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Sample records for giant hepatic hemangioma

  1. Hepatic hemangioma -review-

    PubMed Central

    Bajenaru, N; Balaban, V; S?vulescu, F; Campeanu, I; Patrascu, T

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver consisting of clusters of blood-filled cavities, lined by endothelial cells, fed by the hepatic artery. The vast majority of HH are asymptomatic, most often being discovered incidentally during imaging investigations for various unrelated pathologies. Typical hemangiomas, the so-called capillary hemangiomas, range from a few mm to 3 cm, do not increase in size over time and therefore are unlikely to generate future symptomatology. Small (mm-3 cm) and medium (3 cm-10 cm) hemangiomas are well-defined lesions, requiring no active treatment beside regular follow-ups. However, the so-called giant liver hemangiomas, of up to 10 cm (most commonly) and even 20+ cm in size (according to occasional reports) can, and usually will develop symptoms and complications that require prompt surgical intervention or other kind of therapy. HH belong to the class of hepatic “incidentalomas”, so-called because they are diagnosed incidentally, on imaging studies performed as routine examinations or for other reasons than the evaluation of a possible liver mass. Less than half of HH present with overt clinical symptoms, consisting, most often, of upper abdominal pain (this is usually the case for large lesions, which cause the distension of Glisson’s capsule). Hepatic hemangiomas require a careful diagnosis to differentiate from other focal hepatic lesions, co-occurring diagnoses are also possible. PMID:26361504

  2. Giant Cardiac Cavernous Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Unger, Eric; Costic, Joseph; Laub, Glenn

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic giant cardiac cavernous hemangioma in a 71-year-old man. The intracardiac mass was discovered incidentally during surveillance for his prostate cancer; however, the patient initially declined intervention. On presentation to our institution 7 years later, the lesion had enlarged significantly, and the patient consented to excision. At surgery, an 8 × 6.5 × 4.8 cm intracardiac mass located on the inferior heart border was excised with an intact capsule through a median sternotomy approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. We discuss the diagnostic workup, treatment, and characteristics of this rare cardiac tumor. PMID:26140782

  3. Embolization for management of hepatic hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, G S; Yeh, K A; Bates, W B; Tannehill, W B

    2001-02-01

    Hemangiomas represent the most common primary tumor of the liver. Clinically the significance of these lesions is highly variable. The management of hemangiomas is controversial and is intimately related to the size, symptoms, and associated comorbidities of the patients who harbor these benign tumors. Series suggest that the vast majority of hemangiomas are less than 4 cm, asymptomatic, and clinically incidental findings. Symptomatic hemangiomas are large and associated with a constellation of vague upper abdominal complaints including pain, mass, distention, early satiety, and weight loss. A number of small series of surgically treated symptomatic hemangiomas have demonstrated enucleation as a safe and effective intervention. We report a collection of case reports using embolization as a primary treatment of symptomatic hemangiomas. The first patient is a 73-year-old black man previously treated for prostate cancer by radical prostatectomy and radiation. He developed weight loss, abdominal fullness, and early satiety. His symptoms were attributed to a large left lateral segmental liver mass that was biopsy proven to be a hemangioma. The second patient is a 49-year-old black women who complained of weakness, fatigue, night sweats, and anemia. The only abnormality discovered was a large right posterior hemangioma. The third patient is a 49-year-old black women with unexplained right upper quadrant pain and anemia who was found to have a 19 x 11 x 7.5-cm left hepatic hemangioma by CT. All three patients underwent elective treatment of their hemangiomas with highly selective hepatic embolization. There were no significant complications related to the procedures. Symptoms resolved for all patients acutely after treatment. The use of embolization for hepatic hemangiomas provides safe and effective treatment of the patient's symptoms while avoiding operative intervention, extended hospitalization, or postoperative recuperation. This treatment modality should be considered for the symptomatic hemangioma under elective conditions. PMID:11243541

