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Sample records for ghana research reactor-1

  1. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  2. Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold

    This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment; and…

  3. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  4. Low enriched uranium foil plate target for the production of fission Molybdenum-99 in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, A.; Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab

    2009-04-01

    Low enriched uranium foil (19.99% 235U) will be used as target material for the production of fission Molybdenum-99 in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). LEU foil plate target proposed by University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) will be irradiated in PARR-1 for the production of 100Ci of Molybdenum-99 at the end of irradiation, which will be sufficient to prepare required 99Mo/ 99mTc generators at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (PINSTECH) and its supply in the country. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis for the fission Molybdenum-99 production at PARR-1 has been performed. Power levels in target foil plates and their corresponding irradiation time durations were initially determined by neutronic analysis to have the required neutron fluence. Finally, the thermal hydraulic analysis has been carried out for the proposed design of the target holder using LEU foil plates for fission Molybdenum-99 production at PARR-1. Data shows that LEU foil plate targets can be safely irradiated in PARR-1 for production of desired amount of fission Molybdenum-99.

  5. Analysis of Accidents at the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 Using Proposed Mixed-Fuel (HEU and LEU) Core

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhari, Ishtiaq H.

    2004-12-15

    The Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) was converted from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in 1991. The reactor is running successfully, with an upgraded power level of 10 MW. To save money on the purchase of costly fresh LEU fuel elements, the use of less burnt HEU spent fuel elements along with the present LEU fuel elements is being considered. The proposal calls for the HEU fuel elements to be placed near the thermal column to gain the required excess reactivity. In the present study the safety analysis of a proposed mixed-fuel core has been carried out at a calculated steady-state power level of 9.8 MW. Standard computer codes and correlations were employed to compute various parameters. Initiating events in reactivity-induced accidents involve various modes of reactivity insertion, namely, start-up accident, accidental drop of a fuel element on the core, flooding of a beam tube with water, and removal of an in-pile experiment during reactor operation. For each of these transients, time histories of reactor power, energy released, temperature, and reactivity were determined.

  6. Dropping Out of School in Southern Ghana: The Push-Out and Pull-Out Factors. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananga, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Addressing school dropout has been one of the most controversial elements of policy since the introduction of free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE) in Ghana. However, research that utilises qualitative biographical detail surrounding irregular attendance and the critical events in the process that lead to dropout in Ghana is limited. I…

  7. Formative Ethnographic Research to Improve Evaluation of a Novel Water System in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Ted E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    The accessibility of potable water is fundamental to public health. A private for-profit company is installing kiosk-based drinking-water systems in rural and peri-urban villages in Ghana, and we evaluated their performance. Preceding an observational study to measure the effect of these kiosks on the incidence of water-related disease in recipient communities, we conducted ethnographic research to assess local water-related practices and the ways these practices would affect adoption of the new technology. We conducted fieldwork in two communities in Ghana and interviewed stakeholders throughout the water sector. Our findings illustrate the complexity of water-related behaviors and indicate several factors that may sustain disease transmission despite the presence of the new technology. This formative ethnographic research also improved the precision of our subsequent evaluation of the intervention by providing a site-specific, culturally-appropriate knowledge base. This study demonstrates the value of incorporating qualitative research techniques into evaluations of water-related projects. PMID:21540392

  8. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    PubMed

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases. PMID:26344503

  9. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines the history and politics of educational reform in Ghana. Using data from interviews conducted with senior policy-makers, implementers and researchers, as well as documentary sources, to explore the drivers and inhibitors of change at the political, bureaucratic and grass-roots levels. The monograph explores the nature of…

  10. Learning To Compete: Education, Training & Enterprise in Ghana, Kenya & South Africa. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afenyadu, Dela; King, Kenneth; McGrath, Simon; Oketch, Henry; Rogerson, Christian; Visser, Kobus

    A multinational, multidisciplinary team examined the impact of globalization on education, training, and small and medium sized enterprise development in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. The study focused on the following issues: developing a learner-led competitiveness approach; building learning enterprises; education for microenterprises and…

  11. "Ghana faces ecological disaster".

    PubMed

    Asmah, G F

    1990-05-01

    The rate of deforestation in Ghana is alarming and urgent steps need to be taken to reverse the trend, Robert D. Mann, a British tropical agriculturist, has warned. He says, "There will be further disintegration of the local climate, deterioration of soil fertility and reduced food-crop production, if the present trend of denudation by felling trees and uncontrolled bush fires is not halted and reversed." Mann, who has conducted research on "deforestation, drought and famine in Africa" was in Ghana recently to speak on the "role of the Church in West Africa in stimulating action to combat desertification". Representatives of protestant churches in Ghana, Togo, Liberia, Gambia, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone attended the 3-day conference which was organized by the Overseas Department of the British Methodist Church. It was to enable participants to share perspectives on the nature, scale and seriousness of the deforestation problem. Participants also exchanged experiences on village-based projects for promoting tree planting and agro-forestry, and developed strategies for the rural development programs. Robert Mann noted that Ghana was not only affected by its proximity to the Sahel, but also by its own deforestation. The situation in Ghana, once renowned for her extensive forests and woodland, has now drastically changed. By 1980/81 the area of closed forest had been reduced to 17,000 sq km from 47,9000 sq km in 1937/38. He said in 1939 the volume of wood exported from Ghana was 42,450 cubic meters but it rose to 1,471,600 cubic meters by 1987. Such activities, Mann said, put severe strain on the environment and affected both the economy and sociocultural basis of the country. PMID:12285641

  12. Using Formative Research to Develop a Counselor Training Program for Newborn Screening in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anie, Kofi A.; Grant, Althea M.; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), sickle cell trait (SCT) and related conditions are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the public health implications, there is limited understanding of the unique needs regarding establishing and implementing extensive screening for newborns and appropriate family counseling. We sought to gain understanding of community attitudes and beliefs about SCD/SCT from counselors and potential counselors in Ghana; obtain their input about goals for counseling following newborn screening; and obtain guidance about developing effective counselor education. Five focus groups with 32 health care providers and health educators from 9 of 10 regions in Ghana were conducted by trained facilitators according to a structured protocol. Qualitative data were coded and categorized to reflect common themes. Saturation was achieved in themes related to genetics/inheritance; common complications of SCD; potential for stigmatization; marital strain; and emotional stress. Misconceptions about SCT as a form of SCD were prevalent as were cultural and spiritual beliefs about the causes of SCD/SCT. Potential positive aspects included affected children's academic achievement as compensation for physical limitations, and family cohesion. This data informed recommendations for content and structure of a counselor training program that was provided to the Ministry of Health in Ghana. PMID:25193810

  13. Conversion of Molybdenum-99 production process to low enriched uranium: Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of HEU and LEU target plates for irradiation in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab; Muhammad, Atta

    2012-09-01

    Technetium-99m, the daughter product of Molybdenum-99 is the most widely needed radionuclide for diagnostic studies in Pakistan. Molybdenum-99 Production Facility has been established at PINSTECH. Highly enriched uranium (93% 235U) U/Al alloy targets have been irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) for the generation of fission Mo-99, while basic dissolution technique is used for separation of Mo-99 from target matrix activity. In line with the international objective of minimizing and eventually eliminating the use of HEU in civil commerce, national and international efforts have been underway to shift the production of medical isotopes from HEU to LEU (LEU; <20% 235U enrichment) targets. To achieve the equivalent amount of 99Mo with LEU targets, approximately 5 times uranium is needed. LEU aluminum uranium dispersion target has been developed, which may replace existing HEU aluminum/uranium alloy targets for production of 99Mo using basic dissolution technique. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations were performed for safe irradiation of targets in the core of PARR-1.

  14. Research-policy partnerships - experiences of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods A conceptual framework for understanding and assessing research-policy partnerships was developed and guided this study. The data collection methods for this qualitative study included semi-structured interviews with Ministry of Health Partners (MOHPs) and Research Partners (RPs) in each country. Results The term partnership was perceived by the partners as a collaboration involving mutually-agreed goals and objectives. The principles of trust, openness, equality and mutual respect were identified as constituting the core of partnerships. The MOHPs and RPs had clearly defined roles, with the MOHPs largely providing political support and RPs leading the research agenda. Different influences affected partnerships. At the individual level, personal relationships and ability to compromise within partnerships were seen as important. At the organisational level, the main influences included the degree of formalisation of roles and responsibilities and the internal structures and procedures affecting decision-making. At the contextual level, political environment and the degree of health system decentralisation affected partnerships. Conclusions Several lessons can be learned from these experiences. Taking account of influences on the partnership at individual, organisation and contextual/system levels can increase its effectiveness. A common understanding of mutually-agreed goals and objectives of the partnership is essential. It is important to give attention to the processes of initiating and maintaining partnerships

  15. Spotlight: Ghana.

    PubMed

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-01-01

    At independence in 1957, Ghana possessed one of the strongest economies in Africa. Ghana exemplifies the problems confronted by African countries with economics that are tied to the export of natural and agriculture products, large debts to foreign countries, and rapid population growth. Ghana's population of 16 million is the second largest in west Africa, behind Nigeria. 45% of Ghanaians are under age 15, providing a built-in momentum for population growth as these young people begin childbearing. The government first adopted a population policy in 1969, but only recently is much being done to implement it. Only 13% of married women of reproductive age use contraception, and only 5% use modern methods, according to a 1988 Demographic and Health Survey. The total fertility rate is 6.2 average lifetime births per woman. High fertility plus expensive school fees and economic pressures are raising the drop-out rate of girls. 2 recent studies found that many Ghanaian men opposed their wives' desire to use contraceptives to limit family size. Policymakers are encouraging a greater involvement for men in family planning with male-to-male outreach. The country faces a number of environmental problems. At the turn of the century, forests covered most of the country. At present they cover only about a third. Logging and land-clearing activities are also a threat to biodiversity. Laws do exist to protect wild species of plants and animals, but enforcement is understaffed. The underdeveloped water supply systems make water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and bilharzia, serious health threats. Insect-borne onchocerciasis is also a problem. High unemployment rates have forced many Ghanaians to emigrate, and, in the mid-1980s, Ghanaians increasingly headed toward England and Canada. The net migration rate is -1/1000 population. Presidential elections held in late 1992 returned Jerry Rawlings to power. PMID:12286891

  16. How did formative research inform the development of a home-based neonatal care intervention in rural Ghana?

    PubMed

    Hill, Z; Manu, A; Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Gyan, T; Turner, K; Weobong, B; Ten Asbroek, A H A; Kirkwood, B R

    2008-12-01

    Formative research is often used to inform intervention design, but the design process is rarely reported. This study describes how an integrated home visit intervention for newborns in Ghana was designed. As a first step in the design process, the known intervention parameters were listed, information required to refine the intervention was then identified and a formative research strategy designed. The strategy included synthesizing available data, collecting data on newborn care practices in homes and facilities, on barriers and facilitators to adopting desired behaviors and on practical issues such as whom to include in the intervention. The data were used to develop an intervention plan through workshops with national and international stakeholders and experts. The intervention plan was operationalized by district level committees. This included developing work plans, a creative brief for the materials and completing a community volunteer inventory. The intervention was then piloted and the intervention materials were finalized. The design process took over a year and was iterative. Throughout the process, literature was reviewed to identify the best practice. The intervention focuses on birth preparedness, using treated bednets in pregnancy, early and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, special care for small babies and prompt care seeking for newborns with danger signs. The need for a problem-solving approach was identified to help ensure behavior change. A subset of behaviors were already being performed adequately, or were the focus of other interventions, but were important to reinforce in the visits. These include attending antenatal care and care seeking for danger signs in pregnancy. On the basis of the intervention content, the timing of newborn deaths and the acceptability of visits, two antenatal and three visits in the first week of life (days 1, 3 and 7) were planned. Several household members were identified to include in the visits as they

  17. The Prospects and Problems of African Social Studies Teachers as Action Researchers: A Spotlight on Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Several accounts concerning the systematic use of action research by eminent educators in the process of identifying and solving an educational problem(s) have appeared in professional journals. Thus, action research is gaining recognition by policy makers and educators as a tool for change However, this growing concept has not yet caught up in…

  18. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed

    Karikari, Thomas K

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  19. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  20. Oil: Lessons from Comparative Perspectives for Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema

    Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.

  1. Water footprint of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  2. Maritime Cultural Resource Investigation, Management, and Mitigation in Coastal Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlings, Rachel L.

    2012-10-01

    Four field seasons of maritime archaeological research in coastal Ghana offer insights into submerged cultural heritage, but also highlight serious concerns for its preservation and protection. A discussion of cultural heritage legislation and its ineffective implementation, as well as imminent and potential threats to submerged cultural heritage frames the argument for the mitigation and protection of submerged sites in coastal Ghana. Work on the Benya Lagoon vessel and the Elmina Wreck site is presented here as both documentation and mitigation in terms of the context of threats to submerged heritage in coastal Ghana, and preventative mitigation is proposed for its protection.

  3. Abortion in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda

    2010-07-01

    Maternal mortality is the second most common cause of death among women in Ghana, and more than one in 10 maternal deaths (11%) are the result of unsafe induced abortions.1 In addition, a substantial proportion of women who survive an unsafe abortion experience complications from the procedure. This suffering is all the more tragic because it is unnecessary: Many women likely turn to unsafe providers or do not obtain adequate postabortion care when it is needed because they are unaware that abortion is legal on fairly broad grounds in Ghana. PMID:20653094

  4. Area Handbook for Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Irving; And Others

    The dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ghanaian society are described in this handbook. Changes and developments in Ghana in the past 10 years, highlighted by the 1966 overthrough and widespread repudiation of Kwame Nkrumah and his policies and practices, have created a need for this revision of the 1962 edition. The purpose of…

  5. Country Profiles, Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaisie, S. K.; And Others

    A profile of Ghana is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  6. Ghana: Disability and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Betsy H.; Evans, William H.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study explores the educational system and attitudes toward disability in the Volta Region of Ghana. Traditional, Christian, and Islamic beliefs toward disability are explored. Educators from Accra and three families from the Volta Region with children with special needs are interviewed in an effort to explore the connection…

  7. Human Capital, Poverty, Educational Access and Exclusion: The Case of Ghana 1991-2006. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2009-01-01

    The period since 1991 has seen a general improvement both in terms of household welfare and schooling participation in Ghana. This monograph explores the patterns among descriptive indicators and uses regression analysis to examine possible causal relationships with special reference to the role of education in determining welfare and its…

  8. Is Functional Literacy a Prerequisite for Entering the Labor Market? An Analysis of the Determinants of Adult Literacy and Earnings in Ghana. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Verner, Dorte

    This paper analyzes the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana. Introductory sections discuss developments in literacy in the United States and Great Britain, literacy rates in developing countries, worldwide increases in literacy, literature on the determinants of literacy, aspects of the Ghanaian economy and educational spending, and the…

  9. Bullying and School Attendance: A Case Study of Senior High School Students in Ghana. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mairead; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia; Sabates, Ricardo; Owusu, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This monograph analyses the effects of bullying on school attendance among senior high school students in Ghana. A strong correlation is found between being bullied and having poor attendance. The effects of emotional problems and of peer friendships on this correlation are then examined. For both boys and girls, having emotional problems is…

  10. A Comparison of Personnel Training Needs and Program Priorities for the Disabled in Ghana and Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sylvia

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates special education and rehabilitation needs and programs in Ghana and Nigeria. Finds tht Ghana is more committed to date to the needs of the disabled, but holds that both countries should devote more resources to short and long term personnel needs such as preservice and inservice training and research. (AOS)

  11. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  12. Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

  13. ELECTRONIC HEALTH IN GHANA: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    PubMed Central

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

  14. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. The Medical System in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Drislane, Frank W.; Akpalu, Albert; Wegdam, Harry H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ghana is a developing country in West Africa with a population of about 25 million. Medical illnesses in Ghana overlap with those in developed countries, but infection, trauma, and women’s health problems are much more prominent. Medical practice in rural Africa faces extremely limited resources, a multiplicity of languages (hundreds in Ghana), and presentation of severe illnesses at later stages than seen elsewhere. Despite these limitations, Ghana has established a relatively successful national medical insurance system, and the quality of medical practice is high, at least where it is available. Ghana also has a well-established and sophisticated administrative structure for the supervision of medical education and accreditation, but it has proven very difficult to extend medical training to rural areas, where health care facilities are particularly short of personnel. Physicians are sorely needed in rural areas, but there are few because of the working conditions and financial limitations. Hospital wards and clinics are crowded; time per patient is limited. This article details some of the differences between medical practice in Ghana and that in wealthier countries and how it functions with very limited resources. It also introduces the medical education and training system in Ghana. The following article describes an attempt to establish and maintain a residency training program in General Medicine in a rural area of Ghana. PMID:25191147

  16. Chronic non-communicable diseases and the challenge of universal health coverage: insights from community-based cardiovascular disease research in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of chronic non-communicable diseases in low and middle income countries has major implications on the ability of these countries to achieve universal health coverage. In this paper we discuss the impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) on primary healthcare services in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana. Methods We review the evidence on the evolution of universal health coverage in Ghana and the central role of the community-based health planning services (CHPS) programme and the National Health Insurance Scheme in primary health care. We present preliminary findings from a study on community CVD knowledge, experiences, responses and access to services. Results The rising burden of NCDs in Ghana will affect the achievement of universal health coverage, particularly in urban areas. There is a significant unmet need for CVD care in the study communities. The provision of primary healthcare services for CVD is not accessible, equitable or responsive to the needs of target communities. Conclusions We consider these findings in the context of the primary healthcare system and discuss the challenges and opportunities for strengthening health systems in low and middle-income countries. PMID:25082497

  17. Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking. PMID

  18. Review: Abortion care in Ghana: A critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2015-01-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords “Ghana and abortion” and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  19. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

  20. Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana. Technical Paper No. 91. SD Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Leherr, Kay

    As increasing numbers of children in developing nations survive to school age, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers are increasingly focusing on the health and well-being of school-age children and on the possibility of using the infrastructure of the school system to deliver health and nutrition interventions. This research, conducted in…

  1. Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.R. ); Cobbinah, J.R. )

    1993-06-01

    The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Transferred and Adapted Models of Secondary Education in Ghana: What Implications for National Development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Hubert O.

    2003-09-01

    The secondary-education models implemented in Ghana since colonial times constitute a classic case of "educational transfer and adaptation". Transferred from England, and in recent years the United States of America and Japan, these models have had a significant impact on Ghana's development in diverse ways. Yet educational research on Ghana has under-recognized this important issue of "educational transfer and adaptation", especially the relationship between these transferred models and national development. This study addresses such neglect by first focusing on those institutions that served as prototypes. Second, it appraises the models pointing out their implications for national development. It is contended that the foreign models that were adapted (indigenised) have been significant instruments for the human- resource and socio-political development of Ghana. However, their emphasis on the academic type of education ultimately has tended to create a situation of dependency particularly with respect to techno-scientific and economic development.

  3. The influence of spouses over each other's contraceptive attitudes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, A C

    1993-01-01

    To what extent do spouses influence each other's reproductive goals? This question was investigated in Ghana with particular reference to family planning attitudes. Two mechanisms were identified as plausible explanations for why an individual's characteristics may affect a partner's beliefs and behavior. Quantitative evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and qualitative information from focus-group research in Ghana were used in the analysis. Results from both data sources show that spousal influence, rather than being mutual or reciprocal, is an exclusive right exercised only by the husband. The study attributed the limited impact of family planning programs in Ghana and most of sub-Saharan Africa to the continued neglect of men as equal targets of such programs. PMID:8351697

  4. Building communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, B

    1996-03-01

    In Ghana, 11 communities are participating in a Community Management Program (CMP) sponsored by the UN Centre for Human Settlements/Danida and jointly implemented with the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. The main goal of the program is to reduce poverty by strengthening district- and community-level capacity to improve living and working conditions in low-income settlements. Currently, the CMP is operating training programs in 1) community participation and management, 2) technical skills, 3) income generation and business management, and 4) family life and health education. The community participation and management training includes strategies for problem-solving, identifying the steps of participatory planning, and negotiating project funding. Technical assistance is also given during project implementation. Technical skills training in carpentry, masonry, and painting allows selected community members to assist in the construction and maintenance of a community facility as part of their training. Income generation and business management training is offered to women organized in solidarity groups. Family life and health education involves training community mobilizers in family planning, oral rehydration, child health, and environmental health. The training materials developed for each program will soon be incorporated in the curriculum of a new Local Government Training Institute. The CMP has already sparked a range of related initiatives and has built the capacity for local communities to demand involvement in planning of initiatives that will affect their lives. PMID:12293485

  5. Time and Change in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Peter

    1969-01-01

    The disastrous state of Ghanaian finances immediately before and after the coup against Nkrumah has had the effect of virtually eliminating community development and health services, particularly in non-urban areas of Ghana. It is hoped that new regional and district structure and improved staff morale can now bring about more effective programs.…

  6. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction

  7. Impact of climate on groundwater recharge in the crystalline basement rocks aquifer of Northern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Water is the cornerstone of human life and for all economic developments. West Africa and specifically Ghana are no exception to this reality.Northern Ghana is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with prolonged dry season (7 months of very few rainfall) leading to the drying up of many rivers and streams. In addition, rainfall is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, surface water is unreliable and insufficient to meet the water demands for socio-economic development in this area. As a result, the area is heavily dependent on groundwater for domestic water supply as well as for dry season irrigation of vegetables (cash crops).However, aquifers in northern Ghana are dominantly the hard rock type (Crystalline basement rock). This aquifer has no primary porosity and may not be able to sustain the increasing demand on the resource. Further, climate change may worsen the situation as recharge is dependent on rainfall in northern Ghana. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly how climate change will impact on recharge to the groundwater for sustainable development and management of the resource.Previous groundwater studies in Northern Ghana barely analyzed the combined impacts of Climate change on the recharge to the groundwater. This research is aimed at determining the current relationship between groundwater recharge and rainfall and to use the relationships to determine the impacts of changes in climate on the groundwater recharge. The results will inform plans and strategies for sustainably managing groundwater resources in Ghana and the Volta basin.

  8. The Effect of Performance Assessment-Driven Instruction on the Attitude and Achievement of Senior High School Students in Mathematics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina

    2015-01-01

    The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…

  9. Better dead than dishonored: masculinity and male suicidal behavior in contemporary Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2012-02-01

    In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress. PMID:21075496

  10. Traditional Herbalists and Cancer Management in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kieran S.; Annan, Kofi; Lartey, Richard N.; Awuah, Baffour; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) are involved in cancer management. Little is known about the specific role that TMPs play in cancer management in Ghana; we hypothesize that an understanding of the practices of TMPs with regard to cancer patients would help to enhance literacy about cancer amongst TMPs and would contribute to the diagnosis of cancer at earlier stages, by avoiding the detrimental delays while enlisting their help in certain activities that enhance cancer care. To elucidate the nature of the involvement of TMPs in cancer management, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 TMPs who practice in Kumasi, Ghana. The interviews elicited information about their knowledge and practices regarding cancer management and interactions with local hospitals. The results showed that TMPs tended to identify cancers as diseases of visible masses, fungating lesions, ulceration, and bleeding reflecting the advanced stages and types of cancers they usually encounter. TMPs identified certain causes of cancer and believed that they can treat and prevent cancer. These results indicate that TMPs are significant health service delivery resources in Ghana for patients potentially affected with cancer. Our work suggests that dedicated efforts to further integrate TMPs into the overall health care system would be beneficial to patients. Future research should examine the role of cancer education and training programs for TMPs to enhance their knowledge, strengthen their ability to complement allopathic practitioners, and increase early detection and treatment efforts through appropriate and timely referrals. PMID:22549472

  11. Perception of Basic Education School Teachers towards Inclusive Education in the Hohoe District of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocloo, Mark Anthony; Subbey, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of basic school teachers towards inclusive education in the Hohoe District of Ghana. The research makes use of a descriptive survey design, which engaged both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. A sample size of 100 respondents, comprising of 60 male teachers and 40 female…

  12. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  13. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  14. Who Cares? Pre and Post Abortion Experiences among Young Females in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Esia-Donkoh, Kobina; Darteh, Eugene K M; Blemano, Harriet; Asare, Hagar

    2015-06-01

    Issues of abortion are critical in Ghana largely due to its consequences on sexual and reproductive health. The negative perception society attaches to it makes it difficult for young females to access services and share their experiences. This paper examines the pre and post abortion experiences of young females; a subject scarcely researched in the country. Twenty-one clients of Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) clinic at Cape Coast were interviewed. Guided by the biopsychosocial model, the study revealed that fear of societal stigma, shame, and rejection by partners, as well as self-imposed stigma constituted some of the pre and post abortion experiences the respondents. Other experiences reported were bleeding, severe abdominal pain and psychological pain. The Ghana Health Services (GHS) and other service providers should partner the PPAG clinic to integrate psychosocial treatment in its abortion services while intensifying behaviour change communication and community-based stigma-reduction education in the Metropolis. PMID:26506657

  15. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Carolette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are. PMID:21901899

  16. Medical physics practice and training in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amuasi, John H; Kyere, Augustine K; Schandorf, Cyril; Fletcher, John J; Boadu, Mary; Addison, Eric K; Hasford, Francis; Sosu, Edem K; Sackey, Theophilus A; Tagoe, Samuel N A; Inkoom, Stephen; Serfor-Armah, Yaw

    2016-06-01

    Medical physics has been an indispensable and strategic stakeholder in the delivery of radiological services to the healthcare system of Ghana. The practice has immensely supported radiation oncology and medical imaging facilities over the years, while the locally established training programme continues to produce human resource to feed these facilities. The training programme has grown to receive students from other African countries in addition to local students. Ghana has been recognised by the International Atomic Energy Agency as Regional Designated Centre for Academic Training of Medical Physicists in Africa. The Ghana Society for Medical Physics collaborates with the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences of the University of Ghana to ensure that training offered to medical physicists meet international standards, making them clinically qualified. The Society has also worked together with other bodies for the passage of the Health Profession's Regulatory Bodies Act, giving legal backing to the practice of medical physics and other allied health professions in Ghana. The country has participated in a number of International Atomic Energy Agency's projects on medical physics and has benefited from its training courses, fellowships and workshops, as well as those of other agencies such as International Organization for Medical Physics. This has placed Ghana's medical physicists in good position to practice competently and improve healthcare. PMID:27236505

  17. Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

  18. Gender Differences and Mathematics Achievement of Senior High School Students: A Case of Ghana National College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina; Offoe, Adelaide Koryoe

    2015-01-01

    A quasi-experimental research was conducted to find out differences in mathematics performance of students using performance assessment-driven instructions at the senior high school level at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental and control groups. These two…

  19. Non-Kinship Address Terms in Akan: A Sociolinguistic Study of Language Use in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald

    2006-01-01

    Following the study of Gilman and Ford on address terms, an increasing number of studies have been conducted in several sociocultural settings. In line with this trend, the present study attempts to describe and explain address terms among the Akans of postcolonial Ghana. Using observation as the main research tool corroborated by interview and…

  20. Whose Voices Are Being Heard? Mechanisms for Community Participation in Education in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mfum-Mensah, Obed; Friedson-Ridenour, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of community participation in School "for" Life, a complementary education programme operating in northern Ghana. The researchers investigated three components of community participation: the nature of the mechanisms used to engage community members as participants in the education process; the actors who…

  1. The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…

  2. Mapping the Incidence of School Dropouts: A Case Study of Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey; Adu-Yeboah, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of school dropout in six communities in the Savelugu-Nanton District in the Northern Region of Ghana. The study focused on 89 children (64 boys and 25 girls) aged 7-16 years, who had dropped out of school. A snowballing sampling method was employed to recruit participants to the study. Two researchers interviewed the…

  3. The Efficacies of Secretarial Profession by Ghana Education Service and Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Abdul-Kahar

    2015-01-01

    This project is carried out by employing an empirical method through questionnaire design and administration and tapped the perceptions and knowledge of the target elements of this study. The research frame was about Ghana Education Service office workers within the Accra Metropolis including higher education institutions. A qualitative data…

  4. Household Living Arrangements and Transition to Sexual Debut among Young People in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time…

  5. Dilemma of Access and Provision of Quality Basic Education in Central Region, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amakyi, Michael; Ampah-Mensah, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A survey research was conducted to find out if reported improvements in access to education in Ghana are reflected in comparable improvements in delivery of quality education. The study examined theoretical constructs on adequacy and quality assurance in education to ascertain the state of quality provision in education, and whether there is a…

  6. Typology of School Dropout: The Dimensions and Dynamics of Dropout in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananga, Eric Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the dropout experience of children who dropped out of schools located in two rural communities in the Central Region of Ghana. The main research question sought to explore the meaning and types of drop out founded on the views of children who had dropped out of school. The study tracked 18 children aged 7-17 years. Snowball…

  7. Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity Structures and Social Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Leach, Fiona; Lugg, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on an ESRC/DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/wideningparticipation). There are questions about whether widening participation in higher education is a force for democratisation or differentiation.…

  8. SOMARC teams with private distribution firm to implement CSM program in Ghana.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    SOMARC, together with a private manufacturer and distributor of pharmaceutical products (Danafco, Limited), is launching a new contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program designed to make low cost, modern contraceptive products widely available in Ghana's cities. Danafco will directly implement the CSM program. Both the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the government of Ghana will provide support to the program. James R. Kirland, USAID Population Officer, will assume overall responsibility for coordination and monitoring of CSM program activities. By a special amendment to the Pharmacy and Drug Act of 1961, the Ghanaian government has enabled the CSM program to conduct a demonstration project. Under the project, chemical sellers and retailers who successfully complete a special training session will be entitled to dispense oral contraceptives (OCs) without prescription. With the successful completion of this project, it is hoped that the Ghanaian government will further amend the Pharmacy Act to make contraceptives available nationwide on a nonprescription basis. Initially, the Ghana CSM program will market 3 products: a standard dosage OC; a foaming vaginal tablet; and an uncolored condom. Market research is now underway to determine product names for the OCs and vaginal tablets. The condom will be marketed under the name Panther. The project plans to conduct a retail audit to define current prices in the Ghanaian contraceptive market. Danafco will subcontract with Lintas Ghana Limited to provide advertising, package design, and promotion for the Ghana CSM program. Overall campaign efforts will focus on generating a positive climate for the program among influentials in government, religion, education, and health as well as consumers. The advertising campaign will include radio, television, print, and outdoor media. SOMARC, in collaboration with the USAID/Accra mission, hopes to establish an appropriate climate prior to the advertising launch

  9. Minimal Coital Dilution in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; Cassels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Coital dilution, the reduction in the coital frequency per partner when an additional ongoing partner is added, may reduce the transmission potential of partnership concurrency for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Empirical estimates of dilution, especially dilution of sexual acts unprotected by condoms, are needed to inform prevention research. Methods Sexually active adults in Accra, Ghana were recruited in a multi-stage household probability sample. Degree (number of ongoing partners), total acts, and unprotected acts were measured retrospectively for each month in the past year through an event-history calendar. Random effects negative binomial models estimated the association between degree and coital frequency. Results Compared to person-months with a single partner (monogamy), 2.06 times as many total acts and 1.94 times as many unprotected acts occurred in months with 2 partners. In months with 3 partners, 2.90 times as many total acts and 2.39 times as many unprotected acts occurred compared to monogamous months. Total acts but not unprotected acts also declined with partnership duration. Conclusions No dilution was observed for total acts with up to three concurrent partners, but a small amount of dilution was observed for unprotected acts for months with multiple concurrencies. This suggests moderate selective condom use in months with multiple concurrencies. The implications of the observed dilution for future HIV transmission must be investigated with mathematical models. PMID:25622062

  10. The hydrochemical framework of surface water basins in southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidana, Sandow Mark

    2009-04-01

    Surface water resources play a crucial role in the domestic water delivery system in Ghana. In addition, sustainable food production is based on the quality and quantity of water resources available for irrigation purposes to supplement rain-fed agricultural activities in the country. The objective of this research was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of surface water resources in the southern part of Ghana and assess the quality of water from these basins for irrigation activities in the area. R-mode factor and cluster analyses were applied to 625 data points from 6 river basins in southern Ghana after the data had been log transformed and standardized for homogeneity. This study finds that surface water chemistry in the south is controlled by the chemistry of silicate mineral weathering, chemistry of rainfall, fertilizers from agricultural activities in the area, as well as the weathering of carbonate minerals. A Gibb’s diagram plotted with total dissolved solids (TDS) on the vertical axis against (Na+ + K+)/(Ca2+ + K+ + Na+) on the horizontal axis indicates that rock weathering plays a significant role in the hydrochemistry. Activity diagrams for the CaO-Na2O-Al2O-SiO2-H2O and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems suggest that kaolinite is the most stable clay mineral phase in the system. In addition, an assessment of the irrigation quality of water from these basins suggests that the basins are largely low sodium—low to medium salinity basins, delivering water of acceptable quality for irrigation purposes.

