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Sample records for ghats mobile belt

  1. Magnetic Surveys in parts of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt,India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siribyina, B.

    2009-12-01

    Regional magnetic surveys were conducted in three different areas of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) comprising coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. Out of these three areas, area I is about 15,000 sq.km belongs to NE coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India and is bounded by latitudes 17030’-18045’N and longitudes 82030’ - 84030’E. Area II covers EGMB in the northern half and a part of the petroliferous Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin in the southern half measuring 8000 sq.km and bounded by latitudes 16030’-17030’N and longitudes 81045’- 82045’E. Area III covers parts of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt and south west Krishna basin occupying an area of 5800 sq.km lying between 150-160N latitudes and 79045’-80045’E longitudes. Interpretation of magnetic anomalies obtained in the above three areas revealed that the basement is mainly Charnockitic in nature in all the three areas. The hypothesis of Narayana Swamy (1975) that the Khondalitic rocks of the EGMB are underlain by the Charnockitic basement was proved for the area I. The investigation in area II clearly established that the Charnocktic rocks extend into the KG basin also, and is probably involved in faulting and folding simultaneously with the Khondalitic group of rocks during different stages of EGMB tectonics as well as sedimentation in the KG basin. The study in area III, shows that the Charnockites extend south of Ongole also, and attributes the seismicity of the region to the faulted Charnockitic basement. The inferred basement was faulted and folded due the tectonic activity that had shaped the east coast of India, EGMB. The continued seismic activity in the Ongole region can therefore be clearly related to adjustments of various faulted basement blocks and reactivation of some of the faults within the Krishna trough. Similar low-magnitude earthquake activity reported around Vizianagaram in the northern part of the EGMB, was also traced to the adjustments of faulted Charnockitic basement

  2. Geology and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Eastern Ghat mobile belt and its comparison with the lower crust of the Southern Peninsular shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. V. Subba

    1988-01-01

    Two prominent rock suites constitute the lithology of the Eastern Ghat mobile belt: (1) the khondalite suite - the metapelites, and (2) the charnockite suite. Later intrusives include ultramafic sequences, anorthosites and granitic gneisses. The chief structural element in the rocks of the Eastern Ghats is a planar fabric (gneissosity), defined by the alignment of platy minerals like flattened quartz, garnet, sillimanite, graphite, etc. The parallelism between the foliation and the lithological layering is related to isoclinal folding. The major structural trend (axial plane foliation trend) observed in the belt is NE-SW. Five major tectonic events have been delineated in the belt. A boundary fault along the western margin of the Eastern Ghats, bordering the low grade terrain has been substantiated by recent gravity and the deep seismic sounding studies. Field evidence shows that the pyroxene granulites (basic granulites) post-date the khondalite suite, but are older than the charnockites as well as the granitic gneisses. Polyphase metamorphism, probably correlatable with different periods of deformation is recorded. The field relations in the Eastern Ghats point to the intense deformation of the terrain, apparently both before, during and after metamorphism.

  3. The evolution and significance of microfracturing within feldspars in low-grade granitic mylonites: A case study from the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Suspa; Alsop, G. Ian; Biswal, T. K.

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of microfracturing are investigated in plagioclase and K-feldspar porphyroclasts formed within granitic mylonites along the boundary of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, India. The mineral assemblage comprising quartz, feldspar, biotite and hornblende suggests lower greenschist facies conditions during mylonitisation, with the contrasting ductile behaviour of quartz and brittle fracturing of feldspars restricting the temperature range during deformation to 300-350 °C. Microfracturing of feldspars takes place by concentration of pure shear within the feldspar-rich layers. This may reflect strain partitioning into dominantly pure and simple shear due to the competency contrasts between the two major constituent minerals (quartz and feldspar). The microfractures occur in conjugates (here designated T 1 and T 2) with T 1 inclined in the same direction as the S-fabric and showing an antithetic sense to the NW verging shear, while T 2 is inclined in an opposite sense to the S-fabric and displays synthetic shear. The direction of maximum compression occurs at high angles to the C-fabric, and the T 1 and T 2 fractures are the result of pure shear localized into brittle layers within the mylonite. With progressive shear, the fractures along with their host feldspar grains are rotated. Theoretical graphs are plotted between bulk shear ( γ) and the angle of initiation ( α) of T 1 and T 2 with respect to C-planes, for fractures hosted in a circular or elliptical objects. The kinematics of these fractures are also analyzed with regard to variations in shear strain and sense of shear along them. The sense of shear may vary or remain stable within fractures, depending on their initial angle of inclination with respect to the C-fabric. As T 1 is inclined at low angles to the XY plane and in the same direction as the S-fabric, it undergoes maximum shear strain compared to T 2 and may even exceed the bulk shear. This facilitates breakdown of feldspar porphyroclasts during

  4. Mafic granulite xenoliths in the Chilka Lake suite, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: evidence of deep-subduction of residual oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Saw, A. K.; Das, P.; Chatterjee, D.

    2012-11-01

    Granulite xenoliths preserve key geochemical and isotopic signatures of their mantle source regions. Mafic granulite and pyroxinite xenoliths within massif-type charnockitic rocks from the Eastern Ghats Belt have recently been reported by us. The mafic granulite xenoliths from the Chilka Lake granulite suite with abundant prograde biotite are geochemically akin to Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB). They can be distinguished from the hornblende-mafic granulite xenoliths with signatures of Arc-derived basalt occurring in the other suites of the Eastern Ghats Belt. These two groups of xenoliths in the Paleoproterozoic Eastern Ghats Province have quite distinct Nd-model ages- 1.9 Ga and 2.5 Ga respectively, which may be interpreted as their crustal residence ages. Strong positive Nb anomalies, indicating subducted oceanic crust in the source, LREE enrichment and strongly fractionated REE pattern are key geochemical signatures attesting to their origin as OIB-type magma. Also low Yb and Sc contents and high (La / Yb)N ratios can be attributed to melting in the presence of residual garnet and hence at great depths (> 80 km). The variable enrichment in radiogenic 87Sr, between 0.70052 and 0.71092 at 1.9 Ga and less radiogenic 143Nd between ɛ-1.54 and 7.46 are similar to those of the OIBs compared to MORBs. As OIBs commonly contain some recycled oceanic crust in their sources, we suggest that the residue of the oceanic crust from a previous melting event (~ 2.5 Ga) that produced the Arc-derived basalts (protoliths of hornblende-mafic granulite xenoliths) could have subducted to great depths and mechanically mixed with the mantle peridotite. A subsequent re-melting event of this mixed source might have occurred at ca. 1.9 Ga as testified by the crustal residence ages of the biotite-mafic granulite xenoliths of the Chilka Lake granulite suite.

  5. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    PubMed

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-01

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

  6. Origin of Leucogranite at the Archean-Proterozoic Boundary: SHRIMP U-Pb Evidence from the Eastern Ghats Belt, SE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopparapu, V.; Ernst, W. G.; Chervela, L.; Wooden, J. L.; Grove, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Leucogranite is an important marker for the Wilson cycle-type plate tectonics. Extensional collapse during final continental-continental suturing is manifested by the intrusion of batholithic masses of such plutons as indicated by the distribution of leucogranites all along the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain chain. Geochemical and experimental data suggest that the Phanerozoic Alpine-Himalayan leucogranites were derived by the melting of meta-sedimentary sources. In the course of geochemical and geochronological mapping of the Eastern Ghats Belt, we conducted SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircon from two cospatial granitic bodies at Guramkonda and Vendodu within the Nellore Schist Belt. The Guramkonda body is a Ba- and Sr-rich hornblende-bearing calc-alkaline granite, and the Vendodu body is a Rb, Zr, Pb, Th, U and REE-rich biotite-muscovite-bearing leucogranite. Cathodoluminescence images record two distinctly textured zircons in both the granites: the calc-alkaline granite contains a zircon population with well-developed zoning and another population without zoning and random distribution of dark (U-rich) and light (U-poor) regions; leucogranite contains U-rich zoned zircons and U-poor zircon cores rimmed by U-rich rims. The REE chemistry of the zircon cores from the leucogranite is very similar to the REE of zoned magmatic zircons from the calc-alkaline granite. Zircon ages from both calc-alkaline granite and leucogranite exhibit bimodal distributions in the U-Pb Concordia diagram. The calc-alkaline granite defines an age of 2521±5 Ma for the zoned magmatic zircons and 2485±5 Ma for unzoned metamorphic zircons, whereas the leucogranite defines an age of 2518±5 Ma for the U-poor cores (relics of the calc-alkaline pluton) and 2483±3 Ma for U-rich zoned magmatic zircons. In summary, the magmatic age of calc-alkaline granite is same as the age defined by leucogranite zircon cores and timing of metamorphism and partial melting of the calc-alkaline granite is the timing of

  7. Formation and evolution of a Proterozoic magmatic arc: geochemical and geochronological constraints from meta-igneous rocks of the Ongole domain, Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tapabrato; Schenk, Volker; Berndt, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical data and U-Pb zircon results are presented for the intrusive meta-igneous rocks of the Ongole domain, a granulite-facies terrain of the Eastern Ghats Belt in India, with the aim of inferring the tectonic setting and the timing of their formation. Geochemical data suggest that the intrusive meta-igneous rocks (mafic granulites and charnoenderbites) possess trace and rare earth element composition that are typical of magmatic arcs. They are subalkaline, enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements and depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements like Nb, Ta and Ti. These characteristics indicate that the primary magmas of these rocks were derived by partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge that had been metasomatized by a slab component. Zircon grains collected from five charnoenderbites are large and euhedral to subhedral and display fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning in CL images, implying a magmatic origin. The grains frequently show narrow-to-broad unzoned overgrowths, implying a metamorphic origin. The oscillatory-zoned cores yield Paleoproterozoic concordia ages of ca. 1,750-1,710 Ma, interpreted as the time of magma emplacement. The unzoned overgrowths yield very late Paleoproterozoic ages of ca. 1,630-1,600 Ma, interpreted as the timing of metamorphism. An enderbite showing both magmatic and metamorphic concordia ages of ca. 1,605 Ma points to the existence of syn-metamorphic intrusions. Together, the presented geochemical and geochronological evidence suggests that the Ongole domain was a magmatic arc near the Indian continent during the Paleoproterozoic. Subsequently, the rocks were metamorphosed during the late Paleoproterozoic, and the terrain was accreted to the Indian craton during the early Mesoproterozoic. The formation and growth of the Ongole domain magmatic arc through subduction-related accretion can be correlated with the growth of Columbia (1.8-1.2 Ga), but its accretion to the

  8. Structure of the Irian Jaya Mobile BElt, Irian Jaya, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, C. R.; Artmont, G.; Gillan, M. L.; Lennie, D.; O'Connor, G.; Parris, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Image interpretation and field investigation over the Central Ranges of Irian Jaya has provided a structural overview of the inaccessible and largely unmapped Irian Jaya Mobile Belt (IJMB) in the region bounded by longitudes 136°30'E and 141°00'E. Throughout much of the southern (para-autochthonous) part of the belt, structural facing directions are visible on imagery through selective illumination of hogbacks and cuestas formed on thick-bedded Mesozoic siliciclastics and extensive Late Cretaceous-Neogene platform carbonate sequences. North of the regional Derewo Fault Zone, the Derewo Metamorphics are regarded in part as correlatives of the "metamorphosed Om Beds" in western Papua New Guinea and display a regional structural grain parallel to the orogen. The limited extent of spectrally anomalous features associated with ultramafic rocks indicate that ophiolites are confined to the southern part of the "Irian Jaya Ophiolite Belt", which may be largely composed of metamorphic rocks. Interpreted macroscopic and megascopic structures suggest the presence of seven discrete structural domains in the IJMB. From north to south these are (1) North Coast Basin region, consisting of Paleogene-Neogene volcanics and sediments overlain by a Pliocene-Pleistocene successor basin sequence; (2) an allochthonous terrane composed of ophiolites and high-grade metamorphic rocks; (3) the Derewo metamorphic assemblage, displaying polyphase deformation; (4) a complex marginal zone within Mesozoic-Paleogene miogeoclinal sediments which includes steep duplex structures and remnant klippen; (5) a 40 to 50-km-wide partly inverted synclinorium composed of miogeoclinal sediments; (6) a regional south vergent overturned anticlinorium formed by incompetent Paleozoic sediments; and (7) a foreland thrust domain involving both Mesozoic-Cenozoic miogeoclinal cover and a deformed Neogene foreland molasse basin sequence. The regional disposition of interpreted structures in the Irian Jaya Mobile

  9. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  10. Electronic bracelet and vision-enabled waist-belt for mobility of visually impaired people.

    PubMed

    Bhatlawande, Shripad; Sunkari, Amar; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta; Biswas, Mukul; Das, Debabrata; Gupta, Somedeb

    2014-01-01

    A wearable assistive system is proposed to improve mobility of visually impaired people (subjects). This system has been implemented in the shape of a bracelet and waist-belt in order to increase its wearable convenience and cosmetic acceptability. A camera and an ultrasonic sensor are attached to a customized waist-belt and bracelet, respectively. The proposed modular system will act as a complementary aid along with a white cane. Its vision-enabled waist-belt module detects the path and distribution of obstacles on the path. This module conveys the required information to a subject via a mono earphone by activating relevant spoken messages. The electronic bracelet module assists the subject to verify this information and to perceive distance of obstacles along with their locations. The proposed complementary system provides an improved understanding of the surrounding environment with less cognitive and perceptual efforts as compared to a white cane alone. This system was subjected to clinical evaluations with 15 totally blind subjects. Results of usability experiments demonstrated effectiveness of the system as a mobility aid. Amongst the participated subjects, 93.33% expressed satisfaction with the information content of this system, 86.66% subjects comprehended its operational convenience, and 80% appreciated the comfort of the system. PMID:25771603

  11. The NavBelt--a computerized travel aid for the blind based on mobile robotics technology.

    PubMed

    Shoval, S; Borenstein, J; Koren, Y

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents a new concept for a travel aid for the blind. A prototype device, called the NavBelt, was developed to test this concept. The device can be used as a primary or secondary aid, and consists of a portable computer, ultrasonic sensors, and stereophonic headphones. The computer applies navigation and obstacle avoidance technologies that were developed originally for mobile robots. The computer then uses a stereophonic imaging technique to process the signals from the ultrasonic sensors and relays their information to the user via stereophonic headphones. The user can interpret the information as an acoustic "picture" of the surroundings, or, depending on the operational mode, as the recommended travel direction. The acoustic signals are transmitted as discrete beeps or continuous sounds. Experimental results with the NavBelt simulator and a portable prototype show that users can travel safely in an unfamiliar and cluttered environment at speeds of up to 0.8 m/s. PMID:9805836

  12. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

    2010-05-01

    The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA

  13. Comparison of the passive dynamics of walking on ground, tied-belt and split-belt treadmills, and via the Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe (GEMS).

    PubMed

    Handzić, Ismet; Reed, Kyle B

    2013-06-01

    This research compares walking over ground, on a split-belt treadmill, on a tied-belt treadmill, and on the Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe (GEMS) in both humans and simulated on a passive dynamic model. Passive Dynamic Walkers (PDW) have been researched for decades, yet only recently has the model been used significantly in gait rehabilitation. We aim to identify how well the two-dimensional PDW can be used as a kinematic approximation tool for gait analysis. In this work, the PDW was scaled according to an anthropomorphic human model. For comparison, measurements were taken of humans walking in the same four environments. For normal walking, the PDW was found to be a good approximation for symmetric and rhythmic hip position, foot position, and velocity profiles. Tied-belt and split-belt treadmill model estimations revealed that the PDW's lack of dorsiflexion, joint stiffness, and joint damping limited the comparison, however trends between the human and the model agreed. The kinematics of the GEMS showed good agreement in interlimb interactions indicating that the PDW can be used as a good kinematic predictor for the GEMS. PMID:24187324

  14. Modeling the Philippine Mobile Belt: Tectonic blocks in a deforming plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; Hamburger, M. W.; McCaffrey, R.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Aurelio, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Philippine Mobile Belt, a seismically active, rapidly deforming plate boundary zone situated along the convergent Philippine Sea/Eurasian plate boundary, is examined using geodetic and seismological data. Oblique convergence between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian plate is accommodated by nearly orthogonal subduction along the Philippine Trench and the Manila Trench, as well as by strike-slip faulting along the Philippine Fault system. We develop a model of active plate boundary deformation in this region, using elastic block models constrained by known fault geometries, published GPS observations and focal mechanism solutions. We then present an estimate of block rotations, fault coupling, and intra-block deformation, based on the best-fit model that minimizes the misfit between observed and predicted geodetic vectors and earthquake slip vectors. Slip rates along the Philippine fault vary from ~22 - 36 mm/yr in the Central Visayas and about 10 to 40 mm/yr in Luzon, trending almost parallel to the fault trace. In northern Luzon, Philippine Fault splays accommodate transpressional strain. The Central Visayas block experiences convergence with the Sundaland block along the Negros Trench and the Mindoro-Palawan collision zone. On the eastern side of Central Visayas, sinistral strike-slip faulting occurs along the NNW-SSE-trending Philippine Fault. Mindanao Island in southern Philippines is dominated by east-verging subduction along the Cotabato Trench, and strain partitioning (strike- slip faulting with west-verging subduction) in eastern Mindanao along the southern Philippine Fault and Philippine Trench, respectively. Oblique active sinistral strike slip faults in Central and Eastern Mindanao that were hypothesized to be responsible for basin formation are obvious boundaries for tectonic blocks. Located south of Mindanao Island we define an adjoining oceanic block defined by the N-S trending complex dual subduction zone of Sangihe and Halmahera

  15. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  16. Rare earth element geochemistry of an anorthosite-diorite suite, Namaqua mobile belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, J. A.; Schoch, A. E.

    1988-03-01

    A swarm of small dyke-like plutons, ranging in composition from anorthosite through diorite and norite, to hypersthenite and glimmerite, occurs in the western part of the Namaqua mobile belt, South Africa. Known as the Koperberg Suite, these rocks host important magmatic sulphide deposits. Zircon ages of approximately 1100 Ma suggest that the suite was emplaced after the peak of the regional high-grade metamorphism, dated at 1200 Ma. A postulated comagmatic origin for the various rock types is confirmed by the REE distributions of anorthosite, leucodiorite, diorite, hypersthenite and glimmerite. The Koperberg Suite resembles the well-known massif anorthosite complexes, typified by the Adirondack Suite, in most properties except for the dispersed mode of occurrence. It is now shown that the similarity also holds for the REE spectra. Thus, the predominant anorthosite and leucodiorite of the Koperberg Suite are comparable to similar rocks of the Adirondacks and the Burwash area, Ontario, albeit more enriched in LREE. More mafic rock types such as norite, mica-diorite and glimmerite are substantially enriched in LREE compared to mafic differentiates of massif anorthosites. Apatite is abundant in the mafic rocks and stores large proportions of the lanthanides. The occurrence of apatite- and mica-rich assemblages indicates source magmas enriched in K, REE and P. A few intrusives exhibit excessively enriched REE patterns which are attributed to late hydrothermal alteration or metasomatism. The REE data for syenite and two-pyroxene assemblages from the Copper District argue against a genetic relationship to the Koperberg Suite in spite of close spatial association.

  17. The provenance of sub-cratonic mantle beneath the Limpopo Mobile Belt (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Quinten H. A.; Klaver, Martijn; Waight, Tod E.; Davies, Gareth R.

    2013-06-01

    Petrological, whole rock major element and mineral chemical analysis of mantle xenoliths from the Venetia kimberlite pipes (533 Ma) in South Africa reveals an apparently stratified cratonic mantle beneath the Central Zone of the Limpopo Mobile Belt (LMB) that separates the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. Combined pressure-temperature (P-T) data and petrographic observations indicate that the mantle consists of an upper layer of Low-T coarse-equant garnet + spinel lherzolite (~ 50 to ~ 130 km depth). This layer is underlain by a region of mixed garnet harzburgites and garnet lherzolites that are variably deformed (~ 130 to ~ 235 km depth). An equilibrated geotherm did not exist at the time of kimberlite eruption (533 Ma) and a localised heating event involving the introduction of asthenospheric material to the High-T lithosphere below 130 km is inferred. Low-T garnet-spinel lherzolites are highly melt depleted (40% on average). In contrast, the High-T lithosphere (mostly at diamond stable conditions) consists of a mixed zone of variably sheared and melt depleted (30% on average) garnet harzburgite and mildly melt depleted (20% on average) garnet lherzolite. The chemistry of the High-T xenoliths contrasts with that of minerals included in diamond originating from the same depth. Inclusions suggest diamond crystallisation in a more melt depleted lithosphere than represented by either Low- or High-T xenoliths. High-T xenoliths are proposed to represent formerly melt depleted lithosphere, refertilised by asthenosphere-derived melts during the diapiric rise of a proto-kimberlitic melt pocket. This process is coupled to the positive temperature perturbation observed in the High-T xenoliths and may represent a common process in the lower lithosphere related to localised but intense tectono-magmatic events immediately preceding kimberlite eruption. The presence of clinopyroxene, garnet and abundant orthopyroxene in the Low-T lherzolite implies a history of melt depletion

  18. The Presence of a Stable Block bounded by Active Zones (Mobile Belts) in the southwestern North American Proterozoic craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodell, P.; Martinez P, C.; Mahar, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Bouguer gravity data, initial Sr isotope values, zircon U-Pb, and multiple occurrences of felsic Proterozoic rocks, have revealed an elevated, less deformed, felsic cratonic block in the northern Mexico. The block is situated in western Chihuahua and is bounded by active zones or mobile belts on three sides, and is here referred to as the Western Chihuahua Cratonic Block (WCCB). Bouguer gravity data clearly indicate a region of a highly negative anomaly (< -200 mgal) in contrast to adjoining areas. The region is large and the anomaly is relatively smooth over broad areas; the WCCB appears as a smaller version of the Colorado Plateau. The block is characterized by high initial Sr isotope ratios (<0.706). Several occurrences of Proterozoic rocks are located within or next to the WCCB, and they reveal the character of the Bouguer anomaly. On the east, at Los Filtros, Proterozoic rocks crop out in a basement cored uplift interpreted to having been derived from the WCCB during the Ouachita orogeny. At Sierra La Mojina boulders of 1.1 Ga granites are found in Permian conglomerates. And at Basasiachic, xenoliths of 1.1 Ga granites are present in ash flow tuffs. Establishment of the Precambrian character of the WCCB is of importance, and these multiple occurrences are evidence. Prior studies of the Sierra Madre Occidental suggest that the region was uplifted because of a vast Cenozoic batholith presumed to lie under the SLIP (Silicic Large Igneous Province), the Upper Volcanic Series. The present study challenges that conclusion and maintains the SMO is underlain by Proterozoic silicic crust. The geology of age dated samples supports this. The WCCB is surrounded on three sides by Active Zones or Mobile Belts, which have been active extensional and translational zones periodically over a long period of time. On the east are the Paleozoic Pedrogosa Basin, Mesozoic Chihuahua Trough and Cenozoic Rio Grande Rift, the first two of which also continue around the northern border

  19. Regional fluid and metal mobility in the Dalradian metamorphic belt, Southern Grampian Highlands, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, D.

    1990-10-01

    A prominent set of veins was formed during post-metamorphic deformation of the Caledonian Dalradian metamorphic belt. These veins are concentrated in dilational zones in fold hinges, but apophyses follow schistosity and fold axial surface fractures. The veins are most common in the cores of regional structures, especially the Dalradian Downbend and consist of quartz, calcite, chlorite and metallic sulphides and oxides. Metals, including gold, have been concentrated in the veins. The fluid which formed the veins was low salinity (1 5 wt% NaCl and KCl) CO2-bearing (3 16 wt% CO2) water of metamorphic origin. The fluid varies slightly in composition within and between samples, but is essentially uniform in composition over several hundred km2. Vein formation occurred at about 350±50 °C and 200 300 MPa pressure. Further quartz mineralization occurred in some dilational zones at lower temperatures (160 180 °C). This later mineralization was accompanied by CO2 immiscibility. Dilution and oxidation of the metamorphic fluid occurred due to mixing with meteoric water as the rocks passed through the brittle-ductile transition. A similar metamorphic fluid is thought to have been responsible for gold mineralization in the nearby Tyndrum Fault at a later stage in the Dalradian uplift.

  20. Strong weakening of the lithospheric layer as a prerequisite for the formation of mobile belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Over most of continental areas the lithospheric layer has a high strength which allows it to drift for thousands of kilometres without significant horizontal deformations. At certain epochs rapid shortening or stretching of the lithosphere, however, occurred in some regions which indicates its temporary weakening. An important parameter characterising lithospheric strength is its effective elastic thickness Te estimated from the width L of lithospheric flexure under surface or sub-surface loads (Burov, Diament, JGR, 1995, 100, 3905-3927). A strong decrease in L is observed near to some convergent plate boundaries. This indicate lithospheric weakening which is commonly attributed to plate boundary processes. However, steep basement slopes of the crystalline basement, 10-50 km wide and 3-10 high, also exist in many intraplate basins which indicates a decrease in Te to 3-10 km. Such slopes are observed in the North Chukchi, Kara Sea, North Caspian and South Caspian basins, in the Transcaspian area and in many other regions. The slopes were formed at the epochs of strong acceleration of crustal subsidence which in many basins occurred without intense stretching and produced deep-water basins on continental shelves. In the absence of large isostatic anomalies above deep basins this indicates that rapid subsidence was caused by contraction of crustal rocks from metamorphism catalyzed by infiltration of mantle fluids. In a presence of thin films of fluids at the grain boundaries, pressure solution creep reduces drastically the viscosity of the lithospheric layer. After lithospheric weakening, long basins can be intensely shortened or stretched with the formation of fold belts and rifted terrains. Thus in the Alpine and Uralian belts strong shortening occurred only in those basins on continental crust which underwent rapid subsidence of a large magnitude.Intense crustal subsidence in Baikal Basin was accompanied by the formation of both steep basement slopes and large

  1. Structural analysis of the Itapucumí Group in the Vallemí region, northern Paraguay: Evidence of a new Brasiliano/Pan-African mobile belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanha, Ginaldo Ademar da Cruz; Warren, Lucas; Boggiani, Paulo César; Grohmann, Carlos Henrique; Cáceres, Alberto Arias

    The Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) Itapucumí Group in northern Paraguay is composed of carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, including ooid grainstones, marls, shales and sandstones, containing Cloudina fossils in the eastern region. It is almost undeformed over the Rio Apa Cratonic Block but shows a strong deformational pattern at its western edge. A detailed structural analysis of the Itapucumí Group was conducted in the Vallemí Mine, along with a regional survey in other outcrops downstream in the Paraguay River and in the San Alfredo, Cerro Paiva and Sargento José E. López regions. In the main Vallemí quarry, the structural style is characterized by an axial-plane slaty cleavage in open to isoclinal folds, sometimes overturned, associated with N-S trending thrust faults and shear zones of E-vergence and with a low-grade chlorite zone metamorphism. The structural data presented here are compatible with the hypothesis of a newly recognized mobile belt on the western side of the Rio Apa Cratonic Block, with opposite vergence to that of the Paraguay Mobile Belt in Brazil. Both belts are related to the Late Brasiliano/Pan-African tectonic cycle with a Lower Cambrian deformation and metamorphism age. The deformation could be due to the late collision of the Amazonian Craton with the remainder of Western Gondwana or to the western active plate boundary related to the Pampean Belt. The structural and lithologic differences between the western Itapucumí Group in the Vallemí and Paraguay River region and the eastern region, near San Alfredo and Cerro Paiva, suggest that this group could be divided into two lithostratigraphic units, but more stratigraphic and geochronological analyses are required to confirm this possibility.

  2. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seung Je; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-01-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  3. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint.

    PubMed

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-08-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  4. Comment on: `High-temperature dehydration melting and decompressive P-T path in a granulite complex from the Eastern Ghats India' by S. Bhattacharya and R. Kar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, P.; Raith, M. M.; Dasgupta, S.

    Thermodynamic and chemographic modelling of complex reaction textures observed in Mg-Al-rich pelitic granulites is an important tool to unravel the P-T evolutionary history of high-grade rocks. In the Eastern Ghats Belt, India, several studies have been carried out on these fascinating aluminous granulites, and the results of these studies have revealed complex P-T-t histories (Dasgupta and Sengupta 1995; Sengupta et al. 1999; Rickers et al. 2001a, 2001b; Gupta et al. 1999; Dobmeier and Simmat 2002; Dobmeier and Raith 2003). In recent communication, Bhattacharya and Kar (2002) reported reaction textures from a suite of Mg-Al granulites from the Paderu area of the Eastern Ghats Belt. Combining the textural relations and thermodynamic calibration of some construed reactions, the authors have put forward a single phase metamorphic evolution of the area along a `clockwise' pressure-temperature trajectory. Combining the petrological features from the Paderu area with those reported from the Chilka Lake complex, the authors proposed a general tectonic model for the entire Eastern Ghats Belt. Incidentally, the rocks in and around Paderu have been studied in some detail by several other workers (Lal et al. 1987; Mohan et al. 1997; Sengupta et al. 1997). The purpose of this comment is to demonstrate that the conclusions made in the paper are inconsistent with the petrological features described in the text. Further, the thermodynamic treatment used in the paper has serious errors in many places, and hence, is often in complete disagreement with the existing experimental data and theoretical analyses on the Mg-Al-rich assemblages. There are also significant problems arising from the poor quality of the analytical database. Unfortunately, the authors cite only a few published works (mostly their own) ignoring many other relevant studies from this belt (cited above). Our observations are organised according to the sections of the paper.

  5. POTENTIAL HYDROCARBON PRODUCING SPECIES OF WESTERN GHATS, TAMIL, NADU, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has lead to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon productio...