  4. Surgical Treatment of Giant Liver Hemangioma Larger Than 10?cm: A Single Center's Experience With 86 Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Ke, Chang-Shu; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Bi-Xiang; Chen, Yi-Fa; Zhang, Wan-Guang; Zhu, Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The ideal surgical treatment of giant liver hemangioma is still controversial. This study aims to compare the outcomes of enucleation with those of resection for liver hemangioma larger than 10?cm in different locations of the liver and establish the preoperative predictors of increased intraoperative blood loss.Eighty-six patients underwent enucleation or liver resection for liver hemangioma larger than 10?cm was retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographic, tumor characteristics, surgical indications, the outcomes of both surgical treatment, and the clinicopathological parameters influencing intraoperative blood loss were analyzed.Forty-six patients received enucleation and 40 patients received liver resection. Mean tumor size was 14.1?cm with a range of 10-35?cm. Blood loss, blood product usage, operative time, hepatic vascular occlusion time and frequency, complications and postsurgical hospital stay were similar between liver resections and enucleation for right-liver and left-liver hemangiomas. There was no surgery-related mortality in either group. Bleeding was more related to adjacency of major vascular structures than the size of hemangioma. Adjacency to major vascular structures and right or bilateral liver hemangiomas were independently associated with blood loss >550?mL (P?=?0.000 and 0.042, respectively).Both enucleation and liver resection are safe and effective surgical treatments for liver hemangiomas larger than 10?cm. The risk of intraoperative blood loss is related to adjacency to major vascular structures and the location of hemangioma. PMID:26313792

  5. Concurrent hepatic hemangioma and solitary fibrous tumor: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Kueht, Michael; Masand, Prakash; Rana, Abbas; Cotton, Ronald; Goss, John

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor (HSFT) is a very rare benign liver tumor without well-defined findings on imaging. Even with multiphase advanced contrast-enhanced liver imaging, a definitive preoperative diagnosis is impossible. The diagnostic process can be further complicated when there are two concurrent lesions with different radiologic appearances. Here, we compare the findings of a commonly encountered liver lesion, hepatic hemangioma, with those of an exceedingly rare lesion, HSFT. PMID:26209579

  6. Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangioma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiao; Dong, Jiahong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic hemangioma, a common benign tumor of the liver, has caused great threats to the public health. Most patients have an excellent prognosis because of the benign nature of hemangioma. On some occasions, spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangioma is rarely observed in patients. Therefore, a majority of scholars propose that surgery should be restricted to specific situations. In this case, we presented a patient with spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangioma in our hospital. After a literature review, we summarized the management and outcome of the patient, which revealed the survival rates of the patients are satisfactory. PMID:26722552

  7. High-Output Heart Failure from a Hepatic Hemangioma With Exertion-Induced Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron A H; Nelson, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hepatic hemangiomas have been known to have high-output heart failure as a result of left-to-right arteriovenous shunting. We report a patient with a hepatic hemangioma that presented with high-output heart failure with hypoxia on exertion. After embolization of the hemangioma, the patient's hypoxia resolved and ejection fraction improved. In the absence of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, we presume that our patient's hemangioma was causing a right-to-left shunt as opposed to an expected left-to-right shunt. PMID:26525213

  8. Ultrasonography guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic cavernous hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Zhou, Li-Yan; Dong, Man-Ku; Wang, Ping; Ji, Min; Li, Xiao-Ou; Chen, Chang-Wei; Liu, Zi-Pei; Xu, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Wen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HCH) is the most common benign tumor of the liver and its management is still controversial. Recent success in situ radiofrequency ablation of hepatic malignancies has led us to consider using this technique in patients with HCH. This study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and complications of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA) under ultrasonography guidance in patients with HCH. METHODS: Twelve patients (four men and eight women, age ranged 33-56 years, mean age was 41.7 years) with 15 hepatic cavernous hemangiomas (2.5 cm to 9.5 cm) were treated using the RF-2000 generator and 10-needle LeVeen electrode percutaneously guided by B-ultrasound. Lesions larger than 3 cm were treated by multiple overlapping ablations that encompass the entire lesion as well as a rim of normal liver tissue (approximately 0.5 cm). RESULTS: All the patients who received PRFA therapy had no severe pain, bleeding or bile leakage during and after the procedures. Nine to 34 months’ follow-up (mean, 21 months) by ultrasound and/or spiral CT scan demonstrated that the ablated lesions in this group were shrunk remarkably, and the shrunken range was 38%-79% (mean, 67% per 21 months). The contrast enhancement was disappeared within the tumor or at its periphery in all cases on spiral CT scans obtained 3 to 6 months after treatment. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that PRFA therapy is a mini-invasive, simple, safe, and effective method for the treatment of selected patients with HCH. PMID:12970923