  11. Using reflective poems to describe the lived experiences of street children and adolescents in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    These two poems emerged from my qualitative research with homeless youth in Accra Central, Ghana. I was overwhelmed at how this method of research rarely used in Ghana offers a researcher the opportunity to capture participants' subjective feelings, and the complexities of their perceptions and experiences of a phenomenon. The aim of the study was to examine the lived experiences of street youth and to explore factors that enhance their survival on the street. These reflective poems shed light on the experiences of both the street youth and researcher, as captured in my reflective journal during the research. It was difficult winning the trust of the street youth, but when the trust was won, it became a worthy journey to understanding the complexities of their daily lives. PMID:25931645

  12. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  13. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  14. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana. PMID:26702383

  15. Epidemic in Ghana: "a very distinct profile".

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among pregnant women in Ghana in 1992 pointed to an HIV prevalence of 3.2% in Koforidua and 4.2% in Kumasi; prevalence of 18%, however, was observed in rural Agomanya in the Eastern Region of the country. This relatively and absolutely high prevalence of HIV infection in the Eastern Region is closely related to the emigration of women to Cote d'Ivoire for work as prostitutes, and their ultimate return to their home villages in Eastern Ghana. It is hypothesized that the construction of the Volta river dam at Akosombe in the 1960s led to the establishment of a prostitution industry in that region. After the work was completed, the female prostitutes from Ghana followed the construction workers to their next site in Koussou, Cote d'Ivoire, and later moved to Abidjan. By 1990, an estimated 60% of the prostitutes in Abidjan were Ghanaian, one third of whom were from the Eastern Region. The national AIDS program of Cote d'Ivoire reported in 1992 that 86% of prostitutes in Abidjan were infected with HIV. Since 1986, these women have been returning to their villages in Ghana's Eastern Region to live out the last few months of their lives. Ghanaians are aware of this phenomenon and generally believe that HIV and AIDS affect only prostitutes from Abidjan. That, however, is not the case. The national AIDS program estimates that 2% of the adult population in the country is infected with HIV, mainly through sex with a Ghanaian in Ghana who is not a prostitute. All sexually active individuals in Ghana may therefore be at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. This message must be communicated to the general public. PMID:12289034

  16. Accessibility of antiretroviral therapy in Ghana: convenience of access.

    PubMed

    Addo-Atuah, Joyce; Gourley, Dick; Gourley, Greta; White-Means, Shelley I; Womeodu, Robin J; Faris, Richard J; Addo, Nii Akwei

    2012-01-01

    The convenience of accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for initial access to care and subsequent adherence to ART. We conducted a qualitative study of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and ART healthcare providers in Ghana in 2005. The objective of this study was to explore the participants' perceived convenience of accessing ART by PLWHA in Ghana. The convenience of accessing ART was evaluated from the reported travel and waiting times to receive care, the availability, or otherwise, of special considerations, with respect to the waiting time to receive care, for those PLWHA who were in active employment in the formal sector, the frequency of clinic visits before and after initiating ART, and whether the PLWHA saw the same or different providers at each clinic visit (continuity of care). This qualitative study used in-depth interviews based on Yin's case-study research design to collect data from 20 PLWHA and 24 ART healthcare providers as study participants. • Reported travel time to receive ART services ranged from 2 to 12 h for 30% of the PLWHA. • Waiting time to receive care was from 4 to 9 h. • While known government workers, such as teachers, were attended to earlier in some of the centres, this was not a consistent practice in all the four ART centres studied. • The PLWHA corroborated the providers' description of the procedure for initiating and monitoring ART in Ghana. • PLWHA did not see the same provider every time, but they were assured that this did not compromise the continuity of their care. Our study suggests that convenience of accessing ART is important to both PLWHA and ART healthcare providers, but the participants alluded to other factors, including open provider-patient communication, which might explain the PLWHA's understanding of the constraints under which they were receiving care. The current nation-wide coverage of the ART programme in Ghana, however, calls for the replication of this study to identify

  17. Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success

  18. Multivariate co-integration analysis of the Kaya factors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental goal of the Government of Ghana's development agenda as enshrined in the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy to grow the economy to a middle income status of US$1000 per capita by the end of 2015 could be met by increasing the labour force, increasing energy supplies and expanding the energy infrastructure in order to achieve the sustainable development targets. In this study, a multivariate co-integration analysis of the Kaya factors namely carbon dioxide, total primary energy consumption, population and GDP was investigated in Ghana using vector error correction model with data spanning from 1980 to 2012. Our research results show an existence of long-run causality running from population, GDP and total primary energy consumption to carbon dioxide emissions. However, there is evidence of short-run causality running from population to carbon dioxide emissions. There was a bi-directional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy consumption and vice versa. In other words, decreasing the primary energy consumption in Ghana will directly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, a bi-directional causality running from GDP to energy consumption and vice versa exists in the multivariate model. It is plausible that access to energy has a relationship with increasing economic growth and productivity in Ghana. PMID:26857005

  19. Barriers to sustainable MVA supply in Ghana: challenges for the low-volume, low-income providers.

    PubMed

    Graff, Maura; Amoyaw, Dora A

    2009-12-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is ideal for surgical uterine evacuation in low-resource settings such as Ghana, but developing a sustainable supply to MVA has been challenging. In 2007 a situational analysis was conducted in Ghana to identify barriers to sustainable MVA supply. Information about MVA availability was gathered in seven regions of Ghana and obtained through background literature, unpublished data and reports, and 70 informational interviews with stakeholders involved with MVA policy, manufactufing, procurement, distribution, supply, training, and provision. The findings revealed that despite consensus about the dire need for MVA in Ghana, developing sustainable access to MVA instruments has proven difficult. In the public and the private health sectors, procuring MVA equipment has been particularly challenging for low-income, low-volume service providers. Research findings yielded ten recommendations for improving sustainable access to MVA, including the implementation of a revolving purchase mechanismn for health provider associations, such as the Ghana Registered Midwives Association. PMID:20690275

  20. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national digital seismic network observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo

    2015-07-01

    The Government of Ghana has established a National Digital Seismic Network Observatory in Ghana with the aim of monitoring events such as earthquakes, blasts from mining and quarrying, nuclear tests, etc. The Digital Observatory was commissioned on 19 December 2012, and was dedicated to Geosciences in Ghana. Previously Ghana did not have any operational, digital seismic network acquisition system with the capability of monitoring and analysing data for planning and research purposes. The Ghana Geological Survey has been monitoring seismic events with an analogue system which was not efficient and does not deliver real-time data. Hence, the importance of setting up the National Digital Seismic Network System which would enable the Geological Survey to constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, to some extent on real-time basis. The Network System is made up of six remote digital stations that transmit data via satellite to the central observatory. Sensors used are 3× Trillium Compact and 3× Trillium 120PA with Trident digitizers. The department has also acquired strong motion equipment: Titan accelerometers with Taurus digitizers from Nanometrics. Three of each of these instruments have been installed at the Akosombo and Kpong hydrodams, and also at the Weija water supply dam. These instruments are used to monitor dams. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values established from the analysed data from the accelerometers will be used to retrofit or carry out maintenance work of the dam structures to avoid collapse. Apart from these, the observatory also assesses and analyses seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) system operated by the US Geological Survey. The Ghana Geological Survey, through its Seismic Network Observatory makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of

  1. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2012-01-01

    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

  2. Assessing the Implementation of Ghana's Patient Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Manu, Abubakar; Atinga, Roger Ayimbillah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the implementation of Ghana's Patients' Charter by investigating the level of awareness and knowledge of the Charter's content, some socio-demographic factors that may influence awareness and knowledge of the Charter and how providers have discharged their responsibilities under the Charter.…

  3. Formalising the Informal: Ghana's National Apprenticeship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 there has been a renewed government focus on skills development and its relationship with combating unemployment in Ghana. Technical and vocational education and training (hereinafter; TVET), delivered through public and private schools, vocational training institutes and informal apprenticeship training, continues to be seen as an…

  4. Lecturers' Views on Ghana's Undergraduate Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the views of 6 university lecturers on Ghana's undergraduate mathematics education. These views were expressed during a mathematics workshop sensitization program on the "contribution of undergraduate mathematics education to the Ghanaian economy." The data consisting of open-ended questions followed by…

  5. Rights of the Child in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne Laurence

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…

  6. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

    2004-01-01

    The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222

  7. Education Collaboration to Promote School Participation in Northern Ghana: A Case Study of a Complementary Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mfum-Mensah, Obed

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the perceived benefits and challenges of the collaboration model of a complementary education program which operates in marginalized communities in northern Ghana. The scope of the paper includes the background, collaboration as a transformative process, research methodology, findings, and discussion. The study revealed that:…

  8. Analysis of the State of Discipline in Kwanyarko Senior High School in the Central Region of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackey, Elizabeth; Amaniampong, Kwarteng; Abrokwa, Juliana Efua

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose of this paper was to find out the perceptions of students and teachers on the state of discipline in Senior High Schools (SHS) in Ghana using Kwanyarko SHS in the Central Region as a case study. Questionnaire was formulated to direct the research. The question focused on the perceptions, causes and remedies to discipline in the…

  9. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterk, B.; Christian, A. K.; Gogan, A. C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001-2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Baseline data and controls were not available. In…

  10. Integrating ICT in Higher Education: A Case Study of Students with Visual Impairment in the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayebi-Arthur, Kofi; Aidoo, Dora Baaba; Ntim, Edward Kofi; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2009-01-01

    Disability issues in Ghana are gradually finding space in mainstream discourse. Conceptualising disability issues is challenged with consensus on the determination of parameters; a complex and controversial process. Our research interest is expressed in two objectives: to determine the status of ICT provision at the Centre for SVIs at the…

  11. An Evaluation of a Short-Term Service-Learning Study Abroad Program to Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This was a study of a short-term service-learning study abroad program to Ghana, West Africa. The research examined 7 participants' attitudes about and behavioral changes in response to study abroad. How the short-term study abroad experience enhanced and broadened the participants' exposure to other cultures was also studied. The purpose of the…

  12. Higher Education Curriculum for Sustainability: Course Contents Analyses of Purchasing and Supply Management Programme of Polytechnics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etse, Daniel; Ingley, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of attention to and the nature of sustainability issues in the curriculum of the Higher National Diploma (HND) Purchasing and Supply Management programme of Ghana. Design/Methodology/Approach: Documentary research is the approach used to analyse the curriculum document for the programme…

  13. Two worlds apart: experiential learning in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ware, Sharon Douglass; Winters-Moorhead, Carol

    2009-07-01

    As our society becomes more diverse, it is important for nursing students to become culturally competent and to view the world from a global perspective. Traveling abroad enlightens the senses and expands the worldview. Traveling for study abroad is more than taking a vacation; it affords students the opportunity to learn experientially and it can be a transforming encounter that influences the way an evolving nurse will practice. Nursing students at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina, had the opportunity to bridge two worlds, urban life at the university and village life in Dodowa, Ghana, West Africa. The purpose of this article is to explore the role that studying abroad has in nurturing experiential learning. The experiences of students from a southern historically Black university that were enrolled concurrently in two summer independent study courses focusing on global healthcare in Ghana, West Africa, are described. PMID:19691186

  14. Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of interventions on health outcomes and cost

  15. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  16. The Determinants of Girls' Educational Enrollment in Ghana. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca; Kyle, Steven

    This study examined the determinants of school enrollment in Ghana, considering historical and social information to formulate an econometric model of school enrollment patterns for households. Data came from a 1989 survey of households in Ghana. The survey collected basic information about community characteristics, health and school facilities,…

  17. Basic School Leaders in Ghana: How Equipped Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkor, Anthony Kudjo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the leadership preparedness of institutional-level practice with focus on basic schools in Ghana. The analysis of documents on teacher training curriculum and, one-on-one and focus group interviews with teachers and school leaders revealed that in all the 38 teacher training institutions in Ghana where teachers are prepared for…

  18. Rethinking Christian Religious Education in Ghana: History, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai-Mununkum, Richardson

    2014-01-01

    This scholarly essay employs an African philosophical and symbolic construct--Sank?fa--to examine religious education in Ghana. Sank?fa implores the need to examine the past in order to understand the present and to plan for the future. In line with this frame, I recount the history of religious education in Ghana, examine the present challenges,…

  19. Tertiary Education Policy in Ghana. An Assessment: 1988-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdwood, Alison

    This study was one of several activities conducted at the end of a 5-year World Bank/Government of Ghana project, the Tertiary Education Project (TEP). This project was designed to assist the government of Ghana with the restructuring and quality enhancement of its tertiary education sector. Although the government had prepared an ambitious reform…

  20. The first cases of Lassa fever in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dzotsi, E K; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, A M; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, J H K; Paintsil, S C N; Ampofo, W

    2012-09-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011. PMID:23661832

  1. E-waste interventions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Pwamang, John A; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw; Ampofo, Joseph Addo

    2016-03-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has become an emerging environmental and human health problem in the world in the 21st century. Recently, the developing nations of West Africa (e.g. Ghana and Nigeria) have become a major destination for e-waste worldwide. In Ghana, the e-waste recyclers use primitive methods (mechanical shredding and open burning) to remove plastic insulation from copper cables. This technique can release highly toxic chemicals and severely affect the environment and human health if improperly managed. It is as a result of the adverse impact on human health that some interventions are being made in Ghana to reduce exposure. The present mode of recycling/dismantling, which happens at Agbogbloshie must be replaced by official receiving/recycling centers to be established. Currently, equipment to strip both large and small cables are available in the country via the Blacksmith Institute (USA) and it is expected that the e-waste workers will embrace the use of these machines. This technology will go a long way to help prevent the burning of e-waste and will be replicated in other smaller e-waste centers in the country. PMID:26812848

  2. Mothers' education and childhood mortality in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Buor, Daniel

    2003-06-01

    The significant extent to which maternal education affects child health has been advanced in several sociodemographic-medical literature, but not much has been done in analysing the spatial dimension of the problem; and also using graphic and linear regression models of representation. In Ghana, very little has been done to relate the two variables and offer pragmatic explanations. The need to correlate the two, using a regression model, which is rarely applied in previous studies, is a methodological necessity. The paper examines the impact of mothers' education on childhood mortality in Ghana using, primarily, Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data of 1998 and World Bank data of 2000. The survey has emphatically established that there is an inverse relationship between mothers' education and child survivorship. The use of basic health facilities that relate to childhood survival shows a direct relationship with mothers' education. Recommendations for policy initiatives to simultaneously emphasise the education of the girl-child, and to ensure adequate access to maternal and child health services, have been made. The need for an experimental project of integrating maternal education and child health services has also been recommended. A linear regression model that illustrates the relationship between maternal education and childhood survival has emerged. PMID:12745169

  3. Hydrogeologic framework and borehole yields in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapaah-Siakwan, S.; Gyau-Boakye, P.

    2000-08-01

    In Ghana, 68% of the population live in rural communities, which are scattered and remote. Groundwater is the most feasible source of potable water supply for most of these dispersed and remote settlements. To meet the present and future challenges of population expansion vis-à-vis the observed declining rainfall in most parts of Africa including Ghana, it is necessary to assess, efficiently manage, and utilize the groundwater resources. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe the hydrogeologic framework and analyze borehole yields as part of the groundwater-resources assessment of Ghana. The hydrogeologic units are broadly categorized as: (1) the Basement Complex (crystalline rocks), which underlies about 54% of the country; (2) the Voltaian System, which underlies about 45%; and (3) the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic sedimentary strata (Coastal Provinces), which underlie the remaining 1% of the country. The Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces have higher groundwater potential than the Voltaian System. This is particularly significant, because the Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces underlie the most densely populated areas of the country and can hence be tapped for human use. The average borehole yields of the Basement Complex, the Coastal Provinces and the Voltaian System range from 2.7-12.7, 3.9-15.6, and 6.2-8.5 m3/h, respectively.

  4. Education reform for the expansion of mother-tongue education in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

    2012-10-01

    In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts, including the intermittent of mother tongue in early childhood schooling to facilitate English language and literacy instruction, prospects for a bold move towards multilingual education have emerged from a coalescence of forces inside and outside of Ghanaian education policy circles. This article discusses how the inertia of a dated language policy and a historic disregard for Ghana's multilingual landscape by the country's own policy makers are being overcome, at least partially, by progressive powers of change, albeit not without challenge. It undertakes an analysis of how a policy environment that supports bilingual education was created in order to implement a comprehensive and innovative multilingual programme, the National Literacy Acceleration Program (NALAP), which was rolled out across the nation's schools in early 2010. Having been involved in the process of designing NALAP, the authors describe the development of standards of learning and materials, as well as innovative aspects of a constructivist teacher education approach. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research, including combining a change process for key stakeholders and randomised language and literacy assessment with social marketing research in a unified approach.

  5. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  6. Pulled in or pushed out? Understanding the complexities of motivation for alternative therapies use in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Asante, Felix; Yeboah, Joseph Yaw; Abass, Kabila; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

    2016-01-01

    The impact of strong cultural beliefs on specific reasons for traditional medicine (TRM) use among individuals and populations has long been advanced in health care and spatio-medical literature. Yet, little has been done in Ghana and the Ashanti Region in particular to bring out the precise “pull” and “push” relative influences on TRM utilization. With a qualitative research approach involving rural and urban character, the study explored health beliefs and motivations for TRM use in Kumasi Metropolis and Sekyere South District, Ghana. The study draws on data from 36 in-depth interviews with adults, selected through theoretical sampling. We used the a posteriori inductive reduction model to derive broad themes and subthemes. The “pull factors”—perceived benefits in TRM use vis-à-vis the “push factors”—perceived poor services of the biomedical treatments contributed to the growing trends in TRM use. The result however indicates that the “pull factors,” viz.—personal health beliefs, desire to take control of one's health, perceived efficacy, and safety of various modalities of TRM—were stronger in shaping TRM use. Poor access to conventional medicine accounted for the differences in TRM use between rural and urban areas. Understanding the treatment and health-seeking behaviour of a cultural-related group is critical for developing and sustaining traditional therapy in Ghana. PMID:27018431

  7. The Tradeoff between Number of Children and Child Schooling: Evidence from Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) Working Paper Number 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Mark; And Others

    This research paper explores the relationship between fertility and the investments made by parents in the schooling of their children in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana (both in Africa). The tendency in developing nations research is that families with many children invest less in each, and families with fewer children make greater human capital…

  8. Oil and gas possibilities onshore and offshore Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, G.O.

    1984-09-01

    Nearly half of the total area of the Republic of Ghana is covered by sedimentary rocks. These rocks are found mainly in four different parts of the country: Tano basin, Keta basin, Voltaian basin, and the continental shelf. Because oil seeps in saturated superficial sands were found in the Tano basin, efforts to find oil in Ghana started as far back as 1896 in this basin, which is located at the extreme southwestern part of Ghana and has an area of 1165 km/sup 2/ (450 mi/sup 2/). The Keta basin, located at the extreme southeastern part of Ghana, has an area of 2200 km/sup 2/ (850 mi/sup 2/). The continental shelf of Ghana is at the southern part of the country and has an area of 27,562 km/sup 2/ (10,640 mi/sup 2/). The possibility of finding oil and/or gas at the extreme western part of the continental shelf cannot be overemphasized. The expansive Voltaian sedimentary basin, located in the central part of Ghana, covers an area of about 103,600 km/sup 2/ (40,000 mi/sup 2/). Although no trace of hydrocarbon was found in the only well that has been drilled so far in this basin, the presence of traces of bitumen in some parts of the basin indicates that, despite of its age, the basin might prove to be an oil province. The recent discovery of oil in the Ivory Coast means that it is possible to find oil or gas in Ghana, inasmuch as Ghana's petroleum potential is closely associated with that of the Ivory Coast basin, which extends for 560 km (300 mi) along the entire Ivory Coast and persists eastward into Ghana for an additional 320 km (200 mi), terminating in the area directly west of Accra.

  9. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Daireen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  10. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues

  11. Correlates of stunting among children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stunting, is a linear growth retardation, which results from inadequate intake of food over a long period of time that may be worsened by chronic illness. Over a long period of time, inadequate nutrition or its effects could result in stunting. This paper examines the correlates of stunting among children in Ghana using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Methods The paper uses data from the children recode file of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a nationally representative cross sectional survey conducted in Ghana. A total of 2379 children under five years who had valid anthropometric data were used for the study. Data on the stunting of children were collected by measuring the height of all children under six years of age. A measuring board produced by Shorr Productions was used to obtain the height of the children. Children under 2 years of age were measured lying down on the board while those above 2 years were measured standing. In the DHS data, a z-score is given for the child’s height relative to the age. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the correlates of stunting. Results Stunting was common among males than females. Age of child was a significant determinant of stunting with the highest odd of stunting been among children aged 36–47 months. Region was significantly related to stunting. Children from the Eastern Region were more likely to be stunted than children from the Western Region which is the reference group (OR = 1.7 at p < 0.05). Number of children in household was significantly related to stunting. Children in households with 5–8 children were 1.3 times more likely to be stunted compared to those with 1–4 children (p < .05). Mother’s age was a significant predictor of stunting with children whose mothers were aged 35–44 years being more likely to be stunted. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions and policies should be put in

  12. The changing face of women in physics in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah

    2013-03-01

    Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.

  13. Ghana seeks to resume offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.

  14. Political commitment to tuberculosis control in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    As part of expanding and sustaining tuberculosis (TB) control, the Stop TB Partnership of the World Health Organization initiative has called for strong political commitment to TB control, particularly in developing countries. Framing political commitment within the theoretical imperatives of the political economy of health, this study explores the existing and the expected dimensions of political commitment to TB control in Ghana. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 purposively selected staff members of the Ghana Health Service and some political officeholders. In addition, the study analysed laws, policies and regulations relevant to TB control. Four dimensions of political commitment emerged from the interviews: provision of adequate resources (financial, human and infrastructural); political authorities' participation in advocacy for TB; laws and policies' promulgation and social protection interventions. Particularly in respect to financial resources, donors such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria presently give more than 60% of the working budget of the programme. The documentary review showed that laws, policies and regulations existed that were relevant to TB control, albeit they were not clearly linked. PMID:24521048

  15. Effective programmes for improving nutrition in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agble, R

    1997-12-01

    This brief article identifies some lessons learned from effective programs for improving nutrition in Ghana. The Ghana nutrition program was initiated in the mid-1980s with the introduction of corn milling machines in over 50 communities. The milling machines were donated by UNICEF. The milling machines were used for the production of an improved cereal and a legume-based weaning food (Weanimix). The program included training and nutrition education. After the program was underway, an income generation component was added. The income from the sale of milled cereal was used to support other community-based activities. The number of mothers using the new weaning food increased. Maternal knowledge of basic nutrition improved in project communities compared to non-project communities. The program contributed to greater household food security and improved nutritional status of children. One important lesson learned was that, in order for community interest to remain high, there must be quality operation and few breakdowns of the milling machines. It is also important for agencies and nongovernmental groups to collaborate and define roles carefully. This program was successful in remote rural communities. Existing women's groups managed the project and maintained a simple record system to monitor progress. An appropriate amount of supervision is necessary to prevent laxness in the community from too little supervision or lack of initiative from too much supervision. The program staff was undecided regarding the use of incentives. PMID:12293189

  16. Cancer incidence in Ghana, 2012: evidence from a population-based cancer registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on cancers is a challenge in most developing countries. Population-based cancer registries are also not common in developing countries despite the usefulness of such registries in informing cancer prevention and control programmes. The availability of population-based data on cancers in Africa varies across different countries. In Ghana, data and research on cancer have focussed on specific cancers and have been hospital-based with no reference population. The Kumasi Cancer Registry was established as the first population-based cancer registry in Ghana in 2012 to provide information on cancer cases seen in the city of Kumasi. Methods This paper reviews data from the Kumasi Cancer Registry for the year 2012. The reference geographic area for the registry is the city of Kumasi as designated by the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census. Data was from all clinical departments of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Pathology Laboratory Results, Death Certificates and the Kumasi South Regional Hospital. Data was abstracted and entered into Canreg 5 database. Analysis was conducted using Canreg 5, Microsoft Excel and Epi Info Version 7.1.2.0. Results The majority of cancers were recorded among females accounting for 69.6% of all cases. The mean age at diagnosis for all cases was 51.6 years. Among males, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.4 compared with 53.0 years for females. The commonest cancers among males were cancers of the Liver (21.1%), Prostate (13.2%), Lung (5.3%) and Stomach (5.3%). Among females, the commonest cancers were cancers of the Breast (33.9%), Cervix (29.4%), Ovary (11.3%) and Endometrium (4.5%). Histology of the primary tumour was the basis of diagnosis in 74% of cases with clinical and other investigations accounting for 17% and 9% respectively. The estimated cancer incidence Age Adjusted Standardised Rate for males was 10.9/100,000 and 22.4/100, 000 for females. Conclusion This first attempt at population-based cancer

  17. Women in science in Ghana: The Ghana science clinics for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Anderson, Christina Oduma; Ababio, Baaba Andam; Asenso, Yaa Akomah; Nyarko, Savanna

    2015-12-01

    The Ghana Science Clinics for Girls, started in 1987, gave rise to a paradigm shift in the inclusion of girls in science education. One generation later, we review the impact. Our study indicates that progress has been made in the effort to mainstream women into science studies and careers, mainly as a result of the changes that took place through this intervention strategy. The retention rate for girls in science from primary to university has risen considerably and performance is higher.

  18. Computer Attitude, and the Impact of Personal Characteristics and Information and Communication Technology Adoption Patterns on Performance of Teaching Faculty in Higher Education in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined computer attitude, and the impact of personal characteristics and ICT adoption patterns on performance of multidisciplinary teaching faculty in three public universities in Ghana. A cross-sectional research of mixed methods was applied in collecting data and information. Quantitative data from 164 respondents were analyzed…

  19. Childbirth and pragmatic midwifery in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Geurts, K

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual categories such as traditional, modern, and postmodern do not further our understanding of the empirical situation of midwifery in late 20th-century rural Ghana. Processes of "modernization," it is argued, have not had much impact on the domain of childbirth. And, despite efforts to "medicalize" birth (by the state and the international movement for safe motherhood and child survival), in Anlo-Ewe cultural contexts in the mid-1990s the lineage still controlled most deliveries, with many babies continuing to be born at home. This article provides an in-depth portrait of one midwife, Sena, who practiced in this rural locale--a locale that is marked by increased "professionalization" and competing ideologies of healing and health. Exemplifying what might best be referred to as critical midwifery grounded in pragmatism, Sena mediated, translated, and maneuvered as she involved herself in the imbroglios of birth and as she worked to improve maternal and infant health. PMID:11817851

  20. Sustainable improvements in injury surveillance in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adofo, Koranteng; Donkor, Peter; Afukaar, Francis; Boateng, Kofi Adomako; Mock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mortuary is an important foundation for injury surveillance. However, mortuary data are incomplete in many developing countries. Methods The KATH mortuary handles most injury deaths for Kumasi, Ghana. During 1994–5, many cases in KATH’s mortuary logbooks had missing information deaths. A low-cost pilot program was adopted to improve recording of injury deaths. During 1996–9, 633 deaths/year were recorded. Results Project sustainability assessment in 2006 showed that reporting was high, with 773 cases per year. Data quality was standard with similar percents of missing values for key variables compared with the pilot period. Supplemental data constituting 20% was obtained from the ICU, for which data recording in the mortuary was incomplete. Conclusion Low-cost improvements can lead to improved mortuary reporting of injury deaths. Collation of data from multiple sources remains a problem at KATH. Improved organization and training could remedy the situation. PMID:20467961

  1. Sustainable improvements in injury surveillance in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adofo, Koranteng; Donkor, Peter; Boateng, Kofi A; Afukaar, Francis; Mock, Charles

    2010-06-01

    The mortuary is an important foundation for injury surveillance. However, mortuary data are incomplete in many developing countries. The Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) mortuary handles most injury deaths for Kumasi, Ghana. During 1994-1995, many cases in KATH's mortuary logbooks had missing information deaths. A low-cost pilot programme was adopted to improve recording of injury deaths. During 1996-1999, 633 deaths per year were recorded. Project sustainability assessment in 2006 showed that reporting was high, with 773 cases per year. Data quality was standard with similar per cents of missing values for key variables compared with the pilot period. Supplemental data constituting 20% was obtained from the intensive care unit, for which data recording in the mortuary was incomplete. Low-cost improvements can lead to improved mortuary reporting of injury deaths. Collation of data from multiple sources remains a problem at KATH. Improved organisation and training could remedy the situation. PMID:20467961

  2. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

  3. Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to

  4. Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana--part 1: human health review.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N; Neitzel, Richard L; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors' recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere. PMID:25985314

  5. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

    2012-08-01

    The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

  6. Ghana YWCA reaches youth with model health program.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) operates the Better Life Options for Girls and Young Women Initiative in Ghana. It supports the expansion of Ghana's YWCA model adolescent reproductive health program which is targeted to high risk urban and rural adolescents. This program has been so successful that it has increased the number of youth it influences 3-fold. The sexuality and family planning education programs and counseling attract the youth. Teachers, school administrators, and parents support the YWCA program because it relates the controversial issue of adolescent sexuality with a rise in girls' school dropout rates. The YWCA's Counselling Centre in Accra is the first youth facility in Ghana to provide family life education and family planning services to in-school and out-of-school youths. The YWCA is also collaborating with an association of truck drivers and young male street vendors to distribute condoms in the marketplace. Community and parental concern over rising teenage pregnancy rates, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infections, and girls leaving school motivates the YWCA to offer this program. In Ghana, 19% of female adolescents have at least 1 child. 75% of these teenagers either did not want or plan these births. In conclusion, the YWCA program hopes to establish a consensus that youth must be helped, both for their good and for the good of Ghana. PMID:12345284

  7. Determinants of unprotected casual heterosexual sex in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Tuoyire, Derek A; Darteh, Eugene K M

    2014-05-01

    Casual heterosexual sex remains a significant contributor to HIV transmissions in Ghana. The study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to assess the socio-demographic, economic and spatial factors influencing unprotected casual heterosexual sex among men and women. The results of the binary logistic regression models revealed that women aged 35-44 had significantly higher odds of engaging in unprotected casual heterosexual sex than those aged 15-24, unlike the men. There were significantly lower odds of unprotected casual heterosexual sex for women and men with exposure to print media compared with those without exposure. Compared with men residing in the Western Region, unprotected casual heterosexual sex was significantly less likely among those in the Upper East Region. There is the need for behavioural change campaigns in Ghana that take into consideration the multiplicity of factors that determine unprotected casual heterosexual sex. PMID:23931547

  8. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  9. Evolutionary History of Rabies in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L.; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007–2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the

  10. Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet (A compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Yogesh S.; Chavan, Sulakshan S.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Thakar, A. B.; Chandola, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprising of both male and female in each group. Group I received water served as normal control (WC), group II received vehicle and served as vehicle control (VC), group III received Rasayana Ghana tablet and group IV received standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg) for anxiolytic study in elevated plus maze and standard antidepressant imipramine (5 mg/kg) for anti-depressant activity in behavior despair test. Rasayana Ghana tablet along with ghee and honey as vehicle is found to be having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. Thus, this formulation can be used in prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety. PMID:22529654

  11. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana-Part 2: Natural Sciences Review.

    PubMed

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-08-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  12. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Ghana via the Delphi Process

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Avik; Phipps, Sean; Long, Rachel; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people) and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation). The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention. PMID:26378557

  13. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Ghana via the Delphi Process.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Phipps, Sean; Long, Rachel; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2015-09-01

    The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people) and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation). The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention. PMID:26378557

  14. Career Ladder Policy For Teachers: The Case Of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the past. After critically assessing the major aspects of the policy, along with the voices of Ghanaian teachers, this study argues that the career ladder policy for teachers in Ghana is another prototypical case of a failed experiment in terms of both improving the lives of teachers and maintaining their professional rights.

  15. Quality of health care, survival and health outcomes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Lavy, V; Strauss, J; Thomas, D; de Vreyer, P

    1996-06-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of quality and accessibility of health services and other public infrastructure on the health of children in Ghana. We focus on child survival, child height and weight using data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The results suggest an important role for public health policy in eliminating the rural-urban disparities in health status and particularly in improving the health status of rural children and reducing their mortality rates. Increased availability of birth services and other related child programs, as well as Improved water and sanitation infrastructure would have an immediate payoff. PMID:10159445

  16. Factors Influencing Health Facility Delivery in Predominantly Rural Communities across the Three Ecological Zones in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Enuameh, Yeetey Akpe Kwesi; Okawa, Sumiyo; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Mahama, Emmanuel; Ansah, Evelyn; Tawiah, Charlotte; Adjei, Kwame; Shibanuma, Akira; Nanishi, Keiko; Yeji, Francis; Agyekum, Enoch Oti; Yasuoka, Junko; Gyapong, Margaret; Oduro, Abraham Rexford; Quansah Asare, Gloria; Hodgson, Abraham; Jimba, Masamine; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal and neonatal mortality indicators remain high in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African countries. Both maternal and neonatal health outcomes improve when skilled personnel provide delivery services within health facilities. Determinants of delivery location are crucial to promoting health facility deliveries, but little research has been done on this issue in Ghana. This study explored factors influencing delivery location in predominantly rural communities in Ghana. Methods Data were collected from 1,500 women aged 15–49 years with live or stillbirths that occurred between January 2011 and April 2013. This was done within the three sites operating Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems, i.e., the Dodowa (Greater Accra Region), Kintampo (Brong Ahafo Region), and Navrongo (Upper-East Region) Health Research Centers in Ghana. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of delivery location, controlling for covariates that were statistically significant in univariable regression models. Results Of 1,497 women included in the analysis, 75.6% of them selected health facilities as their delivery location. After adjusting for confounders, the following factors were associated with health facility delivery across all three sites: healthcare provider’s influence on deciding health facility delivery, (AOR = 13.47; 95% CI 5.96–30.48), place of residence (AOR = 4.49; 95% CI 1.14–17.68), possession of a valid health insurance card (AOR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.29–2.81), and socio-economic status measured by wealth quintiles (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.43–5.60). Conclusion In addition to known factors such as place of residence, socio-economic status, and possession of valid health insurance, this study identified one more factor associated with health facility delivery: healthcare provider’s influence. Ensuring care provider’s counseling of clients could improve the uptake of health facility delivery in rural communities in

  17. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  18. Measles in southern Ghana: 1985-1993.

    PubMed

    Commey, J O; Dekyem, P

    1994-01-01

    Measles continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among children in Southern Ghana although at a much lower level than a decade earlier. The major indications for measles admissions and the mortality associated factors of pneumonia, malnutrition, and diarrhea complicated by dehydration, however remain the same. The majority of measles admissions were in children without primary immunization resident in the more densely populated inner city of Accra and the peri-urban areas inhabited by lower-income recent immigrants. Our data show uncomfortable increases in the number of children aged 3-8 months as well as school age children (> or = 60 months), thus reopening the perennial discussion on the measles immunization programme i.e. what to do with younger infants with doubtful maternally-derived protection as well as the children who have missed their primary immunization at 9 months or those with immunization failure. The advantages of the 2-dose measles immunization programme need urgent consideration by national programme directors in African countries. The second dose is especially advocated to address the attendant problems of the cold chain system, vaccine efficacy, vaccine failure and diagnostic errors as older school-going age children. PMID:7756188

  19. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    , the need for actions to be taken to reduce entry of e-waste pollutants into Ghana's aquatic environment is real and is immediate.Heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) and organic pollutants (e.g.,PCDD/Fs and PBDEs) have been detected in the sediments of local water bodies in quantities that greatly exceed background levels. This fact alone suggests that aquatic organisms that live in the affected water bodies are highly exposed to these toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent contaminants. These contaminants have been confirmed to result from the primitive methods used to recycle and process e-waste within the local environment.Only limited local data exist on the threats posed by these e-waste-related contaminants on nearby natural resources, especially aquatic organisms. In this review,we have addressed the potential toxicity of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants on aquatic organisms. Since there are no data on concentrations of contaminants in the water column, we have based our predictions of effects on pollutant release rates from sediments. Pollutants that are attached to sediments are routinely released into the water column from diffusion and advection, the rate of which depends on pH and Eh of the sediments. E-waste contaminants have the potential to produce deleterious effects on the behavior, physiology, metabolism, reproduction,development and growth of many aquatic organisms. Because it is confirmed that both heavy metal and organic contaminants are reaching the biota of Ghana's local waterways, we presume that they are producing adverse effects. Because local data on the aquatic toxicity of these contaminants are as yet unavailable, we strongly recommend that future research be undertaken to examine, on a large scale and long-term basis, both contamination levels in biota, and adverse effects on biota of the nearby water bodies. PMID:24515808

  20. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in the Dormaa Municipality, Ghana: Why Some Residents Remain Uninsured?

