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Sample records for ghz resonant mode

  1. Mode selection and resonator design studies of a 95 GHz, 100 kW, CW gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Vamshi Krishna, P.; Kartikeyan, M.V. E-mail: kartik@iitr.ernet.in; Thumm, M.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the mode selection procedure leading to the design and the cavity resonator design studies of a 95 GHz, 100 kW, CW Gyrotron will be presented, such a gyrotron will be used for specific ECRH/ECRIS applications. In this course all the suitable modes with design constraints within the limits of design goals are considered and finally the TE{sub 10.4} mode is chosen as the operating mode which is suitable for the design. Design constraints are carefully investigated, and starting currents are computed. (author)

  2. Microwave cavity piezo-opto-mechanical resonators based on film thickness modes operating beyond 10 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Tang, Hong

    Micromechanical resonators, which support and confine microwave frequency phonons on a scale comparable to optical wavelength, provide a valuable intermediate platform facilitating interactions among electrical, optical, and mechanical domains. High-frequency mechanical resonances ease the refrigeration conditions for reaching quantum mechanical ground state and also hold promise for practical device applications. However, efficient actuation of the highly stiff mechanical motions above gigahertz frequencies remains a challenging task. Here, we demonstrate a high-performance piezo-opto-mechanical resonator operating at 10.4 GHz by exploiting the acoustic thickness mode of an aluminum nitride micro-disk. In contrast to the in-plane mechanical modes, the thickness mode can be easily scaled to high frequencies with low mechanical and optical dissipations. A high f . Q product of 1 . 9 ×1013 ?Hz is achieved in ambient air at room temperature. Moreover, strong piezo-electro-mechanical coupling can be achieved by coupling the thickness mode with a microwave resonator, making it possible for coherent signal conversion. The thickness mode-based piezo-opto-mechanical resonators can be expected to serve as essential elements for advanced hybrid information networks.

  3. Harmonic mode locking of a Nd:BEL laser using a 20-GHz dielectric resonator/optical modulator.

    PubMed

    Godil, A A; Hou, A S; Auld, B A; Bloom, D M

    1991-11-15

    A 20-GHz dielectric-resonator/optical modulator is developed and used as an FM mode locker at the 84th harmonic of a conventional 238-MHz diode-pumped Nd:BEL laser cavity. Depending on the mode-locker drive frequency, two distinct regimes of mode locking were observed: 2.9-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 238 MHz and 3.9-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 20 GHz. These are to our knowledge the shortest pulses ever reported for active mode locking of a Nd laser. PMID:19784133

  4. 110 GHz hybrid mode-locked fiber laser with enhanced extinction ratio based on nonlinear silicon-on-insulator micro-ring-resonator (SOI MRR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Hsu, Yung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yang, Ling-Gang; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lai, Yin-Chieh; Tsang, Hon-Ki

    2016-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new 110 GHz high-repetition-rate hybrid mode-locked fiber laser using a silicon-on-insulator microring-resonator (SOI MRR) acting as the optical nonlinear element and optical comb filter simultaneously. By incorporating a phase modulator (PM) that is electrically driven at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, an enhanced extinction ratio (ER) of the optical pulses can be produced. The ER of the optical pulse train increases from 3 dB to 10 dB. As the PM is only electrically driven by the signal at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, in this case 22 GHz (110 GHz/5 GHz), a low bandwidth PM and driving circuit can be used. The mode-locked pulse width and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth of the proposed mode-locked fiber laser are measured, showing that the optical pulses are nearly transform limited. Moreover, stability evaluation for an hour is performed, showing that the proposed laser can achieve stable mode-locking without the need for optical feedback or any other stabilization mechanism.

  5. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki; Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Nakagome, Hideki; Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji; Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Yamazaki, Toshio

    2012-10-15

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb{sub 3}Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a {sup 7}Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  6. 1.05-GHz CMOS oscillator based on lateral- field-excited piezoelectric AlN contour- mode MEMS resonators.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chengjie; Van der Spiegel, Jan; Piazza, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the first demonstration of a 1.05-GHz microelectromechanical (MEMS) oscillator based on lateral-field-excited (LFE) piezoelectric AlN contourmode resonators. The oscillator shows a phase noise level of -81 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset frequency and a phase noise floor of -146 dBc/Hz, which satisfies the global system for mobile communications (GSM) requirements for ultra-high frequency (UHF) local oscillators (LO). The circuit was fabricated in the AMI semiconductor (AMIS) 0.5-microm complementary metaloxide- semiconductor (CMOS) process, with the oscillator core consuming only 3.5 mW DC power. The device overall performance has the best figure-of-merit (FoM) when compared with other gigahertz oscillators that are based on film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), surface acoustic wave (SAW), and CMOS on-chip inductor and capacitor (CMOS LC) technologies. A simple 2-mask process was used to fabricate the LFE AlN resonators operating between 843 MHz and 1.64 GHz with simultaneously high Q (up to 2,200) and kt 2 (up to 1.2%). This process further relaxes manufacturing tolerances and improves yield. All these advantages make these devices suitable for post-CMOS integrated on-chip direct gigahertz frequency synthesis in reconfigurable multiband wireless communications. PMID:20040430

  7. GHz spurious mode free AlN lamb wave resonator with high figure of merit using one dimensional phononic crystal tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guoqiang; Zhu, Yao; Merugu, Srinivas; Wang, Nan; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Yuandong

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports a spurious mode free GHz aluminum nitride (AlN) lamb wave resonator (LWR) towards high figure of merit (FOM). One dimensional gourd-shape phononic crystal (PnC) tether with large phononic bandgaps is employed to reduce the acoustic energy dissipation into the substrate. The periodic PnC tethers are based on a 1 μm-thick AlN layer with 0.26 μm-thick Mo layer on top. A clean spectrum over a wide frequency range is obtained from the measurement, which indicates a wide-band suppression of spurious modes. Experimental results demonstrate that the fabricated AlN LWR has an insertion loss of 5.2 dB and a loaded quality factor (Q) of 1893 at 1.02 GHz measured in air. An impressive ratio of the resistance at parallel resonance (Rp) to the resistance at series resonance (Rs) of 49.8 dB is obtained, which is an indication of high FOM for LWR. The high Rp to Rs ratio is one of the most important parameters to design a radio frequency filter with steep roll-off.

  8. Dielectric properties of oil sands at 2.45 GHz with TE1,0,11 mode determined by a rectangular cavity resonator.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Levent; Akyel, Cevdet; Ghannouchi, Fadhel M

    2011-01-01

    Oil obtained from oil sands resources constitute an important portion of the oil industry in Canada. Extraction of the bitumen from oil sands is very crucial process because of its cost and environmental impact. Microwave energy applicators by heating oil sands at microwave frequencies can be an excellent alternative to extract bitumen with the advantages of being potentially cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of extraction. In order to design and manufacture a microwave energy applicator, its dielectric properties must be known. In this study, as the first part of our ultimate microwave energy applicator project, in advance, the complex permittivity of oil sands was measured by using rectangular cavity resonator, designed and fabricated in Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal laboratories, at 2.45 GHz with TE1,0,1 mode. The accuracy of the permittivity measurement results obtained with the developed system was verified against those obtained using a commercial open-ended probe system as well the values of well known materials documented in open literature. Since there is no study found in the literature about the complex permittivity values of oil sands at 2.45 GHz, the present study would be of great help and important guide for those who plan to design and manufacture microwave energy applicators in order to extract the bitumen from the oil sands. PMID:24427869

  9. Large mode radius resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

  10. Design of tunable GHz-frequency optomechanical crystal resonators.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Hannes; Paraïso, Taofiq; Zang, Leyun; Painter, Oskar

    2016-05-30

    We present a silicon optomechanical nanobeam design with a dynamically tunable acoustic mode at 10.2 GHz. The resonance frequency can be shifted by 90 kHz/V2 with an on-chip capacitor that was optimized to exert forces up to 1 µN at 10 V operation voltage. Optical resonance frequencies around 190 THz with Q-factors up to 2.2 × 106 place the structure in the well-resolved sideband regime with vacuum optomechanical coupling rates up to g0/2π = 353 kHz. Tuning can be used, for instance, to overcome variation in the device-to-device acoustic resonance frequency due to fabrication errors, paving the way for optomechanical circuits consisting of arrays of optomechanical cavities. PMID:27410069

  11. A 77-118 GHz RESONANCE-FREE SEPTUM POLARIZER

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiueh, Tzihong; Teng, Hsiao-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as the strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution caused by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) to detect polarized radiation. Though the septum polarizer is limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it possesses advantageous features unparalleled by the OMT when it comes to determining astronomical polarization measurements. We design an extremely wide-band circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering 42% bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance, challenging the conventional bandwidth limit. Stokes parameters, constructed from the measured data between 77 GHz and 115 GHz, show that the leakage from I to Q and U is below ±2%, and the Q – U mutual leakage is below ±1%. Such a performance is comparable to other modern polarizers, but the bandwidth of this polarizer can be at least twice as wide. This extremely wide-band design removes the major weakness of the septum polarizer and opens up a new window for future astronomical polarization measurements.

  12. A 77-118 GHz Resonance-free Septum Polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiueh, Tzihong; Teng, Hsiao-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as the strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution caused by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) to detect polarized radiation. Though the septum polarizer is limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it possesses advantageous features unparalleled by the OMT when it comes to determining astronomical polarization measurements. We design an extremely wide-band circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering 42% bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance, challenging the conventional bandwidth limit. Stokes parameters, constructed from the measured data between 77 GHz and 115 GHz, show that the leakage from I to Q and U is below ±2%, and the Q - U mutual leakage is below ±1%. Such a performance is comparable to other modern polarizers, but the bandwidth of this polarizer can be at least twice as wide. This extremely wide-band design removes the major weakness of the septum polarizer and opens up a new window for future astronomical polarization measurements.

  13. The self-started 10 GHz harmonic mode-locking of a hybrid weak-resonant-cavity laser diode and fiber ring link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ju; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-06-01

    A self-started harmonic mode-locking of a hybrid weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode and fiber ring link is demonstrated to serve as a pulsed optical for future 10 Gb s-1 RZ data transmission. Beginning with the optical injection-locking rate equation describing the optoelectronic oscillator structure, the pulsewidth formula in the active mode-locking theory is modified and illuminates the shortening of the pulsewidth as a function of the optical feedback ratio and the microwave power gain. The pulsewidth is narrower with the higher optical injection power and the higher microwave power gain because of the gain saturation of the laser diode and the increase of the modulation depth. The lowest jitter and pulsewidth of the pulse train are 0.9 ps and 20 ps, respectively. With the higher microwave power gain, the SNR and ER are improved up to 10.2 dB and 13.8 dB, respectively, due to the enhancement of the peak power and the elimination of the residual carrier. Under the optimized operation condition, the pulsed optical carrier can be externally encoded at 10 Gbit/s for RZ-OOK data transmission.

  14. Force detected electron spin resonance at 94 GHz.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Paul A S; Smith, Graham M

    2007-01-01

    Force detected electron spin resonance (FDESR) detects the presence of unpaired electrons in a sample by measuring the change in force on a mechanical resonator as the magnetization of the sample is modulated under magnetic resonance conditions. The magnetization is coupled to the resonator via a magnetic field gradient. It has been used to both detect and image distributions of electron spins, and it offers both extremely high absolute sensitivity and high spatial imaging resolution. However, compared to conventional induction mode ESR the technique also has a comparatively poor concentration sensitivity and it introduces complications in interpreting and combining both spectroscopy and imaging. One method to improve both sensitivity and spectral resolution is to operate in high magnetic fields in order to increase the sample magnetization and g-factor resolution. In this article we present FDESR measurements on the organic conductor (fluoranthene)(2)PF(6) at 3.2 T, with a corresponding millimeter-wave frequency of 93.5 GHz, which we believe are the highest field results for FDESR reported in the literature to date. A magnet-on-cantilever approach was used, with a high-anisotropy microwave ferrite as the gradient source and employing cyclic saturation to modulate the magnetization at the cantilever fundamental frequency. PMID:17503940

  15. Experimental results of superimposing 9.9 GHz extraordinary mode microwaves on 2.45 GHz ECRIS plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Sato, Fuminobu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Kato, Yushi

    2016-02-01

    Efficient production of multicharged ions has been investigated on the tandem-type ECRIS in Osaka University. According to the consideration of the accessibility conditions of microwaves to resonance and cutoff regions, it was suggested that the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) heating contributed to enhancement of ion beam intensity. In order to enhance multicharged ion beams efficiently, injecting higher frequency microwave with extraordinary (X-mode) toward UHR region has been tried. In this study, 2.45 GHz frequency microwaves are used for conventional ECR discharge, and 9.9 GHz frequency microwaves with X-mode are superimposed for UHR heating. The effects of additive microwave injection are investigated experimentally in terms of plasma parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measured by Langmuir probe and ion beam current. As the results show, it is confirmed that the electrons in the high energy region are affected by 9.9 GHz X-mode microwave injection from the detailed analysis of EEDF.

  16. Experimental results of superimposing 9.9 GHz extraordinary mode microwaves on 2.45 GHz ECRIS plasma.

    PubMed

    Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Sato, Fuminobu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Kato, Yushi

    2016-02-01

    Efficient production of multicharged ions has been investigated on the tandem-type ECRIS in Osaka University. According to the consideration of the accessibility conditions of microwaves to resonance and cutoff regions, it was suggested that the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) heating contributed to enhancement of ion beam intensity. In order to enhance multicharged ion beams efficiently, injecting higher frequency microwave with extraordinary (X-mode) toward UHR region has been tried. In this study, 2.45 GHz frequency microwaves are used for conventional ECR discharge, and 9.9 GHz frequency microwaves with X-mode are superimposed for UHR heating. The effects of additive microwave injection are investigated experimentally in terms of plasma parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measured by Langmuir probe and ion beam current. As the results show, it is confirmed that the electrons in the high energy region are affected by 9.9 GHz X-mode microwave injection from the detailed analysis of EEDF. PMID:26931932

  17. Resonant microwave cavity for 8.5-12 GHz optically detected electron spin resonance with simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, J. S.; Wienkes, L. R.

    2009-03-01

    We present a newly developed microwave resonant cavity for use in optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) experiments. The cylindrical quasi-TE011 mode cavity is designed to fit in a 1 in. magnet bore to allow the sample to be optically accessed and to have an adjustable resonant frequency between 8.5 and 12 GHz. The cavity uses cylinders of high dielectric material, so-called "dielectric resonators," in a double-stacked configuration to determine the resonant frequency. Wires in a pseudo-Helmholtz configuration are incorporated into the cavity to provide frequencies for simultaneous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The system was tested by measuring cavity absorption as microwave frequencies were swept, by performing ODMR on a zinc-doped InP sample, and by performing optically detected NMR on a GaAs sample. The results confirm the suitability of the cavity for ODMR with simultaneous NMR.

  18. 24 GHz microwave mode converter optimized for superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Guo, J W; Sun, L; Niu, X J; Zhang, X Z; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Feng, Y C; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    Over-sized round waveguide with a diameter about Ø33.0 mm excited in the TE01 mode has been widely adopted for microwave transmission and coupling to the ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) plasma with the superconducting ECR ion sources operating at 24 or 28 GHz, such as SECRAL and VENUS. In order to study the impact of different microwave modes on ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating) efficiency and especially the production of highly charged ions, a set of compact and efficient TE01-HE11 mode conversion and coupling system applicable to 24 GHz SECRAL whose overall length is 330 mm has been designed, fabricated and tested. Good agreements between off-line tests and calculation results have been achieved, which indicates the TE01-HE11 converter meets the application design. The detailed results of the optimized coupling system will be presented in the paper. PMID:26931926

  19. Electromagnetic resonant modes of dielectric sphere bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andueza, A.; Pérez-Conde, J.; Sevilla, J.

    2015-05-01

    Sphere bilayers have been proposed as promising structures for electromagnetic management in photonic crystal devices. These arrangements are made of two intertwined subsets of spheres of different size and refractive index, one subset filling the interstitial sites of the other. We present a systematic study of the electromagnetic resonant modes of the bilayers, in comparison with those of the constituent subsets of spheres. Three samples were built with glass and Teflon spheres and their transmission spectra measured in the microwave range (10-25 GHz). Simulations with finite integration time-domain method are in good agreement with experiments. Results show that the bilayer presents the same resonances as one of the subsets but modified by the presence of the other in its resonant frequencies and in the electric field distributions. As this distortion is not very large, the number of resonances in a selected spectral region is determined by the dominant subset. The degree of freedom that offers the bilayer could be useful to fine tune the resonances of the structure for different applications. A map of modes useful to guide this design is also presented. Scale invariance of Maxwell equations allows the translation of these results in the microwave range to the visible region; hence, some possible applications are discussed in this framework.

  20. Electromagnetic resonant modes of dielectric sphere bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Andueza, A. Pérez-Conde, J.; Sevilla, J.

    2015-05-28

    Sphere bilayers have been proposed as promising structures for electromagnetic management in photonic crystal devices. These arrangements are made of two intertwined subsets of spheres of different size and refractive index, one subset filling the interstitial sites of the other. We present a systematic study of the electromagnetic resonant modes of the bilayers, in comparison with those of the constituent subsets of spheres. Three samples were built with glass and Teflon spheres and their transmission spectra measured in the microwave range (10–25 GHz). Simulations with finite integration time-domain method are in good agreement with experiments. Results show that the bilayer presents the same resonances as one of the subsets but modified by the presence of the other in its resonant frequencies and in the electric field distributions. As this distortion is not very large, the number of resonances in a selected spectral region is determined by the dominant subset. The degree of freedom that offers the bilayer could be useful to fine tune the resonances of the structure for different applications. A map of modes useful to guide this design is also presented. Scale invariance of Maxwell equations allows the translation of these results in the microwave range to the visible region; hence, some possible applications are discussed in this framework.

  1. 1/f frequency noise of 2-GHZ high-Q thin-film sapphire resonators.

    PubMed

    Ferre-Pikal, E S; Delgado Arámburo, M C; Walls, F L; Lakin, K M

    2001-03-01

    We present experimental results on intrinsic 1/f frequency modulation (FM) noise in high-overtone thin-film sapphire resonators that operate at 2 GHz. The resonators exhibit several high-Q resonant modes approximately 100 kHz apart, which repeat every 13 MHz. A loaded Q of approximately 20,000 was estimated from the phase response. The results show that the FM noise of the resonators varied between Sy (10 Hz) = -202 dB relative (rel) to 1/Hz and -210 dB rel to 1/Hz. The equivalent phase modulation (PM) noise of an oscillator using these resonators (assuming a noiseless amplifier) would range from [symbol: see text](10 Hz) = -39 to -47 dBc/Hz. PMID:11370364

  2. Whispering Gallery Mode Optomechanical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David C.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Yee, Karl Y.

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been made in both micromechanical resonators and micro-optical resonators over the past decade, and a new field has recently emerged combining these mechanical and optical systems. In such optomechanical systems, the two resonators are strongly coupled with one influencing the other, and their interaction can yield detectable optical signals that are highly sensitive to the mechanical motion. A particularly high-Q optical system is the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator, which has many applications ranging from stable oscillators to inertial sensor devices. There is, however, limited coupling between the optical mode and the resonator s external environment. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel type of optomechanical sensor has been developed, offering great potential for measurements of displacement, acceleration, and mass sensitivity. The proposed hybrid device combines the advantages of all-solid optical WGM resonators with high-quality micro-machined cantilevers. For direct access to the WGM inside the resonator, the idea is to radially cut precise gaps into the perimeter, fabricating a mechanical resonator within the WGM. Also, a strategy to reduce losses has been developed with optimized design of the cantilever geometry and positions of gap surfaces.

  3. Design of an induction linac driven CARM (Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser) oscillator at 250 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.

    1990-01-24

    We present the design of a 250 GHz, 400 MW Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator driven by a 1 KA, 2 MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the ARC facility of LLNL. The oscillator circuit is designed as a feedback amplifier operating in the TE{sub 11} mode at ten times cutoff terminated at each end with Bragg reflectors. Theory and cold test results are in good agreement for a manufactured Bragg reflector using 50 {mu}m corrugations to ensure mode purity. The CARM is to be operational by February 1990. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Operational upgrades to the DIII-D 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.E.; Cary, W.P.

    1993-10-01

    One of the primary components of the DIII-D radio frequency (rf) program over the past seven years has been the 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system. The system now consists of eight units capable of operating and controlling eight Varian VGE-8006 60 GHz, 200 kW gyrotrons along with their associated waveguide components. This paper will discuss the operational upgrades and the overall system performance. Many modifications were instituted to enhance the system operation and performance. Modifications discussed in this paper include an improved gyrotron tube-fault response network, a computer controlled pulse-timing and sequencing system, and an improved high-voltage power supply control interface. The discussion on overall system performance will include operating techniques used to improve system operations and reliability. The techniques discussed apply to system start-up procedures, operating the system in a conditioning mode, and operating the system during DIII-D plasma operations.

  5. A 250-GHz CARM (Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser) oscillator experiment driven by an induction linac

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, M.; Kulke, B.; Bubp, D.G. ); McDermott, D.; Luhmann, N. )

    1990-09-14

    A 250-GHz Cyclotron Auto Resonance Maser (CARM) oscillator has been designed and constructed and will be tested using a 1-kA, 2-MeV electron beam produced by the induction linac at the Accelerator Research Center (ARC) facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The oscillator circuit was made to operate in the TE{sub 11} mode at ten times cutoff using waveguide Bragg reflectors to create an external cavity Q of 8000. Theory predicts cavity fill times of less than 30 ns (pulse length) and efficiencies approaching 20% is sufficiently low transverse electron velocity spreads are maintained (2%).

  6. Nonlinear optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators comprising nonlinear optical materials, where the nonlinear optical material of a WGM resonator includes a plurality of sectors within the optical resonator and nonlinear coefficients of two adjacent sectors are oppositely poled.

  7. Graded-index whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode optical resonators which have spatially-graded refractive indices. In one implementation, the refractive index spatially increases with a distance from an exterior surface of such a resonator towards an interior of the resonator to produce substantially equal spectral separations for different whispering gallery modes. An optical coupler may be used with such a resonator to provide proper optical coupling.