  9. Laparoscopic vs computerized tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation for large hepatic hemangiomas abutting the diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Kong, Jian; Ding, Xue-Mei; Ke, Shan; Niu, Hai-Gang; Xin, Zong-Hai; Ning, Chun-Min; Guo, Shi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Long; Dong, Yong-Hong; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare safety and therapeutic efficacy of laparoscopic radiofrequency (RF) ablation vs computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation for large hepatic hemangiomas abutting the diaphragm. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our sequential experience of treating 51 large hepatic hemangiomas abutting the diaphragm in 51 patients by CT-guided or laparoscopic RF ablation due to either the presence of symptoms and/or the enlargement of hemangioma. Altogether, 24 hemangiomas were ablated via a CT-guided percutaneous approach (CT-guided ablation group), and 27 hemangiomas were treated via a laparoscopic approach (laparoscopic ablation group). RESULTS: The mean diameter of the 51 hemangiomas was 9.6 ± 1.8 cm (range, 6.0-12.0 cm). There was no difference in the diameter of hemangiomas between the two groups (P > 0.05). RF ablation was performed successfully in all patients. There was no difference in ablation times between groups (P > 0.05). There were 23 thoracic complications in 17 patients: 15 (62.5%, 15/24) in the CT-guided ablation group and 2 (7.4%, 2/27) in the laparoscopic ablation group (P < 0.05). According to the Dindo-Clavien classification, two complications (pleural effusion and diaphragmatic rupture grade III) were major in two patients. All others were minor (grade?I). Both major complications occurred in the CT-guided ablation group. The minor complications were treated successfully with conservative measures, and the two major complications underwent treatment by chest tube drainage and thoracoscopic surgery, respectively. Complete ablation was achieved in 91.7% (22/24) and 96.3% (26/27) in the CT-guided and the laparoscopic ablation groups, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic RF ablation therapy should be used as the first-line treatment option for large hepatic hemangiomas abutting the diaphragm. It avoids thermal injury to the diaphragm and reduces thoracic complications. PMID:26019459

  10. Giant adrenal hemangioma: Unusual cause of huge abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Boudhas, Adil; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Essarghini, Mohamed; Njoumi, Noureddine; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare benign and non-functioning neoplasm of the adrenal gland. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman admitted for intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distension associated with vomiting and chronic constipation for 5 years. Physical examination revealed a large abdominal mass. Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver. Laboratory examinations and tumour markers were within normal limits, except for hypochromic microcytic anemia. The mass was removed intact by conventional surgery and histopathology revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland with no signs of malignancy. Surgical resection was curative, with no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600897

  11. Interventional Treatment of a Symptomatic Neonatal Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    SciTech Connect

    Kretschmar, Oliver Knirsch, Walter; Bernet, Vera

    2008-03-15

    Percutaneous intervention is one treatment option for symptomatic hepatic hemangioma in infants. We report the case of a newborn (birth weight 4060 g) with a large hepatic cavernous hemangioma, which presented early with high cardiac output failure due to arteriovenous shunting and signs of incipient Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. We performed a successful superselective transcatheter coil embolization of three feeding arteries on the seventh day of life. Because of remaining diffuse very small arteries causing a relevant residual shunt, additional occlusion of the three main draining veins was necessary with three Amplatzer vascular plugs. Cardiac failure resolved immediately. Without any additional therapy the large venous cavities disappeared within the following months. The tumor continues to regress in size 8 months after the intervention.

  12. Capillary Hemangioma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whether or not it is causing vision problems. Propranolol is an effective medication that is used in ... the hemangioma is very small and thin. Since propranolol can affect heart rate and blood pressure, careful ...

