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1

Modulation of germination, elongation growth and flowering time in plants  

E-print Network

Modulation of germination, elongation growth and flowering time in plants Reference Number B69259 growth and flowering time in plants are modulated by modifying the activity of genes/ proteins. · Plants with reduced/depleted gene function germinate faster and flower ear- lier than the wild type. · Plants over

2

Allelopathic effects of western ragweed on seed germination and seedling growth of selected plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya DC.) top growth and rhizome extracts were inhibitory to germination and growth of seedling shoots and roots of test plants in almost all cases. Germination of all plants tested was reduced an average of 19.5% by the ragweed extracts. Shoot and root growth of plants tested was reduced an average of 56.8% by the ragweed extracts.

R. L. Dalrymple; J. L. Rogers

1983-01-01

3

Allelopathic effects of western ragweed on seed germination and seedling growth of selected plants.  

PubMed

Western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya DC.) top growth and rhizome extracts were inhibitory to germination and growth of seedling shoots and roots of test plants in almost all cases. Germination of all plants tested was reduced an average of 19.5% by the ragweed extracts. Shoot and root growth of plants tested was reduced an average of 56.8% by the ragweed extracts. The combined effects of germination plus growth reductions resulted in the tested plants producing only 34.8% in the extracts compared to production in distilled water. PMID:24407801

Dalrymple, R L; Rogers, J L

1983-08-01

4

Effect of plant growth hormones and abiotic stresses on germination, growth and phosphatase activities in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphatases are widely found in plants having intracellular and extracellular activities. Phosphatases are believed to be important for phosphorous scavenging and remobilization in plants, but its role in adaptation to abiotic stresses and growth hormones at germination level has not been critically evaluated. To address this issue, the effect of ABA, GA3, NaCl and drought on germination, growth, acid and

Arun Dev Sharma; Meenu Thakur; Meenakshi Rana; Kuldeep Singh

5

Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three saltmarsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management.

Espinar, J.L.; Garcia, L.V.; Clemente, L.

2005-01-01

6

Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

Downs, R. J.; And Others

7

Effects of Silver Nanoparticle Exposure on Germination and Early Growth of Eleven Wetland Plants  

PubMed Central

The increasing commercial production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has led to concerns over the potential adverse impacts of these ENPs on biota in natural environments. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used ENPs and are expected to enter natural ecosystems. Here we examined the effects of AgNPs on germination and growth of eleven species of common wetland plants. We examined plant responses to AgNP exposure in simple pure culture experiments (direct exposure) and for seeds planted in homogenized field soils in a greenhouse experiment (soil exposure). We compared the effects of two AgNPs–20-nm polyvinylpyrrolidine-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) and 6-nm gum arabic coated silver nanoparticles (GA-AgNPs)–to the effects of AgNO3 exposure added at equivalent Ag concentrations (1, 10 or 40 mg Ag L?1). In the direct exposure experiments, PVP-AgNP had no effect on germination while 40 mg Ag L?1 GA-AgNP exposure significantly reduced the germination rate of three species and enhanced the germination rate of one species. In contrast, 40 mg Ag L?1 AgNO3 enhanced the germination rate of five species. In general root growth was much more affected by Ag exposure than was leaf growth. The magnitude of inhibition was always greater for GA-AgNPs than for AgNO3 and PVP-AgNPs. In the soil exposure experiment, germination effects were less pronounced. The plant growth response differed by taxa with Lolium multiflorum growing more rapidly under both AgNO3 and GA-AgNP exposures and all other taxa having significantly reduced growth under GA-AgNP exposure. AgNO3 did not reduce the growth of any species while PVP-AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of only one species. Our findings suggest important new avenues of research for understanding the fate and transport of NPs in natural media, the interactions between NPs and plants, and indirect and direct effects of NPs in mixed plant communities. PMID:23091638

Yin, Liyan; Colman, Benjamin P.; McGill, Bonnie M.; Wright, Justin P.; Bernhardt, Emily S.

2012-01-01

8

A Simple and Versatile 2-Dimensional Platform to Study Plant Germination and Growth under Controlled Humidity  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple, inexpensive, but remarkably versatile and controlled growth environment for the observation of plant germination and seedling root growth on a flat, horizontal surface over periods of weeks. The setup provides to each plant a controlled humidity (between 56% and 91% RH), and contact with both nutrients and atmosphere. The flat and horizontal geometry of the surface supporting the roots eliminates the gravitropic bias on their development and facilitates the imaging of the entire root system. Experiments can be setup under sterile conditions and then transferred to a non-sterile environment. The system can be assembled in 1-2 minutes, costs approximately 8.78$ per plant, is almost entirely reusable (0.43$ per experiment in disposables), and is easily scalable to a variety of plants. We demonstrate the performance of the system by germinating, growing, and imaging Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Corn (Zea mays), and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa). Germination rates were close to those expected for optimal conditions. PMID:24806462

Sizmur, Tom; Lind, Kara R.; Benomar, Saida; VanEvery, Hannah; Cademartiri, Ludovico

2014-01-01

9

Effects of diesel and kerosene on germination and growth of coastal wetland plant species.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate effects of diesel and kerosene on seed germination and seedling growth among coastal wetland plants to select species that can be used for the restoration and revegetation of oil-polluted habitats. Tests on 51 species were performed in Petri dishes containing 0 %, 6 %, 12 %, and 18 % diesel, 20 %, 40 %, and 60 % kerosene; each treatment combination was replicated five times with 20 seeds in each Petri dish. All dishes were held in a growth chamber with 20°C day of 12 h/15°C night of 12 h in 80 % humidity for 20 days for calculating the germination percentage, seedling weight, and seedling vitality. The germination percentage of Rumex stenophyllus decreased significantly in diesel and kerosene treatments. The weights of seedlings treated with diesel and kerosene either increased or decreased in comparison with controls depending on the species. Vitality percentage values were high for seedlings of Chenopodium ficifolium. Thus, herbaceous plant responses to oil treatments are species-specific. PMID:25138038

Kim, Kee Dae

2014-11-01

10

Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.  

PubMed

The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. PMID:23978671

Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

2014-02-01

11

Spent mushroom substrates as component of growing media for germination and growth of horticultural plants.  

PubMed

This research work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in the production of horticultural seedlings replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species with different salt sensitivities, the less sensitive being tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Muchamiel), the moderately salt-sensitive being courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Afrodite F1) and the most salt-sensitive being pepper (Capsicum annum L. var. Lamuyo F1) were grown in 12 media containing SMS of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (SMS-AB) and Pleurotus ostreatus (SMS-PO)) or a mixture of both 50% (v/v) (SMS-50), as well as peat in various ratios. The proportions of each residue in the mixtures elaborated with peat were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% v/v residue. A substrate of 100% peat was used as control. The experiment was arranged in a completely-randomised design with two replicates per treatment under greenhouse conditions. Prior to sowing, some physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties of the growing media were determined and seed germination and fresh weight of seedling were also measured. In most of the cases, the addition of SMS to the growing media produced an increase in the pH values, salt contents, macro and micronutrient concentrations and a decrease in the water holding capacity contents in comparison to peat, whereas great differences were found in the air capacity values between SMS-based substrates and peat. Up to 75% SMS can be used in mixtures with peat for seed germination of the plant species studied. Regarding the most suitable SMS-based substrates for plant growth, any substrate could be used for tomato seedling production. However, all SMS-AB-based substrates and the media containing low dose of SMS-PO and SMS-50 were adequate for growth of courgette and pepper. PMID:19409775

Medina, E; Paredes, C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Moral, R

2009-09-01

12

4. The role of plant growth regulators in the germination of forest tree seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a role for PGRs in the germination of forest tree seeds, it must be demonstrated that PGRs are involved in the mechanisms that control the induction of and release from dormancy, and also that these mechanisms are operative in the seeds of woody plants. Four currently known concepts of seed dormancy are reviewed, citing the published evidence relating

C. L. Leadem

1987-01-01

13

POLLEN GERMINATION AND TUBE GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of Angiosperm pollen germination and tube growth are discussed including mechanisms of dehydration and rehydration, in vitro germination, pollen coat compounds, the dynamic involvement of cytoskeletal elements (actin, microtubules), calcium ion fluxes, extracellular matrix elements (stylar arabinogalactan proteins), and control mechanisms of gene expression in dehy- drating and germinating pollen. We focus on the recent developments in pollen

Loverine P. Taylor; Peter K. Hepler

1997-01-01

14

Germination and seedling growth of bog plants in relation to the recolonization of milled peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two controlled experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential for vascular plants to germinate and establish in milled\\u000a peatlands and to assess whether easily measured plant traits can be used to predict their probable success. Study species\\u000a included twenty species of perennial herbs, shrubs and trees occurring frequently in undisturbed bogs or abandoned milled\\u000a bogs in Québec, Canada. First, a

Daniel R. Campbell; Line Rochefort

2003-01-01

15

Pre-germination temperature and the survivorship and onward growth of Mediterranean fire-following plant species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of heat shock in the induction of seed germination for numerous Mediterranean fire-following plant species is well documented. However, the influence of pre-germination heating of seeds upon seedling survivorship and onward growth has not been studied. The aim of the experiments described here was to investigate how a range of heat treatments affects seedling survivorship and onward growth for six common fire-following Mediterranean plant species ( Anthyllis vulneraria, Cistus creticus, C. salvifolius, Hippocrepis unisiliquosa, Pinus brutia and P. halepensis). In the first experiment, seeds of five species were heated to temperatures ranging between 80°C and 120°C (at 10°C intervals) for 10 min and subsequent seedling growth monitored over 8 weeks. Survivorship for two pine species ( Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia) was reduced after seeds were heated above 90°C. Onward growth for Pinus halepensis and the legume, Anthyllis vulneraria, was negatively affected by increasing pre-germination temperature. Survivorship and growth for both Cistus species was unaffected by heating seeds up to 110°C. The second experiment examined more closely seedling performance of Hippocrepis unisiliquosa seedlings when seeds were heated to temperatures ranging between 50°C and 90°C (at 10°C intervals) for 5, 10, 15 and 20 mins. Increasing pre-germination temperature and the length of time seeds were exposed to heating significantly reduced seedling growth rates in this species. The effect of fire on seedling emergence, growth and survivorship in the field is discussed with reference to the adaptation of the six species to post-fire regeneration and the patterns of seedling regeneration observed in the field.

Hanley, Mick E.; Fenner, Michael

1998-04-01

16

In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination was not affected for any assayed concentration; however, the length of the stems and roots decreased when HCM increased and the survival of the four species also diminished. Except for F. arundinacea, a direct link between hydrocarbon concentration and plant survival was observed. In vitro studies are clean and easy to handle techniques allowing isolation of the plant activity from that derived from associations with microorganisms in non-sterile cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first work towards phytoremediation assisted by in vitro plant cultivation. PMID:18222086

Reynoso-Cuevas, L; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Cruz-Sosa, F; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

2008-09-01

17

Cadmium-induced stress on the seed germination and seedling growth of Brassica napus L., and its alleviation through exogenous plant growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its prolific growth, oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) can be grown advantageously for phytoremediation of the lands contaminated by industrial wastes. Therefore, toxic effect\\u000a of cadmium on the germination of oilseed rape, the capability of plants for cadmium phytoextraction, and the effect of exogenous\\u000a application of plant growth regulators to mitigate phytotoxicity of cadmium were investigated. For the

Huabing Meng; Shujin Hua; Imran Haider Shamsi; Ghulam Jilani; Yuanlong Li; Lixi Jiang

2009-01-01

18

Salt index of potassium phosphate fertilizers and its relation to germination and early plant growth of field crops  

E-print Network

and plant uptake study corn plants were grown on Bonham cl and Norwood sil soils. Low salt fertilizers vere com- pared to high salt fertilizers at equal rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Roots avoided the high salt fert. ? lizer... germination of field crop seeds and salt index values at varying distances from ferti- lizer zones. 4. To study root growth patterns around fertilizer zones in short term greenhouse studies and to correlate plant uptake of potas- sium and phosphorus from...

Freeouf, Jerry Allen

1975-01-01

19

Cinnamic acid amides from Chenopodium album: effects on seeds germination and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven cinnamic acid amides have been isolated from Chenopodium album. The structures have been attributed by means of their spectral data. One of them, N-trans-4-O-methylferuloyl 4?-O-methyldopamine, is described for the first time. Their effects on germination and growth of dicotyledons Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomato) and of monocotyledon Allium cepa L. (onion) as standard target species

Francesca Cutillo; Brigida D'Abrosca; Marina DellaGreca; Cinzia Di Marino; Annunziata Golino; Lucio Previtera; Armando Zarrelli

2003-01-01

20

Effect of fungal and plant metabolites on broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) seed germination and radicle growth.  

PubMed

Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which cause heavy yield losses on important crops. The development of herbicides based on natural metabolites from microbial and plant origin, targeting early stages on parasitic plant development, might contribute to the reduction of broomrape seed bank in agricultural soils. Therefore, the effect of metabolites belonging to different classes of natural compounds on broomrape seed germination and radicle development was assayed in vitro. Among the metabolites tested, epi-sphaeropsidone, cyclopaldic acid, and those belonging to the sesquiterpene class induced broomrape germination in a species-specific manner. epi-Epoformin, sphaeropsidin A, and cytochalasans inhibited germination of GR24-treated broomrape seeds. The growth of broomrape radicle was strongly inhibited by sphaeropsidin A and compounds belonging to cyclohexene epoxide and cytochalasan classes. Broomrape radicles treated with epi-sphaeropsidone developed a layer of papillae while radicles treated with cytochalasans or with sphaeropsidin A turned necrotic. These findings allow new lead natural herbicides for the management of parasitic weeds to be identified. PMID:25272312

Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Basso, Sara; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

2014-10-29

21

Effect of nanosilica and silicon sources on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, soil nutrients and maize seed germination.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of nanosilica and different sources of silicon on soil properties, total bacterial population and maize seed germination. Nanosilica was synthesised using rice husk and characterised. Silica powder was amorphous (50 nm) with >99.9% purity. Sodium silicate treated soil inhibited plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in contrast to nanosilica and other bulk sources. Surface property and effect of soil nutrient content of nanosilica treatment were improved. Colony forming unit (CFU) was doubled in the presence of nanosilica from 4 × 105 CFU (control) to 8 × 105 CFU per gram of soil. The silica and protein content of bacterial biomass clearly showed an increase in uptake of silica with an increase in nanosilica concentration. Nanosilica promoted seed germination percentage (100%) in maize than conventional Si sources. These studies show that nanosilica has favourable effect on beneficial bacterial population and nutrient value of soil. PMID:24028804

Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Prabu, Periyasamy; Kannan, Narayanasamy

2013-09-01

22

Effects of an industrial effluent on plant colonization and on the germination and post-germinative growth of seeds of terrestrial and aquatic plant species.  

PubMed

Major oil sands industrial companies are located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in northeastern Alberta, Canada. During the process used to extract light crude oil (via hot water digestion and flotation), gypsum is usually added to produce consolidated tails (CT) and CT release water. The vast volumes of process-treated waters (effluent) are held within large dyked tailings ponds. Toward testing viable options for reclamation, various hummock-wetlands systems have been constructed; in addition, natural wetlands (inhabited by obligate wetland plant species) have become established as a result of seeping of the effluents held within the large dyked ponds. Vegetation surveys conducted on and around the industrial site revealed that the constructed wetlands associated with the dyke drainage (effluent treated with phosphorous) and consolidated tails (CT; effluent treated with gypsum) had low biodiversity and were not invaded by many aquatic plants. Although the natural wetland was also not invaded by many aquatic species, it was found to be as diverse as the reference wetlands (i.e. off-site wetlands not exposed to the effluents). Exposure to oil sands effluents had an inhibitory effect on the germination (percent and/or rate) of several plant species (tomato, clover, wheat, rye, pea, reed canary grass, loblolly pine); clover and tomato seed germination were most affected. Two treatments in particular (effluents from the natural on-site wetland and the CT constructed wetland), delayed germination, and also led to reduced fresh weight of seedlings of tomato, wheat, clover and loblolly pine. The osmolarities of the effluents associated with the natural on-site wetland and CT constructed wetland were 712 and 728 mOs/kg, respectively; substituting these effluents with solutions of polyethylene glycol of the same osmotic potentials had a greater inhibitory effect on germination rate. The negative effects of the effluents on seed germination may account for the paucity of aquatic species that invaded the oil sands impacted wetlands. This factor will also be critical in determining the long-term feasibility of hummock-wetland systems. PMID:11843534

Crowe, A U; Plant, A L; Kermode, A R

2002-01-01

23

Incorporation of plant growth regulators into the priming solution improves sugar beet germination, emergence and seedling growth at low-temperature.  

PubMed

In a series of experiments, impact of inclusion of plant growth regulators into the KNO3 priming solution on low temperature seed germination, emergence percentage and seedling growth of sugar beet was investigated. Seeds were primed in 3% KNO3 solution for 6 days at 25 degrees C in darkness containing one of the following: 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mM acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) or 1, 3, 5 or 10 microM methyl jasmonated (MeJA). A non-primed treatment was also included in the experiment. Priming seeds in the presence or absence of plant growth regulators in general improved final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate (G50) and germination synchrony (G10-90) at 15 degrees C compared with non-primed seeds which had an FGP of 42%, G50 of 11.3 days and G10-90 of 11.7 days. Priming seeds in KNO3 solution containing 0.05 mM of ASA resulted in the highest germination percentage (89%), fastest germination rate (G50 = 5.3 days) and the most synchronous germination (G10-90 = 10.7 days). Emergence percentages were the highest for the seeds primed in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA (83%) and 3 microM MeJA (81%) while non-primed seeds had an emergence percentage of 40%. Fastest emergence rate (E50) were also obtained from seeds primed in KNO3 supplemented with 3 microM MeJA (E50 = 14.4 days) and 0.05 mM ASA (E50 = 14.4 days). Shoot fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly affected by treatments and priming in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA resulted in highest seedling shoot fresh and dry weight. These results indicate that priming seeds in 0.05 mM of ASA or 3 microM MeJA incorporated into the KNO3 solution can be more effective than KNO3 alone to improve low temperature germination performance of seeds and subsequent seedling growth. PMID:19090156

Govahi, Mostafa; Arvin, Mohammad Javad; Saffari, Ghazaleh

2007-10-01

24

Action of plant growth regulators and salinity on seed germination of Ceratoides lanata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell is a shrub with numerous annual branchlets from the family Chenopodiaceae and is widely distributed in brackish water playas of northern Utah. Seeds had no dormancy, and about 90% of the seeds germinated in nonsaline control. Seed germination decreased with the increase in salinity, and more than 10% of the seeds germinated at 900 mmol\\/L

M. Ajmal Khan; Bilquees Gul; Darrell J. Weber

2004-01-01

25

Effects of non-carbonaceous meteoritic extracts on the germination, growth and chlorophyll content of edible plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted an investigation on the effects that the extracts of a non-carbonaceous meteorite could have on the germination and growth of plants and the ability of non-carbonaceous meteoritic resource to serve as nutrient source for young plants of edible types. Selected plants were two dicotyledons ( Lycopersicon esculentum and Daucus carota) and one monocotyledon ( Zea mays). Solution cultures were developed using seeds, seedlings and seed-embryos. Meteoritic powder was obtained from the Vigirima mesosiderite, which was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Results showed that extracts having variable concentrations of meteoritic matter favored an earlier germination in some plant species but the increase of the concentrations produced a decreased germination. However, total germination rate was higher in the presence of meteoritic extracts than in the presence of controls in the all species. A high metabolic yield in the protein synthesis was seen in dicotyledons utilizing Type-A and B extracts having concentrations of 4.16-8.33×10 3 mg l -1. Phaeophytinization index and chlorophyll a/b ratio, suggesting a negative effect of the heavy metals or acidic ions over the photosynthetic activity when extracts having high meteoritic concentrations were utilized. However, a higher chlorophyll (a) production in comparison to that of chlorophyll (b) was seen in extracts (Type-A and -B) with low concentrations of meteoritic matter. On the other hand, Z. mays seed-embryos growing in extracts (Type-D) having 3.53×10 4 mg l -1 of meteoritic matter showed a protein production (9.81×10 -2 mg protein mg wet wt -1) higher than that observed in seed-embryos coming from extracts having lower concentrations. However, in Murashige medium, the seed-embryos exhibited a enhanced growth and a relatively higher protein production (10.3×10 -2 mg protein mg wet wt. -1). Further, chlorophyll (a+b) synthesis was higher in Murashige medium than in meteoritic extracts but chlorophyll a/b ratio was <1 in all extracts and controls. Our results suggest the usefulness of the non-carbonaceous meteoritic resource as a complementary soil component or fertilizers for culture of edible plants in space settlements and mainly for the production of young plants due to the positive metabolic effects on the chlorophyll synthesis, mitochondrial metabolism and cellular division caused by PO 43-, Fe 2+, Cu 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. Earlier germination responses obtained in the present experiments demonstrated the possibility to utilize germination chambers in space having wet substrates containing meteoritic-powder solutions to obtain a higher number of seedlings in a minimum degree of time. These results also reveal the biological potential of this non-carbonaceous meteoritic matter for the growth of organisms in the early Earth, Mars, and probably in other planetary bodies beyond our Solar system.

Marcano, Vicente; Matheus, Paula; Cedeño, Cesyen; Falcon, Nelson; Palacios-Prü, Ernesto

2005-10-01

26

Effect of in vivo administered plant growth hormones on the development of amylase and protease during germination of indian bean ( Dolichos lablab L. var. lignosus ) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant growth hormones — BA, GA3 or IAA (alone or in combination) in single dose were injected into the centre of intact imbibed seed, germinated in the presence\\u000a of water and monitored for root length, shoot length, and activities of ?-amylase and proteases during a 10-day germination\\u000a period of Indian bean seeds. A significant increase was noticed in the

Vadde Ramakrishna; P. Ramakrishna Rao

2006-01-01

27

Maturation and germination of somatic embryos as affected by sucrose and plant growth regulators in soybeans Glycine gracilis Skvortz and Glycine max (L.) Merr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sucrose on maturation and of plant growth regulators on germination of soybean somatic embryos were investigated for the purpose of developing an efficient culture method for plant recovery. Somatic embryos produced on medium with a low sucrose concentration (5 gl-1), less than 1 mm in length, 0.6 mg in fresh weight, and green in color, were grown

Takao Komatsuda; Wenbin Lee; Seibi Oka

1992-01-01

28

EFFECT OF COMPATIBLE OSMOTICA AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY STRESS ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF ALLENROLFEA OCCIDENTALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allenrolfea occidentalis, a perennial halophytic shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae is widely distributed in the inland salt marshes and salt playas of western United States. Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of compatible osmotica (betaine and proline) and growth regulators (gibberellic acid and kinetin) in alleviating salinity stress on the seed germination of A. occidentalis. Seed germination decreased with

BILQUEES GUL; M. AJMAL KHAN

2008-01-01

29

In vitro evaluation of germination and growth of five plant species on medium supplemented with hydrocarbons associated with contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Maya crude oil on germination, growth and survival of four grasses (Bouteloua curtipendula, Cenchrus ciliaris, Echinochloa crusgalli and Rhynchelytrum repens) was studied and compared to a control (Festuca arundinacea) under in vitro conditions. The species were cultured on MS medium with different HCM initial concentrations. Germination

L. Reynoso-Cuevas; M. E. Gallegos-Martínez; F. Cruz-Sosa; M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

2008-01-01

30

Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc

Daohui Lin; Baoshan Xing

2007-01-01

31

Enhancing Effect of Shimizuomyces paradoxus on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Canola, Plant Growth of Cucumber, and Harvest of Tomato.  

PubMed

Shimizuomyces paradoxus showed no inhibitory effect against plant pathogen fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani. The S. paradoxus culture filtrate showed higher seed germination and seedling growth rates in canola than distilled water and potato-dextrose broth. A conidial suspension of 1.0×10(4)/mL resulted in the highest growth stimulating effects on total plant length, and fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots in cucumber, when compared to the highest suspension concentration. Total plant length and shoot weight increased with the foliar spray treatment, and root length and root weight increased by simultaneous treatments of soil drenching and foliar spray in cucumber. Lower concentrations of the S. paradoxus conidial suspension increased the harvest of tomato fruit. PMID:22783066

Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Park, Ki-Byung; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

2011-03-01

32

Effects of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on germination, growth and nutrient uptake of coastal dune plants.  

PubMed

Seagrass meadows play an important role in marine ecosystems. A part of seagrass production is also exported to adjacent coastal terrestrial systems, possibly influencing their functioning. In this work we experimentally analyzed the effect of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on plant germination, growth, and nutrient uptake of two plant species (Cakile maritima and Elymus farctus) that grow on upper beaches and fore dunes along the Mediterranean coasts. We compared plants growing in simple sand (control) with those growing in a substrate enriched with P. oceanica wrack (treatment) in laboratory. P. oceanica wrack doubled the N substrate pool and kept the substrate humid. Plants growing in the treated substrate grew faster, were twice as large as those growing in the control substrate, while tissues were enriched in N and P (Cakile by the 1.3 fold in N and 2.5 fold in P; Elymus by 1.5 fold in N and 2 fold in P). Our results suggest a positive effect of seagrass litter for the enhancing of dune species, highlighting its role for the conservation of coastal dune ecosystems. PMID:23894678

Del Vecchio, Silvia; Marbà, Núria; Acosta, Alicia; Vignolo, Clara; Traveset, Anna

2013-01-01

33

Effects of Posidonia Oceanica Beach-Cast on Germination, Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Coastal Dune Plants  

PubMed Central

Seagrass meadows play an important role in marine ecosystems. A part of seagrass production is also exported to adjacent coastal terrestrial systems, possibly influencing their functioning. In this work we experimentally analyzed the effect of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on plant germination, growth, and nutrient uptake of two plant species (Cakile maritima and Elymus farctus) that grow on upper beaches and fore dunes along the Mediterranean coasts. We compared plants growing in simple sand (control) with those growing in a substrate enriched with P. oceanica wrack (treatment) in laboratory. P. oceanica wrack doubled the N substrate pool and kept the substrate humid. Plants growing in the treated substrate grew faster, were twice as large as those growing in the control substrate, while tissues were enriched in N and P (Cakile by the 1.3 fold in N and 2.5 fold in P; Elymus by 1.5 fold in N and 2 fold in P). Our results suggest a positive effect of seagrass litter for the enhancing of dune species, highlighting its role for the conservation of coastal dune ecosystems. PMID:23894678

Del Vecchio, Silvia; Marbà, Núria; Acosta, Alicia; Vignolo, Clara; Traveset, Anna

2013-01-01

34

SEED HYDRATION-DEHYDRATION IN AN ALLELOCHEMICAL AFFECTS SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coumarin is an allelochemical widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Several researchers have reported that, depending on the concentration, this plant compound inhibits or delays germination, and will inhibit or stunt radicle elongation. However, the seed germination and seedling growth...

35

Effects of water level, shade and time on germination and growth of freshwater marsh plants along a simulated successional gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. We examined the effect of soil organic content (1.4, 3.6, 7.2% soil C), water level (+2, -1, -4 cm from soil surface) and duration (13 or 33 days) on 10 species that varied in abundance during succession in freshwater marshes. We also determined the effect of shade (0, 40, 80% shade) and soil organic content (1.4 and 7.2% soil C) on germination of six species over 62 days with water 0.5 cm below the soil surface. 2. Water level consistently affected species germination on both dates. Above-ground biomass was generally higher with increasing organic content of soil, but shade had little effect on germination or height. 3 The hydrologic zone in which species were found in the field was a good indicator of the response of germination to hydrology. Both early successional species and species wide-spread across the successional gradient show similar germination on all organic contents, while later successional species appear to germinate best at higher organic contents. 4. Successional changes in soils are capable of affecting plant community development, independent of disturbance.

Kellogg, C.H.; Bridgham, S.D.; Leicht, S.A.

2003-01-01

36

Effect of vermicast generated from an allelopathic weed lantana (Lantana camara) on seed germination, plant growth, and yield of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).  

PubMed

In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha(-1), and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs. PMID:24946699

Karthikeyan, M; Hussain, N; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

2014-11-01

37

Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.  

PubMed

The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments. PMID:25758141

Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

2015-05-01

38

Germination and growth of wheat in simulated Martian atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One design for a manned Mars base incorporates a bioregenerative life support system based upon growing higher plants at a low atmospheric pressure in a greenhouse on the Martian surface. To determine the concept's feasibility, the germination and initial growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was evaluated at low atmospheric pressures in simulated Martian atmosphere (SMA) and in SMA supplemented with oxygen. Total atmospheric pressures ranged from 10 to 1013 mb. No seeds germinated in pure SMA, regardless of atmospheric pressure. In SMA plus oxygen at 60 mb total pressure, germination and growth occurred but were lower than in the earth atmosphere controls.

Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

1991-01-01

39

Effects of Plant Leachates from Four Boreal Understorey Species on Soil N Mineralization, and White Spruce (Picea glauca) Germination and Seedling Growth  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Natural regeneration of white spruce (Picea glauca) after disturbance has been reported to be very poor. Here a study was made to determine whether C compounds released from understorey species growing together with white spruce could be involved in this regeneration failure, either by (1) changing soil nutrient dynamics, (2) inhibiting germination, and/or (3) delaying seedling growth. • Methods Foliage leachates were obtained from two shrubs (Ledum palustre and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and one bryophyte (Sphagnum sp.) with high phenolic compound concentrations that have been reported to depress growth of conifers in boreal forests, and, as a comparison, one bryophyte (Hylocomium splendens) with negligible phenolic compounds. Mineral soil from a white spruce forest was amended with plant leachates to examine the effect of each species on net N mineralization. Additionally, white spruce seeds and seedlings were watered with plant leachates to determine their effects on germination and growth. • Key Results Leachates from the shrubs L. palustre and E. hermaphroditum contained high phenolic compound concentrations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), while no detectable levels of C compounds were released from the bryophytes Sphagnum sp. or H. splendens. A decrease in net N mineralization was determined in soils amended with L. palustre or E. hermaphroditum leachates, and this effect was inversely proportional to the phenolic concentrations, DOC and leachate C/N ratio. The total percentage of white spruce germination and the growth of white spruce seedlings were similar among treatments. • Conclusions These results suggest that the shrubs L. palustre and E. hermaphroditum could negatively affect the performance of white spruce due to a decrease in soil N availability, but not by direct effects on plant physiology. PMID:15802310

CASTELLS, EVA; PEÑUELAS, JOSEP; VALENTINE, DAVID W.

2005-01-01

40

Salt Stress Effects on Respiration and Growth of Germinated Seeds of Different Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of seedlings at early growth stages of crop plants as one of the most important determinants of high yield is severely affected by soil salinity. Therefore, high germination rate and vigorous early growth under salty soils is preferred. In this study salt tolerance of wheat cultivars were examined at germination and seedling growth stages. Seeds were germinated and grown

Aliakbar Maghsoudi Moud; Kobra Maghsoudi

2008-01-01

41

Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings: Effects of soil moisture variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seed germination and seedling growth, survivorship, and final biomass and their responses to watering interval were studied in two grass and six forb species to assess germination and seedling growth responses to increased soil moisture variability as might occur with future increases in precipitation variability. Seeds were planted in prairie soil and watered at 1, 2, 4, or 7 d intervals ( I). Seed germination peaked at I = 4 d whereas leaf growth in grasses and forbs, and final biomass in grasses peaked at I = 7 d, suggesting that growth and biomass were favored at greater soil moisture variability than seed germination. Biomass responses to I were stronger than the germination responses, suggesting that soil moisture variability more strongly influenced post germination growth. Individual species responses to I fell into three groups; those with responses to I for: (1) seed germination and seedling survival, (2) biomass, or (3) both germination and biomass production. These species groups may be more useful than life form (i.e., grass/forb) for understanding seed germination and seedling dynamics in grasslands during periods of soil moisture variability. Seed germination and early growth may assume more importance in grassland plant community dynamics under more variable precipitation patterns.

Fay, Philip A.; Schultz, Megan J.

2009-09-01

42

In Vivo Cell Wall Loosening by Hydroxyl Radicals during Cress Seed Germination and Elongation Growth1[W][OA  

E-print Network

In Vivo Cell Wall Loosening by Hydroxyl Radicals during Cress Seed Germination and Elongation, including seed germination, elongation growth, and fruit ripening. Here, we report direct in vivo evidence for hydroxyl radical (×OH)-mediated cell wall loosening during plant seed germination and seedling growth. We

Leubner, Gerhard

43

Modeling the effects of cymene on the distribution of germination and growth of Beauveria bassiana  

E-print Network

Essential oils have antifungal and antipathogenic effects and therefore are targets in plant pathology research for their potential uses as natural substitutes for inorganic plant pesticides. Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, can endophytically colonize a vast number of plant species and trigger induced systemic resistance against plant pathogens. Spore germination is the most vulnerable in the fungal life cycle and is therefore a good candidate for monitoring the effect of essential oils on the growth of B. bassiana. Percentage germination of fungal spores and length of germination tubes were recorded from experiments. A mathematical model that was able to capture the effects of cymene, an essential oil produced by Monarda, on the germination and growth was developed. This is the first report of a model for the impact of essential oils on B. bassiana spore germination.

Luong Nguyen; Dubravka Bodiroga; Reka Kelemen; Jaewook Joo; Kimberly D. Gwinn

2010-10-05

44

Effect of Light Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Growth and Germination of Festuca arundinacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil (up to 10%) on the growth and germination of Festuca arundinacea (Tall fescue) was studied. Present results showed that the germination number and dry biomass of the plant decreased by increasing light crude oil concentration in the soil. The biomass was higher in 1% crude oil sample while

Dariush Minai-Tehrani; Malek-Hossein Shahriari; Gholamreza Savaghebi-Firoozabadi

2007-01-01

45

Inter-specific variation in salinity effects on germination in Pacific Northwest tidal wetland plants  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental stressors such as salinity may affect plant germination and early growth, eventually impacting the distribution and abundance of more mature individuals. In a lab study we evaluated germination sensitivity to salinity in 13 tidal wetland species found in the Pacific...

46

A novel method for efficient in vitro germination and tube growth of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen.  

PubMed

In addition to its importance in studies of plant reproduction and fertility, pollen is as widely employed as a model system of cell growth and development. This work demands robust, reproducible methods to induce pollen germination and morphologically normal growth of pollen tubes in vitro. Despite numerous advantages of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant, such experiments on pollen germination and pollen tube growth have often proved challenging. Our new method employs a physical cellulosic membrane, overlying an agarose substrate. By modulating the substrate composition, we provide important insights into the mechanisms promoting pollen growth both in vitro and in vivo. This effective new technical approach to A. thaliana pollen germination and tube growth results in swift, consistent and unprecedented levels of germination to over 90%. It can also promote rapid growth of long, morphologically normal pollen tubes. This technical development demonstrates that exogenous spermidine and a cellulosic substrate are key factors in stimulating germination. It has potential to greatly assist the study of reproduction in A. thaliana and its closest relatives, not only for the study of germination levels and pollen tube growth dynamics by microscopy, but also for biochemical and molecular analysis of germinating pollen. PMID:23173941

Rodriguez-Enriquez, M J; Mehdi, S; Dickinson, H G; Grant-Downton, R T

2013-01-01

47

Germins and germin-like proteins: Plant do-all proteins. But what do they do exactly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) constitute a large and highly diverse family of ubiquitous plant proteins. The name germin was given because the first described member of the family, wheat germin, was discovered in germinating wheat grains. However, it is now known that proteins from this family exist in all organs and developmental stages and that several are also involved

François Bernier; Anne Berna

2001-01-01

48

Effect of Burning on Germination of Tallgrass Prairie Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds from 10 prairie plant species of burned and unburned portions of three tallgrass prairies were collected and tested for germinability. Germination of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) consistently averaged higher with burning. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans L.) and sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] averaged 5% higher with burning on two of the three sites, although for indiangrass average germination

Sherry R. Rohn; Thomas B. Bragg

1989-01-01

49

Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

50

Efficient production of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea ( Pisum sativum L.) plants by agroinfection of germinated seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  For efficient and large scale production of recombinant proteins in plants transient expression by agroinfection has a number\\u000a of advantages over stable transformation. Simple manipulation, rapid analysis and high expression efficiency are possible.\\u000a In pea, Pisum sativum, a Virus Induced Gene Silencing System using the pea early browning virus has been converted into an\\u000a efficient agroinfection system by converting the

Yajun Fan; Wei Li; Junjie Wang; Jingying Liu; Meiying Yang; Duo Xu; Xiaojuan Zhu; Xingzhi Wang

2011-01-01

51

[Seed germination characteristics of parasitic plant and its host recognition mechanisms].  

PubMed

Parasitic plants are widely distributed in various ecological environments, with different growth habits and host recognition mechanisms. This paper discussed the distinctive seed germination characteristics of root parasitic plants such as Orobanche and Striga, summarized the signals for parasitic seed germination discovered up to now, and reviewed the effects of various germination signals, plant hormones and several fungal metabolites on the host recognition of parasitic plants, as well as the respiration characteristics during the conditioning, and the activating mechanism of the signals for parasitic seed germination. The induction of various differentiated calli in different Orobanche species, and the establishment of novel in vitro aseptic infection system and its application in the host recognition of parasitic plants were also discussed, with the present problems in researching the recognition mechanisms between parasitic plants and hosts put forward, and the further work prospected. PMID:16706065

Song, Wenjian; Jin, Zonglai; Cao, Dongdong; Tang, Guixiang; Zhou, Weijun

2006-02-01

52

How Plants Make Light Work of Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is one of a series of articles designed to help science teachers keep current on ideas in specific areas in biology. Contained is information on how plants use light for growth, seed germination, and flowering. (PB)

Kendrick, R. E.

1981-01-01

53

Foraging pits, litter and plant germination in an arid shrubland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals create soil surface depressions (pits) while foraging for subterranean resources. Foraging pits typically fill with litter, organic debris and seed, retain moisture, and become hotspots for plant germination. This study aimed to examine whether artificial foraging pits, which mimic those created by Greater bilbies (Macrotis lagotis) and Burrowing bettongs (Bettongia lesueur), develop into patches of enhanced plant germination

Alex I. James; David J. Eldridge; Katherine E. Moseby

2010-01-01

54

Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil.  