  8. Single spin optically detected magnetic resonance with 60-90 GHz (E-band) microwave resonators.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Nabeel; Pfender, Matthias; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Scheffler, Marc; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Onoda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Takeshi; Isoya, Junichi; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic resonance with ensembles of electron spins is commonly performed around 10 GHz, but also at frequencies above 240 GHz and in corresponding magnetic fields of over 9 T. However, experiments with single electron and nuclear spins so far only reach into frequency ranges of several 10 GHz, where existing coplanar waveguide structures for microwave (MW) delivery are compatible with single spin readout techniques (e.g., electrical or optical readout). Here, we explore the frequency range up to 90 GHz, with magnetic fields of up to ≈3 T for single spin magnetic resonance in conjunction with optical spin readout. To this end, we develop MW resonators with optical single spin access. In our case, rectangular 60-90 GHz (E-band) waveguides guarantee low-loss supply of microwaves to the resonators. Three dimensional cavities, as well as coplanar waveguide resonators, enhance MW fields by spatial and spectral confinement with a MW efficiency of 1.36 mT/√W. We utilize single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers as hosts for optically accessible spins and show that their properties regarding optical spin readout known from smaller fields (<0.65 T) are retained up to fields of 3 T. In addition, we demonstrate coherent control of single nuclear spins under these conditions. Furthermore, our results extend the applicable magnetic field range of a single spin magnetic field sensor. Regarding spin based quantum registers, high fields lead to a purer product basis of electron and nuclear spins, which promises improved spin lifetimes. For example, during continuous single-shot readout, the (14)N nuclear spin shows second-long longitudinal relaxation times. PMID:26133855

  9. White-Light Whispering-Gallery-Mode Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2006-01-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators can be designed to exhibit continuous spectra over wide wavelength bands (in effect, white-light spectra), with ultrahigh values of the resonance quality factor (Q) that are nearly independent of frequency. White-light WGM resonators have potential as superior alternatives to (1) larger, conventional optical resonators in ring-down spectroscopy, and (2) optical-resonator/electro-optical-modulator structures used in coupling of microwave and optical signals in atomic clocks. In these and other potential applications, the use of white-light WGM resonators makes it possible to relax the requirement of high-frequency stability of lasers, thereby enabling the use of cheaper lasers. In designing a white-light WGM resonator, one exploits the fact that the density of the mode spectrum increases predictably with the thickness of the resonator disk. By making the resonator disk sufficiently thick, one can make the frequency differences between adjacent modes significantly less than the spectral width of a single mode, so that the spectral peaks of adjacent modes overlap, making the resonator spectrum essentially continuous. Moreover, inasmuch as the Q values of the various modes are determined primarily by surface Rayleigh scattering that does not depend on mode numbers, all the modes have nearly equal Q. By use of a proper coupling technique, one can ensure excitation of a majority of the modes. For an experimental demonstration of a white-light WGM resonator, a resonator disk 0.5-mm thick and 5 mm in diameter was made from CaF2. The shape of the resonator and the fiberoptic coupling arrangement were as shown in Figure 1. The resonator was excited with laser light having a wavelength of 1,320 nm and a spectral width of 4 kHz. The coupling efficiency exceeded 80 percent at any frequency to which the laser could be set in its tuning range, which was >100-GHz wide. The resonator response was characterized by means of ring

  10. A quasioptical resonant-tunneling-diode oscillator operating above 200 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Molvar, K. M.; Calawa, A. R.; Manfra, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    We have fabricated and characterized a quasioptically stabilized resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillator having attractive performance characteristics for application as a radiometric local oscillator. The fundamental frequency of the oscillator is tunable from about 200 to 215 GHz, the instantaneous linewidth is between 10 and 20 kHz, and the output power across the tuning band is about 50 micro-W. The narrow linewidth and fine tuning of the frequency are made possible by a scanning semiconfocal open cavity which acts as the high-Q resonator for the oscillator. The cavity is compact, portable, and insensitive to vibration and temperature variation. The total dc power consumption (RTD plus bias supply) is only 10 mW. The present oscillator provides the highest power obtained to date from an RTD above 200 GHz. We attribute this partly to the use of the quasioptical resonator, but primarily to the quality of the RTD. It is fabricated from the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/AlAs materials system, which historically has yielded the best overall resonant-tunneling characteristics of any material system. The RTD active area is 4 sq microns, and the room-temperature peak current density and peak-to-valley current ratio are 2.5x10(exp 5) A cm(exp -2) and 9, respectively. The RTD is mounted in a WR-3 standard-height rectangular waveguide and is contacted across the waveguide by a fine wire that protrudes through a via hole in a Si3N4 'honeycomb' overlayer. We estimate that the theoretical maximum frequency of oscillation of this RTD is approximately 1.1 THz, and that scaled-down versions of the same quasioptical oscillator design should operate in a fundamental mode up to frequencies of at least 500 GHz.

  11. 3.4 GHz composite thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator for miniaturized atomic clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Artieda, Alvaro; Muralt, Paul

    2011-06-27

    Triple layer SiO{sub 2}/AlN/SiO{sub 2} composite thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (TFBARs) were studied for applications in atomic clocks. The TFBAR's were tuned to 3.4 GHz, corresponding to half the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of rubidium {sup 87}Rb atoms. The quality factor (Q) was equal to 2300 and the temperature coefficient of the resonance frequency f{sub r} amounted to 1.5 ppm/K. A figure of merit Qf{sub r} of {approx} 0.8 x 10{sup 13} Hz and a thickness mode coupling factor of 1% were reached. Such figures are ideal for frequency sources in an oscillator circuit that tracks the optical signal in atomic clocks.

  12. Timing characterization of 100 GHz passively mode-locked discrete mode laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Bitauld, David; Osborne, Simon; O'Brien, Stephen

    2011-07-18

    We report on the characterization of the timing stability of passively mode-locked discrete mode diode laser sources. These are edge-emitting devices with a spatially varying refractive index profile for spectral filtering. Two devices with a mode-locking frequency of 100 GHz are characterized. The first device is designed to support a comb of six modes and generates near Fourier limited 1.9 ps pulses. The second supports four primary modes resulting in a sinusoidal modulation of the optical intensity. Using a cross-correlation technique, we measured a 20 fs pulse to pulse timing jitter for the first device, while, for the second device, a mode-beating (RF) linewidth of 1 MHz was measured using heterodyne mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Comparison of these results with those obtained for an equivalent Fabry-Perot laser indicates that the spectral filtering mechanism employed does not adversely affect the timing properties of these passively mode-locked devices. PMID:21934760

  13. Oscillations up to 712 GHz in InAs/AlSb resonant-tunneling diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Mahoney, L. J.; Molvar, K. M.; Soderstrom, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Oscillations have been obtained at frequencies from 100 to 712 GHz in InAs/AlSb double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes at room temperature. The measured power density at 360 GHz was 90 W/sq cm, which is 50 times that generated by GaAs/AlAs diodes at essentially the same frequency. The oscillation at 712 GHz represents the highest frequency reported to date from a solid-state electronic oscillator at room temperature.

  14. Using Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators for Refractometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the refractive and absorptive properties of optically transparent materials involves a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis of electromagnetic responses of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator disks made of those materials. The method was conceived especially for use in studying transparent photorefractive materials, for which purpose this method affords unprecedented levels of sensitivity and accuracy. The method is expected to be particularly useful for measuring temporally varying refractive and absorptive properties of photorefractive materials at infrared wavelengths. Still more particularly, the method is expected to be useful for measuring drifts in these properties that are so slow that, heretofore, the properties were assumed to be constant. The basic idea of the method is to attempt to infer values of the photorefractive properties of a material by seeking to match (1) theoretical predictions of the spectral responses (or selected features thereof) of a WGM of known dimensions made of the material with (2) the actual spectral responses (or selected features thereof). Spectral features that are useful for this purpose include resonance frequencies, free spectral ranges (differences between resonance frequencies of adjacently numbered modes), and resonance quality factors (Q values). The method has been demonstrated in several experiments, one of which was performed on a WGM resonator made from a disk of LiNbO3 doped with 5 percent of MgO. The free spectral range of the resonator was approximately equal to 3.42 GHz at wavelengths in the vicinity of 780 nm, the smallest full width at half maximum of a mode was approximately equal to 50 MHz, and the thickness of the resonator in the area of mode localization was 30 microns. In the experiment, laser power of 9 mW was coupled into the resonator with an efficiency of 75 percent, and the laser was scanned over a frequency band 9 GHz wide at a nominal wavelength of

  15. Microelectromechanical filter formed from parallel-connected lattice networks of contour-mode resonators

    DOEpatents

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E; Olsson, III, Roy H; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam

    2013-07-30

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) filter is disclosed which has a plurality of lattice networks formed on a substrate and electrically connected together in parallel. Each lattice network has a series resonant frequency and a shunt resonant frequency provided by one or more contour-mode resonators in the lattice network. Different types of contour-mode resonators including single input, single output resonators, differential resonators, balun resonators, and ring resonators can be used in MEM filter. The MEM filter can have a center frequency in the range of 10 MHz-10 GHz, with a filter bandwidth of up to about 1% when all of the lattice networks have the same series resonant frequency and the same shunt resonant frequency. The filter bandwidth can be increased up to about 5% by using unique series and shunt resonant frequencies for the lattice networks.

  16. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, A.; Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Komiyama, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation.

  17. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, A; Ozeki, K; Higurashi, Y; Kidera, M; Komiyama, M; Nakagawa, T

    2016-02-01

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation. PMID:26931940

  18. DUAL FREQUENCY RESONATOR FOR 1.2 GHZ EPR/16.2 MHZ NMR CO-IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Petryakov, Sergey; Samouilov, Alexandre; Kesselring, Eric; Caia, George L.; Sun, Ziqi; Zweier, Jay L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a dual frequency resonator that enables both EPR and proton NMR imaging within the same resonator, magnet and gradient system is described. A novel design allows the same resonator to perform both EPR and proton NMR operation without moving resonator cables or switches. The resonator is capable of working at frequencies of 16.18 MHz for proton NMR and 1.2 GHz for EPR and is optimized for isolated rat heart experiments, measuring 22 mm in inner diameter and 19 mm in length. In EPR mode, the resonator functions as a one loop two gap resonator, electrically coupled through a half wavelength inverter. In NMR mode, it functions a single turn coil. Using the same loop for both modalities maximizes filling factor at both frequencies. Placing the tuning and switching controls away from the resonator prevents any inadvertent movement that would cause errors of EPR and NMR co-imaging registration. The resonator enabled good quality EPR and proton MRI of isolated rat hearts with precise registration. PMID:20434379

  19. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    PubMed

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power. PMID:22380155

  20. Mode splitting effect in FEMs with oversized Bragg resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskov, N. Yu.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Perelstein, E. A.; Sedykh, S. N.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Splitting of the fundamental mode in an oversized Bragg resonator with a step of the corrugation phase, which operates over the feedback loop involving the waveguide waves of different transverse structures, was found to be the result of mutual influence of the neighboring zones of the Bragg scattering. Theoretical description of this effect was developed within the framework of the advanced (four-wave) coupled-wave approach. It is shown that mode splitting reduces the selective properties, restricts the output power, and decreases the stability of the narrow-band operating regime in the free-electron maser (FEM) oscillators based on such resonators. The results of the theoretical analysis were confirmed by 3D simulations and "cold" microwave tests. Experimental data on Bragg resonators with different parameters in a 30-GHz FEM are presented. The possibility of reducing the mode splitting by profiling the corrugation parameters is shown. The use of the mode splitting effect for the output power enhancement by passive compression of the double-frequency pulse generated in the FEM with such a resonator is discussed.

  1. 200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Cheng, Tzu-Kang; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Lin; Lin, Yi-Hong

    2009-09-28

    In a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) based DWDM-PON system with an array-waveguide-grating (AWG) channelized amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source located at remote node, we study the effect of AWG filter bandwidth on the transmission performances of the 1.25-Gbit/s directly modulated WRC-FPLD transmitter under the AWG channelized ASE injection-locking. With AWG filters of two different channel spacings at 50 and 200 GHz, several characteristic parameters such as interfered reflection, relatively intensity noise, crosstalk reduction, side-mode-suppressing ratio and power penalty of BER effect of the WRC-FPLD transmitted data are compared. The 200-GHz AWG filtered ASE injection minimizes the noises of WRC-FPLD based ONU transmitter, improving the power penalty of upstream data by -1.6 dB at BER of 10(-12). In contrast, the 50-GHz AWG channelized ASE injection fails to promote better BER but increases the power penalty by + 1.5 dB under back-to-back transmission. A theoretical modeling elucidates that the BER degradation up to 4 orders of magnitude between two injection cases is mainly attributed to the reduction on ASE injection linewidth, since which concurrently degrades the signal-to-noise and extinction ratios of the transmitted data stream. PMID:19907560

  2. Spherical-sapphire-based whispering gallery mode resonator thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lili; Fernicola, V.

    2012-09-01

    A novel microwave whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator based on a spherical sapphire crystal was developed at INRIM and its use as a thermometer was tested. The temperature dependence of the WGM frequencies was studied and the most promising resonance near to 13.6 GHz, with a loaded quality factor as large as 82 000, was carefully investigated. Its potential use in thermometry was evaluated through a study of its main metrological characteristics, such as the temperature sensitivity, the frequency stability, the repeatability, and the resolution at several temperatures over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. Finally, the INRIM spherical sapphire thermometer was compared with the NIST SWGT, a dielectric thermometer based on a cylindrical sapphire resonator [V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and Kh. S. Bagdassarov, Phys. Lett. A 120(3), 300 (1987), 10.1016/0375-9601(87)90676-1].

  3. Spherical-sapphire-based whispering gallery mode resonator thermometer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lili; Fernicola, V

    2012-09-01

    A novel microwave whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator based on a spherical sapphire crystal was developed at INRIM and its use as a thermometer was tested. The temperature dependence of the WGM frequencies was studied and the most promising resonance near to 13.6 GHz, with a loaded quality factor as large as 82 000, was carefully investigated. Its potential use in thermometry was evaluated through a study of its main metrological characteristics, such as the temperature sensitivity, the frequency stability, the repeatability, and the resolution at several temperatures over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. Finally, the INRIM spherical sapphire thermometer was compared with the NIST SWGT, a dielectric thermometer based on a cylindrical sapphire resonator [V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and Kh. S. Bagdassarov, Phys. Lett. A 120(3), 300 (1987)]. PMID:23020404

  4. Nonlinear mode coupling in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Menyuk, Curtis R.

    2016-04-01

    We present a first-principles derivation of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations that govern the interaction between two families of modes with different transverse profiles in a generic whispering-gallery-mode resonator. We find regions of modulational instability and the existence of trains of bright solitons in both the normal and the anomalous dispersion regime.

  5. Efficient Output Mode Converter for 30 GHz Gyroklystron at IAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzikov, Sergey V.; Plotkin, Mikhail E.; Zaitsev, Nikolay I.

    2010-02-01

    An output mode converter for Ka-band multi-MW gyroklystron in the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) operating in the TE53 mode is suggested. Two variants of the converter, aimed for different applications, are presented: the TE53 to TE01 mode converter with power output along the device axis and the TE53 mode to Gaussian wavebeam quasi-optical converter with a visor. The suggested designs include the built-in electron beam collector. The converters were designed using a new synthesis algorithm, which implies iterative improvement of the waveguide wall shape in order to achieve high efficiency. The calculation results were proven by HFSS simulation and low-power tests of one version of the converter.

  6. Electroelastic effect of thickness mode langasite resonators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Turner, Joseph A; Yang, Jiashi; Kosinski, John A

    2007-10-01

    Langasite is a very promising material for resonators due to its good temperature behavior and high piezoelectric coupling, low acoustic loss, and high Q factor. The biasing effect for langasite resonators is crucial for resonator design. In this article, the resonant frequency shift of a thickness-mode langasite resonator is analyzed with respect to a direct current (DC) electric field applied in the thickness direction. The vibration modes of a thin langasite plate fully coated with an electrode are analyzed. The analysis is based on the theory for small fields superposed on a bias in electroelastic bodies and the first-order perturbation integral theory. The electroelastic effect of the resonator is analyzed by both analytical and finite-element methods. The complete set of nonlinear elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric permeability, and electrostrictive constants of langasite is used in the theoretical and numerical analysis. The sensitivity of electroelastic effect to nonlinear material constants is analyzed. PMID:18019250

  7. Triad mode resonant interactions in suspended cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, TieDing; Kang, HouJun; Wang, LianHua; Zhao, YueYu

    2016-03-01

    A triad mode resonance, or three-wave resonance, is typical of dynamical systems with quadratic nonlinearities. Suspended cables are found to be rich in triad mode resonant dynamics. In this paper, modulation equations for cable's triad resonance are formulated by the multiple scale method. Dynamic conservative quantities, i.e., mode energy and Manley-Rowe relations, are then constructed. Equilibrium/dynamic solutions of the modulation equations are obtained, and full investigations into their stability and bifurcation characteristics are presented. Various bifurcation behaviors are detected in cable's triad resonant responses, such as saddle-node, Hopf, pitchfork and period-doubling bifurcations. Nonlinear behaviors, like jump and saturation phenomena, are also found in cable's responses. Based upon the bifurcation analysis, two interesting properties associated with activation of cable's triad resonance are also proposed, i.e., energy barrier and directional dependence. The first gives the critical amplitude of high-frequency mode to activate cable's triad resonance, and the second characterizes the degree of difficulty for activating cable's triad resonance in two opposite directions, i.e., with positive or negative internal detuning parameter.

  8. A quasioptical resonant-tunneling-diode oscillator operating above 200 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.R.; Parker, C.D.; Calawa, A.R.; Manfra, M.J.; Molvar, K.M. . Lincoln Lab.)

    1993-08-01

    A quasioptical resonant-tunneling-diode oscillator is demonstrated at frequencies above 200 GHz. The oscillator is stabilized by a semiconfocal open cavity. The maximum output power and the linewidth are approximately 50 [mu]W and 20 kHz, respectively, at a fundamental frequency of 210 GHz. By varying the cavity length, the oscillator frequency can be adjusted over a 0.4 GHz range in a repetitive manner. This behavior is explained by analogy with laser oscillators. The quasioptical RTD oscillator is well suited as a local oscillator for low-power radiometric mixers.

  9. Mode Profiles in Waveguide-Coupled Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, William D.; Cameron, Tom; Saw, John C. B.; Kim, Yoonkee

    1993-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) waveguide-coupled resonators are of considerable interest for narrow-band filter applications, though to date there has been very little published on the acoustic details of their operation. As in any resonator, one must fully understand its mode structure and herein we study the SAW mode profiles in these devices. Transverse mode profiles in the resonant cavity of the device were measured at various frequencies of interest using a knife-edge laser probe. In addition we predict the mode profiles for the device structure by two independent methods. One is a stack-matrix approach adapted from integrated optics and the other is a conventional analytical eigenmode analysis of the Helmholtz equation. Both modeling techniques are in good agreement with the measured results.

  10. Engineered circuit QED with dense resonant modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Frank; Egger, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    In circuit quantum electrodynamics even in the ultrastrong coupling regime, strong quasi-resonant interaction typically involves only one mode of the resonator as the mode spacing is comparable to the frequency of the mode. We are going to present an engineered hybrid transmission line consisting of a left-handed and a right-handed portion that has a low-frequency van-Hove singularity hence showing a dense mode spectrum at an experimentally accessible point. This gives rise to strong multi-mode coupling and can be utilized in multiple ways to create strongly correlated microwave photons. Supported by DARPA through the QuEST program and by NSERC Discovery grants

  11. Experimental results for a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron oscillator with reduced mode competition

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, E.M.; Marchewka, C.D.; Mastovsky, I.; Sirigiri, J.R.; Shapiro, M.A.; Temkin, R.J.

    2006-02-15

    A new result from a 110 GHz gyrotron at MIT is reported with an output power of 1.67 MW and an efficiency of 42% when operated at 97 kV and 41 A for 3 {mu}s pulses in the TE{sub 22,6} mode. These results are a major improvement over results obtained with an earlier cavity design, which produced 1.43 MW of power at 37% efficiency. These new results were obtained using a cavity with a reduced output taper angle and a lower ohmic loss when compared with the earlier cavity. The improved operation is shown experimentally to be the result of reduced mode competition from the nearby TE{sub 19,7} mode. The reduced mode competition agrees well with an analysis of the startup scenario based on starting current simulations. The present results should prove useful in planning long pulse and CW versions of the 110 GHz gyrotron.

  12. On the metrological performances of optoelectronic oscillators based on whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Khaldoun; Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Salzenstein, Patrice; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the phase noise performance of an optoelectronic oscillator based on a calcium fluoride high quality factor whispering gallery mode optical resonator (WGMR). In the oscillator setup, a particular attention is given to the stabilization of the laser lightwave onto an optical resonance of the WGMR. Once the laser is stabilized, different resonant optical modes are characterized in the microwave domain. Afterwards, phase noise spectra of different oscillations at different modes of the WGMR are measured. Phase noise levels below -93 dBc/Hz and around -90 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency from 6.35 GHz and 12.7 GHz carriers are respectively obtained.

  13. Microwave mode structure of superconducting metamaterial resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haozhi; Rouxinol, Francisco; Lahaye, Matthew; Plourde, Britton

    2015-03-01

    Arrays of lumped circuit elements can be used to form metamaterial resonant structures that exhibit novel behavior compared to resonators made from conventional distributed transmission lines. By engineering the parameters and configurations of the lumped elements composing the unit cell of such a metamaterial resonator, one can generate spectra with wide stop-bands as well as pass-bands with dense microwave modes. If the metamaterials are fabricated from superconducting traces, the losses can be low enough to allow for these dense modes to be resolved and potentially coupled to quantum systems, such as superconducting qubits. We will present our low-temperature measurements of a variety of superconducting metamaterial resonators and we will compare these with numerical simulations of the microwave properties.

  14. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Asaji, T; Nakamura, T; Furuse, M; Hitobo, T; Uchida, T; Muramatsu, M; Kato, Y

    2016-02-01

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5-6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating. PMID:26931948

  15. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Uchida, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Kato, Y.

    2016-02-01

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5-6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating.

  16. Suppression of spurious mode oscillation in mega-watt 77-GHz gyrotron as a high quality probe beam source for the collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Ogasawara, S.; Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ito, S.; Takita, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Tatematsu, Y.; Saito, T.; Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.

    2012-10-15

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic requires a strong probing beam to diagnose a bulk and fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. A mega-watt gyrotron for electron cyclotron resonance heating is used as a probing beam in the large helical device. Spurious mode oscillations are often observed during the turning on/off phase of the modulation. The frequency spectra of the 77-GHz gyrotron output power have been measured, and then one of the spurious modes, which interferes with the CTS receiver system, is identified as the TE{sub 17,6} mode at the frequency of 74.7 GHz. The mode competition calculation indicates that the increase of the magnetic field strength at the gyrotron resonator can avoid such a spurious mode and excite only the main TE{sub 18,6} mode. The spurious radiation at the 74.7 GHz is experimentally demonstrated to be suppressed in the stronger magnetic field than that optimized for the high-power operation.

  17. Suppression of spurious mode oscillation in mega-watt 77-GHz gyrotron as a high quality probe beam source for the collective Thomson scattering in LHD.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, S; Kubo, S; Nishiura, M; Tatematsu, Y; Saito, T; Tanaka, K; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Igami, H; Takahashi, H; Ito, S; Takita, Y; Kobayashi, S; Mizuno, Y; Okada, K; Minami, R; Kariya, T; Imai, T

    2012-10-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic requires a strong probing beam to diagnose a bulk and fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. A mega-watt gyrotron for electron cyclotron resonance heating is used as a probing beam in the large helical device. Spurious mode oscillations are often observed during the turning on/off phase of the modulation. The frequency spectra of the 77-GHz gyrotron output power have been measured, and then one of the spurious modes, which interferes with the CTS receiver system, is identified as the TE(17,6) mode at the frequency of 74.7 GHz. The mode competition calculation indicates that the increase of the magnetic field strength at the gyrotron resonator can avoid such a spurious mode and excite only the main TE(18,6) mode. The spurious radiation at the 74.7 GHz is experimentally demonstrated to be suppressed in the stronger magnetic field than that optimized for the high-power operation. PMID:23126903

  18. Resonant cavity modes in gallium oxide microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Iñaki; Nogales, Emilio; Méndez, Bianchi; Piqueras, Javier

    2012-06-01

    Fabry Perot resonant modes in the optical range 660-770 nm have been detected from single and coupled Cr doped gallium oxide microwires at room temperature. The luminescence is due to chromium ions and dominated by the broad band involving the 4T2-4A2 transition, strongly coupled to phonons, which could be of interest in tunable lasers. The confinement of the emitted photons leads to resonant modes detected at both ends of the wires. The separation wavelength between maxima follows the Fabry-Perot dependence on the wire length and the group refractive index for the Ga2O3 microwires.

  19. Discovery of Bragg confined hybrid modes with high Q factor in a hollow dielectric resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Floch, Jean-Michel; Tobar, Michael E.; Mouneyrac, David; Cros, Dominique; Krupka, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    The authors report on observation of Bragg confined mode in a hollow cylindrical dielectric cavity. A resonance was observed at 13.4GHz with an unloaded Q factor of order 2×105, which is more than a factor of 6 above the dielectric loss limit. Previously, such modes have only been realized from pure transverse electric modes with no azimuthal variations and only the Eϕ component. From rigorous numeric simulations, it is shown that the mode is a hybrid mode with nonzero azimuthal variations and with dominant Er and Eϕ electric field components and Hz magnetic field component.

  20. A 20 GHz, high efficiency dual mode TWT for the ACTS program. [Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muennemann, Frank; Dombro, Louis; Long, Jin

    1986-01-01

    The development of a 50 W/10 W dual mode K-band downlink TWT is examined, and its performance is evaluated. The designs of the electron gun, RF circuit, and collector for the TWT, which is enclosed in a capsule, are described. It is observed that the high power mode (HPM) power output is at 50 GHz and the low power mode (LPM) output is at 12 GHz; the saturated gain is 52.5 dB for HPM and 3 dB for LPM; the AM-PM is 4.2 dB; the HPM dc power output is 104 W; and the LPM dc output is 42 W; and the efficiency is 45 percent for the HPM and 28.6 percent for the LPM.