  13. Intramuscular Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicki, Joseph M.; Henderson, Jeffrey H.; Scarborough, Mark T.; Bush, Charles H.; Reith, John D.; Clugston, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intramuscular hemangiomas are common in the general population and often present at medical and surgical clinics. Unfortunately, unfamiliarity with these lesions has led to a high percentage of misdiagnoses, inappropriate workup, and unnecessary referrals. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane. The relevant articles and referenced sources were reviewed for additional articles that discussed the epidemiology, pathophysiology, investigation, and management of intramuscular hemangiomas. Clinical experience from experts in orthopaedics, musculoskeletal pathology, and musculoskeletal radiology was compared. The selected case studies are shared cases of the authors. Results and Conclusion: The pathophysiology of these lesions is not completely understood, but much can be implied from their underlying vascular nature. Isolated lesions are benign tumors that never metastasize but tend to enlarge and then involute over time. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice. If a systemic disorder or malignancy is not suspected or has been ruled out, conservative management is the treatment of choice for most intramuscular hemangiomas. PMID:24427416

  14. Single-incision laparoscopic management of a giant hepatic cyst

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Kaitlin; Monsivais, Sharon; Vassaur, Hannah; Buckley, Francis P.

    2015-01-01

    Large symptomatic hepatic cysts may warrant surgical management. Traditional multiport laparoscopic technique is typically preferred over open laparotomy, but the use of the single-incision laparoscopic approach for this diagnosis is not well documented. Here, we describe the case of a 68-year-old woman who underwent complete anterior wall fenestration, excision and cauterization of a simple hepatic cyst via a single-incision laparoscopic technique through an incision at the umbilicus. The objective of this case report is to document single-incision laparoscopy as a safe, feasible and cosmetically appealing approach for the management of a large hepatic cyst. PMID:26224889

  15. Treatment of infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Lauren, Christine; Garzon, Maria C

    2012-08-01

    1.Recognize infantile hemangiomas that are associated with a higher risk for complications and associated anomalies.2.Appreciate the typical timing of growth and involution of infantile hemangiomas.3.Become familiar with recently reported treatments for infantile hemangiomas.Infantile hemangiomas are common proliferations of endothelial tissue that affect approximately 4% to 5% of infants.1 Lesions represent a broad clinical spectrum and their management has to be individualized. Fortunately, most infantile hemangiomas do not require active therapy and may be managed with "active nonintervention";2 however, it is important to recognize those that do require therapeutic intervention and to be familiar with the therapeutic options. PMID:22881415

  16. Hemangiomas and the eye.

    PubMed

    Spence-Shishido, Allyson A; Good, William V; Baselga, Eulalia; Frieden, Ilona J

    2015-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas are a common vascular birthmark with heterogeneous presentations and unique growth characteristics with early rapid growth and eventual self-involution. Hemangiomas that develop around the eye have the potential for inducing amblyopia by several mechanisms and may eventually result in permanent visual impairment in otherwise healthy infants. Segmental periocular hemangiomas carry the additional risk of associated structural anomalies and PHACE syndrome. In recent years, the treatment of periocular hemangiomas has been revolutionized by the serendipitous discovery of the effectiveness of beta-blockers (systemic and topical), with most experts viewing these as first-line therapies. The management of periocular hemangiomas should involve a close partnership between an ophthalmologist and dermatologist or other relevant specialists familiar with the unique clinical features, differential diagnosis, treatment approaches, and potential complications. PMID:25704937

  17. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant; Singla, Saurabh; Mane, Ranoji; Jagdeesh, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma. PMID:24228209

  18. Propranolol (Infantile Hemangioma)

    MedlinePLUS

    Propranolol oral solution is used to treat proliferating infantile hemangioma (benign [noncancerous] growths or tumors appearing on ... infants 5 weeks to 5 months of age. Propranolol is in a class of medications called beta ...

  19. Birthmarks and Hemangiomas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size Email Print Share Birthmarks & Hemangiomas Article Body Dark-Pigmented Birthmarks (Nevi or Moles) Nevi, or moles, ... so-called nevus cells, these spots are often dark brown or black. Congenital Nevi Small nevi (less ...

  20. Unusual Severe Complication Following Transarterial Chemoembolization for Metastatic Malignant Melanoma: Giant Intrahepatic Cyst and Fatal Hepatic Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Ataergin, Selmin; Tasar, Mustafa; Solchaga, Luis; Ozet, Ahmet; Arpaci, Fikret

    2009-03-15

    We describe a 45-year-old male patient with malignant melanoma who underwent hepatic arterial chemoembolization due to liver metastases. Four months after the procedure, the patient developed a giant cystic cavity in the liver. Cytologic examination of the cystic fluid retention revealed necrotic tumor material. The fluid was drained by percutaneous catheter, but the patient developed hepatic failure. This case represents another rare complication of transarterial chemoembolization and shows that transarterial chemoembolization may have rare fatal complications.