PubMed

Rhizoremediation is a complex type of green clean-up technology that involves both plants and the rhizosphere-associated microorganisms to decompose hazardous compounds. The success of the strategy strongly depends on plant tolerance towards the pollutant, as well as plant's interactions with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation of all plant species. Moreover, M10 consortiums increased the germination index at 6,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil in the case of Indian mustard, alfalfa, and HEAR. The latter species was found to increment its dry weight upon bioaugmentation with M10 bacteria and all diesel oil treatments (6,000 and 24,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil). The initial results indicate HEAR and the M10 bacterial consortium as a promising plant-microbe tandem for a long-term rhizoremediation process. PMID:24078757

Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna

2013-01-01

55

The Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK2 Mediates Growth-Promoting Signals and Positively Regulates Pollen Germination and Tube Growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In flowering plants, the process of pollen germination and tube growth is required for successful fertilization. A pollen receptor kinase from tomato, LePRK2, has been implicated in signaling during pollen germination and tube growth as well as in mediating pollen (tube)-pistil communication. Here w...

56

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona  

E-print Network

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona hexagona occupy saline habitats and plant performance is strongly impacted by salinity stress. We examined. hexagona by (1) growing plants in three different maternal salinity levels in a common garden, (2

Van Zandt, Peter

57

Seed germination and salinity tolerance in plant species growing on saline wastelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven plant species including three chenopods:Suaeda fruticosa, Kochia indica, Atriplex crassifolia and four grasses:Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon, Polypogon monspeliensis, Desmostachya bipinnata, varied greatly in their seed germination and growth responses to soil moisture or salinity. The germination percentage of\\u000a each species was significantly lower at soil moisture level of 25 % of water holding capacity than at the levels ranging

K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; M. A. K. Lodhi; K. H. Sheikh

1996-01-01

58

Strigolactones as germination stimulants for root parasitic plants.  

PubMed

Witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are the two most devastating root parasitic plants belonging to the family Orobanchaceae and are causing enormous crop losses throughout the world. Seeds of these root parasites will not germinate unless they are exposed to chemical stimuli, 'germination stimulants' produced by and released from plant roots. Most of the germination stimulants identified so far are strigolactones (SLs), which also function as host recognition signals for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a novel class of plant hormones inhibiting shoot branching. In this review, we focus on SLs as germination stimulants for root parasitic plants. In addition, we discuss how quantitative and qualitative differences in SL exudation among sorghum cultivars influence their susceptibility to Striga. PMID:20403809

Yoneyama, Koichi; Awad, Ayman A; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Takeuchi, Yasutomo

2010-07-01

59

Evidence of Chemical Interactions on Germination and Seedling Growth in Annual Forage Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor establishment of forage legumes may result when they are sown with annual grasses in mixtures. Our objective was to determine the importance of allelopathy as a mechanism of interference between seed germination and seedling growth. Laboratory studies were conducted using two grasses (donor plants): oat (Avena sativa L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and five annual legumes (target

A. Iannucci

2007-01-01

60

In Vivo Effects of Barbituates on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple, low-cost experimental system can be used to demonstrate the "in vivo" effects of barbituates on seed germination and seedling growth behavior in different plant species. Lipid solubility and concentration of individual barbituates both affect the response. List of materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are…

Kordan, H. A.

1984-01-01

61

The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suaeda salsa, a leaf succulent shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae, is one of the most important halophytes in China. Suaeda salsa produces dimorphic seeds (soft brown seeds and hard black seeds). Seeds of S. salsa were collected from the coastal salt flats near Huanghua City, China. Experiments were conducted to determine the salinity-alleviating effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide,

Weiqiang LiXiaojing; Xiaojing Liu; M. Ajmal Khan; Shinjiro Yamaguchi

2005-01-01

62

Effects of acidity on tree pollen germination and tube growth  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have indicated that pollen germination and tube growth are adversely affected by air pollutants. Pollutants may inhibit the function of pollen by reducing the number of pollen grains which germinate, by reducing the maximum length to which the pollen tubes grow, or by interfering with the formation of the generative cell. The paper reports on studies that are attempting to determine the effects acid rain may have on these crucial stages in the life histories of northeastern tree species. The first stage of this work assessed the effects of acidity in the growth medium on in vitro pollen germination for four deciduous forest species common to central New York State, Betula lutea (yellow birch), B. lenta (black birch), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood). Measurements were taken at the end of the growth period to determine the percentage of grains which had germinated, and to estimate the average tube length. To determine the effects of pollen on the growth medium, the pH of the germination drop was measured at the end of the growth period.

Jacobson, J.S.; Van Rye, D.M.; Lassoie, J.P.

1985-01-01

63

The evolution of pollen germination timing in flowering plants: Austrobaileya scandens (Austrobaileyaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The pollination to fertilization process (progamic phase) is thought to have become greatly abbreviated with the origin of flowering plants. In order to understand what developmental mechanisms enabled the speeding of fertilization, comparative data are needed from across the group, especially from early-divergent lineages. I studied the pollen germination process of Austrobaileya scandens, a perennial vine endemic to the Wet Tropics area of northeastern Queensland, Australia, and a member of the ancient angiosperm lineage, Austrobaileyales. Methodology I used in vivo and in vitro hand pollinations and timed collections to study development from late pollen maturation to just after germination. Then I compared the contribution of pollen germination timing to progamic phase duration in 131 angiosperm species (65 families). Principal findings Mature pollen of Austrobaileya was bicellular, starchless and moderately dehydrated—water content was 31.5 % by weight and volume increased by 57.9 % upon hydration. A callose layer in the inner intine appeared only after pollination. In vivo pollen germination followed a logarithmic curve, rising from 28 % at 1 hour after pollination (hap) to 97 % at 12 hap (R2 = 0.98). Sufficient pollen germination to fertilize all ovules was predicted to have occurred within 62 min. Across angiosperms, pollen germination ranged from 1 min to >60 h long and required 8.3 ± 9.8 % of the total duration of the progamic phase. Significance Pollen of Austrobaileya has many plesiomorphic features that are thought to prolong germination. Yet its germination is quite fast for species with desiccation-tolerant pollen (range: <1 to 60 h). Austrobaileya and other early-divergent angiosperms have relatively rapid pollen germination and short progamic phases, comparable to those of many insect-pollinated monocots and eudicots. These results suggest that both the pollen germination and pollen tube growth periods were marked by acceleration of developmental processes early in angiosperm history. PMID:22567221

Williams, Joseph H.

2012-01-01

64

Performance of seed germination and growth of Vicia faba L. in fly ash amended soil.  

PubMed

The performance of Vicia faba L. in soil amended by different concentrations of fly ash has been studied. The parameters considered are seed germination, growth behaviour and nodulation frequency of the plant. Results revealed that while fly-ash amendment to the soil improved the growth performance at initial stages with application of lower concentrations, it was inhibitory at higher exposure concentrations. Although there was no difference in survival rates, but the seedling growth was reduced in comparison to control plants. Fly ash delayed the nodulation as lesser number of nodules was recorded at higher amendments. Results suggested feasibility of growing V. faba in fly ash contaminated area. PMID:12974406

Rai, U N; Gupta, D K; Akhtar, M; Pal, Amit

2003-01-01

65

Effect of Cold Plasma Treatment on Seed Germination and Growth of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect of cold helium plasma treatment on seed germination, growth and yield of wheat. The effects of different power of cold plasma on the germination of treated wheat seeds were studied. We found that the treatment of 80 W could significantly improve seed germination potential (6.0%) and germination rate (6.7%) compared to the control group. Field experiments were carried out for wheat seeds treated with 80 W cold plasma. Compared with the control, plant height (20.3%), root length (9.0%) and fresh weight (21.8%) were improved significantly at seedling stage. At booting stage, plant height, root length, fresh weight, stem diameter, leaf area and leaf thickness of the treated plant were respectively increased by 21.8%, 11.0%, 7.0%, 9.0%, 13.0% and 25.5%. At the same time, the chlorophyll content (9.8%), nitrogen (10.0%) and moisture content (10.0%) were higher than those of the control, indicating that cold plasma treatment could promote the growth of wheat. The yield of treated wheat was 7.55 t · ha-1, 5.89% more than that of the control. Therefore, our results show that cold plasma has important application prospects for increasing wheat yield.

Jiang, Jiafeng; He, Xin; Li, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Shao, Hanliang; Xu, Qilai; Ye, Renhong; Dong, Yuanhua

2014-01-01

66

Plant Growth Regulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plant growth regulators, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and ethylene, are investigated in this learning activity to demonstrate how these chemicals (hormones) affect plant growth and development.

This page authored by Jim Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma, based on original activities by Long Ashton Research Station, KScience, Cynthia Herbrandson, Kellogg Community College, Ross Koning, Eastern Connecticut State University, and A.G. Scientific, Inc.

67

Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth  

PubMed Central

To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response. PMID:21857956

DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

2011-01-01

68

Modeling Analysis on Germination and Seedling Growth Using Ultrasound Seed Pretreatment in Switchgrass  

PubMed Central

Switchgrass is a perennial C4 plant with great potential as a bioenergy source and, thus, a high demand for establishment from seed. This research investigated the effects of ultrasound treatment on germination and seedling growth in switchgrass. Using an orthogonal matrix design, conditions for the ultrasound pretreatment in switchgrass seed, including sonication time (factor A), sonication temperature (factor B) and ultrasound output power (factor C), were optimized for germinating and stimulating seedling growth (indicated as plumular and radicular lengths) through modeling analysis. The results indicate that sonication temperature (B) was the most effective factor for germination, whereas output power (C) had the largest effect on seedling growth when ultrasound treatment was used. Combined with the analyses of range, variance and models, the final optimal ultrasonic treatment conditions were sonication for 22.5 min at 39.7°C and at an output power of 348 W, which provided the greatest germination percentage and best seedling growth. For this study, the orthogonal matrix design was an efficient method for optimizing the conditions of ultrasound seed treatment on switchgrass. The electrical conductivity of seed leachates in three experimental groups (control, soaked in water only, and ultrasound treatment) was determined to investigate the effects of ultrasound on seeds and eliminate the effect of water in the ultrasound treatments. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of seed leachates during either ultrasound treatment or water bath treatment was significantly higher than that of the control, and that the ultrasound treatment had positive effects on switchgrass seeds. PMID:23071756

Wang, Quanzhen; Chen, Guo; Yersaiyiti, Hayixia; Liu, Yuan; Cui, Jian; Wu, Chunhui; Zhang, Yunwei; He, Xueqing

2012-01-01

69

Parasitic Plants in Agriculture: Chemical Ecology of Germination and Host-Plant Location as Targets for Sustainable Control: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Parasitic plants are among the most problematic pests of agricultural crops worldwide. Effective means of control are generally\\u000a lacking, in part because of the close physiological connection between the established parasite and host plant hindering efficient\\u000a control using traditional methods. Seed germination and host location are critical early-growth stages that occur prior to\\u000a host attachment, and provide promising targets for

Justin B. Runyon; John F. Tooker; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

70

Intersection of two signalling pathways: extracellular nucleotides regulate pollen germination and pollen tube growth via nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant and animal cells release or secrete ATP by various mechanisms, and this activity allows extracellular ATP to serve as a signalling molecule. Recent reports suggest that extracellular ATP induces plant responses ranging from increased cytosolic calcium to changes in auxin transport, xenobiotic resistance, pollen germination, and growth. Although calcium has been identified as a secondary messenger for the extracellular

Stuart A. Reichler; Jonathan Torres; Amy L. Rivera; Viviana A. Cintolesi; Greg Clark; Stanley J. Roux

2009-01-01

71

INTERACTION OF METHYL-TERT BUTYL ETHER AND WATER STRESS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOIL MICROCOSMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread contaminant in surface and ground water in the United States. Frequently irrigation is used to water fields to germinate planted seeds and sustain plant growth. A likely possibility exists that water used may have some MTBE. Our s...

72

Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Chaffy-Seeded Grasses at Negative Water Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

chaffy-seeded grasses can be debearded, i.e., removal ofthehairsandawn(Ahringet al.,1964)orprocessedto Drought is the most frequent cause of stand establishment failure remove all appendages leaving only caryopses (Beisel, of native grasses. An experiment was conducted to determine the interactions of seed processing and simulated dry conditions on seed 1985). When conditions are favorable, planting caryop- germination and seedling growth of five chaffy-seeded,

T. L. Springer

2005-01-01

73

Effect of magnetic field on seed germination and seedling growth of sunflower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of a variable magnetic field, magnetically treated water and a combination of both these factors on the germination of seeds and the final mass at the initial stage of growth sunflower plants was presented. Investigations were carried out in pots filled with sand, tin an air-conditioned plant house with no access to daylight using fluorescent light as illumination. A statistical significance positive impact was achieved for the samples subjected to the interaction of both stimulating factors simultaneously, the magnetic field and the impact of treated water several times on the speed of seed germination and final plant mass. Negative impacts were obtained for the majority of the test cases, for the magnetically treated water, the short duration of activity of the magnetic field and for the connection of the magnetic field and low-flow times.

Matwijczuk, A.; Kornarzy?ski, K.; Pietruszewski, S.

2012-07-01

74

He–Ne laser-induced changes in germination, thermodynamic parameters, internal energy, enzyme activities and physiological attributes of wheat during germination and early growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using low power continuous wave He–Ne laser irradiation of seeds, the germination characteristics, thermodynamic changes and enzyme activities as well as changes in morphological attributes were explored for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. S-24) cultivar. The changes in thermodynamic properties such as change in enthalpy (?H), entropy generation [(?Se)], entropy flux [(?Sc)], entropy generation ratio [(?S)e/?t], and entropy flux ratio [(?S)c/?t] showed significant (P < 0.05) changes at an energy level of 500 mJ. The germination energy (GE), germination percentage (G%), germination index (GI) as well as ?-amylase and protease activities was also found to be higher at 500 mJ, while the mean emergence time (MET) and time for 50% germination (E50) decreased for 300 mJ irradiance. The internal energy of the seeds increased significantly at all laser energy levels, but was highest for 500 mJ 72 h after sowing. The enzyme activities increased up to 24 h after sowing and then declined. The activities of ?-amylase and protease were found to be positively correlated with the plant physiological attributes. These results indicate that low power continuous wave He–Ne laser (632 nm) treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism during germination as well as on later vegetative growth.

Jamil, Yasir; Perveen, Rashida; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza

2013-04-01

75

Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut  

PubMed Central

Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to ?14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to ?8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was ?8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and ?5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L.; Reynoso, María. M.; Torres, Adriana M.

2014-01-01

76

Effects of three fire-suppressant foams on the germination and physiological responses of plants.  

PubMed

Suppressant foams used to fight forest fires may leave residual effects on surviving biota that managers need to consider prior to using them. We examined how three fire-suppressant foams (FSFs) (Forexpan S, Phos-Chek-WD881, and Silv-ex) affected seed germination and physiological responses of three plant species. Exposure to FSFs, whether in diluted concentrations or those typical in the field, reduced final germination percentages of seeds grown in petri dishes and within growth chambers. However, the FSFs did not cause total germination failure in any treatment. Inhibition of germination increased with longer exposure times, but only to diluted FSF solutions. Unlike in the laboratory experiments, none of the three FSFs affected seedling emergence when tested in field conditions. Further, we found no evidence of long-term phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzyme activity nor chlorophyll content of the plant saplings. Therefore, although the three FSFs showed evidence of phytotoxicity to plants in laboratory tests, their actual impact on terrestrial ecosystems may be minimal. We suggest that the benefits of using these FSFs to protect plants in threatened forest ecosystems outweigh their minor risks. PMID:24943813

Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Waldman, Bruce; Lee, Eun Ju

2014-10-01

77

Effects of Three Fire-Suppressant Foams on the Germination and Physiological Responses of Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suppressant foams used to fight forest fires may leave residual effects on surviving biota that managers need to consider prior to using them. We examined how three fire-suppressant foams (FSFs) (Forexpan S, Phos-Chek-WD881, and Silv-ex) affected seed germination and physiological responses of three plant species. Exposure to FSFs, whether in diluted concentrations or those typical in the field, reduced final germination percentages of seeds grown in petri dishes and within growth chambers. However, the FSFs did not cause total germination failure in any treatment. Inhibition of germination increased with longer exposure times, but only to diluted FSF solutions. Unlike in the laboratory experiments, none of the three FSFs affected seedling emergence when tested in field conditions. Further, we found no evidence of long-term phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzyme activity nor chlorophyll content of the plant saplings. Therefore, although the three FSFs showed evidence of phytotoxicity to plants in laboratory tests, their actual impact on terrestrial ecosystems may be minimal. We suggest that the benefits of using these FSFs to protect plants in threatened forest ecosystems outweigh their minor risks.

Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Waldman, Bruce; Lee, Eun Ju

2014-10-01

78

[Impact of priming on seed germination and seedling growth of Oldenlandia diffusa under drought stress].  

PubMed

Current study was carried out to optimize the priming condition of Oldenlandia diffusa seeds, and improve germination rate and seed vigor of 0. diffusa seeds under drought conditions. Uniform design was used to optimize the concentration and priming time of three priming materials (PEG, KNO3, GA3). Different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to simulate drought stress. The seedling was cultured in 1/4 Hoagland medium for 30 d. The results showed that seed priming treatment with 366 mg x kg(-1) GA3 for 1h resulted in significant increase in germination rate, germination index, vigor, root length, plant height and biomass of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress (15% PEG), while seed priming with 3.0% KNO3 for 1 h showed little effect on germination and growth of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress. Seed priming treatment with appropriate GA3 concentration and priming time could enhance seed germination and drought resistance of O. diffusa in seedling stage. PMID:25039170

Zhu, Zai-Biao; Lu, Wei-Wei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Cao, Ya-Yue; Feng, Shan; Ning, Zi-Jun

2014-04-01

79

Basal transcription factor 3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth of rice.  

PubMed

BTF3 has been recognized to be involved in plant growth and development. But its function remains mostly unknown during seed germination and seedling stage. Here, we have analyzed OsBTF3-related sequences in Oryza sativa L. subspecies, japonica, which resembles with the conserved domain of a nascent polypeptide associated complex (NAC) with different homologs of OsBTF3 and human BTF3. Inhibition of Osj10gBTF3 has led to considerable morphological changes during seed germination and seedling growth. Germination percentage was not influenced by the application of GA3, ABA, and NaCl but all concentrations caused wild-type (WT) seeds to germinate more rapidly than the RNAi (Osj10gBTF3 (Ri)) transgenic lines. Seedling inhibition was more severe in the Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) seedlings compared with their WT especially when treated with 100 or 200??M GA3; 50% reduction in shoots was observed in Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) seedlings. The expression of Osj3g1BTF3, Osj3g2BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 was primarily constitutive and generally modulated by NaCl, ABA, and GA3 stresses in both Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) lines and WT at the early seedling stage, suggesting that Osj3g1BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 are much similar but different from Osj3g2BTF3 in biological function. These results show that OsBTF3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth gives a new perception demonstrating that more multifaceted regulatory functions are linked with BTF3 in plants. PMID:24971328

Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Ya; Jamil, Muhammad

2014-01-01

80

Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa.  

PubMed

Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

Panuccio, M R; Jacobsen, S E; Akhtar, S S; Muscolo, A

2014-01-01

81

Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

2014-07-01

82

Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean  

PubMed Central

Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120?W of cold plasma for 15?s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80?W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean. PMID:25080862

Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

2014-01-01

83

Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean.  

PubMed

Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean. PMID:25080862

Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

2014-01-01

84

The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and growth of seedlings under impact of zinc salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals are necessary because of migration of heavy metals in LSS. Microbial associations are able to stimulate growth of plants, to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metal salts. The goal of this work was to investigate effect of microbial associations on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO4. The results of investigations showed that:Zinc salt had an adverse effect on germination of wheat seeds, beginning with concentrations of 8 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) and higher.Microbial associations (concentrations -104 to 107 cells/ml) were able to decrease (partly or completely) the adverse effect of ZnSO4 on germination of wheat seeds.Concentrations (104-107 cells/ml) of microbial associations were able to decrease partly the adverse effect of zinc salts (intervals: from 1 to 32 MP?) on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase.The root system of plants was more sensitive to the adverse effect of ZnSO4 than shoots of plants.

Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

2009-04-01

85

Muricholic Acids Inhibit Clostridium difficile Spore Germination and Growth  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by Clostridium difficile have increased steadily over the past several years. While studies on C. difficile virulence and physiology have been hindered, in the past, by lack of genetic approaches and suitable animal models, newly developed technologies and animal models allow these processes to be studied in detail. One such advance is the generation of a mouse-model of C. difficile infection. The development of this system is a major step forward in analyzing the genetic requirements for colonization and infection. While important, it is equally as important in understanding what differences exist between mice and humans. One of these differences is the natural bile acid composition. Bile acid-mediated spore germination is an important step in C. difficile colonization. Mice produce several different bile acids that are not found in humans. These muricholic acids have the potential to impact C. difficile spore germination. Here we find that the three muricholic acids (?-muricholic acid, ?-muricholic acid and ?-muricholic acid) inhibit C. difficile spore germination and can impact the growth of vegetative cells. These results highlight an important difference between humans and mice and may have an impact on C. difficile virulence in the mouse-model of C. difficile infection. PMID:24040011

Francis, Michael B.; Allen, Charlotte A.; Sorg, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

86

Plant Growth Regulators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

Nickell, Louis G.

1978-01-01

87

Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.  

PubMed

Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar. PMID:21565777

Tatár, S

2010-01-01

88

Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

2010-05-01

89

DISPERSAL OF WETLAND PLANT SEEDS BY MALLARDS: INFLUENCE OF GUT PASSAGE ON RECOVERY, RETENTION, AND GERMINATION  

E-print Network

, AND GERMINATION Chanpen Wongsriphuek1 , Bruce D. Dugger2 , and Anne M. Bartuszevige3 1 Department of Biology to enhance dispersal. We used controlled feeding and germination experiments to investigate recovery, retention time, and germination for the seeds of 10 wetland plant species (Chenopodium album, Digitaria

Dugger, Bruce

90

Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.  

PubMed

In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (p<0.05). However, under the condition of low-Na+ concentration (100 mM), high pH reduced the mean time of germination and increased the germination rate, without decline in final germination percentage and survival percentage. Therefore, at least in the duration of seed germination to the harvest period in the research, the sweet sorghum was resistant to the pH stress (?9.04) when the Na+ concentration was below 100 mM. When suffered from the saline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects and limited the self-healing ability of sweet sorghum seedlings. In all, in order to grow sweet sorghum in the saline-alkaline soils of the Yellow River Delta, the salt concentration and pH value of the soil must be taken into consideration, and seeding density should be increased and supported by appropriate irrigation measures to reduce saline-alkaline stress so as to ensure the survival and growth of sweet sorghum seedlings. PMID:24840039

Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

2014-08-01

91

Steroid Hormones Stimulate Germination and Tube Growth of in Vitro Matured Tobacco Pollen.  

PubMed Central

A study of the effects of different steroids on germination and tube growth of tobacco pollen (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Petit Havana SR1) matured in vitro is presented. Application of the mammalian steroid sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol) resulted in a stimulation of pollen germination and tube elongation. The presence of both steroids and flavonols in the germination medium strongly enhanced the growth of tobacco male gametophytes. PMID:12228388

Ylstra, B.; Touraev, A.; Brinkmann, A. O.; Heberle-Bors, E.; Tunen, AJV.

1995-01-01

92

The Influence of Variable Rainfall Frequency on Germination and Early Growth of Shade-Tolerant Dipterocarp Seedlings in Borneo  

PubMed Central

Climate change induced alterations to rainfall patterns have the potential to affect the regeneration dynamics of plant species, especially in historically everwet tropical rainforest. Differential species response to infrequent rainfall may influence seed germination and seedling establishment in turn affecting species distributions. We tested the role of watering frequency intervals (from daily to six-day watering) on the germination and the early growth of Dipterocarpaceae seedlings in Borneo. We used seeds that ranged in size from 500 to 20,000 mg in order to test the role of seed mass in mediating the effects of infrequent watering. With frequent rainfall, germination and seedling development traits bore no relationship to seed mass, but all metrics of seedling growth increased with increasing seed mass. Cumulative germination declined by 39.4% on average for all species when plants were watered at six-day intervals, and days to germination increased by 76.5% on average for all species from daily to six-day intervals. Final height and biomass declined on average in the six-day interval by 16% and 30%, respectively, but the percentage decrease in final size was greater for large-seeded species. Rooting depth per leaf area also significantly declined with seed mass indicating large-seeded species allocate relatively more biomass for leaf production. This difference in allocation provided an establishment advantage to large-seeded species when water was non-limiting but inhibited their growth under infrequent rainfall. The observed reduction in the growth of large-seeded species under infrequent rainfall would likely restrict their establishment in drier microsites associated with coarse sandy soils and ridge tops. In total, these species differences in germination and initial seedling growth indicates a possible niche axis that may help explain both current species distributions and future responses to climate change. PMID:23894634

O’Brien, Michael J.; Philipson, Christopher D.; Tay, John; Hector, Andy

2013-01-01

93

Effect of heavy crude oil-contaminated soil on germination and growth of Poa trivialis (Rough meadow-grass)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plants to remediate crude oil-contaminated soil has been a particular interest in environmental cleansing. Some plants such as grasses have been demonstrated to have better capacity in biodegradation of oil in the soil. In this study the effect of different concentrations (1–15%) of heavy crude oil on germination and growth of Poa trivialis (Rough meadow-grass) was studied.

Dariush Minai-Tehrani

2008-01-01

94

Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.  

PubMed

The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control. PMID:22803337

Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

2012-06-01

95

Plant Growth and Hormones 102 Plant Growth and Hormones  

E-print Network

Plant Growth and Hormones 102 Plant Growth and Hormones Because plants have so many repeating parts does your data compare to that of other groups in your lab? #12;Plant Growth and Hormones 103 Plant growth and development in higher plants. Some responses to hormones can be observed in seconds, while

Koptur, Suzanne

96

Germination characteristics of six plant species growing on the Hanford Site. [Disturbed land revegetation feasibility studies  

SciTech Connect

Six plant species (Siberian and thickspike wheatgrass, cheatgrass, sand dropseed, Indian ricegrass, and Russian thistle) found on the Hanford Site were studied as part of an investigation into the revegetation of disturbed areas. Germination response to three environmental parameters (soil moisture, soil temperature, and planting depth) were measured. Results indicated that when a polyethylene glycol solution was used to control the osmotic potential of the imbibition media, no significant decrease in germination rate occurred down to -3.0 bars. However, below -7.0 bars all species experienced a decrease in germination. When germinated in soil, all species except Russian thistle exhibited a significant decrease in germination rate at -0.3 bars. Russian thistle was the only species tested that exhibited germination at a soil temperature of 1/sup 0/C. All species gave optimum germination at temperatures between 10 and 15/sup 0/C. Thickspike wheatgrass was the only species tested which was able to germinate and emerge from a planting depth of greater than 2 inches. If supplemental moisture is provided, a shallow planting would be advisable for those species tested. If not overcome by pretreatment prior to planting, seed dormancy may be a significant factor which will reduce the germination potential of some species tested.

Cox, G.R.; Kirkham, R.R.; Cline, J.F.

1980-03-01

97

Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10?mg/L, NaCl at 50?mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50?mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

2014-01-01

98

Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10?mg/L, NaCl at 50?mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50?mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

2014-01-01

99

Microgravity effects on plant growth and lignification.  

PubMed

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew under the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment. PMID:11539286

Cowles, J R; Lemay, R; Jahns, G

1988-01-01

100

Effect of electroplating factory effluent on the germination and growth of hyacinth bean and mustard. [Dolichos lablab; Brassica compestris  

SciTech Connect

The effect of electroplating factory effluent in different concentrations (viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0%) on the germination and growth of hyacinth beans (Dolichos lablab) and mustard seeds (Brassica compestris) was studied. The germination of seeds was delayed with the increase of effluent concentration and the germination of mustard seeds was totally inhibited at 1.5% effluent concentration while hyacinth bean seeds tolerated the effluent up to 2.5% concentration. The metal content in the hyacinth bean plants increased with increasing effluent concentration but after 1.0% effluent concentration, the concentration of all the metals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe) decreased in the plants except Cr, which increased throughout. Percentage germination, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, and shoot length of the plants were also analyzed. Cd, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb were not detectable in the hyacinth bean plants.

Ajmal, M.; Khan, A.U.

1985-12-01

101

Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.  

PubMed

Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels. PMID:17928137

Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

2008-05-01

102

Exposure of maize seeds to stationary magnetic fields: Effects on germination and early growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the exposure of maize seeds to stationary magnetic fields on germination and early growth has been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were magnetically exposed to one of two magnetic field strengths, 125 or 250mT for different periods of time. Mean germination time and the time required to obtain 10, 25, 50, 75 and 90% of seeds to

Mercedes Flórez; Maria Victoria Carbonell; Elvira Martínez

2007-01-01

103

N-acetylcysteine inhibits germination of conidia and growth of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp.  

PubMed Central

N-Acetylcysteine inhibited hyphal growth and germination of conidia of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. N-Acetylcysteine inhibited conidial germination as well as or better than L-cysteine. Cysteine-related compounds may provide a potential therapeutic strategy against agriculturally and medically important fungal pathogens. PMID:8723482

De Lucca, A J; Walsh, T J; Daigle, D J

1996-01-01

104

Effects of acidity on tree Pollen germination and tube growth. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the northeastern hardwood forests in North America are exposed repeatedly to acidic rainfall at pH values below 5.0. Pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization, important parts of the reproductive process, are sensitive to changes in their chemical environment. Accordingly, the authors investigated the effects of acidity on pollen germination and tube elongation of four northeastern tree species: flowering

D. M. Van Ryn; J. S. Jacobson

1984-01-01

105

The effects of paclobutrazol, abscisic acid, and gibberellin on germination and early growth in  

E-print Network

The effects of paclobutrazol, abscisic acid, and gibberellin on germination and early growth with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor paclobutrazol delayed germination and reduced root and shoot extension. The inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol plus abscisic acid (ABA) on the shoots of silver maple could

Blumwald, Eduardo

106

Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings: effects of soil moisture variability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination and seedling growth, survivorship, and final biomass and their responses to varying numbers of days between watering were studied in two grass and six forb species native to the U.S. Central Plains grasslands. Our object was to assess the potential role of germination and seedling g...

107

Seed Priming with Polyamines Improves the Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Fine Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-sowing polyamine seed treatments were employed in fine rice (Oryza sativa) to explore the possibility of improving germination and early seedling growth. Fine rice (cv. Super-basmati) seeds were soaked in 10 and 20 ppm aerated solutions of spermidine, putrescine and spermine for 48-h at 28 ± 2 C. Polyamine seed treatments resulted in earlier, synchronized and enhanced germination. Improvement in

Muhammad Farooq; Shahzad M. A. Basra; H. Rehman; M. Hussain

2008-01-01

108

ABI5 acts downstream of ABI3 to execute an ABA-dependent growth arrest during germination  

E-print Network

ABI5 acts downstream of ABI3 to execute an ABA-dependent growth arrest during germination Luis@rockvax.rockefeller.edu) Summary The development of a germinating embryo into an autotrophic seedling is arrested under conditions osmotic tolerance in germinated embryos whose growth is arrested. ABI5 expression is greatly reduced

Chait, Brian T.

109

A Comparison of Germination and Early Growth of Four Early Successional Tree Species of the Southeastern United States in  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Germination and Early Growth of Four Early Successional Tree Species experiment comparing the germination and early seedling growth of four early successional tree species found for the experiment. Liquidambar and Platanus, the native species, germinated significantly more quickly and were more

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

110

A high-throughput seed germination assay for root parasitic plants  

PubMed Central

Background Some root-parasitic plants belonging to the Orobanche, Phelipanche or Striga genus represent one of the most destructive and intractable weed problems to agricultural production in both developed and developing countries. Compared with most of the other weeds, parasitic weeds are difficult to control by conventional methods because of their life style. The main difficulties that currently limit the development of successful control methods are the ability of the parasite to produce a tremendous number of tiny seeds that may remain viable in the soil for more than 15 years. Seed germination requires induction by stimulants present in root exudates of host plants. Researches performed on these minute seeds are until now tedious and time-consuming because germination rate is usually evaluated in Petri-dish by counting germinated seeds under a binocular microscope. Results We developed an easy and fast method for germination rate determination based on a standardized 96-well plate test coupled with spectrophotometric reading of tetrazolium salt (MTT) reduction. We adapted the Mosmann’s protocol for cell cultures to germinating seeds and determined the conditions of seed stimulation and germination, MTT staining and formazan salt solubilization required to obtain a linear relationship between absorbance and germination rate. Dose–response analyses were presented as applications of interest for assessing half maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of germination stimulants (strigolactones) or inhibitors (ABA), respectively, using four parameter logistic curves. Conclusion The developed MTT system is simple and accurate. It yields reproducible results for germination bioassays of parasitic plant seeds. This method is adapted to high-throughput screenings of allelochemicals (stimulants, inhibitors) or biological extracts on parasitic plant seed germination, and strengthens the investigations of distinctive features of parasitic plant germination. PMID:23915294

2013-01-01

111

GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF PLANT-GROWTH PROMOTION IN ARABIDOPSIS TRIGGERED BY VOLATILE CHEMICALS FROM RHIZOBACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a wide range of root-colonizing bacteria that can enhance plant growth by increasing seed germination, plant weight, and crop yields. Some PGPR strains regulate plant growth by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid...

112

Lily Cdc42/Rac-interactive binding motif-containing protein, a Rop target, involves calcium influx and phosphoproteins during pollen germination and tube growth.  

PubMed

We report unique desiccation-associated ABA signaling transduction through which the Rop (Rho GTPase of plants) and its target LLP12-2 are regulated during the stage of pollen maturation and tube growth. Overexpression of LLP12-2 drastically inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Studies on the germination inhibitors, Ca (2+) influx blocking agents LaCl 3 and EGTA and an actin-depolymerizing drug, latrunculin B (LatB), revealed that the LLP12-2-induced inhibition of germination and tube growth is significantly suppressed by LaCl 3 and EGTA in the LLP12-2-overexpressing pollen but not by LatB. These results suggested that LLP12-2 is associated with Ca (2+) influx in the cytoplasm and may be not with actin assembly. With the addition of LaCl 3 and EGTA, LLP12-2-overexpressing pollen increased germination and tube growth compared with the one without addition, whereas pollen expressing GFP decreased germination and tube growth. Thus, an optimum level of [Ca (2+) ]cyt influx is crucial for normal germination and tube growth. Studies on the inhibitors, staurosporine and okadaic acid in the LLP12-2-overexpressing pollen, showed no appreciable increase in germination when compared with the one without addition, suggesting that staurosporine-sensitive protein kinases and dephosphorylation of phosphoproteins may be not involved in the LLP12-2 mediated germination. However, the LLP12-2-induced inhibition of tube length was slightly but significantly suppressed by staurosporine, suggesting that staurosporine-sensitive protein kinases involve in the LLP12-2-induced inhibition of tube growth. PMID:21060254

Hsu, Ssu-Wei; Wang, Co-Shine

2010-11-01

113

Dispersal of wetland plant seeds by mallards: Influence of gut passage on recovery, retention, and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dispersal is an important process for plants, but may be particularly important for plants occurring in spatially isolated\\u000a habitats like wetlands. Variation in the geographic distribution of wetland plant species may be strongly influenced by their\\u000a ability to use waterbirds, particularly waterfowl to enhance dispersal. We used controlled feeding and germination experiments\\u000a to investigate recovery, retention time, and germination

Chanpen Wongsriphuek; Bruce D. Dugger; Anne M. Bartuszevige

2008-01-01

114

Toxic effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) on seed germination and growth and DPPH-scavenging activity in Brassica rapa var. turnip.  

PubMed

Toxicity of heavy metal is a wide spread environmental problem affecting all life forms including plants. In the present study the toxic effects of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) on seed germination rate (%), germination index (G-index) and growth (mm) of Brassica rapa var. turnip have been investigated. The seeds were soaked either in distilled water (control) or in aqueous solutions of Cd, Cr and Pb (1 g/l, 2.5 g/l and 5 g/l) at 4°C in dark for 24 hours. Prior to inoculation onto MS0 medium, the soaked seeds were either washed with sterile distilled water or inoculated without washing on solidified MS0 medium at 25 ± 2°C with 16/8-hour photoperiod in a growth chamber to germinate in vitro. Such stress conditions revealed that by increasing the concentration of heavy metals, the germination rate (%), G-index value and growth (mm) decreased significantly, suggesting their toxic effect on B. rapa var. turnip. This study further revealed that experiment with seed washing resulted in less toxicity of selected heavy metals on germination and growth of B. rapa var. turnip, as compared to experiment without washing. However, the resulting toxicity order of the selected heavy metals remained the same (Cd > Cr > Pb). Significant decrease has been observed in seed viability and germination potential and finally heavy metals completely ceased further growth and development of plants. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity revealed that significantly higher activity was observed in control plants without heavy metals treatment. Furthermore, the Cd-treated plants showed decreased antioxidant activity. Cr and Pb were less toxic as compared to Cd (control > Pb > Cr > Cd). This study revealed that selected heavy metals not only affected plant development but also disturbed plant metabolic pathways. PMID:22872632

Siddiqui, Maryam Mehmood; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Mohammad; Mahmood, Tariq

2014-04-01

115

[Effects of light intensity on seed germination and seedling early growth of Shorea wantianshuea].  

PubMed

With shading experiment, this paper studied the seed germination and seedling early growth of Shorea wantianshuea, a representative species in Xishuangbanna seasonal rain forest under different light intensity and forest habitat. The results showed that both 100% light and deepest shading did not facilitate the germination of S. wantianshuea seed, while medium shading accelerated the seed germination. Gap center was more appropriate to the seed germination than gap edge and under-canopy. The seeds in gap center had the highest germination rate and rapid germination. Under partially shading, the seedling height, diameter of basal stem, and leaf area per seedling were in their peak, while the root-shoot ratio decreased with increasing shading and achieved its maximum under 100% light. The specific leaf area increased with increasing shading in a certain range, and peaked under 4.2% light. Gap center was beneficial to the early seedling growth, with all growth parameters except root-shoot ratio peaked there. The effects of environmental factors, mainly light intensity and quality, on the seed germination and seedling growth of S. wantianshuea were discussed. PMID:17396494

Yan, Xing-fu; Cao, Min

2007-01-01

116

Irrigation and fertilization effects on seed number, size, germination and seedling growth: implications for desert shrub establishment.  