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a quantitative investigation on the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in the Dormaa Municipality, Ghana: Why some residents remain uninsured? Since its implementation a little over a decade now. The aim is to identify the obstacles of enrolment by the public, which would enable policy direction, to ensure that all residents are registered with the scheme. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted between May and July, 2013. Both purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 210 respondents and data obtained through self-administered, and face-to-face interviews guided by structured questionnaire. Chi square (χ2) test of independence was adopted to show the association between socioeconomic and demographic features as well as membership. Findings from the research suggest that residents’ decision to enrol is significantly associated with gender, education, number of children, place of residence, employment and income. It was also observed that membership is highly affected by premium level. The discussion of the findings and recommendations offered, if incorporated into the policy guideline of NHIS, could maintain, and at the same time increase enrolment level. This would guarantee quality and affordable basic health care protection for the good people of Ghana. PMID:24762349

  1. Mainstreaming Climate Change Into Geosciences Curriculum of Tertiary Educational Systems in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyarko, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of Climate Change has a far-reaching implication for economies and people living in the fragile Regions of Africa analysts project that by 2020, between 75 million and 250 million people will be exposed various forms of Climate Change Stresses. Education as a key strategy identified under Agenda 21 has been incorporated into the efforts of various educational institutions as a means of mitigating climate change and enhancing sustainability. Climate Change education offers many opportunities and benefits for educators, researchers, learners, and for wider society, but there are also many challenges, which can hinder the successful mainstreaming of climate change education. The study aims at understanding barriers for Climate Change Education in selected tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study was conducted among Geoscience Departments of the 7 main public universities of Ghana and also juxtapose with the WASCAL graduate school curriculum. The transcript analysis identified issues that hinders the mainstreaming of Climate Change, these includes existing levels of knowledge and understanding of the concept of climate change, appreciating the threshold concepts, ineffective teaching of Climate Change and some Departments are slow in embracing Climate Change as a discipline. Hence to develop strategies to mainstream climate change education it is important to recognize that increasing the efficiency and delivery of Climate Change education requires greater attention and coordination of activities and updating the educators knowledge and skill's. Institutions and Educator should be encouraged to undertake co-curricula activities and finding ways to make Climate Change education practical.

  2. The Public Health Impact of Training Physicians to Become Obstetricians and Gynecologists in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obed, Samuel A.; Boothman, Erika L.; Opare-Ado, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the public health effect of creating and sustaining obstetrics and gynecology postgraduate training in Ghana, established in 1989 to reverse low repatriation of physicians trained abroad. Methods. All 85 certified graduates of 2 Ghanaian university-based postgraduate training programs from program initiation in 1989 through June 2010 were identified and eligible for this study. Of these, 7 were unable to be contacted, inaccessible, declined participation, or deceased. Results. Of the graduates, 83 provide clinical services in Ghana and work in 33 sites in 8 of 10 regions; 15% were the first obstetrician and gynecologist at their facility, 25% hold clinical leadership positions, 50% practice in teaching hospitals, and 14% serve as academic faculty. Conclusions. Creating capacity for university-based postgraduate training in obstetrics and gynecology is effective and sustainable for a comprehensive global approach to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Policies to support training and research capacity in obstetrics and gynecology are an integral part of a long-term national plan for maternal health. PMID:24354828

  3. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in the Dormaa Municipality, Ghana: why some residents remain uninsured?

    PubMed

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents a quantitative investigation on the national health insurance scheme (nhis) in dormaa municipality, Ghana: why some residents remain uninsured? Since its implementation has been a little over a decade now. The aim is to identify the obstacles to enrollment by the public which would enable policy direction to ensure that all residents are registered with the scheme. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted between May and July, 2013. Both purposive and simple random sampling technique were used to select 210 respondents and data obtained through self-administered and face-to-face interviews guided by structured questionnaire. chi square (X2) test of independence was adopted to show the association between socioeconomic and demographic features and membership. Findings from the research suggest that residents' decision to enrol have significant associated with gender, education, number of children, place of residence, employment and income. It was also observed that membership is highly affected by premium level. The discussion of the findings and recommendations offered, if incorporated into the policy guideline of NHIS could maintain and at the same time increase enrollment level which would guarantee quality, accessible and affordable basic health care protection for the good people of Ghana. PMID:24762349

  4. Assessing equity in health care through the national health insurance schemes of Nigeria and Ghana: a review-based comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nigeria and Ghana have recently introduced a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) with the aim of moving towards universal health care using more equitable financing mechanisms. This study compares health and economic indicators, describes the structure of each country’s NHIS within the wider healthcare system, and analyses impacts on equity in financing and access to health care. Methods The World Bank and other sources were used to provide comparative health and economic data. Pubmed, Embase and EconLit were searched to locate studies providing descriptions of each NHIS and empirical evidence regarding equity in financing and access to health care. A diagrammatical representation of revenue-raising, pooling, purchasing and provision was produced in order to analyse the two countries’ systems. Results Over the period 2000–2010, Ghana maintained a marked advantage in life expectancy, infant mortality, under-5 year mortality, and has a lower burden of major diseases. Health care expenditure is about 5% of GDP in both countries but public expenditure in 2010 was 38% of total expenditure in Nigeria and 60% in Ghana. Financing and access are less equitable in Nigeria as, inter alia, private out-of-pocket expenditure has fallen from 80% to 66% of total spending in Ghana since the introduction of its NHIS but has remained at over 90% in Nigeria; NHIS membership in Nigeria and Ghana is approximately 3.5% and 65%, respectively; Nigeria offers a variable benefits package depending on membership category while Ghana has uniform benefits across all beneficiaries. Both countries exhibit improvements in equity but there is a pro-rich and pro-urban bias in membership. Conclusions Major health indicators are more favourable in Ghana and overall equity in financing and access are weaker in Nigeria. Nigeria is taking steps to expand NHIS membership and has potential to expand its public spending to achieve greater equity. However, heavy burdens of poverty

  5. Career Ladder Policy for Teachers: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the…

  6. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  7. Developing Higher Education Programs in Emergency Management: Ghana's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubu, Mariama Bisongu

    2013-01-01

    Ghana is highly vulnerable and threatened by several hazards and has sought ways of minimizing impacts of hazards events over time including demonstrating an interest in developing an emergency management training and an higher education degree program. Yet, as of 2013, the country has not developed a disaster management training program or a…

  8. The Wayside Mechanic: An Analysis of Skill Acquisition in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Stephen Douglas

    This study describes and analyzes the nature of skill acquisition process in one indigenous, informal training system--the apprenticeship of the wayside mechanics workshops in Koforidua, Ghana. Chapter 2 places apprenticeships training in the wider context of artisanship and training. It traces the history of the West African craft shop and its…

  9. Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongjie; Yang, Yichao; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Sheng; Lin, Kangming; Wang, Duoquan; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Weikang; Li, Mei; Feng, Xinyu; Yu, Jianxin; Ren, Xiang; Lai, Shengjie; Sun, Junling; Fang, Zhongliao; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C.A.; Zhou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    During May-August 2013, a malaria outbreak comprising 874 persons in Shanglin County, China, was detected among 4,052 persons returning from overseas. Ghana was the predominant destination country, and 92.3% of malarial infections occurred in gold miners. Preventive measures should be enhanced for persons in high-risk occupations traveling to malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25897805

  10. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

  11. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  12. The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…

  13. U. S. Teachers Learn about Family Security in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Caryl

    2006-01-01

    This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of…

  14. Bacteremia and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance over Time, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amuzu, Sylvarius K.; de Ciman, Ring; Kassimova, Iparkhan; Groß, Lisa; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Rosenberg, Ulrike; Schulze, Marco; Stich, August; Zimmermann, Ortrud

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance were monitored in patients with bacterial bloodstream infections in rural hospitals in Ghana. In 2001–2002 and in 2009, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was the most prevalent pathogen. Although most S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates were chloramphenicol resistant, all isolates tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. PMID:22000360

  15. ABCs of Diversifying Information Resources among Rice Smallholders of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiko, M.; Halm, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated how information resource diversification can enhance smallholder agricultural knowledge in Ghana. Design/Methodology/Approach: Study tools and methods were questionnaire survey (N = 200), focus group discussion (N = 1), in-depth interviews (N = 18) and field direct observation. Findings: This study shows there existed…

  16. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  17. Prevalence of schizophrenia in the Labadi District of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sikanartey, T; Eaton, W W

    1984-02-01

    Age- sex-specific point prevalence rates for schizophrenia are presented for an area in Ghana. Sources of case material included local mental hospitals, general health clinics, shrines of traditional healers, and roaming eccentrics. Denominators are projected from the 1970 census. Diagnosis was made by a single psychiatrist from interview and chart review. PMID:6608212

  18. An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

  19. Using Natural Materials for Educational Toys: Examples from Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William, Musah; Preston, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)

  20. Deaf Sociality and the Deaf Lutheran Church in Adamorobe, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusters, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of "deaf sociality" in Adamorobe, a village in Ghana, where the relatively high prevalence of hereditary deafness has led to dense social and spatial connections. Deaf people are part of their hearing environment particularly through family networks, and produce deaf sociality through many…

  1. Enhancing Secondary Education in Ghana: The Case of Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredua-Kwarteng, E.

    2005-01-01

    This conceptual paper uses the author's observations and experiences, along with the relevant literature in the field to argue critically for the introduction of entrepreneurial studies in senior secondary schools (S S S) in Ghana. The argument is cast within the framework of career socialization theory, which proposes that the decision to adopt a…

  2. Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-01-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

  3. Revisiting Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    When Ghana became independent in 1957 it had one of the most developed education systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Over the next forty years its education system expanded to provide places for most, but not all, of its children. Since the education reforms of the late 1980s enrolments have grown steadily; this contrasts with some SSA countries…

  4. Investment in Human Capital. Schooling Supply Constraints in Rural Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…

  5. Comparing Power Spaces: The Shaping of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi-Amoako, Emefa

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…

  6. Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

  7. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

  8. Assessing School Leadership Challenges in Ghana Using Leadership Practices Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alexander Kyei; Aboagye, Samuel Kwadwo

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Education Service (GES) is facing challenges in school leadership and hence a lot of criticisms on basic school performances. The issue is whether school leadership relates to school performances and that there is the need for transformation leadership. The purpose of this study was to discuss self-reported leadership practices…

  9. Newspaper Framing of Climate Change in Nigeria and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Chinenye; Egbra, Stella

    2016-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of two newspapers from Nigeria and Ghana to determine the coverage and framing of climate change issues for a period of 7 months. The main objective of this study is to find out how climate change stories are framed in Nigerian and Ghanaian national dailies. It was found among others, that the overall dominant…

  10. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  11. Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

    2010-12-01

    As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the

  12. Laboratory-based nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Opintan, Japheth A; Newman, Mercy J; Arhin, Reuben E; Donkor, Eric S; Gyansa-Lutterodt, Martha; Mills-Pappoe, William

    2015-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). A key target in this intervention is surveillance for local and national action. Data on AMR in Ghana are limited, and monitoring of AMR is nonexistent. We sought to generate baseline data on AMR, and to assess the readiness of Ghana in laboratory-based surveillance. Biomedical scientists in laboratories across Ghana with capacity to perform bacteriological culture were selected and trained. In-house standard operating protocols were used to perform microbiological investigations on clinical specimens. Additional microbiological tests and data analyses were performed at a centralized laboratory. Surveillance data were stored and analyzed using WHONET program files. A total of 24 laboratories participated in the training, and 1,598 data sets were included in the final analysis. A majority of the bacterial species were isolated from outpatients (963 isolates; 60.3%). Urine (617 isolates; 38.6%) was the most common clinical specimen cultured, compared to blood (100 isolates; 6.3%). Ten of 18 laboratories performed blood culture. Bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli (27.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (14.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%), Streptococcus spp. (2.3%), and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (0.6%). Most of the isolates were multidrug-resistant, and over 80% of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing. Minimum inhibitory concentration levels at 50% and at 90% for ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and amikacin on selected multidrug-resistant bacteria species ranged between 2 µg/mL and >256 µg/mL. A range of clinical bacterial isolates were resistant to important commonly used antimicrobials in the country, necessitating an effective surveillance to continuously monitor AMR in Ghana. With local and international support, Ghana can participate in global AMR surveillance. PMID:26604806

  13. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2016-08-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  14. Premarital relationships and livelihoods in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ankomah, A

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews with a sample of 400 single women aged 18-25 years from the Fante ethnic group in Cape Coast, Ghana, in 1991, and on focus groups. This case study illustrates the importance of economic and living arrangement support expected from partners in premarital relationships. Support may be for living and maintenance ('chopmoney', provisions, household items, and rent); for financial security (provision of capital); and for clothing and hairdressing. Women did not always require economic support in premarital relationships. Women expect boyfriends to provide 'chopmoney' (money for food and general upkeep) and contribute some money for the rent. Only 36% of sexually active women expected their boyfriends to supply food provisions. Premarital sexual relationships are used to obtain start-up capital. The author refers to evidence that senior government officials engaged in sexual transactions with clients before loans and credit facilities were offered. 87% of sexually experienced women expected their partners to pay for at least part of clothing expenses. The study revealed that there was considerable disparity between women's expectations and actual receipt of economic support. 56% desired, but only 36% received, 'chopmoney' in full. 40% expected their partners to pay for household furnishings in full, while only 10% did so. 55% expected capital, but only 15% received it. The three most frequently received benefits in full were hair dressing, shoes, and dresses. Men provided most non-negotiable items as a means of "boosting their egos." Many young women rely on the support of men in order to improve their status. Ghanaian men control financial resources and economic power. Mothers of adolescent daughters encourage premarital sexual behavior. Prostitution is considered different from sexual exchange relationships. It is argued that gender inequalities and domestic abuse are perpetuated through sexual exchange relationships. PMID:12347714

  15. Condoms too costly for Ghana's youth.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    The Red Cross in Ghana has launched a new project to use peer volunteers aged 14-25 years for educating trade apprentices in and around the capital city. The project has funding from the World Health Organization. The aim is to open conversation about taboo subjects, such as HIV infections and reproductive health. A male and female peer educator hold workshops for about 10 apprentices each week for four weeks. Educators use real-life drama role plays to teach women how to say no to unsafe sex and to expand knowledge of HIV infections and other sexually transmitted diseases. An attempt is made to assess the teenaged apprentices knowledge of AIDS. The risk game is used to test existing knowledge. Peer educators give each participant a card, which is marked either high, low, or no risk. Apprentices are asked to match cards with a series of statements, such as sharing food or sleeping with someone who had HIV infection. Findings from a pre-test reveal that over 50% of the apprentices did not consider themselves at risk of contracting the virus. One outcome of discussion was that appendices found that condoms were too costly. Some apprentices earned only about 12 cents per day, but condoms sold for 9 cents for 3 condoms. Role play scenarios involve boyfriends or associates requesting unprotected sex. In one such role play, it was discovered that girls were exchanging sex for money or gifts without considering it prostitution. At the final meeting the story is told of a girl who contracts HIV. A repeat customer eventually invites her to a party, where she is given alcohol to drink. The customer forces her to have unprotected sex. Years later at the birth of her first child within marriage, it is discovered that the baby was infected with HIV. Discussion follows about what went wrong and about transmission and risk. PMID:12291110

  16. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. Methods We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. Results Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. Conclusion In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  17. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  18. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    PubMed Central

    Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    drinking water, with the lowest at 29.6% in the Volta region. The overall rate of access to improved sanitation was just 14.9%. The findings show significant regional differences, with the three Northern Regions having worse education, income, and sanitation levels, compared to Southern and Central Regions of the country. Conclusion Household characteristics and intra-household dynamics have been shown to influence health and health-seeking behaviors across a number of contexts and countries, and play a fundamental role in the well-being of older Ghanaians. SAGE Ghana is part of a multi-country study using standardized questionnaires and tested methodologies to provide household level data required to inform policy on the growing population of older adults in Ghana. With the good response rates and measures instituted to assure quality of data, this article demonstrates the high quality data and research methods of SAGE. PMID:23759325

  19. Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana. PMID:22003263

  20. Inter-comparison of safety culture within selected practices in Ghana utilising ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Schandorf, C; Darko, E O; Boadu, M; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, A R; Gyekye, P K; Kpeglo, D O

    2010-12-01

    The safety culture of selected practices and facilities in Ghana utilising radiation sources or radiation emitting devices has been assessed using a performance indicator, which provided status information on management and operating staff commitment to safety. The questionnaire was based on the following broad areas: general safety considerations, safety policy at the facility level, safety practices at the facility level, definition of responsibility, staff training, safety of the physical structure of the facility and the emergency plans. The analysis showed that the percentage levels of commitment to safety for the respective practices are as follows: conventional radiography, 23.3-90.0%; research reactor, 73.3%; gamma irradiation facility, 53.3%; radiotherapy, 76.7%; X-ray scanner, 80.0%; gamma scanner, 76.7%; industrial radiography 86.7% and nuclear density practice, 78%. None of the practices or facilities was able to satisfy all the requirements that will ensure a 100% level of safety culture. PMID:20699247

  1. Situated knowledge of pathogenic landscapes in Ghana: Understanding the emergence of Buruli ulcer through qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tschakert, Petra; Ricciardi, Vincent; Smithwick, Erica; Machado, Mario; Ferring, David; Hausermann, Heidi; Bug, Leah

    2016-02-01

    Successfully addressing neglected tropical diseases requires nuanced understandings of pathogenic landscapes that incorporate situated, contexualized community knowledge. In the case of Buruli ulcer (BU), the role of social science is vital to investigate complex human-environment interactions and navigate different ways of knowing. We analyze a set of qualitative data from our interdisciplinary project on BU in Ghana, drawing from participatory mapping, focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, and open-ended survey questions to explore how people in endemic and non-endemic areas see themselves embedded in changing environmental and social landscapes. We pay particular attention to landscape disturbance through logging and small-scale alluvial gold mining. The results from our participatory research underscore the holistic nature of BU emergence in landscapes, encapsulated in partial and incomplete local descriptions, the relevance of collective learning to distill complexity, and the potential of rich qualitative data to inform quantitative landscape-disease models. PMID:26761375

  2. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  3. Scientific equity: experiments in laboratory education in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osseo-Asare, Abena Dove

    2013-12-01

    During the 1960s the Ministry of Education in Ghana created a network of school laboratories to increase scientific literacy among young citizens. The ministry stocked these "Science Centres" with imported beakers, Bunsen burners, and books. Education officials and university scientists worked with teachers to create lesson plans on water, air, plants, and other topics. The government hoped that scientifically minded schoolchildren would be better prepared to staff the industries of the future. The adoption of laboratory norms represented a desire for scientific equity, rather than a condition of cultural mimicry. Interviews with ministry officials and science educators, alongside letters and reports, indicate how students and teachers appropriated the laboratories in the small West African nation. Their experiences in mobilizing resources from across Ghana and around the world provide a metaphor for ongoing efforts to establish access to scientific goods in Africa. PMID:24783491

  4. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  5. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  6. Jobs, Skills and Incomes in Ghana: How Was Poverty Halved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women. While…

  7. Vocationalizing Secondary Education: The Junior Secondary Schooling Reform of 1987 in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses educational reform in Ghana with reference to the junior secondary schooling. The empirical data on junior secondary teachers and pupils used here is taken from a larger case study of the junior secondary school innovation in Ghana. This offers some new perspectives on the realities of Ghanaian junior secondary schooling,…

  8. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  9. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  10. The Internationalisation Agenda: A Critical Examination of Internationalisation Strategies in Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamera, Gifty Oforiwaa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various strategies have been adopted and adapted by universities in Ghana to re/position themselves in the international arena. Utilising postcolonial and neoliberal theories, this paper critically examines the internationalisation strategies of three public universities in Ghana. Although all the universities have adopted strategies to…

  11. What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Christopher

    This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…

  12. School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

  13. Ghana. Part One-Class Materials. Development Studies No. 1, Third Impression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay

    Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one…

  14. Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

  15. Librarians in Ghana: A Survey of their Social Origins and Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the social origins and professional status of librarians in Ghana. Topics discussed include personal characteristics, i.e., age, sex, and marital status; types of libraries; parental influences on career choice; satisfaction with current status; the role of the Ghana Library Association; and the training of nonprofessional staff. (19…

  16. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  17. Researching Citizenship Education in Africa: Considerations from Ghana and Liberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaynor, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Within the last 30 years, the African continent has experienced significant changes related to democracy, governance, and education; however, large-scale international studies of citizenship education have not included African nations. Despite this gap, youth political movements incubated in universities and secondary schools have been influential…

  18. Adjudicating mentally disordered offenders in Ghana: The criminal and mental health legislations.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mensah Agboli, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) in the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently a major public health concern. This has culminated in several empirical researches over the years, with a particular focus on addressing the problem. The present study examines the criminal and the mental health legislations available to offenders raising fitness to stand trial issues, as well as those pleading insanity at the time of the offense (insanity defense) in Ghana. The legislations are examined within a framework of reducing the overrepresentation of MDOs in the CJS. In doing so, comparisons are made to similar legislations in other commonwealth jurisdictions, when necessary. Regarding fitness to stand trial, it is evident that the Ghanaian legislation does not contain discrete fitness indicators, relative to, for instance, Canada. Yet, it is interesting that the terminologies 'unsound mind' and 'incapable of making a defence' used in the proviso convey similar meaning and requirements to those used in other jurisdictions. The insanity defense standard, on the other hand, is also heavily influenced by the M'Naughton Rules in England. The defense consists of two separate cognitive tests, each of which can result in an acquittal. One of the tests strictly emphasizes knowledge of the nature and consequences of the act while knowledge of the wrongness of the criminal act is implied in the other. However, none of the tests takes into consideration uncontrollable impulse arising from mental disorder. The study proposes some revisions and amendments to the insanity legislation in its current formulation. Recommendations are also offered for critical areas that warrant research attention in relation to MDOs in Ghana, and in Africa as a whole. PMID:26923137

  19. Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2013-12-01

    Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

  20. Kin Group Affiliation and Marital Violence Against Women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women. PMID:27075121

  1. Perception of university students in Ghana about emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Frank; Awini, Elizabeth; Clerk, Christine

    2002-07-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) refers to methods that women can use to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, method failure, or incorrect use. There is growing worldwide acceptance and promotion of EC as a measure to reduce the level of unwanted pregnancies and, hence, unsafe abortions. The potential effect of EC in this regard could be most evident in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, the Ministry of Health has since 1996 included EC in its reproductive health service policy and standards. The Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana is the only agency involved in the promotion of EC in the country. Very little is known about societal perception of EC. We undertook a study to assess knowledge and attitude toward EC among a sample of students at the University of Ghana. We used a two-page, self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study among students chosen by random sampling. The aspects of EC assessed included level of knowledge, extent of use, common traditional methods of emergency contraception, as well as socially and culturally acceptable ways to promote EC in Ghana. We also assessed how the availability of EC could influence the use of condoms among male respondents. Less than half (43.2%) of the 194 respondents (88 males and 106 females) had heard of modern emergency contraceptive methods. Postinor-2, a dedicated emergency contraceptive product, which was already on the Ghanaian market, was known to 1.5% of respondents. Only 11.3% of respondents indicated correctly the recommended time within which emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are to be taken after unprotected sex. Taking concentrated sugar solutions, having an enema, and douching were commonly used traditional methods of EC. More than half (55.0%) of the male respondents indicated that they would either "certainly" or "probably" reduce how often they used condoms once they knew that EC was available. Almost all (97.4%) the respondents wanted to learn more about EC. The

  2. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  3. Valuing and Sustaining (or Not) the Ability of Volunteer Community Health Workers to Deliver Integrated Community Case Management in Northern Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Karen; Sanders, David; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Doherty, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Background Within the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses (iCCM) programme, the traditional health promotion and prevention role of community health workers (CHWs) has been expanded to treatment. Understanding both the impact and the implementation experience of this expanded role are important. In evaluating UNICEF’s implementation of iCCM, this qualitative case study explores the implementation experience in Ghana. Methods and Findings Data were collected through a rapid appraisal using focus groups and individual interviews during a field visit in May 2013 to Accra and the Northern Region of Ghana. We sought to understand the experience of iCCM from the perspective of locally based UNICEF staff, their partners, researchers, Ghana health services management staff, CHWs and their supervisors, nurses in health facilities and mothers receiving the service. Our analysis of the findings showed that there is an appreciation both by mothers and by facility level staff for the contribution of CHWs. Appreciation was expressed for the localisation of the treatment of childhood illness, thus saving mothers from the effort and expense of having to seek treatment outside of the village. Despite an overall expression of value for the expanded role of CHWs, we also found that there were problems in supporting and sustaining their efforts. The data showed concern around CHWs being unpaid, poorly supervised, regularly out of stock, lacking in essential equipment and remaining outside the formal health system. Conclusions Expanding the roles of CHWs is important and can be valuable, but contextual and health system factors threaten the sustainability of iCCM in Ghana. In this and other implementation sites, policymakers and key donors need to take into account historical lessons from the CHW literature, while exploring innovative and sustainable mechanisms to secure the programme as part of a government owned and government led strategy. PMID:26079713

  4. The state of information and communication technology and health informatics in ghana.

    PubMed

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  5. The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  6. Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

    1999-12-10

    On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

  7. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures. PMID:25167165

  8. Misperceptions about contraceptives keep abortion incidence high in Ghana.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Only 13% of couples in Ghana practiced contraception in 1988. During the period of nursing following childbirth, it is traditional for the new mother to abstain from sexual intercourse. She is subject to considerable social scorn should she conceive too soon after a previous delivery. Conceiving in short order, nonetheless, women long resorted to clandestine, unsafe abortions during the postpartum interval. The government of Ghana legalized the practice of induced abortion in 1985 so that women could limit their fertility in safety with registered and certified medical practitioners. The author studied 900 women seeking an induced abortion or reporting complications resulting from induced abortion performed outside a hospital setting to see why, in spite of high knowledge of contraception, Ghanaian women resort to abortion instead of using contraception. Subjects were recruited from the KorleBu Teaching Hospital in Accra, the Tema General Hospital of Tema, the Nsawam Hospital of Nsawam, and two abortion clinics in Accra. 55% were married, 25% were teenagers, and 56% were residents of Accra, while the rest were from rural areas. Among those who were married, 45% were the third wives. Most of the women had some formal education and some degree of economic independence. 99% knew of at least one method of contraception, only 21% had ever used a modern method, 6% had used a condom, 4% had used withdrawal sometimes, and 3% had used the rhythm method. The women reported not using modern contraceptives mainly because of the belief that they cause harmful side-effects. For example, it was commonly thought that the oral contraceptive pill causes infertility and withdrawal causes stroke in men. Women also viewed contraceptives as messy, complicated, and/or difficult to use. 54% said they decided to abort their fetus because the pregnancy was out of wedlock; single parenthood is stigmatized in Ghana. 25% decided to abort to better space their children. PMID:12287987

  9. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  10. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. PMID:26686975

  11. Autopsy Practice in Ghana - Reflections of a Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Anim, J T

    2015-06-01

    Autopsy practice in Ghana can be said to be far from satisfactory. Most Ghanaians do not know that there are different categories of death, which categories of death require an autopsy and who is required to perform the autopsy. The problems have further been complicated by the fact that, unlike other countries where separate facilities are available for storage of the different categories of dead bodies, all dead bodies in Ghana are conveyed to the hospital mortuary, thus encouraging hospitals to expand body storage facilities in their mortuaries to meet the increasing demand. Public or community mortuaries used elsewhere for storage of bodies of deaths occurring in the community pending the Coroner's directions are non-existent in Ghana. Storage of all categories of dead bodies in hospital mortuaries has resulted in virtually all autopsies being done by the hospital pathologists, especially in the large centres, at the expense of other very important diagnostic functions of the pathologist. This paper explains relevant portions of the Coroner's Act of 1960 and emphasises the need to separate the few hospital autopsies that require the expertise of the pathologist from Coroner's autopsies that may be carried out by any registered medical officer, as specified in the Act, or better still, by specially trained Forensic Physicians/Medical Examiners, as pertains in other countries. The paper also clarifies the different categories of death, those that fall in the jurisdiction of the Coroner and the personnel required to assist the Coroner in his investigastions. Suggestions have also been made on how to approach manpower development to ensure that appropriate personnel are trained to assist the Coroner in the investgation of medico-legal cases. PMID:26339096

  12. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria. PMID:22676841

  13. Malaria epidemiology in the Ahafo area of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. The epidemiology of malaria in special areas, such as mining areas needs to be monitored and controlled. Newmont Ghana Gold Limited is conducting mining activities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana that may have an impact on the diseases such as malaria in the mining area. Methods Prior to the start of mining activities, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006/2007 to determine malaria epidemiology, including malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among children < 5 years and monthly malaria transmission in a mining area of Ghana. Results A total of 1,671 households with a child less than five years were selected. About 50% of the household heads were males. The prevalence of any malaria parasitaemia was 22.8% (95% CI 20.8 - 24.9). Plasmodium falciparum represented 98.1% (95% CI 96.2 - 99.2) of parasitaemia. The geometric mean P. falciparum asexual parasite count was 1,602 (95% CI 1,140 - 2,252) and 1,195 (95% CI 985 - 1,449) among children < 24 months and ≥ 24 months respectively. Health insurance membership (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 - 0.80, p = 0.001) and the least poor (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 - 0.90, p = 0.001) were protected against malaria parasitaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was high among children < 24 months compared to children ≥ 24 months (44.1% (95% CI 40.0 - 48.3) and 23.8% (95% CI 21.2 - 26.5) respectively. About 69% (95% CI 66.3 - 70.9) of households own at least one ITN. The highest EIRs were record in May 2007 (669 ib/p/m) and June 2007 (826 ib/p/m). The EIR of Anopheles gambiae were generally higher than Anopheles funestus. Conclusion The baseline malaria epidemiology suggests a high malaria transmission in the mining area prior to the start of mining activities. Efforts at controlling malaria in this mining area have been intensified but could be enhanced with increased resources and partnerships between the government and the private sector. PMID

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Among Mothers of Sick Newborns in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L; Wiesner, Theodore F; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15%-71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semistructured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. Forty-six percent of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%), and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  15. Attempted suicide in Ghana: motivation, stigma, and coping.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2015-01-01

    To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities. PMID:25562343

  16. Evaluation of the impact of a breast cancer awareness program in rural Ghana: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Mena, Marisa; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Sauvaget, Catherine; Ali, Ibrahim A; Wiafe, Seth A; Dabis, François; Anderson, Benjamin O; Malvy, Denis; Sasco, Annie J

    2014-02-15

    Community awareness is crucial to early detection of breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In Ghana 60% of the cases are detected at late stages. Breast Care International (BCI) is a Ghanaian non-governmental organization dedicated to raising breast cancer awareness. A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the impact of BCI program on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) toward breast cancer among women from rural communities of Ghana. A total of 232 women were interviewed in June 2011 in the Ashanti region; of these 131 participants were from a community that received the BCI program in August 2010 (intervention group) and 101 from another community that received the program post-survey (referent group). Data analysis was performed using Epi-Info version 3.5.3. Knowledge about breast cancer among participants who received the program was better than among those who did not. Only 53.5% of participants from the referent group knew that breast cancer usually appears as painless breast lump when compared to 82.3% from the intervention group. Participants who attended the program were significantly more likely to obtain higher knowledge scores (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.86) and to state practicing breast self-examination (OR = 12.29, 95% CI = 5.31-28.48). The BCI program improved KAP toward breast cancer. Further research is warranted to provide stronger evidence that the program improves breast cancer early detection. PMID:23913595

  17. Speaking the Unspeakable: Discursive Strategies To Express Language Attitudes in Legon (Ghana) Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

    2000-01-01

    Examines how language attitudes are expressed in Legon, Ghana, a multilingual society. Focuses on the graffiti in male lavatories, which offers an interesting glimpse of some of the intergroup tensions existing within Ghanian society. (Author/VWL)

  18. An Analysis of Nursing Education in Ghana: Priorities for Scaling-up the Nursing Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Sue Anne; Rominski, Sarah; Bam, Victoria; Donkor, Ernestina; Lori, Jody

    2012-01-01

    The cross-sectional study sought to describe the strengths, challenges and current status of baccalaureate nursing education in Ghana, using a descriptive design. The World Health Organization Global Standards for the Initial Education of Nurses and Midwives standards were used as the organizing framework, with baseline data on the status of nursing education from two state funded universities in Ghana presented. A serious shortage of qualified faculty was identified, along with the need for significant upgrading to the existing infrastructure. Additionally, the number of qualified applicants far exceeds the available training slots. Faculty and infrastructure shortages are common issues in nursing education and workforce expansion, however in low resource countries such as Ghana, these issues are compounded by high rates of preventable disease and injury. An understanding of the strengths and challenges of nursing education in Ghana can inform the development of strategies for nursing workforce expansion for other low resource countries. PMID:23347003

  19. Determinants of nurses' knowledge gap on pain management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Adejumo, Oluyinka

    2014-03-01

    There are concerns about adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skill in effective pain management since effective pain management promotes early recovery after surgery. This study explores factors that accounted for Ghanaian nurses' inadequate knowledge of postoperative pain management using a focused ethnographic design for data collection at a tertiary teaching hospital in Ghana. Fourteen nurses designated as key informants with different backgrounds as nurse educators and leaders were purposively sampled to participate. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews; all interviews were conducted in English, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The study revealed that nurses' inadequate pain management knowledge might have resulted from curriculum gaps during training; inadequate clinical supervision, study days, and workshops for practising nurses; lack of funding for organising regular workshops; and, negative attitudes of nurses whereby new information learned at workshops was not readily applied in clinical practice. It was concluded that nursing curricula at all levels of training in Ghana should incorporate credit-bearing courses on pain management, and appropriate pain management education programmes should be instituted for practising nurses. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the impact of such education programs is required. PMID:24011564

  20. Women's cultural perceptions and attitudes towards breast cancer: Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asobayire, Alice; Barley, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates problems confronting breast cancer awareness in Ghana by ascertaining how societal perceptions and attitudes influence women's awareness of breast cancer in the Kassena-Nankana district. Data were gathered through focus group interviews and documentary analysis of current practices within the region. The data were then thematically analysed following an inductive analytical framework. The study concludes that women's perceptions of and attitudes towards breast cancer and its treatment are influenced by a myriad of economic and socio-cultural factors, which practitioners need to take into account when planning public health initiatives. There are a number of economic challenges facing breast cancer education and awareness programmes due to a lack of adequate numbers of specialized health personnel and breast cancer screening facilities in the district. Additionally, socio-cultural factors such as the absence of biomedical terminology in the local language, gender inequality and the prevailing influence of traditional health practitioners further compound the situation. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes of women towards breast cancer can also be improved if husbands of married women and respective community compound heads are targeted by public health educationists to get actively involved in education and awareness campaigns. The need to incorporate indigenous languages in public health educational materials for breast cancer in remote communities of deprived districts of Ghana is also recommended. PMID:24474424

  1. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education. PMID:25073762

  2. Hospital health care cost of diarrheal disease in Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aikins, Moses; Armah, George; Akazili, James; Hodgson, Abraham

    2010-09-01

    Diarrhea caused by rotaviruses is one of the most frequent causes of hospitalization among pediatric patients in rural communities of developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, and it is a major cause of death in these communities. The complexity of diarrhea and the increasing cost of treatment puts additional burden on the health sector. To demonstrate the economic burden of diarrhea to policy makers, this study was conducted to estimate the treatment cost of diarrhea in children <5 years old in Ghana using the World Health Organization protocol for cost data collection and estimation. The study was undertaken in Navrongo War Memorial Hospital in northern Ghana. Cost estimates were made for 3 treatment scenarios observed: (1) treatment by rehydration, (2) treatment by rehydration and antibiotics, and (3) treatment of diarrhea and other diseases. The average outpatient treatment costs for the 3 treatment scenarios were US$3.86, $4.10, and $4.35 respectively, and the average treatment costs for hospitalization (inpatient care) were $65.14, $97.40, and $133.86 respectively. The annual national treatment costs, based on the 3 treatment scenarios, ranged from $907,116 to $1,851,280 for outpatients clinic visits and from $701,833 to $4,581,213 for hospitalizations. The average length of stay for the inpatients ranged from 2.3 to 4.9 days. The study did not cover patient costs (ie, household costs). PMID:20684692

  3. Spatial and demographic patterns of Cholera in Ashanti region - Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Frank B; Duker, Alfred A

    2008-01-01

    Background Cholera has claimed many lives throughout history and it continues to be a global threat, especially in countries in Africa. The disease is listed as one of three internationally quarantinable diseases by the World Health organization, along with plague and yellow fever. Between 1999 and 2005, Africa alone accounted for about 90% of over 1 million reported cholera cases worldwide. In Ghana, there have been over 27000 reported cases since 1999. In one of the affected regions in Ghana, Ashanti region, massive outbreaks and high incidences of cholera have predominated in urban and overcrowded communities. Results A GIS based spatial analysis and statistical analysis, carried out to determine clustering of cholera, showed that high cholera rates are clustered around Kumasi Metropolis (the central part of the region), with Moran's Index = 0.271 and P < 0.001. Furthermore, A Mantel-Haenszel Chi square for trend analysis reflected a direct spatial relationship between cholera and urbanization (χ2 = 2995.5, P < 0.0001), overcrowding (χ2 = 1757.2, P < 0.0001), and an inverse relationship between cholera and order of neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis (χ2 = 831.38, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The results suggest that high urbanization, high overcrowding, and neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis are the most important predictors of cholera in Ashanti region. PMID:18700026

  4. Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-06-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

  5. Characterization of low power research reactor neutrons for the validation of k(0)-INAA standardization based on k(0)-IAEA software.