  1. Circumscribed Choroidal Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saeed; Nourinia, Ramin; Mashayekhi, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas are benign vascular hamartomas without systemic associations. Generally, they are orange-red elevated masses, which are found posterior to the equator. Lesions are usually solitary and unilateral. Overlying subretinal fluid, serous retinal detachment and cystoid macular edema are common findings. Intravenous fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography and enhanced depth imaging are helpful ancillary tests for diagnosis of circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. Asymptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas do not require treatment. For symptomatic lesions with exudative retinal detachment or cystoid macular edema, photodynamic therapy has emerged as the treatment of choice with high rates of tumor regression, subretinal fluid resorption and minimal complications. Lens-sparing external beam radiotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, proton beam therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF injections are other treatment modalities.

  2. Hemangioma: review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Tarun; Jaggi, Nitin; Kalra, Amit; Bansal, Kanishka; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Hemangiomas are tumors identifed by rapid endothelial cell proliferation in early infancy, followed by involution over time. All other abnormalities are malformations resulting from anomalous development of vascular plexuses. The malformations have a normal endothelial cell growth cycle that affects the veins, the capillaries or the lymphatics and they do not involute. Hemangiomas are the most common tumors of infancy and are characterized by a proliferating and involuting phase. They are seen more commonly in whites than in blacks, more in females than in males in a ratio of 3:1. PMID:24685812

  3. Abortive segmental perineal hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Tlougan, Brook E; Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Orlow, Seth J

    2011-01-01

    A six-week-old girl presented with a segmental, focally atrophic, vascular patch in the diaper area, present since birth. It had undergone minimal proliferation, but had ulcerated. Evaluation to rule out LUMBAR (Lower body hemangioma/Lipoma or other cutaneous anomalies, Urogenital anomalies, Myelopathy, Bony deformities, Anorectal/Arterial anomalies, and Renal anomalies) syndrome, which included ultrasound and Doppler examination of the abdomen, spine, and pelvis, was negative. We report a unique case of an ulcerated, segmental abortive hemangioma of the anogenital area with excellent clinical response to topical timolol gel. PMID:22031634

  4. Left ventricular hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Oueida, Farouk M; Lui, Raphael C; Al-Refae, Mustafa A; Al-Omran, Hamed M

    2014-01-01

    A young Saudi woman presented with symptoms of palpitation, near syncope, anxiety, and fatigue. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a left ventricular mass. Under cardiopulmonary bypass, brief cardioplegic arrest, and the aid of a thoracoscope, the mass was resected. Histologic examination showed a rare benign cardiac tumor: mixed cavernous-capillary hemangioma. PMID:24585648

  5. Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attacking the liver Infections from viruses (such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C), bacteria, or parasites ... the liver damage and any illnesses you have. Hepatitis A, for example, is most often short-term and ...

  6. Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol ... not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  7. [Intraosseous cranioorbital hemangiomas].

    PubMed

    Belov, A I; Cherekaev, V A; Shishkina, L V; Lasunin, N V; Kadasheva, A B; Grigor'eva, N N; Podoprigora, A E

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe 2 cases of primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma (PICH). PICH are extremely rare tumors that represent less than 1% of all tumors of the bone. Only 20% of them involve skull. In both cases clinical findings were presented by proptosis, oculomotor disorders and chronic daily headaches. Surgery is the most recommended method of treatment. The best surgical management is gross total resection within intact tissue. In both cases tumor was removed completely. PMID:22066260