PubMed

Plants with limited resources adjust partitioning among growth, survival, and reproduction. We tested the effects of water and nutrient amendments on seed production, size, and quality in Sarcobatus vermiculatus (greasewood) to assess the magnitude and importance of changes in reproductive partitioning. In addition, we assessed interactions among the environment of seed-producing plants (adult plant scale), seed size, and seedling microenvironment (seedling scale) on successful seedling establishment. Interactions of these factors determine the scale of resource heterogeneity that affects seedling establishment in deserts. Both total number of seeds produced per plant and seed quality (weight and germination) increased significantly in the enriched treatment in a 3-year field experiment. Seedling length 3 days after germination and seed N concentration, other measures of seed quality, were higher for seed from both irrigated and enriched plants than for seed from control plants. Field S. vermiculatus seed production and quality can be substantially increased with irrigation and nutrient enrichment at the adult plant scale and this allows management of seed availability for restoration. However, based on a greenhouse study, seedling environment, not the environment of the seed-producing plant or seed size, was the most important factor affecting seedling germination, survival, and growth. Thus it appears that production of more seed may be more important than improved seed quality, because higher quality seed did not compensate for a low-resource seedling environment. For both natural establishment and restoration this suggests that heterogeneity at the scale of seedling microsites, perhaps combined with fertilization of adult shrubs (or multi-plant patches), would produce the greatest benefit for establishing seedlings in the field. PMID:18481096

Breen, A N; Richards, J H

2008-08-01

117

The Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN3 Interferes with Abscisic Acid and Light Signaling in Seed Germination and Plant Development.  

PubMed

Seed germination is controlled by environmental signals, including light and endogenous phytohormones. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits, whereas gibberellin promotes, germination and early seedling development, respectively. Here, we report that ZFP3, a nuclear C2H2 zinc finger protein, acts as a negative regulator of ABA suppression of seed germination in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Accordingly, regulated overexpression of ZFP3 and the closely related ZFP1, ZFP4, ZFP6, and ZFP7 zinc finger factors confers ABA insensitivity to seed germination, while the zfp3 zfp4 double mutant displays enhanced ABA susceptibility. Reduced expression of several ABA-induced genes, such as RESPONSIVE TO ABSCISIC ACID18 and transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), in ZFP3 overexpression seedlings suggests that ZFP3 negatively regulates ABA signaling. Analysis of ZFP3 overexpression plants revealed multiple phenotypic alterations, such as semidwarf growth habit, defects in fertility, and enhanced sensitivity of hypocotyl elongation to red but not to far-red or blue light. Analysis of genetic interactions with phytochrome and abi mutants indicates that ZFP3 enhances red light signaling by photoreceptors other than phytochrome A and additively increases ABA insensitivity conferred by the abi2, abi4, and abi5 mutations. These data support the conclusion that ZFP3 and the related ZFP subfamily of zinc finger factors regulate light and ABA responses during germination and early seedling development. PMID:24808098

Joseph, Mary Prathiba; Papdi, Csaba; Kozma-Bognár, László; Nagy, István; López-Carbonell, Marta; Rigó, Gábor; Koncz, Csaba; Szabados, László

2014-05-01

118

Impatiens pollen germination and tube growth as a bioassay for toxic substances  

SciTech Connect

Pollen of Impatiens sultanii Hook F. germinates and forms tubes rapidly at 25/sup 0/C in a simple medium containing 111.0 ppm CaCl/sub 2/, 13.6 ppm KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, and 1000 ppm boric acid. Calcium, potassium, and boron are essential for germination and tube growth, but sucrose is not required. Pollen tubes grow with equal rapidity in liquid medium or on a medium solidified with 1% agar. Tube growth rates are linear for 1 hr. When different pollen sources or clonal sources are utilized, no variation in pollen tube growth is observed, and pollen from individual flowers remain viable for 26 hr. Formaldehyde inhibits pollen germination, tube production, and tube lengths at 7.5-10 ppm. With 2,4-dichlorophenol, pollen germination and tube production is inhibited at 0.5-20 ppm, while tube growth is inhibited significantly at 25 ppm. A biphasic inhibition of germination and tube formation occurs with p-cresol with a low level of inhibition occurring at 40-60 ppm and a higher one at 100-125 ppm. Tube lengths were inhibited at 150 ppm p-cresol. Acrylamide and dioctyl phthalate have no measurable effect upon pollen germination and tube growth.

Bliderback, D.E.

1981-01-01

119

Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

2014-02-01

120

Enhancement of germination, growth, and photosynthesis in soybean by pre-treatment of seeds with magnetic field.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of static magnetic fields on the seeds of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. var: JS-335) by exposing the seeds to different magnetic field strengths from 0 to 300 mT in steps of 50 mT for 30, 60, and 90 min. Treatment with magnetic fields improved germination-related parameters like water uptake, speed of germination, seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigor indices of soybean seeds under laboratory conditions. Improvement over untreated control was 5-42% for speed of germination, 4-73% for seedling length, 9-53% for fresh weight, 5-16% for dry weight, and 3-88% and 4-27% for vigor indices I and II, respectively. Treatment of 200 mT (60 min) and 150 mT (60 min), which were more effective than others in increasing most of the seedling parameters, were further explored for their effect on plant growth, leaf photosynthetic efficiency, and leaf protein content under field conditions. Among different growth parameters, leaf area, and leaf fresh weight showed maximum enhancement (more than twofold) in 1-month-old plants. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at the J-I-P phase. The total soluble protein map (SDS-polyacrylamide gel) of leaves showed increased intensities of the bands corresponding to a larger subunit (53 KDa) and smaller subunit (14 KDa) of Rubisco in the treated plants. We report here the beneficial effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatment for improving germination parameters and biomass accumulation in soybean. PMID:21381047

Shine, M B; Guruprasad, K N; Anand, Anjali

2011-09-01

121

Changes in germination, growth and soluble sugar contents of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds under various abiotic stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various abiotic stresses on germination rate, growth and soluble sugar content in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. CSH 6 seed embryos and endosperm during early germination was investigated. Under stress conditions germination, water potential and tissue water content decreased markedly. Subsequently, this reduction resulted in marked decreases in fresh weight both in embryos and endosperm. Conversely, a

Prabhjot Kaur Gill; Arun Dev Sharma; Prabhjeet Singh; Sukhdev Singh Bhullar

2003-01-01

122

Effect of Light Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Growth and Germination of Festuca arundinacea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil (up to 10%) on the growth and germination of Festuca arundinacea (Tall fescue) was studied. Present results showed that the germination number and dry biomass of the plant decreased by increasing light crude oil concentration in the soil. The biomass was higher in 1% crude oil sample while it was lower in 10% crude oil sample. The length of leaves reduced in higher crude oil concentration in comparison with the control. Total and oil-degrading colony count of soil showed that the microbial population in 7 and 10% samples was higher than the control and low concentrations of crude oil (1 and 3% samples). The crude oil reduction in the vegetated and the non-vegetated samples was higher in 1% sample. All vegetated samples had higher crude oil reduction than non-vegetated samples. The higher reduction was occurred at 1% sample, while the lower reduction was seen at 10% sample.

Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Shahriari, Malek-Hossein; Savaghebi-Firoozabadi, Gholamreza

123

Red spruce germination and growth in soil-mediated regeneration microcosms under acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

In the past three decades, atmospheric pollution has caused substantial problems for the environment as well as for many biological processes. The objective of this study focuses on red spruce (Picea ruben Sarg.) regeneration potential and chemical change within the soil-water-plant continuum following simulated acid rain treatments. Inceptisols from three forests at 1735, 1920, and 2015 m at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina had lower pH, bulk density, and higher organic matter, and base cations as altitude increased. Red spruce seeds were collected from two nearby standing trees at the 1735 m site. A strip-split-split plot experiment was constructed using soils from the two lower elevations, which support natural red spruce stands. Besides a control (pH 5.6, NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratio 0.10), eight treatments corresponding to two pHs (3.5 and 4.2) with four NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratios (0.20, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.67) each were used. Seedling emergence and growth, chemistry of soil. Soil leachate, and plant tissue were analyzed to test soil differences and treatment effects of acidity, nitrate, and sulfate. Temporal patterns of germination respond more to soil than to rain chemistry, but significant interactions were found. Besides higher survival, faster germinating seedlings in the 1735 m soil also produced more complex root system and more biomass. Lower root-to-shoot ratios at more acidic treatments suggest a negative effect of acidity on root growth. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that factors controlling overall soil chemistry were dominated by soil origin, then by rain pH.

Ho, M.

1992-01-01

124

cAMP signalling is involved in growth, germination, mycoparasitism and secondary metabolism in Trichoderma virens.  

PubMed

An adenylate-cyclase-encoding gene, tac1, of Trichoderma virens, a soil fungus used in the biocontrol of plant pathogens, has been cloned and sequenced. The tac1 ORF spanned 7032 bp, encoding a protein of 2153 aa, which shared an identity of 65 % with the adenylate cyclase of Colletotrichum lagenarium. Deletion of tac1, through double-crossover homologous recombination, lowered the intracellular cAMP levels to below the detection limit. The mutants showed only 5-6 % of the wild-type growth rate on agar, but grew normally in shake culture. The mutants did not sporulate in darkness, and the spores failed to germinate in water. In the confrontation assay, the mutants did not overgrow the test plant pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp. Against Pythium sp., the mutants produced a clear zone of inhibition in the confrontation assay. HPLC analysis and bioassay showed reduced secondary metabolite production in the mutants. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), the genes that were underexpressed in the mutants were identified. Based on an array of 53 SSH library clones, 11 clones were identified as strongly downregulated in the Deltatac1 mutants; of these 11 clones, nine sequences were homologous to secondary metabolism-related gene sequences. Therefore, cAMP signalling positively regulates secondary metabolism in T. virens. This is believed to be the first direct genetic study on the role of cAMP signalling in a Trichoderma sp. Tac1 is also believed to be the first regulatory protein to be identified in T. virens that is involved in growth, germination, mycoparasitism and secondary metabolism. PMID:17526831

Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kale, Sharad P

2007-06-01

125

Mechanisms of plant growth stimulation by humic substances: The role of organo-iron complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulatory effects of humic substances (HS) on plant growth have been observed and widely documented. Studies have often shown positive effects on seed germination, root initiation and total plant biomass. The consistency of these observations has been uncertain, predominantly due to the lack of understanding of the plant growth promotion mechanism. Often these effects have been attributed to a direct

Y. Chen; C. E. Clapp; H. Magen

2004-01-01

126

Effects of six selected antibiotics on plant growth and soil microbial and enzymatic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential impact of six antibiotics (chlortetracycline, tetracycline and tylosin; sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine and trimethoprim) on plant growth and soil quality was studied by using seed germination test on filter paper and plant growth test in soil, soil respiration and phosphatase activity tests. The phytotoxic effects varied between the antibiotics and between plant species (sweet oat, rice and cucumber). Rice was

Feng Liu; Guang-Guo Ying; Ran Tao; Jian-Liang Zhao; Ji-Feng Yang; Lan-Feng Zhao

2009-01-01

127

Pollen Germination and Tube Growth in the Snow Buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pollen germination and tube growth in the snow buttercup, Ranunculus adoneus, photographed under fluorescence microscopy. Snow buttercup flowers exhibit heliotropism, the capacity to track the sun's rays over the course of the day. The adaptive significance of solar tracking in snow buttercups is mediated through the impact of flower heliotropism on paternal and maternal floral environments. In controlled crosses, pollen from solar-tracking flowers has higher germination success than pollen from experimentally restrained flowers. Solar tracking in recipient flowers also enhances pollen germination and increases pollen tube to ovule ratios.

Candace Galen (University of Missouri; Division of Biological Sciences ADR; POSTAL)

2004-03-09

128

Seed trait changes in dispersers' guts and consequences for germination and seedling growth.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of a frugivore as a disperser of a plant is greatly determined by how fruits and seeds are handled in its mouth and its digestive tract. Although a number of studies have investigated the effect of avian ingestion on germination, we still know very little about the modifications to seeds during ingestion and the specific consequences on plant fitness. Here we investigate for the first time the different mechanisms by which germination patterns of seeds are modified following ingestion by frugivores. Specifically, we examine changes in seed mass, water content, permeability, seed coat thickness, texture, and resistance in two common Mediterranean fleshy-fruited plants, Phillyrea angustifolia and Myrtus communis, after ingestion by Eurasian Blackbirds, Turdus merula. We found a number of differences between the plant species: Phillyrea seeds lost mass, mainly due to water loss, and had thinner coats after gut passage, but Myrtus seeds did not. Seeds of both species showed increased permeability, while Myrtus seeds in particular became less resistant to breakage. No quantifiable changes in seed coat texture were detected in either species, although this trait was partly associated with differences in germination rate in Phillyrea. High intraspecific plant variation was found for most seed traits measured. Seed passage through birds' guts sped up germination in both species, especially in Myrtus. Increased permeability in seeds of both species following ingestion resulted in a higher germination rate. Moreover, seeds with thick coats (and in the case of Phillyrea, harder coats) germinated at a slower rate and produced seedlings that also grew more slowly, indicating a cost of coat thickness and/or hardness for seedling emergence. Results obtained here contribute to explaining the great heterogeneity in germination responses among and within plant species and the large variety of factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the plants, that influence such responses. PMID:18376551

Traveset, Anna; Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Pías, Beatriz

2008-01-01

129

Effects of acidity on tree Pollen germination and tube growth. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Most of the northeastern hardwood forests in North America are exposed repeatedly to acidic rainfall at pH values below 5.0. Pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization, important parts of the reproductive process, are sensitive to changes in their chemical environment. Accordingly, the authors investigated the effects of acidity on pollen germination and tube elongation of four northeastern tree species: flowering dogwood, black birch, yellow birch, and sugar maple. Pollen was collected and germinated in a growth medium acidified to pH values ranging from 5.0 to 2.6. Pollen was found to be sensitive to acidification of the germination medium to below pH 4.2. These results suggest that acidic rain that now occurs in eastern North America may influence reproductive processes that are necessary for seed set and regeneration in northern hardwood forests.

Van Ryn, D.M.; Jacobson, J.S.

1984-08-01

130

Synergistic inhibitory effects of p -coumaric and ferulic acids on germination and growth of grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data support the hypothesis that there is a synergistic phytotoxic effect whenp-coumaric and ferulic acids are found together. Equimolar mixtures of both acids showed greater reduction in sorghum seed germination, shoot elongation, and total seedling growth than either phytotoxin caused when alone. Repeated experiments showed mixtures containing 5×10-3 Mp-coumaric and 5×10-3 M ferulic acids reduced germination to 34% of

James A. Rasmussen; Frank A. Einhellig

1977-01-01

131

Synthetic Plant Growth Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

INDOLE-beta-acetic acid or heteroauxine (I) is a product found in normal urine and is well known to have great growth-promoting action on plants, as shown by both the bending of the decapitated oat (Avena) and the pea curvature tests.

Eric Mitchell Crook; William Davies; Norma Elizabeth Smith

1937-01-01

132

THE INFLUENCE OF STRATIFICATION, SCARIFICATION, HOT WATER AND MATERNAL PLANT ON THE GERMINATION OF JUNIPERUS EXCELSA SEEDS FROM ERITREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratification for 60 days at 5°C was found to increase the germination percentage of Juniperus excelsa seeds fom Eritrea (63%) over untreated controls grown in a greenhouse (53%) and a growth chamber (47%). Scarification with H2SO4 for 15 min did not significantly improve germination percentage over untreated controls. Treatment with hot water resulted in zero germination after 240 days, while

SCOTT JONES

1989-01-01

133

Analysis of directional root growth patterns from corn and soybean seeds germinated in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JOSE (JASON Outreach Seed Experiment) payload was the first plant experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). It consisted of having an on-orbit watering of eight transparent seed pouches each of which contained 6 individual seeds of either soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) or corn ( Zea mays ). The seeds were glued to a germination paper substrate using a 1.2% guar glue solution. The payload was launched on the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-97; ISS Flight 4A) on 11/30/00 and transferred to the ISS on 12/8/00. The eight seed pouches were each watered with 12 mL of distilled water on 1/5/01. Two pouches containing corn plus two pouches containing soybean seeds were maintained in the light after watering. Two additional seed pouches of each species were maintained in the dark after watering. Digital photography was used to document the growth of the germinating seedlings in space. The images were down-linked to a world wide web site for dissemination to students. "Within" species differences (between the light and dark grown seedlings) as well as "between" species differences (comparing corn and soybean) were observed. By day 4 (post-imbibition) there was a clear phototropic effect in the light-grown corn seedlings, each, possessing a green shoot which grew upward towards the light source. In contrast, the dark-grown corn shoots were neither green (since chlorophyll synthesis had not been induced by light) nor were they growing in a uniform direction. For day 4 soybean seedlings, the only difference evident between those germinated under the light vs dark conditions was a slight greening up of the seeds maintained in the presence of light. For both the corn and soybean seedlings, roots grew in a random fashion, with some moving in an upward direction and others progressing downward, reflecting the lack of a gravitropic response which is the primary (earth-based) mechanism controlling the direction of root growth. By day 7 the initial 12 mL of water added to each pouch was greatly diminished, although noticeably less so in the soybean pouches. This was presumably due to the faster and overall greater growth exhibited by the corn seedlings, which resulted in a more rapid utilization of the available water. There was also a more pronounced greening-up of the light-exposed soybean seedlings than was evident at day 4, with both the cotylendons and hypocotyl regions showing signs of chlorophyll synthesis. This work was supported under NASA Contract NAS10-002001.

Levine, H.; Tynes, G.; Norwood, K.

134

Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost  

PubMed Central

Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

González, Luís

2014-01-01

135

The influence of water activity and temperature on germination, growth and sporulation of Stachybotrys chartarum strains.  

PubMed

The objectives were to determine the influence of water activity (a(w), 0.997-0.92) and temperature (10-37°C) and their interactions on conidial germination, mycelial growth and sporulation of two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum in vitro on a potato dextrose medium. Studies were carried out by modifying the medium with glycerol and either spread plating with conidia to evaluate germination and germ tube extension or centrally inoculating treatment media for measuring mycelial growth rates and harvesting whole colonies for determining sporulation. Overall, germination of conidia was significantly influenced by a(w) and temperature and was fastest at 0.997-0.98 a(w) between 15 and 30°C with complete germination within 24 h. Germ tube extension was found to be most rapid at similar a(w) levels and 25-30°C. Mycelial growth rates of both strains were optimal at 0.997 a(w) between 25 and 30°C, with very little growth at 37°C. Sporulation was optimum at 30°C at 0.997 a(w). However, under drier conditions, this was optimum at 25°C. This shows that there are differences in the ranges of a(w) x temperature for germination and growth and for sporulation. This may help in understanding the role of this fungal species in damp buildings and conditions under which immune-compromised patients may be at risk when exposed to such contaminants in the indoor air environment. PMID:21347692

Frazer, Schale; Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David

2011-07-01

136

Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

2002-01-01

137

Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

2012-01-01

138

Water Potential and Ionic Effects on Germination and Seedling Growth of Two Cold Desert Shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested expectations that two desert shrubs would differ in germination and seedling relative growth rate (RGR) responses to Na and Cs stress. The study species, Chrysothamnus nauseosusssp. consimilis and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (hereafter referred to by genus), differ in their distribution along salinity gradients, with Chrysothamnusinhabiting only less saline areas. In growth chamber studies, declining Cs (20.82 to 22.71 MPa)

Geraldine L. Dodd; Lisa A. Donovan

1999-01-01

139

Plant responses to aqueous effluents derived from in situ fossil fuel processing. I. Development of screening methods. [Effects of oil shale waste water on plant growth and seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible mechanisms for bioeenvironmental contact of aqueous effluents derived from in situ oil shale processing include accidental, episodic exposure resulting from failure of a containment, leakage during transfer or treatment processes, or contamination and subsurface migration of ground waters to a surface outlet. The magnitude of plant responses and phytotoxic effects resulting from such exposure has not been but needs

Q. D. Skinner; T. S. Moore; R. O. Asplund; T. C. Sexton; D. S. Farrier

1979-01-01

140

The role of avian frugivores in germination of seeds of fleshy-fruited invasive alien plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many highly invasive plant species have fleshy fruits which are eaten by native frugivorous animals. These frugivores play\\u000a an important role in long-distance seed dispersal, and may also affect germination success. The aim of this study was to determine\\u000a whether generalist frugivores enhance or decrease seed germination of invasive alien species through pulp removal or seed\\u000a coat abrasion, besides serving

Lorinda A. Jordaan; Steven D. Johnson; Colleen T. Downs

2011-01-01

141

Overexpression of Arabidopsis Plasmodesmata Germin-Like Proteins Disrupts Root Growth and Development[C][W  

PubMed Central

In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems. PMID:22960910

Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Kang, Byung-Ho; Zeng, Fanchang; Lucas, William J.

2012-01-01

142

Seeds Use Temperature Cues to Ensure Germination under Nurse-plant Shade in Xeric Kalahari Savannah  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In arid environments many plant species are found associated with the canopies of woody perennials. Favourable conditions for establishment under canopies are likely to be associated with shade, but under canopies shade is distributed patchily and differs in quality. Diurnal temperature fluctuations and maximum temperatures could be reliable indicators of safe sites. Here, an examination is made as to whether canopy-associated species use temperature cues to germinate in shade patches, rather than matrix areas between trees. Methods The study was carried out in arid southern Kalahari savannah (Republic of South Africa). Perennial and annual species associated with Acacia erioloba trees and matrix species were germinated at temperature regimes resembling shaded and unshaded conditions. Soil temperature was measured in the field. Key Results Germination of all fleshy-fruited perennial acacia-associated species and two annual acacia-associated species was inhibited by the temperature regime resembling unshaded conditions compared with at least one of the regimes resembling shaded conditions. Inhibition in perennials decreased with seed mass, probably reflecting that smaller seedlings are more vulnerable to drought. Germination of matrix species was not inhibited by the unshaded temperature regime and in several cases it increased germination compared with shaded temperature regimes or constant temperature. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts a significant positive relationship was found between canopy association and the germination at shade temperatures relative to unshaded temperatures. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that canopy species have developed mechanisms to prevent germination in open sun conditions. The results and data from the literature show that inhibition of germination at temperature regimes characteristic of open sun conditions can be found in fleshy-fruited species of widely divergent taxonomic groups. It is predicted that germination mechanisms to detect canopy shade based on temperature cues are widespread in species depending on nurse plants, especially bird-dispersed species. PMID:17259226

Kos, Martijn; Poschlod, Peter

2007-01-01

143

Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. on the Germination, Establishment and Survival of Native Plants: A Clue for Assessing Its Competitive Strength  

PubMed Central

Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis’ soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L.) growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats. PMID:25210924

Novoa, Ana; González, Luís

2014-01-01

144

Protective roles of nitric oxide on seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under cadmium stress.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule in plants which mediates a variety of physiological processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses including heavy metals. In the present study, the effects of exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on rice seed germination and seedlings growth were investigated under Cd stress and a possible mechanism was postulated. The results indicated that 100?M Cd significantly decreased rice seed germination index, vigor index, root and shoot lengths as well as fresh weight compared to control. Exogenous SNP dose-dependently attenuated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling growth caused by Cd. The promoting effect was most pronounced at 30?M SNP. Cd exposure caused oxidative stress by elevating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in root and shoot of rice seedlings. 30?M SNP counteracted partly Cd toxicity by reducing the H2O2 and MDA contents of Cd-exposed seedlings. Meanwhile, application of SNP markedly stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), ascorbate peroxidases (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and catalases (CAT) compared with Cd treatment alone, thereby indicating the enhancement of the antioxidative capacity in the root and shoot under Cd stress. In addition, addition of 30?M SNP increased accumulation of proline in both root and shoot. The Cd accumulation in seedlings was significant reduced by SNP, implicating that the protective role of SNP was responsible for preventing Cd accumulation. However, the effects of SNP were reverted by addition of cPTIO, a NO scavenger, suggesting the protective roles of SNP might be related to the induction of NO. Furthermore, K3Fe(CN)6 and [Formula: see text] / [Formula: see text] had no similar roles as SNP. Based on these results, it can be concluded that SNP exerted an advantageous effect on alleviating the inhibitory effect of Cd on rice seed germination and seedling growth, which might interact with NO. PMID:25046853

He, Junyu; Ren, Yanfang; Chen, Xiulan; Chen, Hui

2014-10-01

145

Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach aphid infestations in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known in various cropping systems to increase plant growth and vigor, as well as induce resistance to pathogens and pests. A commercial soil amendment containing a mixture of two species of Bacillus PGPR (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) was evaluated for impact on germination and initial growth of bell pepper plants, efficacy against the green

M. A. B. Herman; B. A. Nault; C. D. Smart

2008-01-01

146

Improved germination under osmotic stress of tobacco plants overexpressing a cell wall peroxidase  

E-print Network

Improved germination under osmotic stress of tobacco plants overexpressing a cell wall peroxidase associated peroxidase (TPX2), an enzyme involved in modifying cell wall architecture. Overexpression of TPX2: Agricultural biotechnology; Osmotic stress; Cell wall; Peroxidase 1. Introduction The cultivation of many plant

Málaga, Universidad de

147

Cheatgrass germination at three seed maturity stages from five plant communities in northwestern Nevada  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The invasive exotic plant cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), has invaded numerous plant communities throughout the Intermountain West. Our goal was to test whether cheatgrass seed in different phenotypic stages and site characteristics differ in germination. Cheatgrass seed from sites dominated by Wyom...

148

Germination of Plasmodiophora brassicae resting spores stimulated by a non-host plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-induced germination of Plasmodiophora brassicae resting spores was studied in a laboratory experiment. Spore reaction was analysed in nutrient solution with exudates from\\u000a growing roots of different plant species – one host plant (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and four non-host plants (Lolium perenne, Allium porrum, Secale cereale and Trifolium pratense) – and in controls with distilled water and nutrient solution.

Hanna Friberg; Jan Lagerlöf; Birgitta Rämert

2005-01-01

149

Studies on the effects of chromium stress on the germination and growth of Phaseolus mungo: influence of chromium resistant Pseudomonad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of chromium resistant strains of Pseudomonad, Scr 1 and Scr 2 on the germination of seeds and growth of the common blackgram Phaseolus mungo growing under chromium stress have been evaluated. Scr 1 and Scr 2 were isolated from chromium rich wastewaters and rhizosphere of Euphorbia hirta, employing standard methods. Rate of germination and growth of P. mungo exposed

M. Rajkumar; R. Nagendran

2000-01-01

150

Gibberellic acid and kinetin partially reverse the effect of water stress on germination and seedling growth in chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percent germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. PBG-1) decreased with increasing concentrations of exogenous polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). With 15% PEG in the growth medium germination was only 33% while with 10% PEG it was 58% as compared to 93% in control. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin to medium containing 10% PEG increased

Satvir Kaur; Anil K. Gupta; Narinder Kaur

1998-01-01

151

Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1  

SciTech Connect

We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

2011-03-01

152

Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.  

PubMed

Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa. PMID:25511044

Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

2014-01-01

153

Germination and root elongation bioassays in six different plant species for testing Ni contamination in soil.  

PubMed

In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni. PMID:24288040

Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Gardi, Ciro; Menta, Cristina

2014-04-01

154

Leucanthemum vulgare lam. germination, growth and mycorrhizal symbiosis under crude oil contamination.  

PubMed

Oil contamination of soil limits plants' access to water and nutrients. Leucanthemum vulgare colonized by mycorrhizae could provide an effective tool in remedying oil contamination. Seeds of L. vulgare were planted in pots containing soil mixed with petroleum at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% w/w and propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Plants were grown under ambient conditions for 16 weeks. Seed germination data were collected weekly for three weeks. Mycorrhizal percentage, spore counts, length and weight of roots and shoots were determined after harvesting. Results showed significant differences in seed germination rates between oil-treated, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The overall germination rate was greater at 7.5% w/w crude oil contamination (p = 0.05) in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pots with significant differences between their respective Root:Shoot ratios (both length and weight). Results of this research showed L. vulgare could be germinated and grown in crude oil contaminated soils and could be used to augment plant establishment as part of phytoremediation practices. PMID:24933896

Noori, Azam Sadat; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

155

BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.  

PubMed

A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 ?mol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 ?mol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti < C. album < P. oleracea ? A. retroflexus. The results were in agreement with recent findings of the suppression of these weeds by rye mulches and their benzoxazinoid contents. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that the detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management. PMID:22614450

Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

2012-07-01

156

Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth  

E-print Network

synthesis of the plant stress hormone ABA, is also nearby (responsive to the plant stress hormone ABA and is active instress is insufficient, plants have several mechanisms to limit salt damage, including developmental modifications and the production of hormones and

DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

2011-01-01

157

Anaerobiosis and ethanol effects on germination, growth, and protein synthesis of five Echinochloa species  

SciTech Connect

Five Echinochloa species, encompassing a spectrum from flood tolerant to flood intolerant, were studied to determine the mechanisms of anaerobic germination and growth. Seeds were germinated in air or N{sub 2}, plus 0, 1 or 3% ethanol, and germination rates and growth measurements recorded for 7 days. In air or N{sub 2} increasing ethanol levels did not affect total germination per se, although the rate of germination was delayed in N{sub 2}. Shoot/root lengths in air were highest for tolerant species and increased with increasing ethanol, whereas, in intolerant species, shoot/root lengths decreased with increasing ethanol. Aerobic vs. anaerobic polypeptide profiles of each of the species were compared by SDS/PAGE. For all species, the number of polypeptides decreased under anaerobiosis and several quantitative differences were apparent relative to the aerobic profile. In addition, amino acid incorporation into protein was analyzed by ({sup 35}S)-Met labeling of 3 day old seedlings grown in air or N{sub 2}. Significant protein synthesis was measured in tolerant seedlings under N{sub 2} and several polypeptides were specifically induced. These results are being compared with labeling patterns of the other semi-tolerant and intolerant Echinochloa species to determine their importance in flooding tolerance.

Dybiec, L.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA)); Rumpho, M.E.; Kennedy, R.A. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1989-04-01

158

Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals have been widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, creating ion influx/efflux for ionic balance and synthesizing small peptides. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. Metals come from the natural weathering processes of the earth's crust, industrial discharge, pest or disease control agents applied to plants, urban run-off, mining, soil erosion, sewage effluents, air pollution fallout and other sources. Plants can be affected directly by air pollutants, as well as indirectly through the contamination of soil and water. At the same time, plant is a member of the food chain and may create a risk for man and animals through contamination of food supplies. In recent years a considerable progress has been made in the assay of trace elements in environmental plant samples. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew on sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues from phosphate fertilizers. No reports were accessible to us on the direct effect of tested metals (Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Cd) on seed germination and root growth. The paucity of literature initiated our present work. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the acute toxicity of five metals (Cr[sup 6+], Cd[sup 2+], Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], As[sup 5+]) which are widely spread in the environment and are widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. As the testing subject, mustard seeds (Sinapis alba) were used and their germination and root growth were observed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Fargasova, A. (Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Czech Republic))

1994-03-01

159

Effect of Solution pH and Calcium Concentration on Germination and Early Growth of Groundnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most investigations on the effect of acid soil on legumes have focused on growth, nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and mineral nutrient uptake. Very little attention has been given to the effects of H toxicity per se and calcium (Ca) deficiency per se on germination and seedling survival of legumes, particularly groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). This paper reports the effects of solution

M. R. Murata; P. S. Hammes; G. E. Zharare

2003-01-01

160

Carbonhydrate Content and Root Growth in Seeds Germinated Under Salt Stress: Implications for Seed Conditioning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugars and sugar alcohols have well documented roles in salt tolerance in whole plants and maturing seeds. Less is known, however, about possible effects of these compounds during germination. Seeds from mannitol-accumulating salt-tolerant celery [Apium graveloens L. var. dulce (P. Mill.) DC], non...

161

Detecting free radicals in biochars and determining their ability to inhibit the germination and growth of corn, wheat and rice seedlings.  

PubMed

Biochar can benefit human society as a carbon-negative material and soil amendment. However, negative biochar impacts on plant germination and growth have been observed, and they have not been fully explained. Therefore, protocols to avoid these risks cannot be proposed. We hypothesized that the free radicals generated during charring may inhibit plant germination and growth. Significant electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals were observed in the biochars derived from several types of common biomass (corn stalk, rice, and wheat straws) and the major biopolymer components of biomass (cellulose and lignin), but not in the original materials, suggesting the ubiquitous presence of free radicals in biochars. EPR signal intensity increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, and it was dominantly contributed by oxygen centered in the mixture of oxygen- and carbon-centered free radicals as the temperature increased. The free radicals in biochars induced strong ·OH radicals in the aqueous phase. Significant germination inhibition, root and shoot growth retardation and plasma membrane damage were observed for biochars with abundant free radicals. Germination inhibition and plasma membrane damage were not obvious for biochars containing low free radicals, but they were apparent at comparable concentrations of conventional contaminants, such as heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The potential risk and harm of relatively persistent free radicals in biochars must be addressed to apply them safely. PMID:24988274

Liao, Shaohua; Pan, Bo; Li, Hao; Zhang, Di; Xing, Baoshan

2014-08-01

162

Using hyperspectral imaging to determine germination of native Australian plant seeds.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability to accurately and non-destructively determine the germination of three native Australian tree species, Acacia cowleana Tate (Fabaceae), Banksia prionotes L.F. (Proteaceae), and Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson (Myrtaceae) based on hyperspectral imaging data. While similar studies have been conducted on agricultural and horticultural seeds, we are unaware of any published studies involving reflectance-based assessments of the germination of tree seeds. Hyperspectral imaging data (110 narrow spectral bands from 423.6nm to 878.9nm) were acquired of individual seeds after 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50days of standardized rapid ageing. At each time point, seeds were subjected to hyperspectral imaging to obtain reflectance profiles from individual seeds. A standard germination test was performed, and we predicted that loss of germination was associated with a significant change in seed coat reflectance profiles. Forward linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to select the 10 spectral bands with the highest contribution to classifications of the three species. In all species, germination decreased from over 90% to below 20% in about 10-30days of experimental ageing. P50 values (equal to 50% germination) for each species were 19.3 (A. cowleana), 7.0 (B. prionotes) and 22.9 (C. calophylla) days. Based on independent validation of classifications of hyperspectral imaging data, we found that germination of Acacia and Corymbia seeds could be classified with over 85% accuracy, while it was about 80% for Banksia seeds. The selected spectral bands in each LDA-based classification were located near known pigment peaks involved in photosynthesis and/or near spectral bands used in published indices to predict chlorophyll or nitrogen content in leaves. The results suggested that seed germination may be successfully classified (predicted) based on reflectance in narrow spectral bands associated with the primary metabolism function and performance of plants. PMID:25752861

Nansen, Christian; Zhao, Genpin; Dakin, Nicole; Zhao, Chunhui; Turner, Shane R

2015-04-01

163

Effect of Fungicides and Plant Extracts on the Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose  

PubMed Central

In Northern Bangladesh, generally mango trees are planted as agroforest that gives higher Net Present Value (NPV) than traditional agriculture. Mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is seen as a very destructive and widely distributed disease, which results in poor market value. Five fungicides such as Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Thiovit and Redomil were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Dithane M-45 and Redomil were the most effective when the conidia were immersed for 10~20 minutes at 500~1000 ppm concentrations. Antifungal activities of 13 plant extracts were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides was completely inhibited in Curcuma longa (leaf and rhizome), Tagetes erecta (leaf) and Zingiber officinales (rhizome) after 15 minutes of incubation respectively. PMID:24049501

Imtiaj, Ahmed; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Alam, Shahidul; Parvin, Rehana; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda; Kim, Sang-Beom

2005-01-01

164

RRP41L, a putative core subunit of the exosome, plays an important role in seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, the 3'-5'-exonucleolytic decay and processing of RNAs are essential for RNA metabolism. However, the understanding of the mechanism of 3'-5'-exonucleolytic decay in plants is very limited. Here, we report the characterization of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertional mutant that shows severe growth defects in early seedling growth, including delayed germination and cotyledon expansion, thinner yellow/pale-green leaves, and a slower growth rate. High-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the insertional locus was in the sixth exon of AT4G27490, encoding a predicted 3'-5'-exonuclease, that contained a conserved RNase phosphorolytic domain with high similarity to RRP41, designated RRP41L. Interestingly, we detected highly accumulated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that encode seed storage protein and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling pathway-related protein during the early growth stage in rrp41l mutants. The mRNA decay kinetics analysis for seed storage proteins, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases, and ABA INSENSITIVEs revealed that RRP41L catalyzed the decay of these mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Consistent with these results, the rrp41l mutant was more sensitive to ABA in germination and root growth than wild-type plants, whereas overexpression lines of RRP41L were more resistant to ABA in germination and root growth than wild-type plants. RRP41L was localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, and RRP41L was preferentially expressed in seedlings. Altogether, our results showed that RRP41L plays an important role in seed germination and early seedling growth by mediating specific cytoplasmic mRNA decay in Arabidopsis. PMID:23132787

Yang, Min; Zhang, Bangyue; Jia, Jianheng; Yan, Chunxia; Habaike, Ayijiang; Han, Yuzhen

2013-01-01

165

Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth  

E-print Network

synthesis of the plant stress hormone ABA, is also nearby (is responsive to the plant stress hormone ABA and is activeplants have several mechanisms to limit salt damage, including developmental modifications and the production of hormones

DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

2011-01-01

166

Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Desaturase FAD2 Is Required for Salt Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown. In this work, we provide the evidence that FAD2, an endoplasmic reticulum localized ?-6 desaturase, is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Using vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the leaves of wild-type (Col-0) and the loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, fad2, which lacks the functional FAD2, we examined the fatty acid composition and Na+-dependent H+ movements of the isolated vesicles. We observed that, when compared to Col-0, the level of vacuolar and plasma membrane polyunsaturation was lower, and the Na+/H+ exchange activity was reduced in vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles isolated from fad2 mutant. Consistent with the reduced Na+/H+ exchange activity, fad2 accumulated more Na+ in the cytoplasm of root cells, and was more sensitive to salt stress during seed germination and early seedling growth, as indicated by CoroNa-Green staining, net Na+ efflux and salt tolerance analyses. Our results suggest that FAD2 mediated high-level vacuolar and plasma membrane fatty acid desaturation is essential for the proper function of membrane attached Na+/H+ exchangers, and thereby to maintain a low cytosolic Na+ concentration for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:22279586

Sun, Jian; Li, Bei; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Hongxia

2012-01-01

167

Soil warming increases plant species richness but decreases germination from the alpine soil seed bank.  