    PubMed

    Baidoo, I K; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Dampare, S B; Sogbadji, R B M; Poku, L O

    2013-09-01

    Channel Bsite2 of Ghana research reactor-1 has been characterized for k0-INAA application. Cadmium ratio and bare multi-monitor were used to determine flux parameters using 0.1%Au-Al, Fe, and Zr wire as flux monitors. The parameters determined were 18.36±1.91, 0.0479±0.012, 5.12×10(11)±0.42×10(11) ncm(-2)s(-1), 2.74×10(10)±0.14×10(10) ncm(-2)s(-1), 7.73×10(10)±0.16×10(10) ncm(-2)s(-1) and 16.75±1.58, -0.034±0.0028, 4.28×10(11)±1.71×10(11) ncm(-2)s(-1), 2.55×10(10)±0.15×10(10) ncm(-2)s(-1) respectively for thermal-to-epithermal flux ratio, alpha, thermal neutron, epithermal neutron and fast neutron flux using cadmium ratio and multi-monitor method accordingly. The k0-INAA performance assessment based on z-score distributions showed most results within |z|<2. PMID:23743506

  6. Status of cacao breeding in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into cocoa improvement has made a considerable impact on the productivity of the crop in West Africa. Much of the germplasm distributed to farmers have been of Upper Amazon origin following the realisation of their higher agronomic worth over the local Trinitario and Amelonado germplasm. Ho...

  7. Exploring the Fault Lines of Cross-Cultural Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, John; Kuupole, Alfredina; Kutor, Nicholas; Dunne, Mairead; Adu-Yeboah, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores issues emerging from the authors' experiences of collaborative research in Ghana, by researchers from a Ghanaian and a British university. The text emerges from discussions between partners and in retrospective reflection on the research process. It is constructed by bringing together personal accounts of the different authors…

  8. Institutional, Legal, and Economic Instruments in Ghana's Environmental Policy.

    PubMed

    Hens; Boon

    1999-10-01

    / This paper reviews the state of the environment in Ghana and explores the potential for the use of institutional, legal, and economic instruments in environmental management in the specific context of this developing country.The environmental situation in Ghana is characterized by desertification, land degradation, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate water supply in the northern regions of the country. The population as a whole is growing at a rate of 3% per annum, with even greater urban growth rates, due to rural out-migration. Large parts of the coastal zone in the south are rapidly developing to become one large suburbanized area. Water quality is particularly threatened in the urban and industrialized areas, which are mainly located in the southern part of the country. The coastal lagoons and coastal waters are moderately to heavily polluted. Erosion extends along the whole Ghanaian coast with excesses, for example, in the Keta area, where during the last century over 90% of the original buildings have been washed awayby the sea. The obvious environmental consequences of the mining sector are illustrative of the environmental threats caused by a fast growing industry and industrializing agriculture, in a country where environmental policy is only in its formative years. Desertification, food insecurity and coastal erosion all contribute to an increasing number of environmental refugees.Environmental policy in Ghana is a post-Rio phenomenon. Environmental laws, a Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, an advisory National Committee for the Implementation of Agenda 21, and a fully mandated environmental administration have been established. This administration advocates a progressive attitude towards environmental legislation and points out the specific utility of economic and legal instruments in environmental management in this relatively fast developing country.The choice of instruments for environmental management is increasingly

  9. A retrospective audit of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health-care facilities in Eastern Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ahiabu, Mary-Anne; Tersbøl, Britt P; Biritwum, Richard; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Magnussen, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is increasing globally and is a threat to public health. Research has demonstrated a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance development. Developing countries are the most affected by resistance because of high infectious disease burden, limited access to quality assured antibiotics and more optimal drugs and poor antibiotic use practices. The appropriate use of antibiotics to slow the pace of resistance development is crucial. The study retrospectively assessed antibiotic prescription practices in four public and private primary health-care facilities in Eastern Region, Ghana using the WHO/International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs rational drug use indicators. Using a systematic sampling procedure, 400 prescriptions were selected per facility for the period April 2010 to March 2011. Rational drug use indicators were assessed in the descriptive analysis and logistic regression was used to explore for predictors of antibiotic prescription. Average number of medicines prescribed per encounter was 4.01, and 59.9% of prescriptions had antibiotics whilst 24.2% had injections. In total, 79.2% and 88.1% of prescribed medicines were generics and from the national essential medicine list, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, health facility type (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42, 2.95), patient age (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97, 0.98), number of medicines on a prescription (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.63, 2.10) and 'no malaria drug' on prescription (OR = 5.05; 95% CI: 2.08, 12.25) were associated with an antibiotic prescription. A diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection was positively associated with antibiotic use. The level of antibiotic use varied depending on the health facility type and was generally high compared with the national average estimated in 2008. Interventions that reduce diagnostic uncertainty in illness management should be considered. The National Health Insurance

  10. A retrospective audit of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health-care facilities in Eastern Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ahiabu, Mary-Anne; Tersbøl, Britt P; Biritwum, Richard; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Magnussen, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is increasing globally and is a threat to public health. Research has demonstrated a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance development. Developing countries are the most affected by resistance because of high infectious disease burden, limited access to quality assured antibiotics and more optimal drugs and poor antibiotic use practices. The appropriate use of antibiotics to slow the pace of resistance development is crucial. The study retrospectively assessed antibiotic prescription practices in four public and private primary health-care facilities in Eastern Region, Ghana using the WHO/International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs rational drug use indicators. Using a systematic sampling procedure, 400 prescriptions were selected per facility for the period April 2010 to March 2011. Rational drug use indicators were assessed in the descriptive analysis and logistic regression was used to explore for predictors of antibiotic prescription. Average number of medicines prescribed per encounter was 4.01, and 59.9% of prescriptions had antibiotics whilst 24.2% had injections. In total, 79.2% and 88.1% of prescribed medicines were generics and from the national essential medicine list, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, health facility type (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42, 2.95), patient age (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97, 0.98), number of medicines on a prescription (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.63, 2.10) and ‘no malaria drug’ on prescription (OR = 5.05; 95% CI: 2.08, 12.25) were associated with an antibiotic prescription. A diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection was positively associated with antibiotic use. The level of antibiotic use varied depending on the health facility type and was generally high compared with the national average estimated in 2008. Interventions that reduce diagnostic uncertainty in illness management should be considered. The National Health

  11. An assessment of mental health policy in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Approximately half of the countries in the African Region had a mental health policy by 2005, but little is known about quality of mental health policies in Africa and globally. This paper reports the results of an assessment of the mental health policies of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods The WHO Mental Health Policy Checklist was used to evaluate the most current mental health policy in each country. Assessments were completed and reviewed by a specially constituted national committee as well as an independent WHO team. Results of each country evaluation were discussed until consensus was reached. Results All four policies received a high level mandate. Each policy addressed community-based services, the integration of mental health into general health care, promotion of mental health and rehabilitation. Prevention was addressed in the South African and Ugandan policies only. Use of evidence for policy development varied considerably. Consultations were mainly held with the mental health sector. Only the Zambian policy presented a clear vision, while three of four countries spelt out values and principles, the need to establish a coordinating body for mental health, and to protect the human rights of people with mental health problems. None included all the basic elements of a policy, nor specified sources and levels of funding for implementation. Deinstitutionalisation and the provision of essential psychotropic medicines were insufficiently addressed. Advocacy, empowerment of users and families and intersectoral collaboration were inadequately addressed. Only Uganda sufficiently outlined a mental health information system, research and evaluation, while only Ghana comprehensively addressed human resources and training requirements. No country had an accompanying strategic mental health plan to allow the development and implementation of concrete strategies and activities. Conclusions Six gaps which could impact on the policies' effect

  12. Groundwater resources of the Birim basin in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asomaning, G.

    1992-11-01

    An attempt to assess ground water resources of a medium size (4775 km 2) drainage basin located on the Crystalline Complex in southern Ghana is presented. Mean annual rainfall 1578 mm, total river discharge 1,886,588 064 m 3 a -1, surface runoff 1,320,611,645 m 3 a -1, base flow 565,976,419 m 3 a -1, were determined from 13 meteorological and 1 river gauging stations located within the basin. From these data, the total runoff coefficient was 36%, surface runoff coefficient was 25% and the base flow coefficient was 11%. Then, Permanent Water Reserve, Qt = 5,333.20 × 106 m 3 and Recoverable Water Reserve, 2,133.28 × 10 6 m 3 a -1 for the aquifer of the basement complex aquifer of the basin were calculated from 42 boreholes.

  13. The development of community water supplies in Ghana.

    PubMed

    FERGUSON, W R

    1962-01-01

    Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

  14. The development of community water supplies in Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, W. R. W.

    1962-01-01

    Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

  15. Onchocerciasis and optic atrophy in the Savannah area of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Berghout, E

    1987-10-01

    The ocular findings in the male population of 3 villages from a hyperendemic area of onchocerciasis in North Ghana have been recorded. Vector control in the Volta River Basin has led to reduced microfilarial loads and improved tolerance of treatment with diethylcarbamazine-citrate (DEC-C). Prevalence of posterior eye lesions increased sharply above the age of 30 years in the survey population. In patients with palpable onchocercomas (nodules) serious pathology of the posterior segment of the eye was found twice as frequently as in onchocerciasis patients without nodules. In the village visited by the Mobile Eye Team since 1978 the prevalence of serious eye lesions was slightly lower than in the two villages never visited by the eye team. Desirability to give treatment to the younger population with low incidence of serious eye lesions is expressed. Attention is drawn to the increased danger of adverse reactions to treatment in the presence of posterior eye lesions. PMID:3451406

  16. Groundwater resource sustainability in the Nabogo Basin of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Alexandra; Thomas, James M.; Pohll, Greg; McKay, W. Alan

    2007-10-01

    In order to address groundwater resource sustainability, a conceptual groundwater flow model is developed for a hydrographic basin of northern Ghana. A three-dimensional steady-state model is applied to the Nabogo Basin, a sub-catchment of the White Volta River Basin. Mean annual data are used for input parameters. Parameters include rates of precipitation, recharge, surface water discharge, and groundwater extraction (pumpage). The model indicates that current well pumpage rates are significantly less than annual groundwater recharge to the basin. Model results for several scenarios tested (i.e., increased population, access to potable water for all citizens, and/or decreased rainfall) indicate that extraction rates will still be less than groundwater input to the basin.

  17. The indirect effects of subsidised healthcare in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Ansah, Evelyn K

    2015-11-01

    Social networks provide a channel through which health policies and programmes can affect those with close social ties to the intended beneficiaries. We provide experimental evidence on the indirect effects of heavily subsidised healthcare. By exploiting data on 2151 households from a randomised study conducted in a rural district of Ghana in 2005, we estimate the extent to which social networks, defined by religion, influence the uptake of primary care services. We find that people socially connected to households with subsidised care are less likely to use primary care services despite the fact that the direct effect of the intervention is positive. We extend the empirical analysis to consider the implications of these changes in behaviour for welfare but find no evidence of indirect effects on child health and healthcare spending. In the context of this study, the findings highlight the potential for healthcare subsidies to have unintended consequences. PMID:26409167

  18. The politics of tuberculosis and HIV service integration in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Fosuah Amo, Hannah; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

    2014-09-01

    The need to integrate TB/HIV control programmes has become critical due to the comorbidity regarding these diseases and the need to optimise the use of resources. In developing countries such as Ghana, where public health interventions depend on donor funds, the integration of the two programmes has become more urgent. This paper explores stakeholders' views on the integration of TB/HIV control programmes in Ghana within the remits of contingency theory. With 31 purposively selected informants from four regions, semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted between March and May 2012, and the data collected were analysed using the inductive approach. The results showed both support for and opposition to integration, as well as some of the avoidable challenges inherent in combining TB/HIV control. While those who supported integration based their arguments on clinical synergies and the need to promote the efficient use of resources, those who opposed integration cited the potential increase in workload, the clinical complications associated with joint management, the potential for a leadership crisis, and the "smaller the better" propositions to support their stance. Although a policy on TB/HIV integration exists, inadequate 'political will' from the top management of both programmes has trickled down to lower levels, which has stifled progress towards the comprehensive management of TB/HIV and particularly leading to weak data collection and management structures and unsatisfactory administration of co-trimoxazole for co-infected patients. It is our view that the leadership of both programmes show an increased commitment to protocols involving the integration of TB/HIV, followed by a commitment to addressing the 'fears' of frontline service providers to encourage confidence in the process of service integration. PMID:25042543

  19. Migration, sexual networks, and HIV in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Cassels, Susan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND HIV is spread through structured sexual networks, which are influenced by migration patterns, but network-oriented studies of mobility and HIV risk behavior have been limited. OBJECTIVE We present a comprehensive description and initial results from our Migration & HIV in Ghana (MHG) study in Agbogbloshie, an urban slum area within Accra, Ghana. METHODS The MHG study was a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–49 in Agbogbloshie in 2012. We used a one-year retrospective relationship history calendar to collect egocentric network data on sexual partners as well as migration and short-term mobility, and tested for prevalent HIV-1/2 infection. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 5.5%, with prevalence among women (7.2%) over twice that of men (2.8%). Three-quarters of residents were born outside the Greater Accra region, but had lived in Agbogbloshie an average of 10.7 years. Only 7% had moved housing structures within the past year. However, short-term mobility was common. Residents had an average of 7.3 overnight trips in the last year, with women reporting more travel than men. Thirty-seven percent of men and 9% of women reported more than one sexual partner in the last year. CONCLUSIONS Population-based surveys of migration and sexual risk behavior using relationship history calendars in low-resource settings can produce high quality data. Residents in Agbogbloshie are disproportionately affected by HIV, and have high levels of short-term mobility. HIV prevention interventions targeted to highly mobile populations in high prevalence settings may have far-reaching and long-term implications. PMID:25364298

  20. Yankey's dilemma: conservation versus the people of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Murphree, Michael

    2002-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen a shift in conservation approaches to realize the importance of people in conservation and wildlife management (CWM). To this extent, in most conservation circles the concept of community involvement is no longer debated. The following factors have influenced the growth of CWM, especially in Africa: (i) recent developments in postcolonial governments have made them unable to manage and control the use of natural resources in the restrictive manner mandated by the legislation of the colonial past still in place; (ii) successes, particularly in southern Africa, of approaches that involved devolution of greater access rights and responsibilities to communities have led to these approaches being used by other countries; (iii) donor agencies, encouraged by the success of these approaches, have allocated more of their resources to community-based projects; and (iv) changes in international perceptions have been heavily influenced by the growing voice of the "South" in international fora. While there has been some success, there have also been failures. In Ghana, there has been considerable effort to develop programs that incorporate community aspirations into specific objectives; one inherent problem with these programs-not exclusive to Ghana-is the tendency for conservation programs to try to fit community aspirations into conservation objectives as opposed to finding ways of using conservation to help fulfill community aspirations. When community-based programs fail to recognize this, they are generally unable to deliver on their expected outputs. Some critics have used this to dismiss the community approach, which poses a dangerous reversion to a paradigm that has significantly failed in Africa, and much of the developing world, especially in regard to wildlife outside of protected areas. PMID:12381557

  1. Knowledge and uses of African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281

  2. The Association of HIV Stigma and HIV/STD Knowledge With Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent and Adult Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Aluoch, Marilyn; Thach, Chia T; Owiredu Hanson, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-06-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV seroprevalence, but despite a critical need to address this public health concern, research evidence has been extremely limited on influences on sexual risk behavior among MSM in Ghana. To investigate associations between HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, and sexual behaviors in a sample of MSM in Ghana, we conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a non-probability sample of Ghanaian MSM (N = 137). Nearly all the men (93%) had more than one current sex partner (M = 5.11, SD = 7.4). Of those reported partners, the average number of current female sexual partners was 1.1 (SD = 2.6). Overall, knowledge levels about HIV and STDs were low, and HIV stigma was high. There was no age-related difference in HIV stigma. Younger MSM (≤25 years) used condoms less often for anal and vaginal sex than did those over 25. Relative frequency of condom use for oral sex was lower in younger men who had higher STD knowledge and also was lower in older men who reported high HIV stigma. Knowledge and stigma were not associated with condom use for anal or vaginal sex in either age group. These descriptive data highlight the need for the development of intervention programs that address HIV/STD prevention knowledge gaps and reduce HIV stigma in Ghanaian communities. Intervention research in Ghana should address age-group-specific HIV prevention needs of MSM youth. PMID:25809638

  3. A Ghanaian Response to the Study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effah, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: developing an Equity Scorecard" is a contribution to making higher education more socially inclusive in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings reinforce some of the policy initiatives taken in Ghana and Tanzania, and underscore the importance of widening participation in…

  4. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  5. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  6. The influences of drivers/riders in road traffic crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-07-01

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country. PMID:24999145

  7. The Influences of Drivers/Riders in Road Traffic Crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-01-01

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country. PMID:24999145

  8. Hegemonic Masculinity, HIV/AIDS Risk Perception, and Sexual Behavior Change Among Young People in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ganle, John Kuumuori

    2016-05-01

    Among the youth in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a paradoxical mix of adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behavior characterizes their daily lives. Based on original qualitative research in Ghana, I explore in this article the ways in which the social construction of masculinity influences youth's responses to behavior change HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Findings show that although awareness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the risks of infection is very high among the youth, a combination of hegemonic masculinity and perceptions of personal invulnerability acts to undermine the processes of young people's HIV/AIDS risk construction and appropriate behavioral change. I argue that if HIV/AIDS prevention is to be effective and sustained, school- and community-based initiatives should be developed to provide supportive social spaces in which the construction of masculinity, the identity of young men and women as gendered persons, and perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection are challenged. PMID:25721715

  9. Hard times and common mental health disorders in developing countries: insights from urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dzator, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Over the past century, the world has rapidly become urbanized, meaning more people now live in urban areas and cities than in rural areas. The mass movement of the rural poor to urban centers and cities has also changed the dynamics of poverty. Scarce employment opportunities, lack of assets, and sudden changes in economic conditions have been proposed as increasing the stress level for most urban residents, especially the poorer ones. Using a face-to-face household survey that included a six-item non-specific psychometric instrument, the data revealed how psychological distress may be patterned by socioeconomic status among urban residents in Ghana during difficult times characterized by food and fuel price hikes. The data collected in interviews of 1,158 adults (49% males and 51% females) who were 18 years and above were analyzed using multinomial logit regressions. The results confirmed previous findings and showed negative links between socioeconomic status, adverse life events, and psychological distress. Specifically, low income, low level of education, large household size, undesirable life events and being employed in agriculture was found to be associated with psychological disorders. The outcomes of this research project are consistent with previous findings-that people in lower socioeconomic strata and those who have suffered adverse events are more likely to suffer psychological distress. The implications of these results for behavioral health are discussed. PMID:23250769

  10. Effects of spatial location and household wealth on health insurance subscription among women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compares ownership of health insurance among Ghanaian women with respect to wealth status and spatial location. We explore the overarching research question by employing geographic and proxy means targeting through interactive analysis of wealth status and spatial issues. Methods The paper draws on the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate descriptive analysis coupled with binary logistic regression estimation technique was used to analyse the data. Results By wealth status, the likelihood of purchasing insurance was significantly higher among respondents from the middle, richer and richest households compared to the poorest (reference category) and these differences widened more profoundly in the Northern areas after interacting wealth with zone of residence. Among women at the bottom of household wealth (poorest and poorer), there were no statistically significant differences in insurance subscription in all the areas. Conclusions The results underscore the relevance of geographic and proxy means targeting in identifying populations who may be need of special interventions as part of the efforts to increase enrolment as well as means of social protection against the vulnerable. PMID:23768255

  11. Cultural adaptation of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of self-reports of sexual behaviours is vital to the evaluation of HIV prevention and family planning interventions. This investigation was to determine the cross-cultural suitability of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) originally developed for American adolescents and young adults by examining the structure and psychometric properties. Method A self-administered cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of 511 participants from a private university in Ghana with mean age 21.59 years. Result A Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation identified a 14 item scale with four reliable factors labelled Appropriation (Cronbach alpha = .85), Assertive (Cronbach alpha = .90), Pleasure and Intoxicant (Cronbach alpha = .83), and STDs (Cronbach alpha = .81) that altogether explained 73.72% of the total variance. The scale correlated well with a measure of condom use at past sexual encounter (r = .73), indicating evidence of construct and discriminatory validity. The factor loadings were similar to the original CUSES scale but not identical suggesting relevant cultural variations. Conclusion The 14 item scale (CUSES-G) is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing condom use self efficacy. It is culturally appropriate for use among Ghanaian youth to gauge actual condom use and to evaluate interventions meant to increase condom use. Finally, the study cautioned researchers against the use of the original CUSES without validation in African settings and contexts. PMID:20433724

  12. Childhood burns in Ghana: epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment.

    PubMed

    Forjuoh, S N; Guyer, B; Smith, G S

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment of childhood burns in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Children aged 0-5 years with a burn history were identified through a community-based, multisite survey. A standard questionnaire was administered to mothers of 630 of these children to elicit information on their sociodemographic characteristics and the circumstances of the burn event. Ninety-two per cent of the burns occurred in the home, particularly in the kitchen (51 per cent) and the house yard (36 per cent), with most of them happening in the late morning and around the evening meal. The main causes of the burns were scalds (45 per cent), contact with a hot object (34 per cent) and flame (20 per cent). 'Cool' water was applied to the burned area in 30 per cent of cases. Otherwise, treatment with a traditional preparation was the most popular first-aid choice. Since a considerable proportion of burns happened between meals when children 'play with fire' in the house yard, the provision of alternative play activities and community play areas may reduce the incidence of burns to these children. Secondly, we recommend that education on first-aid management of burns be intensified, with special emphasis on alternatives to the use of traditional preparations. PMID:7718113

  13. Connecting the Dots Between Health, Poverty and Place in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Weeks, John R; Getis, Arthur; Stow, Douglas A; Hill, Allan G; Rain, David; Engstrom, Ryan; Stoler, Justin; Lippitt, Christopher; Jankowska, Marta; Lopez-Carr, Anna Carla; Coulter, Lloyd; Ofiesh, Caetlin

    2012-01-01

    West Africa has a rapidly growing population, an increasing fraction of which lives in urban informal settlements characterized by inadequate infrastructure and relatively high health risks. Little is known, however, about the spatial or health characteristics of cities in this region or about the spatial inequalities in health within them. In this article we show how we have been creating a data-rich field laboratory in Accra, Ghana, to connect the dots between health, poverty, and place in a large city in West Africa. Our overarching goal is to test the hypothesis that satellite imagery, in combination with census and limited survey data, such as that found in demographic and health surveys (DHSs), can provide clues to the spatial distribution of health inequalities in cities where fewer data exist than those we have collected for Accra. To this end, we have created the first digital boundary file of the city, obtained high spatial resolution satellite imagery for two dates, collected data from a longitudinal panel of 3,200 women spatially distributed throughout Accra, and obtained microlevel data from the census. We have also acquired water, sewerage, and elevation layers and then coupled all of these data with extensive field research on the neighborhood structure of Accra. We show that the proportional abundance of vegetation in a neighborhood serves as a key indicator of local levels of health and well-being and that local perceptions of health risk are not always consistent with objective measures. PMID:24532846

  14. Health in our hands, but not in our heads: understanding hygiene motivation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Scott, Beth; Curtis, Val; Rabie, Tamer; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana

    2007-07-01

    Each year more than 2 million children die from diarrhoeal diseases; the same number again die from acute respiratory infections. The simple hygiene behaviour of washing hands with soap represents an effective way of preventing the transmission of many of these infections. However, rates of handwashing across the globe are low, presenting a challenge for health promotion programmes. Behaviour change is not easy, and past efforts based upon health education have met with limited success. New approaches are needed. We propose that much can be learnt from the world of consumer marketing. Rather than base communications programmes for behaviour change on increasing knowledge, marketers aim to respond to the inner desires and motivations of their target audiences. This study used consumer research to investigate the factors motivating handwashing with soap in order to inform a national communications campaign for Ghana. It revealed that the strongest motivators for handwashing with soap were related to nurturance, social acceptance and disgust of faeces and latrines, especially their smell. Protection from disease is mentioned as a driving force, but was not a key motivator of handwashing behaviour. The ways in which these findings have been translated into a handwash promotion campaign are discussed. PMID:17526639

  15. Men’s and women’s migration in coastal Ghana: An event history analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Holly E.; Andrzejewski, Catherine S.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses life history calendar (LHC) data from coastal Ghana and event history statistical methods to examine inter-regional migration for men and women, focusing on four specific migration types: rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-urban, and urban-rural. Our analysis is unique because it examines how key determinants of migration— including education, employment, marital status, and childbearing—differ by sex for these four types of migration. We find that women are significantly less mobile than men overall, but that more educated women are more likely to move (particularly to urban areas) than their male counterparts. Moreover, employment in the prior year is less of a deterrent to migration among women. While childbearing has a negative effect on migration, this impact is surprisingly stronger for men than for women, perhaps because women’s search for assistance in childcare promotes migration. Meanwhile, being married or in union appears to have little effect on migration probabilities for either men or women. These results demonstrate the benefits of a LHC approach and suggest that migration research should further examine men’s and women’s mobility as it relates to both human capital and household and family dynamics, particularly in developing settings. PMID:24298203

  16. Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics

  17. Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work. PMID:21184678

  18. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  19. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  20. Survey on Distance Education in Ghana. A Report for the Deputy Secretary (Higher Education Division), Ministry of Education of the Republic of Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggor, R. A.; And Others

    Interviews conducted with 65 government officials, nongovernmental officials, education, administrators, politicians, students, teachers, heads of institutions, and others in Ghana during a 6-month period led to recommendations for improving the adult and higher education system in that country. The survey found that demand for higher education in…

  1. Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…

  2. Are the Schools We HAVE the Schools We NEED in Ghana? A Contribution to the Ongoing Debate on Ghana's Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Padmore E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Ghana's education reform initiatives in the light of contemporary socioeconomic constraints, and linguistic and diversity issues. The Ghanaian education system today faces inadequate financial resources (for education programs) combined with the continuous unprecedented demand…

  3. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  4. Influence of the inter tropical discontinuity on Harmattan dust deposition in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyngsie, G.; Olsen, J. L.; Awadzi, T. W.; Fensholt, R.; Breuning-Madsen, H.

    2013-09-01

    The Harmattan is a dry dust-laden continental wind, and in the boreal winter Harmattan dust plumes affects many West African countries, including Ghana. When the Harmattan is strongest the southern part of Ghana is affected by the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD). In this study, we investigate if the ITD functions as a barrier, preventing long transported Harmattan dust to settle south of, and below, it. This is done by analyzing a Harmattan dust outbreak, mapped using Earth observation (EO) data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, coupled with data from West African AERONET stations, and comparing these observations with wind data from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) program and the mineral suite of samples from seasonal dust deposits in north and south Ghana. In northern Ghana traces of minerals indicate a weak influence of particles from an arid environment, which is found consistent with the mapped dust plumes and NE wind directions. In southern Ghana the mineral composition show no sediments of an arid origin, the mapped dust plumes is less intense, and the surface wind directions and wind mass trajectories are more varying with lower wind speeds. Based on the results of this study it is concluded that dust deposited, or measured near ground, in the Harmattan period under the ITD, and south of it, does not contain material from the Chad Basin due to the local winds conditions.

  5. From Rhetoric to Reality: Planning and Conducting Collaborations for International Research in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombe, Margaret; Newransky, Chrisann; Crea, Tom; Stout, Anna

    2013-01-01

    International collaboration in social work research, particularly research in the global south, presents unique opportunities for the personal and professional development of researchers and students alike. Yet data to help direct the process are limited. Using a research project recently carried out in Ghana as background, the authors present…

  6. Challenges Women with Disability Face in Accessing and Using Maternal Healthcare Services in Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Otupiri, Easmon; Obeng, Bernard; Edusie, Anthony Kwaku; Ankomah, Augustine; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana. Methods and Findings A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling’s thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers’ insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability. Conclusions Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and

  7. Assessing the Utility of Satellite Imagery with Differing Spatial Resolutions for Deriving Proxy Measures of Slum Presence in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Stoler, Justin; Daniels, Dean; Weeks, John R.; Stow, Douglas A.; Coulter, Lloyd L.; Finch, Brian Karl

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on how differing spatial resolutions or classification techniques affect image-driven identification and categorization of slum neighborhoods in developing nations. This study assesses the correlation between satellite-derived land cover and census-derived socioeconomic variables in Accra, Ghana to determine whether the relationship between these variables is altered with a change in spatial resolution or scale. ASTER and Landsat TM satellite images are each used to classify land cover using spectral mixture analysis (SMA), and land cover proportions are summarized across Enumeration Areas in Accra and compared to socioeconomic data for the same areas. Correlation and regression analyses compare the SMA results with a Slum Index created from various socio-economic data taken from the Census of Ghana, as well as to data derived from a “hard” per-pixel classification of a 2.4 m Quickbird image. Results show that the vegetation fraction is significantly correlated with the Slum Index (Pearson’s r ranges from −0.33 to −0.51 depending on which image-derived product is compared), and the use of a spatial error model improves results (multivariate model pseudo-R2 ranges from 0.37 to 0.40 by image product). We also find that SMA products derived from ASTER are a sufficient substitute for classification products derived from higher spatial resolution QB data when using land cover fractions as a proxy for slum presence, suggesting that SMA might be more cost-effective for deriving land cover fractions than the use of high-resolution imagery for this type of demographic analysis. PMID:23847453

  8. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital

  9. Implementation of dose management system at radiation protection board of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission.

