobacteria emit high levels of ammonia, which during co-cultivation in compartmented Petri dishes caused alkalization of the neighboring plant medium and subsequently reduced the growth of A. thaliana. It is argued that in nature high-protein resource degradations (carcasses, whey, manure and compost) are also accompanied by bacterial ammonia emission which alters the pH of the rhizosphere and thereby influences organismal diversity and plant-microbe interactions. Consequently, bacterial ammonia emission may be more relevant for plant colonization and growth development than previously thought.

Weise, Teresa; Kai, Marco; Piechulla, Birgit

2013-01-01

407

Plant life-form and germination in a Mexican inter-tropical desert: effects of soil water potential and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of soil water potential (SWP) and temperature on seed germination of six coexisting species of an inter-tropical desert. These species include three life-forms; the shrubs Cercidium praecox andProsopis laevigata ; the columnar succulents Neobuxbaumia tetetzo and Pachycereus hollianus; and the arborescent semi-succulents Beaucarnea gracilis and Yucca periculosa. In the six species germinability increased and germination time

Joel Flores; Oscar Briones

2001-01-01

408

Involvement of carboxypeptidase in the degradation of the mung bean ( Vigna radiata ) trypsin inhibitor during germination and early seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the substrate specifity of the carboxypeptidase activity of ungerminated and germinated mung beans (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) reveals the presence of two distinct enzymes. The first of these, carboxypeptidase I, is maximally active against carbobenzyloxy-Ala-Phe. It is present in large amounts in the cotyledons of ungerminated seeds, and declines rapidly during germination. The second, carboxypeptidase II, is most

Karl A. Wilson; Berit R. Rightmire; Anna L. Tan-Wilson

1985-01-01

409

Plants and Magnetism: Experiments with Biomagnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phenomenon of effect of magnetic field on plant growth provides wide opportunities for research in classrooms. Using moderately powerful magnets, seed growth patterns can be observed in pre-germination treatment, germination period exposure and under many other conditions. Such research may enable understanding magnetotropism more clearly. (PS)|

McCormack, Alan J.

1972-01-01

410

Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth  

DOEpatents

A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

Triplett, Eric W. (Middleton, WI); Kaeppler, Shawn M. (Oregon, WI); Chelius, Marisa K. (Greeley, CO)

2008-07-01

411

Microcosm study for revegetation of barren land with wild plants by some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Growth promotion of wild plants by some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was examined in the microcosms composed of soils collected separately from a grass-covered site and a nongrass-covered site in a lakeside barren area at Lake Paro, Korea. After sowing the seeds of eight kinds of wild plants and inoculation of several strains of PGPR, the total bacterial number and microbial activity were measured during 5 months of study period, and the plant biomasses grown were compared at the end of the study. Acridine orange direct counts in the inoculated microcosms, 1.3-9.8 x 10(9) cells x g soil(-1) in the soil from the grass-covered area and 0.9-7.2 x 10(9) cells x g soil(-1) in the soil from the nongrass-covered site, were almost twice higher than those in the uninoculated microcosms. The number of Pseudomonas sp., well-known bacteria as PGPR, and the soil dehydrogenase activity were also higher in the inoculated soils than the uninoculated soils. The first germination of sowed seeds in the inoculated microcosm was 5 days earlier than the uninoculated microcosm. Average lengths of all plants grown during the study period were 26% and 29% longer in the inoculated microcosms starting with the grass-covered soil and the nongrass-covered soil, respectively, compared with those in the uninoculated microcosms. Dry weights of whole plants grown were 67-82% higher in the inoculated microcosms than the uninoculated microcosms. Microbial population and activity and growth promoting effect by PGPR were all higher in the soils collected from the grass-covered area than in the nongrass-covered area. The growth enhancement of wild plants seemed to occur by the activities of inoculated microorganisms, and this capability of PGPR may be utilized for rapid revegetation of some barren lands. PMID:18051353

Ahn, Tae-Seok; Ka, Jong-Ok; Lee, Geon-Hyoung; Song, Hong-Gyu

2007-01-01

412

Sodium stimulates growth of Amaranthus tricolor L. plants through enhanced nitrate assimilation  