PubMed

Global warming is occurring more rapidly above the treeline than at lower elevations and alpine areas are predicted to experience above average warming in the future. Temperature is a primary factor in stimulating seed germination and regulating changes in seed dormancy status. Thus, plant regeneration from seed will be crucial to the persistence, migration and post disturbance recruitment of alpine plants in future climates. Here, we present the first assessment of the impact of soil warming on germination from the persistent alpine soil seed bank. Contrary to expectations, soil warming lead to reduced overall germination from the soil seed bank. However, germination response to soil temperature was species specific such that total species richness actually increased by nine with soil warming. We further explored the system by assessing the prevalence of seed dormancy and germination response to soil disturbance, the frequency of which is predicted to increase under climate change. Seeds of a significant proportion of species demonstrated physiological dormancy mechanisms and germination of several species appeared to be intrinsically linked to soil disturbance. In addition, we found no evidence of subalpine species and little evidence of exotic weed species in the soil, suggesting that the soil seed bank will not facilitate their invasion of the alpine zone. In conclusion, changes in recruitment via the alpine soil seed bank can be expected under climate change, as a result of altered dormancy alleviation and germination cues. Furthermore, the alpine soil seed bank, and the species richness therein, has the potential to help maintain local species diversity, support species range shift and moderate species dominance. Implications for alpine management and areas for further study are also discussed. PMID:23505066

Hoyle, Gemma L; Venn, Susanna E; Steadman, Kathryn J; Good, Roger B; McAuliffe, Edward J; Williams, Emlyn R; Nicotra, Adrienne B

2013-05-01

168

Growth, Development and Reproduction -- Exploring and explaining germination, growth and development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 32-page booklet, containing complete instructions for activities at each life cycle stage. The booklet also includes important background information about plant physiology and how to grow Fast Plants.A Growth, Development and Reproduction kit is available. You can also conduct all the investigations explained in the booklet using seeds from a packet of Standard Wisconsin Fast Plants seeds (or seeds from Fast Plants you grow yourself) and your own potting mix and growing system.Either way, you'll need to plan for providing adequate light. Learn about all these factors in the How to Grow files on this website.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

169

Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

2001-06-01

170

Germination and Seedling Growth of Perennial Ryegrass in Acid Sulfate Soil Treated by Pyrite Nano-Encapsulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trial pot experiment was conducted to validate the effect of encapsulation in reduction of acid rock drainage. Six different treatments were performed: A = control, four times spraying of distilled water; B = four times of 0.01 M H2O2; C = once-encapsulated and three times spraying of distilled water; D = twice-encapsulated and twice spraying of distilled water; E = three times-encapsulated and once spraying of distilled water and F = four times-encapsulated for the acid sulfate soil with pyrite bearing andesite powder and sand. After the encapsulation treatment, the perennial ryegrass (Loium perenne) was sowed to evaluate germination rate and growth for three months. The leachate was examined for the chemical properties. The leachate from the A pot (control) is characterized as acidic (pH below 3) and high concentrations of SO4-2: 12,022 mg/L, Al: 85.8 mg/L and Mn: 34.1 mg/L which can be toxic effect to the plant growth. However, the leachate from encapsulated pots showed near neutral (pH 6 to 7) and low concentrations of SO4-2 (below 3,000 mg/L), Al (below 45mg/L) and Mn (24 gm/L). The frequency of encapsulation treatment is related to reduction of acidic drainage. It was hard to identify the significant difference of the seed germination rate of ryegrass between the treatments, although root and shoot growth showed three times difference between the control (1.90g/pot) and four times encapsulated treatment (6.33g/pot) after 2 month growth. It is suggested that encapsulation of pyrite in acid sulfate soil causes the reduction of acidic drainage resulting in the higher growth of herbaceous plants.

Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yi, J.; Kim, T.

2007-05-01

171

Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

2000-01-01

172

The effects of achene type and germination time on plant performance in the heterocarpic Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: In heterocarpy, fruits with different morphologies have been associated with alternative strategies of dispersal, germination, dormancy, and seedling competitive ability. In heterocarpic species, it is common to find fruits with competitive or dispersal syndromes. The competitive advantage of nondispersing fruits has been frequently attributed to their larger size, but recent studies have suggested that this could also be mediated by germination time. The main objective of our study was to investigate which factor, fruit type or germination time, most affects plant performance and, consequently, competitive ability, using the heterocarpic species Anacyclus clavatus.• Methods: To explore the effects of achene type and germination time on plant performance, we followed an innovative experimental approach including two experiments: one allowing for differences in germination time, and the other evaluating the effect of achene type alone by synchronizing germination time.• Key results: A significant effect of germination time on several postdispersal life-history traits was observed: Achenes that germinated earlier produced plants with higher biomass and reproductive effort. When germination time was controlled, no significant differences were observed in any of the traits.• Conclusions: The competitive advantage of achenes with different morphologies was mainly mediated by germination time and not by differences in size or other intrinsic traits. The consequences of these results are discussed in light of the dispersal-competition trade-off. Our experimental approach (i.e., the synchronization of germination time) revealed the importance of manipulative experiments for testing the effects of germination time on plant survival and performance. PMID:24808542

Afonso, Ana; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João; Mota, Lucie; Cerca de Oliveira, José; Torices, Rubén

2014-05-01

173

Salinity: effect on germination of native plants and leaching in clay soil  

E-print Network

, Maximilian sunflower PMT 1564 and trailing wildbean PMT 1879. There was an increase germination in the NaC1 and CaC12 of all plants tested when compared to germination in NaC1 with the exception of alkali sacaton PMT 1733 and least snoutbeam PMT 1881... sacaton PMT 326, big sacaton PMT 889, alkali sacaton PMT 1733, big sacaton PMT 820, Maximilian sun'flower PMT 1564, bush sun- flower PMT 856, trailing wildbean PMT 1879 and Mason sandhill lovegrass PMT 338. Twelve undisturbed cores of Montell Clay were...

Neighbors, James Olen

1974-01-01

174

Water potential and ionic effects on germination and seedling growth of two cold desert shrubs.  

PubMed

We tested expectations that two desert shrubs would differ in germination and seedling relative growth rate (RGR) responses to Na and ?(s) stress. The study species, Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. consimilis and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (hereafter referred to by genus), differ in their distribution along salinity gradients, with Chrysothamnus inhabiting only less saline areas. In growth chamber studies, declining ?(s) (-0.82 to -2.71 MPa) inhibited germination of both species, and Chrysothamnus was less tolerant of ?(s) stress than Sarcobatus. Germination fell below 10% for Chrysothamnus at -1.64 MPa (NaCl and PEG), and for Sarcobatus at -2.4 MPa PEG. Neither species exhibited ion toxicity. There was substantial ion enhancement for Sarcobatus in lower ?(s), allowing for 40% germination in -2.71 MPa NaCl. For seedling RGR, species were not different at -0.29 or -0.82 MPa (0 and 100 mmol/L NaCl, respectively), but Chrysothamnus RGR declined substantially at -1.3 MPa (200 mmol/L NaCl). The greater stress tolerance of Sarcobatus was not associated with a lower RGR under nonsaline conditions. Species differences in seed and seedling ?(s) stress tolerance probably contribute to the restricted distribution of Chrysothamnus to less saline areas. The Na uptake of Sarcobatus seedlings enhances its ability to deal with declining ?(s) and establish in more saline areas. PMID:10449394

Dodd, G L; Donovan, L A

1999-08-01

175

Nitric Oxide Participates in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Germination and Tube Growth Partly via cGMP In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) plays essential roles in many biotic and abiotic stresses in plant development procedures, including pollen tube growth. Here, effects of NO on cold stress inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in Camellia sinensis were investigated in vitro. The NO production, NO synthase (NOS)-like activity, cGMP content and proline (Pro) accumulation upon treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO, NOS inhibitor L-NNA, NO donor DEA NONOate, guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor ODQ or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor Viagra at 25°C (control) or 4°C were analyzed. Exposure to 4°C for 2 h reduced pollen germination and tube growth along with increase of NOS-like activity, NO production and cGMP content in pollen tubes. DEA NONOate treatment inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependent manner under control and reinforced the inhibition under cold stress, during which NO production and cGMP content promoted in pollen tubes. L-NNA and cPTIO markedly reduced the generation of NO induced by cold or NO donor along with partly reverse of cold- or NO donor-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Furthermore, ODQ reduced the cGMP content under cold stress and NO donor treatment in pollen tubes. Meanwhile, ODQ disrupted the reinforcement of NO donor on the inhibition of pollen germination and tube growth under cold condition. Additionally, Pro accumulation of pollen tubes was reduced by ODQ compared with that receiving NO donor under cold or control condition. Effects of cPTIO and L-NNA in improving cold-treated pollen germination and pollen tube growth could be lowered by Viagra. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of cPTIO and L-NNA on Pro accumulation were partly reversed by Viagra. These data suggest that NO production from NOS-like enzyme reaction decreased the cold-responsive pollen germination, inhibited tube growth and reduced Pro accumulation, partly via cGMP signaling pathway in C. sinensis. PMID:23272244

Zhu-Ge, Qiang; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Wei-Dong; Fang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xing-Hui

2012-01-01

176

Seed Dispersal and Germination Traits of 70 Plant Species Inhabiting the Gurbantunggut Desert in Northwest China  

PubMed Central

Seed dispersal and germination were examined for 70 species from the cold Gurbantunggut Desert in northwest China. Mean and range (3 orders of magnitude) of seed mass were smaller and narrower than those in other floras (5–8 orders of magnitude), which implies that selection favors relatively smaller seeds in this desert. We identified five dispersal syndromes (anemochory, zoochory, autochory, barochory, and ombrohydrochory), and anemochorous species were most abundant. Seed mass (F = 3.50, P = 0.01), seed size (F = 8.31, P < 0.01), and seed shape (F = 2.62, P = 0.04) differed significantly among the five dispersal syndromes and barochorous species were significantly smaller and rounder than the others. There were no significant correlations between seed mass (seed weight) (P = 0.15), seed size (P = 0.38), or seed shape (variance) (P = 0.95) and germination percentage. However, germination percentages differed significantly among the dispersal syndromes (F = 3.64, P = 0.01) and seeds of ombrohydrochorous species had higher germination percentages than those of the other species. In the Gurbantunggut Desert, the percentage of species with seed dormancy was about 80%. In general, our studies suggest that adaptive strategies in seed dispersal and germination of plants in this area are closely related to the environment in which they live and that they are influenced by natural selection forces. PMID:25485296

Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying; Duan, Shimin; Wang, Xiyong

2014-01-01

177

Biogenic nanoparticle-mediated augmentation of seed germination, growth, and antioxidant level of Eruca sativa mill. varieties.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to examine the influence of biogenic nanoparticles synthesized from Tridax procumbens on different parameters of seed germination, seedling growth, and various biochemical parameters in four Eruca sativa varieties having low percentage of germination. Seeds were treated with different concentrations (30 and 40 ppm) of biogenic nanoparticles, of which 30 ppm was found to be the most effective and was therefore used for subsequent studies. Initially, the effect of biogenic nanoparticles on germination percentage, speed of germination, coefficient of germination, mean germination time, shoot and root length, fresh and dry matter, and vigor index was studied. From the experiments performed and the results obtained, it was evident that the treatment with biogenic nanoparticles decreased the electrolyte leakage and level of malondialdehyde as compared to control. The treatment with biogenic nanoparticles enhanced the levels of proline and ascorbic acid and stimulated the antioxidant enzyme activities resulting in the reduced level of reactive oxygen species. These activities were found to be variety-dependent. The possible involvement of biogenic nanoparticles in the production of new pores in seed coat during their penetration, resulting in the influx of the nutrients inside the seed, is suggested. This accelerated seed germination is followed by rapid seedling growth. The present findings indicated that biogenic nanoparticles promote seed germination in E. sativa by overcoming the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving the antioxidative defense system which finally result in increased seedling growth. PMID:25086920

Ushahra, Jyoti; Bhati-Kushwaha, Himakshi; Malik, C P

2014-09-01

178

Stimulating effect of sorbitol and xylitol on germination and growth of some xerophilic fungi.  

PubMed

Sorbitol and xylitol are polyols often used in foods as naturally occurring sugar substitutes. They provide sweet taste and reduced calories in products of intermediate moisture. This type of food is susceptible to spoilage by xerophilic molds which affect shelf life of foods and produce significant losses. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of glycerol, sorbitol and xylitol on the germination and growth of four xerophilic fungi at different temperatures and water activity levels. Penicillium chrysogenum, Wallemia sebi, Eurotium chevalieri and Eurotium repens were cultivated on malt extract agar with the addition of the respective polyols and a(w) adjusted to 0.85, 0.88, 0.90 and 0.93. Incubation was made at 25, 30 and 35 °C. Results of the present study demonstrated that sorbitol and xylitol affect the growth kinetics of the four fungal species. The observed tendency was that these solutes shortened the germination times and increased the growth rates. The effect of each solute depended on the fungal species and the a(w)/temperature combinations. At lower a(w) the influence was more evident on the germination times while the effect on growth rates was more pronounced at higher a(w) levels. PMID:21925029

Patriarca, A; Larumbe, G; Buera, M P; Vaamonde, G

2011-12-01

179

Enhanced post-germinative growth of encapsulated somatic embryos of Siberian ginseng by carbohydrate addition to the encapsulation matrix.  

PubMed

This experiment was carried out to enhance conversion and ex vitro survival of encapsulated somatic embryos of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Cotyledonary somatic embryos were encapsulated with 3.0% sodium alginate; 96% of the encapsulated embryos converted to plantlets with well-elongated epicotyls in Perlite containing sucrose as a carbon source. However, although they germinated, post-germinative growth of encapsulated embryos was suppressed on Perlite that did not contain sucrose. Instead of sucrose addition to Perlite, addition of carbon sources to the encapsulation matrix enhanced post-germinative growth of encapsulated embryos. In the encapsulation matrix with 2% sucrose, post-germinative growth of encapsulated embryos was more than twice (23.5%) that of the control capsules without sucrose (10.0%). Embryos encapsulated with both 2% sucrose and 1% starch powder showed the highest post-germinative growth percentage (42.1%). Iodine staining and analysis of starch content in the encapsulation matrix revealed that starch in the encapsulation matrix decomposed during embryo germination. This result indicates that carbohydrate treatment in the encapsulation matrix enhanced post-germinative growth of encapsulated embryos of Siberian ginseng. PMID:15197482

Jung, S J; Yoon, E S; Jeong, J H; Choi, Y E

2004-11-01

180

Climate warming could shift the timing of seed germination in alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Despite the considerable number of studies on the impacts of climate change on alpine plants, there have been few attempts to investigate its effect on regeneration. Recruitment from seeds is a key event in the life-history of plants, affecting their spread and evolution and seasonal changes in climate will inevitably affect recruitment success. Here, an investigation was made of how climate change will affect the timing and the level of germination in eight alpine species of the glacier foreland. Methods Using a novel approach which considered the altitudinal variation of temperature as a surrogate for future climate scenarios, seeds were exposed to 12 different cycles of simulated seasonal temperatures in the laboratory, derived from measurements at the soil surface at the study site. Key Results Under present climatic conditions, germination occurred in spring, in all but one species, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, autumn warming resulted in a significant increase in germination in all but two species. In contrast, seed germination was less sensitive to changes in spring and/or winter temperatures, which affected only three species. Conclusions Climate warming will lead to a shift from spring to autumn emergence but the extent of this change across species will be driven by seed dormancy status. Ungerminated seeds at the end of autumn will be exposed to shorter winter seasons and lower spring temperatures in a future, warmer climate, but these changes will only have a minor impact on germination. The extent to which climate change will be detrimental to regeneration from seed is less likely to be due to a significant negative effect on germination per se, but rather to seedling emergence in seasons that the species are not adapted to experience. Emergence in autumn could have major implications for species currently adapted to emerge in spring. PMID:22596094

Mondoni, Andrea; Rossi, Graziano; Orsenigo, Simone; Probert, Robin J.

2012-01-01

181

Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

1994-01-01

182

MECHANISMS OF PLANT GROWTH STIMULATION BY HUMIC SUBSTANCES: ROLE OF ORGANO-IRON COMPLEXES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stimulatory effects of humic substances (HS) on plant growth have been observed and widely documented. Studies have often shown positive effects on seed germination, root initiation and total plant biomass. The consistency of these observations has been uncertain, predominantly due to the lack of un...

183

Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) Seedling Growth and Maternal Plant Stand Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of maternal plant influence upon seed- ling characteristics of native shrubs. This study examined influence of maternal Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) stand position on emergence and growth of seed- lings. Seedlings from maternal plants in upslope, core, and downslope positions were grown in a common greenhouse setting. Percent germination, height, and canopy volume of

A. L. Hild; B. Christensen; A. Maier

1999-01-01

184

Reversible protein tyrosine phosphorylation affects pollen germination and pollen tube growth via the actin cytoskeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and genistein are two well-known specific inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases and kinases, respectively,\\u000a that have been used in the functional analysis of the status of protein phosphotyrosine in different cell types. Our experiments\\u000a showed that both PAO and genistein arrested pollen germination and pollen tube growth and led to the malformation of the pollen\\u000a tubes, although genistein

Huijun Zi; Yun Xiang; Mai Li; Ting Wang; Haiyun Ren

2007-01-01

185

EFFECTS OF LITTER ON AQUATIC MACROPHYTE GERMINATION AND GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Arkansas, during seasonal drought periods, lake water levels drop leaving exposed mudflats which are primary sites for seedling establishment. Commonly, these exposed mudflats are partially covered with decomposing litter from previous stands of aquatic plants. In this study, aqueous leachates from the litter of four macrophytes, Eleocharis quadrangulata, Justicia americana, Polygonum lapathifolium, and Potamogeton nodosus, were used to test

JAMES B. GRACE

1985-01-01

186

Different heavy metals have various effects on Picea wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution has became one of the realistic matters of globality. Previous reports indicated that heavy metals could significantly inhibit pollen germination and tube growth. In the present study, comparative studies on the effects of different heavy metals (As, Hg, Cd, Cr and Cu) on in-vitro picea wilsonii pollen gernimation and tube growth were carried out. Microscopic evaluation revealed that different heavy metals had various degree of toxicity on P. wilsonii pollen tube development. As showed the most toxic effects on pollen germination, which was followed by Hg and Cd, while Cr and Cu showed relatively lower toxicity. Besides, pollentubes showed varying shapes in response to different heavy metal stress. Pollen tubes treated with Cd, Hg and As were usually characterized by irregularly increasing diameters and swelling tips with distinct cytoplasimic vacuolation. On the other hand, except for the slightly increased diameters, no obvious abnormal shape were observed in tubes treated with Cr or Cu. Lyso-Tracker Green staining indicated that only Cd-treated pollen tubes showed numerous vacuole-like acidic organelles, though cytoplasmic vacuolization were also observed in pollen tubes treated with Hg and A. In brief, our data indicated that different heavy metals have various effects on Picea wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth, and that in-vitro pollen culture might be used as a competent system for biomonitoring of air pollution. PMID:25830714

Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Shasha; Gao, Yuan; Lü, Wengeng; Sheng, Xianyong

2015-03-01

187

The Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN3 Interferes with Abscisic Acid and Light Signaling in Seed Germination and Plant Development1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Seed germination is controlled by environmental signals, including light and endogenous phytohormones. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits, whereas gibberellin promotes, germination and early seedling development, respectively. Here, we report that ZFP3, a nuclear C2H2 zinc finger protein, acts as a negative regulator of ABA suppression of seed germination in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Accordingly, regulated overexpression of ZFP3 and the closely related ZFP1, ZFP4, ZFP6, and ZFP7 zinc finger factors confers ABA insensitivity to seed germination, while the zfp3 zfp4 double mutant displays enhanced ABA susceptibility. Reduced expression of several ABA-induced genes, such as RESPONSIVE TO ABSCISIC ACID18 and transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), in ZFP3 overexpression seedlings suggests that ZFP3 negatively regulates ABA signaling. Analysis of ZFP3 overexpression plants revealed multiple phenotypic alterations, such as semidwarf growth habit, defects in fertility, and enhanced sensitivity of hypocotyl elongation to red but not to far-red or blue light. Analysis of genetic interactions with phytochrome and abi mutants indicates that ZFP3 enhances red light signaling by photoreceptors other than phytochrome A and additively increases ABA insensitivity conferred by the abi2, abi4, and abi5 mutations. These data support the conclusion that ZFP3 and the related ZFP subfamily of zinc finger factors regulate light and ABA responses during germination and early seedling development. PMID:24808098

Joseph, Mary Prathiba; Papdi, Csaba; Kozma-Bognár, László; Nagy, István; López-Carbonell, Marta; Rigó, Gábor; Koncz, Csaba; Szabados, László

2014-01-01

188

Effects of DDT on the growth of crop plants.  

PubMed

The effects of DDT on the germination and growth of plants were studied using many crop species. Of the species tested, oil-rich seeds of plants, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and mustard (Brassica juncea), were more prone to DDT induced inhibition of germination and subsequent plant growth than cereals, pulses and fibre crops, like rice (Oryza sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), mung bean Vigna radiata), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Studies with (14)C labelled DDT showed that insecticide uptake by seeds was directly proportional to seed size. However, there was no direct relationship between DDT uptake by the seeds and its subsequent translocation to the growing regions or the degree of growth inhibition. Data suggest that oil content of the seeds per se has a bearing on the susceptibility or tolerance of a plant to DDT. It is suggested that lipids of the plant cell solubilize and disperse DDT in the cytoplasm, which, in turn, affects normal metabolism within the cell. PMID:15092369

Mitra, J; Raghu, K

1989-01-01

189

SUPPRESSOR OF MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 1 Controls Seed Germination and Seedling Development in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Abiotic chemical signals discovered in smoke that are known as karrikins (KARs) and the endogenous hormone strigolactone (SL) control plant growth through a shared MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)-dependent pathway. A SL biosynthetic pathway and candidate KAR/SL receptors have been characterized, but signaling downstream of MAX2 is poorly defined. A screen for genetic suppressors of the enhanced seed dormancy phenotype of max2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) led to identification of a suppressor of max2 1 (smax1) mutant. smax1 restores the seed germination and seedling photomorphogenesis phenotypes of max2 but does not affect the lateral root formation, axillary shoot growth, or senescence phenotypes of max2. Expression of three transcriptional markers of KAR/SL signaling, D14-LIKE2, KAR-UP F-BOX1, and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE1, is rescued in smax1 max2 seedlings. SMAX1 is a member of an eight-gene family in Arabidopsis that has weak similarity to HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 101, which encodes a caseinolytic peptidase B chaperonin required for thermotolerance. SMAX1 and the SMAX1-like (SMXL) homologs are differentially expressed in Arabidopsis tissues. SMAX1 transcripts are most abundant in dry seed, consistent with its function in seed germination control. Several SMXL genes are up-regulated in seedlings treated with the synthetic SL GR24. SMAX1 and SMXL2 transcripts are reduced in max2 seedlings, which could indicate negative feedback regulation by KAR/SL signaling. smax1 seed and seedling growth mimics the wild type treated with KAR/SL, but smax1 seedlings are still responsive to 2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one (KAR2) or GR24. We conclude that SMAX1 is an important component of KAR/SL signaling during seed germination and seedling growth but is not necessary for all MAX2-dependent responses. We hypothesize that one or more SMXL proteins may also act downstream of MAX2 to control the diverse developmental responses to KARs and SLs. PMID:23893171

Stanga, John P.; Smith, Steven M.; Briggs, Winslow R.; Nelson, David C.

2013-01-01

190

The Annual Growth In Plants  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection The Annual Growth In Plants 1903 by J. E. Courtright This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center...

Courtright, J. E.

1903-01-01

191

Tolerance of anaerobic conditions caused by flooding during germination and early growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Rice is semi-aquatic, adapted to a wide range of hydrologies, from aerobic soils in uplands to anaerobic and flooded fields in waterlogged lowlands, to even deeply submerged soils in flood-prone areas. Considerable diversity is present in native rice landraces selected by farmers over centuries. Our understanding of the adaptive features of these landraces to native ecosystems has improved considerably over the recent past. In some cases, major genes associated with tolerance have been cloned, such as SUB1A that confers tolerance of complete submergence and SNORKEL genes that control plant elongation to escape deepwater. Modern rice varieties are sensitive to flooding during germination and early growth, a problem commonly encountered in rainfed areas, but few landraces capable of germination under these conditions have recently been identified, enabling research into tolerance mechanisms. Major QTLs were also identified, and are being targeted for molecular breeding and for cloning. Nevertheless, limited progress has been made in identifying regulatory processes for traits that are unique to tolerant genotypes, including faster germination and coleoptile elongation, formation of roots and leaves under hypoxia, ability to catabolize starch into simple sugars for subsequent use in glycolysis and fermentative pathways to generate energy. Here we discuss the state of knowledge on the role of the PDC-ALDH-ACS bypass and the ALDH enzyme as the likely candidates effective in tolerant rice genotypes. Potential involvement of factors such as cytoplasmic pH regulation, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species scavenging and other metabolites is also discussed. Further characterization of contrasting genotypes would help in elucidating the genetic and biochemical regulatory and signaling mechanisms associated with tolerance. This could facilitate breeding rice varieties suitable for direct seeding systems and guide efforts for improving waterlogging tolerance in other crops. PMID:23888162

Miro, Berta; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.

2013-01-01

192

Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize.  

PubMed

Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant's late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (kinetin), suppress H. maydis in culture media and in a detached root assay. Kinetin, and even more auxin, caused significant suppression of fungus spore germination. Gibberellic acid did not alter colony growth rate but had a signal suppressive effect on the pathogens' spore germination. In comparison, ethylene and jasmonic acid, plant senescing and defense response regulators, had minor effects on colony growth and spore germination rate. Their associate hormone, salicylic acid, had a moderate suppressive effect on spore germination and colony growth rate, and a strong influence when combined with auxin. Despite the anti-fungal auxin success in vitro, field experiments with dimethylamine salt of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (that mimics the influence of auxin) failed to suppress the late wilt. The lines of evidence presented here reveal the suppressive influence of the three growth hormones studied on fungal development and are important to encourage further and more in-depth examinations of this intriguing hormonal complex regulatory and its role in the maize-H. maydis interactions. PMID:25649030

Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

2015-01-01

193

Effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on germination, metabolism and early growth of green gram, Vigna radiata L.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the leguminous plant, Vigna radiata L. Seed germination, metabolism and early growth performance of V. radiata L. were studied as parameters by applying a combined approach. The employed combined method which included microcalorimetry and analysis of the root cross section revealed dose dependent effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on V. radiata L. for most parameters. Although significant reductions in measured parameters were observed even at low total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels such as 1 % and 1.5 %, calculated inhibitions, IC50 values and metabolic heat emission-time curves inferred that substantial negative effects can be expected on V. radiata L. in soils with comparatively high contamination levels, such as 2.5 % TPH and higher. PMID:23793799

Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Yuan, Haiyan; Liu, Haijun; Yu, Chan; Cai, Minmin

2013-08-01

194

Flooding and Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Issue is based on the 7th Conference of the International Society for Plant Anaerobiosis (ISPA), held in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 12-16 June 2001. The papers describe and analyse many of the responses that plants display when subjected to waterlogging of the soil or deeper submergence. These responses may be injurious or adaptive, and are discussed at various levels

J. R. Goodin; T. T. Kozlowski

1986-01-01

195

Plant Growth Puzzle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This analysis and discussion activity presents a structured sequence of questions to challenge students to explain why a plant that sprouts and grows in the light weighs more than the seed it came from, whereas a plant that sprouts and grows in the dark weighs less than the seed it came from.

Ingrid Waldron

196

Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China  

PubMed Central

Variation in seed weight is common within and among plant species, but few studies have attempted to document the pattern of seed weight and germination attributes for aquatic macrophytes at a large scale. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China. Our results showed that the average seed weight was 0.24 g per 100 seeds with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 28.4% among the eight P. pectinatus populations. The total germination fraction of seeds of P. pectinatus was relatively poor, less than 35% in seven P. pectinatus populations, and the lowest germination percentage found was only 2%. There were significant differences in seed weight, time to onset of germination, and total germination fraction among the eight different populations. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed a strongly positive correlation between seed weight and water temperature and pH. Seed weight and the maternal environmental factors significantly affected both time to initiation of germination and total germination fraction. Our results suggest that (1) seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seeds are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion.

Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

2015-01-01

197

A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)

Oxlade, E.

1985-01-01

198

Atmospheric Pollution and Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RECENT review of the literature relating to gas damage to plants1 refers to many works on the effects of sulphur dioxide and other gases. Few of these works deal with the direct effect of gaseous atmospheric pollution on plant growth, although most authors claim that the results are relevant to this question.

J. K. A. Bleasdale

1952-01-01

199

The use of cluster analysis for plant grouping by their tolerance to soil contamination with hydrocarbons at the germination stage.  

PubMed

Clustering was employed for the analysis of obtained experimental data set (42 plants in total) on seed germination in leached chernozem contaminated with kerosene. Among investigated plants were 31 cultivated plants from 11 families (27 species and 20 varieties) and 11 wild plant species from 7 families, 23 annual and 19 perennial/biannual plant species, 11 monocotyledonous and 31 dicotyledonous plants. Two-dimensional (two-parameter) clustering approach, allowing the estimation of tolerance of germinating seeds using a pair of independent parameters (?75%, V7%) was found to be most effective. These parameters characterized the ability of seeds to both withstand high concentrations of contaminants without the significant reduction of the germination, and maintain high germination rate within certain contaminant concentrations. The performed clustering revealed a number of plant features, which define the relation of a particular plant to a particular tolerance cluster; it has also demonstrated the possibility of generalizing the kerosene results for n-tridecane, which is one of the typical kerosene components. In contrast to the "manual" plant ranking based on the assessment of germination at discrete concentrations of the contaminant, the proposed clustering approach allowed a generalized characterization of the seed tolerance/sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants. PMID:24704958

Potashev, Konstantin; Sharonova, Natalia; Breus, Irina

2014-07-01

200

Germination and early plant development of 10 plant species exposed to Nano TiO2 and CeO2  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano-TiO2 or CeO2 (0, 250, 500 and 1000 ug/l) and followed to examine effects on germination and early seedling development. For TiO2, cabbage showed increased and corn decreased percent germination, while ...

201

Phospholipids as Plant Growth Regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the potential to use phospholipids and lysophospholipids as plant growth regulators is discussed. Recent evidence shows that phospholipids and phospholipases play an\\u000a important signalling role in the normal course of plant development and in the response of plants to abiotic and biotic stress.\\u000a It is apparent that phospholipase A (PLA), C (PLC) and D (PLD), lysophospholipids, and

A. Keith Cowan

2006-01-01

202

Whole-Plant Growth Stage Ontology for Angiosperms and Its Application in Plant Biology1[OA  

PubMed Central

Plant growth stages are identified as distinct morphological landmarks in a continuous developmental process. The terms describing these developmental stages record the morphological appearance of the plant at a specific point in its life cycle. The widely differing morphology of plant species consequently gave rise to heterogeneous vocabularies describing growth and development. Each species or family specific community developed distinct terminologies for describing whole-plant growth stages. This semantic heterogeneity made it impossible to use growth stage description contained within plant biology databases to make meaningful computational comparisons. The Plant Ontology Consortium (http://www.plantontology.org) was founded to develop standard ontologies describing plant anatomical as well as growth and developmental stages that can be used for annotation of gene expression patterns and phenotypes of all flowering plants. In this article, we describe the development of a generic whole-plant growth stage ontology that describes the spatiotemporal stages of plant growth as a set of landmark events that progress from germination to senescence. This ontology represents a synthesis and integration of terms and concepts from a variety of species-specific vocabularies previously used for describing phenotypes and genomic information. It provides a common platform for annotating gene function and gene expression in relation to the developmental trajectory of a plant described at the organismal level. As proof of concept the Plant Ontology Consortium used the plant ontology growth stage ontology to annotate genes and phenotypes in plants with initial emphasis on those represented in The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Gramene database, and MaizeGDB. PMID:16905665

Pujar, Anuradha; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Ilic, Katica; Vincent, Leszek; Avraham, Shulamit; Stevens, Peter; Zapata, Felipe; Reiser, Leonore; Rhee, Seung Y.; Sachs, Martin M.; Schaeffer, Mary; Stein, Lincoln; Ware, Doreen; McCouch, Susan

2006-01-01

203

Plant Growth and Vitality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different ways to define plant vitality or vigour have been suggested. Although definitions differ in details, they generally\\u000a refer to the capacities to live or grow, as well as to resist stress (reviewed by Dobbertin 2005). Importantly, the hypothetical\\u000a ‘optimal’ plant vitality remains a theoretical concept: it can neither be measured directly nor predicted on the basis of\\u000a other

Mikhail V. Kozlov; Elena L. Zvereva; Vitali E. Zverev

204

Enhanced post-germinative growth of encapsulated somatic embryos of Siberian ginseng by carbohydrate addition to the encapsulation matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was carried out to enhance conversion and ex vitro survival of encapsulated somatic embryos of Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus). Cotyledonary somatic embryos were encapsulated with 3.0% sodium alginate; 96% of the encapsulated embryos converted to plantlets with well-elongated epicotyls in Perlite containing sucrose as a carbon source. However, although they germinated, post-germinative growth of encapsulated embryos was

S. J. Jung; E. S. Yoon; J. H. Jeong; Y. E. Choi

2004-01-01

205

Nutritional and environmental factors affecting germination, growth, and sporulation of Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M. B. Ellis  

E-print Network

NUTRITIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION, GROHTH, AND SPORULATION OF e c' c c ~ PITHOMYCES CHARTARUM (BERK. & CURT. ) M. B. ELLIS A Thesis by LARRY LEE WHITLOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major Subject: Microbiology NUTRITIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION, GROWTH, AND SPORULATION OF PITHOMYCES CHARTARUM (BERK. & CURT. ) M, B...

Whitlock, Larry Lee

1972-01-01

206

Avenaol, a germination stimulant for root parasitic plants from Avena strigosa.  

PubMed

Root exudates from the allelopathic plant, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), were found to contain at least six different germination stimulants for root parasitic plants, but no known strigolactones (SLs). One of these germination stimulants was purified and named avenaol. Its HR-ESI-TOFMS analysis indicated that the molecular formula of avenaol is C20H24O7, and thus it contains an additional carbon compared with known C19-SLs. Its structure was determined as 5-((E)-(5-(3-hydroxy-1,5,5-trimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-7-yl)-2-oxodihydrofuran-3(2H)-ylidene)methoxy)-3-methylfuran-2(5H)-one, by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and ESI- and EI-MS spectrometry. Although avenaol contains the C-D moiety, the common structural feature for all known SLs, it lacks the B ring and has an additional carbon atom between the A and C rings. Avenaol is a potent germination stimulant of Phelipanche ramosa seeds, but only a weak stimulant for seeds of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche minor. PMID:24768285

Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Khetkam, Pichit; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Uchida, Kenichi; Yokota, Takao; Nomura, Takahito; McErlean, Christopher S P; Yoneyama, Koichi

2014-07-01

207

Cold Radiofrequency Plasma Treatment Modifies Wettability and Germination Speed of Plant Seeds  

PubMed Central

We report the possibility to modify the wetting properties of the surfaces of a diversity of seeds including: lentils (Lens culinaris), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum, species C9) by cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment. Air plasma treatment leads to the dramatic decrease in the apparent contact angle. Moreover, the speed of germination and yield (germination rate) of seeds can be modified by preliminary plasma treatment. The change in the wetting properties of seeds is at least partially due to oxidation of their surface under plasma treatment. Significant growth of the peaks corresponding to the nitrogen containing groups in the mass spectra of air plasma treated seeds was registered by TOF-SIMS spectroscopy. PMID:23077725

Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

2012-01-01

208

G-Protein Complex Mutants Are Hypersensitive to Abscisic Acid Regulation of Germination  

E-print Network

G-Protein Complex Mutants Are Hypersensitive to Abscisic Acid Regulation of Germination throughout plant growth and development. Seed germination, early seedling development, stomatal guard cell), and the candidate G-protein-coupled receptor (GCR1) in ABA signaling during germination and early seedling

Jones, Alan M.

209

Influence de diffrents rgimes hydriques sur la croissance vgtative, le poids et la germination des  

E-print Network

Influence de différents régimes hydriques sur la croissance végétative, le poids et la germination Germination. ' se développer normalement. Les plantes ayant subi un déficit hydrique permanent ou temporaire'aptitude germinative des graines étant fortement corrélée à leur poids. SUMMARY The effect of water regime on growth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.  

PubMed

In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively. PMID:21313873

Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

2010-11-01

211

Impacts of crude oil on the germination and growth of cress seeds (Lepidium sp.) after bioremediation of agricultural soil polluted with crude petroleum using "adapted" Pseudomonas putida.  

PubMed

The impacts of crude oil on the germination, growth and morphology of cress seeds (Lepidium sp.) after bioremediation of agricultural soil polluted with crude petroleum using "adapted" Pseudomonas putida (PP) were examined for 15 days. At day 15 there was 100% germination in the untreated control samples, the mean height of the seedlings was 75.8 +/- 2.6 mm and all appeared to have grown morphologically normal. In the experimental samples treated with oil and PP inoculation, there was 98% germination and the seedlings reached a height of 63.8 +/- 6.9 mm; again, morphologically the seedlings appeared normal. However, in the control samples treated with oil but without PP inoculation, there was 31-38% germination and seedling heights of 34.2 +/- 11.4-42.3 +/- 8.5 mm with abnormal morphology. Treatment of oil-impacted agricultural soil with PP as a bioremediation agent does produce soil which is capable of growing larger and healthier plants than where bioremediation has not taken place. PMID:11480348

Nwachukwu, S C; James, P; Gurney, T R

2001-01-01

212

OsAP65, a rice aspartic protease, is essential for male fertility and plays a role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth  

PubMed Central

Aspartic proteases (APs) comprise a large proteolytic enzyme family widely distributed in animals, microbes, viruses, and plants. The rice genome encodes 96 APs, of which only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, the identification and characterization of a novel AP gene, OsAP65, which plays an indispensable role in pollen tube growth in rice, is reported. The T-DNA insertion line of OsAP65 caused severe segregation distortion. In the progeny derived from an individual heterozygous for the T-DNA insertion, the wild type and T-DNA-carrying heterozygote segregated at a ratio close to 1:1, while homozygotes of disrupted OsAP65 (OsAP65–/–) were not recovered. Reciprocal crosses between heterozygotes and wild-type plants demonstrated that the mutant alleles could not be transmitted through the male gamete. Examination of the anthers from heterozygous plants revealed that the mutant pollen matured normally, but did not germinate or elongate. OsAP65 was expressed in various tissues and the transcript level in heterozygous plants was about half of the amount measured in the wild-type plants. The subcellular localization showed that OsAP65 is a pre-vacuolar compartment (PVC) protein. These results indicated that OsAP65 was essential for rice pollen germination and tube growth. PMID:23918968

Zhang, Qifa

2013-01-01

213

The strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. are derived from the carotenoid pathway.  