  1. Near- infrared, mode-locked waveguide lasers with multi-GHz repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, A.; Lagatsky, A. A.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhou, K. J.; Wang, Q.; Hogg, R. A.; Pradeesh, K.; Rafailov, E. U.; Resan, B.; Oehler, A. E. H.; Weingarten, K. J.; Sibbett, W.; Brown, C. T. A.; Shepherd, D. P.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we discuss mode-locking results obtained with low-loss, ion-exchanged waveguide lasers. With Yb3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide lasers, a repetition rate of up to 15.2 GHz was achieved at a wavelength of 1047 nm with an average power of 27 mW and pulse duration of 811 fs. The gap between the waveguide and the SESAM introduced negative group velocity dispersion via the Gires Tournois Interferometer (GTI) effect which allowed the soliton mode-locking of the device. A novel quantum dot SESAM was used to mode-lock Er3+, Yb3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide lasers around 1500 nm. Picosecond pulses were achieved at a maximum repetition rate of 6.8 GHz and an average output power of 30 mW. The repetition rate was tuned by more than 1 MHz by varying the pump power.

  2. Conceptual design of a high-Q, 3.4-GHz thin film quartz resonator.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mihir S; Yong, Yook-Kong

    2009-05-01

    Theoretical analyses and designs of high-Q, quartz thin film resonators are presented. The resonators operate at an ultra-high frequency of 3.4 GHz for application to high-frequency timing devices such as cesium chip-scale atomic clocks. The frequency spectra for the 3.4-GHz thin film quartz resonators, which serve as design aids in selecting the resonator dimensions/configurations for simple electrodes, and ring electrode mesa designs are presented here for the first time. The thin film aluminum electrodes are found to play a major role in the resonators because the electrodes are only one third the thickness and mass of the active areas of the plate resonator. Hence, in addition to the material properties of quartz, the elastic, viscoelastic, and thermal properties of the electrodes are included in the models. The frequency-temperature behavior is obtained for the best resonator designs. To improve the frequency-temperature behavior of the resonators, new quartz cuts are proposed to compensate for the thermal stresses caused by the aluminum electrodes and the mounting supports. Frequency response analyses are performed to determine the Q-factor, motional resistance, capacitance ratio, and other figures of merit. The resonators have Q's of about 3800, resistance of about 1300 to 1400 ohms, and capacitance ratios of 1100 to 2800. PMID:19473909

  3. Microwave Photonics Systems Based on Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency. PMID:23963358

  4. Microwave photonics systems based on whispering-gallery-mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency. PMID:23963358

  5. Mode Orientation Control For Sapphire Dielectric Ring Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, David G.; Dick, G. John; Prata, Aluizio

    1996-01-01

    Small sapphire tuning wedge used in technique for solving mode-purity problem associated with sapphire dielectric-ring resonator part of cryogenic microwave frequency discriminator. Breaks quasi-degeneracy of two modes and allows selective coupling to just one mode. Wedge mounted on axle entering resonator cavity and rotated while resonator cryogenically operating in vacuum. Furthermore, axle moved vertically to tune resonant frequency.

  6. 11-GHz waveguide Nd:YAG laser CW mode-locked with single-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey G.; Obraztsov, Petr A.

    2015-01-01

    We report stable, passive, continuous-wave (CW) mode-locking of a compact diode-pumped waveguide Nd:YAG laser with a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The depressed cladding waveguide in the Nd:YAG crystal is fabricated with an ultrafast laser inscription method. The saturable absorber is formed by direct deposition of CVD single-layer graphene on the output coupler. The few millimeter-long cavity provides generation of 16-ps pulses with repetition rates in the GHz range (up to 11.3 GHz) and 12 mW average power. Stable CW mode-locking operation is achieved by controlling the group delay dispersion in the laser cavity with a Gires–Tournois interferometer. PMID:26052678

  7. 11-GHz waveguide Nd:YAG laser CW mode-locked with single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey G; Obraztsov, Petr A

    2015-01-01

    We report stable, passive, continuous-wave (CW) mode-locking of a compact diode-pumped waveguide Nd:YAG laser with a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The depressed cladding waveguide in the Nd:YAG crystal is fabricated with an ultrafast laser inscription method. The saturable absorber is formed by direct deposition of CVD single-layer graphene on the output coupler. The few millimeter-long cavity provides generation of 16-ps pulses with repetition rates in the GHz range (up to 11.3 GHz) and 12 mW average power. Stable CW mode-locking operation is achieved by controlling the group delay dispersion in the laser cavity with a Gires-Tournois interferometer. PMID:26052678

  8. Synchronized 4 × 12 GHz hybrid harmonically mode-locked semiconductor laser based on AWG.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Lu, D; Zhang, R; Zhao, L; Wang, W; Broeke, R; Ji, C

    2016-05-01

    We report a monolithically integrated synchronized four wavelength channel mode-locked semiconductor laser chip based on arrayed waveguide grating and fabricated in the InP material system. Device fabrication was completed in a multiproject wafer foundry run on the Joint European Platform for Photonic Integration of Components and Circuits. The integrated photonic chip demonstrated 5th harmonic electrical hybrid mode-locking operation with four 400 GHz spacing wavelength channels and synchronized to a 12.7 GHz RF clock, for nearly transform-limited optical pulse trains from a single output waveguide. A low timing jitter of 0.349 ps, and RF frequency locking range of ~50 MHz were also achieved. PMID:27137587

  9. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Torrezan, Antonio C; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R; Temkin, Richard J; Barnes, Alexander B; Griffin, Robert G

    2010-06-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE(11,2) and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE(11,2,q). The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:21243088

  10. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Torrezan, Antonio C; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R; Temkin, Richard J; Griffin, Robert G; Barnes, Alexander B

    2010-06-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:23761938

  11. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Barnes, Alexander B.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:21243088

  12. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2012-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:23761938

  13. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guoping Diallo, Souleymane; Saleh, Khaldoun; Martinenghi, Romain; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-12-08

    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550 nm in barium fluoride (BaF{sub 2}) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality (Q) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from 8.2 GHz up to 49 GHz have been generated through cascaded Brillouin lasing. BaF{sub 2} resonator-based Brillouin lasing can find potential applications for high-coherence lasers and microwave photonics.

  14. Transverse distribution of beam current oscillations of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, O; Toivanen, V; Komppula, J; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2014-02-01

    The temporal stability of oxygen ion beams has been studied with the 14 GHz A-ECR at JYFL (University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics). A sector Faraday cup was employed to measure the distribution of the beam current oscillations across the beam profile. The spatial and temporal characteristics of two different oscillation "modes" often observed with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are discussed. It was observed that the low frequency oscillations below 200 Hz are distributed almost uniformly. In the high frequency oscillation "mode," with frequencies >300 Hz at the core of the beam, carrying most of the current, oscillates with smaller amplitude than the peripheral parts of the beam. The results help to explain differences observed between the two oscillation modes in terms of the transport efficiency through the JYFL K-130 cyclotron. The dependence of the oscillation pattern on ion source parameters is a strong indication that the mechanisms driving the fluctuations are plasma effects. PMID:24593488

  15. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C. Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D.; Plaum, B.; Thuillier, T.

    2014-02-15

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  16. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyneis, C.; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Plaum, B.; Strohmeier, M.; Thuillier, T.; Todd, D.

    2014-02-01

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE01 circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE10 mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE01-HE11 mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE11 microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE11 mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long "snake" converts the TE01 mode to the TE11 mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE11 mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  17. Aptasensors Based on Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators.

    PubMed

    Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Berneschi, Simome; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the literature on optical evanescent field sensing in resonant cavities where aptamers are used as biochemical receptors. The combined advantages of highly sensitive whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR)-based transducers, and of the unique properties of aptamers make this approach extremely interesting in the medical field, where there is a particularly high need for devices able to provide real time diagnosis for cancer, infectious diseases, or strokes. However, despite the superior performances of aptamers compared to antibodies and WGMR to other evanescent sensors, there is not much literature combining both types of receptors and transducers. Up to now, the WGMR that have been used are silica microspheres and silicon oxynitride (SiON) ring resonators. PMID:27438861

  18. Quantum statistics of overlapping modes in open resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Hackenbroich, Gregor; Viviescas, Carlos; Haake, Fritz

    2003-12-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of optical fields in weakly confining resonators with overlapping modes. Employing a recently developed quantization scheme involving a discrete set of resonator modes and continua of external modes we derive Langevin equations and a master equation for the resonator modes. Langevin dynamics and the master equation are proved to be equivalent in the Markovian limit. Our open-resonator dynamics may be used as a starting point for a quantum theory of random lasers.

  19. Ferromagnetic resonance and resonance modes in kagome lattices: From an open to a closed kagome structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubowik, J.; Kuświk, P.; Matczak, M.; Bednarski, W.; Stobiecki, F.; Aleshkevych, P.; Szymczak, H.; Kisielewski, M.; Kisielewski, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) investigations of 20 nm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20 ) elements (width W =200 nm, length L =470 nm, period a =500 nm) arranged in open and closed artificial kagome lattices. The measurements were done at 9.4 and 34 GHz to ensure a saturated or near-saturated magnetic state of the kagome structures. The FMR data are analyzed in the framework of an analytical macrospin model which grasps the essential features of the bulk and edge modes at these microwave frequencies and is in agreement with the results of micromagnetic simulations. Polar plots of the resonance fields versus the field angle made by the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the main symmetry directions of the kagome lattice are compared with the results of the analytical model. The measured FMR spectra with a sixfold rotational symmetry qualitatively reproduce the structure expected from the theory. Magnetic dipolar interactions between the elements of the kagome lattices result in the mixing of edge and bulklike excitations at 9.4 GHz and in a systematic deviation from the model, especially for the closed kagome lattice.

  20. Characterization technique of optical whispering gallery mode resonators in the microwave frequency domain for optoelectronic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Merrer, Pierre-Henri; Saleh, Khaldoun; Llopis, Olivier; Berneschi, Simone; Cosi, Franco; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi

    2012-07-10

    Optical Q factor measurements are performed on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) disk resonator using a microwave frequency domain approach instead of using an optical domain approach. An absence of hysteretic behavior and a better linearity are obtained when performing linewidth measurements by using a microwave modulation for scanning the resonances instead of the piezoelectric-based frequency tuning capability of the laser. The WGM resonator is then used to stabilize a microwave optoelectronic oscillator. The microwave output of this system generates a 12.48 GHz signal with -94 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset. PMID:22781250

  1. Detecting light in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Mohageg, Makan (Inventor); Le, Thanh M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical device including a whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator configured to support one or more whispering gallery modes; and a photodetector optically coupled to an exterior surface of the optical resonator to receive evanescent light from the optical resonator to detect light inside the optical resonator.

  2. 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with mode-locking structure to enhance gain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhyun; Park, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18 μm RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32 dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 × 0.6 mm(2). PMID:25045755

  3. 2.4 GHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Mode-Locking Structure to Enhance Gain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18 μm RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32 dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 × 0.6 mm2. PMID:25045755

  4. Status report of the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.M.; Loew, T.; Todd, D.S.; Virostek, S.; Tarvainen, O.

    2006-03-15

    The superconducting versatile electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for nuclear science (VENUS) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source designed to produce high-current, high-charge-state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the rare isotope accelerator (RIA) front end, where the goal is to produce intense beams of medium-charge-state ions. Example beams for the RIA accelerator are 15 p {mu}A of Kr{sup 17+}(260 e {mu}A), 12 p {mu}A of Xe{sup 20+} (240 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 20+}), and 8 p {mu}A of U{sup 28+}(230 e {mu}A). To achieve these high currents, VENUS has been optimized for operation at 28 GHz, reaching maximal confinement fields of 4 and 3 T axially and over 2.2 T on the plasma chamber wall radially. After a commissioning phase at 18 GHz, the source started the 28 GHz operation in the summer of 2004. During that ongoing 28 GHz commissioning process, record ion-beam intensities have been extracted. For instance, measured extracted currents for the low to medium charge states were 270 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 27+} and 245 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 29+}, while for the higher charge states 15 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 34+}, 15 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 41+}, and 0.5 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 50+} could be produced. Results from the ongoing 28 GHz commissioning as well as results using double-frequency heating with 18 and 28 GHz for oxygen and xenon are presented. The effect of the minimum B field on the ion source performance has been systematically measured for 18 and 28 GHz. In both cases the performance peaked at a minimum B field of about 80% of the resonance field. In addition, a strong dependence of the x-ray flux and energy on the minimum B field value was found.

  5. Status report of the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Loew, T.; Todd, D. S.; Virostek, S.; Tarvainen, O.

    2006-03-01

    The superconducting versatile electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for nuclear science (VENUS) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source designed to produce high-current, high-charge-state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the rare isotope accelerator (RIA) front end, where the goal is to produce intense beams of medium-charge-state ions. Example beams for the RIA accelerator are 15 p μA of Kr17+(260 e μA), 12 p μA of Xe20+ (240 e μA of Xe20+), and 8 p μA of U28+(230 e μA). To achieve these high currents, VENUS has been optimized for operation at 28 GHz, reaching maximal confinement fields of 4 and 3 T axially and over 2.2 T on the plasma chamber wall radially. After a commissioning phase at 18 GHz, the source started the 28 GHz operation in the summer of 2004. During that ongoing 28 GHz commissioning process, record ion-beam intensities have been extracted. For instance, measured extracted currents for the low to medium charge states were 270 e μA of Xe27+ and 245 e μA of Bi29+, while for the higher charge states 15 e μA of Xe34+, 15 e μA of Bi41+, and 0.5 e μA of Bi50+ could be produced. Results from the ongoing 28 GHz commissioning as well as results using double-frequency heating with 18 and 28 GHz for oxygen and xenon are presented. The effect of the minimum B field on the ion source performance has been systematically measured for 18 and 28 GHz. In both cases the performance peaked at a minimum B field of about 80% of the resonance field. In addition, a strong dependence of the x-ray flux and energy on the minimum B field value was found.

  6. Cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode resonance filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ura, Shogo; Kintaka, Kenji; Inoue, Junichi; Nishio, Kenzo; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2013-03-01

    A cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode-resonance filter (CRIGF) consisting of a grating coupler (GC) and a pair of distributed-Bragg-reflectors (DBRs) on a thin-film dielectric waveguide is reviewed. The CRIGF has been recently proposed by the authors to provide a narrow-band reflection spectrum for an incident wave of a small beam width from the free space. A newly developed analysis model for device design with performance simulation is introduced. Curved gratings are utilized to construct a resonator for a small-aperture CRIGF. Design, fabrication and characterization of CRIGFs of 10 μm aperture are described with a resonance wavelength of 850 nm. A Ge:SiO2 guiding core layer was deposited on a SiO2 glass substrate, and GC and DBRs were formed by the electron-beam direct writing lithography. A normal polarization-dependent CRIGF is shown with a obtained narrowband reflection spectrum of 0.2 nm full width at half maximum. A crossed-CRIGF is also discussed to eliminate the polarization dependence. It is successfully demonstrated that measured reflection spectra for TE and TM incident beams were well coincident with each other.

  7. 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Over Fiber with Directly Modulated Dual-mode Laser Diode.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    A directly modulated dual-mode laser diode (DMLD) with third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) suppression is proposed for a 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber (MMWoF) architecture, enabling new fiber-wireless communication access to cover 4-km single-mode-fiber (SMF) and 3-m wireless 16-QAM OFDM transmissions. By dual-mode injection-locking, the throughput degradation of the DMLD is mitigated with saturation effect to reduce its threshold, IMD3 power and relative intensity noise to 7.7 mA, -85 dBm and -110.4 dBc/Hz, respectively, providing huge spurious-free dynamic range of 85.8 dB/Hz(2/3). This operation suppresses the noise floor of the DMLD carried QPSK-OFDM spectrum by 5 dB. The optical receiving power is optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the bit error rate to 1.9 × 10(-3 )and the receiving power penalty to 1.1 dB. Such DMLD based hybrid architecture for 60-GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for next-generation indoor and short-reach mobile communications. PMID:27297267

  8. 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Over Fiber with Directly Modulated Dual-mode Laser Diode

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    A directly modulated dual-mode laser diode (DMLD) with third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) suppression is proposed for a 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber (MMWoF) architecture, enabling new fiber-wireless communication access to cover 4-km single-mode-fiber (SMF) and 3-m wireless 16-QAM OFDM transmissions. By dual-mode injection-locking, the throughput degradation of the DMLD is mitigated with saturation effect to reduce its threshold, IMD3 power and relative intensity noise to 7.7 mA, −85 dBm and −110.4 dBc/Hz, respectively, providing huge spurious-free dynamic range of 85.8 dB/Hz2/3. This operation suppresses the noise floor of the DMLD carried QPSK-OFDM spectrum by 5 dB. The optical receiving power is optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the bit error rate to 1.9 × 10−3 and the receiving power penalty to 1.1 dB. Such DMLD based hybrid architecture for 60-GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for next-generation indoor and short-reach mobile communications. PMID:27297267

  9. 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Over Fiber with Directly Modulated Dual-mode Laser Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-06-01

    A directly modulated dual-mode laser diode (DMLD) with third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) suppression is proposed for a 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber (MMWoF) architecture, enabling new fiber-wireless communication access to cover 4-km single-mode-fiber (SMF) and 3-m wireless 16-QAM OFDM transmissions. By dual-mode injection-locking, the throughput degradation of the DMLD is mitigated with saturation effect to reduce its threshold, IMD3 power and relative intensity noise to 7.7 mA, ‑85 dBm and ‑110.4 dBc/Hz, respectively, providing huge spurious-free dynamic range of 85.8 dB/Hz2/3. This operation suppresses the noise floor of the DMLD carried QPSK-OFDM spectrum by 5 dB. The optical receiving power is optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the bit error rate to 1.9 × 10‑3 and the receiving power penalty to 1.1 dB. Such DMLD based hybrid architecture for 60-GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for next-generation indoor and short-reach mobile communications.

  10. Design and fabrication of 5 GHz band pass filter using circle-type HTS bulk resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.; Teshima, H.; Ono, S.; Hirano, H.; Hirano, S.; Ohshima, S.

    2007-10-01

    We designed and fabricated a transmit band pass filter (BPF) using circle-type high temperature superconductor (HTS) bulk resonators. A Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk was fabricated using a modified quench and melt growth (QMG) process and cut into specimens of 8.40 and 8.44 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick for use as the HTS bulk resonators. A three-pole stripline (SL) BPF was designed based on a Chebyshev function and the frequency response and electromagnetic field of the filter were simulated using a three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulator. From the results of the simulation, the center frequency, bandwidth, insertion loss, and ripple of the designed filter were 4.97 GHz, 100 MHz, 0.03 dB, and 0.048 dB, respectively. In the experimental results on the actual fabricated filter, the filtering response was clearly observed; however, the center frequency of 5.46 GHz was higher than that of the simulation. The simulated maximum surface current in the resonators of the SL filter was approximately 86% smaller than that of a conventional hairpin filter. Furthermore, the measured response of the Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk filter at an input power of 20 dBm was almost the same as that at 0 dBm. These results mean that an SL filter using a Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk resonator may be practicable as a high-power transmit BPF.

  11. A Compact 5.5 GHz Band-Rejected UWB Antenna Using Complementary Split Ring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. M.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm2, and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band. PMID:24971379

  12. A compact 5.5 GHz band-rejected UWB antenna using complementary split ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Faruque, M R I; Islam, M T

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm(2), and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band. PMID:24971379

  13. Passively mode-locked 1 GHz MOPA system generating sub-500-fs pulses after external compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulm, Thorsten; Harth, Florian; Klehr, Andreas; Erbert, Götz; L'huillier, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    We compared the performance of DQW and TQW edge-emitters in a passively mode-locked 1GHz MOPA system at 1075 nm wavelength. Passive mode-locking is induced by applying a reverse DC voltage to the absorber section. The average power is increased up to 0.9Wby a single-stripe pre-amplifier and a tapered amplifier. After compensation of the quadratic chirp in a grating compressor we achieved a pulse duration of 342 fs. We found that the oscillator gain current and the absorber bias voltage have significant impact on the pulse duration. Both parameters were used to optimize the MOPA system with respect to the shortest pulse length after compression.

  14. Searching for inflationary B modes: can dust emission properties be extrapolated from 350 GHz to 150 GHz?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Pavlidou, Vasiliki

    2015-07-01

    Recent Planck results have shown that radiation from the cosmic microwave background passes through foregrounds in which aligned dust grains produce polarized dust emission, even in regions of the sky with the lowest level of dust emission. One of the most commonly used ways to remove the dust foreground is to extrapolate the polarized dust emission signal from frequencies where it dominates (e.g. ˜350 GHz) to frequencies commonly targeted by cosmic microwave background experiments (e.g. ˜150 GHz). In this Letter, we describe an interstellar medium effect that can lead to decorrelation of the dust emission polarization pattern between different frequencies due to multiple contributions along the line of sight. Using a simple 2-cloud model we show that there are two conditions under which this decorrelation can be large: (a) the ratio of polarized intensities between the two clouds changes between the two frequencies; (b) the magnetic fields between the two clouds contributing along a line of sight are significantly misaligned. In such cases, the 350 GHz polarized sky map is not predictive of that at 150 GHz. We propose a possible correction for this effect, using information from optopolarimetric surveys of dichroicly absorbed starlight.

  15. Hyperparametric effects in a whispering-gallery mode rutile dielectric resonator at liquid helium temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nand, Nitin R.; Goryachev, Maxim; Floch, Jean-Michel le; Creedon, Daniel L.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2014-10-07

    We report the first observation of low power drive level sensitivity, hyperparametric amplification, and single-mode hyperparametric oscillations in a dielectric rutile whispering-gallery mode resonator at 4.2 K. The latter gives rise to a comb of sidebands at 19.756 GHz. Whereas, most frequency combs in the literature have been observed in optical systems using an ensemble of equally spaced modes in microresonators or fibers, the present work represents generation of a frequency comb using only a single-mode. The experimental observations are explained by an additional 1/2 degree-of-freedom originating from an intrinsic material nonlinearity at optical frequencies, which affects the microwave properties due to the extremely low loss of rutile. Using a model based on lumped circuits, we demonstrate that the resonance between the photonic and material 1/2 degree-of-freedom, is responsible for the hyperparametric energy transfer in the system.

  16. Ultra-broadband and high-efficiency polarization conversion metasurface with multiple plasmon resonance modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guo-Xiang; Shi, Hong-Yu; Xia, Song; Li, Wei; Zhang, An-Xue; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiao-Yong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel metasurface design that achieves a high-efficiency ultra-broadband cross polarization conversion. The metasurface is composed of an array of unit resonators, each of which combines an H-shaped structure and two rectangular metallic patches. Different plasmon resonance modes are excited in unit resonators and allow the polarization states to be manipulated. The bandwidth of the cross polarization converter is 82% of the central frequency, covering the range from 15.7 GHz to 37.5 GHz. The conversion efficiency of the innovative new design is higher than 90%. At 14.43 GHz and 40.95 GHz, the linearly polarized incident wave is converted into a circularly polarized wave. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471292, 61331005, 61471388, 51277012, 41404095, and 61501365), the 111 Project, China (Grant No. B14040), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB654602), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation ( Grant No. 2015M580849).

  17. Resonator modes in high gain free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming ); Deacon, D.A.G. ); Madey, J.M.J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-10-01

    When the gain in a free electron laser is high enough to produce optical guiding, the resonator mode distorts and loses its forward-backward symmetry. We show that the resonator mode in a high gain FEL can be easily constructed using the mode expansion technique taken separately in the interaction and the free-space regions. We propose design strategies to achieve maximal gain and optimal mode quality, and discuss the stability of the optimized mode. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Laser Acoustic Imaging of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) Lateral Mode Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-07-01

    A laser acoustic imaging microscope has been developed that measures acoustic motion with high spatial resolution without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates and heterodyne principles are used to allow operation at any frequency from Hz to GHz. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a direct quantitative determination of excited mode wavenumbers at any frequency. Results are presented at frequencies near the first longitudinal thickness mode (~ 900 MHz) demonstrating simultaneous excitation of lateral modes with nonzero wavenumbers in an electrically driven AlN thin film acoustic resonator. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode dispersion relations for the device under test allowing mode identification and a direct measure of specific lateral mode properties. Discussion and analysis of the results are presented in comparison with plate wave modeling of these devices taking account for material anisotropy and multilayer films.

  19. A broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer to measure thin films up to 70 GHz.

    PubMed

    Harward, I; O'Keevan, T; Hutchison, A; Zagorodnii, V; Celinski, Z

    2011-09-01

    We report the development of a broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) system operating in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 70 GHz using a closed-cycle He refrigeration system for measurements of thin films and micron/nano structures. The system is capable of carrying out measurements in frequency and field domain. Using two coplanar waveguides, it is capable of simultaneously measuring two samples in the out of plane and in plane FMR geometries. The system operates in the temperature range of 27-350 K and is sensitive to less than one atomic monolayer of a single crystal Fe film. PMID:21974627

  20. Progress in high-temperature oven development for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, J.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing a high-temperature oven using UO2 in the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RIKEN since 2013. A total of eleven on-line tests were performed. The longest operation time in a single test was 411 h, and the consumption rate of UO2 was approximately 2.4 mg/h. In these tests, we experienced several problems: the ejection hole of a crucible was blocked with UO2 and a crucible was damaged because of the reduction of tungsten strength at high temperature. In order to solve these problems, improvements to the crucible shape were made by simulations using ANSYS.