SciTech Connect

Effects of Na application on the capacity of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}} assimilation were studied in Na-deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. cv Tricolor plants. On day 30 after germination, Na-deficient A. tricolor plants received either 0.5 millimolar NaCl or KCl. The level of nitrate reductase activity doubled within 24 hours by the addition of Na and the enhanced level was maintained thereafter. When the plants were exposed to 2 millimolar {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, total {sup 15}N taken up by the plants was greater in the Na-treated plants than in the K-treated plants within 24 hours of the Na treatment. Incorporation of {sup 15}N into the 80% ethanol-insoluble nitrogen fraction of the Na-treated plants in the light period was about 260% of those of the K-treated plants indicating greater capacity of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} assimilation in the Na-treated plants. From these results, it was demonstrated that Na application to the Na-deficient A. tricolor plants promoted NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} reduction and its subsequent assimilation into protein, resulting in growth enhancement.

Ohta, Daisaku; Yasuoka, Sumito; Matoh, Toru; Takahashi, Eiichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1989-04-01

413

Sodium Stimulates Growth of Amaranthus tricolor L. Plants through Enhanced Nitrate Assimilation  

PubMed Central

Effects of Na application on the capacity of NO3? assimilation were studied in Na-deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. cv Tricolor plants. On day 30 after germination, Na-deficient A. tricolor plants received either 0.5 millimolar NaCl or KCl. The level of nitrate reductase activity doubled within 24 hours by the addition of Na and the enhanced level was maintained thereafter. When the plants were exposed to 2 millimolar 15NO3?, total 15N taken up by the plants was greater in the Na-treated plants than in the K-treated plants within 24 hours of the Na treatment. Incorporation of 15N into the 80% ethanol-insoluble nitrogen fraction of the Na-treated plants in the light period was about 260% of those of the K-treated plants indicating greater capacity of NO3? assimilation in the Na-treated plants. From these results, it was demonstrated that Na application to the Na-deficient A. tricolor plants promoted NO3? reduction and its subsequent assimilation into protein, resulting in growth enhancement.

Ohta, Daisaku; Yasuoka, Sumito; Matoh, Toru; Takahashi, Eiichi

1989-01-01

414

Sodium Stimulates Growth of Amaranthus tricolor L. Plants through Enhanced Nitrate Assimilation.  

PubMed

Effects of Na application on the capacity of NO(3) (-) assimilation were studied in Na-deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. cv Tricolor plants. On day 30 after germination, Na-deficient A. tricolor plants received either 0.5 millimolar NaCl or KCl. The level of nitrate reductase activity doubled within 24 hours by the addition of Na and the enhanced level was maintained thereafter. When the plants were exposed to 2 millimolar (15)NO(3) (-), total (15)N taken up by the plants was greater in the Na-treated plants than in the K-treated plants within 24 hours of the Na treatment. Incorporation of (15)N into the 80% ethanol-insoluble nitrogen fraction of the Na-treated plants in the light period was about 260% of those of the K-treated plants indicating greater capacity of NO(3) (-) assimilation in the Na-treated plants. From these results, it was demonstrated that Na application to the Na-deficient A. tricolor plants promoted NO(3) (-) reduction and its subsequent assimilation into protein, resulting in growth enhancement. PMID:16666671

Ohta, D; Yasuoka, S; Matoh, T; Takahashi, E

1989-04-01

415

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have

Robert S. Bandurski; Aga Schulze

1983-01-01

416

Modeling and simulation of the plant growth based on reciprocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to simulate the plants' growth under reciprocity, this paper presents a novel plants' growth model based on reciprocity. In this approach, the neighborhood interference model is used to obtain mutual coefficient and the FON (Field-of-Neighborhood) model is applied to determine the ZOI (zone-of-influence) of plant. The plants' growth model based on reciprocity contains trees' space location, age, self-growth

Jing Fan; Jiao-hong Yu; Tian-yang Dong; Li-rong Xiong

2009-01-01

417

The Growth and Failure of U.S. Manufacturing Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the patterns of postentry growth and failure for over 200,000 plants that entered the U.S. manufacturing sector in the 1967-77 period. The postentry patterns of growth and failure vary significantly with observable employer characteristics. Plant failure rates decline with size and age as do the growth rates of nonfailing plants. The expected growth rate of a plant,

Timothy Dunne; Mark J. Roberts; Larry Samuelson

1989-01-01

418

A nondestructive method for continuously monitoring plant growth.  