PubMed

The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation. PMID:16183851

Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W A; Franssen, Maurice C R; Beale, Michael H; Bouwmeester, Harro J

2005-10-01

214

Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction[C][W  

PubMed Central

Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility. PMID:22247250

Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M.; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

2012-01-01

215

Stratifying, partially redrying and storing Douglas-fir seeds : effects on growth and physiology during germination  

E-print Network

during germination * Marlene DE MATOS MALAVASI, and D.P. LAVEN Susan G. STAFFORD ERD.P. LAVENDER tment the germination percentage of interior-source seeds but hastened germination speed for seeds from both sources seed vigor, as reflected by germination speed and seedling length and dry weight, yet redried seeds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

Spore germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination of dormant spores of Bacillus species is the first crucial step in the return of spores to vegetative growth, and is induced by nutrients and a variety of non-nutrient agents. Nutrient germinants bind to receptors in the spore’s inner membrane and this interaction triggers the release of the spore core’s huge depot of dipicolinic acid and cations, and

Peter Setlow

2003-01-01

217

EFFECT OF NANOSCALE ZINC OXIDE PARTICLES ON THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of nanoscale zinc oxide particles on plant growth and development. In view of the widespread cultivation of peanut in India and in other parts of the globe and in view of the potential influence of zinc on its growth, this plant was chosen as the model system. Peanut seeds were separately treated

T. N. V. K. V. Prasad; P. Sudhakar; Y. Sreenivasulu; P. Latha; V. Munaswamy; K. Raja Reddy; T. S. Sreeprasad; P. R. Sajanlal; T. Pradeep

2012-01-01

218

PLANT GROWTH UNDER STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD INFLUENCEê  

Microsoft Academic Search

Already germinated seeds of Zea mays were cultivated in the presence of static magnetic field in order to observe several biochemical changes and stimulation effect on plantlets growth. Magnetic treatment involved the application of five different values of magnetic induction of static magnetic field, ranging between 50 mT and 250 mT, during 14 days. In order to investigate the biochemical

M. RÃCUCIU; D. CREANGÃ; I. HORGA

2008-01-01

219

Common gas phase molecules from fungi affect seed germination and plant health in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecophysiological roles in mediating inter-kingdom signaling with arthropods but less is known about their interactions with plants. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model in order to test the physiological effects of 23 common vapor-phase fungal VOCs that included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and other chemical classes. After exposure to a shared atmosphere with the 23 individual VOCs for 72 hrs, seeds were assayed for rate of germination and seedling formation; vegetative plants were assayed for fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration. All but five of the VOCs tested (1-decene, 2-n-heptylfuran, nonanal, geosmin and -limonene) had a significant effect in inhibiting either germination, seedling formation or both. Seedling formation was entirely inhibited by exposure to 1-octen-3-one, 2-ethylhexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and butanal. As assayed by a combination of fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration, 2-ethylhexanal had a negative impact on two-week-old vegetative plants. Three other compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-heptylfuran) decreased fresh weight alone. Most of the VOCs tested did not change the fresh weight or chlorophyll concentration of vegetative plants. In summary, when tested as single compounds, fungal VOCs affected A. thaliana in positive, negative or neutral ways. PMID:25045602

2014-01-01

220

Eupatoriochromene and encecalin, plant growth regulators from yellow starthistle ( Centaurea solstitialis L. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two chromenes, eupatoriochromene (1) and encecalin (2), have been isolated from yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.). Both chromenes retard seed germination and reduce radicle and hypocotyl growth of weed and crop plant seedlings. In addition,1 increases adventitious root formation of mung bean cuttings.

Glory B. Merrill

1989-01-01

221

Eupatoriochromene and encecalin, plant growth regulators from yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.).  

PubMed

Two chromenes, eupatoriochromene (1) and encecalin (2), have been isolated from yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.). Both chromenes retard seed germination and reduce radicle and hypocotyl growth of weed and crop plant seedlings. In addition,1 increases adventitious root formation of mung bean cuttings. PMID:24272297

Merrill, G B

1989-07-01

222

Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to assess whether water uptake could be improved in sugar beet seeds and salt tolerance at the germination and early seedling stage by soaking the seeds for 10 h in distilled water (control), 100, 150 and 200 mg L(-1) GA3. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solution were 0.0 (control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS n(-1) NaCl. Priming increased the final germination percentage and the germination rate (1/t 50, where t 50 is the time to 50% of germination) under saline condition. Water uptake of primed seeds also increased significantly with increasing concentration of GA3 as compared to control. Priming also alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on sugar beet in terms of roots and shoots lengths and fresh weights of plants, roots and shoots. PMID:19069553

Jamil, Muhammad; Rha, Eui Shik

2007-02-15

223

Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of ?-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L?¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans. PMID:24941231

Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

2014-01-01

224

The impact of competition and litter accumulation on germination success in a model of annual plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model of one type of annual plant dynamics is proposed and discussed. The model is based on individual agents Monte Carlo simulations. We take into account, the plant requirements for external resources (sunshine, moisture etc.), competition among plants and the influence of accumulated dead biomass on the plant germination and seed production. We show that the density of plants could have oscillatory character, with periods depending on the rate of biomass reduction. Investigations on the temporal changes in the spatial distribution of plants show some clustering and moreover persistence of patterns during the oscillations. The average number of seeds produced by a plant in a year versus density of plants has a power-law type character. The obtained results are compared with field data and findings in other theoretical models. Agreement with experimental data is found, at least on a qualitative level. We have been also able to add new arguments in the long debate about the existence or not of oscillations in plant dynamics.

Kaçki, Zygmunt; P?kalski, Andrzej

2011-07-01

225

Effects of Capsaicin on Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsaicin, a possible allelochemical, caused growth inhibition of roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and suppressed their germination. Increasing the dose of capsaicin increased the inhibition. The concentrations for 50\\u000a % inhibition of the root growth were 2.7, 0.32, 2.1, 0.27, 0.29 and

H. Kato-Noguchi; Y. Tanaka

2003-01-01

226

Effects of aqueous extract of soil-like substrate made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically processing rice and wheat straws into soil-like substrate (SLS) and then reusing them in plant cultivation system to achieve waste recycle is very crucially important in Bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic potential. It is not clear yet that what kinds of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the aqueous extract of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat straw mixture was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil:water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, the fresh weight and other indicants. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll, hormone content of rice, and the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated in order to explore the preventive methods of the phenomenon. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on SLSs made from the raw materials mentioned above was evaluated and wheat raw was determined as the most appropriate material for growing rice.

Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Yuming; Fu, Wenting; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

2014-03-01

227

Agent-Based Plant Growth Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing Agent theory is an efficient way to solve the limitation of the method that constructing plant growth modeling in the virtual plant research, based on the definition and features of Agent and introduction of the virtual plant's significance and present situation. A new system of plant growth modeling is proposed, which is applied in soybean growth system, according to

Xiaoming Li; Zhongbin Su; Hongmin Sun; Ping Zheng

2009-01-01

228

The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds from the same seed lot as used in the flight unit and lack of viable microbes in the interior of the MPX will be confirmed by the assay methods outlined in NASA HDBK 6022. In this method surfaces are swabbed and the cells collected on the swabs are extracted and then cultured following a standard protocol. All operations involving the manipulation of sterile items and sample processing shall be performed in laminar flow environments meeting Class 100 air cleanliness requirements of Federal Standard 209B. The entire MPX will be assembled in a sterile environment within a month of launch if possible, but could withstand an earlier assembly if required.

Smith, Heather

229

Abstract--Physical and chemical attributes of the soil seedbed influence the success of seed germination and plant establish-  

E-print Network

germination and plant establish- ment. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/bunchgrass plant communities-induced changes occur- ring in the soil beneath the shrubs big sagebrush (Artemi- sia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata). Due to high fuel amounts, shrub subcanopies attain higher

230

Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress.  

PubMed

Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize. The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w/v) chitosan solutions at 15 degrees C on the growth and physiological changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan had no significant effect on germination percentage under low temperature stress, it enhanced germination index, reduced the mean germination time (MGT), and increased shoot height, root length, and shoot and root dry weights in both maize lines. The decline of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative permeability of the plasma membrane and the increase of the concentrations of soluble sugars and proline, peroxidase (POD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were detected both in the chilling-sensitive and chilling-tolerant maize seedlings after priming with the three concentrations of chitosan. HuangC was less sensitive to responding to different concentrations of chitosan. Priming with 0.50% chitosan for about 60 approximately 64 h seemed to have the best effects. Thus, it suggests that seed priming with chitosan may improve the speed of germination of maize seed and benefit for seedling growth under low temperature stress. PMID:19489108

Guan, Ya-jing; Hu, Jin; Wang, Xian-ju; Shao, Chen-xia

2009-06-01

231

Germination traits explain soil seed persistence across species: the case of Mediterranean annual plants in cereal fields  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seed persistence in the soil under field conditions is an important issue for the maintenance of local plant populations and the restoration of plant communities, increasingly so in the light of rapidly changing land use and climate change. Whereas processes important for dispersal in space are well known, knowledge of processes governing dispersal in time is still limited. Data for morphological seed traits such as size have given contradictory results for prediction of soil seed persistence or cover only a few species. There have been few experimental studies on the role of germination traits in determining soil seed persistence, while none has studied their predictive value consistently across species. Delayed germination, as well as light requirements for germination, have been suggested to contribute to the formation of persistent seed banks. Moreover, diurnally fluctuating temperatures can influence the timing of germination and are therefore linked to seed bank persistence. Methods The role of germination speed measured by T50 (days to germination of 50 % of all germinated seeds), light requirement and reaction to diurnally fluctuating temperatures in determining seed persistence in the soil was evaluated using an experimental comparative data set of 25 annual cereal weed species. Key Results It is shown that light requirements and slow germination are important features to maintain seeds ungerminated just after entering the soil, and hence influence survival of seeds in the soil. However, the detection of low diurnally fluctuating temperatures enhances soil seed bank persistence by limiting germination. Our data further suggest that the effect of diurnally fluctuating temperatures, as measured on seeds after dispersal and dry storage, is increasingly important to prevent fatal germination after longer burial periods. Conclusions These results underline the functional role of delayed germination and light for survival of seeds in the soil and hence their importance for shaping the first part of the seed decay curve. Our analyses highlight the detection of diurnally fluctuating temperatures as a third mechanism to achieve higher soil seed persistence after burial which interacts strongly with season. We therefore advocate focusing future research on mechanisms that favour soil seed persistence after longer burial times and moving from studies of morphological features to exploration of germination traits such as reaction to diurnally fluctuating temperatures. PMID:21224268

Saatkamp, Arne; Affre, Laurence; Dutoit, Thierry; Poschlod, Peter

2011-01-01

232

The effect of temperature, polyamines and polyamine synthesis inhibitor on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Prunus mume  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature (10, 25 or 35°C), polyamines (Put, Spd, Spm) and polyamine (PA) synthesis inhibitor (MGBG) on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth was investigated in Prunus mume cv. ‘Zaohua’. When pollen was incubated in a liquid medium for 24h in darkness, distinct differences were observed in pollen germination and pollen tube growth among the temperatures.

Joseph N Wolukau; ShaoLing Zhang; GuoHua Xu; Dixin Chen

2004-01-01

233

Plant-in-chip: Microfluidic system for studying root growth and pathogenic interactions in Arabidopsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a microfluidic platform for the hydroponic growth of Arabidopsis plants with high-resolution visualization of root development and root-pathogen interactions. The platform comprises a set of parallel microchannels with individual input/output ports where 1-day old germinated seedlings are initially placed. Under optimum conditions, a root system grows in each microchannel and its images are recorded over a 198-h period. Different concentrations of plant growth media show different root growth characteristics. Later, the developed roots are inoculated with two plant pathogens (nematodes and zoospores) and their physicochemical interactions with the live root systems are observed.

Parashar, Archana; Pandey, Santosh

2011-06-01

234

Silencing of the pollen-specific gene NTP303 and its family members in tobacco affects in vivo pollen tube growth and results in male sterile plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seed plants, successful fertilization requires correct regulation of pollen tube growth. At germination and during growth, the pollen tube interacts with tissues from the pistil while the pollen tube extends via tip growth. Despite the fact that much research has been devoted to the mechanisms regulating pollen tube growth, many aspects are currently unknown. Previously, we have isolated a

Peter de Groot; Koen Weterings; M. W. H. J. de Been; Floyd Wittink; Raymond Hulzink; J. B. M. Custers; Marinus van Herpen; George Wullems

2004-01-01

235

Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine juglone sensitivity of 16 species (Trifolium incarnatum, Coronilla varia, Vicia villosa, Lespedeza stipulacea, L. cuneata, Acer ginnala, Caragana arbor-escens, Elaegnus angustifolia, E. umbellata, Lonicera maackii, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Alnus glutinosa, Pinus strobus, andP. sylvestris) being considered for mixed plantings withJugions nigra (black walnut). All species were sensitive to juglone, but seed germination and radicle elongation were less affected than shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation. Seed germination and radicle elongation were affected by juglone in 6 and 11 species, respectively, mainly by the higher concentrations (10(-3) M and 10(-4) M). Shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation of all species were affected by juglone; many species were sensitive to concentrations as low as 10(-6) M. Seedlings of all species were severely wilted and eventually killed by 10(-3) M juglone, and most were chlorotic and severely retarded by 10(-4) M juglone. Seedlings inhibited by 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M juglone did not showany visible signs of injury. Based on the effects on seedling shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation, the five species found to be most sensitive to juglone were:Lonicera maackii, Lespedeza cuneata, Trifolium incarnatum, Alnus glutinosa, and Elaeagnus umbellata. PMID:24407348

Rietveld, W J

1983-02-01

236

Germination inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The presence of germination-inhibiting substances in plants seems to be a wide-spread phenomenon. They occur in all parts\\u000a of plants —in fruit pulp, fruit coats, endosperm, seed coat, embryo, leaves, bulbs and roots. They are non-specific in their\\u000a effects.\\u000a \\u000a Besides inhibitors, high osmotic pressure and acid pH are often partly responsible for the germination inhibition caused by\\u000a sap, juices and

Michael Evenari

1949-01-01

237

Interference with the germination and growth of Ulva zoospores by quorum-sensing molecules from Ulva-associated epiphytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Ulva zoospores preferentially settle on N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) producing marine bacterial biofilms. To investigate whether AHL signal molecules also affect the success and rate of zoospore germination in addition to zoospore attraction, the epiphytic bacteria associated with mature Ulva linza were characterized and bacterial isolates representative of this community tested for the ability to produce AHLs. Two of these AHL-producing isolates, Sulfitobacter spp. 376 and Shewanella spp. 79, were transformed with plasmids expressing the Bacillus spp. AHL lactonase gene aiiA to generate AHL-deficient variants. The germination and growth of U.?linza zoospores was studied in the presence of these AHL-deficient strains and their AHL-producing counterparts. This revealed that the AHLs produced by Sulfitobacter spp. and Shewanella spp. or the bacterial products they regulate have a negative impact on both zoospore germination and the early growth of the Ulva germling. Further experiments with Escherichia coli biofilms expressing recombinant AHL synthases and synthetic AHLs provide data to demonstrate that zoospores germinated and grown in the absence of AHLs were significantly longer than those germinated in the presence of AHLs. These results reveal an additional role for AHLs?per se in the interactive relationships between marine bacteria and Ulva zoospores. PMID:23879807

Twigg, Matthew S; Tait, Karen; Williams, Paul; Atkinson, Steve; Cámara, Miguel

2014-02-01

238

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND OSMOTICA IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF SALICORNIA UTAHENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicornia utahensis Tiderstrom is a perennial halophyte from the family Chenopodiaceae and is widely distributed in brackish water playas of northern Utah. Salicornia utahensis produces seeds under high salinity and deposits its seed on saline soil. Seeds showed only 65% germination in distilled water. Seed germination decreased with the increase in salinity and less than 5% seeds germinated at 900

BILQUEES GUL; M. AJMAL KHAN

239

The fitness costs of delayed germination and diminutive growth response of cheatgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The competitive ability of cheatgrass is often attributed to rapid early season germination. Our previous research has observed germination occurring from October through June near the Reno, Nevada ARS research location. In a controlled experiment we allowed cheatgrass to germinate naturally (Octo...

240

An effective system to produce smoke solutions from dried plant tissue for seed germination studies1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. • Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch) were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g) of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smoke through the water. The entire apparatus was operated in a laboratory fume hood. • Conclusions: Compared with other smoke solution preparation systems, the system described is easy to assemble and operate, inexpensive to build, and effective at producing smoke solutions from desired species in a small indoor space. Quantitative measurements can be made when using this system, allowing for replication of the process. PMID:25202613

Coons, Janice; Coutant, Nancy; Lawrence, Barbara; Finn, Daniel; Finn, Stephanie

2014-01-01

241

Effects of temperature on urediniospore germination, germ-tube growth, and initiation of infection in soybean by phakopsora isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of temperature on urediniospore germination and germ-tube growth were compared among four isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, one each from Taiwan, Zimbabwe, Hawaii, and Brazil, in addition to an isolate of P. meibomiae from Puerto Rico. Also compared were the effects of temperature during a...

242

Involvement of reactive oxygen species in endosperm cap weakening and embryo elongation growth during lettuce seed germination.  

PubMed

Endosperm cap (CAP) weakening and embryo elongation growth are prerequisites for the completion of lettuce seed germination. Although it has been proposed that the cell wall loosening underlying these processes results from an enzymatic mechanism, it is still unclear which enzymes are involved. Here it is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are non-enzymatic factors, may be involved in the two processes. In Guasihong lettuce seeds imbibed in water, O2·(-) and H2O2 accumulated and peroxidase activity increased in the CAP, whereas its puncture force decreased. In addition, in the radicle, the increase in embryo growth potential was accompanied by accumulation of O2·(-) and an increase in peroxidase activity. Imbibing seeds in 0.3% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) reduced endosperm viability and the levels of O2·(-), H2O2, and peroxidase activity in the CAP, whereas the decrease in its puncture force was inhibited. However, in the embryo, SDIC did not affect the accumulation of O2·(-), peroxidase activity, and the embryo growth potential. As a result, SDIC caused atypical germination, in which the endosperm ruptured at the boundary between the CAP and lateral endosperm. ROS scavengers and ROS generation inhibitors inhibited the CAP weakening and also decreased the embryo growth potential, thus decreasing the percentage of seed germination. Exogenous ROS and ROS generation inducers increased the percentage of CAP rupture to some extent, and the addition of H2O2 to 0.3% SDIC enabled some seeds to undergo typical germination. PMID:24744430

Zhang, Yu; Chen, Bingxian; Xu, Zhenjiang; Shi, Zhaowan; Chen, Shanli; Huang, Xi; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaofeng

2014-07-01

243

Involvement of reactive oxygen species in endosperm cap weakening and embryo elongation growth during lettuce seed germination  

PubMed Central

Endosperm cap (CAP) weakening and embryo elongation growth are prerequisites for the completion of lettuce seed germination. Although it has been proposed that the cell wall loosening underlying these processes results from an enzymatic mechanism, it is still unclear which enzymes are involved. Here it is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are non-enzymatic factors, may be involved in the two processes. In Guasihong lettuce seeds imbibed in water, O2·– and H2O2 accumulated and peroxidase activity increased in the CAP, whereas its puncture force decreased. In addition, in the radicle, the increase in embryo growth potential was accompanied by accumulation of O2·– and an increase in peroxidase activity. Imbibing seeds in 0.3% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) reduced endosperm viability and the levels of O2·–, H2O2, and peroxidase activity in the CAP, whereas the decrease in its puncture force was inhibited. However, in the embryo, SDIC did not affect the accumulation of O2·–, peroxidase activity, and the embryo growth potential. As a result, SDIC caused atypical germination, in which the endosperm ruptured at the boundary between the CAP and lateral endosperm. ROS scavengers and ROS generation inhibitors inhibited the CAP weakening and also decreased the embryo growth potential, thus decreasing the percentage of seed germination. Exogenous ROS and ROS generation inducers increased the percentage of CAP rupture to some extent, and the addition of H2O2 to 0.3% SDIC enabled some seeds to undergo typical germination. PMID:24744430

Zhang, Yu; Chen, Bingxian; Xu, Zhenjiang; Shi, Zhaowan; Chen, Shanli; Huang, Xi; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

244

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FORM AND AVAILABILITY ON SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH IN INVASIVE ANNUAL AND DESIRABLE PERENNIAL GRASSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent evidence associates the persistence of invasive plant species with disturbance and fluctuations in distinct forms of mineral N in soils. We conducted soil and hydroponic experiments to investigate the influence of N form and availability on germination and early seedling development of 2 inv...

245

Plant growth inhibition by the water extract of a crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water extract of a light Nigerian crude oil had pronounced effects on the growth, metabolism and development of radish (Raphanus sativus) plants. In addition to hydrocarbons (ca. 7 mg l?1) the extract contained phenols (ca. 0.6 mg l?1), carbonyl compounds, and carboxylic acids. Although seed germination was virtually unaffected, the growth of both above- and below-ground parts was significantly

D. W. Blankenship; R. A. Larson

1978-01-01

246

Overexpression of the vacuolar sugar carrier AtSWEET16 modifies germination, growth, and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Here, we report that SUGARS WILL EVENTUALLY BE EXPORTED TRANSPORTER (SWEET16) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is a vacuole-located carrier, transporting glucose (Glc), fructose (Fru), and sucrose (Suc) after heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The SWEET16 gene, similar to the homologs gene SWEET17, is mainly expressed in vascular parenchyma cells. Application of Glc, Fru, or Suc, as well as cold, osmotic stress, or low nitrogen, provoke the down-regulation of SWEET16 messenger RNA accumulation. SWEET16 overexpressors (35SPro:SWEET16) showed a number of peculiarities related to differences in sugar accumulation, such as less Glc, Fru, and Suc at the end of the night. Under cold stress, 35SPro:SWEET16 plants are unable to accumulate Fru, while under nitrogen starvation, both Glc and Fru, but not Suc, were less abundant. These changes of individual sugars indicate that the consequences of an increased SWEET16 activity are dependent upon the type of external stimulus. Remarkably, 35SPro:SWEET16 lines showed improved germination and increased freezing tolerance. The latter observation, in combination with the modified sugar levels, points to a superior function of Glc and Suc for frost tolerance. 35SPro:SWEET16 plants exhibited increased growth efficiency when cultivated on soil and showed improved nitrogen use efficiency when nitrate was sufficiently available, while under conditions of limiting nitrogen, wild-type biomasses were higher than those of 35SPro:SWEET16 plants. Our results identify SWEET16 as a vacuolar sugar facilitator, demonstrate the substantial impact of SWEET16 overexpression on various critical plant traits, and imply that SWEET16 activity must be tightly regulated to allow optimal Arabidopsis development under nonfavorable conditions. PMID:24028846

Klemens, Patrick A W; Patzke, Kathrin; Deitmer, Joachim; Spinner, Lara; Le Hir, Rozenn; Bellini, Catherine; Bedu, Magali; Chardon, Fabien; Krapp, Anne; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

2013-11-01

247

Overexpression of the Vacuolar Sugar Carrier AtSWEET16 Modifies Germination, Growth, and Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

Here, we report that SUGARS WILL EVENTUALLY BE EXPORTED TRANSPORTER (SWEET16) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is a vacuole-located carrier, transporting glucose (Glc), fructose (Fru), and sucrose (Suc) after heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The SWEET16 gene, similar to the homologs gene SWEET17, is mainly expressed in vascular parenchyma cells. Application of Glc, Fru, or Suc, as well as cold, osmotic stress, or low nitrogen, provoke the down-regulation of SWEET16 messenger RNA accumulation. SWEET16 overexpressors (35SPro:SWEET16) showed a number of peculiarities related to differences in sugar accumulation, such as less Glc, Fru, and Suc at the end of the night. Under cold stress, 35SPro:SWEET16 plants are unable to accumulate Fru, while under nitrogen starvation, both Glc and Fru, but not Suc, were less abundant. These changes of individual sugars indicate that the consequences of an increased SWEET16 activity are dependent upon the type of external stimulus. Remarkably, 35SPro:SWEET16 lines showed improved germination and increased freezing tolerance. The latter observation, in combination with the modified sugar levels, points to a superior function of Glc and Suc for frost tolerance. 35SPro:SWEET16 plants exhibited increased growth efficiency when cultivated on soil and showed improved nitrogen use efficiency when nitrate was sufficiently available, while under conditions of limiting nitrogen, wild-type biomasses were higher than those of 35SPro:SWEET16 plants. Our results identify SWEET16 as a vacuolar sugar facilitator, demonstrate the substantial impact of SWEET16 overexpression on various critical plant traits, and imply that SWEET16 activity must be tightly regulated to allow optimal Arabidopsis development under nonfavorable conditions. PMID:24028846

Klemens, Patrick A.W.; Patzke, Kathrin; Deitmer, Joachim; Spinner, Lara; Le Hir, Rozenn; Bellini, Catherine; Bedu, Magali; Chardon, Fabien; Krapp, Anne; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard

2013-01-01

248

Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials on Plants Growth: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan

2014-01-01

249

Biology of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Younger students can learn about plant biology. Topics include characteristics of living things, germination and growth, the basic parts of plants, photosynthesis, reproduction, and ecological adaptations of plants. The information presented can also be ordered as a video.

2005-01-05

250

Confirmation and quantification of strigolactones, germination stimulants for root parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche, produced by cotton.  

PubMed

The germination stimulants for root parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche produced by cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were examined in detail. Seeds of cotton were germinated and grown on glass wool wetted with sterile distilled water in sterile filter units. The root exudate was collected daily and extracted with ethyl acetate. Each of these ethyl acetate extracts was analyzed directly by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results demonstrate that cotton roots exuded strigol and strigyl acetate, but no other known strigolactones such as orobanchol and alectrol. The production of strigol was detected even in the root exudate collected during the first 24 h of incubation and reached a maximum 5-7 days later. The average exudation of strigol and strigyl acetate during the incubation period was ca. 15 and 2 pg/plant/day, respectively, indicating that strigol mainly contributed to germination stimulation by the cotton root exudate. PMID:15665473

Sato, Daisuke; Awad, Ayman A; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi

2005-01-01

251

THE NEW WASHINGTON GRAINS PLANT GROWTH FACILITY  

E-print Network

breeding; genetics and genomics; soilborne- disease resistance; plant germplasm exploration, col- lectionTHE NEW WASHINGTON GRAINS PLANT GROWTH FACILITY Washington State University's plant science to enhance the university's plant growth facilities. Construction for a new, state-of-the-art Washington

Collins, Gary S.

252

Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize.\\u000a The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w\\/v) chitosan solutions at 15 °C on the growth and physiological\\u000a changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan

Ya-jing Guan; Jin Hu; Xian-ju Wang; Chen-xia Shao

2009-01-01

253

Germination and initial growth of Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg. (Myrtaceae), in petroleum-contaminated soil and bioremediated soil.  

PubMed

In 2000 there was an oil spill at the Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR) in Paraná. Nearly five years after contamination and the use of bioremediation, a study was carried out to identify the effects of the contaminated soil and the bioremediated soil on the germination and initial growth of C. xanthocarpa. The experiment was established with soil from REPAR, with three treatment groups: contaminated soil (C), bioremediated soil (B) and uncontaminated soil (U); with five repetitions of 50 seeds each. There was no significant difference in the percentage of germination and the speed of germination index. The production of total biomass (30 - 60 days) and shoot biomass (60 days) was greater in the bioremediated soil compared to the other treatments. The averages for the root biomass were lower in the contaminated soil than in the bioremediated soil. The shoot length and the total length of the seedling in the contaminated soil and uncontaminated soil were lower than in the bioremediated soil. PMID:21180902

Gogosz, A M; Bona, C; Santos, G O; Botosso, P C

2010-11-01

254

Growth of plant tissue cultures in simulated lunar soil: Implications for a lunar base Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments to determine whether plant tissue cultures can be grown in the presence of simulated lunar soil (SLS) and the effect of simulated lunar soil on the growth and morphogenesis of such cultures, as well as the effect upon the germination of seeds and the development of seedlings were carried out . Preliminary results on seed germination and seedling growth of rice and calli growth of winged bean and soybean indicate that there is no toxicity or inhibition caused by SLS. SLS can be used as a support medium with supplements of certain major and micro elements.

Venketeswaran, S.

1987-01-01

255

Deficiency of maize starch-branching enzyme i results in altered starch fine structure, decreased digestibility and reduced coleoptile growth during germination  

PubMed Central

Background Two distinct starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms predate the divergence of monocots and dicots and have been conserved in plants since then. This strongly suggests that both SBEI and SBEII provide unique selective advantages to plants. However, no phenotype for the SBEI mutation, sbe1a, had been previously observed. To explore this incongruity the objective of the present work was to characterize functional and molecular phenotypes of both sbe1a and wild-type (Wt) in the W64A maize inbred line. Results Endosperm starch granules from the sbe1a mutant were more resistant to digestion by pancreatic ?-amylase, and the sbe1a mutant starch had an altered branching pattern for amylopectin and amylose. When kernels were germinated, the sbe1a mutant was associated with shorter coleoptile length and higher residual starch content, suggesting that less efficient starch utilization may have impaired growth during germination. Conclusions The present report documents for the first time a molecular phenotype due to the absence of SBEI, and suggests strongly that it is associated with altered physiological function of the starch in vivo. We believe that these results provide a plausible rationale for the conservation of SBEI in plants in both monocots and dicots, as greater seedling vigor would provide an important survival advantage when resources are limited. PMID:21599988

2011-01-01

256

Germination and Initial Growth of Fagus orientalis Seedling under Different Stand Canopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germination and early growth of Fagus orientalis seedling were studied in four stands with different canopy closures (closed, semi-closed, relatively-opened and opened stands) under a dominant beech forest, located in north of Iran. For this purpose, 196 beech seed-sown plastic pots (in four plots of 49 units) were set up under each canopy closure. In the beginning of the first growing season germination rate ranged between 78.1 and 84.7% in different stands but there was no statistically significant difference of this term in the stands. In the end of the first growing season survival rate of seedlings was 73.9-76.1% under closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased significantly to 31.7 and 18.0% under relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Shoot length was, in the order 70 and 90 mm in closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased to 40 and 30 mm in relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Vitality appeared mostly with high quality in closed and semi-closed stands and with low quality in relatively-opened and opened stands. Leaf biomass reduced in closed stand. There was an increase for leaf area in semi-closed stand and for Specific Leaf Weight (SLW) in relatively-opened and opened stands. Generally, the investigation shows that in the first growing season most characteristics of beech seedling were benefited from more favorable conditions in the denser stands (closed and semi-closed canopies).

Tabari, Masoud

257

Water activity and temperature effects on germination and growth of Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. herbariorum isolates from bakery products.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of temperature (5-30 degrees C), water activity (0.775-0.90 aw) and their interactions on the temporal rates of germination and mycelial growth of three species of Eurotium on flour wheat sucrose medium. Germination was quite rapid at aw >0.85, with an almost linear increase with time for all isolates. However, under more extreme water stress, germination was slower. The aw minima for germination were usually lower than those for growth and varied with temperature. The effect of aw x temperature interactions on the lag phases (h) prior to germination and on the germination rates (h-1) were predicted using the Gompertz model modified by Zwietering. Eurotium spp. had shown short lag times at 0.90 aw over a wide range of temperatures. At marginal temperatures, lag phases were significantly longer, especially at >15 degrees C. The temperature x aw profiles for mycelial growth varied between species in terms of rates (mm d(-1)). Predictions of the effect of important environmental factors, such as temperature, aw and their interactions on lag times to germination, germination rates and mycelial growth, are important in the development of hurdle technology approaches to predict fungal spoilage in food products. PMID:10540239

Abellana, M; Benedí, J; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

1999-09-01

258

Recurrent selection for increased seed germination in sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water is essential for plant growth and under field conditions is often inadequate for satisfactory seed germination and seedling growth. The objective of this research was to improve the seed germination of sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) lines ‘AB-medium Syn-0’ and ‘CD-tall Syn-0’ at low ...

259

LED Systems Target Plant Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To help develop technologies for growing edible biomass (food crops) in space, Kennedy Space Center partnered with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), of Madison, Wisconsin, through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. One result of this research was the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system, components of which have been incorporated into a variety of agricultural greenhouse and consumer aquarium lighting features. The new lighting systems can be adapted to a specific plant species during a specific growth stage, allowing maximum efficiency in light absorption by all available photosynthetic tissues.

2010-01-01

260

(Plant growth with limited water)  

SciTech Connect

The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

261

Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.  

PubMed

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops. PMID:24175421

Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

2012-08-15

262

Nitric oxide stimulates seed germination and de-etiolation, and inhibits hypocotyl elongation, three light-inducible responses in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Seed germination, greening of etiolated plants and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation are stimulated by light, which is sensed\\u000a by various types of photoreceptor. Nitric oxide (NO) has proven to be a bioactive molecule, especially in mammalian cells\\u000a and, most recently, in plants. Like some phytochrome-dependent processes, many NO-mediated ones are accomplished through increases\\u000a in cGMP levels. Given these similarities,

María Verónica Beligni; Lorenzo Lamattina

2000-01-01

263

Influence of heat shock on seed germination of plants from regularly burnt savanna woodlands and grasslands in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heat shock on the germination of seeds of 21 plant speciesfrom fire-prone wooded savanna ecosystems in western Ethiopia was analysed inorder to examine the possible implications of fire upon plant regenerationafterthis disturbance. Seeds were subjected to 6 different heat intensities (20, 60,90, 120, 150 and 200?°C) for 1 or 5 minutes, in ordertosimulate the situation in the

Menassie Gashaw; Anders Michelsen

2002-01-01

264

The effect of sugars on turion germination and growth of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid  

E-print Network

is the Lemnaceae or duckweeds. Duckweeds are the smallest and simplest of the flowering plants and are currently becom1ng a "problem weed" in the organically rich waters of Texas. This is evidenced by the luxur1ous growth in the stagnant waters of the recently... constructed Lake L1vingston. The heavy growth of duckweed modifies the aquatic environment beneath 1t, reducing gas exchange with the air and photosynthesis by submerged plants (Jacobs, 1947). The resulting low oxygen tension, associated w1th high organic...

Shelton, Donald Ross

1979-01-01

265

STIMULATION OF PLANT GROWTH BY HUMIC SUBSTANCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humic substances (HS) under conditions of adequate mineral nutrition, consistently show stimulation of plant growth in nutrient solutions. A novel screening system for HS effects on plants grown in nutrient solutions was used. Root growth was usually more apparent than stimulation of shoot growth....

266

PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies on the effects of humic substances (HS) on plants, under conditions of adequate mineral nutrition, consistently show stimulation of plant growth. Enhancement of root growth was usually more apparent than stimulation of shoot growth. Both increase in root length and development of secondary r...

267

HUMIC SUBSTANCES FOR ENHANCING PLANT GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies on the effects of humic substances (HS) on plants, under conditions of adequate mineral nutrition, consistently show stimulation of plant growth. Enhancement of root growth was usually more apparent than stimulation of shoot growth. Both increase in root length and development of secondary r...

268

ALLELOPATHIC GROWTH STIMULATION OF PLANTS AND MICROORGANISMS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth promotion of plants by other plants and microorganisms, as well as of microorganisms by plants and other microorganisms, is discussed. Agrostemma githago in mixed culture with wheat, enhances growth and yield of wheat. Allantoin, a purine derivative and the principal component of agrostem...

269

Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against hyperaccumulation of some toxic metals.

Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

270

Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Salvia aegyptiaca L. (Lamiaceae)  

PubMed Central

Salvia aegyptiaca is a xerophytic perennial herb belongs to the Lamiaceae family commonly used for medicinal purposes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the effects of temperature and salinity on seed germination and recovery responses after transferring to distilled water. Temperatures between 10 and 40 °C seem to be favourable for the germination of this species. Germination was inhibited by either an increase or decrease in temperature from the optimum (30 °C). The highest germination percentages were obtained at 0 mM NaCl; however, the increase of solution osmolalities progressively inhibited seed germination. The germination rate decreased with an increase in salinity for most of tested temperatures, but comparatively higher rates were obtained at 30 °C. Salt stress decreased both the percentage and the rate of germination. An interaction between salinity and temperature yielded no germination at 300 mM NaCl. By experimental transfer to distilled water, S. aegyptiaca seeds that were exposed to moderately saline conditions recovered and keep their ability to germinate mostly at low temperatures. At 300 mM NaCl, germination recovery decreased with increasing temperature and it was completely inhibited at 40 °C. PMID:23961132

Gorai, Mustapha; Gasmi, Hayet; Neffati, Mohamed

2011-01-01

271

Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice  

PubMed Central

Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding. PMID:22454611

Qi, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Shah, Farooq; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Liu, Hongyan; Nie, Lixiao

2012-01-01

272

Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

273

Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 ?l O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

2003-05-01

274

Bou Daher, Chebli, Geitmann -Optimization of conditions for germination of cold stored Arabidopsis thaliana pollen 1 Plant Cell Reports, in press  

E-print Network

thaliana pollen 1 Plant Cell Reports, in press Optimization of Conditions for Germination of Cold Stored Arabidopsis thaliana Pollen Firas Bou Daher* · Youssef Chebli* · Anja Geitmann *These authors contributed with the germination of its male gametophyte and the generation of the pollen tube in vitro. Arabidopsis pollen being

275

Arabidopsis AtBECLIN 1\\/AtAtg6\\/AtVps30 is essential for pollen germination and plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen germination on the surface of compatible stigmatic tissues is an essential step for plant fertilization. Here we report that the Arabidopsis mutant bcl1 is male sterile as a result of the failure of pollen germination. We show that the bcl1 mutant allele cannot be transmitted by male gametophytes and no homozygous bcl1 mutants were obtained. Analysis of pollen developmental

Genji Qin; Zhiqiang Ma; Li Zhang; Shufan Xing; Xianhui Hou; Jie Deng; Jingjing Liu; Zhangliang Chen; Li-Jia Qu; Hongya Gu

2007-01-01

276

Effects of Seed Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth Under Water Stress in Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

For disclosing the effects of seed priming with water and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on physiological characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the seeds of 4 rice cultivars were treated with H2O and different concentrations of PEG before germination. Primed or nonprimed (control) seeds were then germinated under drought stress conditions simulated with PEG in a serious of concentrations. The contents

Yuan-Yuan SUN; Yong-Jian SUN; Ming-Tian WANG; Xu-Yi LI; Xiang GUO; Rong HU; Jun MA

2010-01-01

277

Characterization of Peanut Germin-Like Proteins, AhGLPs in Plant Development and Defense  

PubMed Central

Background Germin-like superfamily members are ubiquitously expressed in various plant species and play important roles in plant development and defense. Although several GLPs have been identified in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), their roles in development and defense remain unknown. In this research, we study the spatiotemporal expression of AhGLPs in peanut and their functions in plant defense. Results We have identified three new AhGLP members (AhGLP3b, AhGLP5b and AhGLP7b) that have distinct but very closely related DNA sequences. The spatial and temporal expression profiles revealed that each peanut GLP gene has its distinct expression pattern in various tissues and developmental stages. This suggests that these genes all have their distinct roles in peanut development. Subcellular location analysis demonstrated that AhGLP2 and 5 undergo a protein transport process after synthesis. The expression of all AhGLPs increased in responding to Aspergillus flavus infection, suggesting AhGLPs' ubiquitous roles in defense to A. flavus. Each AhGLP gene had its unique response to various abiotic stresses (including salt, H2O2 stress and wound), biotic stresses (including leaf spot, mosaic and rust) and plant hormone stimulations (including SA and ABA treatments). These results indicate that AhGLPs have their distinct roles in plant defense. Moreover, in vivo study of AhGLP transgenic Arabidopsis showed that both AhGLP2 and 3 had salt tolerance, which made transgenic Arabidopsis grow well under 100 mM NaCl stress. Conclusions For the first time, our study analyzes the AhGLP gene expression profiles in peanut and reveals their roles under various stresses. These results provide an insight into the developmental and defensive roles of GLP gene family in peanut. PMID:23626720

Wang, Tong; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Fanghe; Li, Haifen; Li, Ling; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Shanlin; Liang, Xuanqiang

2013-01-01

278

Influence of calcinated starfish powder on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the calcium absorption efficacy of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) in sawdust medium supplemented with starfish powder and to determine the effect of starfish powder as calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of starfish powder was achieved at the temperature ranging from 560.1 to 649.5 degrees C. A 1% supplementation of starfish powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 1% calcinated starfish powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 256.0+/-16.3 in the fruiting body of P. eryngii without extension of spawn run period and the retardation of the days to primordial germination. PMID:19733611

Choi, Ung-Kyu; Bajpai, Vivek K; Lee, Nan-Hee

2009-11-01

279

Investigation of pulsed electromagnetic field as a novel organic pre-sowing method on germination and initial growth stages of cotton.  