    PubMed

    Hasford, F; Amoako, J K; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Sosu, E K; Otoo, F; Asiedu, G O

    2012-01-01

    The dose management system (DMS) is a computer software developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency for managing data on occupational exposure to radiation sources and intake of radionuclides. It is an integrated system for the user-friendly storage, processing and control of all existing internal and external dosimetry data. The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission has installed, customised, tested and using the DMS as a comprehensive DMS to improve personnel and area monitoring in the country. Personnel dose records from the RPBs database from 2000 to 2009 are grouped into medical, industrial and education/research sectors. The medical sector dominated the list of monitored institutions in the country over the 10-y period representing ∼87 %, while the industrial and education/research sectors represent ∼9 and ∼4 %, respectively. The number of monitored personnel in the same period follows a similar trend with medical, industrial and education/research sectors representing ∼74, ∼17 and ∼9 %, respectively. Analysis of dose data for 2009 showed that there was no instance of a dose above the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, however, 2.7 % of the exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv. The highest recorded individual annual dose and total collective dose in all sectors were 4.73 mSv and 159.84 man Sv, respectively. Workers in the medical sector received higher individual doses than in the other two sectors, and average dose per exposed worker in all sectors is 0.25 mSv. PMID:21335631

  10. Attitudes toward rape and victims of rape: a test of the feminist theory in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Kofi E

    2009-10-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender stereotypes and false beliefs (myths) about rape, rapists, and victims of rape. Thus, the theory suggests a relationship between rape myths and less favorable attitudes toward rape and victims of rape. Results from a survey conducted in Ghana show some support for the feminist theory of rape: There is evidence of rape myth acceptance in Ghana; gender is significant in predicting levels of rape myth acceptance; and finally, education or profession and age, but not religion, are associated with levels of rape myth acceptance in a predictable way. PMID:19252064

  11. Factors associated with abortion-seeking and obtaining a safe abortion in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Aparna; Juarez, Fatima; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela

    2012-12-01

    Although Ghana's abortion law is fairly liberal, unsafe abortion and its consequences remain among the largest contributors to maternal mortality in the country. This study analyzes data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey to identify the sociodemographic profiles of women who seek to induce abortion and those who are able to obtain safe abortion services. We hypothesize that women who have access to safe abortion will not be distributed randomly across different social groups in Ghana; rather, access will be influenced by social and economic factors. The results confirm this hypothesis and reveal that the women who are most vulnerable to unsafe abortions are younger, poorer, and lack partner support. The study concludes with policy recommendations for improving access to safe abortion for all subgroups of women, especially the most vulnerable. PMID:23239247

  12. Healthy Firms: Constraints to Growth among Private Health Sector Facilities in Ghana and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Nicholas E.; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P.; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Background Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have

  13. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people. PMID:24552118

  14. Knowledge and Uses of African Pangolins as a Source of Traditional Medicine in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID

  15. Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:20043862

  16. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (<0·5 % of GDP). We conclude that Ghana's 2014 budget statement pays scant attention to nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition. PMID:26242904

  17. Maternal Determinants of Birth Weight in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, pre—pregnancy BMI and socio—economic status in Northern Ghana. Methods The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri—urban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (37–42 weeks). Mother’s height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions. Results The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37%) but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%). Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18–444) heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682– (-276) lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87–405) and 595g (95% CI 375–815) respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 –(-44) lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 ± 0.68 kg. Conclusion Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting

  18. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for

  19. Notions and treatment of guinea worm in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bierlich, B

    1995-08-01

    Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams. This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The importance of knowing about local perceptions and treatment of guinea worm is stressed. Guinea worm is not attributed to water. The general understanding is that guinea worm is an innate part of human anatomy. It is not seen as an alien presence in the body. Guinea worm is rather said to be 'in people's blood', and sooner or later to 'stand up'. Guinea worm is considered an 'inevitable' feature of living. After a description of the background to the study, the methods are characterized. Brief background information on the people, their environment and their water sources are given. The central portion of the paper focuses on local perceptions of illness and notions of guinea worm ('guinea worm is in the human blood'), which are very different from those of biomedicine ('guinea worm is a disease'). Attention is also given to perceptions of water ('bitter' vs 'sweet') and the prevention of guinea worm. The social limitations to the filter technology are addressed. People's choice of therapy and the role of medicines (herbs and Western pharmaceuticals) in treatment of guinea worm are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of health education and stresses the importance of showing respect for the local view of guinea worm, which is said to be 'in the blood'. It is suggested that, since people are not adverse to the use of Western pharmaceuticals, the use of Western medicines to treat guinea worm should be further promoted. The social constraints on filtering must also be appreciated. These relate to the

  20. Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Garg, A; Morduch, J

    1998-01-01

    "When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana [the 1988-1989 Ghana Living Standards Survey], we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters)." PMID:12294784

  1. Mycobacterium africanum Is Associated with Patient Ethnicity in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Otchere, Isaac Darko; Aboagye, Samuel Y.; Stucki, David; Hattendorf, Jan; Borrell, Sonia; Feldmann, Julia; Danso, Emelia

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium africanum is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and an important cause of human tuberculosis in West Africa that is rarely observed elsewhere. Here we genotyped 613 MTBC clinical isolates from Ghana, and searched for associations between the different phylogenetic lineages of MTBC and patient variables. We found that 17.1% (105/613) of the MTBC isolates belonged to M. africanum, with the remaining belonging to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. No M. bovis was identified in this sample. M. africanum was significantly more common in tuberculosis patients belonging to the Ewe ethnic group (adjusted odds ratio: 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.67–5.47, p<0.001). Stratifying our analysis by the two phylogenetic lineages of M. africanum (i.e. MTBC Lineages 5 and 6) revealed that this association was mainly driven by Lineage 5 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 1). Our findings suggest interactions between the genetic diversity of MTBC and human diversity, and offer a possible explanation for the geographical restriction of M. africanum to parts of West Africa. PMID:25569290

  2. The composition and origin of Ghana medicine clays

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Bart E.; Fraser, Sharon E.; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The mineral, organic and elemental composition of medicine clays from three shrines in the Tong Hills in northern Ghana (Gbankil, Kusanaab, and Yaane) are assessed to ascertain what additives they might contain and the implications for their recognition, for example in archaeological contexts. These are clays that are widely used for healing purposes being perceived efficacious in curing multiple ailments and which are given a divine provenance, but their collection is ascribed human agency. The Yaane clay is also supplied as part of the process of obtaining the right to operate the shrine elsewhere making it widely dispersed. Organic geochemical analyses revealed a predominance of plant-derived material with a substantial contribution of microbial origin. Based on these (supported by elemental and mineral analyses), no unnatural organic material could be detected, making an exogenous contribution to these clays unlikely. The implications are that these are wholly natural medicinal substances with no anthropogenic input into their preparation, as the traditions suggest. The very similar mineralogy of all the clays, including a non-medicine clay sampled, suggests that, unless the geology radically differed, differentiating between them analytically in an archaeological contexts would be doubtful. PMID:21810043

  3. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  4. Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnancy in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mockenhaupt, F P; Rong, B; Till, H; Eggelte, T A; Beck, S; Gyasi-Sarpong, C; Thompson, W N; Bienzle, U

    2000-03-01

    Malarial parasitaemia below the threshold of microscopy but detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays is common in endemic regions. This study was conducted to examine prevalence, predictors, and effects of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnancy. In a cross-sectional study among 530 pregnant women in Ghana, plasmodial infections were assessed by microscopy and PCR assays. Concentrations of haemoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and antimalarial drugs (chloroquine, pyrimethamine) in urine were demonstrated by ELISA dipsticks. By microscopy, 32% of the women were found to harbour malaria parasites. This rate increased to 63% adding the results of the parasite-specific PCR. P. falciparum was present in all but one infection. With increasing gravidity, infection rates and parasite densities decreased and the proportions of submicroscopic parasitaemia among infected women grew. Correspondingly, anaemia, fever and evidence of inflammation (CRP > 0.6 mg/dl) were more frequent in primigravidae than in multigravidae. Antimalarial drugs were detected in 65% of the women and were associated with a reduced prevalence of P. falciparum infections and a raised proportion of submicroscopic parasitaemia. Both gravidity and antimalarial drug use were independent predictors of submicroscopic P. falciparum infections. These infections caused a slight reduction of Hb levels and considerably increased serum concentrations of CRP. Conventional microscopy underestimates the actual extent of malarial infections in pregnancy in endemic regions. Submicroscopic P. falciparum infections are frequent and may contribute to mild anaemia and inflammation in seemingly aparasitaemic pregnant women. PMID:10747278

  5. HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ulasi, Chijioke I; Preko, Peter O; Baidoo, Joseph A.; Bayard, Budry; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Curtis M; Jolly, Pauline E

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 104 adults from the four sub-districts in Kumasi was conducted. Results Four stigma constructs, employment-based discrimination, screening and identification of HIV positive people, revelation of HIV status and social contact stigma were determined based on reliability measures from responses to the questionnaire. Regression analysis showed that participants with higher educational attainment were more likely to favor policies denying employment to PLWHA (p<0.05), but disapproved of revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Muslims were more likely than Christians to agree with identifying PLWHA (p<0.05) and more likely to advocate revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Males were more likely to favor revealing HIV status (p<0.05). Employed persons were more likely to have social contact with PLWHA (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings are useful in guiding the design of interventions against HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi. PMID:18632302

  6. Community-company relations in gold mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato

    2009-01-01

    As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations. PMID:18242818

  7. Ghana's army goes into combat readiness against HIV.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Ghana's professional army of 12,000 men were joined by the national police in launching a campaign of education about AIDS which promotes condom use. The campaign received some funding from USAID and AIDS Tech/Family Health International. 94% of the soldiers had 7 years of education and 95% were married. 47% had never used the condom, 37% used it only occasionally, and only 19% used it regularly. An AIDS Awareness Day was followed up by 3000 posters, 1800 bumper stickers, 1500 T-shirts, 300 press packs, 1000 keychains and a video. Comic books in the local pidgin English idiom also proved popular for promotion. In a social marketing scheme, condoms were made available in barracks, army shops, and canteens for a modest price. The sales of condoms rose from about 500 a month in 1991 to 6000-7000 by January 1992. The army AIDS policy spelled out that HIV positivity will be revealed to the infected soldier. HIV-positive soldIers will not be sent abroad, curtailing the chances of disease transmission. They are kept in active service as long as they are capable of meeting their duties. Nevertheless, this policy hinges on the outcome of the AIDS education campaign whose failure could result in a policy of dismissing HIV-infected soldiers. PMID:12317821

  8. The composition and origin of Ghana medicine clays.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Bart E; Fraser, Sharon E; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The mineral, organic and elemental composition of medicine clays from three shrines in the Tong Hills in northern Ghana (Gbankil, Kusanaab, and Yaane) are assessed to ascertain what additives they might contain and the implications for their recognition, for example in archaeological contexts. These are clays that are widely used for healing purposes being perceived efficacious in curing multiple ailments and which are given a divine provenance, but their collection is ascribed human agency. The Yaane clay is also supplied as part of the process of obtaining the right to operate the shrine elsewhere making it widely dispersed. Organic geochemical analyses revealed a predominance of plant-derived material with a substantial contribution of microbial origin. Based on these (supported by elemental and mineral analyses), no unnatural organic material could be detected, making an exogenous contribution to these clays unlikely. The implications are that these are wholly natural medicinal substances with no anthropogenic input into their preparation, as the traditions suggest. The very similar mineralogy of all the clays, including a non-medicine clay sampled, suggests that, unless the geology radically differed, differentiating between them analytically in an archaeological contexts would be doubtful. PMID:21810043

  9. The expression of perinatal depression in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Pamela; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asampong, Emmanuel; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, perinatal depression (PND) has been associated with poor infant health outcomes, including frequency of infant diarrheal episodes, preterm delivery and low birth weight, and discontinuation or problems breastfeeding. Yet little is known about the awareness or expression of PND depression in Ghana. A total of 12 in-depth key-informant interviews were conducted with women who had experienced PND within the previous two-and-a-half years. Three focus-group discussions were conducted with new mothers (n = 11), grandmothers (n = 8), and fathers (n = 9) for contextual and supporting information. ‘Thinking too much’ was the term most commonly used to describe PND. The women saw their distress as caused largely by poverty, lack of social support, and domestic problems. Women sought help through family and religious organizations, rather than through medical services. Problems producing breast milk or breastfeeding were nearly universal complaints and suggest significant effects on infant health in the study area. These results present evidence to support the increasing consensus that depression presents in similar and disabling ways across cultures and contexts. This formative qualitative data is required to tailor depression prevention or treatment interventions to this particular socio-cultural context. PMID:26539247

  10. Extreme value modelling of Ghana stock exchange index.

    PubMed

    Nortey, Ezekiel N N; Asare, Kwabena; Mettle, Felix Okoe

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of extreme events has always been of interest in fields such as hydrology and meteorology. However, after the recent global financial crises, appropriate models for modelling of such rare events leading to these crises have become quite essential in the finance and risk management fields. This paper models the extreme values of the Ghana stock exchange all-shares index (2000-2010) by applying the extreme value theory (EVT) to fit a model to the tails of the daily stock returns data. A conditional approach of the EVT was preferred and hence an ARMA-GARCH model was fitted to the data to correct for the effects of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedastic terms present in the returns series, before the EVT method was applied. The Peak Over Threshold approach of the EVT, which fits a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to excesses above a certain selected threshold, was employed. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters were obtained and the model's goodness of fit was assessed graphically using Q-Q, P-P and density plots. The findings indicate that the GPD provides an adequate fit to the data of excesses. The size of the extreme daily Ghanaian stock market movements were then computed using the value at risk and expected shortfall risk measures at some high quantiles, based on the fitted GPD model. PMID:26587364

  11. Peer Influences on Sexual Activity among Adolescents in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Asante, Elizabeth; Ahiadeke, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influences of peers on the sexual activity of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of these issues could lead to more effective interventions promoting sexual and reproductive health. Using two waves survey data from adolescents (n=1275) in two towns in southeastern Ghana, we examined age, gender, and community differences in peer group characteristics. We also examine prospective associations between peer group characteristics and self-reported sexual initiation, multiple partnerships, and lack of consistent condom use with most recent partner over a 20-month follow-up period. Gender differences in peer context variables were small. Affiliation with antisocial peers and perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of transition to first sex. Having more friends increased the odds of accruing multiple new sexual partners among younger respondents. Among males, perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of accruing multiple partners. No peer context variables were significantly associated with condom use with most recent partner. We discuss the implications of these findings for adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25753056

  12. Reflections on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment outcomes in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Available evidence in Ghana shows the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) control activities efforts since the beginning of the 1900s. In spite of that, TB continues to be one of the common diseases in the country. In 1994, local and international policy windows opened for renewed strategies for the control of TB. This paper explores some of the approaches which have been in place since 1994 and their implications for treatment outcomes. Methods The study combines quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data consist of treatment outcome from 1997–2010 and the qualitative data are derived from in-depth interviews with some staff of the TB control programme. Poisson regression and inductive coding were applied to the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results Reported cure rates increased from 43.6% to 87.7% between 1997 and 2010. The data from the in-depth interviews (IDIs) suggested that improvements in diagnosis, community TB care, stigma reduction among community and health workers towards TB patients, the public-private partnership, and the enablers’ package contributed to the improved better treatment outcomes, particularly from 2008. Conclusions Lessons learnt include the achievement of objectives with varying strategies and stakeholder interventions. Further studies would be needed to quantify the contributions of the various interventions to help determine those that are cost effective as well as efficient and effective for TB control. PMID:23971675

  13. Controlling sickle cell disease in Ghana - ethics and options

    PubMed Central

    Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for “crimes” only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels – preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

  14. Teachers Motivation in Senior High Schools in Ghana: A Case of Ghana Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingful, Stephen; Nusenu, Angela Abena

    2015-01-01

    Motivation involves both extrinsic and intrinsic types. One must intrinsically be motivated before accepting a new challenges followed by intrinsic motivation for best achievement. In this study, the researcher used census sampling technique whereby all 85 respondents were used for the case study as a result of the fairly small total population of…

  15. Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered…

  16. Ghana's Education Reform 2007: A Realistic Proposition or a Crisis of Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of…

  17. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  18. Between Tradition and Modernity: Girls' Talk about Sexual Relationships and Violence in Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny; Heslop, Jo; Januario, Francisco; Oando, Samwel; Sabaa, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper interrogates the influence of a tradition-modernity dichotomy on perspectives and practices on sexual violence and sexual relationships involving girls in three districts of Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique. Through deploying an analytical framework of positioning within multiple discursive sites, we argue that although the dichotomy…

  19. Public-Private Partnership in the Provision of Basic Education in Ghana: Challenges and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    Growing private-sector participation in basic education service delivery in many developing countries has led to calls for greater partnership arrangements with the public sector to improve access for poor and disadvantaged groups. In Ghana there is some interest in forging closer public-private partnerships to improve access for children who have…

  20. Sex Differences in the Forms of Aggression among Adolescent Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedahe, Francis K.; Owusu-Banahene, Nana Opoku

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated sex differences in the forms of aggression exhibited by adolescent students, particularly in the Western world. No such study has been done among sub-Saharan Africa students. The aim was to examine the sex differences in forms of aggression among adolescent students in Ghana. A total of 800 adolescent students…

  1. Curriculum Reform and Teachers' Training Needs: The Case of Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is the key to curriculum-based reform, yet there is little empirical evidence upon which to base decisions of design or implementation of training and development programmes. This study examined the training and development needs of Ghana's polytechnic teachers in an existing curriculum reform scenario as they became…

  2. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Debrah, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76%) breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46%) participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56%) were premenopausal (<46.6 years) with 7 (0.23%) being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  3. Solving the Teacher Shortage Problem in Ghana: Critical Perspectives for Understanding the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbold, Cosmas

    2015-01-01

    The problem of getting sufficient numbers of qualified teachers to staff classrooms is one of the most significant public policy issues facing many countries. In Ghana, the problem of teacher shortage has been a perennial one, necessitated by educational expansion as well as adverse socio-economic and political circumstances, and exacerbated by…

  4. Factors Associated with Waiting Time for Breast Cancer Treatment in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A.; Akingbola, Titilola S.; Hewlett, Sandra A.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Cole, Helen V.; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study…

  5. Orientation Impact on Performance of Undergraduate Students in University of Cape Coast (Ghana)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Georgina Asi; Tawiah, Millan Ahema; Sena-Kpeglo, Cynthia; Onyame, Jeff Teye

    2014-01-01

    Orientation is widely conceived to encompass activities that support the transition into educational institutions. The University of Cape Coast, Ghana places a premium on orientation for freshman year students and yet the impact of such programmes on students' performance remains a difficult thing to determine. This study, therefore, focuses on…

  6. Increasing Access to Science Oriented Education Programmes in Tertiary Institutions in Ghana through Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, C. K.; Mensah, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    There is emphasis in the educational policy of Ghana for the promotion of Distance Education programmes to widen access to education at all levels and facilitate human resource development. This study examined the level of access and challenges faced by learners in science oriented programmes offered by distance in the Kwame Nkrumah University of…

  7. Case Studies in U.S. Distance Education: Implications for Ghana's Under-Served High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen

    2010-01-01

    Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with better…

  8. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: The Evidence and the Issues. Country Analytic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame; Djangmah, Jerome; Oduro, Abena; Seidu, Alhassan; Hunt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of access to education in Ghana builds on the Ministry of Education Sector Performance Report and the World Bank sector studies. Though access has improved it remains uneven and has not grown as fast enough to reach universal levels of participation in primary school and JSS [Junior Secondary School] by 2015. More needs to be…

  9. English-Only Language-in-Education Policy in Multilingual Classrooms in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    This paper, based on the findings of a qualitative study, discusses the influence of Ghana's recently introduced English-only language-in-education policy on pupils' classroom communicative practices and learning generally. It highlights how the use of English--an unfamiliar language--creates anxiety among students and stalls effective classroom…

  10. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

  11. Publishing for Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Ghana: Politics and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Edu-Buandoh, Dora F.; Brew-Hammond, Aba

    2015-01-01

    One often cited challenge to effective mother tongue-based bilingual education (MTBE) in multilingual countries like Ghana is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional materials in many languages. To explain this situation, factors such as shortage of writers and teachers in the local languages, lack of interest on the part of…

  12. Student Teachers' Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Ghana and Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa; Mangope, Boitumelo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' attitudes and concerns about inclusive education in Ghana and Botswana. A three-part survey questionnaire consisting of background variables, attitudes, and concerns was completed by 202 students from four teacher training institutions in both countries. One of the institutions was a university and the others…

  13. First Report of Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nigeria is the only country in West Africa where soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi has been officially reported (1). During a disease survey in Ghana in October 2006, soybean (Glycine max) leaves with rust symptoms (tan, angular lesions with erumpent sori exuding urediniospores) were ob...

  14. Gender, Sexuality and Schooling: Everyday Life in Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mairead

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the focus is upon daily school practices in Junior Secondary Schools in Ghana and Botswana. The data from 12 ethnographic case studies have been used to explore how the institution of schooling is gendered. The analysis focuses predominantly on the informal practices of the hidden curriculum through a theoretical perspective that…

  15. The 1987 Junior Secondary-School Reform in Ghana: Vocational or Pre-Vocational in Nature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2004-01-01

    The secondary-education system in Ghana was reorganised in the early 1980s. The present study addresses one part of this reform: the attempt to introduce a more vocationally oriented curriculum in junior secondary schools. The findings on which this study is based are drawn from interviews at several levels as well as from documentary analysis and…

  16. Psallops niedzwiedzkii, a new species from Ghana with a key to African species (Heteroptera, Miridae, Psallopinae)

    PubMed Central

    Herczek, Aleksander; Popov, Yuri A.; Gorczyca, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species from Ghana, Psallops niedzwiedzkii Herczek & Popov, sp. n. is described. The dorsal habitus, head and male genitalia are presented and some morphological features are discussed. A key, short descriptions and map of the distribution of the African species of the genus are also provided. PMID:27551202

  17. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…

  18. Teachers' ICT Usage in Second-Cycle Institutions in Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buabeng-Andoh, Charles; Yidana, Issifu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' use of ICT and the factors that affect their ICT use in secondary schools in Ghana. A focus group interview was used to gather data from participants. Ten groups of six students each from urban, semi-urban and rural schools were chosen for the focus group interviews. The results of this study…

  19. Gender Differences in Participation in Elective Mathematics of Senior Secondary School Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baah-Korang, Kwame; Gyan, Emmanuel; McCarthy, Paul; McCarthy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the body of knowledge that exists in the area of differences in participation in elective mathematics, between boys and girls in Secondary Schools in Ghana. A sample of 738 respondents from five Secondary Schools was purposively selected using purposive sampling technique. All the respondents were final year…

  20. Viewing Teacher Motivation in the Ghana Education Service through a Postcolonial Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically…

  1. Influence of Culture on Curriculum Development in Ghana: An Undervalued Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to…

  2. Teachers' Perception on Sustainability of Distance Education in Ghana: Evidence from Ashanti Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei-Owusu, Benedict; Awunyo-Vitor, Dadson

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the sustainability of distance education in the context of finance, management and availability of support services in Ashanti region of Ghana. Data for the study were obtained from five groups of respondents namely; centre coordinators, educational administrators, facilitators of distance education programme, potential and…

  3. The Association between Bullying and Psychological Health among Senior High School Students in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…

  4. Policy Implications for Using ICTs for Empowerment of Rural Women in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

    2008-01-01

    Using rural household survey data collected from 1000 female household heads selected from all the ten administrative regions in Ghana, this paper explored the policy implications for using ICTs for empowerment of rural women. A contingent valuation (CV) method was used to quantitatively estimate the influence of selected socio-economic factors on…

  5. Why Teachers Leave Teaching: The Case of Pretertiary Institutions in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agezo, Clement K.

    2010-01-01

    In Ghana, many professional teachers have been leaving teaching to seek employment in jobs that they think hold promise of better pay and prestige. This article critically examines the key factors that compel teachers to leave the teaching profession for other jobs. Thirty professionally trained teachers who had taught at pretertiary institutions…

  6. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

  7. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  8. Decolonising Knowledge Production: The Pedagogic Relevance of Gandhian Satyagraha to Schooling and Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adjei, Paul Banahene

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I examine how Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) can be applied to decolonize schooling and education practices in Ghana. Satyagraha consists of three fundamental elements: appeal to the oppressor, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience. Part of an anti-racist and anti-colonial discourse,…

  9. Radio Lectures in Ghana: An Innovation for the Twenty First Century Instructional Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    In the developing countries of the world, Nigeria and Ghana especially have consistently been battling with large enrollment of students into the institutions of higher learning. The attendant problem of the traditional instructional delivery system that poses a serious challenge to the 21st century educational development therefore needs…

  10. Anthropogenic Enrichment and Nutrients in Some Tropical Lagoons of Ghana, West Africa

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...

  11. Impact of Lecturers' Gender on Learning: Assessing University of Ghana Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appiah, Samson Obed; Agbelevor, Emelia Afi

    2015-01-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970s have sought to describe students' conceptions of learning especially how gender of lecturers affected the learning of students. However, not many studies have been done in Ghana concerning how gender of lecturers affected learning among students. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of…

  12. Updating Polytechnic Teachers' Knowledge and Skills through Teacher Design Teams in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…

  13. Psallops niedzwiedzkii, a new species from Ghana with a key to African species (Heteroptera, Miridae, Psallopinae).

    PubMed

    Herczek, Aleksander; Popov, Yuri A; Gorczyca, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A new species from Ghana, Psallops niedzwiedzkii Herczek & Popov, sp. n. is described. The dorsal habitus, head and male genitalia are presented and some morphological features are discussed. A key, short descriptions and map of the distribution of the African species of the genus are also provided. PMID:27551202

  14. Testing the cultural group selection hypothesis in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural group selection (CGS) hypothesis in light of our fieldwork in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca, highly multi-ethnic regions. Our evidence fails to corroborate two central predictions of the hypothesis: that the cultural group is the unit of evolution, and that cultural homogenization is to be expected as the outcome of a selective process. PMID:27561825

  15. Sex, Grades and Power in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…

  16. Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

  17. Developing an E-Learning Strategy for Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awidi, Isaiah T.

    2008-01-01

    While technology has enabled online education in many countries, the same cannot be said for African public universities. Universities in Ghana have made some progress in building networking infrastructure and acquiring computers, but integrating technology into the teaching and learning process has been a challenge. Instructional delivery remains…

  18. Implementing Free Primary Education Policy in Malawi and Ghana: Equity and Efficiency Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Kazuma; Oketch, Moses

    2008-01-01

    Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has…

  19. Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

  20. Re-Examining the Fluctuations in Language in-Education Policies in Post-Independence Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansah, Gladys Nyarko

    2014-01-01

    Language-in-education policy in Ghana has been in a flux since British colonial rule but particularly so after independence. A close examination of post independence language in education policies shows these fluctuating policies have moved from one form of bilingual education policy to another. Many tensions and paradoxes that arise from…

  1. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  2. From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and Community Development in Late Colonial Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…

  3. Development of Early Years Policy and Practice in Ghana: Can Outcomes Be Improved for Marginalised Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which…

  4. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

  5. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  6. Motivation and Productivity in Academic Libraries: A Case Study of Balme Library, University of Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, Anaba

    1992-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of junior staff (i.e., clerical and service personnel) at the University of Ghana library that collected data on background, experience, salaries, recreational facilities, job satisfaction, attitudes of colleagues and supervisors, committees, staff meetings, discipline, appraisal methods, and communication. Suggestions…

  7. Implementation of Innovations in Higher Education: The Case of Competency-Based Training in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A notable trend in recent years has been the introduction of competency-based training (CBT) in vocational education and training systems in many countries. Several CBT training programmes in Ghana have been accredited and quality assured. This article explores the perception of both students and lecturers towards CBT and examines factors that…

  8. Critical Factors in Selecting a Course Management System for Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awidi, Isaiah T.

    2008-01-01

    Course management systems (CMSs) currently drive educational delivery in most developed countries. Their absence in higher education in most developing countries creates a digital divide between first- and third-world students. Meeting the needs of higher education in Ghana therefore depends on identifying the factors that should inform the choice…

  9. Towards New Partnerships in Sector-Wide Approaches: Comparative Experiences from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene

    2002-01-01

    Partnership and sector-wide approaches have become common denominators for success in educational development. It is, however, far easier to agree on the rhetoric than to implement the underlying principles. The comparative analysis of Burkina Faso, Ghana and Mozambique highlights how far governments and agencies still have to go in order to…

  10. Delayed Primary School Enrollment and Childhood Malnutrition in Ghana. An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glewwe, Paul; Jacoby, Hanan

    This study investigated why the primary school enrollment of children in poor countries is often delayed despite the prediction made by human capital theory that schooling will begin at the earliest possible age. Using data from the 1988-89 Ghana Living Standards Survey household questionnaire, the study examined the age of enrollment,…

  11. Corporal Punishment in the Schools of Ghana: Does Inclusive Education Suffer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that compared the practice of corporal punishment in ten basic schools in the Greater Accra District in Ghana. Five of the ten schools were designated as inclusive project schools (IPS) and the other five as non-inclusive project schools (NIS). The primary purpose was to find out if the inclusive project schools were…

  12. Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that fails to…

  13. Sexual and Reproductive Health Education: Opinions of Students and Educators in Bolgatanga Municipality, Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Geugten, Jolien; Dijkstra, Marlies; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H. G.; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students' and educators' perspective. This study examined students' opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators regarding the implementation of the…

  14. "The Older Women Are Men:" Navigating the Academic Terrain, Perspectives from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates how the intersection of gender, socio-cultural factors, and organizational culture impact professional experiences of women academics at a selected public university in Ghana. Given the glaring absence of women in academic positions across many African universities, particularly at academic ranks beyond the…

  15. Critical Factors Underlying Students' Choice of Institution for Graduate Programmes: Empirical Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbawuni, Joseph; Nimako, Simon Gyasi

    2015-01-01

    The growth in higher education industry has caused a tremendous increase in the number and type of colleges, polytechnics and universities offering similar academic programmes especially in business disciplines in Ghana. The resultant competition in the education industry makes it crucial for education managers to understand the latent factors…

  16. Electronic Waste is a Mess: Awareness and Proenvironmental Behavior among University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy…

  17. Determinants of Psychological Help-Seeking Intentions of University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Non-utilization of mental health resources is a well-documented problem among adolescents and young adults. However, little is known about the psychological help-seeking intentions of young adults in Ghana. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of psychological help-seeking intentions among university students in Accra, Ghana…

  18. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  19. The problems associated with pesticide use by irrigation workers in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Clarke, E E; Levy, L S; Spurgeon, A; Calvert, I A

    1997-07-01

    The use of pesticides in Ghanaian agriculture, though beneficial in reducing crop loss both before and after harvest, has been associated with threats to human health often due to the misapplication of the chemicals. This study was an initial attempt to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of 123 farm workers on three irrigation project areas in the Accra Plains, Ghana, regarding the safe handling and use of pesticides, to assess the prevalence of symptoms associated with organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamates and to determine the prevalence of pesticide-related symptoms, and blood cholinesterase. The study design was cross-sectional in type. Methods used were interviews and observation, and biological monitoring. The results revealed moderate levels of knowledge of the routes of absorption of pesticides and of potential symptoms following exposure. Knowledge of personal protective measures was poor to moderate. High risk practices included frequent handling of the chemicals, home storage of pesticides and short re-entry intervals. Despite knowledge of some health risks associated with pesticides, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was minimal due primarily to financial constraints. The prevalence of symptoms was higher and cholinesterase levels lower than in a control group of teachers. It is suggested that there is a need for more epidemiologic studies to investigate the problems associated with pesticide induced ill health as well as research into appropriate and affordable PPE. PPE needs to be subsidized. Training of agriculture and health workers in safety precautions, recognition, and management of pesticide-related ill health is a matter of urgency. PMID:9302813

  20. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high

  1. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well

  2. Informing evidence-based policies for ageing and health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Byles, Julie; Aquah, Charles; Amofah, George; Biritwum, Richard; Panisset, Ulysses; Goodwin, James; Beard, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem Ghana’s population is ageing. In 2011, the Government of Ghana requested technical support from the World Health Organization (WHO) to help revise national policies on ageing and health. Approach We applied WHO’s knowledge translation framework on ageing and health to assist evidence based policy-making in Ghana. First, we defined priority problems and health system responses by performing a country assessment of epidemiologic data, policy review, site visits and interviews of key informants. Second, we gathered evidence on effective health systems interventions in low- middle- and high-income countries. Third, key stakeholders were engaged in a policy dialogue. Fourth, policy briefs were developed and presented to the Ghana Health Services. Local setting Ghana has a well-structured health system that can adapt to meet the health care needs of older people. Relevant changes Six problems were selected as priorities, however after the policy dialogue, only five were agreed as priorities by the stakeholders. The key stakeholders drafted evidence-based policy recommendations that were used to develop policy briefs. The briefs were presented to the Ghana Health Service in 2014. Lessons learnt The framework can be used to build local capacity on evidence-informed policy-making. However, knowledge translation tools need further development to be used in low-income countries and in the field of ageing. The terms and language of the tools need to be adapted to local contexts. Evidence for health system interventions on ageing populations is very limited, particularly for low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25558107

  3. Ghana's education reform 2007: A realistic proposition or a crisis of vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-07-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Frequent Opportunities for Exposure to Hepatitis C Virus in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Richard O.; Mora, Nallely; Xia, Guo-liang; Campo, David S.; Purdy, Michael A.; Dimitrova, Zoya E.; Owusu, Dorcas O.; Punkova, Lili T.; Skums, Pavel; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Vaughan, Gilberto; Roh, Hajung; Opare-Sem, Ohene K.; Cooper, Richard S.; Khudyakov, Yury E.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is responsible for a large proportion of persons with liver disease, including cancer. The infection is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. West Africa was identified as a geographic origin of two HCV genotypes. However, little is known about the genetic composition of HCV populations in many countries of the region. Using conventional and next-generation sequencing (NGS), we identified and genetically characterized 65 HCV strains circulating among HCV-positive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Phylogenetic analysis using consensus sequences derived from 3 genomic regions of the HCV genome, 5'-untranslated region, hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) and NS5B gene, consistently classified the HCV variants (n = 65) into genotypes 1 (HCV-1, 15%) and genotype 2 (HCV-2, 85%). The Ghanaian and West African HCV-2 NS5B sequences were found completely intermixed in the phylogenetic tree, indicating a substantial genetic heterogeneity of HCV-2 in Ghana. Analysis of HVR1 sequences from intra-host HCV variants obtained by NGS showed that three donors were infected with >1 HCV strain, including infections with 2 genotypes. Two other donors share an HCV strain, indicating HCV transmission between them. The HCV-2 strain sampled from one donor was replaced with another HCV-2 strain after only 2 months of observation, indicating rapid strain switching. Bayesian analysis estimated that the HCV-2 strains in Ghana were expanding since the 16th century. The blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana, are infected with a very heterogeneous HCV population of HCV-1 and HCV-2, with HCV-2 being prevalent. The detection of three cases of co- or super-infections and transmission linkage between 2 cases suggests frequent opportunities for HCV exposure among the blood donors and is consistent with the reported high HCV prevalence. The conditions for effective HCV-2 transmission existed for ~ 3–4 centuries, indicating a long epidemic history of HCV-2 in Ghana. PMID

  5. Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana's urban markets.

    PubMed

    Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Abaidoo, R C; Ntow, W J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine and compare the current level of exposure of the Ghanaian urban population to hazardous pesticide and fecal coliform contamination through the consumption of fresh vegetables produced in intensive urban and periurban smallholder agriculture with informal wastewater irrigation. A total of 180 vegetable samples (lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion) were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 9 major markets and 12 specialized selling points in 3 major Ghanaian cities: Accra, Kumasi and Tamale. The samples were analyzed for pesticide residue on lettuce leaves, total and fecal coliforms, and helminth egg counts on all three vegetables. Chlopyrifos (Dursban) was detected on 78% of the lettuce, lindane (Gamalin 20) on 31%, endosulfan (Thiodan) on 36%, lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) on 11%, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane on 33%. Most of the residues recorded exceeded the maximum residue limit for consumption. Vegetables from all 3 cities were fecally contaminated and carried fecal coliform populations with geometric mean values ranging from 4.0 x 10(3) to 9.3 x 10(8) g(-1) wet weight and exceeded recommended standards. Lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion also carried an average of 1.1, 0.4, and 2.7 helminth eggs g(-1), respectively. The eggs were identified as those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Schistosoma heamatobium, and Trichuris trichiura. Because many vegetables are consumed fresh or only slightly cooked, the study shows that intensive vegetable production, common in Ghana and its neighboring countries, threatens public health from the microbiologic and pesticide dimensions. Standard recommendations to address this situation (better legislations, law enforcement, or integrated pest management) often do not match the capabilities of farmers and authorities. The most appropriate entry point for risk decrease that also addresses postharvest contamination is washing vegetables before food

  6. Source Tracking Mycobacterium ulcerans Infections in the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Narh, Charles A.; Mosi, Lydia; Quaye, Charles; Dassi, Christelle; Konan, Daniele O.; Tay, Samuel C. K.; de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have associated Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) infection, Buruli ulcer (BU), with slow moving water bodies, there is still no definite mode of transmission. Ecological and transmission studies suggest Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing as a useful tool to differentiate MU strains from other Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria (MPM). Deciphering the genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental isolates is seminal to determining reservoirs, vectors and transmission routes. In this study, we attempted to source-track MU infections to specific water bodies by matching VNTR profiles of MU in human samples to those in the environment. Environmental samples were collected from 10 water bodies in four BU endemic communities in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Four VNTR loci in MU Agy99 genome, were used to genotype environmental MU ecovars, and those from 14 confirmed BU patients within the same study area. Length polymorphism was confirmed with sequencing. MU was present in the 3 different types of water bodies, but significantly higher in biofilm samples. Four MU genotypes, designated W, X, Y and Z, were typed in both human and environmental samples. Other reported genotypes were only found in water bodies. Animal trapping identified 1 mouse with lesion characteristic of BU, which was confirmed as MU infection. Our findings suggest that patients may have been infected from community associated water bodies. Further, we present evidence that small mammals within endemic communities could be susceptible to MU infections. M. ulcerans transmission could involve several routes where humans have contact with risk environments, which may be further compounded by water bodies acting as vehicles for disseminating strains. PMID:25612300

  7. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of

  8. Geophysical Signature of the Lake Bosumtwi Impact Crater, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, T.; Milkereit, B.; Janle, P.; Danuor, S. K.; Berckhemer, H.; Pohl, J.; Scholz, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana has an age of 1.07 Ma, a rim-to-rim diameter of 10.5 km, and is the youngest large impact crater on earth. It is the source crater of the Ivory Coast tectites (Koeberl et al., Geoch. Cosmoch. Acta 61, 1997). The central part of the structure is filled by Lake Bosumtwi. Marine seismic studies were conducted to investigate crater morphology (thickness of post-impact sediments, depth and shape of central uplift). Refraction seismic (OBH and PDAS seismometer) and multichannel reflection data were collected to image the complex subsurface crater structure. Results from integrated modelling reveal low P-wave velocities in the young post-impact sediments (less than 1.8 km/s) and a prominent central uplift structure about 120 m high. The total thickness of the sediments does not exceed 350 m. Gravity and magnetic surveys complement regional airborne geophysical data across the structure (Plado et al., Meteor. & Planet. Sc., 35, 2000). Gravity data from 160 stations on land around the lake show the expected minimum resulting from the sedimentary filling of the lake, low density impact formations, brecciated and fragmented basement. In the fall of 2001 additional gravity measurements will be carried out on the lake to better delineate prominent anomalies associated with the central structure. The magnetic anomalies are attributed to remanent magnetization of melt, breccias and footwall complex. Further integration of different data sets will help to develop a detailed lithological model of the crater's subsurface structure. The geophysical data confirm that the Lake Bosumtwi structure provides an ideal setting for drilling of a young and large impact crater.