  6. Field and Microstructure Study of Transpressive Jogdadi shear zone near Ambaji, Aravalli- Delhi Mobile Belt, NW India and its tectonic implication on the exhumation of granulites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sudheer Kumar; Biswal, Tapas Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Aravalli- Delhi mobile belt is situated in the northwestern part of Indian shield. It comprises tectono- magmatic histories from Archean to Neoproterozoic age. It possesses three tectono- magmatic metamorphic belts namely Bhilwara Supergroup (3000 Ma), Aravalli Supergorup (1800 Ma) and Delhi Supergroup (1100 -750Ma). The Delhi Supergroup is divided in two parts North Delhi and South Delhi; North Delhi (1100 Ma to 850 Ma) is older than South Delhi (850 Ma to 750 Ma). The study area falls in the South Delhi terrane; BKSK granulites are the major unit in this terrane. BKSK granulites comprise gabbro- norite-basic granulite, pelitic granulite, calcareous granulite and occur within the surrounding of low grade rocks as meta- rhyolite, quartzite, mica schist and amphibolites. The high grade and low grade terranes share a sheared margin. Granulites have undergone three phases of folding, intruded by three phases of granites and traversed by many shear zones. One of the shear zones is Jogdadi shear zone which consists of granitic mylonites and other sheared rocks. Jogdadi shear zone carries the evidence of both ductile as well as brittle shearing. It strikes NW- SE; the mylonitic foliation dip moderately to SW or NE and stretching lineations are oblique towards SE. The shear zone is folded and gabbro- norite - basic granulite occurs at the core. One limb of fold passes over coarse grained granite while other limb occurs over gabbro- norite- basic granulite. Presence of mylonitic foliation, asymmetric folding, S-C fabrics, porphyroclasts, mica fishes and book shelf- gliding are indicative of ductile deformation. Most of the porphyroclasts are sigmoidal and delta types but there are also some theta and phi type porphyroclasts. Book shelf-gliding structures are at low angle to the C plane. The shear zone successively shows protomylonite, mylonite and ultramylonites from margin to the centre. As the mylonitization increases recrystallized quartz grains appear. Porphyroclasts

  7. Variability of orographic cloudiness over the Western Ghats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, U. S.; Ray, D. K.; Manoharan, V.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (TMCF) ecosystems are characterized by frequent and prolonged immersion in orographic clouds. Topographical gradients and associated microclimatic variation leads to ecological niche differentiation and existence of unique species in such ecosystems. However, this also leads to TMCFs being sensitive to climate perturbations, especially those that alter orographic cloud formation. In this context, it is important to understand the variability of orographic cloudiness associated with TMCFs. Results from such an analysis conducted for Western Ghats, southwestern India is discussed. Note that this region is one of the 34 primary global biodiversity hotspots whose spatial extent has been considerably reduced due to land use pressure. Using remote sensing data from multiple satellites, cloud climatology is developed for Western Ghats and the following questions are addressed: (1) What are the diurnal and seasonal variations of orographic clouds?; (2) How does orographic cloud cover change as a function of large scale flow regimes?; (3) Where are TMCFs located and what is the variability of cloud immersion within these areas?. In addition, numerical simulation analysis will be used to address the impact of land cover and land use change on orographic cloud cover and precipitation over Western Ghats.

  8. Asian strain of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is widespread in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Molur, Sanjay; Krutha, Keerthi; Paingankar, Mandar S; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-01-15

    We investigated the distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) fungal infections in amphibians of the Western Ghats mountain range in India, based on data from 497 samples. Eight individuals were positive, with genomic equivalents ranging from 2 to 785 zoospores. A single widespread Bd strain identical to the haplotype endemic to Asia was isolated. Our findings suggest that chytridiomycosis is widespread among the endemic and threatened amphibians of the entire stretch of the Western Ghats. An ecological niche-based prediction model based on all Bd-positive reports from the Western Ghats to date suggested a higher probability of infection in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka and northern Kerala states, which host a rich diversity of endemic and threatened amphibians. PMID:25590776

  9. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  10. Granitoids of the Olekma Complex in the Selenga-Stanovoi superterrane of the central Asian mobile belt: Age and tectonic position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Sal'nikova, E. B.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Plotkina, Yu. V.

    2015-09-01

    Granitoid massifs of the Olekma Complex form a large synonymous magmatic belt, which is located in the southern part of the Selenga-Stanovoi superterrane and is traceable in the northeasterly direction for over 700 km. According to U-Pb geochronological data, they are 358 ± 2 Ma old. The geochemical data indicate their collisional nature. The massifs were most likely formed during collision between the Selenga-Stanovoi superterrane and structures of the Baikal mountainous system and its terminal formation stage as a single structural block.

  11. Belt attachment and system

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  12. A new record of Potamanthellus caenoides Ulmer 1939 (Ephemeroptera: Neoephemereidae) from the southern Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, C.; Sivaramakrishnan, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background As part of ongoing exploration of the mayflies of hill streams of the southern Western Ghats of India, we establish a new record of mayfly. New information Potamanthellus caenoides Ulmer 1939 is newly recorded based on larval collection from the upstream of Silent Valley National Park of the southern Western Ghats. Brief ecological notes are appended. PMID:25977612

  13. A novel third species of the Western Ghats endemic genus Ghatixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of its tadpole.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Robin Kurian; Mathew, Jobin K; Cyriac, Vivek Philip; Zachariah, Arun; Raju, David V; Zachariah, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot is a recognized center of rhacophorid diversity as demonstrated by several recent studies. The endemic genus Ghatixalus is represented by two species from two separate high-elevation regions within the Ghats. Here, we describe a third species that can be distinguished by morphological and larval characters, as well as by its phylogenetic placement. PMID:26624739

  14. Endemic Asian chytrid strain infection in threatened and endemic anurans of the Northern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Krutha, Keerthi; Paingankar, Mandar S; Padhye, Anand D; Modak, Nikhil; Molur, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The Western Ghats of India harbors a rich diversity of amphibians with more than 77% species endemic to this region. At least 42% of the endemic species are threatened due to several anthropogenic stressors. However, information on amphibian diseases and their impacts on amphibian populations in this region are scarce. We report the occurrence of Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis (Bd), an epidermal aquatic fungal pathogen that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, from the Western Ghats. In the current study we detected the occurrence of a native Asian Bd strain from three endemic and threatened species of anurans, Bombay Night Frog Nyctibatrachus humayuni, Leith's Leaping Frog Indirana leithii and Bombay Bubble Nest Frog Raorchestes bombayensis, for the first time from the northern Western Ghats of India based on diagnostic nested PCR, quantitative PCR, DNA sequencing and histopathology. While, the Bd infected I. leithii and R. bombayensis did not show any external symptoms, N. humayuni showed lesions on the skin, browning of skin and sloughing. Sequencing of Bd 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, revealed that the current Bd strain is related to a haplotype endemic to Asia. Our findings confirm the presence of Bd in northern Western Ghats and the affected amphibians may or may not show detectable clinical symptoms. We suggest that the significance of diseases as potential threat to amphibian populations of the Western Ghats needs to be highlighted from the conservation point of view. PMID:24147018

  15. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals

    PubMed Central

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  16. Endemic Asian Chytrid Strain Infection in Threatened and Endemic Anurans of the Northern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Krutha, Keerthi; Paingankar, Mandar S.; Padhye, Anand D.; Modak, Nikhil; Molur, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The Western Ghats of India harbors a rich diversity of amphibians with more than 77% species endemic to this region. At least 42% of the endemic species are threatened due to several anthropogenic stressors. However, information on amphibian diseases and their impacts on amphibian populations in this region are scarce. We report the occurrence of Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis (Bd), an epidermal aquatic fungal pathogen that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, from the Western Ghats. In the current study we detected the occurrence of a native Asian Bd strain from three endemic and threatened species of anurans, Bombay Night Frog Nyctibatrachus humayuni, Leith's Leaping Frog Indirana leithii and Bombay Bubble Nest Frog Raorchestes bombayensis, for the first time from the northern Western Ghats of India based on diagnostic nested PCR, quantitative PCR, DNA sequencing and histopathology. While, the Bd infected I. leithii and R. bombayensis did not show any external symptoms, N. humayuni showed lesions on the skin, browning of skin and sloughing. Sequencing of Bd 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, revealed that the current Bd strain is related to a haplotype endemic to Asia. Our findings confirm the presence of Bd in northern Western Ghats and the affected amphibians may or may not show detectable clinical symptoms. We suggest that the significance of diseases as potential threat to amphibian populations of the Western Ghats needs to be highlighted from the conservation point of view. PMID:24147018

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    PubMed

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  18. Gamma sensitivity of forest plants of Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Akshatha; Chandrashekar, K R

    2014-06-01

    Seeds of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Garcinia xanthochymus Hook., Saraca asoca Roxb., Rourea minor Gaertn., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz., Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) bail., Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. and Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. were collected from different regions of Western Ghats and exposed to different doses of gamma radiation using Co-60 source. The effect of irradiation was examined on germination, growth and vigor parameters. Decrease in the germination and growth attributes with increased dose was observed in A. hirsutus, G. xanthochymus and S. asoca and thus indicating sensitivity of these plants to radiation. In contrast, enhancement in the germination (percentage), vigor and generation of leaves was observed for P. marsupium, T. chebula, H. integrifolia and O. indicum. These plants were classified as radiation tolerant because of the ability of their seedlings to successfully establish under radiation stress. R. minor and A. lindleyana were able to maintain viability up to 100 Gy dose, however, any further increase in the dose found to have negative effect. PMID:24631785

  19. Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) – a new species from the southern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Soumya; Nair, Maya C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new species Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) is here described from Pothumala of the Nelliampathy hill ranges of Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Morphologically it most closely resembles Sonerila erecta and Sonerila pulneyensis from which differs by the form of the stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, inflorescence, pubescence of the stem, leaves and hypanthium, and by the form of stamens and stigma. PMID:27212878

  20. Large branchiopod (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) egg morphology of Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Sameer; Timms, Brian; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-01-01

    The eggs of many large branchiopods have taxonomic value and are commonly used as traits in species and/or generic descriptions. In this paper we present detailed descriptions and SEMs of resting eggs of seven of the eight species of large branchiopods found in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. We highlight the inter- and intrapopulation egg morphological variation in Streptocephalus. PMID:27396003

  1. Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) - a new species from the southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Soumya; Nair, Maya C

    2016-01-01

    The new species Sonerila nairii (Melastomataceae) is here described from Pothumala of the Nelliampathy hill ranges of Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Morphologically it most closely resembles Sonerila erecta and Sonerila pulneyensis from which differs by the form of the stem, leaves, peduncle, pedicel, inflorescence, pubescence of the stem, leaves and hypanthium, and by the form of stamens and stigma. PMID:27212878

  2. Taiwanascus samuelsii sp. nov., an addition to Niessliaceae from the Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Taiwanascus, T. samuelsii, was collected from southern parts of Western Ghats on dead branches of Anacardium occidentale and is described. The new cleistothecial ascomycete is different from the type and only species in Taiwanascus, T. tetrasporus, in cleistothecial size, setae, and...

  3. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FROM PLANTS OF WESTERN GHATS (TAMIL NADU, INDIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in D...

  4. Phytochemicals of selected plant species of the Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energ...

  5. Landslide fatalities in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; Sankar, G.; Muraleedharan, C.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., EG, 2009) has compiled and presented the history and chorology of landslide prone areas of the region. An attempt to collect and compile a reliable fatal landslide inventory of the region resulted in a database of 63 landslides from 1961 to 2009. The data base was compiled from the news paper reports and research reports of the CESS and GSI. Most landslides were visited in and the locations were mapped using a handheld GPS. Date and fatality information was also collected. For twelve of the landslides accurate location information was not available and hence was plotted at the nearest known village centre. Three landslides did not have any location information but was recorded in the district gazetteer and hence included in the data base. A total of 257 valuable lives were lost in landslides. The landslide that caused the highest number of deaths was the Amboori landslide (Thiruvananthapuram) which occurred on 11 September 2001 that caused 39 fatalities. Idukki district experienced the largest number of fatal landslides during this period, 20 events resulting in 67 fatalities. Thiruvananthapuram district experienced the highest average number of fatalities per landslide (47 deaths from 5 events). The district wise statistics from north to south are, Kannur (6 from 5), Kasargodu (24 from 6), Wayanad (36 from 6), Kozhikode (44 from 10), Malappuram (9 from 3), Palakkad (3 from 3), Thrissur (2 from 1), Kottayam (5 from 3), and Pathanamthitta (14 from 3). It was noted that there exists a spatial trend in the occurrence of fatal landslides which follows the general monsoon rainfall trends and the population density. About 55% of the events occurred during the south west monsoon (June to September) season. It was also observed that there exists a strong upward trend in the number of fatal landslides. This upward trend can be directly

  6. Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.

    2009-02-01

    The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have

  7. To Belt or Not To Belt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) is in the midst of the first school-bus crash tests in more than 10 years. Its report is expected in June 2000, and those on both sides of the seat-belt debate are waiting to see what NHTSA will recommend on passenger restraints in large school buses. A sidebar lists sources…

  8. Uptake of some radionuclides by woody plants growing in the rainforest of Western Ghats in India.

    PubMed

    Manigandan, P K; Chandar Shekar, B

    2014-04-01

    Transfer of the naturally occurring radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K, and the fallout radionuclide (210)Po to different wild plant species in the rainforest of Western Ghats was analyzed. A number of physiologically different plants from the top storey and understorey, such as shrubs and epiphytes, were compared. The concentrations of these radionuclides in the plants and soil were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer and an alpha counter, and were found to vary widely within plants and between species. The soil-plant ratios also varied between species while Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants exhibited preferential uptake of these radionuclides. As a result, the dust particles trapped in the root systems of epiphytes could be used as bioindicators of fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. PMID:24463721

  9. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Caddisflies in Streams of Southern Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Dinakaran, S.; Anbalagan, S.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of physico-chemical factors and their effects on caddisfly communities were examined in 29 streams of southern Western Ghats. Monthly samples were collected from the Thadaganachiamman stream of Sirumalai Hills, Tamil Nadu from May 2006 to April 2007. Southwest and northeast monsoons favored the existence of caddisfly population in streams. A total of 20 caddisfly taxa were collected from 29 streams of southern Western Ghats. Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) were more widely distributed throughout sampling sites than were the other taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that elevation was a major variable and pH, stream order, and stream substrates were minor variables affecting taxa richness. These results suggested that habitat heterogeneity and seasonal changes were stronger predictors of caddisfly assemblages than large-scale patterns in landscape diversity. PMID:20572787

  10. Role of flexure in earthquake triggering along the Western Ghat escarpment, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, J. K.; Gahalaut, Kalpna; Gahalaut, V. K.

    2007-10-01

    The occurrence of earthquakes near reservoirs in the region of the Western Ghat escarpment far exceeds the reported rate in other areas of peninsular India. Reservoir loading and induced pore pressure are generally thought to be triggering earthquakes, but in order to explain the anomalous rates of occurrence in the Western Ghat, we invoke the additional effects of elastic plate flexure. The height of the escarpment is usually considered to be maintained by flexure in the east-west direction. Intense erosion and sediment loading further control its evolution. We propose that this promotes failure at shallow depth by a reduction of the normal stress on escarpment-parallel sub-vertical planes in the region. The same mechanism has been proposed to operate globally in several other escarpment regions along passive margins.

  11. Glaciations, gradients, and geography: multiple drivers of diversification of bush frogs in the Western Ghats Escarpment.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S P; Menezes, Riya C; Jayarajan, Aditi; Shanker, Kartik

    2016-08-17

    The historical processes underlying high diversity in tropical biodiversity hotspots like the Western Ghats of Peninsular India remain poorly understood. We sampled bush frogs on 13 massifs across the Western Ghats Escarpment and examined the relative influence of Quaternary glaciations, ecological gradients and geological processes on the spatial patterns of lineage and clade diversification. The results reveal a large in situ radiation (more than 60 lineages), exhibiting geographical structure and clade-level endemism, with two deeply divergent sister clades, North and South, highlighting the biogeographic significance of an ancient valley, the Palghat Gap. A majority of the bush frog sister lineages were isolated on adjacent massifs, and signatures of range stasis provide support for the dominance of geological processes in allopatric speciation. In situ diversification events within the montane zones (more than 1800 m) of the two highest massifs suggest a role for climate-mediated forest-grassland persistence. Independent transitions along elevational gradients among sub-clades during the Miocene point to diversification along the elevational gradient. The study highlights the evolutionary significance of massifs in the Western Ghats with the high elevations acting as centres of lineage diversification and the low- and mid-elevations of the southern regions, with deeply divergent lineages, serving as museums. PMID:27534957

  12. Moho offsets beneath the Western Ghat and the contact of Archean crusts of Dharwar Craton, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Utpal; Rai, S. S.; Meena, Rishikesh; Prasad, B. N. V.; Borah, Kajaljyoti

    2016-03-01

    We present the Moho depth variation along a 600 km long profile from the west to the east coast of South India covering the passive continental margin, and the Western Ghat escarpment created during India-Madagascar separation at ~ 85 Ma; Archean western and eastern Dharwar Craton, and Proterozoic basin. The image is generated through three different approaches: H - vP/vS stacking, common conversion point (CCP) migration and inversion of teleseismic receiver functions at 38 locations. The Moho depth along the profile varies smoothly between 34 and 41 km, except beneath the Western Ghat and at the contact of east and west Dharwar Craton, where it is offset by up to ~ 8 km. The study suggests (i) the possible differential uplift of the Western Ghat, as a consequence of India-Madagascar separation and the prominent role of deep crustal structure in the location of the escarpment, compared to the surface process and (ii) presence of long-lived steeply dipping fault separating the two distinct Archean crustal blocks indicative of mechanically strong continental lithosphere beneath the Dharwar Craton.

  13. The impact of the Western Ghats on lightning activity on the western coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamra, A. K.; Nair, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of the Western Ghats on the lightning activity across the west coast of India around the coastal metropolitan city of Mumbai during the 1998-2012 period is investigated using data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. A land-sea contrast of an order of magnitude in the lightning activity is observed even in a small area across the western coast of India. The shape of a zone of high lightning activity formed almost parallel to the Western Ghats during the onset and withdrawal phases of monsoon, strongly suggests the effect of the Western Ghats in its formation. Seasonal variation of the lightning activity in this area and also in each of its four equal sectors (two each over the Arabian Sea and over land) is bi-annual with one peak each in the onset (May/June) and withdrawal months (September/October) of monsoon and a sharp dip to very low values during the monsoon months (July/August) of maximum seasonal rainfall. The lightning activity in each sector is found to increase over the 1998-2012 period. However, the increase in lightning activity over the sector containing Mumbai is found to be greater during the pre- and post-monsoon periods and smaller during the monsoon period as compared to an identical sector immediately south of it.

  14. Seat-belt Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    The drivers and passengers of two cars which collided head-on all wore lap and diagonal seat-belts. Three of the four suffered ruptured viscera and two incurred flexion-compression fractures of the neck. A victim of a traffic accident who was wearing a seat-belt and who has superficial bruising or pain presents a difficult diagnostic problem. Visceral injury should be suspected in such cases. PMID:5697665

  15. Belt conveyor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  16. Delimiting the distribution range of Indirana leithii (Boulenger, 1888) (Anura: Ranixalidae), an endemic threatened anuran of the Western Ghats, based on molecular and morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Modak, Nikhil; Padhye, Anand; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2014-01-01

    Indirana leithii (Boulenger, 1888) (Anura: Ranixalidae) is a frog species endemic to the Western Ghats and is categorized as Vulnerable according to IUCN red list. This species is currently considered to be widespread over the entire Western Ghats. Our study based on molecular data (using DNA sequence fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes and the nuclear rhodopsin gene), morphological analysis of topotypic material as well as material collected from a wide range within the northern Western Ghats, suggests that the species has instead a restricted range in the state of Maharashtra. Specimens identified as I. leithii from the southern Western Ghats as well as from outside the Western Ghats probably belong to hitherto undescribed species. To facilitate future studies in understanding the nature of this species complex and provide better means for identification and delimitation of species we provide molecular, morphological and osteological characters of I. leithii from topotyic material. PMID:24870665

  17. 3D Dewetting for Crystal Patterning: Toward Regular Single-Crystalline Belt Arrays and Their Functionality.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuchen; Feng, Jiangang; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Arrays of unidirectional dewetting behaviors can be generated by using 3D-wettability-difference micropillars, yielding highly ordered organic single-crystalline belt arrays. These patterned organic belts show an improved mobility record and can be used as flexible pressure sensors with high sensitivity. PMID:26823061

  18. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  19. Moving belt radiator development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The ralative merits of Solid Belt (SBR), Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  20. Spatial dynamics of deforestation and forest fragmentation (1930-2013) in Eastern Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    The tropical forests are the most unique ecosystems for their potential economic value. Eastern Ghats, a phytogeographical region of India has rugged hilly terrain distributed in parts of five states, viz. Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The present study is mainly aimed to analyse the trends in deforestation and its role in forest fragmentation of Eastern Ghats. The long term changes in forest cover with its spatial pattern over time has been assessed by analyzing a set of topographical maps and satellite remote sensing datasets. The multi-source and multi-date mapping has been carried out using survey of India topographical maps (1930's), Landsat MSS (1975 and 1985), IRS 1B LISS-I (1995), IRS P6 AWiFS (2005) and Resourcesat-2 AWiFS (2013) satellite images. The classified spatial data for 1930, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 showed that the forest cover for the mentioned years are 102213 km2 (45.6 %), 76630 (34.2 %), 73416 km2 (32.7 %), 71730 km2 (32 %), 71305 km2 (31.8 %) and 71186 km2 (31.7 %) of the geographical area of Eastern Ghats respectively. A spatial statistical analysis of the deforestation rates and forest cover change were carried out based on distinctive time phases, i.e. 1930-1975, 1975-1985, 1985-1995, 1995-2005 and 2005-2013. The spatial analysis was carried out first by segmenting the study area into grid cells of 5 km x 5 km for time series assessment and determining spatial changes in forests. The distribution of loss and gain of forest was calculated across six classes i.e. <1 km2, 1-5 km2, 5-10 km2, 10-15 km2, 15-20 km2 and >20 km2. Landscape metrics were used to quantify spatial variability of landscape structure and composition. The results of study on net rate of deforestation was found to be 0.64 during 1935 to 1975, 0.43 during 1975-1985, 0.23 during 1985-1995, 0.06 during 1995-2005 and 0.02 during 2005-2013. The number of forest patches increased from 2688 (1930) to 13009 (2013). The largest forest patch in

  1. A new iridescent tarantula of the genus Thrigmopoeus Pocock, 1899 from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Sanap, Rajesh V; Mirza, Zeeshan A

    2014-01-01

    A distinctive new species of ground burrowing tarantula from Western Ghats endemic genus Thrigmopoeus is described from Kerala State, India. Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. differs from putative species of the genus in the adults being black overall with a metallic blue lustre on the carapace and abdomen. Females of Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. exhibit polychromatism. Juveniles and sub-adults are paler with vibrant maroon colouration on its abdomen whereas adult females are much darker and lack vibrant colouration as sub-adults. PMID:25103834

  2. A new cavernicolous assassin bug of the genus Bagauda Bergroth (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-01-01

    A new cavernicolous, thread-legged assassin bug, Bagauda ernstmayri sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae), collected from a cave near Satara, in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India, is described. Its interaction with the web of an uloborid spider Zosis geniculata (Olivier, 1789) (Araneae: Uloboridae) is discussed. PMID:27395629

  3. An unexpected new species of the genus Pseudopoda (Araneae, Sparassidae, Heteropodinae) from the Western Ghats in India

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Peter; Kulkarni, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Pseudopoda is described from India: Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. Males are characterised by the absence of the conductor and females are unique within the genus in having the lateral lobes of their epigyne fused. The systematic relationship of the new species is discussed referring to its isolated occurrence in the Western Ghats. PMID:27110189

  4. Tectonic evolution of the Archaean high-grade terrain of South India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, M.

    1988-01-01

    The southern Indian shield consists of three major tectonic provinces viz., (1) Dharwar Craton, (2) Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt, and (3) Pandyan Mobile Belt. An understanding of their mutual relations is crucial for formulating crustal evolution models. The tectonic evolution of these provinces is summarized.

  5. The G-HAT Search for Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations: The Reddest Extended WISE Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.; Wright, Jason; Griffith, Roger; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan L.

    2015-01-01

    Freeman Dyson (1960) theorized how to identify possible signatures of advanced extra-terrestrial civilizations by their waste heat, an inevitable byproduct of a civilization using a significant fraction of the luminosity from their host star. If a civilizations could tap the starlight throughout their host galaxy their waste heat would be easily detectable by recent infrared surveys. The Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies (G-HAT) pilot project aims to place limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations at pan-galactic scales. We present results from the G-HAT cleaned catalog of 563 extremely red, extended high Galactic latitude (|b| ≥ 10) sources from the WISE All-Sky Catalog. Our catalog includes sources new to the scientific literature along with well-studied objects (e.g. starburst galaxies, AGN, and planetary nebulae) that exemplify extreme WISE colors. Objects of particular interest include a supergiant Be star (48 Librae) surrounded by a resolved, mid-infrared nebula, possibly indicating dust in the stellar wind ejecta, and a curious cluster of seven extremely red WISE sources (associated with IRAS 04287+6444) that have no optical counterparts.

  6. A new species of gecko of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 from the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zeeshan A; Pal, Saunak; Bhosale, Harshal S; Sanap, Rajesh V

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the gekkonid genus Cnemaspis is described from the lateritic plateau of the northern Western Ghats of Maharashtra, western India. The new species is diagnosed by the following suite of characters: small sized Cnemaspis, SVL less than 35 mm (21.52-33.65). Dorsal scales on trunk heterogeneous, granular scales intermixed with large smooth scales and large keeled conical tubercles. Spine-like tubercles absent on flank. Two pairs of postmentals, inner postmentals separated by a single enlarged chin shield. Ventral scales on trunk smooth, imbricate, 26-28 scales across the belly between the lowest rows of dorsal scales. Subdigital scansors smooth, entire, unnotched; lamellae under digit IV of pes 17-20.Males with four femoral pores on each thigh and lacking pre-cloacal pores. Median row of sub-caudals smooth, imbricate and not enlarged. The present discovery highlights the need for dedicated herpetofaunal explorations in the northern Western Ghats to ascertain the exact diversity and distribution of Cnemaspis in India to elucidate the apparent disjunct distribution of the genus in the country. PMID:24943630

  7. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model. PMID:20558705

  8. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain

    2015-04-01

    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  9. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Infrared Kuiper Belt Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, V.L.; Stern, S.A.; Anderson, J.D.; Rosenbaum, D.; Scalise, R.J.; Wentzler, P.

    1999-05-01

    We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius {ital a} and albedo {alpha} at heliocentric distance {ital R}, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of {ital COBE} DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance {ital R}, particle radius {ital a}, and particle albedo {alpha}. We then apply these results to a recently developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40{lt}R{lt}50{endash}90 AU) and a more distant sector with a higher density. We consider the case in which passage through a molecular cloud essentially cleans the solar system of dust. We apply a simple model of dust production by comet collisions and removal by the Poynting-Robertson effect to find limits on total and dust masses in the near and far sectors as a function of time since such a passage. Finally, we compare Kuiper belt IR spectra for various parameter values. Results of this work include: (1) numerical limits on Kuiper belt dust as a function of ({ital R}, {ital a}, {alpha}) on the basis of four alternative sets of constraints, including those following from recent discovery of the cosmic IR background by Hauser et al.; (2) application to the two-sector Kuiper belt model, finding mass limits and spectrum shape for different values of relevant parameters including dependence on time elapsed since last passage through a molecular cloud cleared the outer solar system of dust; and (3) potential use of spectral information to determine time since last passage of the Sun through a giant molecular cloud. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  11. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the Southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian torrential species "Ansonia" ornata has a basal position in this clade and does not group with South-East Asian Ansonia. Additionally, the nested position of "Bufo" koynayensis and an undescribed sister species, and their distinct ecologies including a non-typical egg-laying strategy within bufonids, support the recognition of a second distinct genus. In this paper we describe two new genera and one new species from the Adenominae clade. Findings Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 "1875" is transferred to Ghatophryne gen. nov., a genus of torrentially adapted toads that are endemic to the Western Ghats of India. On the basis of close morphological resemblance and distribution, Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, 1981 is provisionally transferred to this new genus. The Western Ghats endemic toad Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 is transferred to a new genus Xanthophryne gen. nov. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we additionally describe a new species, Xanthophryne tigerinus sp. nov., from Amboli in the Western Ghats. Conclusion The descriptions and subsequent taxonomic changes we propose result in three genera of bufonids recognised as being endemic to the Western Ghats (Ghatophryne gen. nov., Xanthophryne gen. nov. and Pedostibes), and one to Sri Lanka (Adenomus). The spatial distribution, and arrangement of these lineages at the base of Adenominae diversification, reflects their Early Neogene isolation in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot. PMID:19968866

  12. Investigation of the vertical structure of clouds over the Western Ghats, India using X-band and Ka-band Doppler radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subrata Kumar

    Investigation of the vertical structure of clouds over the Western Ghats, India using X-band and Ka-band Doppler radar observations Subrata Kumar Das*, S. M. Deshpande, K. Chakravarty and M. C. R. Kalapureddy Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India ABSTRACT The Western Ghats (WGs) located parallel to the west coast of India receives a huge amount of rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) in which topography plays a huge role in it. To understand the dynamics and microphysics of monsoon precipitating clouds over the WGs, a High Altitude Cloud Physics Laboratory (HACPL) has been setup at Mahabaleshwar (17.92 oN, 73.6 oE, ~1.4 km AMSL) in 2012. As part of this laboratory, a mobile X-band (9.5 GHz) and Ka-band (35.29 GHz) dual-polarization Doppler weather radar system is installed at Mandhardev (18.04 oN, 73.87 oE, ~1.3 km AMSL, at 26 km radial distance from the HACPL). The X-band radar shows the dominant cloud movement is from the western side of the WGs to the eastern side, crossing the HACPL and the radar site. The cloud occurrence statistics show a sudden reduction within a distance of ~30 km on the eastern side of WGs indicates the possibility of a rain shadow area. Further, we investigate the vertical structure of cloud over the HACPL, and identified four cloud modes viz., shallow cumulus mode, congestus mode, deep convective mode, and overshooting convection mode. The frequency distribution of cloud-cell base height (CBH) and cloud-cell top height (CTH) shows most of the clouds with base below 2.5 km and tops usually not exceeding 9 km. This indicates the dominance of warm-rain process in the WGs region. The positive relationships between surface rainfall rates and CTH and 0oC isotherm level have observed. Details will be presented in the upcoming symposium.