  1. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    PubMed

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well. PMID:18315101

  2. A solid-mounted resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency synthesis.

    PubMed

    Boudot, R; Li, M D; Giordano, V; Rolland, N; Rolland, P A; Vincent, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a 4.596 GHz frequency synthesis based on a 2.1 GHz solid mounted resonator (SMR) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The SMR oscillator presents a chip size lower than 2 mm(2), a power consumption of 18.2 mW, and exhibits a phase noise of -89 dBc/Hz and -131 dBc/Hz at 2 kHz and 100 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The VCO temperature-frequency dependence is measured to be -14 ppm∕°C over a range of -20°C to 60°C. From this source, a low noise frequency synthesizer is developed to generate a 4.596 GHz signal (half of the Cs atom hyperfine transition frequency) with a phase noise of -81 dBc/Hz and -120 dBc/Hz at 2 kHz and 100 kHz from the carrier. The frequency synthesis output is used as a local oscillator in a Cs vapor microcell-based compact atomic clock. Preliminary results are reported and discussed. To the authors knowledge, this is the first development of a SMR-oscillator-based frequency synthesizer for miniature atomic clocks applications. PMID:21456775

  3. Transverse Mode Multi-Resonant Single Crystal Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Kevin A. (Inventor); Liang, Yu (Inventor); Luo, Jun (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor); Sahul, Raffi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A transducer is disclosed that includes a multiply resonant composite, the composite having a resonator bar of a piezoelectric single crystal configured in a d(sub 32) transverse length-extensional resonance mode having a crystallographic orientation set such that the thickness axis is in the (110) family and resonance direction is the (001) family.

  4. Dual-Band Dual-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide Filters with Independently Reconfigurable TE101 Resonant Mode

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yongle; Chen, Yuqing; Jiao, Lingxiao; Liu, Yuanan; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2016-01-01

    A novel perturbation approach using additional metalized via-holes for implementation of the dual-band or wide-band dual-mode substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filters is proposed in this paper. The independent perturbation on the first resonant mode TE101 can be constructed by applying the proposed perturbation approach, whereas the second resonant mode TE102 is not affected. Thus, new kinds of dual-band or wide-band dual-mode SIW filters with a fixed or an independently reconfigurable low-frequency band have been directly achieved. In order to experimentally verify the proposed design method, four two-cavity dual-band SIW filters, which have different numbers of perturbation via-holes in each cavity, and a two-cavity dual-band SIW filter, which includes four via-holes and eight reconfigurable states in each cavity, are designed and experimentally assessed. The measured results indicate that the available frequency-ratio range from 1 to 1.3 can be realized by using four two-cavity dual-band SIW filters. The center frequency of the first band can be tuned from 4.61 GHz to 5.24 GHz, whereas the center frequency of the second one is fixed at around 6.18 GHz for the two-cavity dual-band SIW filter with four reconfigurable states via-holes. All the simulated and measured results show an acceptable agreement with the predicted data. PMID:27561687

  5. Dual-Band Dual-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide Filters with Independently Reconfigurable TE101 Resonant Mode.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongle; Chen, Yuqing; Jiao, Lingxiao; Liu, Yuanan; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2016-01-01

    A novel perturbation approach using additional metalized via-holes for implementation of the dual-band or wide-band dual-mode substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filters is proposed in this paper. The independent perturbation on the first resonant mode TE101 can be constructed by applying the proposed perturbation approach, whereas the second resonant mode TE102 is not affected. Thus, new kinds of dual-band or wide-band dual-mode SIW filters with a fixed or an independently reconfigurable low-frequency band have been directly achieved. In order to experimentally verify the proposed design method, four two-cavity dual-band SIW filters, which have different numbers of perturbation via-holes in each cavity, and a two-cavity dual-band SIW filter, which includes four via-holes and eight reconfigurable states in each cavity, are designed and experimentally assessed. The measured results indicate that the available frequency-ratio range from 1 to 1.3 can be realized by using four two-cavity dual-band SIW filters. The center frequency of the first band can be tuned from 4.61 GHz to 5.24 GHz, whereas the center frequency of the second one is fixed at around 6.18 GHz for the two-cavity dual-band SIW filter with four reconfigurable states via-holes. All the simulated and measured results show an acceptable agreement with the predicted data. PMID:27561687

  6. High-Order Tunable Filters Based on a Chain of Coupled Crystalline Whispering Gallery-Mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a tunable third-order optical filter fabricated from the three voltage-controlled lithium niobate whispering gallery-mode resonators. The filter operates at 1550 nm with 30-MHz bandwidth and can be electrooptically tuned by 12 GHz in the linear regime with approximately 80-MHz/V tuning rate. With this filter, we have demonstrated 6-dB fiber-to-fiber insertion loss and 30-ns tuning speed, limited by the resonator buildup time.

  7. A fully integrated multi-band ED-mode pHEMT VCO using variable transformer and switched resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Po-Yu; Chiu, Hsien-Chin; Fu, Jeffrey S.

    2012-06-01

    A systematic approach to the design of a reconfigurable LC-coupled voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is proposed in this article. The focus is on the choice of the reactive elements of the resonance tank which are most suitable to switch to the desired oscillation frequencies. The optimum Q of the tank will be determined by the selected component. We report a 0.5-µm enhancement-depletion (ED) mode pHEMT (HEMT, high-electron mobility transistor) multiple-frequency VCO, and the generation of multiple frequencies are achieved using switched resonator topology. LC-tank circuit is built by square transformers. By careful selection of the reactive elements, evenly distributed results showed at each designed band. The multi-band ED-mode pHEMT VCO showed the output power of -4.7 dBm for 2 GHz band, -6.67 dBm for 3.86 GHz band and -5.9 dBm for 4.5 GHz band, respectively. The phase noises at 1 MHz offset frequency from carrier were -112.8 dBc/Hz for 2 GHz, -105 dBc/Hz for 3.86 GHz and -103.3 dBc/Hz for 4.5 GHz, respectively. The total chip size is only 1.17 × 0.83 mm2.

  8. Free-electron maser with high-selectivity Bragg resonator using coupled propagating and trapped modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Golubev, I. I.; Golubykh, S. M.; Zaslavskii, V. Yu.; Zotova, I. V.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Kozlov, A. P.; Malkin, A. M.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Perel'Shteĭn, É. A.; Sedykh, S. N.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2010-10-01

    A free-electron maser (FEM) with a double-mirror resonator involving a new modification of Bragg structures operating on coupled propagating and quasi-cutoff (trapped) modes has been studied. The presence of trapped waves in the feedback chain improves the selectivity of Bragg resonators and ensures stable single-mode generation regime at a considerable superdimensionality of the interaction space. The possibility of using the new feedback mechanism has been confirmed by experiments with a 30-GHz FEM pumped by the electron beam of LIU-3000 (JINR) linear induction accelerator, in which narrow-band generation was obtained at a power of ˜10 MW and a frequency close to the cutoff frequency of the trapped mode excited in the input Bragg reflector.

  9. Numerical study of the start-up scenario of a 670 GHz gyrotron operation at TE31,8 mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Ruifeng; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr; Nusinovich, Gregory; Ireap Team

    2011-10-01

    In order to develop a system to detect concealed radioactive materials, we are designing a 670 GHz gyrotron with sufficient power to cause breakdown in the air. Design studies of the cavity and the magnetron injection gun (MIG) of this gyrotron had already been presented. We concluded study of simple start-up regime for this 670GHz gyrotron operating at TE31,8 mode and found that at the fundamental cyclotron harmonics, the operating mode can be excited and the competitor modes will be suppressed. Currently we are studying gyrotron operating on the second cyclotron harmonics using the same electron gun. Preliminary studies show that if the higher harmonics mode is excited first, it will suppress competitors of the fundamental mode. Using available MIG data, we are performing numerical simulation using MAGY. The results of these simulations can be illustrative for our future experiments, and the results of the study will be presented at the conference. Supported by ONR.

  10. Rarefying Spectra of Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitri; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    A method of cleaning the mode spectra of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators has been devised to make such resonators more suitable for use as narrow-band optical filters. The method applies, more specifically, to millimeter- sized whispering-gallery-mode optical resonators that are made of crystalline electro-optical materials and have ultrahigh values of the resonance quality factor (Q). The mode spectrum of such a resonator is typically dense, consisting of closely spaced families of modes; as such, the spectrum is not well suited for narrow-band filtering, in which there is a need for strong rejection of side modes. Cleaning as used here signifies rarefying the spectrum so that what remains consists mostly of a single desired family of modes or, at worst, a few mode families that are more widely spaced in frequency than are the mode families in the original, non-rarefied spectrum. The spectrum-cleaning method exploits the fact that various WGM mode families occupy various positions near the equator at the rim of a resonator disk. In this method, a damper in the form of a prism or other polished piece of material having an index of refraction greater than that of the resonator material is placed in contact with the rim of the resonator at such a position that the Qs of most or all of the undesired mode families are greatly reduced while the Q of the desired mode family is reduced by only a tolerably small amount. In an alternative method that has been considered, the mode spectrum would be cleaned through special design of the shape of the rim, but fabrication of the rim in a special shape is a complicated task. The advantage of the present method, relative to the alternative method, is that special shaping of the rim is not necessary and the damping prism can be emplaced after the resonator has been fabricated.

  11. Cryogenic 36-45 GHz InP Low-Noise Amplifier MMIC's with Improved Noise Temperature by Eliminating Parasitic Parallel-Plate Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Takashi; Ohno, Takeshi; Hirachi, Yasutake; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes cryogenic 36-45 GHz InP low-noise amplifier monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) with an improved noise temperature by eliminating parasitic parallel-plate resonance modes. These MMIC's are used for a Radio Astronomical receiver, which needs the ultimate super low-noise and wide-band frequency characteristics, such as those in ALMA Band 1. The MMIC chips were designed in the coplanar waveguide (CPW), and mounted to the AlN substrate with a flip-chip assembly, which was promising compared to wire bonding. The flip-chip assemblies, however, are prone to cause the parasitic parallel plate resonance mode (PPM). The relationship between the S-parameters and the PPM was investigated by using a 3D-electromagnetic simulation of the simple transmission-line test-chip with the same chip size as that of the actual MMIC. In order to eliminate the PPM, additional bumps were mounted on the simple transmission-line test-chip, and the effect of these bumps was confirmed by the simulation. These results obtained from the simple transmission-line test-chip were applied to an actual MMIC chip assembly. The MMIC assembled with the additional bumps had no abnormality in the measured S-parameters, and the PPM had been eliminated up to 65 GHz. Moreover, the stability factor, K, became more than 2.4 over 36-45 GHz. This InP low-noise amplifier MMIC exhibited a gain of 15 dB and a noise temperature of 180-240 K at room temperature in the frequency range of 36-45 GHz. When cooled to 28 K, a gain of 17 dB and a noise temperature of 22-35 K were obtained at a power consumption of 4.7 mW over 36-45 GHz. A high-gain amplifier module consisting of two cascaded chips, exhibited a gain of 27-30 dB and a noise temperature of 25-30 K at the ambient temperature of 22 K in the frequency range of 41-45 GHz.

  12. Structural resonance and mode of flutter of hummingbird tail feathers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Girard, Madeline B; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Feathers can produce sound by fluttering in airflow. This flutter is hypothesized to be aeroelastic, arising from the coupling of aerodynamic forces to one or more of the feather's intrinsic structural resonance frequencies. We investigated how mode of flutter varied among a sample of hummingbird tail feathers tested in a wind tunnel. Feather vibration was measured directly at ~100 points across the surface of the feather with a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV), as a function of airspeed, Uair. Most feathers exhibited multiple discrete modes of flutter, which we classified into types including tip, trailing vane and torsional modes. Vibratory behavior within a given mode was usually stable, but changes in independent variables such as airspeed or orientation sometimes caused feathers to abruptly 'jump' from one mode to another. We measured structural resonance frequencies and mode shapes directly by measuring the free response of 64 feathers stimulated with a shaker and recorded with the SLDV. As predicted by the aeroelastic flutter hypothesis, the mode shape (spatial distribution) of flutter corresponded to a bending or torsional structural resonance frequency of the feather. However, the match between structural resonance mode and flutter mode was better for tip or torsional mode shapes, and poorer for trailing vane modes. Often, the 3rd bending structural harmonic matched the expressed mode of flutter, rather than the fundamental. We conclude that flutter occurs when airflow excites one or more structural resonance frequencies of a feather, most akin to a vibrating violin string. PMID:23737565

  13. Low power low phase noise phase locked loop frequency synthesizer with fast locking mode for 2.4 GHz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Feng, Peng; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2014-01-01

    We designed a low power low phase noise phase locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer for 2.4 GHz wireless communication applications. Current reusing technique and triple-well NMOS transistors are applied to reduce power consumption and improve phase noise performance of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), respectively. The synthesizer has a fast locking mode that uses frequency presetting technique to greatly shorten the locking time. The synthesizer was implemented in 0.18 µm CMOS process. The chip core area is 1.49 mm2. Measured results show that the output frequency tuning range is 2.16-2.55 GHz. The phase noise is -124.18 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz from a 2.4 GHz carrier. The power consumption is 4.98 mW and the locking time in fast locking mode is about 4 µs.

  14. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm(2). The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research. PMID:26931931

  15. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  16. Resonant Modes in a 1.6 Cells RF Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Massimo; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    2007-09-01

    The SPARC photoinjector RF gun consists in the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell structure designed to resonate at 2856 MHz in the π mode. It will be demonstrated by a numerical modelization based on SUPERFISH code combined with the LC-circuit analysis that the two oscillating modes of the system usually indicated as 0-mode and π-mode (the operating mode) are in reality a π/3-mode-like and a π-mode-like. The consequences on the definition of the coupling coefficient and on the use of mode-separation based RF measurements are described.

  17. Resonant Modes in a 1.6 Cells RF Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Massimo; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    The SPARC photoinjector RF gun consists in the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell structure designed to resonate at 2856 MHz in the π mode. It will be demonstrated by a numerical modelization based on SUPERFISH code combined with the LC-circuit analysis that the two oscillating modes of the system usually indicated as 0-mode and π-mode (the operating mode) are in reality a π/3-mode-like and a π-mode-like. The consequences on the definition of the coupling coefficient and on the use of mode-separation based RF measurements are described.

  18. Coupled-mode induced transparency in a bottle whispering-gallery-mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Song; Wu, Yi-Hui; Chi, Ming-Bo; Hao, Peng

    2016-04-15

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are ideal systems for achieving electromagnetically induced transparency-like phenomenon. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that one or more transparent windows can be achieved with coupled-mode induced transparency (CMIT) in a single bottle WGM resonator due to the bottle's dense mode spectra and tunable resonant frequencies. This device offers an approach for multi-channel all-optical switching devices and sensitivity-enhanced WGM-based sensors. PMID:27082355

  19. Progress in high-temperature oven development for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, J; Higurashi, Y; Nakagawa, T

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing a high-temperature oven using UO2 in the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RIKEN since 2013. A total of eleven on-line tests were performed. The longest operation time in a single test was 411 h, and the consumption rate of UO2 was approximately 2.4 mg/h. In these tests, we experienced several problems: the ejection hole of a crucible was blocked with UO2 and a crucible was damaged because of the reduction of tungsten strength at high temperature. In order to solve these problems, improvements to the crucible shape were made by simulations using ANSYS. PMID:26931927

  20. Whispering gallery mode resonators based on radiation-sensitive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Handley, Timothy A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators formed of radiation-sensitive materials to allow for permanent tuning of their resonance frequencies in a controlled manner. Two WGM resonators may be cascaded to form a composite filter to produce a second order filter function where at least one WGM resonator is formed a radiation-sensitive material to allow for proper control in the overlap of the two filter functions.

  1. Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B.; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    We report on our recent results concerning fabrication of high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) crystalline resonators, and discuss some possible applications of lithium niobate WGM resonators in nonlinear optics and photonics. In particular, we demonstrate experimentally a tunable third-order optical filter fabricated from the three metalized resonators; and report observation of parametric frequency dobuling in a WGM resonator made of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN).

  2. Temperature and density evolution during decay in a 2.45 GHz hydrogen electron cyclotron resonance plasma: Off-resonant and resonant cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortázar, O. D.; Megía-Macías, A.; Vizcaíno-de-Julián, A.

    2013-09-01

    Time resolved electron temperature and density measurements during the decay stage in a hydrogen electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma are presented for a resonance and off-resonance magnetic field configurations. The measurements are conducted on a ECR plasma generator excited at 2.45 GHz denominated test-bench for ion-sources plasma studies at ESS Bilbao. The plasma parameters evolution is studied by Langmuir probe diagnostic with synchronized sample technique developed for repetitive pulsed plasmas with a temporal resolution of 200 ns in typical decay processes of about 40 μs. An afterglow transient is clearly observed in the reflected microwave power signal from the plasma. Simultaneously, the electron temperature evolution shows rebounding peaks that may be related to the interplay between density drop and microwave coupling with deep impact on the Electron Energy Distribution Function. The correlation of such structures with the plasma absorbed power and the coupling quality is also reported.

  3. Nanoliter liquid characterization by open whispering-gallery mode dielectric resonators at millimeter wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaforost, E. N.; Klein, N.; Vitusevich, S. A.; Offenhäusser, A.; Barannik, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    We present an approach for identification and concentration determination of liquids of pico to nanoliter volumes at a frequency of 35 GHz based on a whispering-gallery mode (WGM) dielectric resonator technique. A quasioptical coupling scheme based on dielectric image waveguides was employed to excite high-Q running wave WGMs with uniform azimuthal field distribution in cylindrical sapphire disks with quality factors up to 4×105 at room temperature. Measurement of the liquid induced changes in the resonator quality factor and resonance frequency has been performed for droplets down to 90 pl volume spotted at different positions on the surface of the sapphire disk. We have employed our method for concentration determination of ethanol, glucose, and albumin dissolved in water. Solutions with concentration values well below 10% could be clearly separated from pure water. Our method is promising for the characterization of biological liquids.

  4. Opto-acoustic phenomena in whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Optical whispering gallery mode resonators are important platforms to enhance and study various nonlinear frequency conversion processes. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is one of the strongest nonlinear effects, and can be successfully investigated using these platforms. In this article, we study the phenomenon of stimulated Brillouin scattering using a crystalline disk resonator. A fast scanning ringdown spectroscopy technique is used to characterize the optical modes featuring quality factors of the order of one billion at telecom wavelengths. The mW scale threshold power in a centimeter disk resonator is observed and found to be strongly dependent on the gap between the resonator and the prism coupler.

  5. 250-GHz electron spin resonance studies of polarity gradients along the aliphatic chains in phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Earle, K. A.; Moscicki, J. K.; Ge, M.; Budil, D. E.; Freed, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Rigid-limit 250-GHz electron spin resonance (FIR-ESR) spectra have been studied for a series of phosphatidylcholine spin labels (n-PC, where n = 5, 7, 10, 12, 16) in pure lipid dispersions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), as well as dispersions of DPPC containing the peptide gramicidin A (GA) in a 1:1 molar ratio. The enhanced g-tensor resolution of 250-GHz ESR for these spin labels permitted a careful study of the nitroxide g-tensor as a function of spin probe location and membrane composition. In particular, as the spin label is displaced from the polar head group, Azz decreases and gxx increases as they assume values typical of a nonpolar environment, appropriate for the hydrophobic alkyl chains in the case of pure lipid dispersions. The field shifts of spectral features due to changes in gxx are an order of magnitude larger than those from changes in Azz. The magnetic tensor parameters measured in the presence of GA were characteristic of a polar environment and showed only a very weak dependence of Azz and gxx on label position. These results demonstrate the significant influence of GA on the local polarity along the lipid molecule, and may reflect increased penetration of water into the alkyl chain region of the lipid in the presence of GA. The spectra from the pure lipid dispersions also exhibit a broad background signal that is most significant for 7-, 10-, and 12-PC, and is more pronounced in DPPC than in POPC. It is attributed to spin probe aggregation yielding spin exchange narrowing. The addition of GA to DPPC essentially suppressed the broad background signal observed in pure DPPC dispersions. PMID:7518705

  6. Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; Fleming, James G.; Tuck, Melanie R.

    2008-06-10

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.

  7. Tapping mode quartz crystal resonator based scanning force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yongho; Jhe, Wonho

    2005-01-01

    We have built a high-speed, tapping mode scanning force microscope using a high frequency quartz crystal resonator. In our design, a cantilever tip was attached to the end of an optical fiber which was glued to a thickness shear mode, AT-cut quartz crystal resonator so as to vibrate in the longitudinal direction. This design allows the microscope to be operated in tapping mode with the flexibility of shear mode operation, which leads to an expected improvement of image quality. Furthermore, combining this geometry with an optical microscope leads to the possibility of commercial applications.

  8. Shear mode coupling and tilted grain growth of A1N thin films in BAW resonators.

    PubMed

    Martin, Fabrice; Jan, Marc-Etienne; Rey-Mermet, Samuel; Belgacem, Brahim; Su, Dong; Cantoni, Marco; Muralt, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Polycrystalline A1N thin films were deposited by RF reactive magnetron sputtering on Pt(111)/Ti electrode films. The substrates were tilted by an angle ranging from 40 degrees to 70 degrees with respect to the target normal. A low deposition temperature and a high sputter gas pressure were found ideal for tilted growth. The resulting grain tilt angle amounts to about half the substrate tilt angle. For coupling evaluation, 5 GHz solidly mounted resonator structures have been realized. The tilted grain A1N films exhibited a permittivity in the 9.5-10.5 range and loss tangent of 0.3%. Two shear modes as well as the longitudinal mode could be clearly identified. The coupling coefficient k2(eff) of the fundamental thickness shear mode (TS0) was found to be about 0.5%, which is compatible with a c-axis tilt of about 6 degrees. PMID:16889341

  9. Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    We report on our recent results concerning fabrication of high-Q whispering gallery mode crystalline resonaors, and discuss some possible applications of lithium niobate WGM resonators in nonlinear optics and photonics.

  10. On-chip filter bank spectroscopy at 600-700 GHz using NbTiN superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, A.; Sfiligoj, C.; Yates, S. J. C.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Thoen, D. J.; Javadzadeh, S. M. H.; van der Werf, P. P.; Baryshev, A. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2013-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the principle of an on-chip submillimeter wave filter bank spectrometer, using superconducting microresonators as narrow band-separation filters. The filters are made of NbTiN/SiNx/NbTiN microstrip line resonators, which have a resonance frequency in the range of 614-685 GHz, two orders of magnitude higher in frequency than what is currently studied for use in circuit quantum electrodynamics and photodetectors. The frequency resolution of the filters decreases from 350 to 140 with increasing frequency, most likely limited by dissipation of the resonators.

  11. Optical rogue waves in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coillet, Aurélien; Dudley, John; Genty, Goëry; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-01-01

    We report a theoretical study showing that rogue waves can emerge in whispering-gallery-mode resonators as the result of the chaotic interplay between Kerr nonlinearity and anomalous group-velocity dispersion. The nonlinear dynamics of the propagation of light in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator is investigated using the Lugiato-Lefever equation, and we give evidence of a range of parameters where rare and extreme events associated with non-Gaussian statistics of the field maxima are observed.

  12. Continuous spectrum of modes for optical micro-sphere resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooramin, Amir Saman; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an improved modal analysis for the spherical dielectric resonator. This is commonly carried out by assuming an outgoing spherical Hankel function for the region surrounding the dielectric sphere. It will be shown that this assumption is incomplete and cannot lead to the entire spectrum of resonance frequencies. Following an analytical formulation, we prove that, like cylindrical resonators, the only choice for the outer region of the dielectric sphere can be a proper linear combination of an inward and an outward traveling wave. Starting from this formulation, we determine the complete spectrum of the resonance frequencies and the associated mode fields. In this analysis, the continuous spectrum of resonance frequencies is introduced and the properties of radiation modes are studied in detail. The proposed analytical formulation is thereafter employed to calculate the quality factor of the resonator due to radiation and dielectric loss.