  8. Anti-CD20 treatment of giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Massimiliano; Patey, Natacha; Bass, Lee M; Alvarez, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (GCH-AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease of infancy characterized by severe liver disease associated with Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. We recently showed that GCH-AHA is probably caused by a humoral immune mechanism. Such data support the use of rituximab, an anti-CD-20 monoclonal antibody specifically targeting B lymphocytes, as a treatment for GCH-AHA. We describe here the detailed clinical evolution of 4 children with GCH-AHA who showed a complete response to rituximab. All patients shared a severe course of the disease with poor control on standard and aggressive immunosuppression. Rituximab was well tolerated, and no side effects or infections were registered. Several doses were needed to induce remission, and 5 to 11 additional maintenance injections were necessary in the 2 more severe cases. Weaning from corticosteroids was achieved in all subjects. A steroid-sparing effect was noted in the 3 children who started rituximab early in the course of the disease. Overall, we show here that there is a strong rationale for treating GCH-AHA with rituximab. Early treatment could reduce the use of corticosteroids. Nevertheless, short-term steroids should be initially associated with rituximab to account for autoantibodies' half-life. Repeated injections are needed to treat and prevent relapses, but the best frequency and duration of treatment remain to be defined. PMID:25201797

  9. Giant Cavernous Haemangioma of the Anterior Mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Samanc?lar, Ozgur; Usluer, Ozan; Acar, Tuba; Yener, Ali Galip

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the anterior mediastinum is rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with a giant cavernous hemangioma of the anterior mediastinum, 18 cm in diameters, approached by left posterolateral thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, such a unique case has not been previously presented in the literature.

  10. Thoracic Extraosseous Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Asil, Kiyasettin; Ceylan, Davut; Erdem, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas were first reported in 1929 by Globus and Doshay, and are defined as benign vascular structures developed between the neural tissues occurring in the central nervous system, consisting of a dilated vascular bed. Cavernous hemangiomas comprise nearly 5-12% of all spinal vascular malformations; however, existence in the epidural space without bone involvement is rare. Only 4% of all cavernous hemangiomas (0.22/1.000.000) are purely epidural cavernous hemangiomas. In this case report, we removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass presenting with progressive neurological deficits in a 55-year-old male patient. We found this case to be appropriate for presentation due to the rare occurrence of this type of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:25674348

  11. Successful adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using liver allograft after the resection of hemangioma: A suggestive case for a further expansion of living donor pool

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Yasuharu; Kamei, Hideya; Imai, Hisashi; Kurata, Nobuhiko; Hori, Tomohide; Ogura, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic hemangioma is one of the most common benign liver tumors. There are few published reports regarding liver transplantation using liver allografts with hemangioma. Presentation of case A 45-year-old man was evaluated as a living donor for 19-year-old son with cirrhosis due to hepatic fibrosis. Preoperative investigations revealed 20 and 7 mm hemangiomas, at segment 2 (S2) and 4 (S4) respectively. Considering the anatomical relation of S2 hemangioma and Glisson 2, liver graft was designed as left lobe excluded S2 hemangioma by partial resection. Estimated graft recipient weight ratio (GRWR) even after partial resection of hemangioma was reasonable. During the donor operation, a partial hepatic resection of S2 hemangioma was performed. Intraoperative pathologic findings revealed a cavernous hemangioma, and then, the left hepatic graft with the caudate lobe was harvested. Actual GRWR was 0.90%. Donor's postoperative course was uneventful. Recipient’s post-operative course was almost uneventful. Postoperative computed tomography of the recipient showed the graft regeneration without increase or recurrence of hemangioma. Discussion Organ shortage is a major concern in the field of liver transplantation. A novel donor source with a further option is extremely crucial for a guarantee of liver transplantation. We experienced the first case of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using liver allograft after the resection of hemangioma. Conclusion We advocate that the use of liver allograft with hemangiomas in adult-to-adult LDLT settings can be remarkable strategy to reduce the problem of organ shortage without any unfavorable consequences in both living donor and recipient. PMID:26476494

  12. [Synovial hemangioma within Hoffa's fat pad as the cause of anterior knee pain. 2 cases within a family and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Petersen, W; Rafii, M; Ellwanger, S; Laprell, H

    1999-01-01

    An 18 years old man and his younger sister suffered from anterior knee pain. Cause is a soft tissue tumor located within Hoffa's fat pad however in both cases. The tumor has been excised and the histological examination demonstrated the diagnosis synovial hemangioma. A literature search shows that synovial hemangiomas are rare soft tissue tumors. They mainly involve the knee joint. Mean age is the second decade of life and most authors observed severe degenerative changes in the involved knee joint. There are no reports about familiar accumulation within the literature. Familiar accumulation of synovial hemangiomas however have been described for cerebral, skin and hepatic manifestations but not for synovial hemangiomas. PMID:11051028