PubMed

Two different pre-sowing techniques have been investigated for their influence in an important industrial plant, namely cotton. Priming methods are very useful for agricultural practices because they improve crop seedling establishment, especially when environmental conditions are not optimum. Pulsed electromagnetic fields have been found to promote germination and improve early growth characteristics of cotton seedlings. Such priming techniques are especially valuable in organic cultivation, where chemical compounds are prohibited. PEG treatment showed an enhancement in some measurements, however in some cases the results were not statistically different compared to control plants. In addition, PEG treatment is a sophisticated method that is far from agricultural practices and farmers. In this research, two different ages of seeds were used (1- and 2-year-old) in order to investigate the promotory effects of priming techniques. Magnetic field treatment of 15 min was found to stimulate germination percentage and to promote seeds, resulting in 85% higher values than control seeds under real field conditions. Furthermore, seeds that were treated with magnetic field performed better in terms of early-stage measurements and root characteristics. PMID:22268861

Bilalis, Dimitrios J; Katsenios, Nikolaos; Efthimiadou, Aspasia; Karkanis, Anestis; Efthimiadis, Panagiotis

2012-06-01

280

G Protein Signaling in the Regulation of Arabidopsis Seed Germination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seed germination and early seedling growth are regulated by an intricate network of hormonal signaling pathways. The plant hormones gibberellic acid (GA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) are important positive regulators of these processes, whereas the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a potent negative regulator. In Arabidopsis, analysis of mutant plants has implicated heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) components in regulation of seed germination by all three of these hormones.

Sarah M. Assmann (Penn State University; Biology Department REV)

2005-11-01

281

Growth, Development and Flowering in Fast Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides extensive background information about how Fast Plants grow and develop. The distinction between growth and development is explained. Also discussed is how genetics plus interactions with the environment produce variation during growth and development.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

282

POLLEN GERMINATION, VIABILITY AND TUBE GROWTH IN FOURTEEN CULTIVATED AND WILD SPECIES OF CUCURBIT GROWN IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen germination, viability and tube growth in fourteen species of cucurbit were examined. All the male flowers had three anthers each. The highest number of pollen grain (917.00 ? 52.69) per anther was recorded in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch ex Poir.) whereas the lowest (479.00 ? 13.14) per anther was recorded in snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.). Viable pollen was

M. Rashed Zaman

283

Influence of calcinated starfish powder on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of king oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus eryngii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the calcium absorption efficacy of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) in sawdust medium supplemented with starfish powder and to determine the effect of starfish powder as calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of starfish powder was achieved at the temperature ranging from 560.1 to 649.5°C.

Ung-Kyu Choi; Vivek K. Bajpai; Nan-Hee Lee

2009-01-01

284

Effect on germination and early growth characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds exposed to static magnetic field.  

PubMed

Seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were exposed in batches to static magnetic fields of strength from 0 to 250mT in steps of 50mT for 1-4h in steps of 1h. Treatment of sunflower seeds in these magnetic fields increased the speed of germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight under laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 50 and 200mT for 2h yielded the peak performance. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity and reduced the cellular leakage and electrical conductivity. Treated seeds planted in soil resulted in statistically higher seedling dry weight, root length, root surface area and root volume in 1-month-old seedlings. In germinating seeds, enzyme activities of alpha-amylase, dehydrogenase and protease were significantly higher in treated seeds in contrast to controls. The higher enzyme activity in magnetic-field-treated sunflower seeds could be triggering the fast germination and early vigor of seedlings. PMID:19783321

Vashisth, Ananta; Nagarajan, Shantha

2010-01-15

285

The involvement of hydrogen peroxide in UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth of Paeonia suffruticosa and Paulownia tomentosa in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that UV-B could affect pollen germination and tube growth. However, the mechanism of response of pollen to UV-B has not been clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the UV-B-induced reduction of in vitro pollen germination and tube growth of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. and Paulownia tomentosa Steud.

Jun-Min He; Zhi-Hui Liu; Han Xu; Xiao-Ping She; Chen Huang

2006-01-01

286

Seed dormancy and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy and germination are complex adaptive traits of higher plants that are influenced by a large number of genes and environmental factors. Studies of genetics and physiology have shown the important roles of the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in the regulation of dormancy and germination. More recently, the use of quantitative genetics and mutant approaches has allowed

Maarten Koornneef; Leónie Bentsink; Henk Hilhorst

2002-01-01

287

Production of Plant Growth-Regulating Substances by the Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae  

PubMed Central

Glomus mosseae, a representative species of Endogonaceae (Phycomycetes) able to form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, was investigated for phytohormone production. Spores of G. mosseae were axenically germinated in water, and the resultant mycelial growth was assayed by standard procedures for extracting plant hormones from microbial cultures. Paper partition chromatography and specific bioassays were used to separate and identify plant growth-regulating substances. The microorganism synthesized at least two gibberellin-like substances, one with Rf corresponding in position to authentic gibberellic acid, and four substances with the properties of cytokinins. PMID:16345991

Barea, José M.; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción

1982-01-01

288

Potential effects of elevated carbon dioxide levels on seed germination of three native plant species. [Nemophila menziesii; Layia platyglossa; Clarkia rubicunda  

SciTech Connect

Germination responses of seeds of three native plant species - Nemophila menziesii H. and a. ssp. menziesii, Layia platyglossa (F. and M.) Gray ssp. platyglossa, and Clarkia rubicunda (Lindl.) Lewis and Lewis ssp. rubicunda - were investigated at atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels of 0.03%, 0.07%, 0.14%, and 0.21% in controlled greenhouse experiments. Seeds were germinated in a 1:1 (vol/vol) mixture of vermiculite and sponge rock under natural conditions of daylengths and temperatures. Elevations in CO/sub 2/ concentrations did not significantly affect the germination responses of any of the three species, but their patterns of germination differed. The data suggest that increasing CO/sub 2/ concentrations such as those anticipated in the next century may not significantly affect germination of native plant species.

St. Omer, L.; Horvath, S.M.

1983-12-01

289

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on bacterial canker of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in managing bacterial canker disease of tomato was studied in the present work. Tomato seeds were treated with PGPR strains viz., Bacillus pumilus INR7, Bacillus pumilus SE34, Bacillus pumilus T4, Bacillus subtilis GBO3, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Brevibacillus brevis IPC11 were subjected for seed germination and seedling vigor. Among the PGPR strains tested, only

N Girish; S Umesha

2005-01-01

290

Evaluation of the effect of clinostat rotation on pollen germination and tube development as a tool for selection of plants in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of species and cultivar on which rely to sustain Close Loop Environmental Systems is generally approached by analysing the behaviour of plants in presence of stress (sporophytic selection). In this paper, we investigated the possibility to conduct the selection among genotypes in Space through the male gametophytic selection. Thus, we studied the effect of simulated microgravity on pollen germination and tube development of both woody and herbaceous crop species: Prunus armeniaca (apricot), P. dulcis (almond), Malus domestica (apple) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Pollen collected from just bloomed flowers was assessed for viability and incubated on the optimal growing medium in petri dishes both on a uni-axial clinostat and stationary in 1g. Then, pollen was observed under a light microscope to detect percent germination and growth direction. Histochemical analyses were performed to verify the presence and distribution of storage substances. Moreover, specific stainings and epifluorescent microscopy were applied to count nuclei, follow the migration of sperm cells and investigate the presence, size and morphology of callose plugs. Results showed that simulated microgravity affected pollen tube development. The different response showed by the various species indicates that male-gametophytic selection could be useful for the selection of plants in microgravity.

De Micco, Veronica; Scala, Michele; Aronne, Giovanna

2006-05-01

291

Regulation of Pathogenic Spore Germination by CgRac1 in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ? ‡  

PubMed Central

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a facultative plant pathogen: it can live as a saprophyte on dead organic matter or as a pathogen on a host plant. Different patterns of conidial germination have been recognized under saprophytic and pathogenic conditions, which also determine later development. Here we describe the role of CgRac1 in regulating pathogenic germination. The hallmark of pathogenic germination is unilateral formation of a single germ tube following the first cell division. However, transgenic strains expressing a constitutively active CgRac1 (CA-CgRac1) displayed simultaneous formation of two germ tubes, with nuclei continuing to divide in both cells after the first cell division. CA-CgRac1 also caused various other abnormalities, including difficulties in establishing and maintaining cell polarity, reduced conidial and hyphal adhesion, and formation of immature appressoria. Consequently, CA-CgRac1 isolates were completely nonpathogenic. Localization studies with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-CgRac1 fusion protein showed that the CgRac1 protein is abundant in conidia and in hyphal tips. Although the CFP signal was equally distributed in both cells of a germinating conidium, reactive oxygen species accumulated only in the cell that produced a germ tube, indicating that CgRac1 was active only in the germinating cell. Collectively, our results show that CgRac1 is a major regulator of asymmetric development and that it is involved in the regulation of both morphogenesis and nuclear division. Modification of CgRac1 activity disrupts the morphogenetic program and prevents fungal infection. PMID:21460190

Nesher, Iris; Minz, Anna; Kokkelink, Leonie; Tudzynski, Paul; Sharon, Amir

2011-01-01

292

The effects of solar radiation on plant growth  

SciTech Connect

This phase of this continuing project was completed in April, 1994, using Dahlgren No. 855 hybrid sunflower seeds and Park Seeds No. 0950 non-hybrid sunflower seeds in both the control groups and the tests groups. The control groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) were grown under normal, un-radiated, conditions. The tests groups (1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a) were grown onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-60 flight in February 1994. All data from this experiment (both control and test groups) will be taken and recorded in a data log and compared against each other to determine the radiation effects of solar radiation on plant germination and growth.

Agard, J.

1995-09-01

293

The effects of solar radiation on plant growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This phase of this continuing project was completed in April, 1994, using Dahlgren #855 hybrid sunflower seeds and Park Seeds #0950 non-hybrid sunflower seeds in both the control groups and the tests groups. The control groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) were grown under normal, un-radiated, conditions. The tests groups (1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a) were grown onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-60 flight in February 1994. All data from this experiment (both control and test groups) will be taken and recorded in a data log and compared against each other to determine the radiation effects of solar radiation on plant germination and growth.

Agard, Joslyn

1995-01-01

294

Seed Priming Effects on Germination, Growth and Yield of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient seedling stand establishment is one of the major obstacles for achieving potential yield of dry direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, seed priming technique was explored for improving germination and crop performance of dry direct-seeded rice. Seed-priming treatments used during the investigation included untreated control, hydro-priming, water hardening, and osmo-hardening with KCl. Priming reduced mean germination

G. Mahajan; R. S. Sarlach; S. Japinder; M. S. Gill

2011-01-01

295

REVIEW OF "PLANT GROWTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reviews a recent book on the topic entitled APlant Growth and Climate Change@ edited by James I.L. Morison and Michael D. Morecroft. The authors discuss effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on plant growth and development and on plant water relations. The book gives a generally good ov...

296

The Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase ECERIFERUM9 Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Response during Seed Germination and Postgermination Growth in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in cuticle biosynthesis and the maintenance of plant water status. Here, we found that CER9 is also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The germinated embryos of the mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the transition from reversible dormancy to determinate seedling growth. Expression of the CER9 gene is closely related to ABA levels and displays a similar pattern to that of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which encodes a positive regulator of ABA responses in seeds. cer9 mutant seeds exhibited delayed germination that is independent of seed coat permeability. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that cer9 seeds had a protein profile similar to that of the wild type treated with ABA. Transcriptomics analyses revealed that genes involved in ABA biosynthesis or signaling pathways were differentially regulated in cer9 seeds. Consistent with this, high levels of ABA were detected in dry seeds of cer9. Blocking ABA biosynthesis by fluridone treatment or by combining an ABA-deficient mutation with cer9 attenuated the phenotypes of cer9. Whereas introduction of the abi1-1, abi3-1, or abi4-103 mutation could completely eliminate the ABA hypersensitivity of cer9, introduction of abi5 resulted only in partial suppression. These results indicate that CER9 is a novel negative regulator of ABA biosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway during seed germination. PMID:24812105

Zhao, Huayan; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Wang, Guangchao; Li, Rongjun; Jenks, Matthew A; Lü, Shiyou; Xiong, Liming

2014-05-01

297

Ethylene: Inhibitor and Stimulator of Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone which plays an essential role in a myriad of plant developmental\\u000a processes. It promotes root hair formation, flowering in a number of species, fruit ripening and abscission\\u000a and leaf and petal abscission. Ethylene can stimulate growth in hypocotyls of light-grown plants, and shoot\\u000a growth in shaded conditions. On the other hand, it inhibits root growth, and hypocotyl elongation

Jasper Dugardeyn; Dominique Van Der Straeten

298

Effects of nanocrystalline powders (Fe, Co and Cu) on the germination, growth, crop yield and product quality of soybean (Vietnamese species DT-51)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superdispersive iron, cobalt and copper nanocrystalline powders were synthesized in a water–ethanol medium by the reduction method using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent and carboxymethyl cellulose as a stabilizer (for Fe and Co nanoparticles). Transmission electron microscopy micrographs and x-ray diffraction analyses of the freshly prepared nanocrystalline powders indicated that they were in a zerovalent state with particle sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. The soybean seeds were treated with an extra low nanocrystalline dose (not more than 300 mg of each metal per hectare) and then sowed on an experimental landfill plot consisting of a farming area of 180 m2. This pre-sowing treatment of soybean seeds, which does not exert any adverse effect on the soil environment, reliably changed the biological indices of the plant growth and development. In particular, in laboratory experiments, the germination rates of soybean seeds treated with zerovalent Cu, Co and Fe were 65, 80 and 80%, respectively, whereas 55% germination was observed in the control sample; in the field experiment, for all of the nanoscale metals studied, the chlorophyll index increased by 7–15% and the number of nodules by 20–49% compared to the control sample, and the soybean crop yield increased up to 16% in comparison with the control sample.

Buu Ngo, Quoc; Hien Dao, Trong; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Van Nguyen, Tuong; Duong Khuu, Thuy; Huynh, Thi Ha

2014-03-01

299

Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake

Sumera Afzal Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Hyeokjun Yoon; Ho-Youn Kim; Seok-Jong Suh; Seon-Kap Hwang; Jong-Myeong Kim; In-Jung Lee; Yeon-Sik Choo; Ung-Han Yoon; Won-Sik Kong; Byung-Moo Lee; Jong-Guk Kim

2008-01-01

300

Modeling plant growth and development.  

PubMed

Computational plant models or 'virtual plants' are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form. The theory of L-systems, which was introduced by Lindemayer in 1968, has led to a well-established methodology for simulating the branching architecture of plants. Many current architectural models provide insights into the mechanisms of plant development by incorporating physiological processes, such as the transport and allocation of carbon. Other models aim at elucidating the geometry of plant organs, including flower petals and apical meristems, and are beginning to address the relationship between patterns of gene expression and the resulting plant form. PMID:14732445

Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

2004-02-01

301

Thermoinhibition uncovers a role for strigolactones in Arabidopsis seed germination.  

PubMed

Strigolactones are host factors that stimulate seed germination of parasitic plant species such as Striga and Orobanche. This hormone is also important in shoot branching architecture and photomorphogenic development. Strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants in model systems, unlike parasitic plants, only show seed germination phenotypes under limited growth condition. To understand the roles of strigolactones in seed germination, it is necessary to develop a tractable experimental system using model plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we report that thermoinhibition, which involves exposing seeds to high temperatures, uncovers a clear role for strigolactones in promoting Arabidopsis seed germination. Both strigolactone biosynthetic and signaling mutants showed increased sensitivity to seed thermoinhibition. The synthetic strigolactone GR24 rescued germination of thermoinbibited biosynthetic mutant seeds but not a signaling mutant. Hormone analysis revealed that strigolactones alleviate thermoinhibition by modulating levels of the two plant hormones, GA and ABA. We also showed that GR24 was able to counteract secondary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde island (Cvi). Systematic hormone analysis of germinating Striga helmonthica seeds suggested a common mechanism between the parasitic and non-parasitic seeds with respect to how hormones regulate germination. Thus, our simple assay system using Arabidopsis thermoinhibition allows comparisons to determine similarities and differences between parasitic plants and model experimental systems for the use of strigolactones. PMID:22173099

Toh, Shigeo; Kamiya, Yuji; Kawakami, Naoto; Nambara, Eiji; McCourt, Peter; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro

2012-01-01

302

Effects of cadmium stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Elymus dahuricus infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte.  

PubMed

Various cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 ?mol L(-1)) affected Elymus dahuricus seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidative enzymes activities (AEA), and amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline present. These influences were determined for separate E. dahuricus cohorts known to be either infected (E+) or non-infected (E-) by a Neotyphodium endophyte. Under high Cd concentrations (100, 200 and 300 ?mol L(-1)), E+ specimens showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher germination rate and index, as well as higher values for shoot length, root length and dry biomass. However, the germination rate and index, root length and dry weight did not show a significant (P<0.05) difference under the low Cd concentrations (0 and 50 ?mol L(-1)). AEA and proline content increased, as did MDA content, in the E+ (vs. E-) specimens under high Cd concentrations. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference under low Cd concentrations. Endophyte infection was concluded to be of benefit to E. dahuricus exposed to high Cd concentrations. PMID:23015128

Zhang, XingXu; Li, ChunJie; Nan, ZhiBiao

2012-09-01

303

Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5?336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

2014-01-01

304

FgKin1 kinase localizes to the septal pore and plays a role in hyphal growth, ascospore germination, pathogenesis, and localization of Tub1 beta-tubulins in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

The Kin1/Par-1/MARK kinases regulate various cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Kin1 orthologs are well conserved in fungal pathogens but none of them have been functionally characterized. Here, we show that KIN1 is important for pathogenesis and growth in two phytopathogenic fungi and that FgKin1 regulates ascospore germination and the localization of Tub1 ?-tubulins in Fusarium graminearum. The Fgkin1 mutant and putative FgKIN1(S172A) kinase dead (nonactivatable) transformants were characterized for defects in plant infection, sexual and asexual reproduction, and stress responses. The localization of FgKin1 and two ?-tubulins were examined in the wild-type and mutant backgrounds. Deletion of FgKIN1 resulted in reduced virulence and defects in ascospore germination and release. FgKin1 localized to the center of septal pores. FgKIN1 deletion had no effect on Tub2 microtubules but disrupted Tub1 localization. In the mutant, Tub1 appeared to be enriched in the nucleolus. In Magnaporthe oryzae, MoKin1 has similar functions in growth and infection and it also localizes to septal pores. The S172A mutation had no effect on the localization and function of FgKIN1 during sexual reproduction. These results indicate that FgKIN1 has kinase-dependent and independent functions and it specifically regulates Tub1 ?-tubulins. FgKin1 plays a critical role in ascospore discharge, germination, and plant infection. PMID:25078365

Luo, Yongping; Zhang, Hongchang; Qi, Linlu; Zhang, Shijie; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yimei; Xu, Jin-Rong

2014-12-01

305

Gene expression profiles in promoted-growth rice seedlings that germinated from the seeds implanted by low-energy N+ beam  

PubMed Central

The stimulation effect that some beneficial agronomic qualities have exhibited in present-generation plants have also been observed due to ion implantation on plants. However, there is relatively little knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of the stimulation effects of ion-beam implantation. In order to extend our current knowledge about the functional genes related to this stimulation effect, we have reported a comprehensive microarray analysis of the transcriptome features of the promoted-growth rice seedlings germinating from seeds implanted by a low-energy N+ beam. The results showed that 351 up-regulated transcripts and 470 down-regulated transcripts, including signaling proteins, kinases, plant hormones, transposable elements, transcription factors, non-coding protein RNA (including miRNA), secondary metabolites, resistance proteins, peroxidase and chromatin modification, are all involved in the stimulating effects of ion-beam implantation. The divergences of the functional catalog between the vacuum and ion implantation suggest that ion implantation is the principle cause of the ion-beam implantation biological effects, and revealed the complex molecular networks required to adapt to ion-beam implantation stress in plants, including enhanced transposition of transposable elements, promoted ABA biosynthesis and changes in chromatin modification. Our data will extend the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms and gene regulation of stimulation effects. Further research on the candidates reported in this study should provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of biological effects induced by ion-beam implantation. PMID:22843621

Ya, Huiyuan; Chen, Qiufang; Wang, Weidong; Chen, Wanguang; Qin, Guangyong; Jiao, Zhen

2012-01-01

306

Electrophoretic profiling and immunocytochemical detection of pectins and arabinogalactan proteins in olive pollen during germination and pollen tube growth  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cell wall pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are important for pollen tube growth. The aim of this work was to study the temporal and spatial dynamics of these compounds in olive pollen during germination. Methods Immunoblot profiling analyses combined with confocal and transmission electron microscopy immunocytochemical detection techniques were carried out using four anti-pectin (JIM7, JIM5, LM5 and LM6) and two anti-AGP (JIM13 and JIM14) monoclonal antibodies. Key Results Pectin and AGP levels increased during olive pollen in vitro germination. (1 ? 4)-?-d-Galactans localized in the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell, the pollen wall and the apertural intine. After the pollen tube emerged, galactans localized in the pollen tube wall, particularly at the tip, and formed a collar-like structure around the germinative aperture. (1 ? 5)-?-l-Arabinans were mainly present in the pollen tube cell wall, forming characteristic ring-shaped deposits at regular intervals in the sub-apical zone. As expected, the pollen tube wall was rich in highly esterified pectic compounds at the apex, while the cell wall mainly contained de-esterified pectins in the shank. The wall of the generative cell was specifically labelled with arabinans, highly methyl-esterified homogalacturonans and JIM13 epitopes. In addition, the extracellular material that coated the outer exine layer was rich in arabinans, de-esterified pectins and JIM13 epitopes. Conclusions Pectins and AGPs are newly synthesized in the pollen tube during pollen germination. The synthesis and secretion of these compounds are temporally and spatially regulated. Galactans might provide mechanical stability to the pollen tube, reinforcing those regions that are particularly sensitive to tension stress (the pollen tube–pollen grain joint site) and mechanical damage (the tip). Arabinans and AGPs might be important in recognition and adhesion phenomena of the pollen tube and the stylar transmitting cells, as well as the egg and sperm cells. PMID:23712452

Castro, Antonio J.; Suárez, Cynthia; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan de Dios; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel

2013-01-01

307

Ethylene reduces plant gas exchange and growth of lettuce grown from seed to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring high levels of ethylene can be a problem in spaceflight and controlled environment agriculture (CEA) leading to sterility and irregular plant growth. There are engineering and safety advantages of growing plants under hypobaria (low pressure) for space habitation. The goals of this research were to successfully grow lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Buttercrunch) in a long-term study from seed to harvest under hypobaric conditions, and to investigate how endogenously produced ethylene affects gas exchange and plant growth from seed germination to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure conditions. Lettuce was grown under two levels of total gas pressure [hypobaric or ambient (25 or 101 kPa)] in a long-term, 32-day study. Significant levels of endogenous ethylene occurred by day-15 causing reductions in photosynthesis, dark-period respiration, and a subsequent decrease in plant growth. Hypobaria did not mitigate the adverse ethylene effects on plant growth. Seed germination was not adversely affected by hypobaria, but was reduced by hypoxia (6 kPa pO(2)). Under hypoxia, seed germination was higher under hypobaria than ambient total pressure. This research shows that lettuce can be grown from seed to harvest under hypobaria (?25% of normal earth ambient total pressure). PMID:22118875

He, Chuanjiu; Davies, Fred T

2012-03-01

308

Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.  

PubMed

We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR?×?Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil. PMID:21470980

Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

2011-04-01

309

Germination and seedling development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cottonseed germination and seedling development are highly sensitive to the environment at planting and for several weeks after that. Major factors that affect germination and development are temperature, water availability, soil conditions such as compaction, rhizosphere gases, and seed and seedlin...

310

Effect of Environment on Plant Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this plant biotechnology activity is to demonstrate the effect of changes in the environment on the growth and fertility of landscape grasses and crop grasses such as wheat and rice. Plants are placed in environments such as high salinity, cold, heat, or drought and learners observe the different reactions of the plants to these conditions. Learners compare the growth of treated plants to that of the control plants, which are grown under optimal conditions. Learners then discuss the desirability of breeding new types of plants that are better able to withstand these changes if they occur in the general environment. In the original description of the activity, the planting is prepared by the instructor as a demonstration, but learners could be involved in this process. This resource contains background information and questions for learners.

Janice Stephens

2011-01-01

311

The influence of different concentrations of various salts on the germination and early seedling growth of a grain sorghum cultivar  

E-print Network

1 1 1 10 10 10 1 1 1 10 10 10 1 6 61 121 181 61 121 181 6 6 6 6 6 6 61 121 181 61 121 181 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 60 120 180 60 120 180 60 120 180 60 120 180 60 120 180 60 120 180 60 120 180 60 120... level on the germination and early seedling growth of a grain sorghum cultivar (NK-262). The salts used were: KC1, NaC1, K2SO4, and Na2S04. The con- centrations tested were 60, 120, and 180 milliequivalents per liter of nutrient solution. The low...

Nunez, Jose Ramon

1977-01-01

312

Toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on growth and metabolism in germinating seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).  

PubMed

To assess the toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on the growth and some key metabolic processes in sunflower, varying levels of Ni as Ni(NO(3))(2) up to 60 mg L(-1) were applied once to sunflower cultivars SF-187 and Hysun-33 at sowing time in sand culture. An increase in Ni in the growth medium adversely affected growth parameters, sugar concentration (both reducing and non-reducing), as well as the activities of ?-amylase and protease. It also slowed down mobilization of stored proteins and amino acids in the germinating seeds. However, an increase in the activities of ?-amylase and protease was observed over time from 24 to 120 h after sowing. Cultivar Hysun-33 showed better performance than SF-187 in the presence of excess Ni. Overall, Ni-induced reduction in germination of sunflower seed appeared to be due to disturbance in biochemical metabolism as the availability of sugars for the synthesis of metabolic energy as well as necessary amino acids for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes essential for the growing embryo are generally reduced due to suppression in ?-amylase and protease activities. PMID:21240566

Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Sadiq, Rumana; Hussain, Mumtaz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, M Sajid Aqeel

2011-12-01

313

Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

1994-01-01

314

Influence of Plasma Treatment on Wheat and Oat Germination and Early Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to show and discuss the influence of cold plasma treatment on a germination enhancement of wheat and oat caryopses in wider context. Wheat and oat corns have been stimulated by cold plasma discharge under power of 500 W, air gas flow of 200 ml\\/min for different time durations (from 0 to 2400 s). Wheat

Božena Šerá; Petr Špatenka; Michal Šerý; Nad?žda Vrchotová; Iveta Hrušková

2010-01-01

315

Heat-induced oxidative injury contributes to inhibition of Botrytis cinerea spore germination and growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The inhibitory effect of a heat treatment (HT) on Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen, and the possible mode of action were investigated. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of B. cinerea were both increasingly and significantly inhibited by a HT (43 degrees C) for 10, 20 o...

316

Heat-induced oxidative injury contributes to inhibition of Botrytis cinerea spore germination and growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The inhibitory effect of heat treatment (HT) on Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen, and the possible mode of action were investigated. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of B. cinerea were both increasingly and significantly inhibited by HT (43ºC) for 10, 20 or 30 min. H...

317

DOES SEED SIZE AFFECT THE RATE OF GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH IN HAIRY VETCH?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many crops there is a positive correlation between seed size and the rate of germination and seedling establishment. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, Roth) is an annual cool-season legume used primarily for soil improvement or for forage. In the Southern Great Plains its growing season is limited to...

318

Effects of various treatments on seed germination and growth of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) plays an important role in Mediterranean landscape. It is commercially propagated by grafting which requires the generation of seedlings. However, its seeds are very recalcitrant and need pretreatment for germination. In this study, carob seeds harvested from both wild a...

319

SOYBEAN SEED STORAGE RESERVE DIGESTION AND ITS REGULATION DURING GERMINATIVE GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alteration of soybean seed composition to meet the requirements of functional foods has been carried out for many years and some achievements have been attained. As the seed composition is altered by conventional breeding or by biotechnology, seed germination and subsequent seedling vigor might decr...

320

The role of citrus volatiles in germination and growth of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatiles emitted from wounded peel tissue of various citrus cultivars had a pronounced stimulatory effect on germination and germ tube elongation of both P. digitatum and P. italicum; however, P. digitatum appeared to be more sensitive to the stimulatory action of citrus peel volatiles. When expos...

321

Growing Plants: Track Their Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will be working with predictions with a time frame of one week, or longer. Start by planting seedlings. Once they begin to sprout, make predictions: How tall will the plants be in a week? in a month? Each week, learners measure and record the height of their plants. They explore change over time as they compare predictions and results, and as they analyze whether their plants grew about the same amount each week. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

2012-06-26

322

Glutamate wastewater as a culture medium for Azospirillum rugosum production and its impact on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) was used as a culture medium for Azospirillum rugosum strain IMMIB AFH-6 inoculant (In) by optimizing the dilution at 2.5% and pH 7.0?±?0.1. A. rugosum growth studies were carried out in shake flasks and subsequently tested for plant growth promotion by seed germination bioassay\\u000a and greenhouse pot experiments. The highest colony-forming units (cfu) 8.58 and 8.87 log cfu mL?1, respectively,

Satnam Singh; P. D. Rekha; A. B. Arun; Asif Hameed; Sonu Singh; Fo-Ting Shen; Chiu-Chung Young

2011-01-01

323

Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Response during Arabidopsis Seed Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hormone-mediated control of plant growth and development involves both synthesis and response. Previous studies have shown that gibberellin (GA) plays an essential role in Arabidopsis seed germination. To learn how GA stimulates seed germination, we performed comprehensive analyses of GA biosynthesis and response using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray analysis. In addition, spatial correlations between GA biosynthe-

Mikihiro Ogawa; Atsushi Hanada; Yukika Yamauchi; Ayuko Kuwahara; Yuji Kamiya; Shinjiro Yamaguchi

2003-01-01

324

Calcium and humic acid affect seed germination, growth, and nutrient content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings under saline soil conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of calcium and humic acid on seed germination, growth and macro- and micro-nutrient contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings in saline soil conditions were evaluated. Different levels of humic acid (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg) and calcium (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg) were applied to growth media treated with 50 mg NaCl kg

Önder Türkmen; Atilla Dursun; Metin Turan; Çeknas Erdinç

2004-01-01

325

Enterobacter : Role in Plant Growth Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is believed that inoculation with rhizobacteria containing plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics consequently promote\\u000a root and shoot growth. Further evaluation of these bacteria exhibiting multiple PGP traits on soil–plant system is needed\\u000a to uncover their efficacy as effective PGP rhizobacteria (PGPR) or PGP bacteria (PGPB) depending upon their nature. The genera\\u000a within the family Enterobacteriaceae that feature members described

Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Abhinav Aeron; Baldev V. Patel; Dinesh K. Maheshwari; Meenu Saraf

326

The effect of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on germination and seedling development of plant species occurring in a dune grassland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination of seeds of seven plant species occurring in a dune grassland vegetation of the Netherlands, was studied at four levels of UV-B radiation simulating unto 45% stratospheric ozone reduction during April. With the exception of seeds of Senecio jacobaea, germination of the dune grassland species was not affected by enhanced UV-B irradiance. Although a clear UV-B fluence-response relationship

Marcel Tosserams; Esther Bolink; Jelte Rozema

1997-01-01

327

Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: A balance between inhibition and growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) germination and growth in nonsterilized potting compost of 0.1% and 1.0% w\\/w incorporation of fermenter biomass inocula of six strains of Trichoderma was investigated. Except for strains WT and T35 at 0.1 % w\\/w, all inocula inhibited germination. Biomass of strains WT, T35, 20, and 47 at 1.0% promoted shoot fresh weight, whereas

M. A. Ousley; J. M. Lynch; J. M. Whipps

1993-01-01

328

Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory chamber for growing plants used to measure photosynthesis and respiration in simulated microgravity. Holds plant specimens while rotated on clinostat, see article, "Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets" (KSC-11537). Provides way of comparing gas-exchange rates of plants rotated horizontally on clinostat with those of stationary or vertically rotated plants. Gas extracted for analysis without stopping clinostat. Chamber includes potlike base and cylindrical cover, both made of transparent acrylic pipe. Gasket forms seal between cover and bottom plate of base. Cover bolted to pot baseplate, which in turn bolted to clinostat.

Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

329

Plant pathology Growth inhibition of Agaricus bisporus  

E-print Network

Plant pathology Growth inhibition of Agaricus bisporus and associated thermophilic species limited the radial growth of A bisporus mycelium. The IC50 values of benomyl, carbendazim, flusilazol fortement li- mitée que par le tébuconazole. Les valeurs de CI50 du bénomyl, du carbendazime, du flusilazole

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

PLANT GROWTH HORMONES IN PINYON INSECT GALLS  

E-print Network

needles of the same age. The highest levels of these plant growth substances (per unit volume) occurred during the early stages of gall formation, although abnormally high quantities were found throughout the period of rapid gall growth. Extracts of insect larvae did not contain auxins at detectable

John A. Byers; J. Wayne Brewer; Donald W. Denna

1976-01-01

331

Plant physiology Growth of white lupin seedlings  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Growth of white lupin seedlings during the rosette stage as affected by seed size on the early growth of seedlings in numerous species. In white lupin (Lupinus albus L), it affected time had an exponential effect on the dry weight of the leaf and root parts of the lupin seedlings

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

STIMULATION OF PLANT GROWTH BY HUMIC SUBSTANCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies on the effects of humic substances (HS) on plants consistently show stimulation of plant growth. Both increase in root length and development of secondary roots have been observed for HS in nutrient solutions. Some researchers attributed the stimulative effects of HS to higher uptake of nutr...

333

Plant Growth Module (PGM) conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Plant Growth Module for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), designed to answer basic science questions related to growing plants in closed systems, is described functionally with artist's conception drawings. Subsystems are also described, including enclosure and access; data acquisition and control; gas monitor and control; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; air delivery; nutrient monitor and control; microbial monitoring and control; plant support and nutrient delivery; illumination; and internal operations. The hardware development plan is outlined.

Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Rasmussen, Daryl

1987-01-01

334

Effect of microgravity on plant growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this research is to determine the effect of microgravity proper on plant growth (metabolism and cell wall formation). In addressing this goal, the work conducted during this grant period was divided into three components: analyses of various plant tissues previously grown in space aboard MIR Space Station; analyses of wheat tissues grown on Shuttle flight STS-51; and Phenylpropanoid metabolism and plant cell wall synthesis (earth-based investigations).

Lewis, Norman G.

1994-01-01

335

Effect of synthetic detergents on germination of fern spores  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic detergents constitute one of the most important water pollutants by contaminating the lakes and rivers through domestic and industrial use. Considerable information is now available for the adverse effects of detergents an aquatic fauna including fish, algae, and higher aquatic plants. Marked inhibition of germination in orchids and brinjals and of seedlings growth in raddish suggest that rapidly growing systems could be sensitive to detergent polluted water. The present study of the effect of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate on germination of the spores of a fern, Diplazium esculentum aims at the understanding of the effects of water pollution on pteridophytes and the development of spore germination assay for phytoxicity evaluation.

Devi, Y.; Devi, S.

1986-12-01

336

Impact of kenaf extracts on germination of green bean, tomato, cucumber, and Italian ryegrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chemical interaction between plants, referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the seed germination of five plant species. Four concentra...

337

Plant germination and production of callus from the yellow hornpoppy (Glaucium flavum): the first stage of micropropagation.  

PubMed

The yellow hornpoppy, Glaucium flavum Cr. (Fam. Papaveraceae) is a perennial herb, distributed in the Mediterranean region, including Egypt. The plant contains many benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids from the aporphine type such as glaucine, isoboldine, 1-chelidonine, 1-norchelidonine and 3-O-methylarterenol, making it to display various medicinal activities including antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic, bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant is now rare and endangered in the Egyptian flora due to urban sprawl. The present study looks into Glaucium flavum seeds' in vitro germination as well as the ability of the explants taken from the growing seedlings to form stable callus lines in order to enable micropropagation as a way to save the rare plant. The study also scans the production of different medicinally valuable alkaloids, particularly glaucine, in produced callus. PMID:25272947

Mohamed, M E; Arafa, A M; Soliman, S S; Eldahmy, S I

2014-09-01

338

Assessment of the allelopathic potential of Juniperus ashei on germination and growth of Bouteloua curtipendula.  