  13. Dual-mode temperature compensation technique for laser stabilization to a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Fescenko, I; Alnis, J; Schliesser, A; Wang, C Y; Kippenberg, T J; Hänsch, T W

    2012-08-13

    Frequency stabilization of a diode laser locked to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) reference resonator made of a MgF2 single crystal is demonstrated. The strong thermal dependence of the difference frequency between two orthogonally polarized TE an TM modes (dual-mode frequency) of the optically anisotropic crystal material allows sensitive measurement of the resonator's temperature within the optical mode volume. This dual-mode signal was used as feedback for self-referenced temperature stabilization to nanokelvin precision, resulting in frequency stability of 0.3 MHz/h at 972 nm, which was measured by comparing with an independent ultrastable laser. PMID:23038559

  14. Optical filter having coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Handley, Timothy A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Optical filters having at least two coupled whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators to produce a second order or higher order filter function with a desired spectral profile. At least one of the coupled WGM optical resonators may be tunable by a control signal to adjust the filtering function.

  15. Heterodyne laser-Doppler vibrometer with a slow-shear-mode Bragg cell for vibration measurements up to 1.2 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembe, Christian; Boedecker, Sebastian; Dräbenstedt, Alexander; Pudewills, Fred; Siegmund, Georg

    2008-06-01

    Several new applications for optical ultra-high frequency (UHF) measurements have been evolved during the last decade by advancements in ultra-sonic filters and actuators as well as by the progress in micro- and nanotechnology. These new applications require new testing methods. Laser-based, non-influencing optical testing is the best choice. In this paper we present a laser-Doppler vibrometer for vibration measurements at frequencies up to 1.2 GHz. The frequency-shifter in the heterodyne interferometer is a slow-shear-mode Bragg cell. The light source in the interferometer is a green DPSS (diode pumped solid state) laser. At this wavelength the highest possible frequency shift between zero and first diffraction order is a few MHz above 300 MHz for a slow shear-mode Bragg cell and, therefore, the highest possible bandwidth of the laser-Doppler vibrometer should usually be around 300 MHz. A new optical arrangement and a novel signal processing of the digitized photo-detector signal is employed to expand the bandwidth to 1.2 GHz. We describe the utilized techniques and present the characterization of the new ultra-high-frequency (UHF) vibrometer. An example measurement on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator oscillating at 262 MHz is also demonstrated. The light-power of the measurement beam can be switched on rapidly by a trigger signal to avoid thermal influences on the sample.

  16. 11-13 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma source using cylindrically comb-shaped magnetic-field configuration for broad ion-beam processing

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, Toyohisa; Kato, Yushi; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki; Saito, Junji

    2006-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for broad ion-beam processing has been upgraded by a cylindrically comb-shaped magnetic-field configuration and 11-13 GHz frequency microwaves. A pair of comb-shaped magnets surrounds a large-bore discharge chamber. The magnetic field well confines plasmas with suppressing diffusion toward the axial direction of the cylindrical chamber. The magnetic field is constructed with a multipole and two quasiring permanent magnets. The plasma density clearly increases as compared with that in a simple multipole magnetic-field configuration. The frequency of microwaves output from the traveling-wave tube amplifier can be easily changed with an input signal source. The plasma density for 13 GHz is higher than that for 11 GHz. The maximum plasma density has reached approximately 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} at a microwave power of only 350 W and a pressure of 1.0 Pa. The enhancement of plasma generation by second-harmonic resonance and microwave modes has been investigated. The plasma density and the electron temperature are raised around the second-harmonic resonance zone. And then, the ion saturation current is periodically increased with varying the position of the plate tuner. The distance between the peaks is nearly equal to half of the free-space wavelength of microwave. The efficiency of ECR has been improved by using the comb-shaped magnetic field and raising microwave frequency, and then the high-density plasma source has been accomplished at low microwave power.

  17. Implementation of an operator intervention system for remote control of the RIKEN 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, A.; Furukawa, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The control system for the RIKEN 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (28 GHz SC-ECRIS) consists of a distributed control system based on the experimental physics and industrial control system. To maintain the beam quality for the long beam-service time at the radioactive isotope beam factory, beam tuning to prevent subtle changes in the 28 GHz SC-ECRIS conditions is required. Once this is achieved, it should then be possible to check conditions and operate the ion source at any time. We have designed a web-based operational interface to remotely control the ion source, but for access and control from several locations, suitable access security, policies, and methods are required. We thus implemented an operator intervention system that makes it possible to safely access the network externally with the permission of on-site accelerator operators in the control room.

  18. Recent development of RIKEN 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Ozeki, K.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    Over the past two years, we have tried to improve the performance of the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using several methods. For the production of U vapor, we chose the sputtering method because it is possible to install a large amount of material inside the plasma chamber and thus achieve long-term operation without a break, although it is assumed that the beam intensity is weaker than in the oven technique. We also used an aluminum chamber instead of a stainless steel one. Using these methods, we successfully produced ˜180 eμA of U35+ and ˜230 eμA of U33+ at the injected radio frequency (RF) power of ˜4 kW (28 GHz). Very recently, to further increase the beam intensity of U35+, we have started to develop a high temperature oven and have successfully produced a highly charged U ion beam. In this contribution, we report on the beam intensity of highly charged U ions as a function of various parameters (RF power and sputtering voltage) and discuss the effects of these parameters on the beam stability in detail.

  19. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  20. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project. PMID:26931935

  1. STRUCTURE OF THE INNER JET OF OJ287 FROM VLBA DATA AT 15 GHz IN SUPER-RESOLUTION MODE

    SciTech Connect

    Tateyama, Claudio E.

    2013-04-01

    In this work we show the results obtained from the Very Long Baseline Array data at 15 GHz of OJ287 in super-resolution mode. The data showed a jet configuration in the form of a 'fork' where superluminal components emerge via stationary components at the northwest and the southeast close to the core to form parallel trajectories along the southwest direction in the plane of sky. This agrees with a source structure of an extended, broad morphology of OJ287.

  2. Single-Mode WGM Resonators Fabricated by Diamond Turning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grudinin, Ivan; Maleki, Lute; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrewy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    A diamond turning process has made possible a significant advance in the art of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. By use of this process, it is possible to fashion crystalline materials into WGM resonators that have ultrahigh resonance quality factors (high Q values), are compact (ranging in size from millimeters down to tens of microns), and support single electromagnetic modes. This development combines and extends the developments reported in "Few- Mode Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators" (NPO-41256), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 1 (January 2006), page 16a and "Fabrication of Submillimeter Axisymmetric Optical Components" (NPO-42056), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2007), page 10a. To recapitulate from the first cited prior article: A WGM resonator of this special type consists of a rod, made of a suitable transparent material, from which protrudes a thin circumferential belt of the same material. The belt is integral with the rest of the rod and acts as a circumferential waveguide. If the depth and width of the belt are made appropriately small, then the belt acts as though it were the core of a single-mode optical fiber: the belt and the rod material adjacent to it support a single, circumferentially propagating mode or family of modes. To recapitulate from the second cited prior article: A major step in the fabrication of a WGM resonator of this special type is diamond turning or computer numerically controlled machining of a rod of a suitable transparent crystalline material on an ultrahigh-precision lathe. During the rotation of a spindle in which the rod is mounted, a diamond tool is used to cut the rod. A computer program is used to control stepping motors that move the diamond tool, thereby controlling the shape cut by the tool. Because the shape can be controlled via software, it is possible to choose a shape designed to optimize a resonator spectrum, including, if desired, to limit the resonator to supporting a single mode

  3. Femtosecond harmonic mode-locking of a fiber laser at 3.27 GHz using a bulk-like, MoSe2-based saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Koo, Joonhoi; Park, June; Lee, Junsu; Jhon, Young Min; Lee, Ju Han

    2016-05-16

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of a bulk-like, MoSe2-based saturable absorber (SA) as a passive harmonic mode-locker for the production of femtosecond pulses from a fiber laser at a repetition rate of 3.27 GHz. By incorporating a bulk-like, MoSe2/PVA-composite-deposited side-polished fiber as an SA within an erbium-doped-fiber-ring cavity, mode-locked pulses with a temporal width of 737 fs to 798 fs can be readily obtained at various harmonic frequencies. The fundamental resonance frequency and the maximum harmonic-resonance frequency are 15.38 MHz and 3.27 GHz (212th harmonic), respectively. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the output pulses are systematically investigated as a function of the pump power. The output pulses exhibited Gaussian-temporal shapes irrespective of the harmonic order, and even when their spectra possessed hyperbolic-secant shapes. The saturable absorption and harmonic-mode-locking performance of our prepared SA are compared with those of previously demonstrated SAs that are based on other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). To the best of the authors' knowledge, the repetition rate of 3.27 GHz is the highest frequency that has ever been demonstrated regarding the production of femtosecond pulses from a fiber laser that is based on SA-induced passive harmonic mode-locking. PMID:27409880

  4. Acoustic wave flow sensor using quartz thickness shear mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lifeng; Zeng, Zijing; Cheng, Hongbin; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2009-09-01

    A quartz thickness shear mode (TSM) bulk acoustic wave resonator was used for in situ and real-time detection of liquid flow rate in this study. A special flow chamber made of 2 parallel acrylic plates was designed for flow measurement. The flow chamber has a rectangular flow channel, 2 flow reservoirs for stabilizing the fluid flow, a sensor mounting port for resonator holding, one inlet port, and one outlet port for pipe connection. A 5-MHz TSM quartz resonator was edge-bonded to the sensor mounting port with one side exposed to the flowing liquid and other side exposed to air. The electrical impedance spectra of the quartz resonator at different volumetric flow rate conditions were measured by an impedance analyzer for the extraction of the resonant frequency through a data-fitting method. The fundamental, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th resonant frequency shifts were found to be around 920, 3572, 5947, 8228, and 10,300 Hz for flow rate variation from 0 to 3000 mL/min, which had a corresponding Reynolds number change from 0 to 822. The resonant frequency shifts of different modes are found to be quadratic with flow rate, which is attributed to the nonlinear effect of quartz resonator due to the effective normal pressure imposing on the resonator sensor by the flowing fluid. The results indicate that quartz TSM resonators can be used for flow sensors with characteristics of simplicity, fast response, and good repeatability. PMID:19811997

  5. Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M.

    2014-12-15

    We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

  6. Parametric strong mode-coupling in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Xiao; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-08-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes. PMID:27447924

  7. SINGLE LOOP - MULTI GAP RESONATOR FOR WHOLE BODY EPR IMAGING OF MICE AT 1.2 GHZ

    PubMed Central

    Petryakov, Sergey; Samouilov, Alexandre; Kesselring, Eric; Wasowicz, Tomasz; Caia, George L.; Zweier, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    For whole body EPR imaging of small animals, typically low frequencies of 250–750 MHz have been used due to the microwave losses at higher frequencies and the challenges in designing suitable resonators to accommodate these large lossy samples. However, low microwave frequency limits the obtainable sensitivity. L-band frequencies can provide higher sensitivity, and have been commonly used for localized in vivo EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, it would be highly desirable to develop an L-band microwave resonator suitable for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of small animals such as living mice. A 1.2 GHz 16 gap resonator with inner diameter of 43 mm and 48 mm length was designed and constructed for whole body EPR imaging of small animals. The resonator has good field homogeneity and stability to animal induced motional noise. Resonator stability was achieved with electrical and mechanical design utilizing a fixed position double coupling loop of novel geometry, thus minimizing the number of moving parts. Using this resonator, high quality EPR images of lossy phantoms and living mice were obtained. This design provides good sensitivity, ease of sample access, excellent stability and uniform B1 field homogeneity for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of mice at 1.2 GHz. PMID:17625940

  8. Phase Matching of Diverse Modes in a WGM Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan; Matsko, Andrey; Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Phase matching of diverse electromagnetic modes (specifically, coexisting optical and microwave modes) in a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator has been predicted theoretically and verified experimentally. Such phase matching is necessary for storage of microwave/terahertz and optical electromagnetic energy in the same resonator, as needed for exploitation of nonlinear optical phenomena. WGM resonators are used in research on nonlinear optical phenomena at low optical intensities and as a basis for design and fabrication of novel optical devices. Examples of nonlinear optical phenomena recently demonstrated in WGM resonators include low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations. The present findings regarding phase matching were made in research on low-threshold, strongly nondegenerate parametric oscillations in lithium niobate WGM resonators. The principle of operation of such an oscillator is rooted in two previously observed phenomena: (1) stimulated Raman scattering by polaritons in lithium niobate and (2) phase matching of nonlinear optical processes via geometrical confinement of light. The oscillator is partly similar to terahertz oscillators based on lithium niobate crystals, the key difference being that a novel geometrical configuration of this oscillator supports oscillation in the regime. The high resonance quality factors (Q values) typical of WGM resonators make it possible to achieve oscillation at a threshold signal level much lower than that in a non-WGM-resonator lithium niobate crystal.

  9. Transverse mode selection in laser resonators using volume Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian; Venus, George; Ott, Daniel; Divliansky, Ivan; Dawson, Jay W.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Messerly, Mike J.; Pax, Paul H.; Tassano, John B.; Glebov, Leonid

    2014-06-01

    Power scaling of high power laser resonators is limited due to several nonlinear effects. Scaling to larger mode areas can offset these effects at the cost of decreased beam quality, limiting the brightness that can be achieved from the multi-mode system. In order to improve the brightness from such multi-mode systems, we present a method of transverse mode selection utilizing volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) as an angular filter, allowing for high beam quality from large mode area laser resonators. An overview of transverse mode selection using VBGs is given, with theoretical models showing the effect of the angular selectivity of transmitting VBGs on the resonator modes. Applications of this ideology to the design of laser resonators, with cavity designs and experimental results presented for three types of multimode solid state lasers: a Nd:YVO4 laser with 1 cm cavity length and 0.8 mm diameter beam with an M2 of 1.1, a multimode diode with diffraction limited far field divergence in the slow axis, and a ribbon fiber laser with 13 cores showing M2 improved from 11.3 to 1.5.

  10. Parametric strong mode-coupling in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Xiao; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fit of the quality factor and similar results in more devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02853e

  11. Permanent matching of coupled optical bottle resonators with better than 0.16  GHz precision.

    PubMed

    Toropov, N A; Sumetsky, M

    2016-05-15

    The fabrication precision is one of the most critical challenges to the creation of practical photonic circuits composed of coupled high Q-factor microresonators. While very accurate transient tuning of microresonators based on local heating has been reported, the record precision of permanent resonance positioning achieved by post-processing is still within 1 and 5 GHz. Here we demonstrate two coupled bottle microresonators fabricated at the fiber surface with resonances that are matched with a better than 0.16 GHz precision. This corresponds to a better than 0.17 Å precision in the effective fiber radius variation. The achieved fabrication precision is only limited by the resolution of our optical spectrum analyzer and can be potentially improved by an order of magnitude. PMID:27176982

  12. A high-sensitivity 135 GHz millimeter-wave imager by compact split-ring-resonator in 65-nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Yu, Hao; Yang, Chang; Shang, Yang; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    A high-sensitivity 135 GHz millimeter-wave imager is demonstrated in 65 nm CMOS by on-chip metamaterial resonator: a differential transmission-line (T-line) loaded with split-ring-resonator (DTL-SRR). Due to sharp stop-band introduced by the metamaterial load, high-Q oscillatory amplification can be achieved with high sensitivity when utilizing DTL-SRR as quench-controlled oscillator to provide regenerative detection. The developed 135 GHz mm-wave imager pixel has a compact core chip area of 0.0085 mm2 with measured power consumption of 6.2 mW, sensitivity of -76.8 dBm, noise figure of 9.7 dB, and noise equivalent power of 0.9 fW/√{HZ } Hz. Millimeter-wave images has been demonstrated with millimeter-wave imager integrated with antenna array.

  13. Wavelength-tunable 10 GHz actively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yan; Tong, Xinglin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Li; Hu, Pan; Chen, Liang

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a widely wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked fiber laser based on semiconductor optical amplifier. Beneficiating from the actively mode-locking operation and the wavelength-tunable characteristics of a Fabry-Perot filter, different harmonic mode-locking orders, from the fundamental mode-locking order (18.9 MHz) to the 520th order (9.832 GHz), can be easily achieved. The spectral bandwidth corresponding to the fundamental repetition rate is 0.12 nm with the pulse duration of 9.8 ns, leading to the TBP value of 146, which is about 460 times the transform-limited value for soliton pulse. The highest repetition rate of the mode-locked pulses we obtained is 9.832 GHz, with a signal-to-noise ratio up to 50 dB. The theoretical transform-limited pulse duration is 21 ps. Meanwhile, the central wavelength can be continuously tuned over 43.4 nm range (1522.8-1566.2 nm). The higher repetition rate and the widely tuning wavelength range make the fiber laser to own great potential and promising prospects in areas such as optical communication and photonic analog-to-digital conversion (ADC).

  14. Five-mode frequency spectra of x3-dependent modes in AT-cut quartz resonators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guijia; Wu, Rongxing; Wang, Ji; Du, Jianke; Yang, Jiashi

    2012-04-01

    We study straight-crested waves and vibration modes with variations along the x(3) direction only in an AT-cut quartz plate resonator near the operating frequency of the fundamental thickness-shear mode. Mindlin's two-dimensional equations for anisotropic crystal plates are used. Dispersion relations and frequency spectra of the five relevant waves are obtained. It is found that, to avoid unwanted couplings between the resonator operating mode and other undesirable modes, in addition to certain known values of the plate length/thickness ratio that need to be avoided, an additional series of discrete values of the plate length/thickness ratio also must be excluded. PMID:22547292

  15. Full-Field Imaging of GHz Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Cottle, David Lynn; Larson III, J. D.

    2003-10-01

    A full-field view laser ultrasonic imaging method has been developed that measures acoustic motion at a surface without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates by using dynamic holography with photorefractive interferometric detection. By extending the approach to ultra high frequencies, an acoustic microscope has been developed that is capable of operation at gigahertz frequency and micron length scales. Both acoustic amplitude and phase are recorded, allowing full calibration and determination of phases to within a single arbitrary constant. Results are presented of measurements at frequencies of 800-900 MHz, illustrating a multitude of normal mode behavior in electrically driven thin film acoustic resonators. Coupled with microwave electrical impedance measurements, this imaging mode provides an exceptionally fast method for evaluation of electric-to-acoustic coupling of these devices and their performance. Images of 256 /spl times/ 240 pixels are recorded at 18 fps rates synchronized to obtain both in-phase and quadrature detection of the acoustic motion. Simple averaging provides sensitivity to the subnanometer level at each pixel calibrated over the image using interferometry. Identification of specific acoustic modes and their relationship to electrical impedance characteristics show the advantages and overall high speed of the technique.

  16. Collective modes in a uniform Fermi gas with Feshbach resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Beibing; Wan, Shaolong

    2007-05-15

    The collective modes in a uniform fermionic atomic gas with Feshbach resonance are investigated with the path integral method in the frame of a fermion-boson model Hamiltonian. We mainly concentrated on the long-wavelength and low-frequency limits at T=0 K and got an analytical expression for the collective modes across the whole BCS-Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover. We completely recover the Anderson-Bogoliubov modes in the BCS limit and the Bogoliubov modes of the bosonic systems in the BEC limit. The numerical results show that there exists a continuous interpolation for sound velocity between BCS and BEC limits.

  17. Mode switching in a gyrotron with azimuthally corrugated resonator.

    PubMed

    Nusinovich, G S; Sinitsyn, O V; Antonsen, T M

    2007-05-18

    The operation of a gyrotron having a cylindrical resonator with an azimuthally corrugated wall is analyzed. In such a device, wall corrugation cancels the degeneracy of the modes with azimuthally standing patterns. The coupling between these modes depends on the radius of electron beam. It is shown that such a gyrotron can be easily switched from one mode to another. When the switching is done with the repetition frequency equal to the rotational frequency of magnetic islands, this sort of operation can be used for suppression of neoclassical tearing modes in large-scale tokamaks and stellarators. PMID:17677705

  18. Mode Switching in a Gyrotron with Azimuthally Corrugated Resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Sinitsyn, O. V.; Antonsen, T. M. Jr.

    2007-05-18

    The operation of a gyrotron having a cylindrical resonator with an azimuthally corrugated wall is analyzed. In such a device, wall corrugation cancels the degeneracy of the modes with azimuthally standing patterns. The coupling between these modes depends on the radius of electron beam. It is shown that such a gyrotron can be easily switched from one mode to another. When the switching is done with the repetition frequency equal to the rotational frequency of magnetic islands, this sort of operation can be used for suppression of neoclassical tearing modes in large-scale tokamaks and stellarators.

  19. Mode competition and mode control in free electron lasers with one and two dimensional Bragg resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.N.; Ginzburg, N.S.; Sergeev, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    In the report we present a time domain approach to the theory of FELs with one and two dimensional Bragg resonators. It is demonstrated that traditional 1-D Bragg resonators provide possibilities for effective longitudinal mode control. In particular, simulation of the FEL realized in the joint experiment of JINR (Dybna) and IAP (N. Novgord) confirms achievement of the single mode operating regime with high efficiency of about 20%. However, 1-D Bragg resonators lose their selectivity as the transverse size of the system is increased. We simulate mode competition in FELs with coaxial 1-D Bragg resonators and observe a progressively more complicated azimuthal mode competition pattern as the perimeter of the resonator is increased. At the same time, using 2-D Bragg resonators for the same electron beam and microwave system perimeter gives very fast establishment of the single frequency regime with an azimuthally symmetric operating mode. Therefore, FELs utilising 2-D Bragg resonators with coaxial and planar geometry may be considered as attractive sources of high power spatially coherent radiation in the mm and sub-mm wave bands.

  20. Active mode-locked lasers and other photonic devices using electro-optic whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Techniques and devices using whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators, where the optical materials of the WGM resonators exhibit an electro-optical effect to perform optical modulation. Examples of actively mode-locked lasers and other devices are described.

  1. Mode couplings and resonance instabilities in dust clusters.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ke; Kong, Jie; Oeveren, Eric Van; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2013-10-01

    The normal modes for three to seven particle two-dimensional (2D) dust clusters in a complex plasma are investigated using an N-body simulation. The ion wakefield downstream of each particle is shown to induce coupling between horizontal and vertical modes. The rules of mode coupling are investigated by classifying the mode eigenvectors employing the Bessel and trigonometric functions indexed by order integers (m, n). It is shown that coupling only occurs between two modes with the same m and that horizontal modes having a higher shear contribution exhibit weaker coupling. Three types of resonances are shown to occur when two coupled modes have the same frequency. Discrete instabilities caused by both the first and third type of resonances are verified and instabilities caused by the third type of resonance are found to induce melting. The melting procedure is observed to go through a two-step process with the solid-liquid transition closely obeying the Lindemann criterion. PMID:24229289

  2. Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.

  3. Symmetry and resonant modes in platonic grating stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, S. G.; Movchan, A. B.; Movchan, N. V.; McPhedran, R. C.

    2014-04-01

    We study the flexural wave modes existing in finite stacks of gratings containing rigid, zero-radius pins. We group the modes into even and odd classes, and derive dispersion equations for each. We study the recently discovered elasto-dynamically inhibited transmission (EDIT) phenomenon, and relate it to the occurrence of trapped waves of even and odd symmetries being simultaneously resonant. We show how the EDIT interaction may be steered over a wide range of frequencies and angles, using a strategy in which the single-grating reflectance is kept high, so enabling the quality factors of the even and odd resonances to be kept large.

  4. High-order momentum modes by resonant superradiant scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaoji; Fu Jiageng; Chen Xuzong

    2009-12-15

    The spatial and time evolutions of superradiant scattering are studied theoretically for a weak pump beam with different frequency components traveling along the long axis of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. Resulting from the analysis for mode competition between the different resonant channels and the local depletion of the spatial distribution in the superradiant Rayleigh scattering, a method of getting a large number of high-order forward modes by resonant frequency components of the pump beam is provided, which is beneficial to a lager momentum transfer in atom manipulation for the atom interferometry and atomic optics.