  9. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  10. Demography of straw-colored fruit bats in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; McCrea, Rachel; Restif, Olivier; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Wood, James L. N.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa where it forms large, dense colonies. The species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. It is a common source of bush meat in West Africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in West African colonies. The species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. Despite this, demographic parameters of the species are unknown. We focused our study primarily on a colony of up to 1,000,000 bats that roost in trees in Accra, Ghana to obtain estimates of birth rate and survival probability. Aging of bats by examination of tooth cementum annuli allowed use of life tables to indicate an annual survival probability for juveniles of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.77) and for adults of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.93). Additionally, an annual adult survival probability of 0.63 (95% CI 0.27–0.88) was estimated by following 98 radiocollared bats over a year; capture–recapture data were analyzed using multistate models to address the confounding factor of emigration. True survival probabilities may be in between the 2 estimates, because permanent emigration may lead to underestimation in the capture–recapture study, and population decline may lead to overestimation in the life table analysis. Birth rates (0.96 young per female per year, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and colony size changes were also estimated. Estimation of these key parameters will allow future analyses of both infection dynamics within, and harvest sustainability of, E. helvum populations. PMID:23525358

  11. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  12. Sulfur status and forms in some surface soils of Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Acquaye, D.K.; Kang, B.T.

    1987-07-01

    The authors analyzed surface samples of 48 important soil series in the different ecological zones of Ghana for total S, inorganic sulfate-S, HI-reducible S, carbon-bonded S, organic C, total N, and total and organic P. Total S ranged from 44-281 ppm, organic S ranged from 37-268 ppm and sulfate-S content ranged from 3-22 ppm. Ester sulfate, calculated from HI-reducible S, ranged from 5-123 ppm, and carbon-bonded S ranged from 1-57 ppm. Total S was significantly correlated with organic C, with total N, and with organic P. The soils had average C:N, N:S, N:P, P:S, C:S, and C:N:P:S ratios of 10.7:1, 6.8:1, 11.4:1, 0.7:1, 65.7:1, and 102:10:1.0:1.5 respectively. Assessment of the data indicated that parent material, organic matter content, vegetative cover, and, to a lesser extent, pH had influenced the S status of the soils. Soils formed over Birrimian rocks and phyllite and basic rocks had higher S status than soils formed over acidic rocks, alluvium, and shales or sandstones and Tertiary sands. Forest soils had higher S status than savanna soils on account of their higher organic matter content. Incubation studies showed that, of the 48 soils, 18 resulted in net immobilization, and the rest yielded only small amounts of mineralized S (average, 2.2 ppm). Net mineralized S was weakly correlated with sulfate-S and pH, but not with total S, organic C, total N, or arylsulfatase activity. Generally, the soils showed relative low sulfate adsorption capacity (range 6-46).

  13. [Primary health care in Ghana: no pay no cure?].

    PubMed

    Kyei-Faried, S; Hermans, M

    1995-11-11

    Between 1975 and 1983 health care expenditures in Ghana dropped to a low point as a consequence of the structural readjustment program instituted by the World Bank. During 1975-76 only 15% of available funds were spent on primary health care (PHC), which was officially introduced in the late 1970s. PHC made up 20-25% of the health care expenditures by 1991 with about 25% of health personnel engaged in PHC. 2/3 of health care delivery covered urban areas when 60% of the population lived in the countryside. The district of Ejisu-Juaben in the Ashanti region had high morbidity. Tetanus, polio, whooping-cough, and diphtheria had been brought under control, but measles, diarrhea, and malnutrition were still widespread among children under 5 years old. Malaria, bilharzia, intestinal parasites, respiratory infections, hepatitis, anemia, hypertension, and vitamin A deficiency were also grave problems. AIDS was on the rise. Child mortality amounted to 130/1000 live births and maternal mortality to 1400/100,000 cases. The medical structure of the district comprises 10 health posts (6 governmental and 4 mission). Only 72 villages and 120,000 people are cared for. Each post has a mobile team. In 1993 a new community-based health care program began funded by Save the Children Netherlands. In 60 villages a village health committee existed but they were substandard. They were either reactivated or new committees were set up. Training activities were also started in prenatal care, delivery, care of malnutrition and diarrhea, hygiene, and sanitation. Two years later safe motherhood indicators had improved; postnatal care increased from 16% to 49%; medical deliveries increased from 27% to 37%; the share of families with contraceptive acceptance increased from 7% to 21%; and tetanus vaccination among mothers was estimated to have increased from 27% to 86%. PMID:7501068

  14. Concerted global effort to combat sickle cell disease: the first global congress on sickle cell disease in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Odame, Isaac; Kulkarni, Roshni; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2011-12-01

    The First Global Congress on Sickle Cell Disease was held in Accra, Ghana, on July 20-23, 2010, to commemorate 100 years since the first published report of sickle cell disease (SCD). The idea of the Global Congress was conceived following the 2007 meeting in Nicosia, Cyprus, jointly organized by the WHO and the Thalassaemia International Federation (TIF), which recommended that groups working in SCD around the world needed to consolidate efforts into a stronger and more unified umbrella organization. The need for a united global effort received further endorsements at the 2009 International Symposium and Workshop held in Cotonou, Benin, and the 2009 inaugural commemoration of World Sickle Cell Disease Awareness Day, UN Headquarters, New York, New York. The overall goals of the Global Congress were to promote international cooperation and foster collaboration in advancing clinical care and furthering basic and applied research in SCD. Issues covered at the conference included health education, psychosocial needs, public health, medical care, research, program development, and development of international community-based organizations. The Congress participants included medical and research scientists, public health officials, community-based SCD organizations, other nongovernmental organizations, and people with SCD and their families. The Congress concluded with a call on patients and families affected by SCD, as well as advocacy groups, healthcare professionals, scientists, and national governments working to combat SCD to endorse the formation of the World Sickle Cell Disease Federation. PMID:22099367

  15. A retrospective content analysis of studies on factors constraining the implementation of health sector reform in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sakyi, E Kojo

    2008-01-01

    Ghana has undertaken many public service management reforms in the past two decades. But the implementation of the reforms has been constrained by many factors. This paper undertakes a retrospective study of research works on the challenges to the implementation of reforms in the public health sector. It points out that most of the studies identified: (1) centralised, weak and fragmented management system; (2) poor implementation strategy; (3) lack of motivation; (4) weak institutional framework; (5) lack of financial and human resources and (6) staff attitude and behaviour as the major causes of ineffective reform implementation. The analysis further revealed that quite a number of crucial factors obstructing reform implementation which are particularly internal to the health system have either not been thoroughly studied or overlooked. The analysis identified lack of leadership; weak communication and consultation; lack of stakeholder participation, corruption and unethical professional behaviour as some of the missing variables in the literature. The study, therefore, indicated that there are gaps in the literature that needed to be filled through rigorous reform evaluation based on empirical research particularly at district, sub-district and community levels. It further suggested that future research should be concerned with the effects of both systems and structures and behavioural factors on reform implementation. PMID:18536006

  16. Barriers to Accessing Emergency Medical Services in Accra, Ghana: Development of a Survey Instrument and Initial Application in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Rominski, Sarah D; Bogus, Joshua; Ginde, Adit A; Zakariah, Ahmed N; Boatemaah, Christiana A; Yancey, Arthur H; Akoriyea, Samuel Kaba; Campbell, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) systems provide professional prehospital emergency medical care and transportation to help improve outcomes from emergency conditions. Ghana’s national ambulance service has relatively low public utilization in comparison with the large burden of acute disease. Methods: A survey instrument was developed using Pechansky and Thomas’s model of access covering 5 dimensions of availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability. The instrument was used in a cross-sectional survey in 2013 in Accra, Ghana; eligible participants were those 18 years and older who spoke English, French, or Twi. Although the analysis was mainly descriptive, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with reported intention to call for an ambulance in the case of a medical emergency. Results: 468 participants completed surveys, with a response rate of 78.4%. Few (4.5%) respondents had ever used an ambulance in prior emergency situations. A substantial proportion (43.8%) knew about the public access medical emergency telephone number, but of those only 37.1% knew it was a toll-free call. Most (54.7%) respondents believed EMTs offered high-quality care, but 78.0% believed taxis were faster than ambulances and 69.2% thought the number of ambulances in Accra insufficient. Many (23.4%) thought using ambulances to transport corpses would be appropriate. In two hypothetical emergency scenarios, respondents most commonly reported taxis as the preferred transportation (63.6% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 64.7% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle). About 1 in 5 respondents said they would call an ambulance in either scenario (20.7% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 23.3% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle) while 15.5% and 10.2%, respectively, would use any available vehicle. Those aged 18–35 years were more likely than older respondents to prefer an ambulance (odds

  17. Small Group Dynamics in Cross-Cultural Collaborative Field Research: Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Karen A.; Gahungu, Athanase

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) factors that influence effective cross-cultural collaboration, and (b) challenges and issues that face researchers in cross-cultural collaboration. During the summer of 2010, 20 researchers and student interns from Ghana Education Service, Chicago State University (CSU-USA), Winneba University of…

  18. Cultural imperatives and the ethics of verbal autopsies in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aborigo, Raymond A.; Allotey, Pascale; Tindana, Paulina; Azongo, Daniel; Debpuur, Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to a paucity of statistics from vital registration systems in developing countries, the verbal autopsy (VA) approach has been used to obtain cause-specific mortality data by interviewing lay respondents on the signs and symptoms experienced by the deceased prior to death. In societies where the culture of mourning is adhered to, the use of VA could clash with traditional norms, thus warranting ethical consideration by researchers. Objective The study was designed to explore the ethics and cultural context of collecting VA information through a demographic and health surveillance system in the Kassena-Nankana District (KND) of Ghana. Study Design Data were collected through qualitative in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four field staff involved in the routine conduct of VAs, four physicians who code VAs, 20 selected respondents to the VA tool, and eight opinion leaders in the KND. The interviews were supplemented with observation by the researchers and with the field notes of field workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, and local language versions transcribed into English. Thematic analysis was performed using QSR NVivo 8 software. Results The data indicate that cultural sensitivities in VA procedures at both the individual and family levels need greater consideration not only for ethical reasons but also to ensure the quality of the data. Discussions of some deaths are culturally prohibited and therefore lead to refusal of interviews. Families were also concerned about the confidentiality of information because of the potential of blame for the death. VA teams do not necessarily engage in culturally appropriate bereavement practices such as the presentation of tokens. The desire by families for feedback on the cause of death, which is currently not provided by researchers, was frequently expressed. Finally, no standard exists on the culturally acceptable time interval between death and VA interviews. Conclusion Ethical issues need to be given greater

  19. Grandmothers as gatekeepers? The role of grandmothers in influencing health-seeking for mothers and newborns in rural northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mira L; Aborigo, Raymond Akawire; Adongo, Philip Baba; Rominski, Sarah; Hodgson, Abraham; Engmann, Cyril M; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that care-seeking in rural northern Ghana is often governed by a woman's husband or compound head. This study was designed to explore the role grandmothers (typically a woman's mother-in-law) play in influencing maternal and newborn healthcare decisions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 mothers of newborns, 8 traditional birth attendants and local healers, 16 community leaders and 13 healthcare practitioners. An additional 18 focus groups were conducted with stakeholders such as household heads, compound leaders and grandmothers. In this region, grandmothers play many roles. They may act as primary support providers to pregnant mothers, care for newborns following delivery, preserve cultural traditions and serve as repositories of knowledge on local medicine. Grandmothers may also serve as gatekeepers for health-seeking behaviour, especially with regard to their daughters and daughters-in-law. This research also sheds light on the potential gap between health education campaigns that target mothers as autonomous decision-makers, and the reality of a more collectivist community structure in which mothers rarely make such decisions without the support of other community members. PMID:25635475

  20. Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana: impacts and challenges of health policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Koduah, Augustina; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene A.; Ansah, Evelyn; van Dijk, Han; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 (SDG 3.2) that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under-five. Thus, this study aimed to compare trends in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality over two decades and to highlight the impacts and challenges of health policies and intervention programs implemented. Design Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988–2008) were analyzed using trend analysis. Poisson regression analysis was applied to quantify the incidence rate ratio of the trends. Implemented health policies and intervention programs to reduce childhood mortality in Ghana were reviewed to identify their impact and challenges. Results Since 1988, the annual average rate of decline in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Ghana was 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2%, respectively. From 1988 to 1989, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality declined from 48 to 33 per 1,000, 72 to 58 per 1,000, and 108 to 83 per 1,000, respectively, whereas from 1989 to 2008, neonatal mortality increased by 2 per 1,000 while infant and under-five mortality further declined by 6 per 1,000 and 17 per 1,000, respectively. However, the observed declines were not statistically significant except for under-five mortality; thus, the proportion of infant and under-five mortality attributed to neonatal death has increased. Most intervention programs implemented to address childhood mortality seem not to have been implemented comprehensively. Conclusion Progress towards attaining MDG 4 in Ghana was below the targeted rate, particularly for neonatal mortality as most health policies and programs targeted infant and under-five mortality. Implementing neonatal

  1. Levels and patterns of infant and child mortality in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gaisie, S K

    1976-02-01

    This paper attempts to measure infant and child mortality levels and also to determine their structures by utilzing the results of the 1968/69 National Demographic sample survey which was conducted under the directorship of the author. The measurement of infant and child mortality in Ghana is severely hampered by lack of reliable and adequate information on infant and child deaths. The existing data from the compulsory registration areas are deficient and can at best give an indication of only the level of urban infant and child mortalities. The tendency of censuses and surveys to miss a considerable proportion of infant and child deaths also imposes a further limitation on the extent to which the infant and child mortality rates can be accurately measured from the available data. This paper is therefore concerned with 2 major problems: 1) the adjustment of the current raw mortality data on the basis of detected errors as revealed by analytical methods and/or by the fitting of models, and 2) the estimation of infant and child mortality from independent source material (e.g., retrospective information on the number of children ever born and the number surviving). The most plausible estimate of infant mortality appears to be 133/thousand live births. Regional estimates range from 56 in the Accra Capital District to 192 in the Upper Region. Further, the urban rate is lower than the rural rate: 98 as against 161/thousand live births. An examination of child death rates by single years has shown that a large proportion of the deaths among children aged 0 to 4 occur in the 2nd year of life and that deaths in this age group account for the bulk of the deaths within the age group 1 to 4 years. The observed proportions of deaths at age 1 among all deaths within the 1 to 4 years age group range between 34 and 43%. These figures may be compared with 53% in Senegal between 1962 and 1968, and with 48 and 74% in Ibadan, Nigeria (1964/1966) and Mauritius (1961) respectively

  2. Cohort shifts in the timing of births in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oheneba-sakyi, Y

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of cohorts of ever-married Chanaian women suggests evidence of a fertility transition beginning among younger women and select subgroups. Ghana's crude birth rate declined from a high of 50/1000 population in 1970 to 38.8/1000 in 1985. To ascertain whether marital fertility is now being controlled through conscious attempts to lengthen birth intervals, World Fertility Survey data from 1979-80 on the timing of births among different birth cohorts were analyzed. It was hypothesized that, as a result of the influence of Western values that stress independence from parents and the introduction of compulsory education, cohorts of the mid-1950s and 1960s would be more likely to postpone childbearing, more active in the modern sector of the economy, and more accepting of modern contraceptive usage for birth spacing than women in the 1930-39, 1940-49, and 1950-59 cohorts. For the 1940-49 cohort, it took 10.8 months for 25% to have a birth following 1st marriage, 18.7 months for 50% to have a 1st birth, and 27.4 months for 75% to complete this step. By comparison, these figures for the 1955-64 birth cohort were 9.9, 16.7, and 20.5 months, respectively. The significantly shorter (p 0.01) interval between marriage and 1st birth found among younger women in part reflects rising age at marriage; mean age at 1st marriage was 17.9 years for the 1940 cohort and 21.6 years for the most recent cohort. After the birth of the 1st child, recent cohorts were more likely to wait longer for the 2nd birth. For women born in 1950-64, it took 21.8, 36.7, and 44.6 months for 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively, to reach parity 2. This pattern of lengthened birth interval beyond the 1st birth was apparent at all parities in the youngest cohort and indicates increasing acceptance of contraception among those who have come of age during a period of rapid social change. PMID:12342944

  3. Myths and misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myths and misconceptions about TB can serve as a barrier to efforts at reducing stigmatisation of people infected and affected by the disease. Understanding such drivers of myths and misconceptions is important for improving information, education and communication (IEC) efforts of national control and preventive interventions. This study therefore assesses the influence of interaction of spatial, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on myths and misconceptions. Methods Data was drawn from male (N = 4,546) and female (N = 4,916) files of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. A myth and misconception variable was created from five-related constructs with internal consistency score of r = 0. 8802 for males (inter-item correlation: 0.5951) and for females, r = 0. 0.9312 (inter-item correlation: 0.7303). The Pearson Chi-square was used to test the bivariate relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Logistic regression was subsequently used to explore the factors determining myths and misconceptions of TB transmission. Results Majority of Ghanaians (males: 66.75%; females: 66.13%) did not hold myths and misconceptions about TB transmission. Females resident in the Upper East (aOR = 0.31, CI = 0.17-0.55) and Upper West (aOR = 0.41, CI = 0.24-0.69) and males resident in the Northern (aOR = 0.23, CI = 0.13-0.39) and the Greater Accra (aOR = 0.25, CI = 0.16-0.39) regions were independently associated with no misconceptions about TB transmission. Significant differences were also found in education, ethnicity and age. Conclusion That spatial and other socioeconomic difference exists in myths and misconceptions suggest the need for spatial, socioeconomic and demographic segmentations in IEC on TB. This holds potentials for reaching out to those who are in critical need of information and education on the transmission processes of TB. PMID:24028419

  4. Needs assessment of science teachers in secondary schools in Kumasi, Ghana: A basis for in-service education training programs at the Science Resource Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyamfi, Alexander

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, it identified the priority needs common to all science teachers in secondary schools in Kumasi, Ghana. Second, it investigated the relationship existing between the identified priority needs and the teacher demographic variables (type of school, teacher qualification, teaching experience, subject discipline, and sex of teacher) to be used as a basis for implementing in-service education training programs at the Science Resource Centers in Kumasi Ghana. An adapted version of the Moore Assessment Profile (MAP) survey instrument and a set of open-ended questions were used to collect data from the science teachers. The researcher handed out one hundred and fifty questionnaire packets, and all one hundred and fifty (100%) were collected within a period of six weeks. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics reported the frequency of responses, and it was used to calculate the Need Index (N) of the identified needs of teachers. Sixteen top-priority needs were identified, and the needs were arranged in a hierarchical order according to the magnitude of the Need Index (0.000 ≤ N ≤ 1.000). Content analysis was used to analyze the responses to the open-ended questions. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses of the study on each of the sixteen identified top-priority needs and the teacher demographic variables. The findings of this study were as follows: (1) The science teachers identified needs related to "more effective use of instructional materials" as a crucial area for in-service training. (2) Host and Satellite schools exhibited significant difference on procuring supplementary science books for students. Subject discipline of teachers exhibited significant differences on utilizing the library and its facilities by students, obtaining information on where to get help on effective science teaching

  5. Mapping Spatial Variability in Health and Wealth Indicators in Accra, Ghana Using High Spatial Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, R.; Ashcroft, E.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of research conducted that examines disparities in health and wealth of persons between urban and rural areas however, relatively little research has been undertaken to examine variations within urban areas. A major limitation to elucidating differences with urban areas is the lack of social and demographic data at a sufficiently high spatial resolution to determine these differences. Generally the only available data that contain this information are census data which are collected at most every ten years and are often difficult to obtain at a high enough spatial resolution to allow for examining in depth variability in health and wealth indicators at high spatial resolutions, especially in developing countries. High spatial resolution satellite imagery may be able to provide timely and synoptic information that is related to health and wealth variability within a city. In this study we use two dates of Quickbird imagery (2003 and 2010) classified into the vegetation-impervious surface-soil (VIS) model introduced by Ridd (1995). For 2003 we only have partial coverage of the city, while for 2010 we have a mosaic, which covers the entire city of Accra, Ghana. Variations in the VIS values represent the physical variations within the city and these are compared to variations in economic, and/or sociodemographic data derived from the 2000 Ghanaian census at two spatial resolutions, the enumeration area (approximately US Census Tract) and the neighborhood for the city. Results indicate a significant correlation between both vegetation and impervious surface to type of cooking fuel used in the household, population density, housing density, availability of sewers, cooking space usage, and other variables. The correlations are generally stronger at the neighborhood level and the relationships are stable through time and space. Overall, the results indicate that information derived from high resolution satellite data is related to

  6. Vaccination timing of low-birth-weight infants in rural Ghana: a population-based, prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sara; Hurt, Lisa; Floyd, Sian; Shannon, Caitlin; Newton, Sam; Thomas, Gyan; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Gram, Lu; Hurt, Chris; Bahl, Rajiv; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty; Edmond, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate delays in first and third dose diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP1 and DTP3) vaccination in low-birth-weight infants in Ghana, and the associated determinants. Methods We used data from a large, population-based vitamin A trial in 2010–2013, with 22 955 enrolled infants. We measured vaccination rate and maternal and infant characteristics and compared three categories of low-birth-weight infants (2.0–2.4 kg; 1.5–1.9 kg; and < 1.5 kg) with infants weighing ≥ 2.5 kg. Poisson regression was used to calculate vaccination rate ratios for DTP1 at 10, 14 and 18 weeks after birth, and for DTP3 at 18, 22 and 24 weeks (equivalent to 1, 2 and 3 months after the respective vaccination due dates of 6 and 14 weeks). Findings Compared with non-low-birth-weight infants (n = 18 979), those with low birth weight (n = 3382) had an almost 40% lower DTP1 vaccination rate at age 10 weeks (adjusted rate ratio, aRR: 0.58; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.43–0.77) and at age 18 weeks (aRR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.50–0.80). Infants weighing 1.5–1.9 kg (n = 386) had vaccination rates approximately 25% lower than infants weighing ≥ 2.5 kg at these time points. Similar results were observed for DTP3. Lower maternal age, educational attainment and longer distance to the nearest health facility were associated with lower DTP1 and DTP3 vaccination rates. Conclusion Low-birth-weight infants are a high-risk group for delayed vaccination in Ghana. Efforts to improve the vaccination of these infants are warranted, alongside further research to understand the reasons for the delays. PMID:27274596

  7. Predictors of Condom Use among Peer Social Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  8. Predictors of condom use among peer social networks of men who have sex with men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  9. Community engagement to inform the development of a sickle cell counselor training and certification program in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Anie, Kofi A; Treadwell, Marsha J; Grant, Althea M; Dennis-Antwi, Jemima A; Asafo, Mabel K; Lamptey, Mary E; Ojodu, Jelili; Yusuf, Careema; Otaigbe, Ayo; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2016-07-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell trait (SCT) are highly prevalent in Africa. Despite public health implications, there is limited understanding of community issues for implementing newborn screening and appropriate family counseling. We conducted a 3-day workshop in Kumasi, Ghana, with community leaders as lay program development advisors to assist the development and implementation of a Sickle Cell Counselor Training and Certification Program. We employed qualitative methods to understand cultural, religious, and psychosocial dimensions of SCD and SCT, including the advisors' attitudes and beliefs in relation to developing a culturally sensitive approach to family education and counseling that is maximally suited to diverse communities in Ghana. We collated advisors' discussions and observations in order to understand community issues and potential challenges and guide strategies for advocacy in SCD family education and counseling. Results from the workshop revealed that community leaders representing diverse communities in Ghana were engaged constructively in discussions about developing a culturally sensitive counselor training program. Key findings included the importance of improved knowledge about SCD among the public and youth in particular, the value of stakeholders such as elders and religious and traditional leaders, and government expectations of reduced SCD births. We submitted a report to the Ministry of Health in Ghana with recommendations for the next steps in developing a national sickle cell counselor training program. We named the program "Genetic Education and Counseling for Sickle Cell Conditions in Ghana" (GENECIS-Ghana). The first GENECIS-Ghana Training and Certification Program Workshop was conducted from June 8 to 12, 2015. PMID:27090687

  10. Does Where You Live Influence What You Know? Community Effects on Health Knowledge in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Andrzejewski, Catherine S.; Reed, Holly E.; White, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines community effects on health knowledge in a developing country setting. We examine knowledge about the etiology and prevention of child illnesses using a unique 2002 representative survey of communities and households in Ghana. We find that community context matters appreciably, even after adjusting for the anticipated positive effects of an individual’s education, literacy, media exposure and household socioeconomic status. The proportion of literate adults and the presence of a market in a community positively influence a person’s health knowledge. In other words, even if a person herself is not literate, living in a community with high levels of literacy or a regular market can still positively affect her health knowledge. Our results suggest that social networks and diffusion play a key role in these community effects. In turn, these results offer policy implications for Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18603464

  11. Ethnic differentials in child-spacing ideals and practices in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Benefo, K D; Tsui, A O; Johnson, J D

    1994-07-01

    Postpartum sexual abstinence may be a major determinant of fertility and of maternal and child health in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the relationship between ethnicity and abstinence using data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. There is considerable diversity in the length of abstinence although only for one ethnic group, the Mole-Dagbani and other Ghanaians, is abstinence, both actual and ideal, very long. Respondents in most ethnic groups believe their abstinence to be adequate. A key motivation for abstinence is the unwillingness to have sexual intercourse with nursing mothers. Education, urbanisation, changes in marriage patterns and religious traditions are major factors shaping the ethnic differentials in abstinence. In comparison to breast-feeding, abstinence appears to have relatively little impact on the length of the birth interval and for Ghana, has relatively few implications for fertility and child health. PMID:7929480

  12. What has faith got to do with it? Religion and child survival in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2007-11-01

    Using pooled children data from the 1998 and 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys, this study examines religious differences in child survival in Ghana. Guided by the particularized theology and selectivity theses, a piecewise constant hazard model with gamma-shared frailty is used to explore if there are denominational differences in child mortality, and whether these could be explained through other characteristics. At the bivariate level, children whose mothers identified as Muslim and Traditional were found to have a significantly higher risk of death compared with their counterparts whose mothers identified as Christians. In the multivariate models, however, the religious differences disappeared after the mediating and confounding influence of socioeconomic factors were controlled. The findings provide support for the selectivity hypothesis, which is based on the notion that religious variations mainly reflect differential access to social and human capital rather than religious theology per se. PMID:17359561

  13. Radiation exposure control from the application of nuclear gauges in the mining industry in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Darko, E O; Awudu, A R; Schandorf, C; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Glover, E T; Kattah, V K

    2010-05-01

    The use of nuclear gauges for process control and elemental analysis in the mining industry in Ghana, West Africa, is wide spread and on the increase in recent times. The Ghana Radiation Protection Board regulates nuclear gauges through a system of notification and authorization by registration or licensing, inspection, and enforcement. Safety assessments for authorization and enforcement have been established to ensure the safety and security of radiation sources as well as protection of workers and the general public. Appropriate training of mine staff is part of the efforts to develop the necessary awareness about the safety and security of radiation sources. The knowledge and skills acquired will ensure the required protection and safety at the workplaces. Doses received by workers monitored over a period between 1998 and 2007 are well below the annual dose limit of 20 mSv recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:20386190

  14. A statistical model for spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in the Amansie West district, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duker, Alfred A.; Stein, Alfred; Hale, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU), a skin ulceration caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is the second most widespread mycobacterium infection in Ghana. Its infection pathway is possibly related to the potable and agricultural water supply. This study aims to identify environmental factors that influence infection in a part of Ghana. It examines the significance of contaminated surface drainage channels and groundwater using conditional autoregressive (CAR) statistical modelling. This type of modelling implies that the spatial pattern of BU incidence in one community depends on the influence of the environment in neighbouring communities. Covariates were included to assess the spatial relationship between environmental risk factors and BU incidence in the study area. The study reveals an association between (a) the mean As content of soil and spatial distribution of BU and (b) the distance to sites of gold mining and spatial distribution of BU. We conclude that both arsenic in the natural environment and gold mining influence BU infection.

  15. Assessment of radiofrequency radiation within the vicinity of some GSM base stations in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Deatanyah, P; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Asiedu, G O; Adjei, D N; Dwapanyin, G O; Amoatey, E A

    2012-08-01

    A radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation safety survey had been carried out at public access points in 46 towns with 76 Global Systems for Mobile communication cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. The objective was to determine the levels of RF field in residential areas, schools and market places, and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP). Measurements were made with log-periodic antenna coupled with spectrum analyzer. The results varied from 0.85 to 1.07 mW m(-2) and 0.78 to 1.19 mW m(-2) for the transmission frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. The result generally shows a compliance with the ICNIRP limit of 0.024 % but was 108 times higher than a similar survey carried out in Ghana 2 y ago. PMID:22262818

  16. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are

  17. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1984-01-01

    This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

  18. The relationship between carbon dioxide and agriculture in Ghana: a comparison of VECM and ARDL model.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the relationship between carbon dioxide and agriculture in Ghana was investigated by comparing a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model. Ten study variables spanning from 1961 to 2012 were employed from the Food Agricultural Organization. Results from the study show that carbon dioxide emissions affect the percentage annual change of agricultural area, coarse grain production, cocoa bean production, fruit production, vegetable production, and the total livestock per hectare of the agricultural area. The vector error correction model and the autoregressive distributed lag model show evidence of a causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and agriculture; however, the relationship decreases periodically which may die over-time. All the endogenous variables except total primary vegetable production lead to carbon dioxide emissions, which may be due to poor agricultural practices to meet the growing food demand in Ghana. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds test shows evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the percentage annual change of agricultural area, cocoa bean production, total livestock per hectare of agricultural area, total pulses production, total primary vegetable production, and carbon dioxide emissions. It is important to end hunger and ensure people have access to safe and nutritious food, especially the poor, orphans, pregnant women, and children under-5 years in order to reduce maternal and infant mortalities. Nevertheless, it is also important that the Government of Ghana institutes agricultural policies that focus on promoting a sustainable agriculture using environmental friendly agricultural practices. The study recommends an integration of climate change measures into Ghana's national strategies, policies and planning in order to strengthen the country's effort to achieving a sustainable environment. PMID:26898935

  19. Failure of atovaquone-proguanil malaria chemoprophylaxis in a traveler to Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boggild, Andrea K; Lau, Rachel; Reynaud, Denis; Kain, Kevin C; Gerson, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Clinical failure of Malarone™ chemoprophylaxis is extremely rare. We report a case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a returned traveler to Ghana who fully adhered to atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone™) chemoprophylaxis daily dosing, yet took the pills on an empty stomach. Screening of the P. falciparum isolate revealed triple codon mutation of Dhfr at positions 51, 59, and 108. Plasma drug levels of both atovaquone and proguanil revealed sub-therapeutic concentrations. PMID:25582377

  20. Rural perspectives on HIV/AIDS prevention: a comparative study of Thailand and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Gbesemete, Kwame Prosper

    2005-04-01

    The paper compares rural perspectives in Thailand and Ghana on the level of condom acceptance in sexual relations, willingness to test oneself for HIV before and in marriage and sources of information on HIV/AIDS. We also compared the policy approaches to combating HIV/AIDS in both countries. The results indicates that in the villages studied in Thailand, all single men and the majority of the single women were in favour of using condoms in sexual relations. This group also showed a positive attitude to HIV/AIDS test before and in marriage. However, married men in rural Thailand disapproved of the use of condoms with their wives but married women in the sample population were open to the possibility of using condoms. Both married men and women were strongly against HIV/AIDS test in marriage. In contrast to Thailand, most single men in the communities studied in Ghana showed a disapproval to the use of condoms in sexual relations. However, they condoned HIV test before marriage. Married men and women in rural Ghana were against the use of condoms in sexual relations as well as HIV/AIDS test in marriage. In order to mitigate mother-to-child transmission, the Thais applied anti-retroviral drug care for HIV positive pregnant women during pregnancy and after delivery. In Ghana on the other hand, pregnant women were subject to HIV test and counselling. The mode of information acquisition on HIV/AIDS in both countries were through the media, campaigns and village volunteers. Finally, we observed that fighting poverty is a sine qua non for the success of any HIV/AIDS eradication programme. PMID:15760696

  1. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with HIV/AIDS at a teaching hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quayson, SE; Lartey, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness of the existence of cryptococcal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Ghana. Method: Detailed postmortem gross and histopathological analysis of an HIV/AIDS patient suspected to have cryptococcal meningitis was carried out and histopathological findings correlated with clinical findings. Results: showed disseminated Cryptococcosis in an HIV/AIDS patient which was confirmed with special stains. Conclusion: cryptococcal infection occurs in HIV /AIDS patients in Ghanaian and when clinically suspected the diagnosis should be pursued vigorously. PMID:27489672

  2. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially

  3. Promoting Socio-Economic Development: How Mobile Telephony Is an Agent for Creating High-Paying Jobs in Ghana from the Service Providers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Ofori

    2011-01-01

    This exploration study examined solely, mobile telephony (which is an important aspect of ICTs) and how it promotes the creation of high-paying jobs that positively impact socio-economic development in Ghana from the service providers. perspective. This academic study focusing solely on Ghana mobile telephony service providers is the first of its…

  4. The Challenge of Financing Higher Education and the Role of Student Loans Scheme: An Analysis of the Student Loan Trust Fund (SLTF) in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuahene, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Student loans program is one of the most controversial phenomena in financing higher education in Ghana, but its importance as a cost sharing mechanism is incontestable. This paper describes the challenge of financing higher education in Ghana. It provides a critique of the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) Student Loans Scheme,…

  5. A Comparison of the Six Principles of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of the United States and the Persons with Disability Act of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumuni, Samad Dimbie

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the six principles of IDEIA of the United States and the Persons with Disability Act of Ghana with the view to determining their similarities and differences. Recommendations were made with the ultimate aim of exploring the need for change in the special education delivery systems in the United States and Ghana. The comparative…