  13. Anorthosites and alkaline rocks from the deep crust of peninsular India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leelanandam, C.; Ratnakar, J.; Reddy, M. Narsimha

    1988-01-01

    The anorthosite and alkaline rock localities in the Precambrian Shield of Peninsular India were reviewed. There are approximately 50 localities of such rocks, generally restricted to the Eastern Ghats mobile belt. The alkaline plutons are typically confined to the margin of the Eastern Ghats. The anorthosites are all greater than 500 sq km, but many exhibit similarities to one another. It was suggested that the anorthosites are associated with cryptic sutures, and are thought to have originated as a result of ponding of basaltic magmas. An analogy was drawn between the Eastern Ghats belt and the Grenville Province of the Canadian Shield.

  14. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  15. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  16. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  17. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  18. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  19. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  20. Moving belt metal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl V.; Mendat, Deborah P.; Huynh, Toan B.

    2006-05-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed a prototype metal detection survey system that will increase the search speed of conventional technology while maintaining high sensitivity. Higher search speeds will reduce the time to clear roads of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) and to locate unexploded ordnance (UXO) at Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) sites, thus reducing remediation costs. The new survey sensor system is called the moving belt metal detector (MBMD) and operates by both increasing sensor speed over the ground while maintaining adequate sensor dwell time over the target for good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reducing motion-induced sensor noise. The MBMD uses an array of metal detection sensors mounted on a flexible belt similar to a tank track. The belt motion is synchronized with the forward survey speed so individual sensor elements remain stationary relative to the ground. A single pulsed transmitter coil is configured to provide a uniform magnetic field along the length of the receivers in ground contact. Individual time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) receivers are designed to sense a single time-gate measurement of the total metal content. Each sensor module consists of a receiver coil, amplifier, digitizing electronics and a low power UHF wireless transmitter. This paper presents the survey system design concepts and metal detection data from various targets at several survey speeds. Although the laboratory prototype is designed to demonstrate metal detection survey speeds up to 10 m/s, higher speeds are achievable with a larger sensor array. In addition, the concept can be adapted to work with other sensor technologies not previously considered for moving platforms.

  1. News and Views: Diamond is new head of SKA; Did you read our `A&G' mobile issue? BBC writer wins astro journalism prize; Kavli prize recognizes work on Kuiper Belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-10-01

    Philip Diamond will become director general of the Square Kilometre Array this month, moving from Australia to the new SKA headquarters at Jodrell Bank Radio Observatory. Technology writer Katia Moskvitch has won the first European Astronomy Journalism Prize for her series of articles on the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. Moskvitch will be the guest of the ESO at the inauguration of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Atacama desert in March 2013. The 2012 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics is shared between David C Jewitt (University of California, USA), Jane X Luu (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, USA), and Michael E Brown (California Institute of Technology, USA) “for discovering and characterizing the Kuiper Belt and its largest members, work that led to a major advance in the understanding of the history of our planetary system”.

  2. Gould Belt Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Leticia; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Using archive VLA data and recent observations on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array it is worked on a semi-automatic python/CASA code to select, reduce and plot several young stars belonging to the Ophiuchus core. This code mean to help to select observations made along the 30 years of the VLA done in the selected area with the wide configurations A and B, and in the X and C band, to determine their position and compare it with the most recent ones. In this way it is possible to determinate their proper motion with very high precision. It is presented the phases of the process and our first results worked on three well know stars: S1, DoAr 21 and VLA1623. This is the tip of a bigger work that includes Taurus molecular cloud and other important recent star formation regions belonging to the Gould Belt. Our goal is to support the most suitable among several theories about Gould Belt origin or provide a new one taking in count the dynamics of those regions.

  3. Vigna pandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. New information A new species, Vigna pandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vigna yadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers. PMID:25829861

  4. Crocodilian Nest in a Late Cretaceous Sauropod Hatchery from the Type Lameta Ghat Locality, Jabalpur, India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rahul; Patnaik, Rajeev; Shukla, U K; Sahni, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    The well-known Late Cretaceous Lameta Ghat locality (Jabalpur, India) provides a window of opportunity to study a large stable, near shore sandy beach, which was widely used by sauropod dinosaurs as a hatchery. In this paper, we revisit the eggs and eggshell fragments previously assigned to lizards from this locality and reassign them to crocodylomorphs. Several features point to a crocodilian affinity, including a subspherical to ellipsoidal shape, smooth, uneven external surface, discrete trapezoid shaped shell units with wide top and narrow base, basal knobs and wedge shaped crystallites showing typical inverted triangular extinction under crossed nicols. The crocodylomorph eggshell material presented in this paper adds to the skeletal data of these most probably Cretaceous-Eocene dryosaurid crocodiles. PMID:26641665

  5. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-04-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

  6. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Civets of Fragmented Rainforest Patches in Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debapriyo; Tiwari, Sunil; Reddy, D Mahender; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-08-01

    :  Parasitism, driven by anthropogenic habitat modifications, is being increasingly recognized as a major threat to wildlife. Unfortunately, even baseline parasite data for most wildlife species are lacking in India, including the civets, which are particularly vulnerable due to their proximity to human habitations. Civet fecal samples were collected from 10 forest fragments that vary in size and disturbance level in Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats, India. These samples were screened for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites using fecal floatation and fecal sedimentation techniques. From a total of 180 civet fecal samples, 15 gastrointestinal parasite taxa were recovered, and these species are also known to infect domesticated animals. Additionally, small, disturbed forest fragments recorded higher mean gastrointestinal parasite taxa and greater prevalence when compared to large, undisturbed forest fragments, indicating a potential relationship between anthropogenic activities and gastrointestinal parasitism of civets in the Anamalai Hills. PMID:26829576

  7. Characterization of the leaf essential oils of an endemic species Cinnamomum perrottetii from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Sriramavaratharajan, Venkatraman; Sudha, Veerappan; Murugan, Ramar

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils from the leaf of Cinnamomum perrottetii Meissn. collected from three distinct populations in the southern Western Ghats, India were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 56 volatile constituents representing 92.2-96.3% of the oils were identified. Variations in the chemical constituents of the oils were found. Only three major components namely, α-pinene (5.1-6.6%), tau-cadinol (8.7-20.5%) and α-cadinol (7.3-13%) out of 10 were found in all three samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical compositions of leaf essential oil of C. perrottetii. PMID:26453373

  8. Crocodilian Nest in a Late Cretaceous Sauropod Hatchery from the Type Lameta Ghat Locality, Jabalpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rahul; Patnaik, Rajeev; Shukla, U. K.; Sahni, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    The well-known Late Cretaceous Lameta Ghat locality (Jabalpur, India) provides a window of opportunity to study a large stable, near shore sandy beach, which was widely used by sauropod dinosaurs as a hatchery. In this paper, we revisit the eggs and eggshell fragments previously assigned to lizards from this locality and reassign them to crocodylomorphs. Several features point to a crocodilian affinity, including a subspherical to ellipsoidal shape, smooth, uneven external surface, discrete trapezoid shaped shell units with wide top and narrow base, basal knobs and wedge shaped crystallites showing typical inverted triangular extinction under crossed nicols. The crocodylomorph eggshell material presented in this paper adds to the skeletal data of these most probably Cretaceous-Eocene dryosaurid crocodiles. PMID:26641665

  9. Time-related variation of volatile contents of Western Ghats volcanic formations, Deccan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Callegaro, Sara; Baker, Don R.; De Min, Angelo; Renne, Paul R.

    2016-04-01

    Deccan volcanism in India covered more than 1 million square km and reached a maximum thickness of about 3 km, as presently preserved in the Western Ghats volcanic lava piles. Volcanic activity started at about 66.4 Ma (Jawhar formation) and ended at about 65.5 Ma (Mahabaleshwar unit; Renne et al., 2015). Deccan volcanism straddled the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 66.0 Ma) and possibly contributed to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event through emission of gases such as SO2, CO2, Cl, F that may have triggered global climate changes. Severe pollution by volcanic gases is supported by the high S and Cl contents (up to 1400 and up to 900 ppm, respectively; Self et al., 2008) measured in a few olivine- and plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from the Jawhar, Neral, and Thakurvadi Formations (early lava flows, ca. 66.3-66.4 ± 0.1 Ma; Renne et al., 2015) and by magmatic S contents (up to 1800 ppm; Callegaro et al., 2014) calculated from S measurements in clinopyroxenes from the Mahabaleshwar unit (ca. 65.5 ± 0.1; Schoene et al., 2015). Here, we present new analyses of S, Cl, and F, obtained by ion-probe and synchrotron light micro-fluorescence analyses on clinopyroxenes and plagioclase phenocrysts from ?al? lava flow units of the Western Ghats. The volatile contents of the host magmas have been calculated from recently published clinopyroxene/basalt partition coefficients. These new data will describe the time-related variation of volatile elements hosted and eventually emitted by Deccan lavas and shed light on their environmental impact. References: Callegaro S. et al. (2014). Geology 42, 895-898. Renne P.R. et al. (2015). Science 350, 76-78. Schoene B. et al. (2015). Science 347, 192-184. Self S. et al. (2008). Science 319, 1654-1657.

  10. Geography of the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  11. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Priti, H; Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H S; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats. PMID:26934213

  12. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H. S.; Ravikanth, G.; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members—R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8–2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats. PMID:26934213

  13. Spatio-temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools of a biosphere reserve of Southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, S; Arunprasanna, V; Kannan, M; Dinakaran, S; Krishnan, M

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools were examined in a biosphere reserve of the Southern Western Ghats, India. The immature mosquitoes in stream pools were collected from stream substrates of bedrock pool, boulder cavity and sand puddle. The collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified. In total, 16 species from four genera of mosquitoes were collected. The mosquito species from Culex and Anopheles were predominantly occurred. The bedrock pool had the highest diversity and abundance of mosquitoes. The statistical analyses showed that the substrate specificity and the seasons were positively related to the distribution of mosquitoes rather than spatial pattern. This study described the spatial and temporal pattern of mosquitoes in stream pools of the Southern Western Ghats. This information would be helpful to National Vector borne disease control program for surveillance and control. PMID:26434940

  14. Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes (1920-2013) in Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-02-01

    Western Ghats are considered as one of the global biodiversity hotspots. There is an information gap on conservation status of the biodiversity hotspots. This study has quantified estimates of deforestation in the Western Ghats over a period of past nine decades. The classified forest cover maps for 1920, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 indicates 95,446 (73.1%), 63,123 (48.4%), 62,286 (47.7%), 61,551 (47.2%), 61,511 (47.1%) and 61,511 km2 (47.1%) of the forest area, respectively. The rates of deforestation have been analyzed in different time phases, i.e., 1920-1975, 1975-1985, 1985-1995, 1995-2005 and 2005-2013. The grid cells of 1 km2 have been generated for time series analysis and describing spatial changes in forests. The net rate of deforestation was found to be 0.75 during 1920-1975, 0.13 during 1975-1985, 0.12 during 1985-1995 and 0.01 during 1995-2005. Overall forest loss in Western Ghats was estimated as 33,579 km2 (35.3% of the total forest) from 1920's to 2013. Land use change analysis indicates highest transformation of forest to plantations, followed by agriculture and degradation to scrub. The dominant forest type is tropical semi-evergreen which comprises 21,678 km2 (35.2%) of the total forest area of Western Ghats, followed by wet evergreen forest (30.6%), moist deciduous forest (24.8%) and dry deciduous forest (8.1%) in 2013. Even though it has the highest population density among the hotspots, there is no quantifiable net rate of deforestation from 2005 to 2013 which indicates increased measures of conservation.

  15. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats' total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation. PMID:26812397

  16. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  18. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... installed, the belt, harness, or other restraining means and its supporting structure must meet the...

  19. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... installed, the belt, harness, or other restraining means and its supporting structure must meet the...

  20. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... installed, the belt, harness, or other restraining means and its supporting structure must meet the...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  3. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... installed, the belt, harness, or other restraining means and its supporting structure must meet the...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing...

  5. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  7. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  8. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  12. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  14. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  15. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five). PMID:23679502

  16. Previously Undetected Radiation Belt Revealed

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth'€™s Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. Observations f...

  17. The earth's trapped radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, R. B.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    The near-earth charged particle environment is discussed in terms of spacecraft design criteria. Models are presented of the trapped radiation belts and based on in-situ data obtained from spacecraft.

  18. Saturn's North Temperate Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In this Voyager 2 false-color photograph, obtained Aug. 20 from a distance of 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles), north is to the upper left. This view of the northern edge of Saturn's North Temperate Belt, the brownish region in the lower right of the image, was made from frames taken through violet, blue and green filters. The bright disturbance in the lower left has been coiled into a figure '6' by the wind shear in the planet's atmosphere; this same feature was seen in an earlier release (P-23912, S-2-9). To the south of it, winds blow westward at 20 meters-per-second (45 mph). Within the white zone to the north, wind speeds are in excess of 130 meters-per-second (290 mph) to the east. Wavelike structures can be seen along the ribbon feature that roughly follows the core of this strong eastward-flowing jet. The smallest observable features in this image are about 120 km. (75 mi.) across. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  19. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  20. Bio-efficacy of Dioscorea pentaphylla from Midmid-Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, G.; Hosetti, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extracts of medicinally important and traditionally used yam plant, Dioscorea pentaphylla, from mid-Western Ghats was evaluated against 27 bacterial and 5 fungal clinical strains collected of the patients from infectious sources. The clinical strains belonging to their respective species showed concentration-dependent susceptibility toward crude petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and methanol extract at 100 μg/100 μl. The extracts exhibited predominant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-20852), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC-29737) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-618), respectively, and five clinically isolated pathogenic fungi, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton tonsurans, Microsporum audouini, and Candida albicans, with antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin and antifungal drug fluconozole (50 μg/100 μl) as standards. Out of the three extracts, ethanol extracts possessed better minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all the bacterial strains. All the three extracts showed significant activity against all the five fungal pathogen strains. The results are promising and support the traditional use of D. pentaphylla for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. PMID:22778504

  1. Land-use and land-cover change in Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Kale, Manish P; Chavan, Manoj; Pardeshi, Satish; Joshi, Chitiz; Verma, Prabhakar A; Roy, P S; Srivastav, S K; Srivastava, V K; Jha, A K; Chaudhari, Swapnil; Giri, Yogesh; Krishna Murthy, Y V N

    2016-07-01

    The Western Ghats (WG) of India, one of the hottest biodiversity hotspots in the world, has witnessed major land-use and land-cover (LULC) change in recent times. The present research was aimed at studying the patterns of LULC change in WG during 1985-1995-2005, understanding the major drivers that caused such change, and projecting the future (2025) spatial distribution of forest using coupled logistic regression and Markov model. The International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) classification scheme was mainly followed in LULC characterization and change analysis. The single-step Markov model was used to project the forest demand. The spatial allocation of such forest demand was based on the predicted probabilities derived through logistic regression model. The R statistical package was used to set the allocation rules. The projection model was selected based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The actual and projected areas of forest in 2005 were compared before making projection for 2025. It was observed that forest degradation has reduced from 1985-1995 to 1995-2005. The study obtained important insights about the drivers and their impacts on LULC simulations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt where projection of future state of forest in entire WG is made based on decadal LULC and socio-economic datasets at the Taluka (sub-district) level. PMID:27256392

  2. Fertilizing ability of cryopreserved pollinia of Luisia macrantha, an endemic orchid of Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Ajeeshkumar, S; Decruse, S W

    2013-01-01

    A successful protocol for long-term preservation of pollinia of Luisia macrantha Blatter and McCann., an endemic and endangered orchid of Western Ghats has been devised through different pollen cryopreservation methods and by confirming fertilizing ability. Pollinia subjected to 0-30 min dehydration at 27 +/- 67 percent in desiccated controls and 54 percent in LN treated samples. The treated pollinia retained fertilizing ability, giving 100 percent fruit set upon sib-mating. Pollinia dried under charged silica gel for 120 min gave 51 - 52 percent pollen germination, in LN treated and desiccated control samples. Exposure to vitrification solution (PVS2) was optimized at 10 min to achieve 57 percent and 56 percent germination in control and LN treated samples, respectively. These pollinia exhibited 51 percent pollen germination after 668 days storage in LN. Cryopreserved pollinia (10 min PVS2) used for hybridization with Vanda tessellata gave 87 percent fruit set and 21 percent viable seeds. The viable seeds germinated and developed into healthy seedlings. Thus cryopreservation has been proved useful for the successful storage of L. macrantha germplasm and their utilization in breeding. PMID:23435707

  3. Floristic diversity of regenerated tree species in Dipterocarp forests in Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A

    2012-07-01

    The research was focused on exploring the structure, diversity and form of regeneration process of the Dipterocarp forests in Western Ghats in relation to environmental factors. Eight populations in the distribution range of Dipterocarp forests were selected. In each population 32 plots of 2mx2m were laid down randomly. Atotal of 1243 seedlings < or = 10 cm dbh (diameter at breast height) belonging to 99 species and 48 families were recorded. The number of regenerated tree species was found to be high in the populations of Mudigere (40), Sakleshpura (40) and Makuta (39), which are characterized by favorable locality factors and lower disturbances. The highest similarity index in species composition was recorded between the populations of Sampaje in Kodagu district and Gundya in Dakshina Kannada (60%) whereas the lowest similarity index was observed between the population of Sringeri in Chikmagalore and Sampaje (53%) and Gundya and Makuta (35%) in Kodagu district. Dipterocarpus indicus was found to be dominant among the regenerated tree species in all the sites studied except Gundy and Sampaje. The frequencies of regeneration classes (seedlings, saplings, poles and adult trees) were shaped as inverse J curve indicating the normal regeneration pattern under the present disturbance. The average disturbance of litter collection, grazing, fire, weeds and canopy opening were significant among different populations (p < or = 0.05). Negative correlation was observed between disturbance and species richness, number of individuals and density. PMID:23360009

  4. Nutritional composition of two wild mushrooms consumed by the tribals of the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Sudheep, Naga M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the nutritional qualities of two wild mushrooms (Agaricus abruptibulbus and Termitomyces globulus) commonly consumed by the tribals of Kaiga forests of the Western Ghats of India. Both mushrooms composed of high quantity of crude protein, crude fibre, calorific value and low quantity of crude lipid. Potassium and selenium contents were high, while sodium, calcium and phosphorus contents were low. Except for three essential amino acids (EAAs: leucine, tyrosine and lysine), the rest of the amino acids in both mushrooms were comparable to soybean and wheat. Based on the EAA standards of FAO-WHO, these mushrooms composed of high quantity of threonine, isoleucine and histidine. The EAA score of isoleucine in cooked A. abruptibulbus and threonine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidine and sulphur amino acids in cooked T. globulus were substantially high. Oleic acid constitutes a major unsaturated fatty acid in these mushrooms, which was significantly increased in cooked A. abruptibulbus. Cooking also increased the ratio of TUFA/TSFA in A. abruptibulbus, while it was opposite in T. globulus. Cooking significantly increased the linoleic acid in A. abruptibulbus and eicosadienoic acid in T. globulus. PMID:24999438

  5. Amblyceps accari, a new species of torrent catfish (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Ali, Anvar; Britz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    A new species of torrent catfish, Amblyceps accari, is described from the central region of the Western Ghats of India. The new species differs from all its congeners by having 12 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 7-10 in other Amblyceps, rarely 11 in A. tuberculatum). It differs further from all other species of the genus except A. murraystuarti and A. torrentis in having the adipose fin confluent with the dorsal procurrent part of the caudal fin and by the following combination of characters from all its congeners: jaws unequal with lower jaw weakly-projecting, pectoral spine smooth, adipose-fin origin opposite anal-fin origin, dorsal fin to adipose-fin distance more than one fourth of standard length, adipose fin long with its base more than one-fourth of standard length, and deeply forked caudal fin with minute, poorly developed, centrally projecting hooks on the proximal lepidotrichia of central caudal-fin rays. The discovery of the new species represents the first record of this genus from peninsular India. PMID:27394861

  6. Variation in wood fibre traits among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A

    2012-03-01

    Wood elements and anatomical ratio of Dipterocarpus indicus were studied to evaluate variation among populations and to recommend for end selection. The variation of wood element [fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen diameter (LD), cell wall thickness (CWT), double wall thickness (DWT), and lumen volume (LV)] and anatomical ratio [fibre lumen area (FLA), slenderness ratio (SR) and runkel ratio (RR)] were investigated in a girth class of 100 - 120 cm among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India. The study revealed a significant variations in FL (0.2426), FD (4.7019), LD (3.1689), CWT (2.7104), DWT and (5.4298) among populations. The variations in anatomical ratios were significant among populations except in case of LV. The causes of variations among populations in their wood traits were attributed to the site factors. The interaction between genetic makeup of wood traits combined with effects of edaphic, local and regional climatic conditions reflect the amount of variation among populations. The highest coefficient of variation (CV %) for FL, FD, CWT and DWT was recorded in population of Gundya whereas low coefficient of variation were recorded in the population of Makuta (FL), Devimane (FD, CWT and DWT), and Sampaje (LD). The wood of Dipterocarpus indicus was found undesirable for pulp wood but can be utilized for plywood timbers. PMID:23033683

  7. Metamorphism of cordierite gneisses from Eastern Ghat Granulite Terrain, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, D. S. N.; Charan, S. Nirmal

    1988-01-01

    Cordierite-bearing metapelites of the Eastern Ghat granulite terrain occur in close association of Khondalites, quartzites, calc-silicate rocks and charnockites. Rocks occurring between Bobbili in the north and Guntur in the south of Andhra Pradesh are studied. The association of the mineral and textural relationships suggest the following metamorphic reactions: Garnet + sillimanite + quartz = cordierite, hypersthene + sillimanite + quartz = cordierite, sillimanite + spinel = cordierite + corundum, and biotite + quartz + sillimanite = cordierite + K=feldspar. Generally the minerals are not chemically zoned except garnet-biotite showing zoning when they come in close contact with one another. The potential thermometers are provided by the Fe-Mg distribution of coexisting biotite-garnet and cordierite-garnet. Conflicting interpretation of the P/T dependence of these reactions involving cordierite are due to H2O in the cordierite. The presence of alkali feldspar-quartz assemblage which is common in these gneisses will be constrained from melting only if H2O activity is less than 0.5. The piezometric array inferred is convex towards the temperature array, indicating a rapid and isothermal crustal uplift probably aided by thrust tectonics.

  8. Molecular systematics of caeciliid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) of the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; San Mauro, Diego; Giri, Varad; Bhatta, Gopalakrishna; Govindappa, Venu; Kotharambath, Ramachandran; Oommen, Oommen V; Fatih, Farrah A; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline A; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Biju, S D; Shouche, Yogesh S; Wilkinson, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Together, Indian plus Seychelles caeciliid caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) constitute approximately 10% of the extant species of this order. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of all but one (or two) nominal species (16, in five genera) is presented based on mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb, cox1) and nuclear (RAG1) sequence data. Results strongly support monophyly of both Seychelles and peninsular Indian caeciliids, and their sister-group status. Within the Indian caeciliids, Indotyphlus and Gegeneophis are monophyletic sister genera. The phylogenetic position of Gegeneophis ramaswamii, Gegeneophis seshachari, and Gegeneophis carnosus are not well resolved, but all lie outside a well-supported clade of most northern Western Ghats Gegeneophis (madhavai, mhadeiensis, goaensis, danieli/nadkarnii). Most nominal species of Indian caeciliid are diagnosed by robust haplotype clades, though the systematics of G. carnosus-like forms in northern Kerala and southern Karnataka requires substantial further investigation. For the most part, Indian caeciliid species comprise narrowly distributed, allopatric taxa with low genetic diversity. Much greater geographic genetic diversity exists among populations referred to G. seshachari, such that some populations likely represent undescribed species. This, the first phylogenetic analysis of Indian caeciliids, generally provides additional support for recent increases in described species (eight since 1999), and a framework for ongoing taxonomic revision. PMID:21406239

  9. Scheelite and coexisting F-rich zoned garnet, vesuvianite, fluorite, and apatite in calc-silicate rocks from the Mogok metamorphic belt, Myanmar: Implications for metasomatism in marble and the role of halogens in W mobilization and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shun; Chen, Yi; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Gang; Su, Bin; Gao, Yi-Jie; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Sein, Kyaing; Yang, Yue-Heng; Mao, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Scheelite, which is an important ore of tungsten and colored gemstone, is well developed in the calc-silicate rocks from the Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB), Myanmar. In this study, the textural, mineralogical, and compositional characteristics of scheelite and its associated minerals were systematically investigated to constrain the petrogenesis of scheelite-bearing calc-silicate rocks and the tungsten transfer and mineralization mechanism in a hydrothermal-metasomatic system. The petrological evidence, bulk and mineral geochemical signatures, and mass-transfer calculations indicate that the calc-silicate rocks formed by local metasomatism of marble via the introduction of an externally derived Si-Al-Fe-W-F-bearing, H2O-rich fluid phase. The distinct compositional zonations [F, Fe, Ca, and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs)] of garnet in the calc-silicate rocks record a two-stage metasomatic process and significant compositional variation in the associated fluid. The late-stage metasomatic fluid that led to the formation of the F-rich garnet rims, scheelite, and most of the calc-silicate minerals has noticeably higher fluorine activity (aF-), oxygen fugacity (fo2), and HREE content than the early-stage metasomatic fluid responsible for the garnet cores. The MMB scheelite exhibits typical "skarn-type" compositional characteristics with a high LaN/YbN ratio (100-180), a negative Eu anomaly (δEu = 0.3-0.5), and a high Mo content (1100-1330 ppm). These geochemical signatures are primarily controlled by the protolith, metasomatic fluid, redox conditions, and coexisting mineral phases. The enrichment of rare earth elements (REEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs) in the MMB scheelite was dominated by two substitution reactions: Ca2+ + W6+ = REE3+ + HFSE5+ and 3Ca2+ = 2REE3+ + □Ca (where □Ca is a Ca-site vacancy). Considerable amounts of F and OH in the metasomatic fluid substituted for O in the garnet via the substitute reaction 4(F, OH)- = 4O2- + Si4+, leading

  10. Applications of radiation belt research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2011-10-01

    When Arthur Clark and John Pierce proposed geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting (GEO and LEO) communications satellites, respectively, they did not envision that the environment in which their concepts would fly would be anything but benign. Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in 1958 fundamentally altered understanding of Earth's near-space environment and its impacts on technologies. Indeed, the first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar 1, in LEO, failed some 6 months after launch (10 July 1962) due to trapped radiation that had been enhanced from the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on the day prior to launch. Today radiation trapped in the geomagnetic field, as well as solar energetic particles that can access the magnetosphere, forms critical constraints on the design and operations of satellite systems. These considerations were important factors in the planning of the AGU Chapman Conference on radiation belts that was hosted in July 2011 by the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Canada (see "Chapman Conference on Radiation Belts and the Inner Magnetosphere," page 4). The conference presentations, discussions, and hallway conversations illuminated current understanding of Earth's radiation belts and critical issues remaining. Certainly, fundamental understanding of radiation belt origins remains elusive. The relative roles of adiabatic processes, geomagnetic storm injections, and wave heating, among other considerations, are central topics of intense debate and of competing modeling regimes by numerous active groups.

  11. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  12. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  13. Launching jets from accretion belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-05-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications on a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  14. A new species of Streptocephalus (Crustacea: Anostraca: Streptocephalidae) from the Western Ghats, India, with a key to the Asian species.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Padhye, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We present and describe the fairy shrimp Streptocephalus sahyadriensis sp. nov. from the Western Ghats of India. This species is most similar to S. simplex Gurney, 1906 and S. dichotomus Baird, 1860 sharing similar basic antennal appendage morphology. However, S. sahyadriensis sp. nov. differs in the form of the ornamentation on the peduncle and the arrangement and form of spines on the antennal appendage. The three species also have different egg surface morphologies. The Asian species of Streptocephalus are discussed and a key to species is provided. PMID:24870993

  15. Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission Trailer

    NASA Video Gallery

    With launch scheduled for 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) are two identical spacecraft that will investigate the doughnut shaped Van Allen radiation belts, the first discovery of the sp...

  16. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait. PMID:24025146

  17. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  18. Overthrust belt status and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Trushenski, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1974 the Overthrust Belt has stimulated the imaginations of many major oil companies and independents because of a series of significant oil and gas discoveries in SW. Wyoming and NE. Utah. Intensive exploration and development continues to this day. The specifics of some of the key discoveries are discussed.

  19. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  20. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  1. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  2. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  4. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  5. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  7. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  8. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  9. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  10. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  12. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  14. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  15. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  16. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  17. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  19. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'. PMID:25480880

  1. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats’ total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation. PMID:26812397

  2. The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava

    2014-05-01

    The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

  3. Tectonics of some Amazonian greenstone belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts exposed amid gneisses, granitoid rocks, and less abundant granulites along the northern and eastern margins of the Amazonian Craton yield Trans-Amazonican metamorphic ages of 2.0-2.1 Ga. Early proterozoic belts in the northern region probably originated as ensimatic island arc complexes. The Archean Carajas belt in the southeastern craton probably formed in an extensional basin on older continental basement. That basement contains older Archean belts with pillow basalts and komatiites. Belts of ultramafic rocks warrant investigatijon as possible ophiolites. A discussion follows.

  4. The Southeast Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Rajah, S. S.; Askury, A. K.; Putthapiban, P.; Djaswadi, S.

    1995-07-01

    The Southeast Asian Tin Belt is a north-south elongate zone 2800 km long and 400 km wide, extending from Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand to Peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian Tin Islands. Altogether 9.6 million tonnes of tin, equivalent to 54% of the world's tin production is derived from this region. Most of the granitoids in the region can be grouped geographically into elongate provinces or belts, based on petrographic and geochronological features. - The Main Range Granitoid Province in western Peninsular Malaysia, southern Peninsular Thailand and central Thailand is almost entirely made up of biotite granite (184-230 Ma). Tin deposits associated with these granites contributed 55% of the historic tin production of Southeast Asia. - The Northern Granitoid Province in northern Thailand (0.1% of tin production) also has dominant biotite granite (200-269 Ma) but it is distinguished by abundant post-intrusion deformation. - The Eastern Granitoid Province extends from eastern Peninsular Malaysia to eastern Thailand. The Malaysian part is subdivided into the East Coast Belt (220-263 Ma), Boundary Range Belt (197-257 Ma) and Central Belt (79-219 Ma). The granitoids cover a wide compositional range from biotite granite to hornblende-biotite granite/granodiorite and diorite-gabbro. Tin deposits are associated with biotite granite in the East Coast Belt (3% of tin production). The granitoids in the other areas of the Eastern Granitoid Province are barren. - The Western Granitoid Province (22-149 Ma) in northern Peninsular Thailand, western Thailand and Burma has biotite granite and hornblende-biotite granite/granodiorite. Tin deposits are associated with biotite granite, which probably is the dominant phase (14% of tin production). The granitoids of the Indonesian Tin Islands (193-251 Ma) do not permit grouping into geographically distinct units. Main Range-type and Eastern Province-type plutons occur next to each other. Most of the tin deposits are associated with Main

  5. The Scattered Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, C. A.; Jewitt, D. C.; Luu, J. X.

    1999-09-01

    We describe a continuing survey of the Kuiper Belt conducted at the 3.6-m Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The survey employs a 12288 x 8192 pixel CCD mosaic to image the sky to red magnitude 24. All detected objects are targeted for systematic follow-up observations, allowing us to determine their orbital characteristics. Three new members of the rare Scattered Kuiper Belt Object class have been identified, bringing the known population of such objects to four. The SKBOs are thought to have been scattered outward by Neptune, and are a potential source of the short-period comets. Using a Maximum Likelihood method, we place observational constraints on the total number and mass of the SKBOs.