PubMed

In the past, plant growth generally has been measured using destructive methods. This paper describes a nondestructive technique for continuously monitoring plant growth. The technique provides a means of directly and accurately measuring plant growth over both short and long time intervals. Application of this technique to the direct measurement of plant growth rates is illustrated using corn (Zea mays L.) as an example. PMID:11539820

Schwartzkopf, S H

1985-06-01

419

EFFECTS OF OZONE ON SPORULATION, SPORE GERMINATION, AND GROWTH OF FOMES ANNOSUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of ozone (O3) on certain cultural characteristics of Fomes annosus were investigated in exposure chamber studies. Growth rates of F. annosus decreased and conidial germ tubes were shorter and had fewer branches as O3 dosages increased. F. annosus conidial production was v...

420

Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) was prepared to suppress melanoma development. CBR extracts were divided into hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water fractions. Among all the fractions, EtOAc fraction showed the best suppressive effect on B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay. It also showed the increased cell death and the changed cellular morphology after CBR treatment. Annexin V-FITC/PI, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to elucidate anticancer activity of CBR. The results showed that CBR induced p53-mediated apoptotic cell death of B16F10. CBR EtOAc treatment increased melanin content and melanogenesis-related proteins of MITF and TRP-1 expressions, which supports its anticancer activity. Its potential as an anticancer agent was further investigated in tumor-xenografted mouse model. In melanoma-xenografted mouse model, melanoma tumor growth was significantly suppressed under CBR EtOAc fraction treatment. HPLC analysis of CBR extract showed peak of adenosine. In conclusion, CBR extracts notably inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through the p53-mediated apoptosis induction and increased melanogenesis. These findings suggest that CBR EtOAc fraction can act as an effective anticancer agent to treat melanoma.

Song, Minjung; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

2013-01-01

421

Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth.  

PubMed

Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) was prepared to suppress melanoma development. CBR extracts were divided into hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water fractions. Among all the fractions, EtOAc fraction showed the best suppressive effect on B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay. It also showed the increased cell death and the changed cellular morphology after CBR treatment. Annexin V-FITC/PI, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to elucidate anticancer activity of CBR. The results showed that CBR induced p53-mediated apoptotic cell death of B16F10. CBR EtOAc treatment increased melanin content and melanogenesis-related proteins of MITF and TRP-1 expressions, which supports its anticancer activity. Its potential as an anticancer agent was further investigated in tumor-xenografted mouse model. In melanoma-xenografted mouse model, melanoma tumor growth was significantly suppressed under CBR EtOAc fraction treatment. HPLC analysis of CBR extract showed peak of adenosine. In conclusion, CBR extracts notably inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through the p53-mediated apoptosis induction and increased melanogenesis. These findings suggest that CBR EtOAc fraction can act as an effective anticancer agent to treat melanoma. PMID:23533475

Song, Minjung; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

2013-02-25

422

Germination biology and seedling growth of Clusia hilariana Schltdl., a dominant CAM-tree of drought-prone sandy coastal plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal fluctuations of water availability can be an obstacle for recruitment of many species in the restinga and might restrict seed germination and seedling growth in specific regeneration safe-sites. Clusia\\u000a hilariana is one of the most dominant species of Restinga de Jurubatiba. This species has a high proportion of seedling establishment\\u000a occurring inside the tanks of soil

Aline Cavalcante; Maria Isabel Guedes Braz; Eduardo Arcoverde de Mattos

2010-01-01

423

Optimal pollination environment of tetraploid ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) evaluated by in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth in styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen germination percentages in vitro of a tetraploid ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), ‘4×Sanshu’, tended to be highest at around 20°C. Pollen tube growth in the styles was greatly enhanced at 17°C, i.e., pollen tubes penetrated into the entire stylar length in 66.7% of the styles used. Pollen stored for at least 3h under 40–80% relative humidity (RH) almost completely lost