  6. Introduction of Core Based Subjects in the Curriculum of Technical and Vocational Institutions in Ghana: Assessment of Its Effect on Practical Training Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William, Otu

    2015-01-01

    Technical education among other things focuses on training the skill manpower needs of the youth in most countries of which Ghana is no exception. This study looks at Ghana Education Service technical and vocational sector reform programme introduced in 2010 with emphasis on the introduction of compulsory core based subjects and its effect on…

  7. Analysing the primacy of distance in the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South district, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Buor, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Although the distance factor has been identified as key in the utilization of health services in rural areas of developing countries, it has been analysed without recourse to related factors of travel time and transport cost. Also, the influence of distance on vulnerable groups in utilization has not been an object of survey by researchers. This paper addresses the impact of distance on utilization, and how distance compares with travel time and transport cost that are related to it in the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South (rural) district in Ghana. The study, a cross-sectional survey, also identifies the position of distance among other important factors of utilization. A sample of 400, drawn through systematic random technique, was used for the survey. Data were analysed using the regression model and some graphic techniques. The main instruments used in data collection were formal (face-by-face) interview and a questionnaire. The survey finds that distance is the most important factor that influences the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South district. Other key factors are income, service cost and education. The effect of travel time on utilization reflects that of distance and utilization. Recommendations to reduce distance coverage, improve formal education and reduce poverty have been made. PMID:14727709

  8. Influence of childcare practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children: a regression analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Lartey, Anna; Matanda, Dennis J; Urke, Helga B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Guided by the UNICEF framework for childcare, this study examined the association of childcare practices (CCP) with infant and young children's growth (height-for-age Z-scores, HAZ), and investigated whether care practices are more important to growth in some sociodemographic subgroups of children. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Urban and rural Ghana. Participants The study sample comprised 1187 dyads of mothers aged 15–49 years and their youngest child (aged 6–36 months). Results The results showed that CCP was a significant predictor of HAZ, after controlling for covariates/confounders at child, maternal and household levels. Children with higher CCP scores had higher HAZ. A 1-unit increase in the CCP score was associated with a 0.17-unit increase in HAZ. Child's and mother's age, number of children under 5 years, place of residence, maternal weight and wealth index were also significantly associated with HAZ. Statistical interaction analyses revealed no subgroup differences in the CCP/HAZ relationship. Conclusions This study found a significant, positive association between CCP and child growth, after accounting for other important determinants of child growth at maternal and household levels. This calls for research into the effects on growth of various CCP components, with longitudinal cohort study designs that can disentangle causal relationships. PMID:25366675

  9. Evaluation of a Sexual and Reproductive Health Education Programme: Students' Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour in Bolgatanga Municipality, Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    van der Geugten, Jolien; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H G; de Vries, Nanne K

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation research concerning the impact of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. This study obtained more insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions of students concerning SRH in Bolgatanga municipality in northern Ghana, and studied the effects of an SRH programme for this group. This quasi-experimental study used a pre-post-intervention design, with an SRH programme as intervention. A questionnaire was filled in by 312 students before, and by 272 students after the SRH programme. The results showed that before the programme, students answered half of the knowledge questions correctly, they thought positively about deciding for themselves whether to have a relationship and whether to have sex, and their intentions towards SRH behaviour, such as condom use were positive. The SRH intervention led to a small but significant increase in the students' knowledge. It was also found that the attitude of the students aged 18-20 significantly improved. Finally, it was found that female students aged 18-20 were more positive towards changing their behaviour after following the SRH programme. It can be concluded that the impact of the SRH programme in general was positive. Significant effects were found for gender and age. PMID:26897921

  10. 'Older women', customary obligations and orphan foster caregiving: the case of queen mothers in Manya Klo, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Drah, Bright B

    2014-06-01

    Female orphan caregivers in countries heavily affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are often presented as a homogenous group of vulnerable 'older women' that struggles to support orphans. There is a dearth of data on the different kinds of women and how their social characteristics impact their survival strategies and caregiving responsibilities. This study examines the link between the social characteristics of queen mothers in Manya Klo in Ghana and their roles as caregivers. The research findings suggest that queen mothers have become the primary caregivers of orphans, even though they do not have the wherewithal to provide for these orphans. The lack of kin support to queen mothers exacerbates their physical and economic vulnerabilities. They engage in less dignifying economic activities and pay less attention to their own needs in order to meet their customary obligations as orphan caregivers. The growing influence of queen mothers as caregivers for orphans, however, is a reflection of some of the changes that are occurring in customary foster care arrangements. Policy makers and interventionists require in depth understanding of queen mothers and their peculiar circumstances in order to strengthen their roles as leaders and caregivers. PMID:24737050

  11. Snapshot fecal survey of domestic animals in rural Ghana for Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Nicholas J.; Ammisah, Nana Ama; Ahortor, Evans K.; Wallace, John R.; Ablordey, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the source reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans is key to understanding the mode of transmission of this pathogen and controlling the spread of Buruli ulcer (BU). In Australia, the native possum can harbor M. ulcerans in its gastrointestinal tract and shed high concentrations of the bacteria in its feces. To date, an analogous animal reservoir in Africa has not been identified. Here we tested the hypothesis that common domestic animals in BU endemic villages of Ghana are reservoir species analogous to the Australian possum. Using linear-transects at 10-meter intervals, we performed systematic fecal surveys across four BU endemic villages and one non-endemic village in the Asante Akim North District of Ghana. One hundred and eighty fecal specimens from a single survey event were collected and analyzed by qPCR for the M. ulcerans diagnostic DNA targets IS2404 and KR-B. Positive and negative controls performed as expected but all 180 test samples were negative. This structured snapshot survey suggests that common domestic animals living in and around humans do not shed M. ulcerans in their feces. We conclude that, unlike the Australian native possum, domestic animals in rural Ghana are unlikely to be major reservoirs of M. ulcerans. PMID:27280071

  12. Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2011-01-01

    One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants' view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

  13. Nursing in Ghana: A Search for Florence Nightingale in an African City

    PubMed Central

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel; Brenya, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Nursing in Ghana is a crucial subject that permeates almost every issue in the society especially the field of hospital care. To a large extent, the frontiers of nursing have expanded since the time of Florence Nightingale. Globally some studies have been done to study nursing icons like her. The values in nursing practice however continue to preoccupy our minds. The need to accentuate the gains made by historical figures in nursing in present times as well as the nature of interactions between practitioners and patients continues to be of paramount concern to many across the globe and Ghana in particular. This study does an analysis of existing literature on Florence Nightingale and the nature of nursing in Ghana from the colonial times. Additionally, it analyzes responses concerning the activities of nurses and their interactions with patients in Kumasi. The varied information has been thematically pieced together to make inferences that are of great interest to nursing practitioners, policy makers, administrators, and educators among others. The findings to the study suggest among other things that the challenges faced by the nursing institution in modern times are similar to those of the earlier period. The study calls for the emulation of the positive ideas of Florence Nightingale to promote the interest of patients, a core objective championed by a revered nurse. PMID:27382644

  14. Infertility and childlessness: a qualitative study of the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021

  15. Perceived constraints to privatization of delivery of veterinary services in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Turkson, P K; Brownie, C F

    1999-04-01

    Ghana is on the verge of privatizing selected activities in the delivery of animal health services. However, various constraints are being encountered. The aim of this paper is to identify these constraints so as to help find and solutions to them. Questionnaires were administered to veterinarians in Ghana to elicit their responses on various issues concerning privatization. A significant proportion (61%) of government veterinarians, who formed 94% of the respondents, were unwilling to go into private practice. Among the reasons given were that private practice was too risky, that farmers were unwilling or unable to pay for services, that capital to start practices was lacking and that the societal value for animals was low. Also, low livestock densities in many areas and the absence of commercial livestock farming were perceived as deterrents to the sustainability of private practice. Furthermore, the poor macroeconomic environment of high inflation, high interest rates and unstable currency discouraged investment. If privatization of veterinary services is to succeed in Ghana, these perceptions have to be addressed and solutions found, since veterinarians are the targets of the privatization process. PMID:10371009

  16. Sexual and physical violence victimization among senior high school students in Ghana: Risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-12-01

    Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem. PMID:26603310

  17. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups. PMID:27200184

  18. Depression and risk factors for depression among mothers of sick infants in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Katherine J.; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Schwenk, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for depression in a high-risk population of mothers of ill newborns in Ghana. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who had a hospitalized newborn at a tertiary teaching hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Surveys included information on maternal demographics, pregnancy and delivery, interpersonal violence, and social support. Postpartum depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Bivariable analysis was conducted using analysis of variance, χ2, and Fisher exact tests; multivariable analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Results In total, 153 women completed the survey. Fifty (32.7%) had PHQ-9 scores of 5–9, indicating mild depression; 42 (27.4%) had PHQ-9 scores of 10–14, indicating moderate depression; and 15 (9.8%) had scores of 15 or higher, indicative of moderate/severe depression. History of interpersonal violence with current partner predicted depression. Conclusion Mothers of sick infants in Ghana are at high risk for symptoms of clinical depression. This is of critical importance because maternal depression affects infant health outcomes and may be particularly important for mothers of sick infants. PMID:23228821

  19. Species abundance and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in selected areas of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Yawson, A E; McCall, P J; Wilson, M D; Donnelly, M J

    2004-12-01

    The Ghanaian National Malaria Control Programme has prioritized insecticide-treated materials as a key strategy for malaria control. We report on a survey of the distribution of the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and insecticide resistance (the kdr mutation), carried out by sampling mosquitoes from 11 locations in Ghana and one additional site in Burkina Faso. The molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae were found to occur in sympatry in southern Ghana. The S form predominated throughout its distribution in the coastal savannah, except at one location in the strand and mangrove zone where rice was cultivated. The M form was the only form collected in northern Ghana and was the predominant form (97.5%) in Burkina Faso. No M/S hybrids were detected. The kdr mutation was observed at very high frequencies (98-100%) within the S form but reached a maximum of only 3.38% in the M form in one population at an irrigation scheme in the Ghanaian coastal savannah zone. PMID:15642004

  20. Population Structure of Candida albicans from Three Teaching Hospitals in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjapong, Gloria; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies on Candida species in a clinical setting in Ghana have shown a prevalence of Candida albicans. Despite this, very little is known about the various strain types and their population genetic structure. In this study three microsatellite loci, CAI, CAIII and CAVI, were used to investigate the population genetic structure of C. albicans from clinical isolates in Ghana. In all, 240 clinically unrelated C. albicans isolates were recovered from patients reporting at three teaching hospitals. All the isolates were heterozygous for at least one of the three loci, except for one isolate, which was homozygous for all three loci. Sixty-seven unique alleles and 240 different genotypes were generated by the three polymorphic microsatellite loci, resulting in a very high discriminatory potential of approximately 0.98. There was no significant difference in allele frequencies from the small number of anatomical sites sampled, regardless of the host conditions although high genotypic diversities were observed among the isolates. There was evidence for clonal reproduction, including over-expression of observed heterozygotes across the populations. The populations deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and pair-wise genotypic linkage disequilibria comparisons across the three loci were significant, also suggesting a clonal population. The overall Wright FIS for the three loci was negative, and the overall FST value was not significantly different from zero for the three loci analyzed, indicating a clonal and homogeneous population across the three sampling locations from Ghana. PMID:26483431

  1. Role of species composition in malaria transmission by the Anopheles funestus group (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, Samuel K; Brenyah, Ruth; Appawu, Maxwell A

    2013-06-01

    Malaria remains a public health problem in Ghana, with Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus as the predominant vectors. While much information exists on the species composition of An. gambiae, very little exists for An. funestus. This study was carried out to determine the species composition of An. funestus Giles populations from three ecological areas in Ghana and investigate their role in malaria transmission. Mosquitoes were collected using human landing and pyrethrum spray methods. A total of 10,254 Anopheles individuals were collected, out of which An. funestus constituted 53.6% (5,496). An. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles lessoni were identified as the only members of the An. funestus group in all three ecological areas. All 62 sporozoite positive specimens that were identified as An. funestus s.s. were highly anthropophilic with a human blood index in the range of 80-96%, whereas more than 83% of the An. leesoni had fed on either bovine, goat, or sheep. Malaria transmission was higher in the Sahel savannah area than the rest of the ecological zones, with An. funestus s.s. being implicated as a vector of malaria in all ecological zones. Anopheles leesoni occurred in all the ecological areas but played no role in malaria transmission. The study established the importance of An. funestus s.s. in malaria transmission in Ghana. PMID:23701614

  2. Conducting an audit to improve the facilitation of emergency maternal and newborn referral in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Bailey, Patricia E; Yeji, Francis; Adongo, Ayire Emmanuel; Baffoe, Peter; Williams, Afua; Mercer, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Ghana Health Service conducted an audit to strengthen the referral system for pregnant or recently pregnant women and newborns in northern Ghana. The audit took place in 16 facilities with two 3-month cycles of data collection in 2011. Midwife-led teams tracked 446 referred women until they received definitive treatment. Between the two audit cycles, teams identified and implemented interventions to address gaps in referral services. During this time period, we observed important increases in facilitating referral mechanisms, including a decrease in the dependence on taxis in favour of national or facility ambulances/vehicles; an increase in health workers escorting referrals to the appropriate receiving facility; greater use of referral slips and calling ahead to alert receiving facilities and higher feedback rates. As referral systems require attention from multiple levels of engagement, on the provider end we found that regional managers increasingly resolved staffing shortages; district management addressed the costliness and lack of transport and increased midwives' ability to communicate with pregnant women and drivers; and that facility staff increasingly adhered to guidelines and facilitating mechanisms. By conducting an audit of maternal and newborn referrals, the Ghana Health Service identified areas for improvement that service providers and management at multiple levels addressed, demonstrating a platform for problem solving that could be a model elsewhere. PMID:25833654

  3. Crustal structure of Nigeria and Southern Ghana, West Africa from P-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpan, Ofonime; Nyblade, Andrew; Okereke, Chiedu; Oden, Michael; Emry, Erica; Julià, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    We report new estimates of crustal thickness (Moho depth), Poisson's ratio and shear-wave velocities for eleven broadband seismological stations in Nigeria and Ghana. Data used for this study came from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° and with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5. P-wave receiver functions were modeled using the Moho Ps arrival times, H-k stacking, and joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The average crustal thickness of the stations in the Neoproterozoic basement complex of Nigeria is 36 km, and 23 km for the stations in the Cretaceous Benue Trough. The crustal structure of the Paleoproterozoic Birimian Terrain, and Neoproterozoic Dahomeyan Terrain and Togo Structural Unit in southern Ghana is similar, with an average Moho depth of 44 km. Poisson's ratios for all the stations range from 0.24 to 0.26, indicating a bulk felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The crustal structure of the basement complex in Nigeria is similar to the average crustal structure of Neoproterozoic terrains in other parts of Africa, but the two Neoproterozoic terrains in southern Ghana have a thicker crust with a thick mafic lower crust, ranging in thickness from 12 to 17 km. Both the thicker crust and thick mafic lower crustal section are consistent with many Precambrian suture zones, and thus we suggest that both features are relict from the collisional event during the formation of Gondwana.

  4. Factors Associated with Medication Nonadherence among Hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Boima, Vincent; Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Odusola, Aina Olufemi; Agyekum, Francis; Nwafor, Chibuike Eze; Cole, Helen; Salako, Babatunde L; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Tayo, Bamidele O

    2015-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure (BP) control is poor among hypertensives in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. A potentially modifiable factor for control of BP is medication nonadherence (MNA); our study therefore aimed to determine factors associated with MNA among hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria. Methodology. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study. Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu Hospital (n = 120), Ghana; and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, (n = 73) Apapa General Hospital Lagos (n = 79) and University College Hospital Ibadan (n = 85), Nigeria. Results. 357 hypertensive patients (42.6% males) participated. MNA was found in 66.7%. Adherence showed correlation with depression (r = -0.208, P < 0.001), concern about medications (r = -0.0347, P = 0.002), and knowledge of hypertension (r = 0.14, P = 0.006). MNA was associated with formal education (P = 0.001) and use of herbal preparation (P = 0.014). MNA was found in 61.7% of uninsured participants versus 73.1% of insured participants (P = 0.032). Poor BP control was observed in 69.7% and there was significant association between MNA and poor BP control (P = 0.006). Conclusion. MNA is high among hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria and is associated with depression, concern about hypertensive medications, formal education, and use of herbal preparations. The negative association between health insurance and MNA suggests interplay of other factors and needs further investigation. PMID:26509081

  5. Factors Associated with Medication Nonadherence among Hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Boima, Vincent; Ademola, Adebowale Dele; Odusola, Aina Olufemi; Agyekum, Francis; Nwafor, Chibuike Eze; Cole, Helen; Salako, Babatunde L.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Tayo, Bamidele O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure (BP) control is poor among hypertensives in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. A potentially modifiable factor for control of BP is medication nonadherence (MNA); our study therefore aimed to determine factors associated with MNA among hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria. Methodology. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study. Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu Hospital (n = 120), Ghana; and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, (n = 73) Apapa General Hospital Lagos (n = 79) and University College Hospital Ibadan (n = 85), Nigeria. Results. 357 hypertensive patients (42.6% males) participated. MNA was found in 66.7%. Adherence showed correlation with depression (r = −0.208, P < 0.001), concern about medications (r = −0.0347, P = 0.002), and knowledge of hypertension (r = 0.14, P = 0.006). MNA was associated with formal education (P = 0.001) and use of herbal preparation (P = 0.014). MNA was found in 61.7% of uninsured participants versus 73.1% of insured participants (P = 0.032). Poor BP control was observed in 69.7% and there was significant association between MNA and poor BP control (P = 0.006). Conclusion. MNA is high among hypertensives in Ghana and Nigeria and is associated with depression, concern about hypertensive medications, formal education, and use of herbal preparations. The negative association between health insurance and MNA suggests interplay of other factors and needs further investigation. PMID:26509081

  6. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females. PMID:25957285

  7. Modeling inflation rates and exchange rates in Ghana: application of multivariate GARCH models.

    PubMed

    Nortey, Ezekiel Nn; Ngoh, Delali D; Doku-Amponsah, Kwabena; Ofori-Boateng, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed at investigating the volatility and conditional relationship among inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates as well as to construct a model using multivariate GARCH DCC and BEKK models using Ghana data from January 1990 to December 2013. The study revealed that the cumulative depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar from 1990 to 2013 is 7,010.2% and the yearly weighted depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar for the period is 20.4%. There was evidence that, the fact that inflation rate was stable, does not mean that exchange rates and interest rates are expected to be stable. Rather, when the cedi performs well on the forex, inflation rates and interest rates react positively and become stable in the long run. The BEKK model is robust to modelling and forecasting volatility of inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates. The DCC model is robust to model the conditional and unconditional correlation among inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates. The BEKK model, which forecasted high exchange rate volatility for the year 2014, is very robust for modelling the exchange rates in Ghana. The mean equation of the DCC model is also robust to forecast inflation rates in Ghana. PMID:25741459

  8. Droughts, Irrigation Development, and Hydropower: Different Development Priorities in Ghana and Burkina Faso and Their Effect on Management of the Volta River, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two

  9. An analysis of socio-demographic patterns in child malnutrition trends using Ghana demographic and health survey data in the period 1993–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A small but growing body of research indicates that progress in reducing child malnutrition is substantially uneven from place to place, even down to the district level within countries. Yet child malnutrition prevalence and trend estimates available for public health planning are mostly available only at the level of global regions and/or at country level. To support carefully targeted intervention to reduce child malnutrition, public health planners and policy-makers require access to more refined prevalence data and trend analyses than are presently available. Responding to this need in Ghana, this report presents trends in child malnutrition prevalence in socio-demographic groups within the country’s geographic regions. Methods The study uses the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS) data. The GDHS are nationally representative cross-sectional surveys that have been carried out in many developing countries. These surveys constitute one of the richest sources of information currently available to examine time trends in child malnutrition. Data from four surveys were used for the analysis: 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008. Results The results show statistically significant declining trends at the national level for stunting (F (1, 7204) = 7.89, p ≤ .005), underweight (F (1, 7441) = 44.87, p ≤ .001) and wasting (F (1, 7130) = 6.19, p ≤ .013). However, analyses of the sex-specific trends revealed that the declining trends in stunting and wasting were significant among males but not among females. In contrast to the national trend, there were significantly increasing trends in stunting for males (F (1, 2004) = 3.92, p ≤ .048) and females (F (1, 2004) = 4.34, p ≤ .037) whose mothers had higher than primary education, while the trends decreased significantly for males and females whose mothers had no education. Conclusions At the national level in Ghana, child malnutrition is significantly declining

  10. Something old or something new? Social health insurance in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest at present in exploring the potential of social health insurance to increase access to and affordability of health care in Africa. A number of countries are currently experimenting with different approaches. Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was passed into law in 2003 but fully implemented from late 2005. It has already reached impressive coverage levels. This article aims to provide a preliminary assessment of the NHIS to date. This can inform the development of the NHIS itself but also other innovations in the region. Methods This article is based on analysis of routine data, on secondary literature and on key informant interviews conducted by the authors with stakeholders at national, regional and district levels over the period of 2005 to 2009. Results In relation to its financing sources, the NHIS is heavily reliant on tax funding for 70–75% of its revenue. This has permitted quick expansion of coverage, partly through the inclusion of large exempted population groups. Card holders increased from 7% of the population in 2005 to 45% in 2008. However, only around a third of these are contributing to the scheme financially. This presents a sustainability problem, in that revenue is de-coupled from the growing membership. In addition, the NHIS offers a broad benefits package, with no co-payments and limited gate-keeping, and also faces cost escalation related to its new payment system and the growing utilisation of members. These features contributed to a growth in distressed schemes and failure to pay outstanding facility claims in 2008. The NHIS has had a considerable impact on the health system as a whole, taking on a growing role in funding curative care. In 2009, it is expected to contribute 41% of the overall resource envelope. However there is evidence that this funding is not additional but has been switched from other funding channels. There are some equity concerns about this, as the new funding

  11. Exploring the linkage between exposure to mass media and HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Boateng, Godfred O; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boamah, Sheila; Kwon, Eugena

    2016-06-01

    Although HIV testing is critical to the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, utilization rate of HIV testing services among married women and men remains low in Ghana. Mass media, as a tool to increase overall HIV testing turnouts, has been considered one of the important strategies in promoting and enhancing behavioural changes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the current study examines the relationship between levels of exposure to print media, radio, and television and the uptake of HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana. Results show that HIV testing is more prevalent among married women than their male counterparts. We also find that higher levels of exposure to radio is associated with HIV testing among women, while higher levels of exposure to print media and television are associated with HIV testing among men. Implications of these findings are discussed for Ghana's HIV/AIDS strategic framework, which aims to expanding efforts at dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, it is important for health educators and programme planners to deliver HIV-related messages through television, radio, and print media to increase the uptake of HIV testing particularly among married women and men in Ghana. PMID:26753839

  12. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Asare, P.; Asante-Poku, A.; Otchere, I. D.; Osei-Wusu, S.; Danso, E.; Forson, A.; Koram, K. A.; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a perception that genomic differences in the species/lineages of the nine species making the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) may affect the efficacy of distinct control tools in certain geographical areas. We therefore analyzed the prevalence and spatial distribution of MTBC species and lineages among isolates from pulmonary TB cases over an 8-year period, 2007–2014. Methodology Mycobacterial species isolated by culture from consecutively recruited pulmonary tuberculosis patients presenting at selected district/sub-district health facilities were confirmed as MTBC by IS6110 and rpoß PCR and further assigned lineages and sub lineages by spoligotyping and large sequence polymorphism PCR (RDs 4, 9, 12, 702, 711) assays. Patient characteristics, residency, and risks were obtained with a structured questionnaire. We used SaTScan and ArcMap analyses to identify significantly clustered MTBC lineages within selected districts and spatial display, respectively. Results Among 2,551 isolates, 2,019 (79.1%), 516 (20.2%) and 16 (0.6%) were identified as M. tuberculosis sensu stricto (MTBss), M. africanum (Maf), 15 M. bovis and 1 M. caprae, respectively. The proportions of MTBss and Maf were fairly constant within the study period. Maf spoligotypes were dominated by Spoligotype International Type (SIT) 331 (25.42%), SIT 326 (15.25%) and SIT 181 (14.12%). We found M. bovis to be significantly higher in Northern Ghana (1.9% of 212) than Southern Ghana (0.5% of 2339) (p = 0.020). Using the purely spatial and space-time analysis, seven significant MTBC lineage clusters (p< 0.05) were identified. Notable among the clusters were Ghana and Cameroon sub-lineages found to be associated with north and south, respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that overall, 79.1% of TB in Ghana is caused by MTBss and 20% by M. africanum. Unlike some West African Countries, we did not observe a decline of Maf prevalence in Ghana. PMID:27564240

  13. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  14. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as a viable option in an Integrated Malaria Vector Control Programme in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integrated Vector Control (IVC) remains the approach for managing the malaria-causing vector. The study investigated the contribution of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in the control of malaria by targeting the larvae and also mapped and documented major breeding sites in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Methods Using a hand held GPS receiver unit, major breeding sites within the metropolis were mapped out during the larval survey. Mosquito larvae were then collected from the breeding sites and reared in an insectary to obtain an F1 generation for laboratory bioassays. The minimum effective dosage of Bti Water Dispersible Granular (WDG) formulation was determined by a series of bioassays. Based on the results obtained in the laboratory, the optimum effective dosage of Bti formulations against naturally occurring larvae of the indigenous mosquito species was determined through open field trials. Results A total of 33 breeding sites were identified and geo-referenced during the larval surveys with the majority of the breeding sites located in the Asokwa sub-metropolis, Kumasi, Ghana. A Bti (3,000 International Toxic Unit (ITU)/mg) concentration of 0.026 mg/l resulted in 50% mortality whilst a concentration of 0.136 mg/l resulted in 95% mortality. Results from the open field trials with Bti showed that a dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is as effective as 0.4 kg/ha in suppressing late instars and resulting pupae. Conclusion This study reveals that Bti at a very low dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is highly effective against Anopheles larvae and therefore offers viable options for the management of vector mosquitoes. Further research is needed to extend this to the field in order to determine its ability to reduce malaria incidence. PMID:23607376

  15. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Prytherch, Helen; Leshabari, Melkidezek T.; Wiskow, Christiane; Aninanya, Gifty A.; Kakoko, Deodatus C.V.; Kagoné, Moubassira; Burghardt, Juliane; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated. PMID

  16. Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance.

  17. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  18. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    PubMed Central

    Quartey, Ebo Tawiah; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi Asare Baffour; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM) is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana. PMID:26308016

  19. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste.

    PubMed

    Quartey, Ebo Tawiah; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi Asare Baffour; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-08-01

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM) is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana. PMID:26308016

  20. The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa--the case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Frank; Tettey, Mark; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Sereboe, Lawrence; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Kotei, David; Baffoe-Gyan, Kofi

    2011-01-01

    West Africa is one of the poorest regions of the world. The sixteen nations listed by the United Nations in this sub-region have some of the lowest gross domestic products in the world. Health care infrastructure is deficient in most of these countries. Cardiac surgery, with its heavy financial outlay is unavailable in many West African countries. These facts notwithstanding, some West African countries have a proud history of open heart surgery not very well known even in African health care circles. Many African health care givers are under the erroneous impression that the cardiovascular surgical landscape of West Africa is blank. However, documented reports of open-heart surgery in Ghana dates as far back as 1964 when surface cooling was used by Ghanaian surgeons to close atrial septal defects. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center is still very active and is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons for the training of cardiothoracic surgeons. Reports from Nigeria indicate open-heart surgery taking place from 1974. Cote D'Ivoire had reported on its first 300 open-heart cases by 1983. Senegal reported open-heart surgery from 1995 and still runs an active center. Cameroon started out in 2009 with work done by an Italian group that ultimately aims to train indigenous surgeons to run the program. This review traces the development and current state of cardiothoracic surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. PMID:22355425

  1. Views of health service providers on obstacles to tuberculosis control in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Ghana does not fall into the category of those countries which have a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), the disease does present considerable economic and health limitations to individuals infected with, and affected by, the disease, as well as to the health system in general. Despite this fact, insufficient studies have been done on the key barriers to controlling the disease. This paper presents results from an exploratory study on the constraints of controlling TB in Ghana based on the opinions of health service providers. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with frontline health workers involved in TB control in the country. Participants were purposively selected from a pool of national and regional, and district and facility level coordinators of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP). One key informant was also selected from an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) involved in TB-related activities in Ghana. Observations were utilised to complement the study. Data were analysed inductively. Results Respondents identified the following as being constraints to TB control: clinical complication, bottlenecks in funding administration, quality of physical infrastructure, competition for attention and funding, unsatisfactory coordination between TB and HIV control programmes, a poor public-private partnership, and weak monitoring and evaluation of interventions. Conclusions This paper provides evidence of some key barriers to TB control. The barriers, as reported, were generally health system-based. Although this list of barriers is not exhaustive, it would be useful to take them into account when planning for TB control, thus adopting a more rounded approach to TB management in the country. As well as that, further studies should be done to explore patients’ views on health service-related barriers to TB control. PMID:23849141

  2. Infant nutrition in the first seven days of life in rural northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good nutrition is essential for increasing survival rates of infants. This study explored infant feeding practices in a resource-poor setting and assessed implications for future interventions focused on improving newborn health. Methods The study took place in the Kassena-Nankana District of the Upper East Region of northern Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 women with newborn infants, 8 traditional birth attendants and local healers, and 16 community leaders. An additional 18 focus group discussions were conducted with household heads, compound heads and grandmothers. All interviews and discussions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results Community members are knowledgeable about the importance of breastfeeding, and most women with newborn infants do attempt to breastfeed. However, data suggest that traditional practices related to breastfeeding and infant nutrition continue, despite knowledge of clinical guidelines. Such traditional practices include feeding newborn infants water, gripe water, local herbs, or traditionally meaningful foods such as water mixed with the flour of guinea corn (yara’na). In this region in Ghana, there are significant cultural traditions associated with breastfeeding. For example, colostrum from first-time mothers is often tested for bitterness by putting ants in it – a process that leads to a delay in initiating breastfeeding. Our data also indicate that grandmothers – typically the mother-in-laws – wield enormous power in these communities, and their desires significantly influence breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and maintenance. Conclusion Prelacteal feeding is still common in rural Ghana despite demonstrating high knowledge of appropriate feeding practices. Future interventions that focus on grandmothers and religious leaders are likely to prove valuable in changing community attitudes, beliefs, and practices with regard to infant nutrition. PMID

  3. The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa-the case of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Edwin, Frank; Tettey, Mark; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Sereboe, Lawrence; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Kotei, David; Baffoe-Gyan, Kofi

    2011-01-01

    West Africa is one of the poorest regions of the world. The sixteen nations listed by the United Nations in this sub-region have some of the lowest gross domestic products in the world. Health care infrastructure is deficient in most of these countries. Cardiac surgery, with its heavy financial outlay is unavailable in many West African countries. These facts notwithstanding, some West African countries have a proud history of open heart surgery not very well known even in African health care circles. Many African health care givers are under the erroneous impression that the cardiovascular surgical landscape of West Africa is blank. However, documented reports of open-heart surgery in Ghana dates as far back as 1964 when surface cooling was used by Ghanaian surgeons to close atrial septal defects. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center is still very active and is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons for the training of cardiothoracic surgeons. Reports from Nigeria indicate open-heart surgery taking place from 1974. Cote D'Ivoire had reported on its first 300 open-heart cases by 1983. Senegal reported open-heart surgery from 1995 and still runs an active center. Cameroon started out in 2009 with work done by an Italian group that ultimately aims to train indigenous surgeons to run the program. This review traces the development and current state of cardiothoracic surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. PMID:22355425

  4. Indoor Air Pollution and Health in Ghana: Self-Reported Exposure to Unprocessed Solid Fuel Smoke.

    PubMed

    Armah, Frederick A; Odoi, Justice O; Luginaah, Isaac

    2015-06-01

    Most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana still depend extensively on unprocessed solid cooking fuels with many people exposed on a daily basis to harmful emissions and other health risks. In this study, using complementary log-log multivariate models, we estimated the health effects of exposure to smoke from unprocessed wood in four regions of Ghana while controlling for socio-environmental and socio-demographic factors. The results show that the distribution of self-reported exposure to smoke was highest among participants in the Northern region, rural dwellers, the 25-49 age groups, individuals with no education, and married women. As expected, exposure to smoke was higher in crowded households and in communities without basic social amenities. Region, residential locality, housing quality (type of roofing, floor and exterior materials), self-reported housing condition, and access to toilet facilities were associated with self-reported exposure to solid fuel smoke. Participants living in urban areas were less likely (OR = 0.82, ρ ≤ 0.01) to be exposed to solid fuel smoke compared to their rural counterparts. An inverse relationship between self-reported housing condition and exposure to solid fuel smoke was observed and persisted even after adjustments were made for confounding variables in the demographic model. In Ghana, the cost and intermittent shortages of liquefied petroleum gas and other alternative fuel sources hold implications for the willingness of the poor to shift to their use. Thus, the poorest rural populations with nearly no cash income and electricity, but with access to wood and/or agricultural waste, are unlikely to move to clean fuels or use significantly improved stoves without large subsidies, which are usually not sustainable. However, there appears to be large populations between these extremes that can be targeted by efforts to introduce improved stoves. PMID:24136388

  5. Genotypic Diversity and Drug Susceptibility Patterns among M. tuberculosis Complex Isolates from South-Western Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Bodmer, Thomas; Stucki, David; Koram, Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank; Pluschke, Gerd; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to use spoligotyping and large sequence polymorphism (LSP) to study the population structure of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates. Methods MTBC isolates were identified using standard biochemical procedures, IS6110 PCR, and large sequence polymorphisms. Isolates were further typed using spoligotyping, and the phenotypic drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the proportion method. Result One hundred and sixty-two isolates were characterised by LSP typing. Of these, 130 (80.25%) were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu stricto (MTBss), with the Cameroon sub-lineage being dominant (N = 59/130, 45.38%). Thirty-two (19.75%) isolates were classified as Mycobacterium africanum type 1, and of these 26 (81.25%) were identified as West-Africa I, and 6 (18.75%) as West-Africa II. Spoligotyping sub-lineages identified among the MTBss included Haarlem (N = 15, 11.53%), Ghana (N = 22, 16.92%), Beijing (4, 3.08%), EAI (4, 3.08%), Uganda I (4, 3.08%), LAM (2, 1.54%), X (N = 1, 0.77%) and S (2, 1.54%). Nine isolates had SIT numbers with no identified sub-lineages while 17 had no SIT numbers. MTBss isolates were more likely to be resistant to streptomycin (p<0.008) and to any drug resistance (p<0.03) when compared to M. africanum. Conclusion This study demonstrated that overall 36.4% of TB in South-Western Ghana is caused by the Cameroon sub-lineage of MTBC and 20% by M. africanum type 1, including both the West-Africa 1 and West-Africa 2 lineages. The diversity of MTBC in Ghana should be considered when evaluating new TB vaccines. PMID:21779354

  6. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Kinney, Patrick L.; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Jack, Darby; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Whyatt, Robin; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Manu, Alexander; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Wylie, Blair J.