  13. Nasal Bridge Intramuscular Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Hamir Basah, Zulkifli; Ramza Ramli, Ramiza; Gayadh, Maha Khadum; Mutum, Samarendra Singh

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) is a benign mesenchymal tumour. It appears as a deep, nontender mass within the soft tissue, particularly in the extremities. This tumour may not be obvious on clinical examination. Head and neck IMHs represent only 13.5% of the total IMHs. The most common site for a head and neck IMH is the masseter muscle, followed by trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and very rarely temporalis muscle. We present a patient with left nasal bridge swelling which was excised and histologically confirmed as intramuscular hemangioma. PMID:25709848

  14. [Choroidal hemangioma and epiretinal membrane].

    PubMed

    Samoil?, O; C?lug?ru, D; C?lug?ru, M; Kaucsar, Emese; Stan, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Choroidal hemangiomas are benign vascular hamartomas developed from birth, but undetected until the 4th and 5th decade. They have been seldom described in association with epiretinal membranes. Here we present a patient with associated pathology choroidal hemangioma with atypical fluorescein angiography pattern, undetected on ocular echography hence the difficulties in establishing a positive diagnosis and epiretinal membrane observed both clinically and on fluorescein angiography. Visual acuity is impaired by cystoid macular edema, with a complicated pathogenetic mechanism. PMID:17144511

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from a hepatitis A infection, that person has immunity to the virus, meaning he or she will ... from the disease and may develop a natural immunity to future hepatitis B infections. But some people ...

  16. Differentiation between multiple liver hemangiomas and liver metastases of gastrinomas: Value of enhanced MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.; Laissy, J.P.; Limot, O.; Cadiot, G.

    1996-05-01

    Hepatic metastases of neuroendocrine tumors are known to mimic hemangiomas on nonenhanced SE MR sequences. The usefulness of MR examination with gadolinium injection to identify lesions was prospectively evaluated. Nine patients with multiple liver metastases of gastrinomas were compared with six patients showing multiple liver hemangiomas. Patients underwent unenhanced T2-weighted SE, T1-weighted SE, and FLASH sequences, followed by enhanced sequential FLASH sequences and a 5 min delayed T1-weighted SE sequence. On T2-weighted SE sequence, all hemangiomas displayed the same typical morphology as a sharply defined, homogeneous, high signal intensity lesion, but this pattern was also observed for some or all of the lesions in seven of nine patients with gastrinoma metastases. Dynamic FLASH sequences were accurate for lesions larger than 2 cm, hemangiomas displaying a nodular peripheral enhancement with centripetal filling in, and metastases displaying either an initial homogeneous or a regular peripheral enhancement. Precise assessment of lesions smaller than 2 cm remained equivocal. Delayed T1-weighted SE sequence (performed at least 5 min after Gd-chelate injection) was the most accurate technique to identify metastases by showing hypo-or isointensity signal, whereas all hemangiomas were hyperintense. Postcontrast delayed T1-weighted sequence is the primary technique to differentiate equivocal cases of hemangiomas from metastases of gastrinoma. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions ... which type. Treatment In most cases, no specific therapy is given for acute hepatitis. The child’s own ...

  18. Intracranial capillary hemangioma mimicking a dissociative disorder

    PubMed Central

    John, Santosh G.; Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Lacasse, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas, hamartomatous proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, are rare in the central nervous system (CNS). Intracranial capillary hemangiomas presenting with reversible behavioral abnormalities and focal neurological deficits have rarely been reported. We report a case of CNS capillary hemangioma presenting with transient focal neurological deficits and behavioral abnormalities mimicking Ganser's syndrome. Patient underwent total excision of the vascular malformation, resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24765434

  19. Hemangioma of Rib: A Different Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Hemant; Rathod, Kranti K.; Hira, Priya; Sankhe, Shilpa; Pandit, Nilesh; Mittal, Kartik; Dey, Amit K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hemangiomas are one of the common primary benign tumors of the intraosseous and soft tissue compartments in humans. Vertebral hemangiomas being the most common of all are seen in daily radiological practice. Hemangioma of the rib is rarely seen. Case Report We reported on a case of a rib lesion which had a classic imaging pattern of hemangioma. We highlighted the use of pre-operative embolization of such a vascular rib lesion before surgically removing the lesion by thoracotomy to reduce the risk of bleeding. Conclusions We also emphasized overt complications of overzealous needling of such a vascular lesion for histopathological diagnosis as in our case. PMID:25866595