Shinichi Adaniya

2001-01-01

424

Seed germination, seedling growth and habitat partitioning in two morphotypes of the tropical pioneer tree Trema micrantha in a seasonal forest in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the distribution, germination, growth and photosynthetic characteristics of two co-existing mor- photypes of the pioneer tree Trema micrantha at the Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM), Panama. Morphotypes differed significantly in distribution and in seed characteristics. A 'large'-seeded morphotype (endocarp mass = 3.83 mg) was associated with treefall gaps in the forest interior, whereas a 'small'-seeded morphotype (endocarp mass

Katia Silvera; John B. Skillman; J. W. Dalling

2003-01-01

425

Interaction between seed size and NaCl on germination and early seedling growth of some Turkish cultivars of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea is an important food legume crop of Turkey and is largely grown for human consumption on low moisture or salt-affected\\u000a soils. The objective of the study was to find the effects of NaCl stress at electrical conductivities of 4.5, 8.6, 12.7 and\\u000a 16.3 dS\\/m and seed sizes (7, 8 and 9 mm) on germination and early seedling growth of

Muharrem Kaya; Gamze Kaya; Mehmet Demir Kaya; Mehmet Atak; Sevil Saglam; Khalid Mahmood Khawar; Cemalettin Yasar Ciftci

2008-01-01

426

ROLE OF BORON IN PLANT GROWTH: A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron (B) is considered as an essential element for plant growth and development. Sexual reproduction in plant is more sensitive to low B, than vegetative growth. Considerable research activities have been directed at accentuating the physiological and biochemical role of B in plant growth and development. This paper reviews the literature (upto the year 2006) focusing on the role of

Waqar Ahmad; A. Niaz; S. Kanwal; M. Khalid Rasheed

2009-01-01

427

Modeling the growth of individuals in crowded plant populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims We present an improved model for the growth of individuals in plant populations experiencing competition. Methods Individuals grow sigmoidally according to the Birch model, which is similar to the more commonly used Richards model, but has the ad- vantage that initial plant growth is always exponential. The individual plant growth models are coupled so that there is a maximum

Christian Damgaard; Jacob Weiner

2008-01-01

428

Plant Growth Response in a Simulated Electric Field-environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE physiological effects on plant growth and plant growth response of environmental factors such as moisture, light, temperature, and similar functions are well documented. Literature relating almost all aspects of these environmental conditions is also quite extensive. Yet little is known of the physiological influence on plant growth of the electric field environment which prevails at all times everywhere. This

L. E. Murr

1963-01-01

429

Photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion but not induced resistance by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, we have noticed that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which consistently promote plant growth in greenhouse tests during spring, summer, and fall, fail to elicit plant growth promotion during the mid- winter under ambient light conditions. This report tests the hypothesis that photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion and induced systemic resistance (ISR) by PGPR. A commercially available

J. W. Kloepper; A. Gutiérrez-Estrada; J. A. McInroy

2007-01-01

430

Regulation of seed germination and seedling growth by an Arabidopsis phytocystatin isoform, AtCYS6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytocystatins are cysteine proteinase inhibitors in plants that are implicated in the endogenous regulation of protein turnover\\u000a and defense mechanisms against insects and pathogens. A cDNA encoding a phytocystatin called AtCYS6 (Arabidopsis thaliana phytocystatin6) has been isolated. We show that AtCYS6 is highly expressed in dry seeds and seedlings and that it also accumulates\\u000a in flowers. The persistence of AtCYS6

Jung Eun Hwang; Joon Ki Hong; Ji Hyun Je; Kyun Oh Lee; Dool Yi Kim; Sang Yeol Lee; Chae Oh Lim

2009-01-01

431

Effects of aflatoxin on seedling growth and ultrastructure in plants.  