  6. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Trujillo, Chad

    2012-02-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a medium wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System.

  7. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System. We will also explore the Neptune Trojans and scattered disk populations through the survey.

  8. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  9. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, M. D.; Pai, Sandeep R.; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M.; Bhagwat, Shalini S.; Hegde, Harsha V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS+ antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants. PMID:25878460

  10. Root strength of tropical plants - An investigation in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, S.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Westen, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earlier research on debris flows in the Tikovil River basin of the Western Ghats concluded that root cohesion is significant in maintaining the overall stability of the region. In this paper we present the most recent results (December 2008) of root tensile strength tests conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) A variety of Tamarind (Garcinia gummigutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested has a length of 15 cm. Results indicate that the roots of Coffee, Tamarind, Lemon grass and Jackfruit are the strongest of the nine plant types tested whereas Tea and Teak plants had the most fragile roots. Coconut roots behaved atypical to the others, as the bark of the roots was crushed and slipped from the clamp when tested whereas its internal fiber was the strongest of all tested. Root tensile strength decreases with increasing diameters, Rubber showing more ductile behaviour than Coffee and Tamarind that behaved more brittle, root tensile strength increasing exponentially for finer roots. Teak and Tea showed almost a constant root tensile strength over the range of diameters tested and little variability. Jack fruit and mango trees showed the largest variability, which may be explained by the presence of root nodules, preventing the derivation of an unequivocal relationship between root diameters and tensile strength. This results in uncertainty of root strength estimates that are applicable. These results provide important information to

  11. Modulation of Summer Monsoon Circulation over Peninsular India by Western Ghats- A regional Climate modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajanayagam, Lorna; Janardanan, Rajesh; Ram Mohan, H. S.

    The aim of the study is to understand the wind pattern over the Peninsular India with the modification of Orography over the region using Regional climate model. The model used in this study is the recent version (Version III) of the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Climate Model RegCM3. The model integration is done on a horizontal resolution of 60 km. . The planetary boundary layer scheme used is that of Holtslag, cumulus parameterization scheme Emanuel of MIT, SUBEX large scale precipitation scheme and BATS ocean flux parameterization scheme. The model is run from 1st May to 30th September. The first month is taken for the spin up. The next four months are taken to study the monsoon. The simulation has been carried out for the 100%, 90%, 60% and 30% Orography (hereafter 100%o,90%o, 60%o, and 30%o) cases with RegCM3. The Zonal wind pattern for the 100%o and 90%o are similar, whereas the pattern changed for the 60% and 30%o. For the 60% and 30%o cases, the Zonal wind strengthened over the south peninsular India gradually increasing towards north. The Meridional component of the wind has a maximum over the Western Ghats between the latitudes 10o N and 15o N for the 100%o. Similar pattern has been observed for the 90%o also. For the 60%o and 30%o, the core has shifted to the northeast of India. The magnitude has decreased for the 30%o and the magnitude of meridional component is zero over the region south of 10o N. Keywords: Orography, Zonal and Meridional wind. References: Giorgi F, Mon. Wea Rev. 121: 2794 (1993) Giorgi F, Marinucci M R and Bates G T , Mon. Wea Rev. 121: 2794 (1993) K. C. Chow, Timing Liu, Johnny C. L. Chan and Yihui Ding, Int. J. Climatol. 26:1339-1359 (2006) K. C. Chow, Hang-Wai Tong and Johnny C. L. Chan, Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-007- 0301-6

  12. Monsoon circulation interaction with Western Ghats orography under changing climate. Projection by a 20-km mesh AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, K.; Kitoh, A.; Srinivasan, J.; Mizuta, R.; Krishnan, R.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the authors have investigated the likely future changes in the summer monsoon over the Western Ghats (WG) orographic region of India in response to global warming, using time-slice simulations of an ultra high-resolution global climate model and climate datasets of recent past. The model with approximately 20-km mesh horizontal resolution resolves orographic features on finer spatial scales leading to a quasi-realistic simulation of the spatial distribution of the present-day summer monsoon rainfall over India and trends in monsoon rainfall over the west coast of India. As a result, a higher degree of confidence appears to emerge in many aspects of the 20-km model simulation, and therefore, we can have better confidence in the validity of the model prediction of future changes in the climate over WG mountains. Our analysis suggests that the summer mean rainfall and the vertical velocities over the orographic regions of Western Ghats have significantly weakened during the recent past and the model simulates these features realistically in the present-day climate simulation. Under future climate scenario, by the end of the twenty-first century, the model projects reduced orographic precipitation over the narrow Western Ghats south of 16°N that is found to be associated with drastic reduction in the southwesterly winds and moisture transport into the region, weakening of the summer mean meridional circulation and diminished vertical velocities. We show that this is due to larger upper tropospheric warming relative to the surface and lower levels, which decreases the lapse rate causing an increase in vertical moist static stability (which in turn inhibits vertical ascent) in response to global warming. Increased stability that weakens vertical velocities leads to reduction in large-scale precipitation which is found to be the major contributor to summer mean rainfall over WG orographic region. This is further corroborated by a significant decrease in

  13. Proterozoic to mesozoic mobile-belt geology, Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, D. L.

    The Pensacola Mountains consist of four unconformable sequences of: (1) graywacke (oldest), (2) platform, (3) molasses, and (4) continental (youngest) deposits. The first sequence of Middle Proterozoic graywacke deposits (Patuxent Formation) consists of turbidite quartzbearing sandstone and slate and volcanic rocks. The second sequence consist of extensive platform deposits of Lower Cambrian archaeocyathidbearing limestone and Middle Cambrian trilobitebearing limestone (Nelson Limestone) that are overlain by shale (Wiens Formation), and silicic volcanic rocks (Gambacorta Formation) including rhyolitic ignimbrite of caldera origin. The third sequence, The pre-Devonian Neptune Group consists of of basal orogenic conglomerate and more than 1,500 m of quartz-sandstone molasse that resulted from the erosion of the early Paleozoic mountains of the Ross orogeny. The fourth sequence of continental deposits of the Beacon Supergroup consists of Devonian quartz sanstone (Dover Sandstone), Permian glacial tillite (Gale Mudstone), and Permian siltstone and shale (Pecora Formation) containing glossopterid-bearing coal beds. During Early and Middle Jurassic time, and Transantarctic continental rift extensionally split the East Antarctic craton from West Antarctica as Gondwanaland began to break up. The continental rifting was shortly followed, during Late Jurassic time, by more vigorous extension resulting from major transform faulting.

  14. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal morphology and dark septate fungal associations in medicinal and aromatic plants of Western Ghats, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, T; Senthilkumar, M; Rajangam, M; Udaiyan, K

    2006-12-01

    We investigated roots of 107 medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in the Western Ghats region of Southern India for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) associations. Of the 107 MAPs belonging to 98 genera in 52 families examined, 79 were AM and 38 harbored a DSE association. Typical Arum- and Paris-type mycorrhizas are first reported in the presumed nonmycorrhizal family Amaranthaceae. Similarly, DSE associations are recorded for the first time in nine plant families and 37 plant species. Thirty MAPs had both AM and DSE associations. The number of MAPs having Arum-type mycorrhiza was greater than those having Paris-type. This was more prominent among herbaceous plants than in trees where the Paris-type was predominant. Similarly, the Arum-type was more prevalent in annuals than in perennials. DSE associations were more frequent in herbs and perennials compared to other MAPs. PMID:17109145

  16. The rain-runoff response of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation in the Western Ghats of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas; Rakesh, K. N.

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe effects of forest degradation and use and establishment of tree-plantations on degraded or modified forest ecosystems at multi-decadal time-scales using tree-plantations on the streamflow response are less studied in the humid tropics when compared to deforestation and forest conversion to agriculture. In the Western Ghats of India (Uttar Kannada, Karnataka State), a previous soil hydraulic conductivity survey linked with rain IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) had suggested a greater occurrence of infiltration-excess overland within the degraded forest and reforested areas and thus potentially higher streamflow (Bonell et al., 2010). We further tested these predictions in Uttar Kannada by establishing experimental basins ranging from 7 to 23 ha across three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen Forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest (DF) and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. In total, 11 basins were instrumented (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF) in two geomorphological zones, i.e., Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad) and at three sites (one Coastal, two Up-Ghat). The rainfall-streamflow observations collected (at daily and also at a 36 min time resolutions in the Coastal basins) over a 2-3 year period (2003-2005) were analysed. In both the Coastal and Up-Ghat basins, the double mass curves showed during the rainy season a consistent trend in favour of more proportion of streamflow in the rank order DF > AC > NF. These double mass curves provide strong evidence that overland flow is progressively becomes a more dominant stormflow pathway. Across all sites, NF converted 28.4 ± 6.41stdev% of rainfall into total streamflow in comparison to 32.7 ± 6.97stdev% in AC and 45.3 ± 9.61stdev% in DF. Further support for the above trends emerges from the quickflow ratio QF/Q for the Coastal basins. There are much higher values for both

  17. Genetic and clonal diversity of the endemic ant-plant Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae) in the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Dev, Suma A; Shenoy, Megha; Borges, Renee M

    2010-06-01

    Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) is a dominant self-incompatible ant-plant or myrmecophyte, growing as an understorey tree in high-density patches. It is endemic to the biodiversity hotspot of the southern Western Ghats of India and, besides ants, harbours many endemic invertebrate taxa, such as bees that pollinate it as well as arboreal earthworms, within swollen hollow stem internodes called domatia. Using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, three geographically separated populations were found to be multiclonal, characterized by high levels of clonal diversity. Values for the Simpson diversity index ranged between 0.764 and 0.964, and for Fager's evenness index between 0.00 and 0.036 for neighbourhoods within populations. This myrmecophyte was found to combine sexual recruitment (66.7%) and clonal production (33.3%) as methods of reproduction. Moderate amounts of genetic diversity at the species level were observed, with 52.63% polymorphism, and moderate values of Shannon's diversity index (0.1895) as well as of Nei's gene diversity (0.1186). In each population, observed genotypic diversity was significantly lower than expected, indicating significant genetic structure. Neighbour-joining trees demonstrated that Agumbe, which is the most northern population examined and geographically twice as far away from the other two populations, grouped separately and with larger bootstrap support from a larger cluster consisting of the Sampaji and Solaikolli populations, which are closer to each other geographically. Some neighbourhoods within each population showed spatial genetic structure even at small spatial scales of less than 5 m. A combination of clonality and short-distance pollen movement by small pollinating bees (Braunsapis puangensis) coupled with primary ballistic seed dispersal, and possible secondary seed dispersal by rodents, may contribute to spatial genetic structure at such small scales. The clonality of H. brunonis may be a

  18. Workshop on Techtonic Evolution of Greenstone Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewit, M. J. (Editor); Ashwal, Lewis D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: greenstone belt externalities; boundaries; rock terranes; synthesis and destiny; tectonic evolution; rock components and structure; sedimentology; stratigraphy; volcanism; metamorphism; and geophysics.

  19. Investigation of Moving Belt Radiator Technology Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. Peter; Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an advanced spacecraft radiator technology is reported. The moving belt radiator is a thermal radiator concept with the promise of lower specific mass (per kW rejected) than that afforded by existing technologies. The results of a parametric study to estimate radiator mass for future space power systems is presented. It is shown that this technology can be scaled up to 200 MW for higher rejection temperatures. Several aspects of the design concept are discussed, including the dynamics of a large rotating belt in microgravity. The results of a computer code developed to model the belt dynamics are presented. A series of one-g experiments to investigate the dynamics of small belts is described. A comprehensive test program to investigate belt dynamics in microgravity aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft is discussed. It was found that the desired circular shape can readily be achieved in microgravity. It is also shown that a rotating belt is stable when subjected to simulated attitude control maneuvers. Heat exchanger design is also investigated. Several sealing concepts were examined experimentally, and are discussed. Overall heat transfer coefficients to the rotating belt are presented. Material properties for various belt materials, including screen meshes, are also presented. The results presented in this report indicate that the moving belt radiator concept is technically feasible.

  20. Safety belt promotion: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G D; Moffit, P B

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide practitioners a rationale and description of selected theoretically based approaches to safety belt promotion. Theory failure is a threat to the integrity and effectiveness of safety belt promotion. The absence of theory driven programs designed to promote safety belt use is a concern of this paper. Six theoretical models from the social and behavioral sciences are reviewed with suggestions for application to promoting safety belt use and include Theory of Reasoned Action, the Health Belief Model, Fear Arousal, Operant Learning, Social Learning Theory, and Diffusion of Innovations. Guidelines for the selection and utilization of theory are discussed. PMID:3276342

  1. Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

  2. Root reinforcement and its contribution to slope stability in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., DOI:10.1002/esp.1794) with limited data had already demonstrated the possible effects of vegetation on slope hydrology and stability. Spatially distributed root cohesion is one of the most important data necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the probability of shallow landslide initiation, results of which are reported in sessions GM6.1 and HS13.13/NH3.16. Thus it is necessary to the know the upper limits of reinforcement that the roots are able to provide and its spatial and vertical distribution in such an anthropogenically intervened terrain. Root tensile strength and root pull out tests were conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) Gambooge (Garcinia gummi-gutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and 9) Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested had a length of 15 cm. Root pull out tests were conducted in the field. Root tensile strength vs root diameter, root pull out strength vs diameter, root diameter vs root depth and root count vs root depth relationships were derived. Root cohesion was computed for nine most dominant plants in the region using the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979) modified by Schimidt et al. (2001). A soil depth map was derived using regression kriging as suggested by Kuriakose et al., (doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.005) and used along with the land use map of 2008 to distribute the

  3. Exploring the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Chatzichristou, E. T.; Ropokis, G.; Giannakis, O.

    2012-09-01

    We present the outreach efforts of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, intended to provide the general public with simplified information concerning the scientific objectives of the project, its focus and its expected outcomes. MAARBLE involves monitoring of the geospace environment through space and ground-based observations, in order to understand various aspects of the radiation belts (torus-shaped regions encircling the Earth, in which high-energy charged particles are trapped by the geomagnetic field), which have direct impact on human endeavors in space (spacecraft and astronauts exposure). The public outreach website of MAARBLE, besides regular updates with relevant news, also employs a variety of multimedia (image and video galleries) and impressive sounds of space (characteristic sounds such as whistlers or tweeks) related to very low and ultra low frequency (VLF/ULF) electromagnetic waves. It also provides links to some of the most interesting relevant educational activities, including those at partner institutions such as the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at UCLA, the University of Alberta, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics and the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

  4. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2012B to recover interesting objects that will be discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population.

  5. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  6. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  7. Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

    2007-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

  8. 47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH BACK BELT DROPPING HARDENED NAILS ON THE FRONT BELT TO BE TEMPERED; MOTION STOPPED - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  9. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  10. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  11. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  16. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  17. Seat belt use and stress in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schichor, A; Beck, A; Bernstein, B; Crabtree, B

    1990-01-01

    This study explored the association of adolescent seat belt use with psychosocial risk factors in an urban minority population after the enactment of a mandatory seat belt law. Data on seat belt use, family support, feelings of being down, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual activity, school troubles, and problems with the law were obtained from 541 self-report intake forms administered to an adolescent medicine clinic population from 1986 to 1987. Respondents were almost exclusively black and Hispanic; 315 (59%) were females and 222 (41%) males, with a mean age of 15.4. Seat belt use was reported by 249 (46%) and no or intermittent use by 292 (54%). Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sums tests were used to examine associations between seat belt use and risk factors. Results showed that the group comprised of those reporting no and intermittent seat belt use was significantly more likely to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, have been on probation, and feel that life in general was not going very well. No association was found between seat belt use and cigarette, drug, or alcohol use or sexual activity without contraceptives. Taking into account the lack of observed behavioral information to validate such self-report questionnaires, these data nevertheless point to the nonuse or intermittent use of seat belts as a possible manifestation of a lack of self-care due to feeling down and/or preoccupation with family, school, or societal problems. PMID:2275431

  18. Situational characteristics of safety belt use.

    PubMed

    Fockler, S K; Cooper, P J

    1990-04-01

    Past research concerning the use and nonuse of safety belts has tended to stereotype users and nonusers as distinct entities on the basis of a single observed situation. The thought processes underlying the reasons given by drivers for using or not using seat belts have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to observe belt use by a group of drivers and describe factors contributing to their use or nonuse as defined by the drivers themselves. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 239 drivers whose safety belt wearing behavior was observed in specific city or highway driving locations. Vehicle license numbers, gender, and age group of selected drivers were used to retrieve driver records and insurance policy data. Open-ended questions were asked concerning their reasons for use or nonuse and their attitudes towards safety belts and other types of traffic safety countermeasures. Driver attitudes, characteristics, and records were compared between observed safety belt user and nonuser groups to validate variables predicting use or nonuse. Respondents' descriptions of the social and personal context of their choice to use or not use safety belts provide a broader view of seat belt wearing that suggests implications for planning future enforcement and education programs. PMID:2331287

  19. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  20. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  1. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  2. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car. How should I wear my seat belt? The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  3. Tensioning of a belt around a drum using membrane element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    An application of the membrane element to the problem of the tensioning of a conveyer belt which wraps around a drum is presented. Two cases were investigated: (1) belt tension increase due to drum edge wear; and (2) material trapped between the drum and the belt. In both cases it was found that the increase in belt tension was due to the additional stretching of the belt resulting from the drum radius change rather than from the transverse deflection of the belt.

  4. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency.

    PubMed

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E

    2010-08-01

    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure. PMID:20338748

  5. Inner Radiation Belt Dynamics and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, P. P.; Looper, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al. Inner Zone Model (SIZM). By varying modeled physics parameters and solar particle injection parameters to generate many ensembles of the inner belt, then optimizing the ensemble weights according to inner belt observations from SAMPEX/PET at LEO and HEO/DOS at high altitude, we obtain the best-fit state of the inner belt. We need to fully sample the range of solar proton injection sources among the ensemble members to ensure reasonable agreement between the model ensembles and observations. Once this is accomplished, we find the method is fairly robust. We will demonstrate the data assimilation by presenting an extended interval of solar proton injections and losses, illustrating how these short-term dynamics dominate long-term inner belt climatology.

  6. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siribyina, B.; Murthy, I.; Rama Rao, P.

    2008-12-01

    A regional magnetic survey was carried out over an area of 8000 km2 in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, which is covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB). viz., the Khondalitic series and Charnockites in the northern half and Permian to Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in the southern half, and forms a part of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin. The survey brought out a strong NE-SW trending anomaly in the area covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB), and a mild ENE-WSW trending anomaly in the area covered by the sediments of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin. The NE-SW trending anomaly in the northern half could be attributed to the exposed/near surface Charnockite basement that has come closer to the surface as a result of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) tectonics. Explanation of the mild ENE-WSW trending anomaly over the sediments of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin required a faulted magnetic basement at depth downthrown towards the south. It is therefore concluded that the Charnockitic basement together with the Khondalite group of rocks which are folded and faulted during the different phases of tectonics of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) extend into the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and further, were involved in faulting during the phases of formation and sedimentation in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin.

  7. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siribyina, B.

    2009-05-01

    A regional magnetic survey was carried out over an area of 8000 km2 in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, which is covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB)viz., the Khondalitic series and Charnockites in the northern half and Permian to Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in the southern half, and forms a part of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin. The survey brought out a strong NE-SW trending anomaly in the area covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB), and a mild ENE-WSW trending anomaly in the area covered by the sediments of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin. The NE-SW trending anomaly in the northern half could be attributed to the exposed/near surface Charnockite basement that has come closer to the surface as a result of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) tectonics. Explanation of the mild ENE-WSW trending anomaly over the sediments of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin required a faulted magnetic basement at depth downthrown towards the south. It is therefore concluded that the Charnockitic basement together with the Khondalite group of rocks which are folded and faulted during the different phases of tectonics of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) extend into the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and further, were involved in faulting during the phases of formation and sedimentation in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin.

  8. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J

    1992-01-01

    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and especially cars with nondetachable motorized belts. Most of these automatic shoulder belts systems include manual lap belts. Use of lap belts was lower in cars with automatic two-point belt systems than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts; precisely how much lower could not be reliably estimated in this survey. Use of shoulder and lap belts was slightly higher in General Motors cars with detachable automatic three-point belts compared with the same model cars with manual three-point belts; in Hondas there was no difference in the rates of use of manual three-point belts and the rates of use of automatic three-point belts. PMID:1561301

  9. Extension and evolution of the 2.1 Ga west-central African belt in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toteu, S. F.; Penaye, J.; Tchameni, R.; van Schmus, W. R.

    2003-04-01

    Available isotopic and geochronological data, combined with new petrostructural observations in Cameroon, permit discussion of the nature and the extension of the Paleoproterozoic West Central African Belt (WCAB, Feybesse et al., 1998), which resulted from the Eburnean collision between the Congo and São Francisco cratons. The portion of the belt recognized in Cameroon is approximately oriented NNE-SSW and includes the Nyong series along the NW corner of the Congo craton and Paleoproterozoic remnants cropping out further north within the late Neoproterozoic Pan-African belt. The dominant rock units consist of migmatitic orthogneisses associated with amphibolites, felsic gneisses of volcanic to volcano-sedimentary origin, quartzites and banded iron formations. Orthogneisses are mostly TTG compositions within the Nyong series and metadiorites to metagranodiorites to the north in the Pan African belt. Paleoproterozoic evolution is characterized by development of nappe tectonic structures, recognized in the Nyong series, and by high-grade, granulitic facies, metamorphism that was associated with arrested charnockite formation. About 600 Ma the Paleoproterozoic structures and mineral assemblages were subsequently reworked more severely in the Pan African mobile belt than in the Nyong series, where they are locally well preserved. Broadly, the Nyong series may be ascribed to a proximal domain characterized by reworking and recycling of the adjacent Archean cratonic crust, while the occurrences farther north represent a more distal domain characterized by newly formed Paleoproterozoic (Birrimian) crust. This is consistent with the distribution of metamorphic ages, which display a polarity from the internal zones (ca 2.1 Ga) to the external zones (ca 2.03 Ga) and suggest origin of the metamorphic rocks in a modern-type collisional belt during the Paleoproterozoic (Eburnean). Reference: Feybesse J.L., Johan V., Triboulet C., Guerrot C., Mayaga-Mikolo F., Bouchot V, Eko N

  10. Collisions in the Kuiper belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael

    2007-07-01

    For most of the 15 year history of observations of Kuiper belt objects, it has been speculated that impacts must have played a major role in shaping the physical and chemical characteristics of these objects, yet little direct evidence of the effects of such impacts has been seen. The past 18 months, however, have seen an explosion of major new discoveries giving some of the first insights into the influence of this critical process. From a diversity of observations we have been led to the hypotheses that: {1} satellite-forming impacts must have been common in the Kuiper belt; {2} such impacts led to significant chemical modification; and {3} the outcomes of these impacts are sufficiently predictable that we can now find and study these impact-derived systems by the chemical and physical attributes of both the satellites and the primaries. If our picture is correct, we now have in hand for the first time a set of incredibly powerful tools to study the frequency and outcome of collisions in the outer solar system. Here we propose three linked projects that would answer questions critical to the multiple prongs of our hypothesis. In these projects we will study the chemical effects of collisions through spectrophotometric observations of collisionally formed satellites and through the search for additional satellites around primaries with potential impact signatures, and we will study the physical effects of impacts through the examination of tidal evolution in proposed impact systems. The intensive HST program that we propose here will allow us to fully test our new hypotheses and will provide the ability to obtain the first extensive insights into outer solar system impact processes.

  11. Vision for a Virtual Radiation Belt Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. C.; Baker, D. N.; Kroehl, H. W.; Kihn, E. A.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H.; McGuire, R. E.; Fung, S. F.; Kanekal, S. G.; Mason, G. M.; Rigler, E. J.; Weigel, R. S.; Elkington, , S. R.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite engineers, operators, and scientists now share a common desire to understand the structure and variability of the earth's radiation belts. Continuing upsets to space operations demonstrate a need for improved scientific understanding of the radiation belts, more accurate models, and better transfer of scientific understanding to space technology and operations. Currently, the resources necessary for such advancements are beyond the scope of an individual researcher. Thus, we discuss plans to advance our understanding of the radiation belts and mitigate the hazards they pose to society by creating a Virtual Radiation Belt Observatory (ViRBO). The observatory will be an open access near real time and long term archive of observed and simulated radiation belt model data. It will enable scientists to test theoretical mechanisms proposed to explain how particles are accelerated and removed from the radiation belts and it will provide improved tools for engineers designing satellites and operators assessing satellite malfunctions. The observatory will capitalize on radiation belt modeling efforts currently underway at institutions throughout the country and support the goals of the electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) endorsed by the world wide community.

  12. On the structure of coronal streamer belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eselevich, V. G.

    1998-02-01

    In an attempt to separate the temporal and spatial variations in polarization brightness (plasma density) along the coronal streamer belt, a study is made of the parts of the belt which are longitudinally aligned with the west or east limb of the sun. It is shown that the brightness distribution along streamer belts is inhomogeneous with relative brightness variations of about 1.1-2.0. Streamer belts consist of a sequence of coronal rays (streamers), each of which at distances of greater than 3 solar radii from the solar center has a cross section with a typical angular size of about 10-70 deg along the belt and about 10-30 deg across the belt with neighboring rays separated by L of about 10-70. Examples from CRs 1591 and 1592 show that in the absence of the influence of coronal mass ejection, the distribution of streamer rays along the streamer belt can be stable for nearly two complete Carrington rotations.

  13. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  14. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  15. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu

    1997-01-01

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  16. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.

    1982-02-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream. The apparatus includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  17. Controls on thrust belt curvature, Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Structural curvature in the northern part of the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt (WITB) may be the result of either along-strike variations in pre-thrust stratigraphy or a buttress which physically concentrated shortening, or possibly both. Most thrust sheets of the WITB strike northward and were translated eastward, but in the Snake River Range (SRR) (the northernmost range in the WITB), structural strike curves from northward to nearly westward. Structural cross sections of the SRR are generally drawn in a radial pattern creating a volumetric imbalance in regional palinspastic restorations. Stratigraphic separation diagrams of major, through-going thrust faults in the SRR show extensive cut off in upper Paleozoic strata. New measured sections of upper Paleozoic stratigraphy at locations in several major thrust sheets of the WITB and in the foreland, new structural cross sections and mapping, and existing paleomagnetic data are used in a new interpretation of the origin of structural curvature in the WITB. Published paleomagnetic data require counterclockwise rotation of frontal thrust sheets along the northern boundary of the WITB, but no rotation of eastward-translated thrust sheets farther south along most of the WITB. Evidence for both a pre-existing west-trending depositional margin and rotation of frontal thrust sheets suggests that buttressing and modification of structural strike occurred along an oblique ramp where differences in stratigraphic thickness and possible pre-existing fault partitioning of the Paleozoic strata are localized.

  18. Thermagraphic Observation Of Mechanical Power Transmission Belt Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmody, Tim

    1986-03-01

    A description of observations made on test performed on V-belt drives and a form of synchronous belt drive the HTD using a thermal video image system. How infrared viewing can improve temperature reading and recording in drive efficiency and belt life testing. Projections on new application areas for infrared in belt development and marketing.

  19. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous...

  4. Web belt load measuring instrument has excellent stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. R.

    1967-01-01

    Web belt system measures belt or strap load. It is partially disassembled and installed on an existing belt without cutting or re-threading the belt. A strain gage, installed on one of the support beams, eliminates errors due to uneven loading.

  5. Mountain building and mantle dynamics: a journey through the Tethyan belt (Stephan Mueller Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    The style of mantle convection beneath large oceanic plates is rather well established. On the other hand, we still have a loose grasp of what happen beneath continental plate, especially beneath mobile and convergent margins, where we expect to have vigorous convection. Here, I present some considerations about the style and evolution of mantle convection beneath convergent/collisional zones as constrained by geological - seismological data and modelling. I will consider the Alpine-Tethyan belt as a case study, exploring the idea that the style of mountain building can be used as a proxy to reconstruct mantle dynamics. The Tertiary evolution of the Tethyan belt indeed offers a unique opportunity to discuss about mountain building and mantle dynamics, as it include region such as the Mediterranean, where collision is still in its incipient stage producing Apennines style orogen, to the Himalayan-Tibetan belt, where collisional process reaches its extreme consequence. We classified those two belts as end members of a wide range of orgen. On one side, the of "slab pull" orogen, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks and reduced topographic signal, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other side, the "slab suction" orogen, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle

  6. Visualization of Radiation Belts from REPT Data

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization, created using actual data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes (REPT) on NASA’s Van Allen Probes, clearly shows the emergence of new third belt and second slot reg...

  7. Congressional panel makes recommendations on belt safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-12-15

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act) called for a Technical Study Panel to present a review and make recommendations on the use of belt air and the composition and fire retardant properties of belt materials in underground coal mining. In October 2007 the Panel released 20 recommendations publicly. These are presented in the article. Many recommendations encouraged the MSHA to enforce existing laws of maintenance and fire protection or example more vigorously. Maybe the biggest change recommended was that the industry should adopt the Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT) standard proposed in 1992. Another important recommendation was one that would help eliminate hazards associated with point feeding. 1 photo.

  8. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  9. Electron Flux of Radiation Belts Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows meridional (from north-south) plane projections of the REPT-A and REPT-B electron flux values. The animation first shows the expected two-belt Van Allen zone structure; from Se...