PubMed

Potential allelopathic compounds of Juniperus ashei Buchh. (Ashe juniper) and their effect on a native grass were determined in laboratory and field studies. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to determine if monoterpenes found in the essential oils of J. ashei are released in leaf and litter leachate, as well as volatilized from leaf tissue. Camphor, bornyl acetate, and limonene were found in leaf and fresh litter leachates; however, degraded litter did not contain any of these compounds. Camphor was the most common potentially allelopathic compound found in J. ashei leaf and litter leachate and in volatiles from leaf tissue. The effects of leaf and litter tissue on the germination of Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. (side-oats grama) was tested by using the "sandwich agar method". The highest germination of B. curtipendula (29.6%) occurred in the control, which was significantly higher than fresh litter (13.2%) and degraded litter (16.2%). The lowest germination (6.2%) occurred with J. ashei leaves. In the field experiment, aboveground dry mass of B. curtipendula was evaluated in relation to position within the canopy and intercanopy of J. ashei adult trees when light and water were held constant across locations. Aboveground dry mass of B. curtipendula was significantly greater in the intercanopies of J. ashei (163.7 g m(2)) compared to the dry mass in the understory (44.8 g m(2)) and dripline (44.5 g m(2)), suggesting some negative influence by J. ashei. Chemical analyses indicate that monoterpenes are released through leaching and volatilization from J. ashei, and germination and field studies suggest that these compounds inhibit B. curtipendula. PMID:19153797

Young, G P; Bush, J K

2009-01-01

339

Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight  

PubMed Central

Background Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. Results In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length) was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Conclusions Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS – suggesting that other tropisms (such as for oxygen and temperature) do not influence skewing. An aspect of the spaceflight environment also retards the rate of early Arabidopsis growth. PMID:23217113

2012-01-01

340

Field emergence and plant density of sand bluestem lines selected for increased seed germination.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) populations AB-medium Syn-1 and Syn-2, and CD-tall Syn-1 and Syn-2 were developed from populations AB-medium Syn-0 and CD-tall Syn-0 by recurrent selection for increased seed germination in low water potentials. The objective of this research was to verify if...

341

Comparison of Plants for Germination Toxicity Tests in Petroleum-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution of soil by petroleum hydrocarbons is a serious environmental problem world-wide. Although total concentration of contaminants in soil and\\/or water is used for regulatory review, it also is beneficial to assess the potential for ecosystem impact through a series of bioassays. One commonly used bioassay is seed germination. In this test, seeds are placed in contaminated material, and seedlings

M. K. Banks; K. E. Schultz

2005-01-01

342

Sodium nitrite and sorbic acid effects on Clostridium botulinum spore germination and total microbial growth in chicken frankfurter emulsions during temperature abuse.  

PubMed Central

Samples of (i) a control or of (ii) sodium nitrite-containing or (iii) sorbic acid-containing, mechanically deboned chicken meat frankfurter-type emulsions inoculated with Clostridium botulinum spores, or a combination of ii and iii, were temperature abuse at 27 degrees C. Spore germination and total microbial growth were followed and examined at specified times and until toxic samples were detected. The spores germinated within 3 days in both control and nitrite (20, 40 and 156 micrograms/g) treatments. Sorbic acid (0.2%) alone or in combination with nitrite (20, 40, and 156 micrograms/g) significantly (P less than 0.05) inhibited spore germinations. No significant germination was recorded until toxic samples were detected. A much longer incubation period was necessary for toxin to be formed in nitrite-sorbic acid combination treatments as contrasted with controls or nitrite and sorbic acid used individually. Total growth was not affected by the presence of nitrite, whereas sorbic acid appeared to depress it. Possible mechanisms explaining the effects of nitrite and sorbic acid on spore germination and growth are postulated. PMID:384904

Sofos, J N; Busta, F F; Allen, C E

1979-01-01

343

(Plant growth with limited water)  

SciTech Connect

When water is in short supply, soybean stem growth is inhibited by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. The extensibility then becomes the main limitation. With time, there is a modest recovery in extensibility along with an accumulation of a 28kD protein in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 3lkD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. In the stem, growth was inhibited and the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 3 1 kD protein did not. The roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 28kD protein did not accumulate but the mRNA for the 3lkD protein did. Thus, there was a tissuespecific response of gene expression that correlated with the contrasting growth response to low water potential in the same seedlings. Further work using immunogold labeling, fluorescence labeling, and western blotting gave evidence that the 28kD protein is located in the cell wall as well as several compartments in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments indicate that the 28kD protein is a phosphatase.

Not Available

1992-01-01

344

Plant Development and Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you will find basic information on the reproduction and growth of plants; from a seed that develops into a full grown plant and then, when sexually mature, produces its own seeds. Plant development and reproduction Standard 3, objective 3 (4 th grade). Observe plant growth and relate it to soil conditions. Objectives : List the resources needed for the healthy growth of plants. Explain how a seed germinates and plants grow. Describe the ...

Elizabeth

2010-09-28

345

The Plant Cell, Vol. 4, 1229-1236, October 1992O 1992American Society of Plant Physiologists Regulationof Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating--  

E-print Network

Regulationof Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating- - Arabidopsis Seedlings William L. Kubasek,a Brenda W after seed germination. We observedthat steadystate levelsof mRNAsencoded byfour regulated by a developmentaltiming mechanism during germination. Blue light and UVB light induction

Ausubel, Frederick M.

346

Embryo growth, testa permeability, and endosperm weakening are major targets for the environmentally regulated inhibition of Lepidium sativum seed germination by myrigalone A.  

PubMed

Myrigalone A (MyA) is a rare flavonoid in fruit leachates of Myrica gale, a deciduous shrub adapted to flood-prone habitats. As a putative allelochemical it inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. Using Lepidium sativum as a model target species, experiments were conducted to investigate how environmental cues modulate MyA's interference with key processes of seed germination. Time course analyses of L. sativum testa and endosperm rupture under different light conditions and water potentials were combined with quantifying testa permeability, endosperm weakening, tissue-specific gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) contents, as well as embryo growth and apoplastic superoxide production important for cell expansion growth. Lepidium sativum testa permeability and early water uptake by imbibition is enhanced by MyA. During late germination, MyA inhibits endosperm weakening and embryo growth, both processes required for endosperm rupture. Inhibition of embryo cell expansion by MyA depends on environmental cues, which is evident from the light-modulated severity of the MyA-mediated inhibition of apoplastic superoxide accumulation. Several important key weakening and growth processes during early and late germination are targets for MyA. These effects are modulated by light conditions and ambient water potential. It is speculated that MyA is a soil seed bank-destroying allelochemical that secures the persistence of M. gale in its flood-prone environment. PMID:22821938

Voegele, Antje; Graeber, Kai; Oracz, Krystyna; Tarkowská, Danuše; Jacquemoud, Dominique; Ture?ková, Veronika; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

2012-09-01

347

Embryo growth, testa permeability, and endosperm weakening are major targets for the environmentally regulated inhibition of Lepidium sativum seed germination by myrigalone A  

PubMed Central

Myrigalone A (MyA) is a rare flavonoid in fruit leachates of Myrica gale, a deciduous shrub adapted to flood-prone habitats. As a putative allelochemical it inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. Using Lepidium sativum as a model target species, experiments were conducted to investigate how environmental cues modulate MyA’s interference with key processes of seed germination. Time course analyses of L. sativum testa and endosperm rupture under different light conditions and water potentials were combined with quantifying testa permeability, endosperm weakening, tissue-specific gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) contents, as well as embryo growth and apoplastic superoxide production important for cell expansion growth. Lepidium sativum testa permeability and early water uptake by imbibition is enhanced by MyA. During late germination, MyA inhibits endosperm weakening and embryo growth, both processes required for endosperm rupture. Inhibition of embryo cell expansion by MyA depends on environmental cues, which is evident from the light-modulated severity of the MyA-mediated inhibition of apoplastic superoxide accumulation. Several important key weakening and growth processes during early and late germination are targets for MyA. These effects are modulated by light conditions and ambient water potential. It is speculated that MyA is a soil seed bank-destroying allelochemical that secures the persistence of M. gale in its flood-prone environment. PMID:22821938

2012-01-01

348

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.  

PubMed

An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen. PMID:15266911

Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

2003-06-01

349

Stochasticity in plant cellular growth and patterning  

PubMed Central

Plants, along with other multicellular organisms, have evolved specialized regulatory mechanisms to achieve proper tissue growth and morphogenesis. During development, growing tissues generate specialized cell types and complex patterns necessary for establishing the function of the organ. Tissue growth is a tightly regulated process that yields highly reproducible outcomes. Nevertheless, the underlying cellular and molecular behaviors are often stochastic. Thus, how does stochasticity, together with strict genetic regulation, give rise to reproducible tissue development? This review draws examples from plants as well as other systems to explore stochasticity in plant cell division, growth, and patterning. We conclude that stochasticity is often needed to create small differences between identical cells, which are amplified and stabilized by genetic and mechanical feedback loops to begin cell differentiation. These first few differentiating cells initiate traditional patterning mechanisms to ensure regular development. PMID:25250034

Meyer, Heather M.; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.

2014-01-01

350

How the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum Promotes Plant Growth—A Critical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 35 years of studies of Azospirillum–plant interaction, over 20 proposals were suggested for the mechanism of action by which Azospirillum spp., the most intensively studied plant growth-promoting bacteria, enhances plant growth. The proposals include a single phytohormone activity, multiple phytohormones, nitrogen fixation, assortments of small-sized molecules and enzymes, enhanced membrane activity, proliferation of the root system, enhanced

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2010-01-01

351

Ambient has become strained. Identification of Acacia dealbata Link volatiles interfering with germination and early growth of native species.  

PubMed

Acacia dealbata Link is a widespread invader in Mediterranean type ecosystems, and traits promoting its invasiveness are currently under investigation. Due to the dense atmosphere below its canopy, we hypothesized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from flowers, leaves, litter, or a mixture of treatments exert inhibitory effects on the natives Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium multiflorum, Medicago sativa, and also on its own seeds. We reported that VOCs from flowers significantly reduced germination in L. multiflorum and A. dealbata; moreover, root length, stem length, aboveground and belowground biomass were also reduced in all species studied. Volatile organic compounds from flowers and the mixture also increased significantly malondialdehyde content in T. subterraneum and L. multiflorum. The effects of VOCs on antioxidant enzymatic activities were species dependent. Flowers enhanced peroxidase but decreased superoxide dismutase activity in T. subterraneum. In contrast, VOCs released from leaves increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in L. multiflorum. GC/MS analyses revealed 27 VOCs in the volatile fraction from flowers, 12 of which were exclusive to this fraction. Within them, heptadecadiene, n-nonadecane, n-tricosane, and octadecene represent 62% of the fraction. We present evidence that the VOCs released from A. dealbata flowers strongly inhibited germination and seedling growth of selected species, and mainly on its own seedlings. As far as we know, this is the first evidence of phytotoxicity induced by VOCs in invasive species belonging to the Acacia genus. PMID:25260655

Souza-Alonso, Pablo; González, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos

2014-09-01

352

Effects of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has demonstrated the low tolerance of Posidonia oceanica mature shoots to salinity variability but there is no information about the response of its seeds and seedlings to this impact. In the present study, two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of salinity variation on germination, development and survival of P. oceanica seeds and seedlings under laboratory-controlled conditions. Maximum P. oceanica seed germination occurred at the control salinity (37), while mortality was lowest for this treatment. However, no significant differences were detected with other salinity levels (39-49). In contrast, salinity appears to play an important role in seedling development. The number of blades, the length of the primary root and the maximum length of leaves of seedlings were significantly reduced with increased salinities. The results observed in the present study are consistent with those obtained for mature P. oceanica shoots, and suggest that hypersalinities, such as those associated with brine discharge of a desalination plant, may limit P. oceanica seedling recruitment, affecting the expansion and recovery of Posidonia meadows.

Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

2013-03-01

353

The transcriptomes of dormant leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperature are differentially affected by a germination-enhancing pretreatment.  

PubMed

Seed dormancy is an important stage in the life cycle of many non-domesticated plants, often characterized by the temporary failure to germinate under conditions that normally favor the process. Pre-treating dormant imbibed seeds at a constant temperate accelerated germination of leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperatures. However, dormant seeds will also germinate without a pre-treatment, albeit at a much slower rate, which gives rise to longer periods of imbibition before germination. Transcriptome analyses on seeds exposed to prolonged imbibition highlighted pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and interacting networks of genes involved in plant defense. In addition to the many pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis enriched with down-regulated genes upon germination, there were also numerous pathways enriched with up-regulated genes associated with energy metabolism, such as glycolysis. Transcriptome data further suggest that metabolism and signaling by the plant hormones ethylene, gibberellin, and abscisic acid are involved in the developmental transition from dormancy to germination. More specifically, sub-network enrichment analysis identified ABI3 as a central hub of a sub-network at germination including several down-regulated genes such as DELLA (i.e., RGL2), which represses gibberellin signaling processes required for germination. The 595-fold increase in the expression of ACC oxidase (ACO4) at germination also suggests an important role for ethylene biosynthesis in germinating leafy surge seeds. Furthermore, the 10-578-fold difference in expression of many genes such as HY5 and Histone H3 between two populations at germination, which were treated with and without a constant temperature germination-enhancing pretreatment, revealed disparate impacts on various biosynthetic, growth, signaling, and response processes. Overall, our results indicate a constant temperature pretreatment (20°C for 21d) is not required for germination of leafy spurge seeds at an alternating temperature. However, the presence or absence of the pretreatment does affect the rate of germination and the germination transcriptional programs. PMID:23261266

Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Horvath, David P; Do?ramaci, Münevver; Anderson, James V

2013-04-15

354

THE EFFECT ON THE GERMINATION, RESPIRATION AND UREASE ACTIVITY IN SOYBEAN SEED WITH RADIATION BY Co60  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many reports about the effect of x-ray and Ra-radioactivity to ; the plant seeds. OMURO studied on the effect of x-ray to the germination of rice ; and the growth of Broad bean. STOKLASA studied the effect of Paradioactivity to ; the germination of Broad bean and Green pea. The effect of radiation by Co-60 on ; the

1961-01-01

355

Dynamical scaling analysis of plant callus growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental results for the dynamical scaling properties of the development of plant calli. We have assayed two different species of plant calli, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa, under different growth conditions, and show that their dynamical scalings share a universality class. From a theoretical point of view, we introduce a scaling hypothesis for systems whose size evolves in time. We expect our work to be relevant for the understanding and characterization of other systems that undergo growth due to cell division and differentiation, such as, for example, tumor development.

Galeano, J.; Buceta, J.; Juarez, K.; Pumariño, B.; de la Torre, J.; Iriondo, J. M.

2003-07-01

356

Dredged Illinois River Sediments: Plant Growth and Metal Uptake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentation of the Illinois River in central Illinois has greatly diminished the utility and ecological value of the Peoria Lakes reach of the river. Consequently, a large dredging project has been proposed to improve its wildlife habitat and recreation potential, but disposal of the dredged sediment presents a challenge. Land placement is an attractive option. Previous work in Illinois has demonstrated that sediments are potentially capable of supporting agronomic crops due to their high natural fertility and water holding capacity. However, Illinois River sediments have elevated levels of heavy metals, which may be important if they are used as garden or agricultural soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine if these sediments could serve as a plant growth medium. A secondary objective was to determine if plants grown on sediments accumulated significant heavy metal concentrations. Our results indicated that lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.), and snap bean (Phaseolus vulagaris L. var. humillis) grown in sediment and a reference topsoil did not show significant or consistent differences in germination or yields. In addition, there was not a consistent statistically significant difference in metal content among tomatoes grown in sediments, topsoil, or grown locally in gardens. In the other plants grown on sediments, while Cd and Cu in all cases and As in lettuce and snap bean were elevated, levels were below those considered excessive. Results indicate that properly managed, these relatively uncontaminated calcareous sediments can make productive soils and that metal uptake of plants grown in these sediments is generally not a concern.

Darmody, R.G.; Marlin, J.C.; Talbott, J.; Green, R.A.; Brewer, E.F.; Stohr, C.

2004-01-01

357

Effects of some chemical substances on germination, root development, and growth of the stem cuttings of sugar cane  

E-print Network

ether. Curtis (14.) and Chadwick (6) conducted studies on plant propagation in Taxus cuspidata. Ligustrum vulgare. and Ilex verticillata. They found that both sucrose and potassium permanganate were effective in increasing the formation and growth...

Khan, Mohammad Abdullah

1953-01-01

358

A novel role for Arabidopsis CBL1 in affecting plant responses to glucose and gibberellin during germination and seedling development.  

PubMed

Glucose and phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and gibberellin (GA) coordinately regulate germination and seedling development. However, there is still inadequate evidence to link their molecular roles in affecting plant responses. Calcium acts as a second messenger in a diverse range of signal transduction pathways. As calcium sensors unique to plants, calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins are well known to modulate abiotic stress responses. In this study, it was found that CBL1 was induced by glucose in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function mutant cbl1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthetic inhibitor. Several sugar-responsive and GA biosynthetic gene expressions were altered in the cbl1 mutant. CBL1 protein physically interacted with AKIN?1, the regulatory ? subunit of the SnRK1 complex which has a central role in sugar signaling. Our results indicate a novel role for CBL1 in modulating responses to glucose and GA signals. PMID:23437128

Li, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Chen, Yang; He, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Guang-Xiao; Chen, Ming; Li, Lian-Cheng; Ma, You-Zhi

2013-01-01

359

Plant Growth Inhibitors From Mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes investigations into the allelopathy of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) leaves and the isolation of allelochemicals from aqueous exudates and leachates from the leaves. The plant growth inhibitors\\u000a isolated from the exudates of mesquite leaves were l-tryptophan (14), syringin (15), and (-)-lariciresinol (16). l-Tryptophan (14) was present in higher content in the exudates of mesquite leaves, and inhibited plant

Hiroshi Nakano

360

Relative toxicity of arsenite and arsenate on germination and early seedling growth of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated soil arsenic levels resulting from long-term use of arsenic contaminated ground for irrigation in Bangladesh may inhibit seed germination and seedling establishment of rice, the country's main food crop. A germination study on rice seeds and a short-term toxicity experiment with different concentrations of arsenite and arsenate on rice seedlings were conducted. Percent germination over control decreased significantly with

Andy A. Meharg

2002-01-01

361

Effect of seed weight, light regime and substratum microsite on germination and seedling growth of Quercus semiserrata Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Quercus semiserrata Roxb. vary widely in weight, and can be classi- fied into small (<5 g), intermediate (5 to 8 g) and heavy (>8 g) classes. Heavy seeds contain greater reserves of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and energy than intermediate-weight and small seeds. Seed weight has a strong effect on germination. Heavy seeds germinate early and show better germination

M. L. KHAN; UMA SHANKAR

362

The biosurfactant viscosin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 aids spreading motility and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Food security depends on enhancing production and reducing loss to pests and pathogens. A promising alternative to agrochemicals is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are commonly associated with many, if not all, plant species. However, exploiting the benefits of PGPRs requires knowledge of bacterial function and an in-depth understanding of plant-bacteria associations. Motility is important for colonization efficiency and microbial fitness in the plant environment, but the mechanisms employed by bacteria on and around plants are not well understood. We describe and investigate an atypical mode of motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 that was revealed only after flagellum production was eliminated by deletion of the master regulator fleQ. Our results suggest that this 'spidery spreading' is a type of surface motility. Transposon mutagenesis of SBW25?fleQ (SBW25Q) produced mutants, defective in viscosin production, and surface spreading was also abolished. Genetic analysis indicated growth-dependency, production of viscosin, and several potential regulatory and secretory systems involved in the spidery spreading phenotype. Moreover, viscosin both increases efficiency of surface spreading over the plant root and protects germinating seedlings in soil infected with the plant pathogen Pythium. Thus, viscosin could be a useful target for biotechnological development of plant growth promotion agents. PMID:24684210

Alsohim, Abdullah S; Taylor, Tiffany B; Barrett, Glyn A; Gallie, Jenna; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Altamirano-Junqueira, Astrid E; Johnson, Louise J; Rainey, Paul B; Jackson, Robert W

2014-07-01

363

Influence of ecological conditions on Engelmann spruce ( Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir ( Abies lasiocarpa) germinant survival and initial seedling growth in south-central British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of seedbed (undisturbed forest floor, burned forest floor, and mineral soil), light (closed forest, open forest, and clearcut), and competing vegetation (present, not present) on germination and initial seedling survival and growth of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) was investigated after applying seeds to small (1 m2) plots established in each of the two

M. C Feller

1998-01-01

364

Auxins as one of the factors of plant growth improvement by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote plant growth by various mechanisms such as phytohormone production, enhanced water and nutrient uptake, improved nitrogen availability in the soil, production of ACC-deaminase for ethylene breakdown, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production etc. Microbial auxin production is the major factor not only responsible for strengthening the plant-microbe relationship but it also promotes plant growth and development in a positive manner. Thus, bacterial auxin production potential can be exploited for plant growth improvement that may be effective in reducing the hazardous effects of chemical fertilizers on the ecosystem used to obtain higher yields. The present review gives a better understanding of various factors and mechanisms involved in auxin production by PGPR that may be helpful in proper exploitation of these natural resources in a beneficial way. PMID:25546935

Ahmed, Ambreen; Hasnain, Shahida

2014-01-01

365

In vitro propagation by asymbiotic seed germination and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity studies of tissue culture raised plants of three medicinally important species of dendrobium.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient plant propagation system has been developed by asymbiotic germination of seeds in three medicinally important Dendrobium species, namely, Dendrobium tosaense, Dendrobium moniliforme, and Dendrobium linawianum. Plants obtained from natural habitats were grown in the greenhouse. The flowers were hand pollinated. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50-74%) on half strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium with 3% sucrose and solidified with 0.9% Difco agar. Active growth in the germinated seedlings was achieved by re-culturing on full strength MS basal medium supplemented with 8% banana homogenate, 8% potato homogenate, 8% coconut water, 1.5% sucrose and 0.9% Difco agar. Healthy plantlets, transferred to plastic trays containing moss or moss and tree fern, successfully acclimatized (84-100%) in the greenhouse. A marked varied response was observed in the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of in vitro propagated plants, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical using a UV spectrophotometer assay. Methanolic extracts were prepared by dissolving the powdered plant material, obtained from six months old in vitro propagated plants, each about 5 g, in boiling methanol. The percentage of scavenging effect of D. tosaense extract was 95.9% at 0.4 mg/ml concentration, whereas D. monoliforme, and D. linawianum extracts scavenged 83.4% and 92.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml. All the extracts scavenged DPPH radical significantly in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:15133256

Lo, Shu-Fung; Nalawade, Satish Manohar; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Matthew, Susan; Chen, Chung-Li; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

2004-05-01

366

Integration of Auxin and Salt Signals by the NAC Transcription Factor NTM2 during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

Seed germination is regulated through elaborately interacting signaling networks that integrate diverse environmental cues into hormonal signaling pathways. Roles of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid in germination have been studied extensively using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants having alterations in seed germination. Auxin has also been implicated in seed germination. However, how auxin influences germination is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that auxin is linked via the IAA30 gene with a salt signaling cascade mediated by the NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 transcription factor NTM2/Arabidopsis NAC domain-containing protein 69 (for NAC with Transmembrane Motif1) during seed germination. Germination of the NTM2-deficient ntm2-1 mutant seeds exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity. However, the salt resistance disappeared in the ntm2-1 mutant overexpressing the IAA30 gene, which was induced by salt in a NTM2-dependent manner. Auxin exhibited no discernible effects on germination under normal growth conditions. Under high salinity, however, whereas exogenous application of auxin further suppressed the germination of control seeds, the auxin effects were reduced in the ntm2-1 mutant. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of auxin on germination, germination of YUCCA 3-overexpressing plants containing elevated levels of active auxin was more severely influenced by salt. These observations indicate that auxin delays seed germination under high salinity through cross talk with the NTM2-mediated salt signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:21450938

Park, Jungmin; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Je-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

2011-01-01

367

Irrigation and fertilization effects on seed number, size, germination and seedling growth: implications for desert shrub establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants with limited resources adjust partitioning among growth, survival, and reproduction. We tested the effects of water\\u000a and nutrient amendments on seed production, size, and quality in Sarcobatus vermiculatus (greasewood) to assess the magnitude and importance of changes in reproductive partitioning. In addition, we assessed interactions\\u000a among the environment of seed-producing plants (adult plant scale), seed size, and seedling microenvironment

A. N. Breen; J. H. Richards

2008-01-01

368

Germination studies with upland cotton cultivars  

E-print Network

or base temperatures for seed germination were determined, and germina- tion capacity of the cultivars was evaluated under a range of tempera- ture conditions in a germinator and in sand plantings. The ger'mination performances were correlated among... cotton (Gossgpfutn 'r. frau-sm E. ) traditionally have been estimated by the standard laboratory germination test. This test is conducted under specified, optimum laboratory conditions and is used to estimate field germination of seed under favorable...

Wickramasinghe, Palitha Jagath

1982-01-01

369

Plant growth responses to polypropylene--biocontainers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of bio-fillers incorporated into polypropylene (PP) on the growth of plants was evaluated. Biocontainers were created by injection molding of PP with 25-40% by weight of Osage orange tree, Paulownia tree, coffee tree wood or dried distillers grain and 5% by weight of maleated polypropy...

370

PLANT GROWTH HORMONES IN PINYON INSECT GALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

BYERS J. A., BREWER J. W. & DENNA D. W. 1976. Plant growth hormones in pinyon insect galls. Marcellio 39, 125-134. Larvae of the midge Janetiella sp. near J. coloradensis Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) cause galls at the base of young needles of pinyon Pinus edulis Engelm. Bioassays of extracts from these galls contained as much as 17 times more auxin

JOHN A. BYERS; J. WAYNE BREWER; DONALD W. DENNA

1976-01-01

371

Book Review: Plant Growth and Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The technical book "Plant Growth and climate Change" (2006. James I.L. Morison and M.D. Morecroft, Eds. Blackwell Publishing. 213 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed journal HortScience. The text is well organized into nine independently-authored chapters each of whi...

372

Water vapor recovery from plant growth chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is investigating the use of plant growth chambers (PGCs) for space missions and for bases on the moon and Mars. Key to successful development of PGCs is a system to recover and reuse the water vapor that is transpired from the leaves of the plants. A design is presented for a simple, reliable, membrane-based system that allows the recovery, purification, and reuse of the transpired water vapor through control of temperature and humidity levels in PGCs. The system is based on two membrane technologies: (1) dehumidification membrane modules to remove water vapor from the air, and (2) membrane contactors to return water vapor to the PGC (and, in doing so, to control the humidity and temperature within the PGC). The membrane-based system promises to provide an ideal, stable growth environment for a variety of plants, through a design that minimizes energy usage, volume, and mass, while maximizing simplicity and reliability.

Ray, R. J.; Newbold, D. D.; Colton, R. H.; Mccray, S. B.

1991-01-01

373

Germination and infectivity of microconidia in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a model for studying fungal–plant interactions. Although it produces two types of spores (microconidia and macroconidia), previous infection studies have exclusively dealt with macroconidia. Germination of microconidia has not been reported, and their role in plant infection is not defined. Here we show that approximately 10% of microconidia germinate on plant surfaces, and that colonies derived from germinated microconidia are normal in growth and pathogenesis. In infection assays with rice and barley seedlings, microconidia fail to infect intact plants, but they can colonize and develop necrotic lesions on wounded leaves and stems. Microconidia also cause disease symptoms on inoculated spikelets in infection assays with barley and Brachypodium heads. Furthermore, microconidia are detected inside rice plants that developed blast lesions under laboratory or field conditions. Therefore, microconidia can germinate and are infectious, and may be an important factor in the rice blast cycle. PMID:25082370

Zhang, Huili; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Chenfang; Li, Yang; Xu, Jin-Rong

2014-01-01

374

Effect of ethyl methyl sulfonate concentration and different treatment conditions on germination and seedling growth of the cucumber cultivar Chinese long (9930).  

PubMed

We attempted to create a new germplasm of cucumber cultivar Chinese long (9930) using different doses of ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS) to induce variability. We tested EMS concentration (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3% v/v) with post-treatment (0.1 M Na2S2O3 and water), EMS concentration (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% v/v) over different treatment times (8, 16, 24 h), and EMS concentration (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% v/v) with different treatment temperatures (20 and 28°C). In all experiments with increasing EMS concentration, germination percent, index, and rate were decreased. After addition of stop solution (0.1 M Na2S2O3), post-treatment mutated seeds showed higher germination (84.44%) and rate (37.5%) than seeds treated with water (80 and 34.07%, respectively), while the germination index was high in seeds treated with water. At 20°C, the germination index (4.13) and rate (56.25%) were affected to a greater extent than at 28°C (7.68 and 91.31%, respectively). Treatment times of 16 and 24 h showed similar results for germination percent and rate, while the germination index was decreased over time. There were significant differences in seedling height, fresh true leaf weight, seedling weight, and plant survival with increasing EMS concentration and time. Higher variations in the form of dwarf seedlings were recorded after treatment with 1.5% EMS for 24 h. Based on germination and morphological data, an EMS concentration of 1.5% for 24 h at 20°C and post-treatment with stop solution (0.1 M Na2S2O3) efficiently caused mutation. PMID:25867390

Shah, S N M; Gong, Z-H; Arisha, M H; Khan, A; Tian, S-L

2015-01-01

375

Heat-induced oxidative injury contributes to inhibition of Botrytis cinerea spore germination and growth.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of heat treatment (HT) on Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen, and the possible mode of action were investigated. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of B. cinerea were both increasingly and significantly inhibited by HT (43 °C) for 10, 20 or 30 min. HT-induced gene expression of NADPH oxidase A, resulted in the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species. HT-treated B. cinerea spores exhibited higher levels of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, compared to the non-HT control. These findings indicate that HT resulted in oxidative damage which then played an important role in the inhibitory effect on B. cinerea. In the current study, HT was effective in controlling gray mold, caused by B. cinerea, in pear fruits. Understanding the mode of action by which HT inhibits fungal pathogens will help in the application of HT for management of postharvest fungal diseases of fruits and vegetables. PMID:24101365

Zhao, Wei; Wisniewski, Michael; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Jia; Liu, Yongsheng

2014-03-01

376

Beneficial effects of fluorescent pseudomonads on seed germination, growth promotion, and suppression of charcoal rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.).  

PubMed

Rhizobacteria are used as inoculants to enhance crop yield and for biological control of fungal pathogens. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the rhizosphere of groundnut showed suppression of the phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut, an economically important agroproduct. Two strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, designated as PS1 and PS2, were selected as a result of in vitro antifungal activity. After 5 days of incubation at 28+/-1 degrees , both PS1 and PS2 caused clear inhibition zones in dual cultures, restricting the growth of M. phaseolina by 71% and 74%, respectively. Both the strains were capable of producing siderophores, indole acetic acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and causing phosphate solubilization under normal growth conditions. These strains, when used as inoculants in groundnut, enhanced germination up to 15% and 30% with subsequent increase in grain yield by 66% and 77%, respectively. Conversely, when the pathogen alone was testeds 57% decrease in yield was recorded. Thus the studies revealed the potential of the two pseudomonads not only as biocontrol agents against M. phaseolina, but also as a good growth promoter for groundnut. PMID:18852515

Shweta, Bhatia; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Arora, Daljit Singh; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

2008-09-01

377

Growth of plant tissue cultures in simulated lunar soil: Implications for a lunar base CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were carried out on plant tissue cultures, seed germination, seedling development and plants grown on Simulated Lunar Soil to evaluate the potential of future development of lunar based agriculture. The studies done to determine the effect of the placement of SLS on tissue cultures showed no adverse effect of SLS on tissue cultures. Although statistically insignificant, SLS in suspension showed a comparatively higher growth rate. Observations indicate the SLS, itself cannot support calli growth but was able to show a positive effect on growth rate of calli when supplemented with MS salts. This positive effect related to nutritive value of the SLS was found to have improved at high pH levels, than at the recommended low pH levels for standard media. Results from seed germination indicated that there is neither inhibitory, toxicity nor stimulatory effect of SLS, even though SLS contains high amounts of aluminum compounds compared to earth soil. Analysis of seeding development and growth data showed significant reduction in growth rate indicating that, SLS was a poor growth medium for plant life. This was confirmed by the studies done with embryos and direct plant growth on SLS. Further observations attributed this poor quality of SLS is due to it's lack of essential mineral elements needed for plant growth. By changing the pH of the soil, to more basic conditions, the quality of SLS for plant growth could be improved up to a significant level. Also it was found that the quality of SLS could be improved by almost twice, by external supply of major mineral elements, directly to SLS.

Venketeswaran, S.

1988-01-01

378

Seed reserve composition in 19 tree species of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico and its relationship to seed germination and seedling growth  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The size and composition of seed reserves may reflect the ecological strategy and evolutionary history of a species and also temporal variation in resource availability. The seed mass and composition of seed reserves of 19 co-existing tree species were studied, and we examined how they varied among species in relation to germination and seedling growth rates, as well as between two years with contrasting precipitation (652 and 384 mm). Methods Seeds were collected from a tropical deciduous forest in the northwest of Mexico (Chamela Biological Station). The seed dry mass, with and without the seed coat, and the concentrations of lipids, nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrates for the seed minus seed coat were determined. The anatomical localization of these reserves was examined using histochemical analysis. The germination capacity, rate and lag time were determined. The correlations among these variables, and their relationship to previously reported seedling relative growth rates, were evaluated with and without phylogenetic consideration. Key Results There were interannual differences in seed mass and reserve composition. Seed was significantly heavier after the drier year in five species. Nitrogen concentration was positively correlated with seed coat fraction, and was significantly higher after the drier year in 12 species. The rate and lag time of germination were negatively correlated with each other. These trait correlations were also supported for phylogenetic independent contrasts. Principal component analysis supported these correlations, and indicated a negative association of seedling relative growth rate with seed size, and a positive association of germination rate with nitrogen and lipid concentrations. Conclusions Nitrogen concentration tended to be higher after the drier year and, while interannual variations in seed size and reserve composition were not sufficient to affect interspecific correlations among seed and seedling traits, some of the reserves were related to germination variables and seedling relative growth rate. PMID:21385781

Soriano, Diana; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Kitajima, Kaoru; Gamboa-de Buen, Alicia; Huante, Pilar

2011-01-01

379

Effect of Nanoencapsulated Vitamin B1 Derivative on Inhibition of Both Mycelial Growth and Spore Germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani  

PubMed Central

Nanoencapsulation of thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS), a vitamin B1 derivative, was proved to effectively inhibit the spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (F. oxysporum), as well as mycelial growth. The average diameter of nanoparticles was measured as 136 nm by being encapsulated with an edible encapsulant, lecithin, whose encapsulation efficiency was about 55% in containing 200 ppm of TDS concentration: the 100 ppm TDS nanoparticle solution showed a mycelial growth inhibition rate of 59%. These results were about similar or even better than the cases of treating 100 ppm of dazomet, a positive antifungal control (64%). Moreover, kinetic analysis of inhibiting spore germination were estimated as 6.6% reduction of spore germination rates after 24 h treatment, which were 3.3% similar to the case of treating 100 ppm of a positive control (dazomet) for the same treatment time. It was also found that TDS itself could work as an antifungal agent by inhibiting both mycelial growth and spore germination, even though its efficacy was lower than those of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles especially played a more efficient role in limiting the spore germination, due to their easy penetration into hard cell membranes and long resident time on the surface of the spore shell walls. In this work, it was first demonstrated that the nanoparticle of TDS not a harmful chemical can control the growth of F. oxysporum by using a lower dosage than commercial herbicides, as well as the inhibiting mechanism of the TDS. However, field trials of the TDS nanoparticles encapsulated with lecithin should be further studied to be effectively used for field applications. PMID:23429270

Cho, Jeong Sub; Seo, Yong Chang; Yim, Tae Bin; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2013-01-01

380

Effect of Nanoencapsulated Vitamin B1 Derivative on Inhibition of Both Mycelial Growth and Spore Germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani.  

PubMed

Nanoencapsulation of thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS), a vitamin B1 derivative, was proved to effectively inhibit the spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (F. oxysporum), as well as mycelial growth. The average diameter of nanoparticles was measured as 136 nm by being encapsulated with an edible encapsulant, lecithin, whose encapsulation efficiency was about 55% in containing 200 ppm of TDS concentration: the 100 ppm TDS nanoparticle solution showed a mycelial growth inhibition rate of 59%. These results were about similar or even better than the cases of treating 100 ppm of dazomet, a positive antifungal control (64%). Moreover, kinetic analysis of inhibiting spore germination were estimated as 6.6% reduction of spore germination rates after 24 h treatment, which were 3.3% similar to the case of treating 100 ppm of a positive control (dazomet) for the same treatment time. It was also found that TDS itself could work as an antifungal agent by inhibiting both mycelial growth and spore germination, even though its efficacy was lower than those of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles especially played a more efficient role in limiting the spore germination, due to their easy penetration into hard cell membranes and long resident time on the surface of the spore shell walls. In this work, it was first demonstrated that the nanoparticle of TDS not a harmful chemical can control the growth of F. oxysporum by using a lower dosage than commercial herbicides, as well as the inhibiting mechanism of the TDS. However, field trials of the TDS nanoparticles encapsulated with lecithin should be further studied to be effectively used for field applications. PMID:23429270

Cho, Jeong Sub; Seo, Yong Chang; Yim, Tae Bin; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2013-01-01

381

Protein mobilization in germinating mung bean seeds involves vacuolar sorting receptors and multivesicular bodies.  

PubMed

Plants accumulate and store proteins in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) during seed development and maturation. Upon seed germination, these storage proteins are mobilized to provide nutrients for seedling growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of protein degradation during seed germination. Here we test the hypothesis that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins play a role in mediating protein degradation in germinating seeds. We demonstrate that both VSR proteins and hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized de novo during mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed germination. Immunogold electron microscopy with VSR antibodies demonstrate that VSRs mainly locate to the peripheral membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), presumably as recycling receptors in day 1 germinating seeds, but become internalized to the MVB lumen, presumably for degradation at day 3 germination. Chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with VSR antibodies have identified the cysteine protease aleurain as a specific VSR-interacting protein in germinating seeds. Further confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrate that VSR and aleurain colocalize to MVBs as well as PSVs in germinating seeds. Thus, MVBs in germinating seeds exercise dual functions: as a storage compartment for proteases that are physically separated from PSVs in the mature seed and as an intermediate compartment for VSR-mediated delivery of proteases from the Golgi apparatus to the PSV for protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:17322331

Wang, Junqi; Li, Yubing; Lo, Sze Wan; Hillmer, Stefan; Sun, Samuel S M; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

2007-04-01

382

Efficient use of energy in anoxia-tolerant plants with focus on germinating rice seedlings.  