PubMed

Nineteen plants belonging to 11 species of the cruciferae were studied to determine the effects of aflatoxin B(1) on seed germination and seedling development. Germination was not inhibited in any test organism at a concentration of 100 mug of aflatoxin per ml of agar substrate. Inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and roots in the species studied varied from 29 to 93% and from 22 to 91% in the respective tissues. Lepidium sativum was the most susceptible plant studied and exhibited the maximal inhibitory response noted above at concentrations of 8 mug of aflatoxin per ml. The ultrastructure of Lepidium root cells treated with crystalline aflatoxin B(1) exhibited morphological changes characteristic of those found in aflatoxin-treated animal cells. In addition to changes in the cytoplasmic organelles, numerous ring-shaped nucleoli with prominent nucleolar caps were produced. The effect of aflatoxin on plant cells is compared with similar effects induced by actinomycin D. Seed germination and seedling development is discussed in relation to the effects of both compounds on deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid biosynthesis. PMID:4767301

Crisan, E V

1973-12-01

432

Size and growth of Japanese plants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a unique database on Japanese manufacturing plants in the United States, we examine for the first time the relationship between plant size and growth for foreign-owned affiliate plants. Japanese manufacturing affiliates are three times larger on average than comparable US plants and experienced 30% growth from 1987 through 1990. Despite this, our estimates strongly reject Gibrat’s Law for these

Bruce A. Blonigen; KaSaundra Tomlin

2001-01-01

433

Effect of pre-germination treatments on seed physiology and germination of central Himalayan oaks?  

PubMed

The continuous decline in regeneration of two important species of central Himalayan oak, namely Quercus glauca and Q. leucotrichophora, is of great concern. A study was therefore, carried out to improve germination ability of these species using various presoaking treatments. Seeds of both the species lost viability following storage; tetrazolium staining pattern and germination capacity of seeds following different period of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C indicated retainment of viability for a period of 12 months at 4 °C. Of the various physical, chemical and plant growth regulator treatments examined to improve seed germination, only KNO3 1.0 % was found to be effective. Seeds scarified at the chalazal end exhibited significant improvement in germination in both the species (94.4 % compared to 56.7 % in control in Q. glauca and 82.7 % compared to 64.0 % in control in Q. leucotrichophora). The results of this study impart simple methods to improve seed germination for developing nurseries for commercial purposes. PMID:23572942

Purohit, Vijay K; Palni, L M S; Nandi, Shyamal K

2009-12-06

434

Size and Growth of Japanese Plants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a unique database on all Japanese manufacturing plants in the United States, we examine the relationship between plant size and growth for these foreign-owned plants. These plants average sizes are three times larger than comparable U.S. plants and experienced 30 percent growth from 1987 through 1990, while U.S. average plant sizes declined over the same period. Our estimates strongly

Bruce A. Blonigen; KaSaundra Tomlin

1999-01-01

435

Expression analyses of Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporters during seed germination, vegetative growth and reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

AtOPT promoter-GUS fusions were constructed for six of the nine known, putative oligopeptide transporters (OPTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana and used to examine AtOPT expression at various stages of plant development. AtOPT1, AtOPT3, AtOPT4, AtOPT6 and AtOPT7 were expressed in the embryonic cotyledons prior to root radicle emergence. Except for AtOPT8, which gave weak expression, all AtOPTs were strongly expressed in

Minviluz G. Stacey; Hiroki Osawa; Ami Patel; Walter Gassmann; Gary Stacey

2006-01-01

436

Germination ecology of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) in traditional agroecosystems: Seed and seedling biology of a vegetatively propagated domesticated plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava is clonally propagated, but Amerindian farmers also use plants from volunteer seedlings to prepare stem cuttings.\\u000a Although sexual reproduction plays a role in cassava’s evolution it is poorly studied. We examined one aspect of cassava reproductive\\u000a ecology, seed dormancy and germination. Volunteer seedlings emerge from a soil bank of seeds produced during the previous\\u000a cycle of cultivation that remain

Benoît Pujol; Guillaume Gigot; Gérard Laurent; Marina Pinheiro-Kluppel; Marianne Elias; Martine Hossaert-McKey; Doyle McKey

2002-01-01

437

Compatibility and incompatibility in witloof-chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). 1. The influence of temperature and plant age on pollen germination and seed production  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the production of inbred lines and F1 hybrids in witloof-chicory information is wanted on characteristics such as the incompatibility system. These characteristics can only be studied properly if the influence of temperature and physiological status of the plant on pollen germination and seed production is known. Investigations were carried out with 9 self-incompatible (SI) and 6 self-compatible (SC) clones

A. H. Eenink

1981-01-01

438

Redox control of plant growth and development.  