  10. Safety Belt Laws and Disparities in Safety Belt Use Among US High-School Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Flaura K.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We compared reported safety belt use, for both drivers and passengers, among teenagers with learner’s permits, provisional licenses, and unrestricted licenses in states with primary or secondary enforcement of safety belt laws. Methods. Our data source was the 2006 National Young Driver Survey, which included a national representative sample of 3126 high-school drivers. We used multivariate, log-linear regression analyses to assess associations between safety belt laws and belt use. Results. Teenaged drivers were 12% less likely to wear a safety belt as drivers and 15% less likely to wear one as passengers in states with a secondary safety belt law than in states with a primary law. The apparent reduction in belt use among teenagers as they progressed from learner to unrestricted license holder occurred in only secondary enforcement states. Groups reporting particularly low use included African American drivers, rural residents, academically challenged students, and those driving pickup trucks. Conclusions. The results provided further evidence for enactment of primary enforcement provisions in safety belt laws because primary laws are associated with higher safety belt use rates and lower crash-related injuries and mortality. PMID:22515851

  11. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities. PMID:25946240

  12. Structural and functional diversity of rhizobacteria associated with Rauwolfia spp. across the Western Ghat regions of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, S P; Hariprasad, P; Brijesh Singh, S; Gowtham, H G; Niranjana, S R

    2014-01-01

    The present study carried out with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from rhizosphere soils of Rauwolfia spp. collected from Western Ghat (WG) regions of Karnataka indicated that Pseudomonas sp. was prevalently found followed by Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and uncultured bacteria. A total of 200 rhizobacteria were isolated from 58 rhizosphere soil samples comprising of 15 different bacterial genera. The Shannon Weaver diversity index (H') and Simpson's diversity index (D) were found to be 2.57 and 0.91 for cultivable bacteria, respectively. The total species richness of cultivable rhizobacteria was high in Coorg district comprising 15 bacterial genera while in Mysore district, four bacterial genera were recorded. Rarefaction curve analysis also indicated the presence of higher species richness in samples of Shimoga and Coorg. All the rhizobacteria were screened for their multiple plant growth promotion and disease suppression traits. The results revealed that 70% of the isolates colonized tomato roots, 42% produced indole acetic acid, 55% solubilized phosphorus, while 43, 22, 27, 19, 40, 15 and 44% produced siderophore, salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide, chitinase, phytase, cellulase and protease, respectively. Rhizobacterial isolates showing antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus were 53 and 33%, respectively. Plant growth promotion studies revealed that most of the isolates increased percent germination with significantly higher vigour index as compared to untreated control. Most predominant rhizobacteria found in the rhizospheres of Rauwolfia spp. of WG regions are potential PGPR which can serve as biofertilizers and biopesticides. PMID:23864441

  13. Pollination ecology and reproductive biology of Canarium strictum Roxb. from evergreen forests of Central Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C N Prasanna; Somashekar, R K; Nagaraja, B C; Shivaprasad, D

    2015-09-01

    Pollination and reproductive biology of a dioecious tree Canarium strictum Roxb. (Burseraceae) was extensively studied within the Agumbe forest range of Western Ghats, Karnataka to identify primary pollen vectors and to enumerate interrelationship with the pollinators. The study also investigated phenology, floral biology, pollen production, pollen viability, stigma receptivity and nectar production. Trees produced functionally unisexual flowers with white petals, organized densely on inflorescences. Staminate flowers produced high percentage of viable pollen and relatively abundant nectar (15.75 μl) as a reward to the pollinators, while pistillate flowers produced only nectar (12 μl). Successful fruit set with wind pollination was facilitated by synchronization of flowering male and female trees, long term receptivity of stigma in female flowers and extended lifespan of flowers. The highest mean percent of fruit set with hand cross-pollination (μ = 91.06) suggests the influence of local male tree density, as well as, frequency and abundance of pollinator community on fruit set by open pollination. PMID:26521556

  14. Genetic diversity across natural populations of three montane plant species from the Western Ghats, India revealed by intersimple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A U; Apte, G S; Bahulikar, R A; Lagu, M D; Kulkarni, B G; Suresh, H S; Singh, N P; Rao, M K; Gupta, V S; Pant, A; Ranjekar, P K

    2001-10-01

    We analysed genetic diversity across the natural populations of three montane plant species in the Western Ghats, India; Symplocos laurina, Gaultheria fragrantissima and Eurya nitida using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. These markers revealed genetic diversity within the populations of these plants from Nilgiri and also between two populations of S. laurina from Nilgiri and Amboli. Genetic variation within and between populations was analysed using various parameters such as total heterozygosity (HT), heterozygosity within population (HS), diversity between populations (DST), coefficient of population differentiation (GST), genetic distance (D) and gene flow (Nm). Total heterozygosity (HT) was higher for S. laurina (0.238) than for G. fragrantissima (0.172) and E. nitida (0.182). Two populations of S. laurina, separated by > 1000 km, showed a high within-population variation (53.7%) and a low gene flow (Nm = 0.447). upgma phenograms depicted a tendency of accessions to group according to their geographical locations in all the three plant species. The insight gained into the genetic structure of these plant populations might have implications in developing in situ and ex situ conservation strategies. PMID:11742544

  15. L-Asparaginase Activity of Fungal Endophytes from Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. (Apocynaceae), Endemic to the Western Ghats (India)

    PubMed Central

    Manasa, Chandramouli; Nalini, Monnanda Somaiah

    2014-01-01

    “Endophytes,” the microbes residing within the plant tissues, are important sources of secondary metabolites. Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall., a medicinal tree, endemic to the Western Ghats with rich ethnobotanical history and unique chemical diversity, was selected to study fungal endophytes and evaluate them for L-asparaginase activity. Healthy plant parts were selected for the isolation of endophytes following standard isolation protocols. A total of 727 isolates belonging to 20 taxa were obtained. The isolates comprised of bark (11%), twig (22%), leaf (43%), fruit (12.0%), and seeds (12%). Endophytes such as Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Fusarium, Phomopsis, Verticillium, and Volutella colonized T. heyneana plant parts. Fusarium sp., Phomopsis spp., isolate Thlf01, and Fusarium solani were the dominant genera of bark, twig, leaf, fruits, and seed samples, respectively. The endophytes were screened for their ability to utilize L-asparagine by plate assay method. Fusarium spp. exhibited a high level of activity among the nine endophytes tested positive for L-asparaginase activity. Studies underline the potentials of endophyte-derived fungal L-asparaginases as sources of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27382605

  16. Jupiter's radiation belts: Can Pioneer 10 survive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  17. A new species of the Choroterpes Eaton, 1881 subgenus Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 and a new record of the subgenus Choroterpes, s.s. (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, C; Janarthanan, S; Sivaramakrishnan, K G

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Choroterpes (Monophyllus) is described based on larvae collected from rivers of Karnataka part of the Western Ghats. Choroterpes (Monophyllus) nandini n. sp. can be distinguished from the only other species viz., C. (Monophyllus) monophyllus by the following combination of characters: (i) median emargination of labrum moderately deep, without denticles; (ii) gills 2-7 without tracheation and (iii) abdominal segment 6 and 7 without colour pattern. Choroterpes (Choroterpes) petersi Tong and Dudgeon 2003 is newly recorded based on larval collections from the eastern and western regions of southern Western Ghats. PMID:25947510

  18. Oil generation in overthrust belts

    SciTech Connect

    Angevine, C.L.; Turcotte, D.L.

    1983-02-01

    The burial of immature sediments beneath a thrust sheet may result in sufficient heating to generate hydrocarbons. The authors present a model for the thermally activated generation of oil from kerogen and the subsequent destruction of the oil through cracking. Using this oil generation model in conjunction with a model applicable to the thermal evolution of overthrust belts, the evolution is studied of oil in sediments beneath a thrust sheet composed of sedimentary rocks. Oil generation may begin soon after emplacement of the thrust sheet. Beneath thick thrust sheets (>8 km), all oil in the sedimentary section may be destroyed less than 5 m.y. after thrusting. The authors results to the timing of oil generation in the sedimentary section beneath the Absaroka thrust plate in the Fossil syncline of western Wyoming. Calculations indicate that the Paleozoic and a part of the Mesozoic section were thermally mature prior to emplacement of the Absaroka plate. The remaining part of Mesozoic sediments matured only after thrusting. The results are in agreement with Warner's 1980 observations that oil being produced from reservoirs in the Absaroka plate was generated in the underthrust Mesozoic section.

  19. Decay rate of the second radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  20. Regional magnetic anomalies, crustal strength, and the location of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    The northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt in Canada and Alaska is at the boundary between the broad continental margin mobile belt and the stable North American craton. The fold-and-thrust belt is marked by several significant changes in geometry: cratonward extensions in the central Yukon Territory and northeastern Alaska are separated by marginward re-entrants. These geometric features of the Cordilleran mobile belt are controlled by relations between lithospheric strength and compressional tectonic forces developed along the continental margin. Regional magnetic anomalies indicate deep thermal and compositional characteristics that contribute to variations in crustal strength. Our detailed analysis of one such anomaly, the North Slope deep magnetic high, helps to explain the geometry of the fold-and-thrust front in northern Alaska. This large magnetic anomaly is inferred to reflect voluminous mafic magmatism in an old (Devonian?) extensional domain. The presence of massive amounts of malic material in the lower crust implies geochemical depletion of the underlying upper mantle, which serves to strengthen the lithosphere against thermal erosion by upper mantle convection. We infer that deep-source magnetic highs are an important indicator of strong lower crust and upper mantle. This stronger lithosphere forms buttresses that play an important role in the structural development of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  1. Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Biju, SD; Loader, Simon P; Bossuyt, Franky

    2009-01-01

    Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae), a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion, isolation and radiation of

  2. The 2.1 Ga West Central African Belt in Cameroon: extension and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaye, J.; Toteu, S. F.; Tchameni, R.; Van Schmus, W. R.; Tchakounté, J.; Ganwa, A.; Minyem, D.; Nsifa, E. N.

    2004-06-01

    Available isotopic and geochronological data, combined with new petrographic and structural observations in Cameroon, permit discussion of the nature and extension of the Paleoproterozoic West Central African Belt, which resulted from the Eburnean collision between the Congo and São Francisco cratons. The portion of the belt recognized in Cameroon is approximately oriented NNE-SSW and includes the Nyong series along the NW corner of the Congo craton and Paleoproterozoic remnants cropping out further north within the late Neoproterozoic Pan-African belt. The dominant rock units consist of migmatitic orthogneisses associated with amphibolites, felsic gneisses of volcanic to volcano-sedimentary origin, quartzites, and banded iron formations. Orthogneisses are mostly TTG compositions within the Nyong series and metadiorites to metagranodiorites to the north in the Pan-African belt. Paleoproterozoic evolution is characterized by the development of nappe tectonic structures, recognized in the Nyong series, and by high-grade, granulitic facies metamorphism that was associated with arrested charnockite formation. The Paleoproterozoic structures and mineral assemblages were subsequently reworked more severely in the Pan-African mobile belt than in the Nyong series, where they are locally well preserved. Broadly, the Nyong series may be ascribed to a proximal domain characterized by reworking and recycling of the adjacent Archean cratonic crust, while the occurrences farther north represent a more distal domain characterized by newly formed Paleoproterozoic (Birrimian) crust. This is consistent with the distribution of metamorphic ages, which display a polarity from the internal zones (ca. 2.1 Ga) to the external zones (ca. 2.03 Ga) and suggest origin of the metamorphic rocks in a modern-type collisional belt during the Paleoproterozoic (Eburnean).

  3. Seismogenic nodes in the Mediterranean orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G.; Soloviev, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2003-04-01

    The central segment of the Mediterranean orogenic belt (the Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Balkanides, and Dinarides) has been studied to identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MSZ) based on the concept that the lithosphere is built-up by different-scale blocks, separated by mobile boundaries. With MSZ we compiled the morphostructural map (scale 1:1,000,000) for the study region using the GIS technology. The map shows the hierarchical block-structure of the region, the boundary zones bounding blocks, and the loci of the nodes. Three-level hierarchy has been established for the blocks and their boundaries. All the recorded M >= 6.0 earthquakes nucleate at the nodes delineated by MSZ, i.e. ignoring the seismic record. The nodes capable of M >= 6.5 earthquakes are identified with the criteria of high seismicity nodes, previously derived from pattern recognition in the Pamirs -Tien Shan region. In the study region, with the employed criteria 29 out of the 33 nodes, hosting the observed M >= 6.5 events, have been classified as prone to M >= 6.5 earthquakes. With the exception of the Carpatho-Balkanides system, where the recognition procedure is inapplicable due to the insufficient number of sample nodes for the learning stage, we recognized the seismogenic nodes (D), prone to M >= 6.0 earthquakes, with the pattern recognition algorithm CORA-3. The recognition is performed using geomorphic, morphostructural, and gravity parameters relevant to seismicity. The majority of D nodes is associated with the first and second rank boundaries, i.e. larger earthquakes originate at the boundaries of larger blocks. Characteristic traits of D nodes selected by CORA-3 suggest an increased fragmentation of the crust and high intensity of tectonic movements in the D nodes vicinities. We identify a number of D nodes, where strong earthquakes are not recorded till present

  4. Illustrated redescription of Haliplus (Liaphlus) arrowi Guignot, 1936 (Coleoptera: Haliplidae) from the Western Ghats, India, and notes on the closely related H. angustifrons Régimbart, 1892.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Sayali D; Ghate, Hemant V; Van Vondel, Bernhard J

    2016-01-01

    In an ongoing survey of aquatic beetles, the crawling water beetles Haliplus (Liaphlus) arrowi Guignot, 1936 and Haliplus (Liaphlus) angustifrons Régimbart, 1892 were found only from four (three localities for H. arrowi and one locality for H. angustifrons) out of 85 localities sampled in and around the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. Digital images and scanning electron micrographs of diagnostic characters are provided for the first time for both the species. Intraspecific and interspecific variation in the elytral maculation of H. arrowi and H. angustifrons is illustrated. PMID:27395628

  5. Contribution to the knowledge of Tenuibaetis Kang & Yang 1994, Nigrobaetis Novikova & Kluge 1987 and Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge 1987 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from the Western Ghats (India).

    PubMed

    Kubendran, T; Balasubramanian, C; Selvakumar, C; Gattolliat, J L; Sivaramakrishnan, K G

    2015-01-01

    As part of ongoing exploration of the mayflies of hill streams of southern Western Ghats, we describe two new species: Nigrobaetis paramakalyani Kubendran & Balasubramanian n. sp. and Labiobaetis jacobusi Kubendran & Balasubramanian n. sp. The genus Nigrobaetis is reported for the first time from India. Tenuibaetis frequentus (Müller-Liebenau & Hubbard 1985) n. comb. was also collected in this area and we provide the first description of this species at the imaginal stage. Brief ecological notes of the three species are added. PMID:26249065

  6. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-05-20

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  7. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K Ullas; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, Krithi K; Goswami, Varun R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2) landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2) (SE = 847 km(2)) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2) of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2) or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need

  8. Discriminant analysis for characterization of hydrochemistry of two mountain river basins of contrasting climates in the southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jobin; Joseph, Sabu; Thrivikramji, K P

    2015-06-01

    Discriminant analysis (DA) was performed on river hydrochemistry data for three seasons (i.e., monsoon (MON), post-monsoon (POM), and pre-monsoon (PRM)) to examine the spatio-temporal hydrochemical variability of two mountain river basins (Muthirapuzha River Basin (MRB) and Pambar River Basin (PRB)) of the southern Western Ghats, India. Although the river basins drain tropical mountainous terrain, climate and degree of anthropogenic disturbances show significant differences (i.e., humid, more disturbed MRB vs semiarid, less disturbed PRB). In MRB, TDS, Na(+), pH, Mg(2+), and K(+) are the attributes responsible for significant hydrochemical variations between the seasons, while Cl(-), TH, and Na(+) are the predictors in PRB. The temporal discriminant models imply the importance of rainfall pattern, relative contribution of groundwater toward stream discharge and farming activities in hydrochemistry between the seasons. Inclusion of hydrochemical attributes (in the temporal discriminant functions) that can be derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources suggests that ionic enrichment strongly depends on the seasons, and is mainly due to the variability in the intensity of anthropogenic activities as well as fluctuations in river discharge. In spatial discriminant models, Cl(-) is the only variable responsible for hydrochemical variations between the basins (during MON), whereas Si discriminates during POM and PRM, implying the role of atmospheric supply, anthropogenic modifications as well as intensity of weathering. In the spatial discrimination models, misclassification of hydrochemistry data between MRB and PRB can be attributed to the overlapping effect of humid climate of MRB extending toward the upstream of (semiarid) PRB. This study underscores the versatility of DA in deciphering the significance of climatic controls on hydrochemical composition of tropical mountain rivers. PMID:25986778

  9. Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Ch.; Pattar, Manohar G.

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC50) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms. PMID:21808550

  10. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K. Ullas; Kumar, N. Samba; Karanth, Krithi K.; Goswami, Varun R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out ‘detection—non-detection’ surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km2 landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km2 (SE = 847 km2) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km2 of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km2 or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need to

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of forest covers on stream water quality in Western Ghats of peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sunita; Mishra, Arabinda

    2014-11-01

    The hydrological research has largely concentrated on two extremes - undisturbed forest cover versus cleared forest land, whereas most tropical forest areas are now a mix of secondary vegetation, and old forest interspersed with patches cleared for agriculture or other non-forest use (Bruijnzeel, 2004; Giambelluca, 2002). For this reason, research on spatiotemporal variations in the effects of a mix of primary forest, mature secondary forests and disturbed forests on stream water quality was conducted in four watersheds in the Western Ghats of peninsular India. The study indicated that every one percent decrease in the forest cover (all lands with tree cover of canopy density of 10% and above when projected vertically on the horizontal ground with minimum areal extent of one ha) increases turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS) and Escherichia coli by 8.41%, 4.17% and 3.91%, respectively as also decreases calcium hardness by 0.49%. However, when the forest cover was segregated into old forests (primary forest, mature secondary forest and undisturbed mature plantations) and, open and disturbed forests the old forests were observed to significantly improve (p < 0.05) most water quality parameters. In contrast the open and disturbed forests were observed to deteriorate the observed water quality parameters except for turbidity and TSS. The magnitudes of regression coefficients indicated that the old forests were 2.2 and 2.74 times more effective than the disturbed forests in reducing turbidity and TSS, respectively. Tradeoffs between the provisioning services and water quality improvement services of the forest were apparent.

  12. Coalescent Method in Conjunction with Niche Modeling Reveals Cryptic Diversity among Centipedes in the Western Ghats of South India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jahnavi; Karanth, K. Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been growing interest in integrative taxonomy that uses data from multiple disciplines for species delimitation. Typically, in such studies, monophyly is taken as a proxy for taxonomic distinctiveness and these units are treated as potential species. However, monophyly could arise due to stochastic processes. Thus here, we have employed a recently developed tool based on coalescent approach to ascertain the taxonomic distinctiveness of various monophyletic units. Subsequently, the species status of these taxonomic units was further tested using corroborative evidence from morphology and ecology. This inter-disciplinary approach was implemented on endemic centipedes of the genus Digitipes (Attems 1930) from the Western Ghats (WG) biodiversity hotspot of India. The species of the genus Digitipes are morphologically conserved, despite their ancient late Cretaceous origin. Principal Findings Our coalescent analysis based on mitochondrial dataset indicated the presence of nine putative species. The integrative approach, which includes nuclear, morphology, and climate datasets supported distinctiveness of eight putative species, of which three represent described species and five were new species. Among the five new species, three were morphologically cryptic species, emphasizing the effectiveness of this approach in discovering cryptic diversity in less explored areas of the tropics like the WG. In addition, species pairs showed variable divergence along the molecular, morphological and climate axes. Conclusions A multidisciplinary approach illustrated here is successful in discovering cryptic diversity with an indication that the current estimates of invertebrate species richness for the WG might have been underestimated. Additionally, the importance of measuring multiple secondary properties of species while defining species boundaries was highlighted given variable divergence of each species pair across the disciplines. PMID:22876311

  13. Did southern Western Ghats of peninsular India serve as refugia for its endemic biota during the Cretaceous volcanism?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Jahnavi; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    The Western Ghats (WG) of south India, a global biodiversity hotspot, has experienced complex geological history being part of Gondwana landmass and encountered extensive volcanic activity at the end of Cretaceous epoch. It also has a climatically and topographically heterogeneous landscape. Thus, the WG offer a unique setting to explore the influence of ecological and geological processes on the current diversity and distribution of its biota. To this end, three explicit biogeographical scenarios were hypothesized to evaluate the distribution and diversification of wet evergreen species of the WG – (1) southern WG was a refuge for the wet evergreen species during the Cretaceous volcanism, (2) phylogenetic breaks in the species phylogeny would correspond to geographic breaks (i.e., the Palghat gap) in the WG, and (3) species from each of the biogeographic subdivisions within the WG would form distinct clades. These hypotheses were tested on the centipede genus Digitipes from the WG which is known to be an ancient, endemic, and monophyletic group. The Digitipes molecular phylogeny was subjected to divergence date estimation using Bayesian approach, and ancestral areas were reconstructed using parsimony approach for each node in the phylogeny. Ancestral-area reconstruction suggested 13 independent dispersal events to explain the current distribution of the Digitipes species in the WG. Among these 13 dispersals, two dispersal events were at higher level in the Digitipes phylogeny and were from the southern WG to the central and northern WG independently in the Early Paleocene, after the Cretaceous Volcanism. The remaining 11 dispersal events explained the species’ range expansions of which nine dispersals were from the southern WG to other biogeographic subdivisions in the Eocene-Miocene in the post-volcanic periods where species-level diversifications occurred. Taken together, these results suggest that southern WG might have served as a refuge for Digitipes

  14. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro conservation of Coelogyne nervosa A. Rich. an endemic orchid to Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sonia; Augustine, Jomy; Thomas, T Dennis

    2012-07-01

    Coelogyne nervosa is an epiphytic orchid endemic to Western Ghats, South India. The mature seeds of C. nervosa were cultured on ½ MS (Murashige and Skoog), MS, Kn (Knudson) and VW (Vacin and Went) media to evaluate the seed germination response. Of the four basal media used, MS medium supported maximum seed germination. Further experiments to enhance seed germination were done on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) of coconut water (CW). Thirty percent CW gave the highest response in terms of percent seed germination (96), fresh weight (7.2 mg/seedling) and protocorm length (15.2 mm). Since CW containing medium did not support further seedling growth, each seedling was isolated and cultured on MS medium supplemented with either BA (6-benzylaminopurine) or Kin (kinetin) alone (1.0-4.0 mg/l each) or in combination with NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid; 0.2-1.0 mg/l). Maximum growth was observed on MS medium supplemented with BA (3.0 mg/l) and NAA (0.5 mg/l). On this medium, the seedlings reached an average length of 3.6 cm with 2.8 well expanded green leaves per seedling. Similarly optimum, healthy, white root induction (3.3 roots/seedlings) was also observed on the same medium. The rooted seedlings were successfully transplanted to pots with 91 % success. The 2-year-old tissue culture derived plants produced normal flowers and fruits. PMID:23814439

  15. Seasonal variability in aerosol, CCN and their relationship observed at a high altitude site in Western Ghats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leena, P. P.; Pandithurai, G.; Anilkumar, V.; Murugavel, P.; Sonbawne, S. M.; Dani, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. In the present work, aerosol-CCN variability and their relationship have been studied for the first time at Mahabaleshwar, a high altitude (1348 m AMSL) site in Western Ghats, using one year (June 2012-May 2013) of observations. Present study has been done in two sections in which first temporal variability (diurnal and seasonal) of aerosol and CCN has been analyzed. Later CCN to aerosol ratio and other microphysical properties have been investigated along with detail discussion on possible sources of aerosol. First part, i.e., diurnal variation in aerosol and CCN concentration has shown relatively higher values during early morning hours in monsoon season whereas in winter and pre-monsoon it was higher in the evening hours. Seasonal mean variation in aerosol and CCN (SS above 0.6 %) has shown higher (less) in monsoon (winter) season. Temporal variation reveals dominance of fine-mode aerosol during monsoon season over the study region. In the second part temporal variation of activation ratio, k value (exponent of CCN super-saturation spectra) and geometric mean aerosol diameter have been analyzed. Variation of activation ratio showed the ratio is higher in monsoon especially for SS 0.6-1 %. The analysis also showed high k value during monsoon season as compared to other seasons (pre-monsoon and winter) which may be due to dominance of hygroscopic aerosols in the maritime air masses from Arabian Sea and biogenic aerosol emissions from the wet forest. Analyzed mean aerosol diameter is much smaller during monsoon season with less variability compared to other seasons. Overall analysis showed that aerosol and CCN concentration was higher over this high altitude site despite of dominant sink processes such as cloud scavenging and washout mechanisms indicating local emissions and biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions from wet forest

  16. Vocal Behavior of the Elusive Purple Frog of India (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis), a Fossorial Species Endemic to the Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ashish; Suyesh, Robin; Biju, S. D.; Bee, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative descriptions of animal vocalizations can inform an understanding of their evolutionary functions, the mechanisms for their production and perception, and their potential utility in taxonomy, population monitoring, and conservation. The goal of this study was to provide the first acoustical and statistical analysis of the advertisement calls of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis. Commonly known as the Indian purple frog, N. sahyadrensis is an endangered species endemic to the Western Ghats of India. As the only known species in its family (Nasikabatrachidae), it has ancient evolutionary ties to frogs restricted to the Seychelles archipelago (Sooglossidae). The role of vocalizations in the behavior of this unique species poses interesting questions, as the animal is fossorial and potentially earless and it breeds explosively above the soil for only about two weeks a year. In this study, we quantified 19 acoustic properties of 208 calls recorded from 10 males. Vocalizations were organized into distinct call groups typically composed of two to six short (59 ms), pulsatile calls, each consisting of about five to seven pulses produced at a rate of about 106 pulses/s. The frequency content of the call consisted of a single dominant peak between 1200–1300 Hz and there was no frequency modulation. The patterns of variation within and among individuals were typical of those seen in other frogs. Few of the properties we measured were related to temperature, body size, or condition, though there was little variation in temperature. Field observations and recordings of captive individuals indicated that males engaged in both antiphonal calling and call overlap with nearby calling neighbors. We discuss our findings in relation to previous work on vocal behavior in other fossorial frogs and in sooglossid frogs. PMID:24516517

  17. Did southern Western Ghats of peninsular India serve as refugia for its endemic biota during the Cretaceous volcanism?

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jahnavi; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-09-01

    The Western Ghats (WG) of south India, a global biodiversity hotspot, has experienced complex geological history being part of Gondwana landmass and encountered extensive volcanic activity at the end of Cretaceous epoch. It also has a climatically and topographically heterogeneous landscape. Thus, the WG offer a unique setting to explore the influence of ecological and geological processes on the current diversity and distribution of its biota. To this end, three explicit biogeographical scenarios were hypothesized to evaluate the distribution and diversification of wet evergreen species of the WG - (1) southern WG was a refuge for the wet evergreen species during the Cretaceous volcanism, (2) phylogenetic breaks in the species phylogeny would correspond to geographic breaks (i.e., the Palghat gap) in the WG, and (3) species from each of the biogeographic subdivisions within the WG would form distinct clades. These hypotheses were tested on the centipede genus Digitipes from the WG which is known to be an ancient, endemic, and monophyletic group. The Digitipes molecular phylogeny was subjected to divergence date estimation using Bayesian approach, and ancestral areas were reconstructed using parsimony approach for each node in the phylogeny. Ancestral-area reconstruction suggested 13 independent dispersal events to explain the current distribution of the Digitipes species in the WG. Among these 13 dispersals, two dispersal events were at higher level in the Digitipes phylogeny and were from the southern WG to the central and northern WG independently in the Early Paleocene, after the Cretaceous Volcanism. The remaining 11 dispersal events explained the species' range expansions of which nine dispersals were from the southern WG to other biogeographic subdivisions in the Eocene-Miocene in the post-volcanic periods where species-level diversifications occurred. Taken together, these results suggest that southern WG might have served as a refuge for Digitipes species

  18. Regeneration of plantlets from mature embryo calli of Western Ghats land race cultivar of rice, Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Gnanesh, A U; Krishna, V; Kumar, R Shashi; Venkatesh; Kumar, S R Santosh; Shashidhar, H E

    2012-02-01

    The Malnad region located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka is known for the cultivation of indigenous rain fed land race cultivar of rice. The present study was to investigate the callogenic and caulogenic potentialities of the two indigenous rice cultivar namely Karimundaga and Kanadatumba using dehusked mature embryo explants. For callus and shoot bud differentiation, the explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1-3 mg/L), IAA (1-2 mg/L), Kn (1-4 mg/L) and BAP (1-4 mg/L). The morphogenic potentialities of the two rice cultivar differed in texture of callus. In both the cultivar callogenic frequency was optimized at 1 mg/L 2,4-D concentration, it was 94% in Karimundaga and 58% in Kanadatumba. Supplementation of IAA either alone (1-2 mg/L) or in combination with Kn or BAP at 1 to 4 mg/L concentration of each induces shoot bud differentiation from the calli. In the cultivar Karimundaga caulogenic frequency was highest (10.60 +/- 2.55) at 1.0 mg/L IAA and 4.0 mg/L BAP concentration. While in the cultivar Kanadatumba highest number of shoot buds (7.90 +/- 2.69) was differentiated at 1.0 mg/L IAA and 4.0 mg/L Kn concentration. The calli derived regenerants were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse and agro-morphological variations were evaluated. The growth characteristics and yield related parameters exhibited by in vitro plants were lower than the in vivo plants. PMID:22670480

  19. Vocal behavior of the elusive purple frog of India (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis), a fossorial species endemic to the Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ashish; Suyesh, Robin; Biju, S D; Bee, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative descriptions of animal vocalizations can inform an understanding of their evolutionary functions, the mechanisms for their production and perception, and their potential utility in taxonomy, population monitoring, and conservation. The goal of this study was to provide the first acoustical and statistical analysis of the advertisement calls of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis. Commonly known as the Indian purple frog, N. sahyadrensis is an endangered species endemic to the Western Ghats of India. As the only known species in its family (Nasikabatrachidae), it has ancient evolutionary ties to frogs restricted to the Seychelles archipelago (Sooglossidae). The role of vocalizations in the behavior of this unique species poses interesting questions, as the animal is fossorial and potentially earless and it breeds explosively above the soil for only about two weeks a year. In this study, we quantified 19 acoustic properties of 208 calls recorded from 10 males. Vocalizations were organized into distinct call groups typically composed of two to six short (59 ms), pulsatile calls, each consisting of about five to seven pulses produced at a rate of about 106 pulses/s. The frequency content of the call consisted of a single dominant peak between 1200-1300 Hz and there was no frequency modulation. The patterns of variation within and among individuals were typical of those seen in other frogs. Few of the properties we measured were related to temperature, body size, or condition, though there was little variation in temperature. Field observations and recordings of captive individuals indicated that males engaged in both antiphonal calling and call overlap with nearby calling neighbors. We discuss our findings in relation to previous work on vocal behavior in other fossorial frogs and in sooglossid frogs. PMID:24516517

  20. Distribution of Dust from Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkavyi, Nick N.; Ozernoy, Leonid; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Using an efficient computational approach, we have reconstructed the structure of the dust cloud in the Solar system between 0.5 and 100 AU produced by the Kuiper belt objects. Our simulations offer a 3-D physical model of the 'kuiperoidal' dust cloud based on the distribution of 280 dust particle trajectories produced by 100 known Kuiper belt objects; the resulting 3-D grid consists of 1.9 x 10' cells containing 1.2 x 10" particle positions. The following processes that influence the dust particle dynamics are taken into account: 1) gravitational scattering on the eight planets (neglecting Pluto); 2) planetary resonances; 3) radiation pressure; and 4) the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) and solar wind drags. We find the dust distribution highly non-uniform: there is a minimum in the kuiperoidal dust between Mars and Jupiter, after which both the column and number densities of kuiperoidal dust sharply increase with heliocentric distance between 5 and 10 AU, and then form a plateau between 10 and 50 AU. Between 25 and 45 AU, there is an appreciable concentration of kuiperoidal dust in the form of a broad belt of mostly resonant particles associated with Neptune. In fact, each giant planet possesses its own circumsolar dust belt consisting of both resonant and gravitationally scattered particles. As with the cometary belts simulated in our related papers, we reveal a rich and sophisticated resonant structure of the dust belts containing families of resonant peaks and gaps. An important result is that both the column and number dust density are more or less flat between 10 and 50 AU, which might explain the surprising data obtained by Pioneers 10 & 11 and Voyager that the dust number density remains approximately distance-independent in this region. The simulated kuiperoidal dust, in addition to asteroidal and cometary dust, might represent a third possible source of the zodiacal light in the Solar system.