    2016-01-01

    In areas where malaria is endemic, pesticides are widely deployed for vector control, which has contributed to reductions in malaria deaths. Pesticide use for agrarian purposes reduces pest populations, thus improving crop production and post-harvest losses. However, adverse health effects have been associated with pesticide exposure, ranging from skin irritation to neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Though misuse of these pesticides can lead to widespread potential dangers, the debilitating effects are usually underappreciated in many developing countries. To evaluate the pattern of pesticide usage among rural communities in the Kintampo area of Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1455 heads of households randomly sampled from among 29,073 households in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area of Ghana to estimate the prevalence of pesticide use and indications for use among this rural populace. Seventy-one percent (1040/1455) of household heads reported having used pesticides on either their farms or homes, most commonly for control of weeds (96.4%, 1003/1040) or insects (85.4%, 888/1040). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used by 22.9% (238/1040) of respondents. The majority of households who reported use of pesticides said women in their households assisted in the spraying efforts (69.3%, 721/1040); of these women, 50.8% (366/721) did so while carrying their babies on their backs. Only 28.9% (301/1040) of the study participants wore protective devices during pesticide applications. Frequent symptoms that were reported after spraying, included cough (32.3%; 336/1040), difficulty in breathing (26.7%; 278/1040) and skin irritation (39.0%; 406/1040). Pesticide use among community members in the Kintampo area of Ghana is common and its potential health impacts warrant further investigation. PMID:27239261

  7. Human Coronaviruses Associated with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Three Rural Areas of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Michael; Annan, Augustina; Corman, Victor Max; Larbi, Richard; Anti, Priscilla; Drexler, Jan Felix; Agbenyega, Olivia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially in Africa. This study sought to determine whether human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with upper respiratory tract infections among older children and adults in Ghana. Methods We conducted a case control study among older children and adults in three rural areas of Ghana using asymptomatic subjects as controls. Nasal/Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), HCoV-22E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results Out of 1,213 subjects recruited, 150 (12.4%) were positive for one or more viruses. Of these, single virus detections occurred in 146 subjects (12.0%) and multiple detections occurred in 4 (0.3%). Compared with control subjects, infections with HCoV-229E (OR = 5.15, 95%CI = 2.24–11.78), HCoV-OC43 (OR = 6.16, 95%CI = 1.77–21.65) and combine HCoVs (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.5 = 3.72) were associated with upper respiratory tract infections. HCoVs were found to be seasonally dependent with significant detections in the harmattan season (mainly HCoV-229E) and wet season (mainly HCoV-NL63). A comparison of the obtained sequences resulted in no differences to sequences already published in GenBank. Conclusion HCoVs could play significant role in causing upper respiratory tract infections among adults and older children in rural areas of Ghana. PMID:25080241

  8. Residential characteristics as correlates of occupants’ health in the greater Accra region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing has been a relatively neglected site for public health action. However, it remains a place where human beings spend the most part of their day. As a result, the quality of housing has consequences for human health. We investigate residential characteristics associated with self-rated occupant health in five neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Methods A cross sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted among 500 informed adults aged 18 years and above to investigate residential characteristics associated with self-rated occupant health in five neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Correlates of occupant rated health were determined using Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Results Forty-two per cent of houses were rented, 44% required repair and 46% shared sanitation facilities. One in twenty occupants reported poor health. Gender, employment status, income, ventilation, house wall material, odours, stale air, privacy, shared facilities, hand washing facility, type of house and house repair status were associated with poor health in the bivariate analysis. Only two variables were independently associated with poor self-rated health: occupants who lacked privacy were eight times more likely to report poor self-rated health when compared to peers who did not lack privacy [OR = 8.16, 95% CI 2.86-23.26] and women were three times more likely than men to report poor health [OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.06-8.35]. Conclusion The results provide further evidence of housing as a determinant of occupants’ health, and identify housing characteristics and living conditions as issues for public health action in Ghana. PMID:24612884

  9. Buruli Ulcer Disease and Its Association with Land Cover in Southwestern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Tschakert, Petra; Klutse, Erasmus; Ferring, David; Ricciardi, Vincent; Hausermann, Heidi; Oppong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU), one of 17 neglected tropical diseases, is a debilitating skin and soft tissue infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. In tropical Africa, changes in land use and proximity to water have been associated with the disease. This study presents the first analysis of BU at the village level in southwestern Ghana, where prevalence rates are among the highest globally, and explores fine and medium-scale associations with land cover by comparing patterns both within BU clusters and surrounding landscapes. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 339 hospital-confirmed BU cases in southwestern Ghana between 2007 and 2010. The clusters of BU were identified using spatial scan statistics and the percentages of six land cover classes were calculated based on Landsat and Rapid Eye imagery for each of 154 villages/towns. The association between BU prevalence and each land cover class was calculated using negative binomial regression models. We found that older people had a significantly higher risk for BU after considering population age structure. BU cases were positively associated with the higher percentage of water and grassland surrounding each village, but negatively associated with the percent of urban. The results also showed that BU was clustered in areas with high percentage of mining activity, suggesting that water and mining play an important and potentially interactive role in BU occurrence. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlights the importance of multiple land use changes along the Offin River, particularly mining and agriculture, which might be associated with BU disease in southwestern Ghana. Our study is the first to use both medium- and high-resolution imagery to assess these changes. We also show that older populations (≥ 60 y) appear to be at higher risk of BU disease than children, once BU data were weighted by population age structures. PMID:26091265

  10. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. PMID:24316503

  11. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience

    PubMed Central

    Nkrumah, Bernard; van der Puije, Beatrice; Bekoe, Veronica; Adukpo, Rowland; Kotey, Nii A.; Yao, Katy; Fonjungo, Peter N.; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Duh, Samuel; Njukeng, Patrick A.; Addo, Nii A.; Khan, Fazle N.; Woodfill, Celia J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. Objectives To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Method Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental training on internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM). Results The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors' salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Conclusion Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such models promote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA. PMID:26937417

  12. Health worker (internal customer) satisfaction and motivation in the public sector in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyepong, Irene Akua; Anafi, Patricia; Asiamah, Ebenezer; Ansah, Evelyn K; Ashon, Daniel A; Narh-Dometey, Christiana

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes factors affecting health worker motivation and satisfaction in the public sector in Ghana. The data are from a survey of public sector health care providers carried out in January 2002 and repeated in August 2003 using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. It is part of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in the health sector in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Workplace obstacles identified that caused dissatisfaction and de-motivated staff in order of the most frequently mentioned were low salaries such that obtaining basic necessities of daily living becomes a problem; lack of essential equipment, tools and supplies to work with; delayed promotions; difficulties and inconveniences with transportation to work; staff shortages; housing, additional duty allowances and in-service (continuous) training. Others included children's education, vehicles to work with such as ambulances and pickups, staff transfer procedures, staff pre-service education inadequate for job requirements, and the effect of the job on family and other social factors. There were some differences in the percentages of staff selecting a given workplace obstacle between the purely rural districts, the highly urbanized Accra metropolis and the districts that were a mixture of urbanized and rural. It is unlikely that the Ghana Health Service can provide high quality of care to its end users (external customers) if workplace obstacles that de-motivate staff (internal customers) and negatively influence their performance are not properly recognized and addressed as a complex of inter-related problems producing a common result--dissatisfied poorly motivated staff and resulting poor quality services. PMID:15688876

  13. Towards a Tool for Malaria Supply Chain Management Improvement in Rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Lorena; Bakken, Suzanne; Mamykina, Lena; Kodie, Richmond; Kanter, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of adequate quantities of antimalarial medicines and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at health facilities in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a challenging task because of poor supply chain management. Antimalarial stock-outs in the communities could lead patients (that need to travel long distances to get medications) to remain untreated, develop severe malaria and die. A prototype to improve the management of health commodities in rural Ghana through the visualization of current stock levels and the forecasting of commodities is proposed. PMID:26262307

  14. Women, religion, and maternal health care in Ghana, 1945-2000.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lauren; Wall, Barbra Mann

    2014-01-01

    This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism. We assert that missions-particularly those run by Catholic sister physicians, nurses, and midwives-have changed over time and that those changes have been beneficial to the expansion of community health, particularly in the area of improvement of maternal care. PMID:24892862

  15. Application of geographical information system (GIS) technology in the control of Buruli ulcer in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) disease is a chronic debilitating skin disease caused by Mycobacteriumulcerans. It is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. Policy makers take the necessary strategic and policy decisions especially where to target interventions based on available evidence including spatial distribution of the disease. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the spatial distribution of BU in Ghana. The aim of the study was to use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to show the spatial distribution and hot spots of BU in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions in Ghana. The information could then be used by decision makers to make the necessary strategic and policy decisions, especially where to target intervention. Methods We conducted a community case search and spatial mapping in two districts in Eastern region (Akuapem South and Suhum- Kraboa-Coaltar) and two districts in Greater Accra region (Ga West and Ga South Municipalities) of Ghana to identify the spatial distribution of BU cases in the communities along the Densu River. These municipalities are already known to the Ministry of Health as having high case load of BU. Structured questionnaires on demographic characteristics, environmental factors and general practices were administered to the cases. Using the E-trex Garmin Geographical Positioning System (GPS), the location of the case patient was marked along with any important attributes of the community. ArcGIS was used to generate maps showing BU distribution and hot spots. Results Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) probable BU patients were enrolled in the study after the case search. These cases and their houses (or homes) were located with the GPS. The GIS maps generated showed a varying distribution of BU in the various communities. We observed clustering of BU patients downstream of the Densu River which had hitherto not been observed. Conclusions There is clustering of BU in areas where the

  16. The path dependence of district manager decision-space in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwamie, Aku; van Dijk, Han; Ansah, Evelyn K; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2016-04-01

    The district health system in Ghana today is characterized by high resource-uncertainty and narrow decision-space. This article builds a theory-driven historical case study to describe the influence of path-dependent administrative, fiscal and political decentralization processes on development of the district health system and district manager decision-space. Methods included a non-exhaustive literature review of democratic governance in Ghana, and key informant interviews with high-level health system officials integral to the development of the district health system. Through our analysis we identified four periods of district health system progression: (1) development of the district health system (1970-85); (2) Strengthening District Health Systems Initiative (1986-93); (3) health sector reform planning and creation of the Ghana Health Service (1994-96) and (4) health sector reform implementation (1997-2007). It was observed that district manager decision-space steadily widened during periods (1) and (2), due to increases in managerial profile, and concerted efforts at managerial capacity strengthening. Periods (3) and (4) saw initial augmentation of district health system financing, further widening managerial decision-space. However, the latter half of period 4 witnessed district manager decision-space contraction. Formalization of Ghana Health Service structures influenced by self-reinforcing tendencies towards centralized decision-making, national and donor shifts in health sector financing, and changes in key policy actors all worked to the detriment of the district health system, reversing early gains from bottom-up development of the district health system. Policy feedback mechanisms have been influenced by historical and contemporary sequencing of local government and health sector decentralization. An initial act of administrative decentralization, followed by incomplete political and fiscal decentralization has ensured that the balance of power has

  17. Case Study: The Role of eLearning in Midwifery Pre-Service Education in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Appiagyei, Martha; Trump, Alison; Danso, Evans; Yeboah, Alex; Searle, Sarah; Carr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The issues and challenges of implementing eLearning in pre-service health education were explored through a pilot study conducted in six nurse-midwifery education programs in Ghana. Case-based, interactive computer mediated eLearning modules, targeted to basic emergency and obstetrical signal functions, were delivered both online and offline using a free-for-use eLearning platform, skoool HE(®). Key success factors included broad stakeholder support, an established curriculum and student and tutor interest. Challenges included infrastructure limitations, large class sizes and added workloads for tutors and information technology staff. National scale up is planned. PMID:26860764

  18. Resistance and change: a multiple streams approach to understanding health policy making in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kusi-Ampofo, Owuraku; Church, John; Conteh, Charles; Heinmiller, B Timothy

    2015-02-01

    Although much has been written on health policy making in developed countries, the same cannot be said of less developed countries, especially in Africa. Drawing largely on available historical and government records, newspaper publications, parliamentary Hansards, and published books and articles, this article uses John W. Kingdon's multiple streams framework to explain how the problem, politics, and policy streams converged for Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to be passed into law in 2003. The article contends that a change in government in the 2000 general election opened a "policy window" for eventual policy change from "cash-and-carry" to the NHIS. PMID:25480850

  19. Determination of total arsenic in environmental samples from Kumasi and Obuasi, Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Amonoo-Neizer, E H; Amekor, E M

    1993-01-01

    The total arsenic content of some Ghana food and cash crops from Kumasi and Obuasi farms and markets was determined. Quantitative analysis of arsenic was also conducted on vegetation, cooked food obtained from some homes, local fish, and meat, as well as some soil and water samples. In all, 266 samples were examined. Values for Kumasi samples ranged from 0.07 to 7.20 mg/kg arsenic, whereas those for Obuasi ranged from 0.12 to 70.50 mg/kg, confirming that arsenic levels for Obuasi are much higher than those for Kumasi. Images p46-a PMID:8513763

  20. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses. PMID:26362126

  1. Prevalence and genotype of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women and blood donors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Wansbrough-Jones, M H; Frimpong, E; Cant, B; Harris, K; Evans, M R; Teo, C G

    1998-01-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was evaluated in blood donors and antenatal clinic attenders in Kumasi, Ghana and seropositive subjects were tested for hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall seroprevalence among Ghanaians was 2.8% but there was a significantly higher prevalence in males (4.6%) than in females (1.0%). No risk factor for infection was identified by a questionnaire. Among those who showed evidence of active infection with a positive PCR, the most common genotype was type 2 but the subtype could not be specifically determined; these type 2 hepatitis C viruses may be indigenous to Africa. PMID:9861360

  2. Estimating the fluvial sediment input to the coastal sediment budget: A case study of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Isaac; Bray, Malcolm; Hooke, Janet

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of fluvial sediment supply to the coastal sediment budget is important for the assessment of the impacts on coastal stability. Such knowledge is valuable for designing coastal engineering schemes and the development of shoreline management planning policies. It also facilitates understanding of the connection between rivers in the hinterland and adjoining coastal systems. Ghana's coast has many fluvial sediment sources and this paper provides the first quantitative assessments of their contributions to the coastal sediment budget. The methods use largely existing data and attempt to cover all of Ghana's significant coastal rivers. Initially work was hindered by insufficient direct measured data. However, the problem was overcome by the application of a regression approach, which provides an estimated sediment yield for non-gauged rivers based on data from gauged rivers with similar characteristics. The regression approach was effective because a regional coherence in behaviour was determined between those rivers, where direct measured data were available. The results of the assessment revealed that Ghana's coast is dissected by many south-draining rivers, stream and lagoons. These rivers, streams and lagoons supply significant amounts of sediment to coastal lowlands and therefore contribute importantly to beaches. Anthropogenic impoundment of fluvial sediment, especially the Akosombo dam on the Volta River, has reduced the total fluvial sediment input to the coast from about 71 × 10 6 m 3/a before 1964 (pre-Akosombo dam) to about 7 × 10 6 m 3/a at present (post-Akosombo dam). This sharp reduction threatened the stability of the east coast and prompted an expensive ($83 million) defence scheme to be implemented to protect 8.4 km-long coastline at Keta. Sections of Ghana's coast are closely connected to the hinterland through the fluvial sediment input from local rivers. Therefore, development in the hinterland that alters the fluvial sediment input from

  3. Lagos bat virus transmission in an Eidolon helvum bat colony, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). PMID:26191622

  4. Importance of the aquatic weed Ceratophyllum to transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results of 5 years of sampling for Bulinus rohlfsi in human-water contact sites of villages along the Volta Lake, Ghana, have confirmed that the aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum, is the most important ecological factor for sustaining high levels of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium. Data available so far indicate that growth of this weed largely determines the size of the snail populations. Increasing density of Ceratophyllum correlates with increasing levels of cercarial transmission potential in the water contact sites and of S. haematobium infection in the village populations. PMID:6975187

  5. The path dependence of district manager decision-space in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kwamie, Aku; van Dijk, Han; Ansah, Evelyn K; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2016-01-01

    The district health system in Ghana today is characterized by high resource-uncertainty and narrow decision-space. This article builds a theory-driven historical case study to describe the influence of path-dependent administrative, fiscal and political decentralization processes on development of the district health system and district manager decision-space. Methods included a non-exhaustive literature review of democratic governance in Ghana, and key informant interviews with high-level health system officials integral to the development of the district health system. Through our analysis we identified four periods of district health system progression: (1) development of the district health system (1970–85); (2) Strengthening District Health Systems Initiative (1986–93); (3) health sector reform planning and creation of the Ghana Health Service (1994–96) and (4) health sector reform implementation (1997–2007). It was observed that district manager decision-space steadily widened during periods (1) and (2), due to increases in managerial profile, and concerted efforts at managerial capacity strengthening. Periods (3) and (4) saw initial augmentation of district health system financing, further widening managerial decision-space. However, the latter half of period 4 witnessed district manager decision-space contraction. Formalization of Ghana Health Service structures influenced by self-reinforcing tendencies towards centralized decision-making, national and donor shifts in health sector financing, and changes in key policy actors all worked to the detriment of the district health system, reversing early gains from bottom-up development of the district health system. Policy feedback mechanisms have been influenced by historical and contemporary sequencing of local government and health sector decentralization. An initial act of administrative decentralization, followed by incomplete political and fiscal decentralization has ensured that the balance of

  6. Micro and Macro Element Composition of Kalanchoe integra Leaves: An Adjuvant Treatment for Hypertension in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Frimpong-Manso, S.; Asiedu-Gyekye, I. J.; Naadu, J. P.; Magnus-Aryitey, G. T.; Nyarko, A. K.; Boamah, D.; Awan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Two samples, water extract and blended whole leaves, of fresh Kalanchoe integra leaves (Crassulaceae), a traditional antihypertensive medicine used in Ghana, were analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Analysis revealed 12 macro and 26 micro elements in both extracts. Further quantitative assessment of the results for amounts of elements that are pharmacologically significant revealed that the amounts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium present in the extracts could be correlated to its traditional usage in managing hypertension and arrhythmias. However, heavy metals (lead and inorganic arsenic) detected in the extracts may pose a threat at doses normally used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26495138

  7. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Terence E

    2010-05-01

    AIDS media lead unexpected lives once distributed through urban space: billboards fade, posters go missing, bumper stickers travel to other cities. The materiality of AIDS campaign objects and of the urban settings in which they are displayed structures how the public interprets their messages. Ethnographic observation of AIDS media in situ and interview data reveal how the materiality of objects and places shapes the availability of AIDS knowledge in Accra, Ghana. Significantly for AIDS organizations, these material conditions often systematically obstruct access to AIDS knowledge for particular groups. Attending to materiality rethinks how scholars assess the cultural power of media. PMID:20853708

  8. Barriers to Intrauterine Device Uptake in a Rural Setting in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nuriya; Moshabela, Mosa; Owusu-Ansah, Lydia; Kapungu, Chisina; Geller, Stacie

    2016-01-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception is an underutilized method in low-resource areas. Our study aims to: (a) assess knowledge and attitudes around contraception; (b) identify barriers to intrauterine device (IUD) uptake; and (c) develop interventions to address this gap in contraceptive care. We conducted focus group discussions with pregnant, postpartum, and reproductive-aged women, males, and health care workers in rural Ghana. Lack of IUD-specific knowledge, provider discomfort with insertion, and incomplete contraceptive counseling contribute to lack of IUD use. Participant- and provider-related barriers contribute to poor uptake of IUDs within the community. Targeted interventions are necessary to improve IUD use. PMID:25153448

  9. Improving the Skill Component of Clothing and Textiles among Students in Second Cycle Institutions in Ghana and Its Effect on the Polytechnic Fashion Student. A Case Study of OLA Girls, Mawuko Girls and Mawuli Senior High School in Ho, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joana, Amankwa; Selase, Gbadegbe Richard; Selorm, Gbetodeme; Emefa, Agra Florence

    2015-01-01

    For a nation like Ghana to develop, it is necessary to pay much attention to Vocational and Technical Education. This is so because school programmes that place emphasis on theory courses or humanities are no longer useful to the nation.Graduates who offer such programmes find it very difficult to secure employment in the Ghanaian job market…

  10. 'Whether you like it or not people with mental problems are going to go to them': a qualitative exploration into the widespread use of traditional and faith healers in the provision of mental health care in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Cooper, Sara; Adiibokah, Edward; Akpalu, Bright; Lund, Crick; Doku, Victor; Mhapp Research Programme Consortium

    2010-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted to explore the factors that support or obstruct collaboration between traditional healers and public sector mental health services. The first aim of this study was to explore the reasons underpinning the widespread appeal of traditional/faith healers in Ghana. This formed a backdrop for the second objective, to identify what barriers or enabling factors may exist for forming bi-sectoral partnerships. Eighty-one semi-structured interviews and seven focus group discussions were conducted with 120 key stakeholders drawn from five of the ten regions in Ghana. The results were analysed through a framework approach. Respondents indicated many reasons for the appeal of traditional and faith healers, including cultural perceptions of mental disorders, the psychosocial support afforded by such healers, as well as their availability, accessibility and affordability. A number of barriers hindering collaboration, including human rights and safety concerns, scepticism around the effectiveness of 'conventional' treatments, and traditional healer solidarity were identified. Mutual respect and bi-directional conversations surfaced as the key ingredients for successful partnerships. Collaboration is not as easy as commonly assumed, given paradigmatic disjunctures and widespread scepticism between different treatment modalities. Promoting greater understanding, rather than maintaining indifferent distances may lead to more successful co-operation in future. PMID:21226644

  11. Learning from Innovative International Research on Higher Education: How to Conceptualise Equity for Policy, Practice and Pedagogies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Miriam E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author draws together the diverse approaches to equity and widening participation found in the innovative international research conducted in Ghana and Tanzania by contrast with those in the "global North", using the United Kingdom as a case study. In particular, the author considers the utility of equity scorecards around the…

  12. Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Methods This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140), Laos (136), Senegal (100) and Tanzania (121). Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. Results The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497) across Ghana (107/140), Laos (136/136), Senegal (51/100) and Tanzania (78/121). Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13%) or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%). Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1) training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73); and 2) ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70). Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1) reading scientific journals from their own country (OR 1.67, 95% CI

  13. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Ghana in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Stan

    The educational system of Ghana is described, and placement recommendations concerning Ghanian students who want to study in the United States are presented. The country's old educational structure and the one in place since 1974 are briefly considered. For the West African School Certificate and the General Certificate of Education, information…

  14. Unmasking Complexities Involved in Operationalising UPE Policy Initiatives: Using the "fCUBE" Policy Implementation in Ghana as an Exemplar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope Pius

    2012-01-01

    In most parts of the world today, the goal of providing all children with free and Universal Primary Education (UPE) has received broad national and international support and some educational systems have evolved from predominantly "fee-charging" towards "fee-free" status in recent times. In Ghana, for example, the endorsement of Education for All…

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of 11 Haemophilus ducreyi Isolates from Children with Cutaneous Lesions in Vanuatu and Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Samantha S.; Abrams, A. Jeanine; Ballard, Ronald C.; Simpson, Shirley V.; Taleo, Fasihah; Lahra, Monica M.; Batra, Dhwani; Rowe, Lori; Trees, David L.; Asiedu, Kingsley; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid and has recently been shown to be a significant cause of cutaneous lesions in tropical or subtropical regions where yaws is endemic. Here, we report the draft genome assemblies for 11 cutaneous strains of Haemophilus ducreyi, isolated from children in Vanuatu and Ghana. PMID:27389258

  16. Non-formal Education and Education Policy in Ghana and Senegal. Educational Studies and Documents, No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    One in a series of studies of lifelong learning, this paper discusses the cultural and educational needs of selected urban and rural communities in Senegal and Ghana, emphasizing grassroots initiative and the community's analysis of its own needs. Information is drawn in part from surveys, public meetings, and interviews in three communities:…

  17. Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning through Leadership for Learning: Changing Scenarios in Basic Schools of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malakolunthu, Suseela; McBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This article emerged as a case study from a fact-finding mission of a joint programme between the Centre for Commonwealth Education (CCE) in Cambridge University and the Institute for Educational Planning and Administration (IEPA) in University of Cape Coast, Ghana, to embed innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the basic schools of…

  18. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  19. Perceptions of Students towards Use of Distance Learning: The Case in an Executive Masters Business Program in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Collins K.

    2010-01-01

    Distance learning has become a recognized method for delivering educational content in institutions of higher education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions held by graduate students about distance learning offered by the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. The survey utilized a 20 question survey…

  20. Employers' Perception of Graduates with Entry-Level Technical Skills from Construction Industry Programs in Ghana and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheampong, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative study was to identify the technical skills and abilities needed by prospective employees of construction industries in Ghana and Nigeria. Potential employees were defined here as recent graduates of construction industry programs with entry-level technical skills. The continuous growth in and expansion of these two…

  1. Determining Distance Education Students' Readiness for Mobile Learning at University of Ghana Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey; Abakah, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The use of mobile technologies in the classroom is transforming teaching and learning in higher institutions. This study investigated University of Ghana Distance Education students' perceptions toward mobile learning. The paper using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explained how students' beliefs influenced students' intention to adopt…

  2. "Literacy Is the Ability to Read and Write English": Defining and Developing Literacy in Basic Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Brew-Hammond, Aba

    2011-01-01

    How do teachers define literacy, and how do their perceptions influence their approach to the teaching and learning of literacy? These and other questions relating to literacy generally formed the focus of this ethnographic case study in two urban public primary schools in Ghana. The paper also considers teachers' views on mother tongue literacy.…

  3. The epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis in Ghana, explained by the possible existence of two strains of Wuchereria bancrofti

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Dziedzom Komi; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Blum, Julia; Baidoo, Helena; Brown, Charles Addoquaye; Lawson, Bernard Walter; Wilson, Michael David; Bockarie, Moses John; Boakye, Daniel Adjei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by the filarial worm Wuchereria bancrofti. It is earmarked for elimination by the year 2020 through the Global Program for the Elimination of LF (GPELF). In Ghana, mass treatment has been on-going since the year 2000. Earlier studies have revealed differing epidemiology of LF in the North and South of Ghana. This study was therefore aimed at understanding the possible impacts of W. bancrofti diversity on the epidemiology and control of LF in Ghana. Methods The Mitochondrial, Cytochrome C Oxidase I gene of W. bancrofti samples was sequenced and analyzed. The test sequences were grouped into infrapopulations, and pairwise differences (π) and mutation rates (θ) were computed. The amount of variance within and among populations was also computed using the AMOVA. The evolutionary history was inferred using the Maximum Parsimony method. Results Seven samples from the South and 15 samples from the North were sequenced, and submitted to GenBank with accession numbers GQ479497- GQ479518. The results revealed higher mutation frequencies in the southern population, compared to the northern population. Haplotype analyses revealed a total of 11 haplotypes (Hap) in all the 22 DNA sequences, with high genetic variation and polymorphisms within the southern samples. Conclusion This study showed that there is considerable genetic variability within W. bancrofti populations in Ghana, differences that might explain the observed epidemiology of LF. Further studies are however required for an in-depth understanding of LF epidemiology and control. PMID:25374638

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of 11 Haemophilus ducreyi Isolates from Children with Cutaneous Lesions in Vanuatu and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Allan; Katz, Samantha S; Abrams, A Jeanine; Ballard, Ronald C; Simpson, Shirley V; Taleo, Fasihah; Lahra, Monica M; Batra, Dhwani; Rowe, Lori; Trees, David L; Asiedu, Kingsley; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid and has recently been shown to be a significant cause of cutaneous lesions in tropical or subtropical regions where yaws is endemic. Here, we report the draft genome assemblies for 11 cutaneous strains of Haemophilus ducreyi, isolated from children in Vanuatu and Ghana. PMID:27389258

  5. Principals' and Teachers' Attitudes and Knowledge of Inclusive Education as Predictors of Effective Teaching Practices in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa; Desai, Ishwar

    2007-01-01

    Surveys and observations were undertaken in selected primary schools in Ghana to determine whether principals' and teachers' attitudes towards and knowledge of inclusive education, as well as principals' expectations of teachers in implementing inclusion, were predictors of effective teaching practices in their classrooms. The sample of 128…

  6. An Examination of Early Childhood Teacher Education in Four West African Nations: Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and the Gambia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Alicia I.

    This paper examines opportunities and challenges in early childhood teacher education in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and the Gambia. It reviews socioeconomic and political issues, current and emerging policies for early childhood and primary education, teacher preparation strategies, and examples of successful programs. Information was collected during…

  7. Decentralisation Policy and Practice in Ghana: The Promise and Reality of Community Participation in Education in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essuman, Ato; Akyeampong, Kwame

    2011-01-01

    In 1987, the government of Ghana embarked on a process to decentralise education management to districts as part of wider social and democratic governance reforms. A central part of this reform was the prescription of active community participation in the affairs of schools within their locality. This paper explores the different meanings…

  8. An Empirical Approach to the Study of Well-Being among Rural Men and Women in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank Sena; Filson, Glen C.; Shute, James

    2008-01-01

    The paper indicates using community development and sustainable livelihood theories as lenses that well-being indicators vary among societies, especially in developing countries due to cultural differences. The study which was carried in three rural communities in Ho Municipality in the Ghana was to show the extent to which men's and women's sense…

  9. Implementing Education for All--Whose Agenda, Whose Change? The Case Study of the Ghana National Education Campaign Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strutt, Courtney; Kepe, Thembela

    2010-01-01

    With the onset of the Education for All (EFA) agenda in 1990, the international development community has seen new forms of international cooperation forming around the pledge for EFA. This paper analyzes a case study of activities and challenges of a civil society coalition, the Ghana National Education Campaign Coalition (GNECC), in pursuing the…

  10. Sociological Variables Perceived in the Study of Ghanaian Languages in Central and Western Regional Colleges of Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaicoe, Kate; Adams, Francis Hull; Bersah, Vivian Adoboah; Baah, Kwabena Appiah

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted in two Colleges of Education in the Western and Central Regions of Ghana to find out how Colleges of Education students and tutors perceive the study of Ghanaian Languages. The target population comprised all staff and students of the Colleges of Education but the accessible population comprised students and tutors of the…

  11. A Study on the Use of the Internet in Senior High Schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayebi-Arthur, Kofi; Aidoo, Dora Baaba; Wilson, Kofi Bentum

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the utilization of the Internet in senior high schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis in the Central Region of Ghana. The sample consisted of 100 students and 25 teachers in three Senior High Schools. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select the three schools to represent the school…

  12. Providing Information Communication Technology Support to Distance Education Students: A Case of the University of Ghana, Legon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyemang, Beatrice K.; Dadzie, Perpetua

    2010-01-01

    A study to investigate the current state of Information Communication Technology policy of the University of Ghana Distance Education (DE) programme and the extent of awareness and use of ICTs in general by the DE learners was carried out. The survey methodology was adopted using questionnaire and interview instruments. Respondents were made up of…

  13. Examining Activity-Based Learning (ABL) Practices in Public Basic Schools in the Northern Region of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudzor, Hope P.; Dare, Albert; Oduro, George K. T.; Bosu, Rosemary; Addy, Nii

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana has been the testing ground for many teaching and learning initiatives over the past 15-20 years. These initiatives, largely funded by donors, have sought to improve learning by introducing and reinforcing valuable teaching skills, materials and approaches, most of them child-friendly, learner-centred and involving activity-based…

  14. An Investigation into How Female Teachers Manage Stress and Teacher Burnout: A Case Study of West Akim Municipality of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Asonaba Kofi; Yankyera, George

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate into how female teachers in Asamankese Circuit II in West Akim Municipality of Ghana Education Service manage stress and teacher burnout, and explore the causes, effects, and ways of improving work-related stress for better standard of education. The study was conducted with qualitative research…

  15. Challenging the Orthodoxy of Literacy: Realities of Moving from Personal to Community Empowerment through "Reflect" in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the "Reflect" approach--an alternative to the "great divide" theory of literacy--has gained wider currency in developing countries because of its ability to deal with social, cultural and political issues by placing the identification and solution of local problems in the hands of local people. In Ghana, ActionAid International…

  16. Analysis of Results of Core Academic Subjects of Ghanaian Secondary Schools: Case Study of a Secondary School in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul; Gyan, Emmanuel; Kwame, Baah-Korang; McCarthy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Educational authorities in Ghana have generally established that the performance of school leavers especially at the pre-university level offered a large room for improvement, due to so many factors. Hence, the introduction of the New Educational Reform in 1987 which led to the new system of Senior Secondary School with the first product in 1993.…

  17. Educational Progression in Ghana: Gender and Spatial Variations in Longitudinal Trajectories of Junior High School Completion Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansong, David; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Completion of junior high school is a critical milestone in every Ghanaian child's educational trajectory and a critical step toward the transition to higher education. However, the rate of children completing junior high school still lags behind most educational indicators in Ghana. Far more attention is paid to ensuring that students enroll in…

  18. The Influence of Social Support on the Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugbey, Nuworza; Osei-Boadi, Samuel; Atefoe, Ethel Akpene

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of social support from family, friends and significant others on the levels depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students of University of Ghana. A total of one hundred and sixty-five (165) students were sampled from all the levels and were administered with standardized questionnaires measuring social…

  19. The Impact of Household Possessions on Youth's Academic Achievement in the Ghana YouthSave Experiment: A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Gina A. N.; Masa, Rainier D.; Wretman, Christopher J.; Ansong, David

    2013-01-01

    Household assets as part of youth's family background have been found to have a significant impact on youth's academic achievement. In this study, the impact of household possessions on youth's academic achievement in the Ghana YouthSave experiment is investigated. Findings support the hypothesized positive direction of the impact of household…

  20. Risk for Coerced Sex Among Female Youth in Ghana: Roles of Family Context, School Enrollment And Relationship Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Reed, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context A better understanding is needed of the variables that may influence the risk of experiencing coerced sex among adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Data were collected from 700 female respondents who were interviewed in 2010 and 2012 waves of a longitudinal study of behavioral risk for HIV infection among youth aged 13–14 or 18–19 and living in two towns in southeastern Ghana. A series of logistic regression models examined the influences of household composition and wealth, four family process variables (behavioral control, relationship quality, financial support, conflict), school enrollment and relationship experience on females' risk of experiencing coerced sex. Results Eighteen percent of respondents reported having experienced coerced sex prior to Wave 1, and 13% experienced it between Waves 1 and 2. In both cross-sectional and prospective models, the variable with the strongest association with having experienced coerced sex was having ever had a boyfriend (fully adjusted odds ratios, 4.5 and 2.6, respectively). In cross-sectional analyses, parental behavioral control was negatively associated with risk for coerced sex, while parental conflict was positively associated; these associations were not significant in the prospective analyses. Having a boyfriend appears to be the primary predictor of coerced sex among young females, beyond any influence of family, school or other household variables. Conclusions More research is needed to understand the context of females' relationships with boyfriends in an effort to reduce the risk of sexual coercion and to promote the prevention of sexual violence perpetrated by males within these relationships. PMID:25565346