PubMed

Redox changes determined by genetic and environmental factors display well-organized interactions in the control of plant growth and development. Diurnal and seasonal changes in the environmental conditions are important for the normal course of these physiological processes and, similarly to their mild irregular alterations, for stress adaptation. However, fast or large-scale environmental changes may lead to damage or death of sensitive plants. The spatial and temporal redox changes influence growth and development due to the reprogramming of metabolism. In this process reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidants are involved as components of signalling networks. The control of growth, development and flowering by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidants in interaction with hormones at organ, tissue, cellular and subcellular level will be discussed in the present review. Unsolved problems of the field, among others the need for identification of new components and interactions in the redox regulatory network at various organization levels using systems biology approaches will be also indicated. PMID:23987814

Kocsy, Gábor; Tari, Irma; Vanková, Radomíra; Zechmann, Bernd; Gulyás, Zsolt; Poór, Péter; Galiba, Gábor

2013-07-18

439

Effect of stand age and individual growth on seed germination of Populus euphratica in the Ejina Oasis, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an investigation into the germination of seeds from individual Populus euphratica trees of different ages and growing conditions in order to discover the effect of intraspecific factors on their sexual reproduction\\u000a in the Ejina Oasis, Inner Mongolia of China. By carrying out germination experiments of seeds collected at various seed dispersal\\u000a periods, we found that P. euphratica seeds

Qian-wen Liu; Peng Hao; Jing-wen Li; Zhi-gang Tan; Amugulang; Jing-yu Luo

2011-01-01

440

Arabidopsis Cytokinin Receptor Mutants Reveal Functions in Shoot Growth, Leaf Senescence, Seed Size, Germination, Root Development, and Cytokinin Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used loss-of-function mutants to study three Arabidopsis thaliana sensor histidine kinases, AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1\\/ AHK4, known to be cytokinin receptors. Mutant seeds had more rapid germination, reduced requirement for light, and decreased far-red light sensitivity, unraveling cytokinin functions in seed germination control. Triple mutant seeds were more than twice as large as wild-type seeds. Genetic analysis indicated a

Michael Riefler; Ondrej Novak; Miroslav Strnad; Thomas Schmullinga

2006-01-01

441

Biologic control ability of plant growth-promoting Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 isolated from milk.  

PubMed

A plant growth-promoting Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) was isolated from cows' milk. Bacterial colonization and growth responses of different plant species after inoculation with B-30488 were evaluated in a controlled environment and in microplot assays. Survival and colonization of B-30488 in the phytosphere of plants and soil was monitored using a chromosomally located rifampicin-marked mutant B-30488 (B-30488R). The strain showed variable ability to invade plants. The interaction between B-30488R and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase enzymes were produced when B-30488R was grown in the presence of colloidal chitin as sole carbon source. Deliberate dilution of B-30488R with field soil offers a reliable process for decreasing the cost of bacterial inoculants in developing countries. Seed treatment of chickpea demonstrated significantly (P = 0.05) greater seedling mortality in nonbacterized compared with bacterized seedlings. Bacterization significantly (P = 0.05) improved seed germination, plant height, number of pods/plant(-1), and seed dry weight. PMID:17089220

DasGupta, S M; Khan, N; Nautiyal, C S

2006-11-06

442

Effects of simulated acid rain on the pollen germination and pollen tube growth of apple (Malus sylvestris Miller cv. Golden).  