  1. Preliminary review of Indian Eumenophorinae (Araneae: Theraphosidae) with description of a new genus and five new species from the Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zeeshan A; Sanap, Rajesh V; Bhosale, Harshal

    2014-01-01

    The theraphosid spider genera Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and Neoheterophrictus Siliwal & Raven, 2012 are rediagnosed in this paper and a new genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. is described from Southern Western Ghats. Four new species (two each of Heterophrictus and Neoheterophrictus) and one of Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. are described from the Western Ghats. Plesiophrictus mahabaleshwari Tikader, 1977 is removed from the synonymy of Heterophrictus milleti Pocock, 1900 and is treated as a junior synonym of Heterophrictus blatteri (Gravely, 1935). Plesiophrictus bhori Gravely, 1915 is transferred to the genus Neoheterophrictus, Neoheterophrictus bhori (Gravely, 1915) new combination. The genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov., resembles tarantula belonging to the genus, Neoheterophrictus but differs with respect to structure of tibial apophysis and spermathecae. Detailed ultra-structure of setae type of the Indian Eumenophorinae is presented for the first time along with notes on their biogeography. Common elements among Africa, Madagascar and India like the Eumenophorinae and several other mygalomorph spiders advocate mygalomorphae as an important group for evolutionary investigation due to their inability for long distance dispersal rendering the members restrictive in distribution. PMID:24551072

  2. Morphological and Genetic Evidence for Multiple Evolutionary Distinct Lineages in the Endangered and Commercially Exploited Red Lined Torpedo Barbs Endemic to the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBs) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their ‘Endangered’ listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa. PMID:23894533

  3. Preliminary Review of Indian Eumenophorinae (Araneae: Theraphosidae) with Description of a New Genus and Five New Species from the Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Zeeshan A.; Sanap, Rajesh V.; Bhosale, Harshal

    2014-01-01

    The theraphosid spider genera Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and Neoheterophrictus Siliwal & Raven, 2012 are rediagnosed in this paper and a new genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. is described from Southern Western Ghats. Four new species (two each of Heterophrictus and Neoheterophrictus) and one of Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. are described from the Western Ghats. Plesiophrictus mahabaleshwari Tikader, 1977 is removed from the synonymy of Heterophrictus milleti Pocock, 1900 and is treated as a junior synonym of Heterophrictus blatteri (Gravely, 1935). Plesiophrictus bhori Gravely, 1915 is transferred to the genus Neoheterophrictus, Neoheterophrictus bhori (Gravely, 1915) new combination. The genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov., resembles tarantula belonging to the genus, Neoheterophrictus but differs with respect to structure of tibial apophysis and spermathecae. Detailed ultra-structure of setae type of the Indian Eumenophorinae is presented for the first time along with notes on their biogeography. Common elements among Africa, Madagascar and India like the Eumenophorinae and several other mygalomorph spiders advocate mygalomorphae as an important group for evolutionary investigation due to their inability for long distance dispersal rendering the members restrictive in distribution. PMID:24551072

  4. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    John, Lijo; Philip, Siby; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa. PMID:23894533

  5. The ophiolite belts of northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congzhou, Cao

    Four ophiolite belts, i.e. the Wendur Miao-Xar Moron River, the Solon Mt.-Hegen Mt., the Mudangjiang and the Raohe ophiolite belts, are recognized in northeastern China in various tectogenetic environments, with different ages and geological significance. They may be present in the Upper Proterozoic, lower Lower Paleozoic, lower Upper Paleozoic or Triassic, respectively. They are also formed in oceanic basin, mid-oceanic ridge, island-arc and back-arc basin, and either within plate or between two plates respectively.

  6. A shell model for tyre belt vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, C.; Graham, W. R.; Dale, M.

    2010-05-01

    We present a new formulation for the prediction of tyre belt vibrations in the frequency range 0-500 Hz. Our representation includes the effects of belt width, curvature and anisotropy, and also explicitly models the tyre sidewalls. Many of the associated numerical parameters are fixed by physical considerations; the remainder require empirical input. A systematic and general approach to this problem is developed, and illustrated for the specific example of a Goodyear Wrangler tyre. The resulting predictions for the radial response to radial forcing show good correspondence with experiment up to 300 Hz, and satisfactory agreement up to 1 kHz.

  7. 29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for belt to gangway (in background) connecting with elevator no. 2, facing northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  8. Ultra-fast Electrons Explain Third Radiation Belt

    NASA Video Gallery

    In September 2012, NASA's Van Allen Probes observed the radiation belts around Earth had settled into a new configuration, separating into three belts instead of two. Scientists think the unusual p...

  9. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  10. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  11. Radiation Belts Throughout the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    The several preceding decades of deep space missions have demonstrated that the generation of planetary radiation belts is a universal phenomenon. All strongly magnetized planets show well developed radiation regions, specifically Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The similarities occur despite the tremendous differences between the planets in size, levels of magnetization, external environments, and most importantly, in the fundamental processes that power them. Some planets like Jupiter are powered overwhelmingly by planetary rotation, much like astrophysical pulsars, whereas others, like Earth and probably Uranus, are powered externally by the interplanetary environment. Uranus is a particularly interesting case in that despite the peculiarities engendered by its ecliptic equatorial spin axis orientation, its magnetosphere shows dynamical behavior similar to that of Earth as well as radiation belt populations and associated wave emissions that are perhaps more intense than expected based on Earth-derived theories. Here I review the similarities and differences between the radiation regions of radiation belts throughout the solar system. I discuss the value of the comparative approach to radiation belt physics as one that allows critical factors to be evaluated in environments that are divorced from the special complex conditions that prevail in any one environment, such as those at Earth.

  12. Is the Cameron River greenstone belt allochthonous?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Many tectonic models for the Slave Province, N.W.T., Canada, and for Archean granite - greenstone terranes in general, are implicitly dependent on the assumption that greenstone belt lithologies rest unconformably upon older gneissic basement. Other models require originally large separations between gneissic terranes and greenstone belts. A key question relating to the tectonics of greenstone belts is therefore the original spatial relationship between the volcanic assemblages and presumed-basement gneisses, and how this relationship has been modified by subsequent deformation. What remains unclear in these examples is the significance of the so-called later faulting of the greenstone - gneiss contacts. Where unconformities between gneisses and overlying sediments are indisputable, such as at Point Lake, the significance of faults which occur below the base of the volcanic succession also needs to be evaluated. As part of an on-going investigation aimed at answering these and other questions, the extremely well-exposed Cameron River Greenstone Belt and the Sleepy Dragon Metamorphic Complex in the vicinity of Webb Lake and Sleepy Dragon Lake was mapped.

  13. Mean motion resonances. [of asteroid belt structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froeschle, CL.; Greenberg, R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research on the resonant structure of the asteroid belt is reviewed. The resonant mechanism is discussed, and analytical models for the study of mean motion resonances are examined. Numerical averaging methods and mapping methods are considered. It is shown how fresh insight can be obtained by means of a new semianalytical approach.

  14. Glauconite from the precambrian belt series, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.; Goldich, S.S.; Thomas, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    Glauconite from the upper part of the Missoula Group of the Belt Series, Flathead County, Montana, has been dated at 1070 million years by potassium-argon and rubidium-strontium analyses. This is the first glauconite of Precambrian age reported in North America.

  15. 30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belt air course ventilation. 75.350 Section 75.350 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.350 Belt air course ventilation. (a) The belt air course must not be...

  16. 30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belt air course ventilation. 75.350 Section 75.350 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.350 Belt air course ventilation. (a) The belt air course must not be...

  17. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  19. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  1. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  2. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  3. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  5. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  8. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  10. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  14. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  16. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  17. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  18. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt...

  19. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  20. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  5. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  6. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  8. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  10. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  12. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  15. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be...

  16. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  17. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  19. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  5. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where...

  6. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  8. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  12. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors used to transport men, and such controls should be readily accessible and maintained so that the...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b)...

  15. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt...

  16. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt...

  17. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  19. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  2. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  4. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  6. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within confined areas where evacuation would be restricted in the event of a fire resulting from...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  10. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...-slippage shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley....

  11. The state of knowledge concerning the Kuiper belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, Harold F.

    1992-01-01

    The arguments for and against the idea that most short-period comets originate in the Kuiper belt are discussed. Observational constraints on the distribution of mass in the Kuiper belt are reviewed as well as a model of the physical conditions that now exist. Finally, predictions from this model about the detectability of the Kuiper belt are compared to optical surveys.

  12. 45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT CHASE FOR TWO BELTS FROM THE BASEMENT, THE W. E. & J. BARNES CO. DRILL PRESS, AND THE DRILL PRESS USED FOR REAMING. THE BELT PASSING THROUGH THE WALL POWERS THE SANDER IN THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. Charging belt noise in a Van de Graaff accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    With the aid of a Fast Fourier Transformer (FFT) spectrum analyzer it has been possible to decompose Van de Graaff terminal voltage noise into components that can be related to various properties of the charging belt. One consequence has been the elimination of the fundamental belt frequency component by a novel belt charge transfer device. 18 figs.

  14. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  15. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Kun, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

  16. On a Dhole Trail: Examining Ecological and Anthropogenic Correlates of Dhole Habitat Occupancy in the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Srivathsa, Arjun; Karanth, Krithi K.; Jathanna, Devcharan; Kumar, N. Samba; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2014-01-01

    Although they play a critical role in shaping ecological communities, many threatened predator species are data-deficient. The Dhole Cuon alpinus is one such rare canid with a global population thought to be <2500 wild individuals. We assessed habitat occupancy patterns of dholes in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, to understand ecological and anthropogenic determinants of their distribution and habitat-use. We conducted spatially replicated detection/non-detection surveys of dhole signs along forest trails at two appropriate scales: the entire landscape and a single wildlife reserve. Landscape-scale habitat occupancy was assessed across 38,728 km2 surveying 206 grid cells of 188-km2 each. Finer scale habitat-use within 935 km2 Bandipur Reserve was studied surveying 92 grid cells of 13-km2 km each. We analyzed the resulting data of dhole signs using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models. The models explicitly addressed the problematic issue of imperfect detection of dhole signs during field surveys as well as potential spatial auto-correlation between sign detections made on adjacent trail segments. We show that traditional ‘presence versus absence’ analyses underestimated dhole habitat occupancy by 60% or 8682 km2 [naïve = 0.27; (SE) = 0.68 (0.08)] in the landscape. Addressing imperfect sign detections by estimating detection probabilities [(L) (SE) = 0.12 (0.11)] was critical for reliable estimation. Similar underestimation occurred while estimating habitat-use probability at reserve-scale [naïve = 0.39; (SE) = 0.71 (0.06)]. At landscape scale, relative abundance of principal ungulate prey primarily influenced dhole habitat occupancy. Habitat-use within a reserve, however, was predominantly and negatively influenced by anthropogenic disturbance. Our results are the first rigorous assessment of dhole occupancy at multiple spatial scales with potential conservation value. The approach used in this study has potential utility for

  17. Domestication of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) in Western Ghats, India: divergence in productive traits and a shift in major pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Giby; Sinu, Palatty Allesh; Shivanna, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Elettaria cardamomum, a highly priced spice, is native to the Western Ghats of South India. Wild populations still occur in isolated patches in their natural habitats; however, much of today's commercial product comes from cultivated sources. There is no information on domestication-related traits of this species; the main objective of this study was to compare wild and cultivated populations of cardamom in terms of vegetative and reproductive features in order to identify domestication syndromes and to examine whether the two populations have developed reproductive barriers. Methods Two wild populations and five cultivated plantations were used for the present study. Vegetative and floral traits, flowering phenology, pollination biology and breeding systems of wild and cultivated populations were compared. Effective pollinators amongst floral visitors were identified by confirming pollen transfer as well as by fruit set following their visit to virgin flowers. Manual pollinations were carried out in order to study the breeding systems of the two populations and reproductive barriers, if any, between them. Key Results Several productive traits including the number of branches, number of inflorescences, and total number of flowers per clump, number of flowers that open each day, the duration of flowering, the length of the flower and the amount of nectar per flower are significantly greater in cultivated cardamom. The principal pollinators in wild cardamom are solitary bees, Megachile sp. and two species of Amegilla, whereas those in cultivated cardamom are the social bees Apis dorsata, A. cerana and Trigona iridipennis. Both the wild and cultivated populations are self-compatible and there are no reproductive barriers between the two populations. Conclusions Domestication in cardamom has brought about significant changes in vegetative and reproductive traits and a shift in effective pollinators from native solitary bees to social bees. The shift

  18. Pluto's small satellites in the context of the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. H.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Porter, S.; Spencer, J. R.; Olkin, C.; Howett, C.; Grundy, W. M.; Buie, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    New Horizons is now beyond Pluto and flying deeper into the Kuiper Belt. The small satellites in the Pluto system are the closest analogues to typical Kuiper Belt Objects yet observed at close-range by the spacecraft, and we will review these observations in the greater context of the Kuiper Belt and as they pertain to New Horizons' exploration of a similarly-sized classical Kuiper Belt target in late 2018 or early 2019. Finally, we will summarize the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential long-range and close-range Kuiper Belt targets.

  19. Radial Boundary Vibration of Misaligned V-Belt Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MOON, J.; WICKERT, J. A.

    1999-08-01

    Mechanical imperfections, including misalignment of the sheaves, can significantly influence the levels of vibration and noise that are produced in power transmission belt drives. In this paper, laboratory measurements identify a particular source of vibration excitation for v-belts that is attributed to lateral misalignment of the sheaves. The belt is shown to undergo a fine, periodic, radial motion on the sheave at a frequency and amplitude that depend on the level of misalignment, the belt's bending stiffness, pre-tension, and wedge angle, the sheave's radius, and the belt-to-sheave friction coefficient, among other modelled variables. Periodic radial oscillation and slippage of the belt in this manner result from frictional stick-slip response at the belt/sheave interface. The belt experiences a prescribed sawtooth-like motion on its boundary, which is one source of its high-frequency vibration and noise. An optical displacement sensor is used to record motion of the belt on the sheave, and those measurements are correlated with the near-field sound pressure. A theoretical model is developed to describe boundary excitation of the belt as is caused by misalignment, and in particular to predict the frequency and amplitude of the boundary motion. The model's predictions are compared with measurements for parameter studies in the belt's pre-tension and in the sheave's radius.

  20. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  1. Dynamic load sharing for conveyor belts with multiple drive stations

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, F.T.

    1995-05-01

    The characteristics and limitations of multiple drive station belt conveyors are explored and a computational method is presented as a means of providing drive coordination which can skirt some of the limitations. This paper will describe some of the design parameters of concern for belt conveyors, including belt tension and how it varies with load, how the unpredictably non-uniform loading of the belt affects performance, and will explore the relationship of friction between the belt and a drive pulley and how this limits the amount of horsepower which can be transmitted to the belt. The way in which these parameters change in configurations with multiple drives and multiple drive stations is outlined. The two main means of employing booster drives are presented; tripper booster and linear booster. The tripper booster technology is amenable to tension control, in which the torque provided by each drive station is controlled by the tension in the belt measured immediately downstream of the drive station. This approach has proved successful in belt systems with as many as four booster drive stations, operating at belt loads in excess of 3200 tons per hour over 12,000 ft of belt. The linear booster arrangement does not allow a convenient method of measuring belt tension, thus a computational algorithm was devised to take advantage of the geometry of the belt system to control tension of the belt within certain limits without the use of tension feedback. This approach has proven useful in 10,000 foot belt system which has a single booster drive station, operating at loads up to 4000 tons per hour.

  2. QUAOAR: A ROCK IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-05-10

    Here we report Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the Quaoar-Weywot Kuiper Belt binary. From these observations, we find that Weywot is on an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0.14 {+-} 0.04, a period of 12.438 {+-} 0.005 days, and a semimajor axis of 1.45 {+-} 0.08 x 10{sup 4} km. The orbit reveals a surprisingly high-Quaoar-Weywot system mass of (1.6 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 21} kg. Using the surface properties of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites as a proxy for Quaoar's surface, we reanalyze the size estimate from Brown and Trujillo. We find, from a mean of available published size estimates, a diameter for Quaoar of 890 {+-} 70 km. We find Quaoar's density to be {rho} = 4.2 {+-} 1.3gcm{sup -3}, possibly the highest density in the Kuiper Belt.

  3. A belted kingfisher flies above KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A belted kingfisher soars over the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The pigeon-sized, blue-gray male is identified by the blue-gray breast band; females show a chestnut belly band. The belted kingfisher ranges throughout the United States and Canada, wintering south to Panama and the West Indies. They dive into the water for fish and may also take crabs, crayfish, salamanders, lizards, mice and insects. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  4. Greenstone belts: Their components and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vearncombe, J. R.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Vanreenen, D. D.; Phillips, G. N.; Wilson, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone sucessions are defined as the nongranitoid component of granitoid-greenstone terrain and are linear to irregular in shape and where linear are termed belts. The chemical composition of greenstones is described. Also discussed are the continental environments of greenstone successions. The effects of contact with granitoids, geophysical properties, recumbent folds and late formation structures upon greenstones are examined. Large stratigraphy thicknesses are explained.

  5. Debiasing the Main-Belt Asteroid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Timothy Bruce

    1998-12-01

    We present here two general techniques to remove observational selection effects from asteroid surveys. When applied to two specific asteroid surveys, these methods have allowed the first computation of the debiased distribution of asteroidal orbital elements and sizes for the first time. The first survey was conducted in 1960. Advances in computing have allowed the data to be re-analyzed using an existing computer program and given a much more rigorous statistical treatment. The survey was confined to the near-ecliptic at opposition, therefore its usefulness is limited with regard to highly inclined orbits. To compensate for this limitation, we conducted our own survey aimed specifically at high-inclination objects. Since these orbits are, in general, distributed differently than lower-inclination orbits, removing observational selection effects required creating a statistical technique using Monte-Carlo type simulations. The results of this work show no evidence for differing slopes of the size-frequency distribution throughout the asteroid belt, from the highly inclined Hungaria-type asteroids in the inner edge of the belt (1.8-2.0 AU), to the outer belt (3-3.5 AU). The slopes of the absolute-magnitude frequency distributions, being less than 0.5, show that the asteroidal size distribution is somewhat shallower than what would be predicted assuming the asteroids to be a collisionally evolved population of bodies with size-independent impact strengths. Also determined are rough numbers of asteroids in the main dynamical families of Eos, Maria, Themis, and Koronis, which comprise a significant fraction of the total number of objects in the main belt. This work has also resulted in the discovery of a new asteroid dynamical family, and possibly two new asteroid groups.

  6. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison

    This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1).

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present.

    The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight.

    In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.)

    In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  7. Recent Breakups in the Asteroid Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorny, D.

    2005-08-01

    Much of what we see in the asteroid belt today is a consequence of past collisions, which shaped the size-frequency distribution of asteroids and led to their heavily-cratered surfaces. Perhaps the most remarkable features of the belt are the asteroid families [1]. An asteroid family is a group of asteroid fragments with similar orbits and spectra produced by a collisional breakup of a large parent body. More than fifty families have been identified to date in the main belt [2]. These structures, when properly analyzed, hold important clues to the interior structure of asteroids, the physics of large scale collisions, and the overall evolution of the main belt since its formation [3]. Most of the known families are very old and thus have experienced significant dynamical and collisional erosion since their formation. This makes it difficult to clearly distinguish between features produced by the original breakup and those produced by on-going processes. Recent dynamical studies, however, have identified several asteroid families that are extremely young: the Iannini, Karin and Veritas families apparently formed at <5, 5.8 and 8.3 Ma, respectively [4,5]. These families represent nearly pristine examples of ejected fragments produced by disruptive asteroid collisions, because the observed remnants of recent breakups have apparently suffered limited dynamical and collisional erosion. Here we will discuss how studies of young asteroid families help us glean insights into the physics of large scale collisions, dynamical processes that affect small bodies in the Solar System, and the surface and interior properties of asteroids. [1] Hirayama, 1918, AJ 31, 185--188. [2] Zappala et al., 2002, In Asteroids III, pp. 619-629. [3] Bottke et al., 2005, Icarus, 175, 111-140. [4] Nesvorny et al., 2002, Nature 417, 720--722. [5] Nesvorny et al., 2003, ApJ 591, 486--497.

  8. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper. PMID:25431192

  9. Genetic Structure, Diversity and Long Term Viability of a Medicinal Plant, Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham. (Icacinaceae), in Protected and Non-Protected Areas in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprakash, K. Nagaraju; Ramesha, B. Thimmappa; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Question The harvesting of medicinal plants from wild sources is escalating in many parts of the world, compromising the long-term survival of natural populations of medicinally important plants and sustainability of sources of raw material to meet pharmaceutical industry needs. Although protected areas are considered to play a central role in conservation of plant genetic resources, the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining medicinal plant populations subject to intense harvesting pressure remain largely unknown. We conducted genetic and demographic studies of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham, one of the extensively harvested medicinal plant species in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in long-term maintenance of economically important plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis of adults and seedlings of N. nimmoniana in four protected and four non-protected areas using 7 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that populations that are distributed within protected areas are subject to lower levels of harvesting and maintain higher genetic diversity (He = 0.816, Ho = 0.607, A = 18.857) than populations in adjoining non-protected areas (He = 0.781, Ho = 0.511, A = 15.571). Furthermore, seedlings in protected areas had significantly higher observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.630) and private alleles as compared to seedlings in adjoining non-protected areas (Ho = 0.426). Most populations revealed signatures of recent genetic bottleneck. The prediction of long-term maintenance of genetic diversity using BOTTLESIM indicated that current population sizes of the species are not sufficient to maintain 90% of present genetic diversity for next 100 years. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these results highlight the need for establishing more protected areas encompassing a large number of adult plants in the Western Ghats to conserve genetic diversity

  10. Assessing the Effects of Multiple Stressors on the Recruitment of Fruit Harvested Trees in a Tropical Dry Forest, Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India’s Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which

  11. Balitora chipkali, a new species of stone loach (Teleostei: Balitoridae) from the northern Western Ghats of India, with a note on the distribution of B. laticauda.

    PubMed

    Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Balitora chipkali, a new species of stone loach, is described from the westward-flowing Astoli tributary of the Kali River system in the northern part of the Western Ghats, India. The species differs from its congeners in a combination of characters that includes: a single pair of maxillary barbels; a large eye, of diameter greater than 15% head length (HL); snout length less than 4 times eye diameter; gape of mouth less than 30% HL; upper lip with 9-12 papillae in first series and 3-8 papillae in second series; flattened body, of depth less than 15% standard length; caudal-peduncle length less than three times its depth, 66-68 lateral line scales, 11 caudal vertebrae excluding compound centrum, third infraorbital sensory canal tube straight; and a distinct color pattern with almost round 7 dorsal saddles not reaching lateral irregular crossbar markings. Balitora chipkali forms a monophyletic group with B. laticauda as its sister taxon in a phylogeny based on a concatenated cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene fragments. Raw genetic distance between B. chipkali and B. laticauda was 1.9-2.2% based on COI and 3.4-4.3% based on Cytb partial gene sequences, which was far more than the intra-species variation in widely separated populations of B. laticauda. Based on molecular and morphological analysis, we also provide new locality records for B. laticauda and delimit its distribution to eastward-flowing tributaries of the Krishna River system in the northern Western Ghats. PMID:27470757

  12. Lineage delimitation and description of nine new species of bush frogs (Anura: Raorchestes, Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats Escarpment.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S P; Dinesh, K P; Prabhu, Mrugank V; Shanker, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    Bush frogs of the genus Raorchestes are distributed mainly in the Western Ghats Escarpment of Peninsular India. The inventory of species in this genus is incomplete and there is ambiguity in the systematic status of species recognized by morphological criteria. To address the dual problem of taxon sampling and systematic uncertainty in bush frogs, we used a large-scale spatial sampling design, explicitly incorporating the geographic and ecological heterogeneity of the Western Ghats. We then used a hierarchical multi-criteria approach by combining mitochondrial phylogeny, genetic distance, geographic range, morphology and advertisement call to delimit bush frog lineages. Our analyses revealed the existence of a large number of new lineages with varying levels of genetic divergence. Here, we provide diagnoses and descriptions for nine lineages that exhibit divergence across multiple axes. The discovery of new lineages that exhibit high divergence across wide ranges of elevation and across the major massifs highlights the large gaps in historical sampling. These discoveries underscore the significance of addressing inadequate knowledge of species distribution, namely the "Wallacean shortfall", in addressing the problem of taxon sampling and unknown diversity in tropical hotspots. A biogeographically informed sampling and analytical approach was critical in detecting and delineating lineages in a consistent manner across the genus. Through increased taxon sampling, we were also able to discern a number of well-supported sub-clades that were either unresolved or absent in earlier phylogenetic reconstructions and identify a number of shallow divergent lineages which require further examination for assessment of their taxonomic status.  PMID:25544534

  13. The Beaufort Sea fold-and-thrust belt, northwestern Canada: Implications for thrust-belt evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1991-06-01

    The northeasternmost segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt of western North American underlies the Beaufort Sea continental margin. Folds and associated northesat-directed thrusts in this region formed synchronously with Tertiary sedimentation. As a result, the times of fold development can be determined from reflection seismic data by analyzing lateral thickness changes in stratigraphic sequences of known ages, and onlap and truncation relationships at unconformities. Thrust faulting occurred throughout the late Paleocene-Pliocene. The abundant temporal data indicate the deformational seuqence was significantly differet from the simple, steplike, foreland-propagating model formulated in other less well-dated thrust belts. Many thrusts were active simultaneously, especially during the late Eocnee, when the region of active thrusting had an across-strike width of greater than 200 km. This observation calls into question the popular concept that only one thrust moves at a time as a thrust belt develops. The thrust belt propagated along, as well as across, strike. During the late Paleocene-middle Eocene, the area of active thrusting was bounded on the southeast by poorly imaged zones of right-lateral strike-slip faults that apparently are the northern offshore continuation of the Rapid fault array. The change in the age of thrusting along strike results in no obvious geometrical anomalies and could not be deduced without timing information. This has an important implication: temporal data cannot necessarily be projected along strike in a thrust belt.

  14. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  15. The gravitational sculpting of the Kuiper belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, H. F.; Duncan, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    Results are presented of numerical integrations over billion year time scales of the orbital evolution of more than one thousand test particles on initially low-inclination, low-eccentricity orbits within the proposed Kuiper belt beyond Neptune. Particles which eventually crossed Neptune's orbit often showed long periods (up to several billion years) of relatively low-eccentricity oscillations punctuated by a very rapid jump to Neptune-crossing eccentricity. This flux may be the ultimate source of present-day short-period comets. It is found here that there exists a correlation between Liapunov and crossing times in the Kuiper belt. None of the particles in the study with Liapunov time scales greater than about 1 Myr actually became a Neptune-crosser in 4 Gyr. An intricate structure to the region between 35 and 45 AU is found at the end of the billion year simulation. Implications for the origins of short-period comets and the detectability of objects currently in the Kuiper belt are discussed.

  16. Radiation Belt Loss at the Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, T. G.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Bourdarie, S.

    2005-12-01

    A critical factor controlling the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt is the abrupt electron loss from the magnetosphere that frequently occurs. Although the major loss mechanisms are known to be transport out across the magnetopause and precipitation into the atmosphere, it is not known quantitatively how effective either of these mechanisms is under any set of circumstances. It is thought that a compression of the magnetopause should cause a reduction of the electron fluxes at the larger L shells, but it is not known what the magnitude of the flux reduction should be. In this study, we investigate the depletion of radiation belt electron flux associated with the compression of the magnetopause to inside geosynchronous orbit. Multiple geosynchronous satellites are used to determine the local-time dependence of the flux dropouts. A clear local-time dependence is observed as the flux decreases during the earthward compression of the magnetopause and during the recovery of the flux as the magnetopause expands back outward. Surprisingly, the flux recovers immediately to levels moderately below the original flux levels with the relaxation of the magnetopause to outside geosynchronous orbit. These results are used to quantify the loss of radiation belt electrons due to the inward motion of the magnetopause and the subsequent recovery.