  5. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  6. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  7. KIC 8164262: A Heartbeat Star with a Resonantly Excited Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Kelly Marie; Kurtz, Donald Wayne; thompson, susan; Fuller, Jim

    2015-08-01

    With the advent of high precision photometry from the Kepler satellite, a new layer of interesting and astounding astronomical objects has been revealed: heartbeat stars are an example of such objects. Heartbeat stars are eccentric ellipsoidal variables that undergo strong tidal interactions at the time of closest approach, when the stars are almost in contact. The consequence of these interactions is not only the deformation and mutual irradiation of the stars at periastron, but in many of these objects (~20%) we observe tidally induced pulsations. Tidally induced pulsations are pulsations driven by the tidal forcing of the binary star companion. They can be easily distinguished from other pulsations as they occur at precise multiples of the orbital frequency. Moreover, we have identified several objects where the tidally excited modes are undergoing resonance. This occurs when the tidal forces are in resonance with an eigenfrequency of one of the stellar components. In this paper we present KIC 8164262, a prime example of a heartbeat star with a resonantly excited mode. We provide the results of spectral modelling combined with extensive binary light and radial velocity curve modelling, generated using PHOEBE and MCMC. We further discuss why resonant locking, which has been theorised as the mechanism that keeps a system in resonance, is likely acting on this system. Finally, we describe the theoretical implications of tidally induced and resonantly excited modes, and their effects on binary star evolution.

  8. Comparison of shear flow formation between resonant and non-resonant resistive interchange modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemura, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Wakatani, M.

    1999-11-01

    It is known that the poloidal shear flow is produced from the nonlinear resistive interchange modes(A. Hasegawa and M. Wakatani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59) 1581 (1987)(B.A. Carreras and V. E. Lynch, Phys. Fluids B 5) 1795 (1993). Since the non-resonant resistive modes also become unstable(K. Ichiguchi, Y. Nakamura and M. Wakatani, Nucl. Fusion 31) 2073 (1991), the nonlinear behavior is compared between the resonant and non-resonant modes from the point of view of poloidal flow formation. For understanding the difference, we studied single helicity (m,n)=(3,2) mode in a cylindrical geometry.Rotational transform profile, ι(r), was changed. First, we assumed ι(r)=0.51+0.39r^2, and increased ι(0). This change represents a finite beta effect in currentless stellarators. When the resonant surface exists with ι(r_s)=2/3, the poloidal flow are created near the resonant surface. And, in the case when no resonant surface exists but ι_min ~ 2/3, the non-resonant (3,2) mode grows and poloidal shear flow is also generated; however, the magnitude decreases sharply with the increase of ι_min.

  9. Theory of anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Ornigotti, Marco

    2011-07-15

    An analytic solution for a uniaxial spherical resonator is presented using the method of Debye potentials. This serves as a starting point for the calculation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in such a resonator. Suitable approximations for the radial functions are discussed in order to best characterize WGMs. The characteristic equation and its asymptotic expansion for the anisotropic case is also discussed, and an analytic formula with a precision of the order O[{nu}{sup -1}] is also given. Our careful treatment of both boundary conditions and asymptotic expansions makes the present work a particularly suitable platform for a quantum theory of whispering gallery resonators.

  10. CW and pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 263GHz/12T on operating amorphous silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, W; Schnegg, A; Veber, S; Meier, C; Fehr, M; Lips, K

    2015-08-01

    Here we describe a new high frequency/high field continuous wave and pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance (CW EDMR and pEDMR) setup, operating at 263GHz and resonance fields between 0 and 12T. Spin dependent transport in illuminated hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells at 5K and 90K was studied by in operando 263GHz CW and pEDMR alongside complementary X-band CW EDMR. Benefiting from the superior resolution at 263GHz, we were able to better resolve EDMR signals originating from spin dependent hopping and recombination processes. 5K EDMR spectra were found to be dominated by conduction and valence band tail states involved in spin dependent hopping, with additional contributions from triplet exciton states. 90K EDMR spectra could be assigned to spin pair recombination involving conduction band tail states and dangling bonds as the dominating spin dependent transport process, with additional contributions from valence band tail and triplet exciton states. PMID:26112328

  11. Efficient second harmonic generation in a metamaterial with two resonant modes coupled through two varactor diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Tamayama, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Masao

    2012-01-01

    We present an effective method to generate second harmonic (SH) waves using nonlinear metamaterial composed of coupled split ring resonators (CSRRs) with varactor (variable capacitance) diodes. The CSRR structure has two resonant modes: a symmetric mode that resonates at the fundamental frequency and an anti-symmetric mode that resonates at the SH frequency. Resonant fundamental waves in the symmetric mode generate resonant SH waves in the anti-symmetric mode. The double resonance contributes to effective SH radiation. In the experiment, we observe 19.6 dB enhancement in the SH radiation in comparison with the nonlinear metamaterial that resonates only for the fundamental waves.

  12. Nonadiabatic dynamics of two strongly coupled nanomechanical resonator modes.

    PubMed

    Faust, Thomas; Rieger, Johannes; Seitner, Maximilian J; Krenn, Peter; Kotthaus, Jörg P; Weig, Eva M

    2012-07-20

    The Landau-Zener transition is a fundamental concept for dynamical quantum systems and has been studied in numerous fields of physics. Here, we present a classical mechanical model system exhibiting analogous behavior using two inversely tunable, strongly coupled modes of the same nanomechanical beam resonator. In the adiabatic limit, the anticrossing between the two modes is observed and the coupling strength extracted. Sweeping an initialized mode across the coupling region allows mapping of the progression from diabatic to adiabatic transitions as a function of the sweep rate. PMID:22861892

  13. Polarization characteristics of the Schumann resonance modes in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnik, S. A.; Kolmakov, A. A.; Nedosekov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The article describes the experimentally determined distribution of ellipticity coefficient for the first three modes of the Schumann resonances (SR) for different seasons in 2014. Established the presence of seasonal variation of the frequency of occurrence for different types of polarization of the first three modes SR. It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of elliptical polarization for different modes of SR is about 70-80%. Circular polarization - a very rare event, the frequency of its occurrence is less than 1% for every season of the year.

  14. A Ka-band TM02 mode relativistic backward wave oscillator with cascaded resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yan; Cao, Yinbin; Song, Zhimin; Ye, Hu; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun

    2014-12-01

    By combining the Cerenkov-type generator with the cascaded resonators, this paper proposes a Ka-band relativistic backward wave oscillator operating under the guide magnetic field 1.0 T with high power handling capability and high conversion efficiency. It is found that TM02 can be selected as the operation mode in order to increase the power handling capability and provide sufficient coupling with the electron beam. In slow wave structure (SWS), ripples composed of semicircle on top of the rectangle enhance the wave-beam interaction and decrease the intensity of the electric field on the metallic surface. Taking advantage of the resonator cascades, the output power and the conversion efficiency are promoted greatly. The front cascaded resonators efficiently prevent the power generated in SWS from leaking into the diode region, and quicken the startup of the oscillation due to the premodulation of the beam. However, the post cascade slightly postpones the startup because of the further energy extraction from the electron beam. The numerical simulation shows that generation with power 514 MW and efficiency 41% is obtained under the diode voltage 520 kV and current 2.4 kA. And the microwave with the pure frequency spectrum of 29.35 GHz radiates in the pure TM01 mode.

  15. A Ka-band TM{sub 02} mode relativistic backward wave oscillator with cascaded resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yan; Cao, Yinbin; Song, Zhimin; Ye, Hu; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun

    2014-12-15

    By combining the Cerenkov-type generator with the cascaded resonators, this paper proposes a Ka-band relativistic backward wave oscillator operating under the guide magnetic field 1.0 T with high power handling capability and high conversion efficiency. It is found that TM{sub 02} can be selected as the operation mode in order to increase the power handling capability and provide sufficient coupling with the electron beam. In slow wave structure (SWS), ripples composed of semicircle on top of the rectangle enhance the wave-beam interaction and decrease the intensity of the electric field on the metallic surface. Taking advantage of the resonator cascades, the output power and the conversion efficiency are promoted greatly. The front cascaded resonators efficiently prevent the power generated in SWS from leaking into the diode region, and quicken the startup of the oscillation due to the premodulation of the beam. However, the post cascade slightly postpones the startup because of the further energy extraction from the electron beam. The numerical simulation shows that generation with power 514 MW and efficiency 41% is obtained under the diode voltage 520 kV and current 2.4 kA. And the microwave with the pure frequency spectrum of 29.35 GHz radiates in the pure TM{sub 01} mode.

  16. Elastic properties of transparent nano-polycrystalline diamond measured by GHz-ultrasonic interferometry and resonant sphere methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yun-Yuan; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Kimura, Masaki; Irifune, Tetsuo; Ohno, Ichiro

    2014-03-01

    The sound velocities and elastic moduli of transparent nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) have been determined by GHz-ultrasonic interferometry on three different bulk samples, and by resonant spectroscopy on a spherically fabricated NPD sample. We employ a newly-developed optical contact micrometer to measure the thickness of ultrasonic samples to ±0.05 μm with a spatial resolution of ∼50 μm in the same position of the GHz-ultrasonic measurements, resulting in acoustic-wave sound velocity measurements with uncertainties of 0.005-0.02%. The isotropic and adiabatic bulk and shear moduli of NPD measured by GHz-ultrasonic interferometry are KS0 = 442.5 (±0.5) GPa and G0 = 532.4 (±0.5) GPa. By rotating the shear-wave polarization direction, we observe no transverse anisotropy in this NPD. Using resonant sphere spectroscopy, we obtain KS0 = 440.3 (±0.5) GPa and G0 = 532.7 (±0.4) GPa. For comparison, we also measured by GHz-ultrasonic interferometry the elastic constants of a natural single-crystal type-IA diamond with about one-half the experimental uncertainty of previous measurements. The resulting Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaged bulk and shear moduli of natural diamond are KS0 = 441.8 (±0.8) GPa and G0 = 532.6 (±0.5) GPa, demonstrating that the bulk-elastic properties of transparent NPD are equivalent to natural single-crystal diamond as calculated from polycrystalline averaging of its elastic constants.

  17. High-Q BBO whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoping; Fürst, Josef U.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Grudinin, Ivan S.; Yu, Nan

    2013-02-01

    We report an investigation on optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators made from non z-cut beta barium borate (BBO) crystals. We first fabricated high quality (Q) factor WGM resonators made of an angle-cut BBO crystal. Q factors of 1×108 level have been demonstrated at various wavelengths including UV. They led to new upper bounds for the absorption coefficients of BBO at 1560 nm, 980 nm and 370 nm. We observed only one set of ordinarily polarized WGMs with polarization rotating along the resonator circumference. We also fabricated xy-cut BBO WGM resonators, in which the optic axis is parallel to the resonator plane. In that case, two WGM families with different polarization exist, one with constant the other with oscillatory phase velocity. This enables a novel way of broadband phase matching in WGM resonators with cyclic gain. We experimentally demonstrated efficient second harmonic generation (SHG) to a wide harmonic wavelength range from 780 nm at near infrared to 317 nm in UV. It is also the first reported direct UV SHG in a high-Q WGM resonator. This work lays a foundation for further investigations of WGM properties of non-z cut birefringent resonators and their applications in nonlinear optics.

  18. Strongly coupled modes in a weakly driven micromechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venstra, Warner J.; van Leeuwen, Ronald; van der Zant, Herre S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate a strong coupling between the flexural vibration modes of a clamped-clamped micromechanical resonator vibrating at low amplitudes. This coupling enables the direct measurement of the frequency response via amplitude- and phase modulation schemes using the fundamental mode as a mechanical detector. In the linear regime, a frequency shift of 0.8 Hz is observed for a mode with a line width of 5.8 Hz in vacuum. The measured response is well-described by the analytical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam including tension. Calculations predict an upper limit for the room-temperature Q-factor of 4.5×105 for our top-down fabricated micromechanical beam resonators.

  19. Scissors mode of Gd nuclei studied from resonance neutron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; and others

    2012-10-20

    Spectra of {gamma} rays following the neutron capture at isolated resonances of stable Gd nuclei were measured. The objectives were to get new information on photon strength of {sup 153,155-159}Gd with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors-mode vibration. An analysis of the data obtained clearly indicates that the scissors mode is coupled not only to the ground state, but also to all excited levels of the nuclei studied. The specificity of our approach ensures unbiasedness in estimating the sumed scissors-mode strength {Sigma}B(M1){up_arrow}, even for odd product nuclei, for which conventional nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements yield only limited information. Our analysis indicates that for these nuclei the sum {Sigma}B(M1){up_arrow} increases with A and for {sup 157,159}Gd it is significantly higher compared to {sup 156,158}Gd.

  20. On the Jet Regurgitant Mode of a Resonant Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHANG, S.-M.; LEE, S.

    2001-09-01

    A conceptual model simplifying the Hartmann-Sprenger tube is suggested and investigated to decouple the regurgitant mode of non-linear physics. In spite of notable difference originating from the complicated flow phenomenon, the resonant behavior of this problem is shown to be dependent primarily on wavelength of resonant wave and depth of the tube. Four main parameters are selected and studied numerically in the present paper: forcing frequency, oscillatory amplitude of the Mach number, distance from oscillatory station to the entry of tube, and tube depth. A resonant motion could be induced by forcing a sinusoidal variation of flow Mach number at the resonance frequency, which supplies vibrational energy to the harmonic system generating compressible waves.

  1. HIGH POWER TEST OF A 3.9 GHZ 5-CELL DEFLECTING-MODE CAVITY IN A CRYOGENIC OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min; Church, Michael

    2013-11-24

    A 3.9 GHz deflecting mode (S, TM110) cavity has been long used for six-dimensional phase-space beam manipulation tests [1-5] at the A0 Photo-Injector Lab (16 MeV) in Fermilab and their extended applications with vacuum cryomodules are currently planned at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) user facility (> 50 MeV). Despite the successful test results, the cavity, however, demonstrated limited RF performance during liquid nitrogen (LN2) ambient operation that was inferior to theoretical prediction. We have been performing full analysis of the designed cavity by analytic calculation and comprehensive system simulation analysis to solve complex thermodynamics and mechanical stresses. The re-assembled cryomodule is currently under the test with a 50 kW klystron at the Fermilab A0 beamline, which will benchmark the modeling analysis. The test result will be used to design vacuum cryomodules for the 3.9 GHz deflecting mode cavity that will be employed at the ASTA facility for beam diagnostics and phase-space control.

  2. The effect of magnetopause motion on fast mode resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, M. D.; Welling, D.; Viall, N. M.; Moldwin, M. B.; Ridley, A.

    2014-10-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere supports several types of ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. These include fast mode resonance (FMR): cavity modes, waveguide modes, and tunneling modes/virtual resonance. The magnetopause, often treated as the outer boundary for cavity/waveguide modes in the dayside magnetosphere, is not stationary. A rapidly changing outer boundary condition—e.g., due to rapid magnetopause motion—is not favorable for FMR generation and may explain the sparseness of FMR observations in the outer magnetosphere. We examine how magnetopause motion affects the dayside magnetosphere's ability to sustain FMR with idealized Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) simulations using the BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code coupled with the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM). We present observations of FMR in BATS-R-US, reproducing results from other global MHD codes. We further show that FMR is present for a wide range of solar wind conditions, even during periods with large and rapid magnetopause displacements. We compare our simulation results to FMR observations in the dayside magnetosphere, finding that FMR occurrence does not depend on solar wind dynamic pressure, which can be used as a proxy for dynamic pressure fluctuations and magnetopause perturbations. Our results demonstrate that other explanations besides a nonstationary magnetopause—such as the inability to detect FMR in the presence of other ULF wave modes with large amplitudes—are required to explain the rarity of FMR observations in the outer magnetosphere.

  3. Plate mode propagation losses in solidly mounted resonators.

    PubMed

    Thalmayr, Florian; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Omori, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Masatsune

    2010-12-01

    This paper investigates the acoustic losses of propagating eigenmodes through the acoustic mirror of a solidly mounted resonator (SMR) to clarify how resonator properties are influenced by reflection coefficients for the thickness shear (TS) wave as well as that for the thickness extensional (TE) wave. To this end, we analyze the effective acoustic admittance for several test structures with different mirror properties. Leaky modes are distinguished from plate-like modes and the propagation losses are quantified by calculating mode quality factors. The dependence of the propagation properties of leaky eigenmodes is compared with the mirror properties in terms of bulk wave transmission coefficients obtained by the one-dimensional Mason¿s model. It is shown that the TE-like main mode couples with TS-like spurious modes, which then influence the leaky loss of the main mode as well. The coupling strength is strongly frequency-dependent and drastically changes with the mirror design. This result explains previous experimental results reported on SMR design. PMID:21156381

  4. Multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance in the millimeter-wave region up to 150 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmichi, E.; Tokuda, Y.; Tabuse, R.; Tsubokura, D.; Okamoto, T.; Ohta, H.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, a novel technique is developed for multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance (ESR) in the millimeter-wave region. We constructed a compact ESR probehead, in which the cantilever bending is sensitively detected by a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer. With this setup, ESR absorption of diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical (<1 μg) was clearly observed at multiple frequencies of up to 150 GHz. We also observed the hyperfine splitting of low-concentration Mn2+ impurities(˜0.2%) in MgO.

  5. Multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance in the millimeter-wave region up to 150 GHz.

    PubMed

    Ohmichi, E; Tokuda, Y; Tabuse, R; Tsubokura, D; Okamoto, T; Ohta, H

    2016-07-01

    In this article, a novel technique is developed for multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance (ESR) in the millimeter-wave region. We constructed a compact ESR probehead, in which the cantilever bending is sensitively detected by a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer. With this setup, ESR absorption of diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical (<1 μg) was clearly observed at multiple frequencies of up to 150 GHz. We also observed the hyperfine splitting of low-concentration Mn(2+) impurities(∼0.2%) in MgO. PMID:27475568

  6. Design study of a 17.3 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at Louvain-la-Neuve

    SciTech Connect

    Standaert, L. Davin, F.; Loiselet, M.

    2014-02-15

    The Cyclotron Resources Center of the Louvain-la-Neuve University is developing a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source to increase the energy of the accelerated beam by injection of higher charge state ions into the cyclotron. The design of the source is based on a 17.3 GHz frequency and classical coils to produce the axial field. The field reaches 2 T at the injection side and 1.2 T at extraction. The total power consumption for the coils is limited to 80 kW. The design features of the source are presented.

  7. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper. PMID:26931953

  8. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  9. Multiple magnetic mode-based Fano resonance in split-ring resonator/disk nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wen, Xinglin; Li, Guangyuan; Ruan, Qifeng; Wang, Jianfang; Xiong, Qihua

    2013-12-23

    Plasmonic Fano resonance, enabled by the weak interaction between a bright super-radiant and a subradiant resonance mode, not only is fundamentally interesting, but also exhibits potential applications ranging from extraordinary optical transmission to biosensing. Here, we demonstrate strong Fano resonances in split-ring resonators/disk (SRR/D) nanocavities. The high-order magnetic modes are observed in SRRs by polarization-resolved transmission spectroscopy. When a disk is centered within the SRRs, multiple high-order magnetic modes are coupled to a broad electric dipole mode of SRR/D, leading to significant Fano resonance spectral features in near-IR regime. The strength and line shape of the Fano resonances are tuned through varying the SRR split-angle and interparticle distance between SRR and disk. Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations are conducted to understand the coupling mechanism, and the results show good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the coupled structure gives a sensitivity of ∼282 nm/RIU with a figure of merit ∼4. PMID:24215162

  10. Resonant modes of optical cavities with phase-conjugate mirrors.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, P A; Hardy, A; Siegman, A E

    1980-02-15

    The lowest-order self-consistent Gaussian transverse modes are derived, also the resonant frequencies of an optical resonator formed by conventional paraxial optical components plus a phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) on one end. The conventional optical elements are described by an over-all ABCD matrix. Cavities with purely real elements (no aperturing) have a continuous set of self-reproducing Gaussian modes described by a semicircular locus in the 1/q plane for one round trip; all Gaussian beams are self-reproducing after two round trips. Complex ABCD matrices, such as are produced by Gaussian aperturing in the cavity, lead to unique self-consistent perturbation-stable Gaussian modes. The resonant frequency spectrum of a PCM cavity consists of a central resonance at the driving frequency omega(0) of the PCM element, independent of the cavity length L, plus half-axial sidebands spaced by Deltaomega(ax) = 2pi(c/4L), with phase and amplitude constraints on each pair of upper and lower sidebands. PMID:20216900

  11. Resonant Absorption of Axisymmetric Modes in Twisted Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giagkiozis, I.; Goossens, M.; Verth, G.; Fedun, V.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configuration of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.

  12. Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yasuo; Hikihara, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon, Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation.

  13. Trapped-mode resonances in asymmetric terahertz subwavelength structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Li, Chenyu; Zhang, Cunlin

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the trapped-mode resonance with Fano-shaped spectrum can be induced in terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric double-bar structure. Spacing between two bars permits the tuning of resonant position and lineshape in a controlled manner, showing an anomalous increased coupling strength with spacing. The steep phase change around transparency region indicates slow-light effect proved by the retrieved group delays. Simulated results verify the coupling that exists between the bars of the same unit cell and those of the neighbouring cells. Our simplified structure offers the potential application in terahertz modulators and slow-light devices.

  14. Experimental observation of localized modes in a dielectric square resonator.

    PubMed

    Bittner, S; Bogomolny, E; Dietz, B; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the frequency spectra and field distributions of a dielectric square resonator in a microwave experiment. Since such systems cannot be treated analytically, the experimental studies of their properties are indispensable. The momentum representation of the measured field distributions shows that all resonant modes are localized on specific classical tori of the square billiard. Based on these observations a semiclassical model was developed. It shows excellent agreement with all but a single class of measured field distributions that will be treated separately. PMID:24483530

  15. Thickness shear mode (TSM) resonators used for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Claude A.; Fiebor, Ben; Yen, Wei; Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Cernosek, Richard W.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2002-02-01

    The Auburn University Detection and Food Safety Center has demonstrated real-time biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typimhurium, consisting of a thickness shear-mode (TSM) quartz resonator with antibodies immobilized in a Langmuir-Blodgett surface film. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of bound Salmonella bacteria to both polished and unpolished TSM resonators were taken to correlate the mass of the bound organism to the Sauerbrey equation. Theoretical frequency shifts for unpolished TSM resonators predicted by the Sauerbrey equation are much smaller than experimentally measured frequency shift. The Salmonella detector operates in a liquid environment. The viscous properties of this liquid overlayer could influence the TSM resonator's response. Various liquid media were studied as a function of temperature (0 to 50 degree(s)C). The chicken exudate samples with varying fat content show coagulation occurring at temperatures above 35 degree(s)C. Kinematic viscosity test were performed with buffer solutions containing varying quantities of Salmonella bacteria. Since the TSM resonators only entrain a boundary layer of fluid near the surface, they do not respond to these background viscous property changes. Bilk viscosity increases when bacteria concentrations are high. This paper describes investigations of TSM resonator surface acoustic interactions - mass, fluid viscosity, and viscoelasticity - that affect the sensor.

  16. Multistable internal resonance in electroelastic crystals with nonlinearly coupled modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkendall, Christopher R.; Kwon, Jae W.

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear modal interactions have recently become the focus of intense research in micro- and nanoscale resonators for their use to improve oscillator performance and probe the frontiers of fundamental physics. However, our understanding of modal coupling is largely restricted to clamped-clamped beams, and lacking in systems with both geometric and material nonlinearities. Here we report multistable energy transfer between internally resonant modes of an electroelastic crystal plate and use a mixed analytical-numerical approach to provide new insight into these complex interactions. Our results reveal a rich bifurcation structure marked by nested regions of multistability. Even the simple case of two coupled modes generates a host of topologically distinct dynamics over the parameter space, ranging from the usual Duffing bistability to complex multistable behaviour and quasiperiodic motion.