PubMed

The pollens of apple flowers have been treated with simulated acid rain solutions in range of pHs 2.9 to 5.0 in order to determine the threshold proportion values that lead the observed symptoms of detriments of acid rain. Compared to controls (pH 6.5), pollen germination decreased by 41.75% at pH 3.3 and pollen tube elongation decreased by 24.3% at pH 3.4. Acid rain threshold proportion value was around pH 3.3 and 3.4 for apple pollen germination and pollen tube elongation, respectively. Furthermore, pollen tube elongation was determined to be more sensitive to acid rain than pollen germination. The pH values below 3.1 resulted in complete destruction of pollen tubes. Pollen germination entirely stopped at around pH 3.0. Finally, it has been shown that the acid rain has a blocking effect on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in apple. The conclusion is that not only pH value but also the quantity of acid rain is important factor in germination. The results were found statistically significant through the LSD test at levels of p < 0.05 and p < 0.01. PMID:12705325

Munzuroglu, O; Obek, E; Geckil, H

2003-01-01

443

Effects of biogas digestate on soil properties and plant growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farming methods and food industries generate large amounts manure and other useful raw materials that need safe disposal. Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. So far we have only limited information about it's agricultural applications. Farmers and authorities are very skeptic because feedstocks are very different so the endproduct will be different, too. However, this endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. The aim of our work is to determine the effects of this product in plant-soil system. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. Pot experiments were established with different rates of nitrogen content (80 kg ha-1N, 120 kg ha-1N, 170 kg ha-1N, and control). Maximum rates were determine by the Nitrate Directive. Soil moisture was 60% of maximum of water capacity. Digestate and distilled water were homogenized and added to 200g loamy soil. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was applied as a test plant. Treatments were randomized design and 10 replications. Three pot from each treatment were used to observe the germination and progress of plants. We investigated the effect of the digestate on nitrate- and ammonium-ion content of soil. The amount of nitrate- and ammonium-N of soil was determine with distillation. The ammonium-N levels increased with the doses on the first day but on the sixth-seventh day this amount totally falled down, because NH4-N transformed to NO3-N. Nitrate level increased continuously untill the tenth day, later decreased as the result of the plant and microbes consumption. The increasing doses inhibited the germination and root development of the plants. We experienced fewer roots, which were different form control.

Gulyás, Miklós; Füleky, György

2013-04-01

444

PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH BY SOIL BACTERIA THAT REGULATE PLANT ETHYLENE LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central the mechanisms used by many soil bacteria to directly promote plant growth is the production of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. This enzyme facilitates plant growth as a consequence of the fact that it sequesters and cleaves plant- produced ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants), thereby lowering the level of ethylene in the plant.

Bernard R. Glick

445

Cooperation among germinating spores facilitates the growth of the fungus, Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Fusions between individuals are a common feature of organisms with modular, indeterminate life forms, including plants, marine invertebrates and fungi. The consequences of fusion for an individual fungus are poorly understood. We used wild-type and fusion mutant strains of the genetic model Neurospora crassa to chronicle the fitness in two different laboratory habitats, and in each experiment started colonies from multiple different densities of asexual spores. On round Petri dishes, fusion enabled wild-type colonies to grow larger than mutant (soft) colonies; but in linear ‘race tubes’, the soft mutant always grew more quickly than the wild-type. Starting a colony with more spores always provided an advantage to a wild-type colony, but was more often neutral or a cost to the soft mutant. The ability to fuse does not provide a consistent advantage to wild-type colonies; net benefits are shaped by both habitat and initial spore densities.

Richard, F.; Glass, N. L.; Pringle, A.

2012-01-01

446

Improvement of plant growth and nickel uptake by nickel resistant-plant-growth promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, among a collection of Ni-resistant bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of Alyssum serpyllifolium and Phleum phleoides grown on serpentine soil, five plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were selected based on their ability to utilize 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole N source and promote seedling growth. All of the strains tested positive for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and

Ying Ma; Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2009-01-01

447

Germination behaviour of annual plants under changing climatic conditions: separating local and regional environmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of local adaptation and factors other than climate in determining extinction probabilities of species under climate\\u000a change has not been yet explicitly studied. Here we performed a field experiment with annual plants growing along a steep\\u000a climatic gradient in Israel to isolate climatic effects for local trait expression. The focus trait was seed dormancy, for\\u000a which many theoretical

Martina Petr?; Katja Tielbörger

2008-01-01