  17. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  18. The Kuiper Belt of Four Gigayears Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu

    2008-09-01

    The Kuiper belt is largely dynamically stable on gigayear timescales, but weak orbital instabilities - also known as chaotic diffusion - have eroded its population by several tens of percent over the past 4 gigayears. Each of the dynamical subclasses in the Kuiper belt has slightly different loss rates. In this paper, I reconstruct the populations of the different subclasses as they were 4 gigayears ago, an epoch when the presently observed dynamical structure is thought to have been established. This exercise shows that the resonant/classical population ratio was significantly higher in the past, as also the scattered/classical population ratio; the resonant Twotino/Plutino population ratio was also much greater in the past. Such a historical projection is necessary for testing and constraining theories for the origin of the dynamical structure of the Kuiper belt. The differential loss rates of the various KB dynamical classes are also of interest for understanding the sources of impactors that are recorded in the impact craters on solid planetary bodies, as well as for establishing the provenance of transient small bodies, such as the Centaurs and the Jupiter family comets. This research was supported in part by grants from NASA's Origins of Solar Systems and Outer Planets Research programs.

  19. What is a radiation belt enhancement event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Niehof, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Statistical studies of radiation belt enhancement events typically rely on other observations to define an "event". Those other observations could be based on Dst, solar wind speed, CME or CIR occurrence, etc. It is also interesting to start with an electron event and ask which geomagnetic or solar wind driving conditions are (or are not) related to those events. However, such studies have been hindered by the absence of a uniform, quantitative definition of "events". This is particularly true in phases of the solar cycle where background radiation belt fluxes are low but relative changes are large. Such events would be missed by picking an arbitrary flux threshold to define events. We examine two solar cycles of geosynchronous measurements to define the probability distribution of events with both fixed and solar cycle-dependent event criteria. These distributions allow us to define events based on radiation belt electron data alone, to classify types of enhancement events, and to ask: What conditions produced that class of events? The same distributions have important space weather forecasting applications as well. We can now quantify the criteria that define enhancement events that can be expected to occur once per month, once per year, or once per solar cycle.

  20. CHAOTIC DIFFUSION OF RESONANT KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Malhotra, Renu

    2009-09-15

    We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the two strongest mean-motion resonances of Neptune in the Kuiper Belt, the 3:2 (Plutinos) and 2:1 (Twotinos). Our primary results include a computation of the relative volumes of phase space characterized by large- and small-resonance libration amplitudes, and maps of resonance stability measured by mean chaotic diffusion rate. We find that Neptune's 2:1 resonance has weaker overall long-term stability than the 3:2-only {approx}15% of Twotinos are projected to survive for 4 Gyr, compared to {approx}27% of Plutinos, based on an extrapolation from our 1-Gyr integrations. We find that Pluto has only a modest effect, causing a {approx}4% decrease in the Plutino population that survives to 4 Gyr. Given current observational estimates, and assuming an initial distribution of particles proportional to the local phase-space volume in the resonance, we conclude that the primordial populations of Plutinos and Twotinos formerly made up more than half the population of the classical and resonant Kuiper Belt. We also conclude that Twotinos were originally nearly as numerous as Plutinos; this is consistent with predictions from early models of smooth giant planet migration and resonance sweeping of the Kuiper Belt and provides a useful constraint for more detailed models.

  1. Recent estimates of safety belt use.

    PubMed

    Glassbrenner, Donna; Carra, Joseph S; Nichols, James

    2004-01-01

    The National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) has shown that safety belt use in the United States has increased steadily over the past decade. Increases have been consistent since 2000, when the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in partnership with the Air Bag & Seat Belt Safety Campaign, increased its encouragement of states to implement highly visible enforcement programs. In 2003, significant increases were found in the South; in secondary law states; in all types of vehicles; during both weekdays and weekends; and during both rush-hours and non-rush-hours. In spite of these increases, use remains significantly lower in secondary law states; pickup trucks; the Northeast; and the Midwest. The differences between primary and secondary law states and between pickups and other passenger vehicles have been consistent from year to year. A controlled intersection study, which is part of the NOPUS, has shown that safety belt use has increased for both sexes, for nearly all age groups, and for all races for which data are available. Finally, the NOPUS suggests that children are 3-4 times as likely to be unrestrained when riding with an unbuckled driver as when driving with a buckled driver. PMID:15178244

  2. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source. PMID:21439776

  3. Attitudes of commercial motor vehicle drivers towards safety belts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karl; Yamashita, Eric Y

    2007-11-01

    Despite the fact that Hawaii has one of the highest seat belt use rates for passenger vehicles in the United States, and has had a mandatory seat belt use law since the 1980s, studies have shown that commercial motor vehicles (CMV) seat belt use rates are low. To better understand this phenomenon, a comprehensive survey of commercial vehicle drivers was conducted in Hawaii to ascertain attitudes and self-reported behaviors regarding seat belt use. A total of 791 drivers responded to a written questionnaire implemented at weigh stations and distributed to various trucking firms and transport centers. Approximately 67% reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a CMV (commercial motor vehicle), yet when asked how often do other CMV drivers use seat belts, only 31% responded "always." Interestingly, 86% of these same drivers reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a personal vehicle. The major reason cited for non-use of belts was "frequent stops/inconvenience" (29%), and "not safety conscious" (23%). Notably, the self-reported use of safety belts is highest among operators of vans (88% said "always"), followed by buses (87% said "always") and lowest among truck drivers (only 60% said "always"). In this paper, some of the differences between self-reported users and non-users are explored and a multivariate logit model was developed to predict the odds of belt use as a function of various factors. PMID:17920831

  4. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  5. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Pothalil A.; Sankaran, Pradeep M.; Malamel, Jobi J.; Joseph, Mathew M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, Stenaelurillus albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported. PMID:25878537

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of forest covers on water yield in the Western Ghats of peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sunita; Mishra, Arabinda

    2012-06-01

    SummaryBiotic interference has greatly disturbed the forest cover, the forest soils and, therefore, the hydrological functioning of the forest (Bonell and Bruijnzeel, 2005). Though widely debated, reduction in water yield (Water Yield: Total quantity of surface water that can be expected in a given period from a stream at the outlet of its catchment (Subramanya, 2008)) appears to be one such consequence. Scientific understanding of how this contentious issue affects the benefits of forests for water is critical to avoid unintended consequences (IUFRO, 2007). Gaps in research exist for tropical forest areas that are now a general mix of primary forest and secondary vegetation interspersed with patches cleared for agriculture or other non-forest uses (Bruijnzeel, 2004; Giambelluca, 2002). For this reason, research on spatiotemporal variations in the effects of a mix of primary forest (Primary Forests: Old forests with no or inconsequential human disturbance), mature secondary forests (Secondary Forests: Forests regenerating largely through natural processes after significant human and/or natural disturbance of the original forest vegetation at a single point in time or over an extended period, and displaying a major difference in forest structure and/or canopy species composition with respect to nearby primary forests on similar sites (Chokkalingam and Jong, 2001)) and disturbed forests (Disturbed Forests: Forests that have been exploited on moderate to large scale for timber, fuel wood, fodder, shifting cultivation and other tangible benefits. Reforestation activities may or may not have been undertaken in them) on runoff coefficients was conducted in four watersheds in the Western Ghats of peninsular India. Forest cover (Forest Cover: All lands with tree cover of canopy density of 10% and above when projected vertically on the horizontal ground with minimum areal extent of one Ha) significantly (0.01 < p < 0.05) and positively influenced the runoff coefficient and

  7. Normative Misperceptions of Peer Seat Belt Use Among High School Students and Their Relationship to Personal Seat Belt Use

    PubMed Central

    LITT, DANA M.; LEWIS, MELISSA A.; LINKENBACH, JEFFREY W.; LANDE, GARY; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research examined gender-specific perceptions of peer seat belt use norms among high school students and their relationship with one’s own seat belt use. We expected that students would underestimate the seat belt use of their peers and that these perceptions would be positively associated with their own seat belt use. Methods High school students from 4 schools (N = 3348; 52% male) completed measures assessing perceived seat belt use and personal seat belt use. Results Findings demonstrated that students perceived that others engaged in less seat belt use than they do and that perceived norms were positively associated with one’s own seat belt use. Conclusions Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents’ behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seat belt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms–based interventions designed to increase seat belt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents. PMID:24628560

  8. Seat belt usage: A potential target for applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geller, E. Scott; Casali, John G.; Johnson, Richard P.

    1980-01-01

    Results of 1,579 observations of cars entering or exiting campus parking lots showed direct relationships between seat belt wearing and the intrusiveness of the engineering device designed to induce belt usage, and between device intrusiveness and system defeat. For example, all drivers with working interlocks or unlimited buzzer reminders were wearing a seat belt; but 62% of the systems with interlocks or unlimited buzzers had been defeated, and only 15.9% of the drivers in these cars were wearing a seat belt. The normative data indicated marked ineffectiveness of the negative reinforcement contingencies implied by current seat belt inducement systems; but suggested that unlimited buzzer systems would be the optimal system currently available if contingencies were developed to discourage the disconnection and circumvention of such systems. Positive reinforcement strategies are discussed that would be quite feasible for large-scale promotion of seat belt usage. PMID:16795638

  9. Are 1974-1975 automotive belt systems hazardous to children?

    PubMed

    Snyder, R G; O'Neill, B

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 and early-1975 model automobiles are equipped with belt interlock systems that require front outboard seat occupants who weigh more than 21.5 kg (47.3 lb) to wear threepoint lap and diagonal upper-torso belts (or wear the lap belt and position upper-torso belt behind them), assuming that the interlock has not been circumvented. Recent legislation has eliminated the interlock requirement, but new models are still likely to be fitted with three-point restraints for the front outboard seating positions. These restraint systems were designed and tested for adult use. Thus, based on the different structure of a younger child and the fact that there is a wide variation of belt orientation, child size, and seating environments, there is legitimate concern that the upper diagonal belt might contribute to injury of the child under certain impact conditions. PMID:1163506

  10. A population of comets in the main asteroid belt.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Henry H; Jewitt, David

    2006-04-28

    Comets are icy bodies that sublimate and become active when close to the Sun. They are believed to originate in two cold reservoirs beyond the orbit of Neptune: the Kuiper Belt (equilibrium temperatures of approximately 40 kelvin) and the Oort Cloud (approximately 10 kelvin). We present optical data showing the existence of a population of comets originating in a third reservoir: the main asteroid belt. The main-belt comets are unlike the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud comets in that they likely formed where they currently reside and may be collisionally activated. The existence of the main-belt comets lends new support to the idea that main-belt objects could be a major source of terrestrial water. PMID:16556801

  11. Social Mobility and Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    Social mobility is generally studied in three different ways: stratum mobility, intergenerational social mobility, and intragenerational or career mobility. This paper deals with the first two types of mobility and more with intergenerational mobility than with stratum mobility. The working hypothesis of both discussions is that, in general, a…

  12. Geological respiration of a mountain belt revealed by the trace element rhenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Robert G.; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Calmels, Damien; Birck, Jean-Louis

    2014-10-01

    Oxidation of rock-derived, petrogenic, organic carbon (OCpetro) during weathering of sedimentary rocks is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. This geological respiration is thought to be enhanced by physical erosion, suggesting that mountain belts could release large amounts of CO2 to counter the CO2 sequestration achieved by the erosion, riverine transfer and oceanic burial of organic carbon from the terrestrial biosphere. However, OCpetro oxidation rates in mountain belts have not been quantified. Here we use rhenium (Re) as a proxy to track OCpetro oxidation in mountain river catchments of Taiwan, where existing measurements of physical erosion rate allow the controls on OCpetro oxidation to be assessed. Re has been shown to be closely associated with OCpetro in rocks and following oxidation during chemical weathering forms a soluble oxyanion (ReO4-) which contributes to the dissolved load of rivers. Soils on meta-sedimentary rocks in Taiwan show that Re loss is coupled to OCpetro loss during weathering, confirming previous observations from soil profiles on sedimentary rocks elsewhere. In Taiwan rivers, dissolved Re flux increases with the catchment-average sediment yield, suggesting that physical erosion rate is a major control on OCpetro oxidation. Based on our current understanding of Re mobility during weathering, the dissolved Re flux can be used to quantify an upper bound on the OCpetro oxidation rate and the associated CO2 transfer. The estimated CO2 release from this mountain belt by OCpetro oxidation does not negate estimates of CO2 sequestration by burial of biospheric OC offshore. The findings are compared to OC transfers estimated for the Himalaya, where OCpetro oxidation in the mountain belt remains unconstrained. Together, these cases suggest that mountain building in the tropics can result in a net sink of OC which sequesters atmospheric CO2.

  13. Greenstone belts: Their boundaries, surrounding rock terrains and interrelationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.; Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts are an important part of the fragmented record of crustal evolution, representing samples of the magmatic activity that formed much of the Earth's crust. Most belts developed rapidly, in less than 100 Ma, leaving large gaps in the geological record. Surrounding terrains provide information on the context of greenstone belts. The effects of tectonic setting, structural geometry and evolution, associated plutonic activity and sedimentation are discussed.

  14. New compounds will help coal operators comply with BELT standards

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    US coal producers will soon have a new set of conveyor belting standards, which are currently proposed as a rulemaking by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), to bring higher levels of resistance to propagation of fire by a secondary source. The new test being put into effect is known as a Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT). The article, submitted by Fenner Dunlop, discusses the company's testing procedures and the development of conveyors to comply with regulations. 2 photos.

  15. Jupiters radiation belts and their effects on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.; Divita, E. L.; Gigas, G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of electron and proton radiation on spacecraft which will operate in the trapped radiation belts of the planet Jupiter are described, and the techniques and results of the testing and simulation used in the radiation effects program are discussed. Available data from the Pioneer 10 encounter of Jupiter are compared with pre-encounter models of the Jupiter radiation belts. The implications that the measured Jovian radiation belts have for future missions are considered.

  16. Young drivers' decision making and safety belt use.

    PubMed

    Calisir, Fethi; Lehto, Mark R

    2002-11-01

    Past research in safety belt use has primarily focused on describing the relationship between drivers' demographic characteristics and safety belt use. This study compared the impact of situational factors (the direction of collision, the type of road, and the presence of an airbag system), demographic factors, and constructs (criteria) elicited from subjects regarding safety belt use. Based on the results obtained, a conceptual model was developed. The model indicated that drivers' decision-making process when judging the level of accident risk and usefulness of safety belts differs from those that determine actual behavior. Perceived risk was related to road type, perceived consequences of an accident, perceived usefulness of safety belts, self responsibility, the time available for the driver to warn the other driver, dangerous behavior, and gender. These variables showed that people were able to rationally judge the risk. Despite the fact that people judge behavior in what appeared to be a rational manner, risk perception was not a good predictor of belt use. Belt use was mainly influenced by individual factors such as gender, grade point average (GPA), and age. Other factors impacting safety belt use included the perceived frequency of an accident and the S.D. of perceived usefulness of safety belts. PMID:12371784

  17. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  18. Decomposition of noise sources of synchronous belt drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang (Sheng); Zheng, Hui; Qatu, Mohamad

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the noise sources of synchronous belt are decomposed and formulated based on the analysis of the impact dynamics of belt-sprocket tooth interface. The impact/contact of belt-sprocket tooth and the vibration of belt span are modeled. The friction-vibrations interaction of belt tooth and the airflow-induced acoustic wave during belt-sprocket tooth engagement are comprehensively formulated. The structure-borne noise consists of structural impact noise and friction-induced noise. The airborne noise is due to airflow-induced acoustic wave during belt-sprocket tooth engaging. The spectral signatures of the varied noise are quantified, and the case studies are given to illustrate the influences of the tooth parameters and operation conditions on noise. The noise due to belt span vibration under impact ranges from hundreds to several thousand Hz. The impact noise, friction-induced noise and airflow-induced noise of belt tooth ranges from 3 kHz to 10 kHz.

  19. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J. E-mail: Stephen.Tegler@nau.ed

    2010-07-15

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  20. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

    1986-04-03

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  1. Predicting Facies Patterns within Fluvial Channel Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, B. J.; Sech, R.; Sun, T.; Pyrcz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs (aquifers) in fluvial channel belt sandstones can have very different subsurface flow behavior depending on the degree and distribution of internal heterogeneities. Fluvial channel belts are composed of multiple "storeys" formed as individual channel segments increase in sinuosity and then are cut off and abandoned. Heterogeneities are defined by depositional variations across storeys and inter-story connectivity patterns along the channel belt. Although commonly inferred to reflect the formative river pattern (sinuosity & braiding), the spatial arrangement of facies depend most directly on the relative preservation of deposits formed within different areas of the migrating channels and the lateral stacking arrangement of storeys due to style of bend cutoff. Grains are poorly sorted across the inner bank along upstream parts of channel bends and become better sorted laterally in downstream areas adjacent to a deeper thalweg scour. If deposition occurs evenly along the entire inner bank (bar), this grain size pattern leads to an elliptical body in planview with weak vertical grain size trends upstream and more fining-upward trend downstream. As channel bend segments migrate to a greater extent downstream, preserved inner-bank-bar deposits are increasingly dominated by upward-fining deposits and more outer-bank-deposits are preserved ("concave bank" deposits). Although concave bank deposits have highly variable character in different systems, vertical-grainsize trends tend to be weaker in straighter systems dominated by downstream-accretion, and more strongly upward-fining in higher sinuosity systems where these deposits form by eddy accretion or low flow aggradation. River cutoffs of straighter channel segments abandon slowly, leading to more gradual vertical fining. Subsurface heterogeneity prediction requires documentation of shape and character of deposits preserved in different zones within the channel (upstream and downstream inner bank, concave bank

  2. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  3. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  4. Stratospheric Polar Freezing Belt Causes Denitrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Jensen, E. J.; Toon, O. B.; Drdla, K.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Trajectory cloud model calculations are presented to show that homogeneous freezing of nitric acid hydrates can produce a polar freezing belt in both hemispheres that can cause denitrification. While hydrate cloud microphysical properties are similar over both poles, the shorter persistence of clouds in the Arctic prevents the depth of the denitrified layers from growing beyond a few kilometers. The 1999-2000 Arctic winter is unique in showing a distinct denitrification profile with a depth of approx. 4.5 km that is nearly half as deep as that computed for a typical Antarctic winter.

  5. Inner main belt asteroids in Slivan states?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The spin state of ten asteroids in the Koronis family has previously been determined. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods that were either short or long. The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been demonstrated to be able to explain all these peculiar facts. In particular, the effect causes the spin axes of the prograde rotators to be captured in a secular spin-orbit resonance known as Cassini state 2, a configuration dubbed "Slivan state". Aims: It has been proposed based on an analysis of a sample of asteroids in the Flora family that Slivan states might also exist in this region of the main belt. This is surprising because convergence of the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s6 was assumed to prevent Slivan states in this zone. We therefore investigated the possibility of a long-term stable capture in the Slivan state in the inner part of the main belt and among the asteroids previously observed. Methods: We used the swift integrator to determine the orbital evolution of selected asteroids in the inner part of the main belt. We also implemented our own secular spin propagator into the swift code to efficiently analyze their spin evolution. Results: Our experiments show that the previously suggested Slivan states of the Flora-region asteroids are marginally stable for only a small range of the flattening parameter Δ. Either the observed spins are close to the Slivan state by chance, or additional dynamical effects that were so far not taken into account change their evolution. We find that only the asteroids with very low-inclination orbits (lower than ≃4°, for instance) could follow a similar evolution path as the Koronis members and be captured in their spin state into the Slivan state. A greater number of asteroids in the inner main-belt Massalia

  6. Euclid Asteroseismology and Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Huber, Daniel; Stello, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Euclid, which is primarily a dark-energy/cosmology mission, may have a microlensing component, consisting of perhaps four dedicated one-month campaigns aimed at the Galactic bulge. We show that such a program would yield excellent auxilliary science, including asteroseismology detections for about 100,000 giant stars, and detection of about 1000 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), down to 2--2.5 mag below the observed break in the KBO luminosity function at I˜ 26. For the 400 KBOs below the break, Euclid will measure accurate orbits, with fractional period errors ≲ 2.5%.

  7. Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.

  8. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  9. An Evaluation Study of a CALL Application: With BELT or without BELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Humeyra

    2012-01-01

    The present study tried to evaluate the 6th grade students' attitudes towards the use of a CALL program which is called BELT Success used in English language learning course in a private school, the relationship to students' attitudes to their English language proficiency level, and finally teachers` experiences and opinions towards the use of…

  10. Anatomy of an intracratonic fold belt: Examples from the southwestern Palmyride fold belt in central Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Chaimov, T.A.; Barazangi, M.; Best, J.A. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Palmyride fold belt, a 400 {times} 100 km, NE-trending, transpressive belt in central Syria, represents the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic inversion of a linear intracratonic basin. The southwestern Palmyrides are characterized by short wavelength (2-5 km) folds separated by small intermontane basins. To elucidate the subsurface structure, a three-dimensional model, based mainly on about 450 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection data, was generated using a LandMark{reg sign} graphics workstation. The new model includes many features not identified in outcrop. Short, NW-trending transcurrent, or transfer, faults link the short, en echelon NE-trending thrust faults and blind thrusts of the Palmyrides. Varying structural styles are observed within the southwestern part of the belt. In one instance the structure of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks mimics that in deeper Paleozoic rocks; elsewhere, a strong discordance between Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks appears to be related to the development of a regional detachment in Triassic rocks at about 4 km depth. Shortening the southwestern palmyrides totals about 20-25 km, based on palinspastic restoration of a balanced cross section across the belt. Seismic stratigraphy constrains the timing of at least three distinct episodes of Palmyride shortening: Late Cretaceous, middle Eocene, and Miocene to present. All three episodes were penecontemporaneous with specific tectonic events along the northern Arabian plate boundaries.

  11. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants. PMID:24435726

  12. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  13. CO depletion in the Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, H.; Viti, S.; Yates, J.; Hatchell, J.; Fuller, G. A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Buckle, J. V.; Graves, S.; Roberts, J.; Nutter, D.; Davis, C.; White, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Butner, H.; Richer, J.; Di Francesco, J.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical comparison of CO depletion in a set of local molecular clouds within the Gould Belt using Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) and Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP) data. This is the most wide-ranging study of depletion thus far within the Gould Belt. We estimate CO column densities assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and, for a selection of sources, using the radiative transfer code RADEX in order to compare the two column density estimation methods. High levels of depletion are seen in the centres of several dust cores in all the clouds. We find that in the gas surrounding protostars, levels of depletion are somewhat lower than for starless cores with the exception of a few highly depleted protostellar cores in Serpens and NGC 2024. There is a tentative correlation between core mass and core depletion, particularly in Taurus and Serpens. Taurus has, on average, the highest levels of depletion. Ophiuchus has low average levels of depletion which could perhaps be related to the anomalous dust grain size distribution observed in this cloud. High levels of depletion are often seen around the edges of regions of optical emission (Orion) or in more evolved or less dynamic regions such as the bowl of L1495 in Taurus and the north-western region of Serpens.

  14. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-06-15

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice-perhaps mixed with ammonia-that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the {approx}20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  15. Benefits of Seat Belt Reminder Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael; Koppel, Sjaanie; Vulcan, Peter; Brooks, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether fitting a more aggressive seat belt reminder system to new vehicles would be cost-beneficial for Australia. While seat belt wearing rates have been observed around 95% in the front seat, non-wearing rates in casualty crashes are as high as 33% among persons killed and 19% among seriously injured occupants. Benefits were computed for three device options (simple, simple-2 and complex) and three introduction scenarios (driver-only, front seat occupants and all occupants). Four levels of effectiveness were assumed, from 10% to 40%, depending on the type of device fitted. Unit benefits were computed assuming a 5% discount rate and a 15yr fleet life. Various industry experts provided the costs. The findings showed that Benefit-Cost-Ratios ranged from 4.0:1 at best (simple device for the driver only) to 0.9:1 for all seating positions. These figures are conservative, given the assumptions made and the discounted human capital methods used. PMID:12941229

  16. Appropriate frontal barrier tests for belted occupants.

    PubMed

    Hill, J R; Frampton, R J; Mackay, M

    1995-12-01

    Vehicle damage from frontal impacts was classified and investigated together with injuries sustained by belted front seat occupants. The sample consisted of 1872 frontal crashes from the Midlands of England. Analysis focused on impacts with broad objects that might conceivably be simulated by a barrier test. Two asymmetrical front-end damage patterns were commonly identified, and these gave the greatest rates of non-minor (Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) > or = 2) injuries in a range of Estimated Test Speeds from 35 to 52km/h which is the regime of current legislative crash tests. The most injurious type involved oblique damage caused by a substantial overlap of the struck object. The other type was from a small overlap. Objects struck and passenger compartment intrusions were compared. Appropriate asymmetrical and deformable barrier concepts were discussed. Other findings were connected with the future role of full face barriers as used in current tests such as Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208. Fuller overlaps (> 50%) tended to give more torso injuries rated > or = AIS 2 caused by seat belt loads and, at high speeds (53-79km/h), caused the most fatalities. Full overlaps (100%) rarely resulted in symmetrical intrusion into the passenger compartment. PMID:8749284

  17. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  18. Population of the Scattered Kuiper Belt.

    PubMed

    Trujillo; Jewitt; Luu

    2000-02-01

    We present the discovery of three new scattered Kuiper Belt objects (SKBOs) from a wide-field survey of the ecliptic. This continuing survey has to date covered 20.2 deg2 to a limiting red magnitude of 23.6. We combine the data from this new survey with an existing survey conducted at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope to constrain the number and mass of the SKBOs. The SKBOs are characterized by large eccentricities, perihelia near 35 AU, and semimajor axes greater than 50 AU. Using a maximum likelihood model, we estimate the total number of SKBOs larger than 100 km in diameter to be N=&parl0;3.1+1.9-1.3&parr0;x104 (1 sigma errors) and the total mass of SKBOs to be M approximately 0.05 M plus sign in circle, demonstrating that the SKBOs are similar in number and mass to the Kuiper Belt inside 50 AU. PMID:10622765

  19. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  20. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  1. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  2. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  3. Anorthosite belts, continental drift, and the anorthosite event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herz, N.

    1969-01-01

    Most anorthosites lie in two principal belts when plotted on a predrift continental reconstruction. Anorthosite ages in the belts cluster around 1300 ?? 200 million years and range from 1100 to 1700 million years. This suggests that anorthosites are the product of a unique cataclysmic event or a thermal event that was normal only during the earth's early history.

  4. [The safety belt: effects on injury patterns of automobile passengers].

    PubMed

    Teifke, A; Degreif, J; Geist, M; Schild, H; Strunk, H; Schunk, K

    1993-09-01

    Since 1984 the law concerning safety belts has been implemented; this paper deals with the findings in 386 victims of motor accidents who were x-rayed between 1981 and 1989. Minor injuries have been ignored. The number of passengers wearing belts increased by 30% after 1984. The number of passenger injuries did not decrease. Injuries directly caused by the belts included a small number of fractures of clavicles, the sternum and ribs and one pelvic fracture, one serious abdominal injury with tearing of the mesenteric artery and one ruptured spleen. An indirect result of wearing seat belts was a marked increase in cervical whiplash injuries and some increase in thoracic vertebral fractures. None of the belt induced injuries proved fatal. Amongst those using seat belts there was a significantly lower fatality rate and injuries causing prolonged disability. In particular, using seat belts, serious injuries to the skull and brain were reduced by 80%. Similarly injuries to the abdomen, the odontoid, pelvis and hip joint were greatly reduced. The advantages of wearing a seat belt greatly outweigh the disadvantages. PMID:8374116

  5. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  6. 133. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. COUNTER WEIGHTED CHUTE COVERS BELT THAT DRIVES SANDER. DOOR TO BLACKSMITH SHOP IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. CORN BELT PLAIN RIVER AND STREAMS PROJECT - 3 BIOCRITERIA PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort resulted in eight products, as follows: 1) Development of Index of Biotic Integrity Expectations for the Ecoregions of Indiana I. Central Corn Belt Plain; 2) Ibid. II. Huron-Erie Lake Plain; 3) Ibid III. Northern Indiana Till Plain; 4) Ibid .IV.Eastern Corn Belt Plain...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  9. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  10. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  15. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  16. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  17. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  18. Anorthosite belts, continental drift, and the anorthosite event.

    PubMed

    Herz, N

    1969-05-23

    Most anorthosites lie in two principal belts when plotted on a predrift continental reconstruction. Anorthosite ages in the belts cluster around 1300 +/- 200 million years and range from 1100 to 1700 million years. This suggests that anorthosites are the product of a unique cataclysmic event or a thermal event that was normal only during the earth's early history. PMID:17775597

  19. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  20. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  1. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  2. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  3. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person...

  4. Radiation-belt dynamics during solar minimum. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Holeman, E.

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45 deg. and 55 deg. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  5. Neptune's Eccentricity and the Nature of the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units.

  6. Neptune's eccentricity and the nature of the kuiper belt

    PubMed

    Ward; Hahn

    1998-06-26

    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units. PMID:9641913

  7. Effect of a weightlifting belt on spinal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Bourne, N D; Reilly, T

    1991-12-01

    Spinal loading during weightlifting results in a loss of stature which has been attributed to a decrease in height of the intervertebral discs--so-called 'spinal shrinkage'. Belts are often used during the lifting of heavy weights, purportedly to support, stabilize and thereby attenuate the load on the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a standard weightlifting belt in attenuating spinal shrinkage. Eight male subjects with a mean age of 24.8 years performed two sequences of circuit weight-training, one without a belt and on a separate occasion with a belt. The circuit training regimen consisted of six common weight-training exercises. These were performed in three sets of ten with a change of exercise after each set of ten repetitions. A stadiometer sensitive to within 0.01 mm was used to record alterations in stature. Measurements of stature were taken before and after completion of the circuit. The absolute visual analogue scale (AVAS) was used to measure the discomfort and pain intensity resulting from each of the two conditions. The circuit weight-training caused stature losses of 3.59mm without the belt and 2.87 mm with the belt (P greater than 0.05). The subjects complained of significantly less discomfort when the belt was worn (P less than 0.05). The degree of shrinkage was significantly correlated (r = 0.752, P less than 0.05) with perceived discomfort but only when the belt was not worn. These results suggest the potential benefits of wearing a weightlifting belt and support the hypothesis that the belt can help in stabilizing the trunk. PMID:1810615

  8. Studying the Saturn Inner Radiation Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, A.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Dandouras, I.