PubMed

36 I. 36 II. 37 III. 44 IV. 49 V. 53 54 References 55 SUMMARY: Anoxia tolerance in plants is distinguished by direction of the sparse supply of energy to processes crucial to cell maintenance and sometimes to growth, as in rice seedlings. In anoxic rice coleoptiles energy is used to synthesise proteins, take up K(+) , synthesise cell walls and lipids, and in cell maintenance. Maintenance of electrochemical H(+) gradients across the tonoplast and plasma membrane is crucial for solute compartmentation and thus survival. These gradients sustain some H(+) -solute cotransport and regulate cytoplasmic pH. Pyrophosphate (PPi ), the alternative energy donor to ATP, allows direction of energy to the vacuolar H(+) -PPi ase, sustaining H(+) gradients across the tonoplast. When energy production is critically low, operation of a biochemical pHstat allows H(+) -solute cotransport across plasma membranes to continue for at least for 18 h. In active (e.g. growing) cells, PPi produced during substantial polymer synthesis allows conversion of PPi to ATP by PPi -phosphofructokinase (PFK). In quiescent cells with little polymer synthesis and associated PPi formation, the PPi required by the vacuolar H(+) -PPi ase and UDPG pyrophosphorylase involved in sucrose mobilisation via sucrose synthase might be produced by conversion of ATP to PPi through reversible glycolytic enzymes, presumably pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase. These hypotheses need testing with species characterised by contrasting anoxia tolerance. PMID:25472708

Atwell, Brian J; Greenway, Hank; Colmer, Timothy D

2015-04-01

383

Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings  

PubMed Central

Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

2014-01-01

384

Plants and Magnetism: Experiments with Biomagnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenon of effect of magnetic field on plant growth provides wide opportunities for research in classrooms. Using moderately powerful magnets, seed growth patterns can be observed in pre-germination treatment, germination period exposure and under many other conditions. Such research may enable understanding magnetotropism more clearly. (PS)

McCormack, Alan J.

1972-01-01

385

Fungal specificity bottlenecks during orchid germination and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungus-subsidized growth through the seedling stage is the most critical feature of the life history for the thousands of mycorrhizal plant species that propagate by means of 'dust seeds.' We investigated the extent of specificity towards fungi shown by orchids in the genera Cephalanthera and Epipactis at three stages of their life cycle: (i) initiation of germination, (ii) during seedling

MARTIN I. BIDARTONDO; DAVID J. READ

2008-01-01

386

The Relative Importance of Pre- and Post-germination Determinants for Recruitment of an Annual Plant Community on Moving Sandy Land  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The relative importance of pre- and post-germination determinants for recruitment of natural plant communities is rarely explored. An annual plant community on moving sandy land was chosen for a case study. Answers to the following questions were sought: (a) Does recruitment of new individuals within the community of annual plants differ in time and space? (b) Is there spatial concordance between seed deposition, seedling emergence, survival and recruitment? (c) What are the direct and indirect effects of pre- and post-germination determinants on plant recruitment. • Methods An integrative approach combining investigation of natural recruitment processes with regression, correlation and path analyses was adopted. Data on seed deposition and seedling recruitment were collected by monitoring the number of seeds deposited in the top 5?cm of the soil and the numbers of seedlings emerged and recruited from all annual plants at sites to a range of distances from the existing shrub Artemisia halodendron (Asteraceae) in eight compass directions for two consecutive growing seasons. • Key Results Community-level recruitment was strongly affected by inter-annual rainfall variation and was highly site- and density-dependent. Low recruitment rate in this system was due to low emergence rate and low post-emergence survival rate. Of the pre- and post-germination determinants studied, it was the number of seedlings which emerged and the post-emergence survival rate that had the greatest direct effects on recruitment, with a combination of both variables explaining the majority of the variance (97?%) in recruitment. • Conclusions This study suggests that post-germination determinants (emergence and survival) rather than pre-germination determinants (seed deposition) substantially determined the final pattern of recruitment. Although the density of seeds deposited did not have a significant direct effect on recruitment, it contributed to observed variation in recruitment indirectly through density-dependent emergence of seedlings. PMID:16199487

LI, FENG-RUI; ZHAO, LI-YA; ZHAO, XUE-YONG; ZHANG, TONG-HUI; LI, GUANGDI

2005-01-01

387

Condensate Recycling in Closed Plant Growth Chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water used in the the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project at the Kennedy Space Center is being recycled. Condensation is collected in the air ducts, filtered and deionized, and resupplied to the system for nutrient solutions, supplemental humidification, solvents and diluents. While the system functions well from a process control standpoint, precise and accurate tracking of water movement through the system to answer plant physiological questions is not consistent. Possible causes include hardware errors, undetected vapor loss from chamber leakage, and unmeasured changes in water volume in the plant growth trays.

Bledsoe, J. O.; Sager, J. C.; Fortson, R. E.

1994-01-01

388

ORIGINAL PAPER Growth of planted black spruce seedlings following  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Growth of planted black spruce seedlings following mechanical site preparation to improve growth conditions of planted black spruce seedlings in boreal forested peatlands where closed thick organic layers. Keywords Black spruce . Forest floor disturbance . Mechanical site preparation

Boyer, Edmond

389

Allelopathic effects of microcystin-LR on the germination, growth and metabolism of five charophyte species and a submerged angiosperm.  

PubMed

Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and adversely affect macrophytes at very high concentrations. However, the effects of MC on macrophytes at concentrations of environmental relevance are largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to analyze the allelopathic effects of MC-LR at natural concentrations (1, 8 and 16 ?g MC-LR/L) on five charophyte species (Chara aspera, C. baltica, C. hispida, C. vulgaris and Nitella hyalina) and the angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum. Macrophyte specimens were obtained from a restored area located in Albufera de València Natural Park, a protected coastal Mediterranean wetland. Two different experiments were conducted involving (i) the addition of MC-LR to natural sediment to evaluate its effects on seed germination and (ii) the addition of MC-LR to water cultures of macrophytes to evaluate its effects on growth and metabolic functions. In water, the MC-LR concentration decreased by 84% in two weeks; the loss was not significant in sediment. The first seedlings (all C. hispida) emerged from the wetland sediment following a delay of a few days in the presence of MC-LR. The germination rates in 8 and 16 ?g MC-LR/L treatments were 44% and 11% of that occurring in the absence of MC, but these differences disappeared over time. The final density was 6-7 germlings/dm(3). Final germling length was unaffected by MC-LR. Rotifers (Lecane spp.) emerging from the natural sediment during the experiment were favored by MC-LR; the opposite pattern was observed in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The growth rates of C. vulgaris, C. baltica and N. hyalina were unaffected by MC exposure, whereas those of C. hispida and C. aspera were reduced in the MC treatments relative to the control treatment. The concentration of chlorophyll-a and the in vivo net photosynthetic rate were lower in the presence of MC-LR, even at the lowest concentration, for all of the characeans tested. M. spicatum was sensitive to the presence of MC-LR in the culture medium; the growth and chlorophyll-a concentrations were reduced. Therefore, environmentally relevant concentrations of MC might induce important changes in macrophyte meadows and the structure of the associated plankton community. Synchrony or delay in the processes evaluated here in response to environmentally relevant concentrations of cyanobacteria MC exudates can enhance understanding of the turning point to alternative states and the point of no return in eutrophicated shallow lakes. PMID:24121158

Rojo, Carmen; Segura, Matilde; Cortés, Francisco; Rodrigo, María A

2013-11-15

390

Low-molecular weight carbohydrates modulate dormancy and are required for post-germination growth in turions of Spirodela polyrhiza.  

PubMed

The aquatic duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza propagates itself vegetatively by forming turions - bud-like perennation organs - in the autumn, which spend the winter on the bottom of ponds and then germinate in the following spring and proliferate on the water surface. Newly formed turions usually require a period of cold after-ripening and light to germinate effectively, but an ample supply of exogenous sugar can lead to germination even in the dark and independent of after-ripening. The results of the present study indicate that the availability of readily metabolised carbohydrates is a determining factor for turion germination. Freshly harvested turions do not contain soluble, low-molecular weight carbohydrates at a level sufficient to allow germination to take place, but after-ripened turions do. Augmentation of the soluble carbohydrate content during after-ripening derives from gradual breakdown of reserve starch of the turions. The long time required for any germination to be observed in turions incubated in darkness and the limited frequency of germination in the dark (about 50% of turion population), even with an ample external sugar, supply emphasise that both after-ripening and light are essential for ensuring rapid germination and subsequent frond proliferation at an ecologically appropriate time. The carbohydrate supply required for rapid proliferation of the fronds produced at germination is provided by the rapid light-induced breakdown of turion reserve starch. PMID:22686442

Appenroth, K-J; Palharini, L; Ziegler, P

2013-03-01

391

Chloroplast Growth and Replication in Germinating Spinach Cotyledons following Massive ?-Irradiation of the Seed  

PubMed Central

Spinach seeds (Spinacia oleracea L.) given massive doses of ?-irradiation (500 krad) germinate and form a seedling with two green cotyledons and a radicle, but develop no further. Irradiated cotyledons show no increase in cell number or total DNA over a 7-day period in the light, while in control cotyledons there is a small increase in cell number and large increases in total DNA and chloroplast number. The chloroplasts of irradiated cotyledons are delayed in their division, become greatly enlarged and contain large amounts of starch. The whole population of chloroplasts subsequently undergoes a wave of division. The daughter chloroplasts show normal thylakoid development, but have some abnormal structural features caused by the radiation stress. Information on the effect of X-irradiation, ultraviolet irradiation, and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine on chloroplast replication and on chloroplast and nuclear DNA synthesis was obtained from cultured spinach leaf discs. It appears that chloroplast replication is more resistant to ionizing radiation than cell division and can proceed in the absence of nuclear DNA synthesis and greatly reduced chloroplast DNA synthesis. Images PMID:16659421

Rose, Ray; Possingham, John

1976-01-01

392

Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria  

PubMed Central

Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea's life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150?ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300?ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50?ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300?ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300?ppm.

Boumaaza, Boualem; Benkhelifa, Mohamed; Belkhoudja, Moulay

2015-01-01

393

Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria.  

PubMed

Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea's life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150?ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300?ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50?ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300?ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300?ppm. PMID:25883657

Boumaaza, Boualem; Benkhelifa, Mohamed; Belkhoudja, Moulay

2015-01-01

394

The Growth and Failure of U.S. Manufacturing Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the patterns of postentry growth and failure for over 200,000 plants that entered the U.S. manufacturing sector in the 1967-77 period. The postentry patterns of growth and failure vary significantly with observable employer characteristics. Plant failure rates decline with size and age as do the growth rates of nonfailing plants. The expected growth rate of a plant,

Timothy Dunne; Mark J. Roberts; Larry Samuelson

1989-01-01

395

An Analysis of Cell Growth and Division in Germinating and Mature Root Meristems of Vicia faba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mature root meristem of the broad bean, Vicia faba, consists of a steady-state, asynchronous population of cells in which rates of cell growth and of division are constant, on average, from one time to the next. Measurements of individual cells for any growth parameter, however, show considerable variation about the mean of that parameter. This study was done in

James Ernest Thomas

1980-01-01

396

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have

Robert S. Bandurski; Aga Schulze

1983-01-01

397

Plant Cell Growth in Tissue1[OA  

PubMed Central

Cell walls are part of the apoplasm pathway that transports water, solutes, and nutrients to cells within plant tissue. Pressures within the apoplasm (cell walls and xylem) are often different from atmospheric pressure during expansive growth of plant cells in tissue. The previously established Augmented Growth Equations are modified to evaluate the turgor pressure, water uptake, and expansive growth of plant cells in tissue when pressures within the apoplasm are lower and higher than atmospheric pressure. Analyses indicate that a step-down and step-up in pressure within the apoplasm will cause an exponential decrease and increase in turgor pressure, respectively, and the rates of water uptake and expansive growth each undergo a rapid decrease and increase, respectively, followed by an exponential return to their initial magnitude. Other analyses indicate that pressure within the apoplasm decreases exponentially to a lower value after a step-down in turgor pressure, which simulates its behavior after an increase in expansive growth rate. Also, analyses indicate that the turgor pressure decays exponentially to a constant value that is the sum of the critical turgor pressure and pressure within the apoplasm during stress relaxation experiments in which pressures within the apoplasm are not atmospheric pressure. Additional analyses indicate that when the turgor pressure is constant (clamped), a decrease in pressure within the apoplasm elicits an increase in elastic expansion followed by an increase in irreversible expansion rate. Some analytical results are supported by prior experimental research, and other analytical results can be verified with existing experimental methods. PMID:20739609

Ortega, Joseph K.E.

2010-01-01

398

Selecting and Using Plant Growth Regulators on Floricultural Crops  

E-print Network

nutrition are provided. Plants grown in small pots at close spacing will require more chemical growth#12;Selecting and Using Plant Growth Regulators on Floricultural Crops Joyce Latimer, Extension Carolina State University #12;Selecting and Using Plant Growth Regulators on Floricultural Crops Optimizing

Liskiewicz, Maciej

399

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

PubMed

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

400

Seed flotation and germination of salt marsh plants: The effects of stratification, salinity, and/or inundation regime  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of cold stratification and salinity on seed flotation of eight salt marsh species. Four of the eight species were tested for germination success under different stratification, salinity, and flooding conditions. Species were separated into two groups, four species received wet stratification and four dry stratification and fresh seeds of all species were tested for flotation and germination. Fresh seeds of seven out of eight species had flotation times independent of salinity, six of which had average flotation times of at least 50 d. Seeds of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens had the shortest flotation times, averaging 24 and 26 d, respectively. Following wet stratification, the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds in higher salinity water (15 and 36 ppt) was reduced by over 75% and germination declined by more than 90%. Wet stratification reduced the flotation time of Distichlis spicata seeds in fresh water but increased seed germination from 2 to 16% in a fluctuating inundation regime. Fresh seeds of Iva frutescens and S. alternflora were capable of germination and therefore are non-dormant during dispersal. Fresh seeds of I. frutescens had similar germination to dry stratified seeds ranging 25-30%. Salinity reduced seed germination for all species except for S. alterniflora. A fluctuating inundation regime was important for seed germination of the low marsh species and for germination following cold stratification. The conditions that resulted in seeds sinking faster were similar to the conditions that resulted in higher germination for two of four species. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.

2009-01-01

401

Development of Biocompatibility Procedures for Assessment of Plant Growth in Ground Test Hardware for the EMCS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an European Space Agency-developed facility designed to support plant research in microgravity on the IS NASA is responsible for providing US specific hardware to use within the EMCS. In preparation for flight, research will be developed and tested at Ames Research Center in the EMCS ground test hardware, the Experiment Reference Module (ERM) In order to determine the acceptability of the ERM for such purposes, biocompatibility tests will be performed to determine that the hardware functions as intended and successfully supports the' growth of plants. In this report, we describe the development of procedures and the collection of baseline data against which to compare ERM function, e.g. biocompatibility testing. A simple and robust system was developed to grow whole Arabidopsis thaliana plants within the confined volumes characteristic of spaceflight hardware. Our system for growing plants eliminated the necessity of a water/nutrient delivery system and allowed for quantifiable assessment of individual plants, as well as entire population dynamics. To insure uniform germination, seeds were started in small straw segments and transplanted into modified scintillation vials. Seedlings were selected prior to transplantation to decrease genetic variability. Plants were grown for a total of 24 days in standard laboratory plant growth chambers under controlled conditions. Sequential digital still images were taken on a daily basis. Analysis of these images allowed for the quantification of even minute environmental effect, on growth dynamics whole plants. The data collected provide reliable growth curves against which to compare plants grown in the ERM.

Bowman, R. N.; Steele, M. K.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

402

Germination Response of MR 219 Rice Variety to Different Exposure Times and Periods of 2450?MHz Microwave Frequency  

PubMed Central

Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR), germination percentage (GP), and mean germination time (MGT) were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450?MHz of microwave frequency for one, four, seven, and ten hours. It was revealed that exposing the seeds to the microwave frequency for 10 hours resulted in the highest GP. This treatment led to 100% of germination after three days with a mean germination time of 2.1 days. Although the other exposure times of microwave frequency caused the moderate effects on germination with a GPa3 ranged from 93% to 98%, they failed to reduce the MGTa3. The results showed that ten-hour exposure times of microwave frequency for six days significantly facilitated and improved the germination indices (primary shoot and root length). Therefore, the technique is expected to benefit the improvement of rice seed germination considering its simplicity and efficacy in increasing the germination percentage and rate as well as the primary shoot and root length without causing any environmental toxicity. PMID:24307869

Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Mohsenkhah, Mohammad

2013-01-01

403

GIGANTUS1 (GTS1), a member of Transducin/WD40 protein superfamily, controls seed germination, growth and biomass accumulation through ribosome-biogenesis protein interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background WD40 domains have been found in a plethora of eukaryotic proteins, acting as scaffolding molecules assisting proper activity of other proteins, and are involved in multi-cellular processes. They comprise several stretches of 44-60 amino acid residues often terminating with a WD di-peptide. They act as a site of protein-protein interactions or multi-interacting platforms, driving the assembly of protein complexes or as mediators of transient interplay among other proteins. In Arabidopsis, members of WD40 protein superfamily are known as key regulators of plant-specific events, biologically playing important roles in development and also during stress signaling. Results Using reverse genetic and protein modeling approaches, we characterize GIGANTUS1 (GTS1), a new member of WD40 repeat protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and provide evidence of its role in controlling plant growth development. GTS1 is highly expressed during embryo development and negatively regulates seed germination, biomass yield and growth improvement in plants. Structural modeling analysis suggests that GTS1 folds into a ?-propeller with seven pseudo symmetrically arranged blades around a central axis. Molecular docking analysis shows that GTS1 physically interacts with two ribosomal protein partners, a component of ribosome Nop16, and a ribosome-biogenesis factor L19e through ?-propeller blade 4 to regulate cell growth development. Conclusions Our results indicate that GTS1 might function in plant developmental processes by regulating ribosomal structural features, activities and biogenesis in plant cells. Our results suggest that GIGANTUS1 might be a promising target to engineer transgenic plants with higher biomass and improved growth development for plant-based bioenergy production. PMID:24467952

2014-01-01

404

Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.  

PubMed

Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 ?M was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 ?M, which increases up to 150 ?M, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

2014-09-01

405

Effect of agar concentration on the matric potential of glycerol agar media and the germination and growth of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi.  

PubMed

The concept of water activity (a(w)) does not differentiate between water status resulting from the interaction of water with solutes, and that from interaction of water with matrices, which is termed matric potential (psi(m)). This study reports the effect of agar concentration (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5%, w/w) on matric potential of glycerol agar media (GA) and the germination and growth of xerophilic fungi (Eurotium herbariorum and E. rubrum) and non-xerophilic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, and Penicillium roqueforti) on GA with or without sorbic acid (0.1-0.4%, w/w) at 0.90 a(w) and 0.95 a(w). The matric potential of GA decreased when the agar concentration increased from 1.5 to 7.5%. When the agar concentration increased at each a(w), the radial growth rate of the xerophilic fungi generally increased but the biomass density (biomass per unit area) decreased, whereas the radial growth rate of the non-xerophilic fungi generally decreased but the biomass density was unchanged. In the absence of sorbic acid, the time to germination of each species was similar for all agar concentrations. In the presence of sorbic acid, the time to germination of some species was significantly longer at higher agar concentrations (4.5%-7.5%) than 1.5% agar. This study demonstrated the inhibition effect on germination and growth of non-xerophilic fungi and xerophilic fungi by decreased matric potential resulting from increased agar concentrations, and the different responses of non-xerophilic fungi and xerophilic fungi to water stress from solutes and matrices. The concept of matric potential may be useful in food microbiology to provide a better understanding of fungal growth in complex food matrices. PMID:19520449

Huang, Yang; Chapman, Belinda; Wilson, Mark; Hocking, Ailsa D

2009-07-31

406

Plant Growth Measurement Techniques Using Near-Infrared  

E-print Network

, for measuring plant growth for corn seedlings and Caster Oil Bean leaves. A near-infrared camera, which allowsPlant Growth Measurement Techniques Using Near-Infrared Imagery Amr Aboelela John Barron Dept/leaf growth, Caster Oil Bean leaf Growth, Optical Flow, Optical Flow Divergence 1 Introduction We

Barron, John

407

Dynamic Adaption of Metabolic Pathways during Germination and Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes after Inhibition of the Electron Transport Chain1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Investigation of the metabolome and the transcriptome of pollen of lily (Lilium longiflorum) gave a comprehensive overview of metabolic pathways active during pollen germination and tube growth. More than 100 different metabolites were determined simultaneously by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and expressed genes of selected metabolic pathways were identified by next-generation sequencing of lily pollen transcripts. The time-dependent changes in metabolite abundances, as well as the changes after inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, revealed a fast and dynamic adaption of the metabolic pathways in the range of minutes. The metabolic state prior to pollen germination differed clearly from the metabolic state during pollen tube growth, as indicated by principal component analysis of all detected metabolites and by detailed observation of individual metabolites. For instance, the amount of sucrose increased during the first 60 minutes of pollen culture but decreased during tube growth, while glucose and fructose showed the opposite behavior. Glycolysis, tricarbonic acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle, starch, and fatty acid degradation were activated, providing energy during pollen germination and tube growth. Inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain by antimycin A resulted in an immediate production of ethanol and a fast rearrangement of metabolic pathways, which correlated with changes in the amounts of the majority of identified metabolites, e.g. a rapid increase in ?-aminobutyric acid indicated the activation of a ?-aminobutyric acid shunt in the tricarbonic acid cycle, while ethanol fermentation compensated the reduced ATP production after inhibition of the oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:23660836

Obermeyer, Gerhard; Fragner, Lena; Lang, Veronika; Weckwerth, Wolfram

2013-01-01

408

Effect of smoke and exhaust on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene is a plant hormone, and, therefore, ethylene air pollution has many effects on plant growth and development. Concentrations as low as 0.07 to 0.20 ppm can affect plant growth. Experiments are outlined for the purpose of determining the effects of ethylene from an apple, from auto exhaust, and from cigarette smoke on bean plants.

Abeles

1972-01-01

409

REGULAR ARTICLE Earthworm effects on plant growth do not necessarily  

E-print Network

REGULAR ARTICLE Earthworm effects on plant growth do not necessarily decrease with soil fertility + Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Earthworms are known to generally increase plant growth. However, because plant-earthworm inter- actions are potentially mediated by soil characteristics the response of plants

Boyer, Edmond

410

Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

1988-01-01

411

Involvement of carboxypeptidase in the degradation of the mung bean ( Vigna radiata ) trypsin inhibitor during germination and early seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the substrate specifity of the carboxypeptidase activity of ungerminated and germinated mung beans (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) reveals the presence of two distinct enzymes. The first of these, carboxypeptidase I, is maximally active against carbobenzyloxy-Ala-Phe. It is present in large amounts in the cotyledons of ungerminated seeds, and declines rapidly during germination. The second, carboxypeptidase II, is most

Karl A. Wilson; Berit R. Rightmire; Anna L. Tan-Wilson

1985-01-01

412

Only seed size matters for germination in different populations of the dimorphic Tragopogon pratensis subsp. pratensis (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Many studies have focused on the ecology of seed dimorphism, the production of two seed types by a single plant. Morphology and seed size are usually correlated, but how morphology affects germination percentage and seedling growth is poorly understood. Here we explicitly separate these effects for nine populations of the dimorphic species Tragopogon pratensis subsp. pratensis. Larger seeds yielded higher germination percentages, yet seed morphology had no additional direct effect on germination. Neither seed size nor seed morphology affected seedling growth. Neither germination nor seedling growth varied among populations, but seed head varied significantly. Results show that germination is mainly controlled by seed size rather than by seed morphology. This study is one of the few to distinguish explicitly between seed size and seed morphology effects on ecological characteristics and suggests that seed dimorphism may exert its ecological effects predominantly through its correlated size. PMID:21652419

van Mölken, Tamara; Jorritsma-Wienk, Linda D; van Hoek, Paul H W; de Kroon, Hans

2005-03-01

413

STUDIES ON THE GROWTH HORMONE OF PLANTS  

PubMed Central

1. It is shown that when plant tissues are ground with water the growth substance contained therein is inactivated by the oxidizing enzymes. 2. A simple method of extraction is described which enables the quantitative determination of growth substance in such tissues. 3. The amount and distribution of growth substance in the Avena coleoptile is determined by this method, and it is shown that while the substance does not diffuse out from the lower parts of the coleoptile, it is nevertheless present in considerable amounts, the concentration decreasing steadily with the distance from the tip. 4. Growth substance is also present in considerable amounts in Avena roots, and here also its concentration decreases steadily with distance from the tip. 5. The amount of growth substance diffusing out of root tips into dextrose agar, even during long periods of time, is not greater than the amount obtainable by direct extraction. Actual production in the root tip therefore either does not take place at all, or else takes place under quite different conditions from the production in the tip of the coleoptile. PMID:19872823

Thimann, Kenneth V.

1934-01-01

414

Effects of Aflatoxin on Seeding Growth and Ultrastructure in Plants  

PubMed Central

Nineteen plants belonging to 11 species of the cruciferae were studied to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 on seed germination and seedling development. Germination was not inhibited in any test organism at a concentration of 100 ?g of aflatoxin per ml of agar substrate. Inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and roots in the species studied varied from 29 to 93% and from 22 to 91% in the respective tissues. Lepidium sativum was the most susceptible plant studied and exhibited the maximal inhibitory response noted above at concentrations of 8 ?g of aflatoxin per ml. The ultrastructure of Lepidium root cells treated with crystalline aflatoxin B1 exhibited morphological changes characteristic of those found in aflatoxin-treated animal cells. In addition to changes in the cytoplasmic organelles, numerous ring-shaped nucleoli with prominent nucleolar caps were produced. The effect of aflatoxin on plant cells is compared with similar effects induced by actinomycin D. Seed germination and seedling development is discussed in relation to the effects of both compounds on deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid biosynthesis. Images PMID:4767301

Crisan, Eli V.

1973-01-01

415

Effects of kaurane diterpene derivatives on germination and growth of Lactuca sativa seedlings.  

PubMed

Kaurenoic and grandiflorenic acid, isolated from Wedelia paludosa (Asteraceae), some derivatives from these acids (alcohols, esters, amides, lactones, oximes) and other naturally occurring kaurane diterpenes were tested for their action on the growth of radical and shoot of Lactuca sativa. Gibberellic acid, GA3, a commercially available phytohormone, belonging to the same class of diterpenes, was also tested. Some of the tested substances showed a remarkable activity either in the inhibition or in stimulation of L. sativa growth. The activity, in some cases, was even higher than that of GA3. PMID:15787248

Vieira, Henriete S; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D

2005-01-01

416

Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy  

PubMed Central

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a key role in various events of seed life. In orthodox seeds, ROS are produced from embryogenesis to germination, i.e., in metabolically active cells, but also in quiescent dry tissues during after ripening and storage, owing various mechanisms depending on the seed moisture content. Although ROS have been up to now widely considered as detrimental to seeds, recent advances in plant physiology signaling pathways has lead to reconsider their role. ROS accumulation can therefore be also beneficial for seed germination and seedling growth by regulating cellular growth, ensuring a protection against pathogens or controlling the cell redox status. ROS probably also act as a positive signal in seed dormancy release. They interact with abscisic acid and gibberellins transduction pathway and are likely to control numerous transcription factors and properties of specific protein through their carbonylation. PMID:19513212

El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

2008-01-01

417

Effects of simulated acid rain on germination, foliar damage, chlorophyll contents and seedling growth of five hardwood species growing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds and seedlings of five hardwood species were subjected to a simulated acid rain adjusted to pH values of 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, 6.0, and to distilled water (the control). Seed germination was remarkably inhibited by pH 2.0 treatment for three species. Significant foliar damage, decline in chlorophyll contents, and retardation of growth for the seedlings of all the species, were

Hou Bac Fan; Yi Hong Wang

2000-01-01

418

Germinating spore exudates from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: molecular and developmental responses in plants and their regulation by ethylene.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi stimulate root development and induce expression of mycorrhization-specific genes in both eudicots and monocots. Diffusible factors released by AM fungi have been shown to elicit similar responses in Medicago truncatula. Colonization of roots by AM fungi is inhibited by ethylene. We compared the effects of germinating spore exudates (GSE) from Glomus intraradices in monocots and in eudicots, their genetic control, and their regulation by ethylene. GSE modify root architecture and induce symbiotic gene expression in both monocots and eudicots. The genetic regulation of root architecture and gene expression was analyzed using M. truncatula and rice symbiotic mutants. These responses are dependent on the common symbiotic pathway as well as another uncharacterized pathway. Significant differences between monocots and eudicots were observed in the genetic control of plant responses to GSE. However, ethylene inhibits GSE-induced symbiotic gene expression and root development in both groups. Our results indicate that GSE signaling shares similarities and differences in monocots versus eudicots, that only a subset of AM signaling pathways has been co-opted in legumes for the establishment of root nodulation with rhizobia, and that regulation of these pathways by ethylene is a feature conserved across higher land plants. PMID:21043574

Mukherjee, Arijit; Ané, Jean-Michel

2011-02-01

419

Some effects of different kinds, rates, and depth of fertilization on germination and growth of five species of native grass in the field and greenhouse  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Silver bluestea showing high rate of ainexal fertiliwer versus chech treehcent 34 35 Bespcmse of little bluestea to sfxtuzes 1 aud 2 c~ with check treatment o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 35 percent germination cf species by tresticent in the Daily seedling... to fertilizer placement. Anderson (1955) applied a mineral fertilizer to seedling stands of sidecats grams, silver bluestem, and little bluestea after one to five months fo~ planting. Sideoats grams showed no response. Silver bluestem gave a varied response...

Grumbles, Jim Bob

1961-01-01

420

PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH BY SOIL BACTERIA THAT REGULATE PLANT ETHYLENE LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central the mechanisms used by many soil bacteria to directly promote plant growth is the production of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. This enzyme facilitates plant growth as a consequence of the fact that it sequesters and cleaves plant- produced ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants), thereby lowering the level of ethylene in the plant.

Bernard R. Glick

421

Project Explorer: Get Away Special #007. [alloy solidification, seed germination, crystal growth, and radio transmission of payload data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tentatively scheduled to fly on STS-17 (41G), this get away special aims to demonstrate amateur radio transmissions to global ground stations in the English language. Experiments No. 1, 2, and 3 use the micro-gravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the germination of radish seeds, and the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution. Flight results are to be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 (the Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment - MARCE) features radio transmissions and also provides timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor obtains real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements within the GAS canister. These data are to be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they are converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception. The support structure for the G #007 experiments consists of two primary plates and four bumper assemblies.

Henderson, A. J., Jr.

1984-01-01

422

EFFECTS OF OZONE ON SPORULATION, SPORE GERMINATION, AND GROWTH OF FOMES ANNOSUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of ozone (O3) on certain cultural characteristics of Fomes annosus were investigated in exposure chamber studies. Growth rates of F. annosus decreased and conidial germ tubes were shorter and had fewer branches as O3 dosages increased. F. annosus conidial production was v...

423

Effects of phenolic acids on seed germination and seedling growth in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that the adverse effect of plant residues on crop yields is largely or partly due to phytotoxic compounds leached from these residues or produced by their decomposition. There has been substantial support for the hypothesis that the phytotoxic compounds responsible for reduced crop yields are phenolic acids such as p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid.

M. J. Krogmeier; J. M. Bremner

1989-01-01

424

Germination, biomass production, and root growth in range restoration grasses on Se overburden soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the past 15 years, several of the historical reclaimed phosphate mines in Southeastern Idaho have experienced selenium (Se) poisoning of livestock and suspected poisoning of wildlife. Selenium in its elemental form is not toxic and not bioavailable to plants, but once exposed to O2 during th...

425

A growth inhibitory factor from lambsquarters ( Chenopodium album )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of air-dried lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) at 25 mg\\/ml significantly inhibited germination and growth of radish and wheat seeds. Soybean seed germination was not inhibited; however, hypocotyl growth was significantly reduced. Germination of radish seeds in sand amended with pulverized lambsquarters shoots at 2 and 4 mg\\/g was reduced 40 and 95%, respectively. Shoot dry weight and plant height

M. A. B. Mallik; R. Puchala; F. A. Grosz

1994-01-01

426

Effects of biogas digestate on soil properties and plant growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farming methods and food industries generate large amounts manure and other useful raw materials that need safe disposal. Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. So far we have only limited information about it's agricultural applications. Farmers and authorities are very skeptic because feedstocks are very different so the endproduct will be different, too. However, this endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. The aim of our work is to determine the effects of this product in plant-soil system. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. Pot experiments were established with different rates of nitrogen content (80 kg ha-1N, 120 kg ha-1N, 170 kg ha-1N, and control). Maximum rates were determine by the Nitrate Directive. Soil moisture was 60% of maximum of water capacity. Digestate and distilled water were homogenized and added to 200g loamy soil. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was applied as a test plant. Treatments were randomized design and 10 replications. Three pot from each treatment were used to observe the germination and progress of plants. We investigated the effect of the digestate on nitrate- and ammonium-ion content of soil. The amount of nitrate- and ammonium-N of soil was determine with distillation. The ammonium-N levels increased with the doses on the first day but on the sixth-seventh day this amount totally falled down, because NH4-N transformed to NO3-N. Nitrate level increased continuously untill the tenth day, later decreased as the result of the plant and microbes consumption. The increasing doses inhibited the germination and root development of the plants. We experienced fewer roots, which were different form control.

Gulyás, Miklós; Füleky, György

2013-04-01

427

Monoclonal Antibodies to Plant Growth Regulators  

PubMed Central

Four high affinity monoclonal antibodies, which recognize two plant growth regulators from the cytokinin group, namely trans-zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside and their derivatives are reported. Six hybridomas were produced from three independent fusions of Balb/c spleen cells with P3-NS1-Ag 4-1 (abbreviated NS1) or X63-Ag 8.653 (X63) myeloma cells. The mice had been hyperimmunized with zeatin riboside-bovine serum albumin conjugate or dihydrozeatin riboside-bovine serum albumin conjugate for 3 months. The hybridomas secrete antibodies of the IgG 1 or IgG 2b subclass and allow the detection of femtomole amounts of the free cytokinins, their ribosides, and ribotides in plant extracts. The use of these monoclonals in radio- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is also discussed. PMID:16664848

Eberle, Joachim; Arnscheidt, Angelika; Klix, Dieter; Weiler, Elmar W.

1986-01-01

428

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

1983-01-01

429

Repression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR10 by microRNA160 is critical for seed germination and  

E-print Network

Repression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR10 by microRNA160 is critical for seed germination and post-germination important roles in seed germination and post-germination. Transgenic plants expressing an miR160-resistant sensu stricto germination and post-germination, mARF10 mutant seeds and plants were hypersensitive

Montgomery, Tai

430

Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth.  

PubMed

Although endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) regulate root growth, and many rhizobacteria can modulate root phytohormone status, hitherto there have been no reports of rhizobacteria mediating root ABA concentrations and growth by metabolising ABA. Using a selective ABA-supplemented medium, two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in sod-podzolic soil and assigned to Rhodococcus sp. P1Y and Novosphingobium sp. P6W using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic patterns by the GEN III MicroPlate test. Although strain P6W had more rapid growth in ABA-supplemented media than strain P1Y, both could utilize ABA as a sole carbon source in batch culture. When rice seeds were germinated on filter paper in association with bacteria, root ABA concentration was not affected, but shoot ABA concentration of inoculated plants decreased by 14% (strain P6W) and 22% (strain P1Y). When tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes differing in ABA biosynthesis (ABA deficient mutants flacca - flc, and notabilis - not and the wild-type cv. Ailsa Craig, WT) were grown in gnotobiotic cultures on nutrient solution agar, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased root and/or leaf ABA concentrations, depending on plant and bacteria genotypes. Strain P6W inhibited primary root elongation of all genotypes, but increased leaf biomass of WT plants. In WT plants treated with silver ions that inhibit ethylene perception, both ABA-metabolising strains significantly decreased root ABA concentration, and strain P6W decreased leaf ABA concentration. Since these changes in ABA status also occurred in plants that were not treated with silver, it suggests that ethylene was probably not involved in regulating bacteria-mediated changes in ABA concentration. Correlations between plant growth and ABA concentrations in planta suggest that ABA-metabolising rhizobacteria may stimulate growth via an ABA-dependent mechanism. PMID:24270514

Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Dumova, Valentina A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Ladatko, Alexander G; Davies, William J

2014-01-01

431

Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine juglone sensitivity of 16 species (Trifolium incarnatum, Coronilla varia, Vicia villosa, Lespedeza stipulacea, L. cuneata, Acer ginnala, Caragana arbor-escens, Elaegnus angustifolia, E. umbellata, Lonicera maackii, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Alnus glutinosa, Pinus strobus, andP. sylvestris) being considered for mixed plantings withJugions nigra (black walnut). All species were sensitive to juglone, but seed

W. J. Rietveld

1983-01-01

432

Differentially expressed myo-inositol monophosphatase gene (CaIMP) in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) encodes a lithium-sensitive phosphatase enzyme with broad substrate specificity and improves seed germination and seedling growth under abiotic stresses  

PubMed Central

myo-Inositol monophosphatase (IMP) is an essential enzyme in the myo-inositol metabolic pathway where it primarily dephosphorylates myo-inositol 1-phosphate to maintain the cellular inositol pool which is important for many metabolic and signalling pathways in plants. The stress-induced increased accumulation of inositol has been reported in a few plants including chickpea; however, the role and regulation of IMP is not well defined in response to stress. In this work, it has been shown that IMP activity is distributed in all organs in chickpea and was noticeably enhanced during environmental stresses. Subsequently, using degenerate oligonucleotides and RACE strategy, a full-length IMP cDNA (CaIMP) was cloned and sequenced. Biochemical study revealed that CaIMP encodes a lithium-sensitive phosphatase enzyme with broad substrate specificity, although maximum activity was observed with the myo-inositol 1-phosphate and l-galactose 1-phosphate substrates. Transcript analysis revealed that CaIMP is differentially expressed and regulated in different organs, stresses and phytohormones. Complementation analysis in Arabidopsis further confirmed the role of CaIMP in l-galactose 1-phosphate and myo-inositol 1-phosphate hydrolysis and its participation in myo-inositol and ascorbate biosynthesis. Moreover, Arabidopsis transgenic plants over-expressing CaIMP exhibited improved tolerance to stress during seed germination and seedling growth, while the VTC4/IMP loss-of-function mutants exhibited sensitivity to stress. Collectively, CaIMP links various metabolic pathways and plays an important role in improving seed germination and seedling growth, particularly under stressful environments. PMID:24123252

Majee, Manoj

2013-01-01