  17. Scissors Mode of 162 Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; et al

    2015-05-28

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions,more » (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ’) reactions.« less

  18. Multistable internal resonance in electroelastic crystals with nonlinearly coupled modes

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Christopher R.; Kwon, Jae W.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear modal interactions have recently become the focus of intense research in micro- and nanoscale resonators for their use to improve oscillator performance and probe the frontiers of fundamental physics. However, our understanding of modal coupling is largely restricted to clamped-clamped beams, and lacking in systems with both geometric and material nonlinearities. Here we report multistable energy transfer between internally resonant modes of an electroelastic crystal plate and use a mixed analytical-numerical approach to provide new insight into these complex interactions. Our results reveal a rich bifurcation structure marked by nested regions of multistability. Even the simple case of two coupled modes generates a host of topologically distinct dynamics over the parameter space, ranging from the usual Duffing bistability to complex multistable behaviour and quasiperiodic motion. PMID:26961749

  19. Scissors Mode of 162Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ') reactions.

  20. Liquid-phase chemical sensing using lateral mode resonant cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Beardslee, L A; Demirci, K S; Luzinova, Y; Mizaikoff, B; Heinrich, S M; Josse, F; Brand, O

    2010-09-15

    Liquid-phase operation of resonant cantilevers vibrating in an out-of-plane flexural mode has to date been limited by the considerable fluid damping and the resulting low quality factors (Q factors). To reduce fluid damping in liquids and to improve the detection limit for liquid-phase sensing applications, resonant cantilever transducers vibrating in their in-plane rather than their out-of-plane flexural resonant mode have been fabricated and shown to have Q factors up to 67 in water (up to 4300 in air). In the present work, resonant cantilevers, thermally excited in an in-plane flexural mode, are investigated and applied as sensors for volatile organic compounds in water. The cantilevers are fabricated using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication process based on bulk micromachining. The devices were coated with chemically sensitive polymers allowing for analyte sorption into the polymer. Poly(isobutylene) (PIB) and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (EPCO) were investigated as sensitive layers with seven different analytes screened with PIB and 12 analytes tested with EPCO. Analyte concentrations in the range of 1-100 ppm have been measured in the present experiments, and detection limits in the parts per billion concentration range have been estimated for the polymer-coated cantilevers exposed to volatile organics in water. These results demonstrate significantly improved sensing properties in liquids and indicate the potential of cantilever-type mass-sensitive chemical sensors operating in their in-plane rather than out-of-plane flexural modes. PMID:20715842

  1. Are Resonant Helioseimic Modes Excited by Solar Flares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibacher, John W.; Baudin, Frédéric; Rabello Soares, Maria Cristina

    2016-05-01

    We critically examine reports that flares have been observed to excite resonant p-modes by:-looking in detail at the results of the ring-diagram analysis in terms of duty cycle and center-to-limb variation of ring-diagram power.-applying the same analysis to the Halloween flare using GONG and MDI data.-assessing the stability in terms of oscillation power of both instruments.

  2. Two-mode model for metal-dielectric guided-mode resonance filters.

    PubMed

    Tuambilangana, Christelle; Pardo, Fabrice; Sakat, Emilie; Bouchon, Patrick; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad

    2015-12-14

    Symmetric metal-dielectric guided-mode resonators (GMR) can operate as infrared band-pass filters, thanks to high-transmission resonant peaks and good rejection ratio. Starting from matrix formalism, we show that the behavior of the system can be described by a two-mode model. This model reduces to a scalar formula and the GMR is described as the combination of two independent Fabry-Perot resonators. The formalism has then been applied to the case of asymmetric GMR, in order to restore the properties of the symmetric system. This result allows designing GMR-on-substrate as efficient as free-standing systems, the same high transmission maximum value and high quality factor being conserved. PMID:26698960

  3. Coupled modes, frequencies and fields of a dielectric resonator and a cavity using coupled mode theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.; Tervo, Richard; Mattar, Saba M.

    2014-01-01

    Probes consisting of a dielectric resonator (DR) inserted in a cavity are important integral components of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometers because of their high signal-to-noise ratio. This article studies the behavior of this system, based on the coupling between its dielectric and cavity modes. Coupled-mode theory (CMT) is used to determine the frequencies and electromagnetic fields of this coupled system. General expressions for the frequencies and field distributions are derived for both the resulting symmetric and anti-symmetric modes. These expressions are applicable to a wide range of frequencies (from MHz to THz). The coupling of cavities and DRs of various sizes and their resonant frequencies are studied in detail. Since the DR is situated within the cavity then the coupling between them is strong. In some cases the coupling coefficient, κ, is found to be as high as 0.4 even though the frequency difference between the uncoupled modes is large. This is directly attributed to the strong overlap between the fields of the uncoupled DR and cavity modes. In most cases, this improves the signal to noise ratio of the spectrometer. When the DR and the cavity have the same frequency, the coupled electromagnetic fields are found to contain equal contributions from the fields of the two uncoupled modes. This situation is ideal for the excitation of the probe through an iris on the cavity wall. To verify and validate the results, finite element simulations are carried out. This is achieved by simulating the coupling between a cylindrical cavity's TE011 and the dielectric insert's TE01δ modes. Coupling between the modes of higher order is also investigated and discussed. Based on CMT, closed form expressions for the fields of the coupled system are proposed. These expressions are crucial in the analysis of the probe's performance.

  4. Coupled modes, frequencies and fields of a dielectric resonator and a cavity using coupled mode theory.

    PubMed

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y; Tervo, Richard; Mattar, Saba M

    2014-01-01

    Probes consisting of a dielectric resonator (DR) inserted in a cavity are important integral components of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometers because of their high signal-to-noise ratio. This article studies the behavior of this system, based on the coupling between its dielectric and cavity modes. Coupled-mode theory (CMT) is used to determine the frequencies and electromagnetic fields of this coupled system. General expressions for the frequencies and field distributions are derived for both the resulting symmetric and anti-symmetric modes. These expressions are applicable to a wide range of frequencies (from MHz to THz). The coupling of cavities and DRs of various sizes and their resonant frequencies are studied in detail. Since the DR is situated within the cavity then the coupling between them is strong. In some cases the coupling coefficient, κ, is found to be as high as 0.4 even though the frequency difference between the uncoupled modes is large. This is directly attributed to the strong overlap between the fields of the uncoupled DR and cavity modes. In most cases, this improves the signal to noise ratio of the spectrometer. When the DR and the cavity have the same frequency, the coupled electromagnetic fields are found to contain equal contributions from the fields of the two uncoupled modes. This situation is ideal for the excitation of the probe through an iris on the cavity wall. To verify and validate the results, finite element simulations are carried out. This is achieved by simulating the coupling between a cylindrical cavity's TE011 and the dielectric insert's TE01δ modes. Coupling between the modes of higher order is also investigated and discussed. Based on CMT, closed form expressions for the fields of the coupled system are proposed. These expressions are crucial in the analysis of the probe's performance. PMID:24246950

  5. Analysis of thickness modes of contoured doubly rotated, quartz resonators.

    PubMed

    EerNisse, E P

    2001-09-01

    It is the intent of this work to provide a working resource for calculating all three mode families of a doubly rotated, contoured quartz resonator. It is shown that the theoretical development of Stevens and Tiersten [1] can be used for this purpose. Their approach uses a transformation of the mechanical displacement vector to the eigenvector triad of the pure thickness solution. The solution methodology here reorganizes the transformation matrix Q in their formulation to calculate the other two mode families. Calculations compare well with experimental results for the three mode families of an SC-cut crystal and an FC-cut crystal and with published calculations for the SBTC-cut mode family with major displacement along the x3 blank axis. The key constants for the SC-cut are presented for workers to use in the future. In addition, the equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived for the two additional mode families using assumptions parallel to those used by Stevens and Tiersten [1]. Calculations with these equations are presented for completeness to support the present conclusions by showing the equivalence of either simply reorganizing the Q matrix or using separate equations for each of the three mode families. PMID:11570760

  6. Design and evaluation of a 1.1-GHz surface coil resonator for electron paramagnetic resonance-based tooth dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hirotaka; Hirata, Hiroshi; Petryakov, Sergey; Lesniewski, Piotr; Williams, Benjamin B; Flood, Ann Barry; Swartz, Harold M

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes an optimized design of a surface coil resonator for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based tooth dosimetry. Using the optimized resonator, dose estimates with the standard error of the mean of approximately 0.5 Gy were achieved with irradiated human teeth. The product of the quality factor and the filling factor of the resonator was computed as an index of relative signal intensity in EPR tooth dosimetry by the use of 3-D electromagnetic wave simulator and radio frequency circuit design environment (ANSYS HFSS and Designer). To verify the simulated results of the signal intensity in our numerical model of the resonator and a tooth sample, we experimentally measured the radiation-induced signals from an irradiated tooth with an optimally designed resonator. In addition to the optimization of the resonator design, we demonstrated the improvement of the stability of EPR spectra by decontamination of the surface coil resonator using an HCl solution, confirming that contamination of small magnetic particles on the silver wire of the surface coil had degraded the stability of the EPR spectral baseline. PMID:24845300

  7. 2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Meng; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Xu-Wu; Luo, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuang-Chun; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2013-12-15

    We report on the generation of passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (TI) Bi(2)Te(3) saturable absorber (SA). The optical deposition method was employed to fabricate the microfiber-based TISA. By virtue of the excellent nonlinear optical property of the proposed TISA, the fiber laser could operate at the pulse repetition rate of 2.04 GHz under a pump power of 126 mW, corresponding to the 418th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results demonstrate that the microfiber-based TI photonic device can operate as both the high nonlinear optical component and the SA in fiber lasers, and could also find other applications in the related fields of photonics. PMID:24322220

  8. High-power self-similar amplification seeded by a 1 GHz harmonically mode-locked Yb-fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Daping; Li, Wenxue; Liu, Yang; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenchao; Zeng, Heping

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate 1 GHz, 75 W, 65 fs pulse generation through chirped-pulse and self-similar amplification of a second-harmonic mode-locked Yb fiber oscillator. To confirm the experimental results of a chirped-pulse pre-amplifier, a theoretically calculative model is designed to simulate gain narrowing in the amplification. Specifically, the Kelly sidebands generated by a seed laser experience similar evolution under both conditions. The grism-based self-similar amplifier together with a high-efficiency grating compressor contribute to high-power ultrashort pulses whose spectra are efficiently broadened to a maximum 10 dB bandwidth of 56 nm with a center wavelength of 1032.2 nm owing to self-phase modulation in a gain fiber.

  9. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-08-18

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  10. Investigations of 2.9-GHz Resonant Microwave-Sensitive Ag/MgO/Ge/Ag Tunneling Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasrawi, A. F.; Khanfar, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a resonant microwave-sensitive tunneling diode has been designed and investigated. The device, which is composed of a magnesium oxide (MgO) layer on an amorphous germanium (Ge) thin film, was characterized by means of temperature-dependent current ( I)-voltage ( V), room-temperature differential resistance ( R)-voltage, and capacitance ( C)-voltage characteristics. The device resonating signal was also tested and evaluated at 2.9 GHz. The I- V curves reflected weak temperature dependence and a wide tunneling region with peak-to-valley current ratio of ˜1.1. The negative differential resistance region shifts toward lower biasing voltages as temperature increases. The true operational limit of the device was determined as 350 K. A novel response of the measured R- V and C- V to the incident alternating-current (ac) signal was observed at 300 K. Particularly, the response to a 100-MHz signal power ranging from the standard Bluetooth limit to the maximum output power of third-generation mobile phones reflects a wide range of tunability with discrete switching property at particular power limits. In addition, when the tunnel device was implanted as an amplifier for a 2.90-GHz resonating signal of the power of wireless local-area network (LAN) levels, signal gain of 80% with signal quality factor of 4.6 × 104 was registered. These remarkable properties make devices based on MgO-Ge interfaces suitable as electronic circuit elements for microwave applications, bias- and time-dependent electronic switches, and central processing unit (CPU) clocks.

  11. Improved signal-to-noise ratio of 10 GHz microwave signals generated with a mode-filtered femtosecond laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Diddams, S A; Kirchner, M; Fortier, T; Braje, D; Weiner, A M; Hollberg, L

    2009-03-01

    We use a Fabry-Perot cavity to optically filter the output of a Ti:sapphire frequency comb to integer multiples of the original 1 GHz mode spacing. This effectively increases the pulse repetition rate, which is useful for several applications. In the case of low-noise microwave signal generation, such filtering leads to improved linearity of the high-speed photodiodes that detect the mode-locked laser pulse train. The result is significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio at the 10 GHz harmonic with the potential for a shot-noise limited single sideband phase noise floor near -168 dBc/Hz. PMID:19259170

  12. Multi-frequency modes in superconducting resonators: Bridging frequency gaps in off-resonant couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Mølmer, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    A SQUID inserted in a superconducting waveguide resonator imposes current and voltage boundary conditions that makes it suitable as a tuning element for the resonator modes. If such a SQUID element is subject to a periodically varying magnetic flux, the resonator modes acquire frequency side bands. We calculate the multi-frequency eigenmodes and these can couple resonantly to physical systems with different transition frequencies and this makes the resonator an efficient quantum bus for state transfer and coherent quantum operations in hybrid quantum systems. As an example of the application, we determine their coupling to transmon qubits with different frequencies and we present a bi-chromatic scheme for entanglement and gate operations. In this calculation, we obtain a maximally entangled state with a fidelity F = 95 % . Our proposal is competitive with the achievements of other entanglement-gates with superconducting devices and it may offer some advantages: (i) There is no need for additional control lines and dephasing associated with the conventional frequency tuning of qubits. (ii) When our qubits are idle, they are far detuned with respect to each other and to the resonator, and hence they are immune to cross talk and Purcell-enhanced decay.

  13. Optical whispering-gallery mode resonators for applications in optical communication and frequency control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Karen Esther

    High quality factor (Q) optical whispering gallery mode resonators are a key component in many on-chip optical systems, such as delay lines, modulators, and add-drop filters. They are also a convenient, compact structure for studying optomechanical interactions on-chip. In all these applications, optical Q is an important factor for high performance. For optomechanical reference oscillators in particular, high mechanical Q is also necessary. Previously, optical microresonators have been made in a wide variety of materials, but it has proven challenging to demonstrate high optical Q and high mechanical Q in a single, integrated device. This work demonstrates a new technique for achieving high optical Q on chip, a fully-integrated tunable filter with ultra-narrow minimum bandwidth, and the effect of material choice and device design on optical Q, mechanical Q and phase noise in microring optomechanical oscillators. To achieve a high optical Q, phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is studied as a resonator material. The low melting point of PSG enables wafer-scale reflow, which reduces sidewall roughness without significantly changing lithographically-defined dimensions. With this process, optical Qs up to 1.5 x 10. 7 are achieved, overten times higher than typical silicon optical resonators. These high-Q PSG resonators are then integrated with MEMS-actuated waveguides in a tunable-bandwidth filter. Due to the high Q of the PSG resonator, this device has a best-to-date minimum bandwidth of 0.8 GHz, with a tuning range of 0.8 to 8.5GHz. Finally, microring optomechanical oscillators (OMOs) in PSG, stoichiometric silicon nitride, and silicon are fabricated, and their performance is compared after characterization via a tapered optical fiber in vacuum. The silicon nitride device has the best performance, with a mechanical Q of more than 1 x 10. 4and record-breaking OMO phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz at a 1 kHz offset from a 72 MHz carrier.

  14. Resonator modes and mode dynamics for an external cavity-coupled laser array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Niketh; Bochove, Erik J.; Aceves, Alejandro B.; Zunoubi, Mohammad R.; Braiman, Yehuda

    2015-03-01

    Employing a Fox-Li approach, we derived the cold-cavity mode structure and a coupled mode theory for a phased array of N single-transverse-mode active waveguides with feedback from an external cavity. We applied the analysis to a system with arbitrary laser lengths, external cavity design and coupling strengths to the external cavity. The entire system was treated as a single resonator. The effect of the external cavity was modeled by a set of boundary conditions expressed by an N-by-N frequency-dependent matrix relation between incident and reflected fields at the interface with the external cavity. The coupled mode theory can be adapted to various types of gain media and internal and external cavity designs.

  15. Development of a high-temperature oven for the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, J. Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Ozeki, K.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    We have been developing the 28 GHz ECR ion source in order to accelerate high-intensity uranium beams at the RIKEN RI-beam Factory. Although we have generated U{sup 35+} beams by the sputtering method thus far, we began developing a high-temperature oven with the aim of increasing and stabilizing the beams. Because the oven method uses UO{sub 2}, a crucible must be heated to a temperature higher than 2000 °C to supply an appropriate amount of UO{sub 2} vapor to the ECR plasma. Our high-temperature oven uses a tungsten crucible joule-heated with DC current of approximately 450 A. Its inside dimensions are ϕ11 mm × 13.5 mm. Since the crucible is placed in a magnetic field of approximately 3 T, it is subject to a magnetic force of approximately 40 N. Therefore, we used ANSYS to carefully design the crucible, which was manufactured by machining a tungsten rod. We could raise the oven up to 1900 °C in the first off-line test. Subsequently, UO{sub 2} was loaded into the crucible, and the oven was installed in the 28 GHz ECR ion source and was tested. As a result, a U{sup 35+} beam current of 150 μA was extracted successfully at a RF power of approximately 3 kW.

  16. Selective mode coupling in microring resonators for single mode semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabi, Amir

    Single mode semiconductor laser diodes have many applications in optical communications, metrology and sensing. Edge-emitting single mode lasers commonly use distributed feedback structures, or narrowband reflectors such as distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and sampled grating distributed Bragg reflectors (SGDBRs). Compact, narrowband reflectors with high reflectivities are of interest to replace the commonly used DBRs and SGDBRs. This thesis presents our work on the simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization of devices operating based on the coupling of degenerate modes of a microring resonator, and investigation of the possibility of using them for improving the performance of laser diodes. In particular, we demonstrate a new type of compact, narrowband, on-chip reflector realized by selectively coupling degenerate modes of a microring resonator. For the simulation and design of reflective microring resonators, a fast and accurate analysis method is required. Conventional numerical methods for solving Maxwell's equations such as the finite difference time domain and the finite element method (FEM) provide accurate results but are computationally intense and are not suitable for the design of large 3D structures. We formulated a set of coupled mode equations that, combined with 2D FEM simulations, can provide a fast and accurate tool for the modeling and design of reflective microrings. We developed fabrication processing recipes and fabricated passive reflective microrings on silicon substrates with a silicon nitride core and silicon dioxide cladding. Narrowband single wavelength reflectors were realized which are 70 times smaller than a conventional DBR with the same bandwidth. Compared to the conventional DBR, they have faster roll-off, and no side modes. The smaller footprint saves real estate, reduces tuning power and makes these devices attractive as in-line mirrors for low threshold narrow linewidth laser diodes. Self-heating caused by material

  17. DWDM channel spacing tunable optical TDM carrier from a mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode based fiber ring.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guo-Hsuan; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2008-08-18

    A novel optical TDM pulsed carrier with tunable mode spacing matching the ITU-T defined DWDM channels is demonstrated, which is generated from an optically injection-mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) with 10%-end-facet reflectivity. The FPLD exhibits relatively weak cavity modes and a gain spectral linewidth covering >33.5 nm. The least common multiple of the mode spacing determined by both the weak-resonant-cavity FPLD and the fiber-ring cavity can be tunable by adjusting length of the fiber ring cavity or the FPLD temperature to approach the desired 200GHz DWDM channel spacing of 1.6 nm. At a specific fiber-ring cavity length, such a least-common- multiple selection rule results in 12 lasing modes between 1532 and 1545 nm naturally and a mode-locking pulsewidth of 19 ps broadened by group velocity dispersion among different modes. With an additional intracavity bandpass filter, the operating wavelength can further extend from 1520 to 1553.5 nm. After channel filtering, each selected longitudinal mode gives rise to a shortened pulsewidth of 12 ps due to the reduced group velocity dispersion. By linear dispersion compensating with a 55-m long dispersion compensation fiber (DCF), the pulsewidth can be further compressed to 8 ps with its corresponding peak-to-peak chirp reducing from 9.7 to 4.3 GHz. PMID:18711579

  18. A temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with a microwave temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator whose dielectric medium is a cylindrical sapphire crystal. The performance as temperature sensor were investigated a three WGMs resonant frequencies over the temperature range from -40 °C to 85 °C. It was found that the quality factor for these WGMs can be in excess of 1.7ṡ105, potentially enabling high-resolution measurements. The temperature repeatability, stability, hysteresis, frequency-vs-temperature sensitivity of the WGM temperature sensor are reported. Moreover, two sapphires, which have the same nominal characteristics, were investigated in order to assess the system reproducibility and the results reported.

  19. Structured interfaces for flexural waves - trapped modes and transmission resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, S. G.; McPhedran, R. C.; Movchan, N. V.; Movchan, A. B.

    2013-07-01

    The article combines the analytical models of scattering and Bloch waves for a stack of periodic gratings in an infinite elastic plate. The waves represent flexural deflections of the plate governed by a fourth-order partial differential equation. The emphasis is on the analysis of trapped modes and transmission resonances for different configurations of the grating stack and physical parameters of the flexural waves. Special attention is given to the phenomenon of Elasto-Dynamically Inhibited Transmission (EDIT). The analytical model is supplemented with comprehensive numerical examples.

  20. Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Jalal; Khaleque, Tanzina; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate efficient guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters. The devices consist of subwavelength gratings that are partially etched into a thin silicon-nitride film deposited on a glass substrate. Two color filters with grating periods of 300 nm and 370 nm are designed and fabricated. The 300-nm device exhibits green and blue colors and the 370-nm device generates red and yellow colors for TE and TM polarization, respectively. The pixels have a spectral bandwidth of ~12 nm with efficiencies exceeding 90% for TE polarization and 80% for TM polarization. The devices may find application in displays, image sensors, and biomedical imaging technologies. PMID:24921349

  1. Method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Matkso, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) is provided. The WGMR can be fabricated from a particular material, annealed, and then polished. The WGMR can be repeatedly annealed and then polished. The repeated polishing of the WGMR can be carried out using an abrasive slurry. The abrasive slurry can have a predetermined, constant grain size. Each subsequent polishing of the WGMR can use an abrasive slurry having a grain size that is smaller than the grain size of the abrasive slurry of the previous polishing iteration.

  2. Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fuchuan; Peng, Bo; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya Yang, Lan; Long, Gui Lu

    2014-09-08

    We report Fano-like asymmetric resonances modulated by optical gain in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated from erbium-doped silica. A time-dependent gain profile leads to dynamically varying sharp asymmetric resonances with features similar to Fano resonances. Depending on the scan speed of the frequency of the probe laser and the pump-probe power ratio, transmission spectra of the active microcavity exhibit a resonance dip, a resonance peak, or a Fano-like resonance.

  3. A circuit model for the hybrid resonance modes of paired SRR metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Poo, Yin; Wu, Rui-xin; Liu, Min; Wang, Ling

    2014-01-27

    To better understand the resonance modes caused by the interelement couplings in the building block of metamaterials, we propose a circuit model for the hybrid resonance modes of paired split ring resonators. The model identifies the electromagnetic coupling between the paired rings by electric and magnetic coupling networks and well explains the variation of hybrid resonance modes with respect to the distance and the twist angle between the rings. The predictions of our model are further proved by experiments. PMID:24515201

  4. Protein-modified shear mode film bulk acoustic resonator for bio-sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Weihui; Xu, Yan; Chen, Da; Li, Dehua; Zhang, Luyin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a shear mode film bulk acoustic biosensor based on micro-electromechanical technology. The film bulk acoustic biosensor is a diaphragmatic structure consisting of a lateral field excited ZnO piezoelectric film piezoelectric stack built on an Si3N4 membrane. The device works at near 1.6 GHz with Q factors of 579 in water and 428 in glycerol. A frequency shift of 5.4 MHz and a small decline in the amplitude are found for the measurements in glycerol compared with those in water because of the viscous damping derived from the adjacent glycerol. For bio-sensing demonstration, the resonator was modified with biotin molecule to detect protein-ligand interactions in real-time and in situ. The resonant frequency of the biotin-modified device drops rapidly and gradually reaches equilibrium when exposed to the streptavidin solution due to the biotin-streptavidin interaction. The proposed film bulk acoustic biosensor shows promising applications for disease diagnostics, prognosis, and drug discovery.

  5. Supermode suppression to below -130 dBc/Hz in a 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked external sigma cavity semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Tolga; Depriest, C; Delfyett, P; Etemad, S; Braun, A; Abeles, J

    2003-05-01

    We demonstrate supermode suppression to levels below -125 dBc/Hz and -132 dBc/Hz using Fabry-Perot etalons with finesse values of 180 and 650, respectively, for a 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked external sigma cavity semiconductor laser. The laser was hybridly mode-locked using direct electrical modulation in a compact package without the need for an external modulator. PMID:19465973

  6. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-11-15

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2–4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be −23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is −105 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 kHz offset and −150 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10{sup −9} at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10{sup −11} τ{sup −1/2} up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.