    2013-09-01

    In 2004 the MIMI/INCA detector onboard the Cassini spacecraft measured the significant flux of the energetic neutral atoms (ENA) coming from the area between the D-ring and the Saturn's atmosphere, what brought up the idea of the possible existence of the innermost radiation belt in this narrow gap. In the present study we estimate the possible sources for this radiation belt, assuming the two main processes: the double charge exchange of the ENAs, coming from the middle magnetosphere, what can bring the keV ions to the region of our interest, and the interaction of the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Saturn's atmosphere and rings, which due to CRAND process can produce the keV-MeV ions or electrons in the region. Both of these possible sources are possible to evaluate using the charged particle tracer. In our group we developed such charged particle tracer, which works in all different modes (Newton-Lorentz full equation of motion, guiding center or bounce averaged approximations), and allows using the different magnetic field models (from simple dipole magnetic field till complex realistic magnetic field model like Khurana model of Saturn's magnetosphere) for both forward and backward tracing simulations. This charged particle tracer was validated using the comparison of the simulation results and observations during several flybys of Cassini by icy moons of Saturn. Using the particle tracer we can calculate the access of GCRs to the atmosphere and rings of the planet and evaluate the filtering of the GCR spectrum that hits the atmosphere from the direction of the Saturn's main rings. Also we can investigate different non-dipolar effects which possible can change the Stroemer cutoff rigidities of GCRs, especially for the high-latitude atmosphere, which maps magnetically in the outer magnetosphere. We can also estimate the production of secondaries as well (and also from the multiple impacts of these secondaries on the rings or atmosphere) and evaluate the

  9. The Ocean-Atmosphere Hydrothermohaline Conveyor Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döös, Kristofer; Kjellsson, Joakim; Zika, Jan; Laliberté, Frédéric; Brodeau, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The ocean thermohaline circulation is linked to the hydrothermal circulation of the atmosphere. The ocean thermohaline circulation is expressed in potential temperature-salinity space and comprises a tropical upper-ocean circulation, a global conveyor belt cell and an Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The atmospheric hydrothermal circulation in a potential temperature-specific humidity space unifies the tropical Hadley and Walker cells as well as the midlatitude eddies into a single, global circulation. Superimposed, these thermohaline and hydrothermal stream functions reveal the possibility of a close connection between some parts of the water and air mass conversions. The exchange of heat and fresh water through the sea surface (precipiation-evaporation) and incoming solar radiation act to make near-surface air warm and moist while making surface water warmer and saltier as both air and water travel towards the Equator. In the tropics, air masses can undergo moist convection releasing latent heat by forming precipitation, thus acting to make warm surface water fresher. We propose that the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship for moist near-surface air acts like a lower bound for the atmospheric hydrothermal cell and an upper bound for the ocean thermohaline Conveyor-Belt cell. The analysis is made by combining and merging the overturning circulation of the ocean and atmosphere by relating the salinity of the ocean to the humidity of the atmosphere, where we set the heat and freshwater transports equal in the two stream functions By using simulations integrated with our Climate-Earth system model EC-Earth, we intend to produce the "hydrothermohaline" stream function of the coupled ocean-atmosphere overturning circulation in one single picture. We explore how the oceanic thermohaline Conveyor Belt can be linked to the global atmospheric hydrothermal circulation and if the water and air mass conversions in humidity-temperature-salinity space can be related and linked to each

  10. Wampum Belts with Initials and/or Dates as Design Elements: A Preliminary Review of One Subcategory of Political Belts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Marshall Joseph; Lainey, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Data on seventeen relatively well-documented examples as a preliminary review to an ongoing study of all that is known about belts that are a subcategory of the secular-political category is discussed. Evidence indicates that Wampum belts with initials and/or dates as design elements can clearly be demonstrated as but one subcategory of…

  11. The Palaeoproterozoic crustal evolution: evidences from granulite-gneiss belts, collisional and accretionary orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mints, M. V.; Konilov, A. N.

    2003-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic juvenile assemblages were emplaced within two types of mobile belts: (1) high-grade or "granulite-gneiss" belts; (2) low- and medium-grade volcano-sedimentary and volcano-plutonic belts. Type (1) belts resulted from plume-induced heating, magmatism, emergence of riftogenic basins and volcano-tectonic depressions, their filling with rift-type sediments and juvenile but strongly contaminated lavas and ash-flow deposits, high-grade recrystallization of the lower- and mid-crustal assemblages including the filling of the basins and depressions that followed in intraplate and back-arc settings, and final thrusting and exhumation caused by collision-related tectonism. Type (2) belts represent sutures containing MORB- and arc-related assemblages, together with initial rift-related assemblages formed during evolution of the short-lived, mainly Red Sea-type oceans (intracontinental collisional orogens) and systems of oceanic, island-arc and back-arc terranes amalgamated along continent margins (peripheral accretionary orogens). Palaeoproterozoic history can be subdivided into five periods: (1) 2.51-2.44 Ga superplume activity and displacement of Fennoscandia; (2) 2.44-2.0 (2.11) Ga quiescent within-plate development complicated by local plume- and plate tectonics-related processes; (3) a 2.0-1.95 Ga superplume event; (4) 1.95-1.75 (1.71) Ga combined plume- and plate tectonics-related evolution, resulting in the partial disruption of the continental crust, and formation of accretionary orogens along some margins of the supercontinent and rebirth of the supercontinent entity, and (5) < 1,75 Ga post- and anorogenic magmatism and metamorphism. Magmatic and thermal activity during the early Palaeoproterozoic was almost exclusively concentrated within Laurentia (comprising North American and Fennoscandian cratons). In contrast, late Palaeoproterozoic assemblages are distributed within all continents. The simultaneous appearance of within-plate plume

  12. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  13. Main-belt comets: sublimation-driven activity in the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of main-belt comets (MBCs), which exhibit comet-like activity likely due to the sublimation of volatile ices, yet orbit in the main asteroid belt, has increased greatly since the discovery of the first known MBC, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, in 1996, and their recognition as a new class of solar system objects after the discovery of two more MBCs in 2005. I review work that has been done over the last 10 years to improve our understanding of these enigmatic objects, including the development of systematic discovery methods and diagnostics for distinguishing MBCs from disrupted asteroids (which exhibit comet-like activity due to physical disruptions such as impacts or rotational destabilization). I also discuss efforts to understand the dynamical and thermal properties of these objects.

  14. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  15. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  16. Artificial perturbations of the radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cladis, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    A review is given of the properties of the radiation belts which have been produced by high-altitude nuclear detonations. The low-yield, Argus devices, 1, 2, and 3, and the Soviet test of 1 November 1962 injected intense electron fluxes in narrow L-shell intervals, with peaks at L = 1.72, 2.11, 2.17, and 1.77, respectively. The energy spectra of the electrons were indistinguishable from the equilibrium fission beta spectrum, and the fluxes initially decayed at rates approximately proportional to (time) sup -1.1. The high-yield devices, Starfish and the Soviet tests of 22 October and 28 October 1962, injected electrons over wide ranges. At L values near the lower boundary, the electron spectra appeared to be softer at the higher L values.

  17. Spectroscopy of Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Brown, Robert H.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Veeder, Glenn J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent near-infrared spectroscopy of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs indicates considerable spectral diversity among them. Some have entirely bland spectra with no discernible spectral features (e.g., Chiron), while 5145 Pholus has a very active spectrum with absorption bands of H2O, CH3OH, and probably the mineral olivine present. In addition, the strong red color of Pholus indicates the presence of organic solids. Among the KBOs, 1993 SC has an active spectrum with the probably presence of hydrocarbons and possibly the ices of H2O and N2. The diversity among these spectra and the implications that such diversity has for models of the formation of the formation of the planets will be discussed.

  18. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  19. Herschel-Resolved Outer Belts of Two-Belt Debris Disks--Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Farisa Y.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Werner, Michael W.; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-12-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 57 main sequence stars (42 A-type and 15 solar-type) with previously known warm dust (Twarm ~200K) detected and characterized by Spitzer. About half of the star-disk systems in our sample have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures that mirror that of the asteroid-Kuiper belt geometry of our own solar system. The Herschel observations at 70 and/or 100 micron spatially resolve the cold/outer dust component for 18 two-belt debris systems (15 for the first time; 10 are also resolved at 160 micron), finding evidence of planetesimals at >100 AU, i.e. larger size than assumed from a simple blackbody fit to the SED. By breaking the degeneracy between the grain properties and the dust's radial location, the resolved images help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust's composition for each system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+MIPS (5 to 70 micron), the Herschel/PACS (70 and/or 100 and 160 micron) dataset, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that the majority of resolved cold/outer belts of star+disk systems are well fit with a mixed ice/rock composition, rather than pure rocky grains. In the absence of spectral features for ice, we find that the behavior of the continuum can help constrain the composition of the grains well (of icy nature and not pure rocky material) given the Herschel-resolved locations of the cold/outer dust belts. We have also begin to identify the presence of candidate companions via Keck direct imaging, which may be interacting with the observed dust.

  20. Plains tectonism on Venus: The deformation belts of Lavinia Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Jankowski, David G.; Simons, Mark; Solomon, Sean C.; Hager, Bradford H.; Mcgill, George E.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. A number of geologic units can be distinguished, including volcanic plains units with a range of ages. Transecting these plains over much of the Lavinia region are two types of generally orthogonal features that we interpret to be compressional wrinkle ridges and extensional grooves. The dominant tectonic features of Lavinia are broad elevated belts of intense deformation that transect the plains with complex geometry. They are many tens to a few hundred kilometers wide, as much as 1000 km long, and elevated hundreds of meters above the surrounding plains. Two classes of deformation belts are seen in the Lavinia region. 'Ridge belts' are composed of parallel ridges, each a few hundred meters in elevation, that we interpret to be folds. Typical fold spacings are 5-10 km. 'Fracture belts' are dominated instead by intense faulting, with faults in some instances paired to form narrow grabens. There is also some evidence for modest amounts of horizontal shear distributed across both ridge and fracture belts. Crosscutting relationships among the belts show there to be a range in belt ages. In western Lavinia, in particular, many ridge and fracture belts appear to bear a relationship to the much smaller wrinkle ridges and grooves on the surrounding plains: ridge morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains wrinkle ridges, and fracture morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains grooves. We use simple models to explore the formation of ridge and fracture belts. We show that convective motions in the mantle can couple to the crust to cause horizontal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to induce the formation of deformation belts like those observed in Lavinia. We also use the small-scale wavelengths of deformation observed within individual ridge belts to

  1. The Relative Sizes of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, W. M.; Levison, H. F.; Stephens, D. C.

    2006-09-01

    Nearly 40 binary and multiple systems are now known in the Kuiper Belt. Most of these consist of similar-sized components; for some it is problematic to define a primary and a secondary. Systems with faint companions do exist. In the Pluto system, the most extreme example known, the two newly identified satellites are approximately 9 magnitudes fainter than Pluto. Observational bias favors the detection of bright secondaries, especially in low or modest S/N observations, a common occurrence in the observation of transneptunian objects. Because of this bias, it has not been clear whether the apparent preference for similar-sized components in binaries is real or an observational artifact. In the last year we have made very deep observations of 61 Centaurs and TNOs using the Hubble Space Telescope High Resolution Camera. These observations have 3-sigma detection limits of visual magnitude 27.5 or fainter. This is the first large data set capable of assessing the relative frequency of symmetric (similar brightness) and asymmetric (large brightness differences) binaries. Our data show a clear and significant preference for companions that have a 1 magnitude or smaller difference compared to the primary. This result confirms the qualitative prediction of the chaos-assisted model for binary formation (Astakhov et al. 2005, MRAS 360, 401) and supports the contention that most of the bound systems in the Kuiper Belt formed via mutual capture. Asymmetric systems may, in contrast, be the result of collisional formation as is postulated for the Pluto system (Stern et al. 2006, Nature, 439, 946). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope program #10514. Support for program #10514 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. INCLINATION MIXING IN THE CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-20

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  3. Detection of natural infection of Leishmania donovani (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a forest ecosystem in the Western Ghats, India, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2016-04-01

    A new focus of transmission of Leishmania donovani causing cutaneous manifestations (CL) was reported by us earlier, in the Western Ghats region of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. 12,253 sand fly specimens, comprising of three species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (24.7%) and 16 species belonging to the genus Sergentomyia (57.3%) were collected from the region during 2012-2014. Among Phlebotomus species, Phlebotomus argentipes was found predominant (77.3%), followed by Phlebotomus colabaensis (21.7%) and Phlebotomus stantoni (1.6%). From these collections, 793 P. argentipes (88 pools), 123 P. colabaensis (31 pools) and three P. stantoni (three pools) female specimens were processed for detection of natural infection with L. donovani parasites using a multiple genetic marker (kinetoplast DNA; 3'UTR of HSP70 gene & HSP70 gene) approach. Five pools of P. argentipes specimens (Unfed (one), Fulfed (one) and Gravid (two)) among these, were found positive for L. donovani infection. HSP70 gene sequences of the parasites in the vector species was found genetically identical with the human isolates reported earlier, evincing the role of P. argentipes in the transmission of CL in this region. This is the first finding of natural infection of P. argentipes with L. donovani (causing CL) from India. PMID:26774685

  4. Genetic variation and population structure of endemic yellow catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma (Bagridae) among three populations of Western Ghat region using RAPD and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Abdul Muneer, P M; Gopalakrishnan, A; Musammilu, K K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Lal, K K; Basheer, V S; Lakra, W S

    2009-09-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellite markers were applied to evaluate the genetic variation in endemic and endangered yellow catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma sampled from three geographic locations of Western Ghat, South India river systems. In RAPD, of 32 10-mer RAPD primers screened initially, 10 were chosen and used in a comparative analysis of H. brachysoma collected from Meenachil, Chalakkudy and Nethravathi River systems. Of the 124 total RAPD fragments amplified, 49 (39.51%) were found to be shared by individuals of all 3 populations. The remaining 75 fragments were found to be polymorphic (60.48%). In microsatellites, six polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified by using primers developed for Pangasius hypophthalmus, Clarias macrocephalus and Clarias gariepinus. The identified loci were confirmed as microsatellite by sequencing after making a clone. The nucleotide sequences of 6 loci were published in NCBI genbank. The number of alleles across the six loci ranged from 4 to 7 and heterozygosities ranged from 0.07 to 0.93. The mean number of alleles and effective number of alleles per locus were 5.00 and 3.314, respectively. The average heterozygosity across all investigated samples was 0.72, indicating a significant deficiency of heterozygotes in this species. RAPD and microsatellite methods reported a high degree of gene diversity and genetic distances depicted by UPGMA dendrograms among the populations of H. brachysoma. PMID:18979230

  5. Phytochemical investigation of Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. and Sheriff.--a nutrient-rich leafy vegetable from Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Pradeesh; Nair, Archana G; Chinmayee, Devi M; Mini, I; Sukumaran, Swapna T

    2012-07-01

    Bidens biternata, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is an erect annual herb, up to 1 cm in height, and a widespread weed of cultivated areas. This plant is common, particularly in the Western Ghats regions of Kerala state in India. It is used as a leafy vegetable by the Paniya and Kattunaayika tribes of Waynadu Districts in Kerala and also to cure hepatitis, cold, cough, dysentery, etc. The multiplication and utilization of this leafy vegetable will help to overcome the nutritional deficiency problem and also to maintain the biodiversity. For effective biochemical analysis, plant extract was taken using different solvents. Various phytochemicals like reducing sugar, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, coumarins, saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannins and iridoids were estimated. Different nutritional factors like total carbohydrates, total proteins, total reducing sugar, different amino acids, free fatty acids, crude fibre, lipids, total moisture content, vitamins, etc. were tested by standard estimation methods. Anti-nutritional factors like phytic acid, total phenol, tannic acid, etc., were also estimated. Micronutrients and different pigments were quantified. The present studies revealed that this wild leafy plant has numerous nutritional factors with a low level of anti-nutritional factors. Therefore, this nutritive herb with diverse health-promoting compounds can be effectively utilized to overcome the nutritional deficiency problem around the globe. PMID:22538981

  6. Pre-Historic and Recent Vicariance Events Shape Genetic Structure and Diversity in Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque in the Western Ghats: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Muthuvarmadam S.; Marne, Minal; Gaur, Ajay; Kumara, Honnavalli N.; Singh, Mewa; Kumar, Ajith; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic isolation of populations is a potent force that helps shape the course of evolution. However, small populations in isolation, especially in fragmented landscapes, are known to lose genetic variability, suffer from inbreeding depression and become genetically differentiated among themselves. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of Anamalai hills and examined the genetic structure of the species across its distributional range in the Western Ghats. We sequenced around 900 bases of DNA covering two mitochondrial regions–hypervariable region-I and partial mitochondrial cytochrome b–from individuals sampled both from wild and captivity, constructed and dated phylogenetic trees. We found that the lion-tailed macaque troops in the isolated forest patches in Anamalai hills have depleted mitochondrial DNA diversity compared to troops in larger and continuous forests. Our results also revealed an ancient divergence in the lion-tailed macaque into two distinct populations across the Palghat gap, dating to 2.11 million years ago. In light of our findings, we make a few suggestions on the management of wild and captive populations. PMID:26561307

  7. Pre-Historic and Recent Vicariance Events Shape Genetic Structure and Diversity in Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque in the Western Ghats: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Ram, Muthuvarmadam S; Marne, Minal; Gaur, Ajay; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Singh, Mewa; Kumar, Ajith; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic isolation of populations is a potent force that helps shape the course of evolution. However, small populations in isolation, especially in fragmented landscapes, are known to lose genetic variability, suffer from inbreeding depression and become genetically differentiated among themselves. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of Anamalai hills and examined the genetic structure of the species across its distributional range in the Western Ghats. We sequenced around 900 bases of DNA covering two mitochondrial regions-hypervariable region-I and partial mitochondrial cytochrome b-from individuals sampled both from wild and captivity, constructed and dated phylogenetic trees. We found that the lion-tailed macaque troops in the isolated forest patches in Anamalai hills have depleted mitochondrial DNA diversity compared to troops in larger and continuous forests. Our results also revealed an ancient divergence in the lion-tailed macaque into two distinct populations across the Palghat gap, dating to 2.11 million years ago. In light of our findings, we make a few suggestions on the management of wild and captive populations. PMID:26561307

  8. Population Dynamics and Conservation Implications of Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph and V. Chandras.) Venter., a Steno Endemic Species of Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Priyanka; Kumar, L Dinesh; Kumar, Amit; Gokul, Sivaraman; Ravikumar, Kaliamoorthy; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2015-07-01

    Decalepis arayalpathra, a critically endangered plant species, has a restricted and fragmented population in Southern Western Ghats, India. This study is a first attempt to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure in the nine wild populations of D. arayalpathra based on molecular pattern realized through the marker assays. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Nei's unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based hierarchical clustering of both the marker assays suggest strong genetic clustering between the individuals corresponding to their geographical ranges. Mantel test also corroborates a close genetic proximity between genetic and geographic data (r = 0.389). Population genetic analysis revealed low levels of gene flow [inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) = 0.289 and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) = 0.847] between the populations, in line with high genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.531 with ISSR and 0.440 with RAPD), which was also supported by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), that 54 % (ISSR) and 64 % (RAPD) total variation resided within populations. Bayesian model-based STRUCTURE analysis detected three genetic clusters showing the high degree of admixture within population. Based on the findings, such as inbreeding depression and the loss of genetic diversity, suggestions for conservation strategies are provided to preserve the genetic resources of this endangered species. PMID:25969156

  9. Rainouts over the Arabian Sea and Western Ghats during moisture advection and recycling explain the isotopic composition of Bangalore summer rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, P.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Variations in the isotope ratios (18O/16O and D/H) of meteoric water at continental stations serve as valuable tracers for the hydrological cycle. In the present study, we investigated the role of sea surface temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and rainout processes on the stable isotopic composition of the 2010 monsoon rainwater of Bangalore. The wind over the ocean influences the sea surface temperature and humidity which in turn influence the vapor isotopic composition. The rainout over the Arabian Sea and the land mass (Western Ghats) during advection of the air parcel to Bangalore and its recycling further modify the vapor composition. The isotopic ratios (δ18O, δD, and d-excess) of the precipitation at Bangalore was estimated following a Rayleigh fractionation model involving rainout and recycling processes yield values consistent with our observation. In some samples, however, the observed isotopic ratios are higher (by 2 to 5‰), and a few of them are associated with high d-excess values. These discrepancies could be due to limitation of the model assumptions.

  10. Seat belt usage rates: a test of Peltzman's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, P S

    1986-10-01

    Despite the universally accepted belief that the use of seat belts would have a significant impact upon the number of vehicular fatalities, current evidence indicates that relatively few drivers employ their seat belts. Various hypotheses have been offered to explain this phenomenon, many of which conclude that a driver's decision to use a seat belt is independent of the risk experienced in his trip making. This paper develops an economic model which focuses upon the relationship between driver use of seat belts and the travel conditions under which trips are made. Using data obtained from a national survey of households, a binary logit model is developed to test the hypothesis that seat belt usage is influenced by the level of risk experienced in one's trip making. The estimation results were consistent with the underlying hypothesis that individuals travelling in more risky environments are more likely to use their seat belts. The econometric results are then employed to examine various policy issues, including the predicted use of seat belts for population sub-groups, driver response to the introduction of a small urban car, and the impact upon the probability of a fatality resulting from vehicle fleet downsizing. PMID:3768132

  11. Using orbital tethers to remediate geomagnetic radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudoba de Badyn, Mathias; Marchand, Richard; Sydora, Richard D.

    2016-02-01

    The Van Allen radiation belts pose a hazard to spacecraft and astronauts, and similar radiation belts around other planets pose a hazard to interplanetary probes. We discuss a method of remediating these radiation belts first proposed by Danilov and Vasilyev, and recently improved by Hoyt, Minor, and Cash, where a long, charged tether is placed in orbit inside a radiation belt. In this approach, an electric field of the tether scatters the belt particles into a pitch angle loss cone leading to absorption of the particles in the atmosphere. A test particle calculation is presented which computes the scattered pitch angle of belt particles as a function of initial pitch angle and gyrophase for different particle energies. The moments of the resulting distribution of scattered angle versus initial pitch angle are used to compute the number density of the belt as a function of time using a Fokker-Planck diffusion approximation. Finally, we use the characteristic timescales of scattering for particles of different energies to discuss the feasibility of using such a system of tethers as a long and short-term remediation solution.

  12. A continental rift model for the La Grande greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulski, T.; Hynes, A.; Liu, M.; Francis, D.; Rivard, B.; Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, K.

    1986-01-01

    Stratigraphic relationships and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks contrain the nature and timing of the tectonic and magmatic processes in the pre-deformational history of the La Grande greenstone belt in the Superior Province of north-central Quebec. The lowermost supracrustals in this belt are obscured by syntectonic granitoid intrusives. The supracrustal succession in the western part of the belt consists of a lower sequence of immature clastic sediments and mafic volcanoclastics, overlain by pillowed and massive basalts. Further east, along tectonic strike, a lower sequence of mafic volcanoclastics and immature clastic sediments is overlain by a thick sequence of pillowed and massive basalts, and resedimented coarse clastic sediments and banded iron formation. These are overlain by assive basaltic andesites, andesites and intermediate volcanoclastics intercalated with immature clastic sediments. In contrast, in the eastern part of the belt lenses of felsic volcanics and volcanoclastics occur at the base of the succession and pillowed and massive basalts are overlain by komatiites at the top. The La Grande greenstone belt can be explained as the product of continental rifting. The restricted occurence of komatiites, and eastwardly directed paleocurrents in clastic sediments in the central part of the belt are consistent with rifting commencing in the east and propagating westward with time. The increase in depth of emplacement and deposition with time of the lower three units in the central part of the belt reflects deposition in a subsiding basin. These supracrustal rocks are believed to represent the initial rift succession.

  13. New News and the Competing Views of Asteroid Belt Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. E.

    1996-03-01

    We have collected a lot of new data in the seven years since the big blue books came out (Asteroids II, 1989, and Meteorites and the Early Solar System, 1988). Here we review how all this new data has changed our perceptions of the geology of the asteroid belt. The only way to a complete understanding of asteroid belt geology is through knowledge of the nature of the mysterious and elusive heating mechanism that differentiated the asteroids. If we can figure out what it was, then we will know something fundamental about the forces at work during the formation time of the Solar System. Some of the principal observations we can make to put constraints on the possibilities come from observations of main asteroid belt geology. The most pressing problem in the geology of the asteroid belt is in the inner belt. S-type asteroids are key to the inner main belt, but their meteorite linkage is ambiguous. Why do we care? Because--if the S-types are chondritic, then almost the entire main belt is primitive material, representing very early solar system time, but telling us almost nothing about the mysterious heating mechanism. If the S-types are differentiated, then the heating mechanism ceased functioning in the middle of the main belt at the 'dividing line' between primitive and differentiated material. This dividing line is the silicate rock melting temperature position in space of the mysterious heating event. The Bell Big Picture model of asteroid belt geology synthesized all the information available and established the position of this dividing line back in 1988. But there is now new data to consider.

  14. The Fossilized Size Distribution of the Main Asteroid Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Durda, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Jedicke, R.; Morbidelli, A.

    2004-05-01

    The main asteroid belt evolved into its current state via two processes: dynamical depletion and collisional evolution. During the planet formation epoch, the primordial main belt (PMB) contained several Earth masses of material, enough to allow the asteroids to accrete on relatively short timescales (e.g., Weidenschilling 1977). The present-day main belt, however, only contains 5e-4 Earth masses of material (Petit et al. 2002). To explain this mass loss, we suggest the PMB evolved in the following manner: Planetesimals and planetary embryos accreted (and differentiated) in the PMB during the first few Myr of the solar system. Gravitational perturbations from these embryos dynamically stirred the main belt, enough to initiate fragmentation. When Jupiter reached its full size, some 10 Myr after the solar system's birth, its perturbations, together with those of the embryos, dynamically depleted the main belt region of > 99% of its bodies. Much of this material was sent to high (e,i) orbits, where it continued to pummel the surviving main belt bodies at high impact velocities for more than 100 Myr. While some differentiated bodies in the PMB were disrupted, most were instead scattered; only small fragments from this population remain. This period of comminution and dynamical evolution in the PMB created, among other things, the main belt's wavy size-frequency distribution, such that it can be considered a "fossil" from this violent early epoch. From this time forward, however, relatively little collisional evolution has taken place in the main belt, consistent with the surprising paucity of prominent asteroid families. We will show that the constraints provided by asteroid families and the shape of the main belt size distribution are essential to obtaining a unique solution from our model's initial conditions. We also use our model results to solve for the asteroid disruption scaling law Q*D, a critical function needed in all planet formation codes that include

  15. The variable extension of Saturn's electron radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.; Carbary, J. F.; Kollmann, P.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Contrary to the permanent MeV ion belts which are relatively stable in intensity over both short and long time scales and are modulated by a single Galactic Cosmic Ray driven source, the electron belts of Saturn appear to be much more complex in both structure and temporal evolution. In order to understand the responses of this system to the different factors that may control it (internal or external/solar sources) we study its long-term, temporal evolution. We achieve that by tracking the equatorial distance of the belts' outer boundary, using MIMI/LEMMS energetic charged particle observations over a period of more than 7 years. This boundary is defined at the distance that a selected count rate level is measured in a LEMMS channel that has the properties of an omnidirectional, integral energy detector. Simulated solar wind moments, energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations and solar irradiance data are used to support the analysis. In many cases, correlations of the different datasets are weak, suggesting that the electron belts are modulated in time scales that are much shorter than the sampling of the electron belt boundary (typically every 10-30 days). Still, we find several cases of persistent, long term and strong perturbations in the system that appear to have corresponding disturbances in the extension of the electron belts, even on such long time scales. From the analysis of those intervals we believe that we have established a solid link with the planetary ring current as the primary source of the electron belts of Saturn. This is concluded mostly on the basis of an extended ring current decay in 2011 (inferred through ENA observations), coinciding with a similar, unusual drop in the electron belt extension (and intensity). This means that the electron belts should reflect also the modulation of the ring current. We suggest that possible sources of long term modulation are both the solar UV irradiance of the Saturnian thermosphere and the solar wind. The

  16. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  17. Whole optic fiber weighing technique and device of belt conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weilai; Liu, Jie; Pan, Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Whole optic fiber weighing technique and its device of belt conveyor are developed and put into application. Four FBG stress cells support a frame in a belt conveying line. In each cell, two FBG strain gauges are respectively installed at the stretching and compressing places to get the effects of sensitivity enhancement and temperature compensation. The weighing signals are from both FBG wavelength shift of loading cells and fiber belt speed meter. By means of integral algorithm, the weighing result is obtained. Actual coal weighing test shows that the accuracy of this weighing device is under 0.5%.

  18. Kuiper Belt Objects Along the Pluto-Express Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The science objective of this work is to identify objects in the Kuiper Belt which will, in the 5 years following Pluto encounter, be close to the flight path of NASA's Pluto Express. Our hope is that we will find a Kuiper Belt object or objects close enough that a spacecraft flyby will be possible. If we find a suitable object, the science yield of Pluto Express will be substantially enhanced. The density of objects in the Kuiper Belt is such that we are reasonably likely to find an object close enough to the flight path that on-board gas thrusters can effect a close encounter.

  19. The small numbers of large Kuiper Belt objects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Brown, Michael E.; Fraser, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the brightness distribution of the largest and brightest (m(R) < 22) Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). We construct a luminosity function of the dynamically excited or hot Kuiper Belt (orbits with inclinations >5°) from the very brightest to m(R) = 23. We find for m(R) ≲ 23, a single slope appears to describe the luminosity function. We estimate that ∼12 KBOs brighter than m(R) ∼ 19.5 are present in the Kuiper Belt today. With nine bodies already discovered this suggests that the inventory of bright KBOs is nearly complete.

  20. Dynamic models for ridge belt formation on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Mark; Solomon, Sean C.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that the lithospheric shortening expressed by the ridge belts is the result of convective downwelling beneath the lowland planitia. Dynamical models are developed for the interaction of mantle convection with the crust and the models are compared to the characteristics of the ridge belts in Lavinia Planitia. The models support the hypothesis that convective stresses can produce the broad topographic depression of lowlands on Venus and can lead to the formation of ridge belts on either side of the topographic low.