  7. Ultrasonic resonant modes of piezoelectric balloons under internal pressure.

    PubMed

    Denham, Lori Vidal; Rice, David A

    2012-09-01

    Properties of a piezoelectric polymeric angioplasty balloon that may decrease the problems of acute closure and restenosis are evaluated in this study. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), a piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymer, has sufficient strength to serve as a standard angioplasty balloon as well as functioning as an ultrasonic transmitter and/or receiver. These properties enable potential therapeutic applications using ultrasound such as plaque ablation and sonotherapy as well as vulnerable plaque diagnosis using thermography. This study investigates the resonant structure of the PVDF balloon catheter in the frequency range 5-100 kHz. Vibrations of the piezoelectric balloon are modeled using cylindrical shell theory and compared with the observed modal frequencies of PVDF cylinders with and without internal pressure. Modal frequencies are determined by measuring the near-field pressure response of the PVDF cylinders using a high frequency microphone. A rich nodal structure is observed between 5 and 100 kHz with peak relative amplitudes measured between 42 and 45 kHz. Higher order modes for cylinders with 9 μm and 28 μm wall thickness increase in frequency as the internal pressure is increased. Experimental measurements confirm theoretical models that predict both pressure-dependent and pressure-independent resonant frequencies. Frequencies of pressure-dependent modes are calculated within 2.2% of measured values at high pressure. PMID:22978865

  8. Reservoir Engineering of Two-mode Correlations in Mechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Laura; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Chakram, Srivatsan; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear mechanical interactions in the quantum limit enable the manipulation and control of phonons in a manner akin to quantum optics in nonlinear media. We demonstrate, for the first time, strong quantum-compatible multimode nonlinearities in a low-loss mechanical resonator that is amenable to ground state optomechanical cooling, room temperature quantum control and quantum limited detection. These nonlinearities arise from substrate-mediated interactions between distinct modes of the resonator. We develop a model for this nonlinearity that accurately describes the experimental observations over three orders of magnitude in dynamic range, demonstrating the robustness and fidelity of the engineered nonlinear interactions. We use this nonlinearity to realize a mechanical nondegenerate parametric amplifier, and use it to demonstrate two-mode thermomechanical noise squeezing. Our work opens new opportunities for nonlinear approaches to quantum metrology, transduction between optical and phononic fields, and the quantum manipulation of phononic degrees of freedom. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from the ARO and an NSF INSPIRE award.

  9. Cancellation of environmental effects in resonant mass sensors based on resonance mode and effective mass

    SciTech Connect

    Naeli, Kianoush; Brand, Oliver

    2009-06-15

    A novel technique is developed to cancel the effect of environmental parameters, e.g., temperature and humidity, in resonant mass sensing. Utilizing a single resonator, the environmental cancellation is achieved by monitoring a pair of resonant overtones and the effective sensed mass in those overtones. As an eminent advantage, especially compared to dual-mode temperature compensation techniques, the presented technique eliminates any need for previously measured look-up tables or fitting the measurement data. We show that a resonant cantilever beam is an appropriate platform for applying this technique, and derive an analytical expression to relate the actual and effective sensed masses on a cantilever beam. Thereby, it is shown that in applying the presented technique successfully, the effective sensed masses must not be the same in the investigated pair of resonance overtones. To prove the feasibility of the proposed technique, flexural resonance frequencies of a silicon cantilever are measured before and after loading with a strip of photoresist. Applying the presented technique shows significant reductions in influence of environmental parameters, with the temperature and humidity coefficients of frequency being improved from -19.5 to 0.2 ppm deg. C{sup -1} and from 0.7 to -0.03 ppm %RH{sup -1}, respectively.

  10. Upgrade Of The TH1506B 118 GHz Gyrotron Using Modeing Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Darbos, C.; Bouquey, F.; Lambert, R.; Magne, R.; Traisnel, E.; Prinz, H. O.; Thumm, M.; Hogge, J. P.; Lievin, C.

    2007-09-28

    The first TH1506B prototype showing problems of overheating and spurious oscillations, a new modified gyrotron was built. During the tests, the extwo peaks, which was never predicted by simulations. Various low evel tests were performed on the mode converter with different shapes for the launcher but without real improvement. Besides measurements, the use of a new software Surf3D[l] showed that the problem mainly comes from the 3rd mirror whose curvature is too high and not well taken nto account by the calculation. This analysis software is based on ntegral equations and the complete 3D modelling alowed to determine a new profile for the 3rd mirror. An aluminium model of a new mirror was manufactured and thorough low level tests made at FZK showed that there was no double peak.The next step would consist in building a gyrotron based on this new design, to confirm the simulation and to valdate it for long pulses.

  11. Raman-assisted Rabi resonances in two-mode cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenwald, P.; Singh, S. K.; Vogel, W.

    2011-06-15

    The dynamics of a vibronic system in a lossy two-mode cavity is studied, with the first mode being resonant to the electronic transition and the second one being nearly resonant due to Raman transitions. We derive analytical solutions for the dynamics of this system. For a properly chosen detuning of the second mode from the exact Raman resonance, we obtain conditions that are closely related to the phenomenon of Rabi resonance as it is well known in laser physics. Such resonances can be observed in the spontaneous emission spectra, where the spectrum of the second mode in the case of weak Raman coupling is enhanced substantially.

  12. A SETI Search of Nearby Solar-Type Stars at the 203-GHz Positronium Hyperfine Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.; DeBoer, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of advanced millimeter-wave technology has made it possible to construct low-noise receivers and high-power transmitters comparable to those available at much lower frequencies. This technology, plus certain physical characteristics of the millimeter-wave spectrum, suggests possible advantages for use of this wavelength range for interstellar communications. As a result, a Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence(SETI) type search has been conducted for narrow-bandwidth signals at frequencies near the positronium hyperfine spectral line (203.385 GHz), a potential natural reference frequency. A total of 40 solar-type stars within 23 parsecs were observed, in addition to three locations near the galactic center. No detections were made at the detection threshold of 2.3 x 10(exp -19) W/sq m in each of two orthogonal linear polarizations Future observations will be made with a higher resolution Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyzer (FFTSA), which should improve sensitivity by an order of magnitude and reduce required observing time.

  13. Cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode resonance band-stop reflector.

    PubMed

    Ura, Shogo; Nakata, Masahiro; Yanagida, Kenichi; Inoue, Junichi; Kintaka, Kenji

    2016-06-27

    A cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode resonance filter (CRIGF) consists of a grating coupler inside a pair of distributed Bragg reflectors. A combination of a CRIGF with a high-reflection substrate can provide a new type of a band-stop reflector with a small aperture for a vertically incident wave from air. A narrow stopband was theoretically predicted and experimentally demonstrated. It was quantitatively shown that reflection spectra depended on optical-buffer-layer thickness. The reflector of 10-μm aperture was fabricated and characterized. The extinction ratio in reflectance was measured to be lower than -20 dB at a resonance wavelength. The bandwidth at -3 dB was 0.15 nm. PMID:27410663

  14. Backscattering analysis in optical micro-resonators with mode splitting based on COMSOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaohua; Huo, Jiayan; Yang, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Rayleigh backscattering noise, which is one of the reasons that limit the sensitivity, has been deemed as noise in traditional resonant optic gyroscopes. However Rayleigh backscattering noise is one of the incentives of mode splitting phenomenon in high-Q resonators. Regarding the change of the resonance frequency of the resonator caused by the scattering signal as a measurement, we can use mode splitting to measure temperature, size of nanoparticle, etc. Light is confined by total internal reflection in whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators, which is characterized by high-Q factors and small mode volumes. With regards to this, we propose a sensing mechanism based on mode splitting in high-Q WGM optical resonators. It is possible for us to measure the angular velocity of carrier according to the changes in the resonant frequencies of the two splitting modes. We propose the Miniature resonant optic gyroscope based on mode splitting (MROG-MS) with WGM resonators in the paper. Considering the Sagnac effect, mode splitting in high quality optical micro-resonators, and the rotation-induced impact on backscattering process, we modify the equations of motion that describe mode splitting, derive the explicit expression of angular rate versus the splitting amount, and verify the sensing mechanism by the simulation based on COMSOL. Furthermore, after monitoring the transmission spectra at different number of scattering particles, the simulation shows that mode splitting phenomenon resulted by single particle is more suitable for angular velocity measurement.

  15. Mode-coupling mechanisms of resonant transmission filters.

    PubMed

    Niraula, Manoj; Yoon, Jae Woong; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-10-20

    We study theoretically modal properties and parametric dependence of guided-mode resonance bandpass filters operating in the mid- and near-infrared spectral domains. We investigate three different device architectures consisting of single, double, and triple layers based on all-transparent dielectric and semiconductor thin films. The three device classes show high-performance bandpass filter profiles with broad, flat low-transmission sidebands accommodating sharp transmission peaks with their efficiencies approaching 100% with appropriate blending of multiple guided modes. We present three modal coupling configurations forming complex mixtures of two or three distinct leaky modes coupling at different evanescent diffraction orders. These modal compositions produce various widths of sidebands ranging from ~30 nm to ~2100 nm and transmission peak-linewidths ranging from ~1 pm to ~10 nm. Our modal analysis demonstrates key attributes of subwavelength periodic thin-film structures in multiple-modal blending to achieve desired transmission spectra. The design principle is applicable to various optical elements such as high-power optical filters, low-noise label-free biochemical sensor templates, and high-density display pixels. PMID:25401615

  16. Vibrational modes of ultrathin carbon nanomembrane mechanical resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianghui E-mail: elke.scheer@uni-konstanz.de; Angelova, Polina; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Waitz, Reimar; Yang, Fan; Lutz, Carolin; Scheer, Elke E-mail: elke.scheer@uni-konstanz.de

    2015-02-09

    We report measurements of vibrational mode shapes of mechanical resonators made from ultrathin carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) with a thickness of approximately 1 nm. CNMs are prepared from electron irradiation induced cross-linking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers and the variation of membrane thickness and/or density can be achieved by varying the precursor molecule. Single- and triple-layer freestanding CNMs were made by transferring them onto Si substrates with square/rectangular orifices. The vibration of the membrane was actuated by applying a sinusoidal voltage to a piezoelectric disk on which the sample was glued. The vibrational mode shapes were visualized with an imaging Mirau interferometer using a stroboscopic light source. Several mode shapes of a square membrane can be readily identified and their dynamic behavior can be well described by linear response theory of a membrane with negligible bending rigidity. By applying Fourier transformations to the time-dependent surface profiles, the dispersion relation of the transverse membrane waves can be obtained and its linear behavior verifies the membrane model. By comparing the dispersion relation to an analytical model, the static stress of the membranes was determined and found to be caused by the fabrication process.

  17. Narrowband Mid-infrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Anil K.; Schulmerich, Matthew; Ip, Jason; Yen, Gary; Cunningham, Brian T.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to develop mid-infrared (IR) spectrometers for applications in which the absorbance of only a few vibrational mode (optical) frequencies needs to be recorded; unfortunately, there are limited alternatives for the same. The key requirement is the development of a means to access discretely a small set of spectral positions from the wideband thermal sources commonly used for spectroscopy. We present here the theory, design and practical realization of a new class of filters in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral regions based on using guided mode resonances (GMR) for narrowband optical reflection. A simple, periodic surface-relief configuration is chosen to enable both a spectral response and facile fabrication. A theoretical model based on rigorous coupled wave analysis is developed, incorporating anomalous dispersion of filter materials in the mid-IR spectral region. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a set of four filters for a spectral region around the C-H stretching mode (2600–3000 cm−1) are fabricated and responses compared to theory. The reflectance spectra were well-predicted by the developed theory and results were found to be sensitive to the angle of incidence and dispersion characteristics of the material. In summary, the work reported here forms the basis for a rational design of filters that can prove useful for IR absorption spectroscopy. PMID:20527738

  18. Guided mode resonance enabled ultra-compact Germanium photodetector for 1.55 μm detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Alexander Yutong; Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2014-02-10

    We propose a novel technique of enhancing the photodetection capabilities of ultrathin Ge films for normally incident light at 1.55 μm through the guided mode resonance (GMR) phenomenon. Specifically, by suitably patterning the surface of a Ge thin film, it is possible to excite guided modes which are subsequently coupled to free space radiative modes, resulting in spectral resonances that possess locally enhanced near fields with a large spatial extent. Absorption is found to be enhanced by over an order of magnitude over a pristine Ge film of equal thickness. Furthermore, attenuation of incident light for such a structure occurs over very few grating periods, resulting in significantly enhanced theoretical 3 dB bandwidth-efficiency products of ~58 GHz. The nature of the enhancement mechanism also produces spectrally narrow resonances (FWHM ~30 nm) that are polarization sensitive and exhibit excellent angular tolerance. Finally, the proposed device architecture is fully compatible with existing Si infrastructure and current CMOS fabrication processes. PMID:24663517

  19. Improving the frequency stability of microwave oscillators by utilizing the dual-mode sapphire-loaded cavity resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, Michael E.; Ivanov, Eugene N.; Locke, Clayton R.; Hartnett, John G.; Cros, Dominique

    2002-08-01

    The design and experimental testing of a novel control circuit to stabilize the temperature of a sapphire-loaded cavity whispering gallery resonator-oscillator and improve its medium-term frequency stability is presented. Finite-element software was used to predict frequencies and quality factors of WGE7,0,0 and the WGH9,0,0 modes near 9 GHz, and separated in frequency by approximately 80 MHz. Calculations show that the novel temperature control circuits from the difference frequency can result in a frequency stability of better than one part in 1013 at 270 K. Also, we present details on the best way to couple orthogonally to two modes of similar frequency but different polarization.

  20. Development of a new superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for operations up to 18 GHz at LBNL.

    PubMed

    Xie, D Z; Benitez, J Y; Caspi, S; Hodgkinson, A; Lyneis, C M; Phair, L W; Prestemon, S O; Strohmeier, M M; Thuillier, T P; Todd, D S

    2014-02-01

    A new superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) is under development at LBNL to harness the winding techniques of a closed-loop sextupole coil for the next generation ECRIS and to enhance the capability of the 88-in. cyclotron facility. The proposed ECRIS will use a superconducting closed-loop sextupole coil to produce the radial field and a substantial portion of the axial field. The field strengths of the injection, central and extraction regions are adjusted by a three solenoids outside the closed-loop sextupole coil. In addition to maintaining the typical ECRIS magnetic field configuration, this new source will also be able to produce a dustpan-like minimum-B field to explore possible ECRIS performance enhancement. The dustpan-like minimum-B field configuration has about the same strengths for the maximum axial field at the injection region and the maximum radial pole fields at the plasma chamber walls but it can be substantially lower at the extraction region. The dustpan-like minimum-B will have a field maximum Bmax ≥ 2.6 T for operations up to 18 GHz with a ratio of Bmax/Bres ≥ 4 and higher ratios for lower frequencies. The field maxima of this new source can reach over 3 T both at the injection and the plasma chamber walls which could also support operation at 28 GHz. The source will be built of cryogen-free with the magnets directly cooled by cryo-coolers to simplify the cryostat structure. The source design features will be presented and discussed. PMID:24593501

  1. Edge localized mode control with an edge resonant magnetic perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, R.A.; Boedo, J.A.; Rudakov, D.L.; Evans, T.E.; Osborne, T.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Jackson, G.L.; La Haye, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Schaffer, M.J.; Snyder, P.B.; West, W.P.; Thomas, P.R.; Becoulet, M.; Harris, J.; Finken, K.-H.; Doyle, E.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Wang, G.

    2005-05-15

    A low amplitude ({delta}b{sub r}/B{sub T}=1 part in 5000) edge resonant magnetic field perturbation with toroidal mode number n=3 and poloidal mode numbers between 8 and 15 has been used to suppress most large type I edge localized modes (ELMs) without degrading core plasma confinement. ELMs have been suppressed for periods of up to 8.6 energy confinement times when the edge safety factor q{sub 95} is between 3.5 and 4. The large ELMs are replaced by packets of events (possibly type II ELMs) with small amplitude, narrow radial extent, and a higher level of magnetic field and density fluctuations, creating a duty cycle with long 'active' intervals of high transport and short 'quiet' intervals of low transport. The increased transport associated with these events is less impulsive and slows the recovery of the pedestal profiles to the values reached just before the large ELMs without the n=3 perturbation. Changing the toroidal phase of the perturbation by 60 deg. with respect to the best ELM suppression case reduces the ELM amplitude and frequency by factors of 2-3 in the divertor, produces a more stochastic response in the H-mode pedestal profiles, and displays similar increases in small scale events, although significant numbers of large ELMs survive. In contrast to the best ELM suppression case where the type I ELMs are also suppressed on the outboard midplane, the midplane recycling increases until individual ELMs are no longer discernable. The ELM response depends on the toroidal phase of the applied perturbation because intrinsic error fields make the target plasma nonaxisymmetric, and suggests that at least some of the variation in ELM behavior in a single device or among different devices is due to differences in the intrinsic error fields in these devices. These results indicate that ELMs can be suppressed by small edge resonant magnetic field perturbations. Extrapolation to next-step burning plasma devices will require extending the regime of operation to

  2. Tunable Optical Filters Having Electro-optic Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable optical filters using whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are described. The WGM optical resonator in a filter exhibits an electro-optical effect and hence is tunable by applying a control electrical signal.

  3. Dispersion analysis of whispering gallery mode microbubble resonators.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Nicolas; Zhang, Wen Qi; Monro, Tanya M

    2016-04-18

    This paper examines the opportunities existing for engineering dispersion in non-silica whispering gallery mode microbubble resonators, for applications such as optical frequency comb generation. More specifically, the zero dispersion wavelength is analyzed as a function of microbubble diameter and wall thickness for several different material groups such as highly-nonlinear soft glasses, polymers and crystalline materials. The zero dispersion wavelength is shown to be highly-tunable by changing the thickness of the shell. Using certain materials it is shown that dispersion equalization can be realized at interesting wavelengths such as deep within the visible or mid-infrared, opening up new possibilities for optical frequency comb generation. This study represents the first extensive analysis of the prospects of using non-silica microbubbles for nonlinear optics. PMID:27137317

  4. Celiac disease biodetection using lossy-mode resonances generated in tapered single-mode optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, A. B.; Corres, J. M.; Del Villar, I.; Matias, I. R.; Arregui, F. J.

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the development and test of an anti-gliadin antibodies biosensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMRs) to detect celiac disease. Several polyelectrolites were used to perform layer-by-layer assembly processes in order to generate the LMR and to fabricate a gliadin-embedded thin-film. The LMR shifted 20 nm when immersed in a 5 ppm anti-gliadin antibodies-PBS solution, what makes this bioprobe suitable for detecting celiac disease. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that LMRs are used to detect celiac disease and these results suppose promising prospects on the use of such phenomena as biological detectors.

  5. Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Matsko, Andrey B; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-30

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering with both pump and Stokes beams in resonance with whispering gallery modes of an ultrahigh Q calcium fluoride resonator is demonstrated for the first time. The resonator is pumped with 1064 nm light and has 3 muW Brillouin lasing threshold. The scattering is observed due to the unique morphology of the resonator reducing the phase mismatch between the optical modes and the hypersound wave. PMID:19257418

  6. Recondensation performance of liquid helium cryostat for a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Park, Jin Yong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2014-02-01

    Cryostat performance is essential for the stable operation of a superconducting magnet. A closed-cycle liquid helium cryostat was adopted for use for a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source by recondensing liquid helium vapor. The goal was to maintain the liquid helium filled reservoir at a constant level without transferring any liquid helium during the normal operation of the ECR ion source. To accomplish this, Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerators, which have two cold heads, were installed on the top of the cryostat. The cooling power of the GM cryocooler is 1.5 W at the second stage and 50 W at the first stage. Each stage was connected to the liquid helium reservoir, a radiation shield including high-Tc current lead, and related items. Before commissioning the ECR ion source, a preliminary evaluation of the recondensation performance was carried out with the magnet in partial operation. The design of the cryostat, its fabrication, and the experimental results are reported.

  7. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of soft magnetic Nd2Co17 micron flakes fractured along c crystal plane with natural resonance frequency exceeding 10 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongbo; Wang, Peng; Ma, Tianyong; Wang, Ying; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Planar anisotropy Nd2Co17 flakes fractured along c crystal plane were fabricated by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling technique. The magnetic flakes have a diameter range of 5-20 μm and a typical thickness of approximately 120 nm. The frequency dependence of complex permeability of Nd2Co17 epoxy resin composite has been investigated in the frequency range of 0.1-18 GHz. The measurement results show that the natural resonance frequency reaches 12.5 GHz while the initial permeability survives up to 2.26. The superior high frequency properties come from the large out-of-plane anisotropy field and the flake structure fractured along the c crystal plane of Nd2Co17. The planar anisotropic Nd2Co17 flakes have significant potential applications in the high-frequency devices working in the frequency beyond 10 GHz.

  8. Experimental demonstration of brighter sodium resonant scattering with 1.7 GHz sideband repumping for long pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lihang; Zhang, Shaopeng; Hua, Weihong; Wang, Hongyan; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun

    2014-08-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) based on artificial beacons is the key to achieve high resolution images from large ground-based telescopes. Long pulsed lasers are preferable to create sodium laser guide stars (LGS) as they allow for Rayleigh blanking. However, these lasers may increase the effective light intensity irradiated at the sodium layer, which may lead to transition saturation, and then decline the normalized return flux efficiency. The return flux might be boosted by optical repumping, which could make full use of the advantages of optical pumping without trapping the atoms to the F=1 ground state. In this paper, we study the optical repumping effect by using a small scale long pulsed sodium laser developed in Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, whose pulse format may be pretty suitable for large telescopes. An electro-optic phase modulator is used to produce 1.713 GHz sidebands from the D2a center wavelength with the fraction of 20%. As for a vacuum sodium cell at the temperature of 40°C, when the effective laser intensity increases from 4.53×102 W/m2 to 6.99×105 W/ m2, resonant fluorescence with and without repumping is measured. The result illustrates that the resonant scattering brightness with repumping can be as over 3 times as without it when the light intensity changes between 4.53×102 W/m2 to 5 ×104 W/ m2. The saturated phenomenon is also observed. This gives direct evidence that repumping could improve the performance of sodium laser guide stars based on TIPC long pulsed lasers. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of the repumping effect with the TIPC type long pulsed laser in laboratory.

  9. Whispering gallery mode resonators for frequency metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartel, Lukas

    This dissertation describes an investigation into the use of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators for applications towards frequency reference and metrology. Laser stabilization and the measurement of optical frequencies have enabled myriad technologies of both academic and commercial interest. A technology which seems to span both motivations is optical atomic clocks. These devices are virtually unimaginable without the ultra stable lasers plus frequency measurement and down-conversion afforded by Fabry Perot (FP) cavities and model-locked laser combs, respectively. However, WGM resonators can potentially perform both of these tasks while having the distinct advantages of compactness and simplicity. This work represents progress towards understanding and mitigating the performance limitations of WGM cavities for such applications. A system for laser frequency stabilization to a the cavity via the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method is described. While the laser lock itself is found to perform at the level of several parts in 1015, a variety of fundamental and technical mechanisms destabilize the WGM frequency itself. Owing to the relatively large thermal expansion coefficients in optical crystals, environmental temperature drifts set the stability limit at time scales greater than the thermal relaxation time of the crystal. Uncompensated, these drifts pull WGM frequencies about 3 orders of magnitude more than they would in an FP cavity. Thus, two temperature compensation schemes are developed. An active scheme measures and stabilizes the mode volume temperature to the level of several nK, reducing the effective temperature coefficient of the resonator to 1.7x10-7 K-1; simulations suggest that the value could eventually be as low as 3.5x10-8 K-1, on par with the aforementioned FP cavities. A second, passive scheme is also described, which employs a heterogeneous resonator structure that capitalizes on the thermo-mechanical properties of one material and the optical

  10. High power pulsed magnicon at 34-GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Nezhevenko, O.A.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Ganguly, A.K.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1999-05-01

    A high efficiency, high power magnicon amplifier at 34.272 GHz has been designed as a radiation source to drive multi-TeV electron-positron linear colliders. Simulations show peak output power of 45 MW in a 1.5 microsecond wide pulse with an efficiency of 45{percent} and gain of 55 dB. The repetition rate is 10 Hz. The amplifier is a frequency tripler, or third harmonic amplifier, in that the output frequency of 34.272 GHz is three times the input drive frequency of 11.424 GHz. Thus the rotating TM{sub 110} modes in the drive cavity, 3 gain cavities and double decoupled penultimate cavities are resonant near 11.424 GHz; and the rotating TM{sub 310} mode in the output cavity is resonant at 34.272 GHz. A 500 kV, 200 A high area compression electron gun will provide a low emittance electron beam with a diameter of about 0.8 mm. A superconducting solenoid magnet will provide a magnetic field of 13 kG in the deflection system and 22 kG in the output cavity. A collector for the spent beam has also been designed. Detailed simulation results for the operation of the entire magnicon amplifier (gun, magnetic system, rf system and collector) will be given. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}