  20. Intracranial capillary hemangioma in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Ai; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capillary hemangiomas are neoplasms involving skin and soft tissue in infants. These lesions rarely involved an intracranial space and reported age distribution ranges from infancy to middle age. We report an extremely rare case of rapidly rising intracranial capillary hemangioma in an elderly woman. Case Description: The 82-year-old woman presented with vomiting, reduced level of consciousness, and worsening mental state. Computed tomography showed a contrast-enhanced extra-axial lesion in the left frontal operculum, although no intracranial mass lesion was identifiable from magnetic resonance imaging taken 2 years earlier. Complete surgical excision was performed and histopathological examination diagnosed benign capillary hemangioma consisting of a variety of dilated capillary blood vessels lined by endothelial cells. Conclusion: This is the first description of rapid growth of an intracranial capillary hemangioma in an elderly woman. These lesions are exceedingly rare in the elderly population, but still show the capacity for rapid growth. Complete excision would prevent further recurrence. PMID:26664868

  1. All Those Liver Masses are not Necessarily from the Liver: A Case of a Giant Adrenal Pseudocyst Mimicking a Hepatic Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Soumya; Htut, Alvin; Wang, Peter; Eisenberg, Daniel; Miick, Ronald; Feyssa, Eyob

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 50 Final Diagnosis: Adrenal pseudocys Symptoms: Abdominal pain • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Most abdominal cysts, including adrenal pseudocysts, are benign and asymptomatic. Rapid enlargement, hemorrhage, infection, rupture with leakage of cyst contents, or pressure on adjacent organs can cause symptoms. Although usually diagnosed incidentally on imaging, determining the origin of a cyst can sometimes be challenging. In these situations, surgical excision and pathological analysis is crucial to diagnosis and management. We report here a case of a giant symptomatic adrenal pseudocyst that closely mimicked a hepatic cyst at presentation. Case Report: A 50-year-old man, with a history of an incidentally detected hepatic cyst, presented with severe abdominal pain, fevers, leukocytosis, and mildly abnormal liver function tests. CT scan revealed a large well defined cystic space-occupying lesion within the liver, with findings suggesting cyst rupture and possible infection. Early laparotomy was performed, and the origin was determined intraoperatively to be right adrenal, which was later confirmed by pathology. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced CT scan is the criterion standard for evaluation for abdominal cystic masses. Precise diagnosis of a giant abdominal cyst can be challenging. Surgery is both diagnostic and curative in such situations. We also discuss the specific situations in which surgery should be considered in cases of adrenal cystic masses. PMID:26035028

  2. Hemangiomas

    MedlinePLUS

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  3. Hemangioma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Neurofibroma Neuronal & Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain ... Neurofibroma Neuronal & Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain ...

  4. Expression of p16 protein in infantile hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHI; ZHENG, WEI

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression and significance of p16 in the occurrence, development and regression of infantile hemangioma (IH). The expression of p16 was examined in proliferating, involuting hemangioma and normal tissues using immunohistochemical techniques. The expression of p16 was significantly lower in proliferating hemangioma than in involuting hemangioma, and was significantly lower in the involuting hemangioma than in normal tissues. Significant differences were found between the three groups (P<0.05). The results indicate that p16 may be important in the regression of IH endothelial cells and in anti-angiogenesis. There is a certain association between p16 expression and the regression of hemangioma. This provides a theoretical basis for the further study of the pathological mechanisms of p16 in hemangioma and potential gene therapies that may treat this disease.

  5. The role of hepatic myofibroblasts in liver cirrhosis in fallow deer (Dama dama) naturally infected with giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes liver cirrhosis in 35 fallow deer infected with the giant liver fluke, as well as the distribution, origin, and role of myofibroblasts in its development. Results In liver of infected deer, stripes of connective tissue are wound around groups of degenerated and regenerated liver lobuli. In the connective tissue, lymphocytes and macrophages which often contain parasite hematin are also present. The walls of the bile ducts are thickened, the epithelium multiplied with mucous metaplasia, and desquamated cells, parasite eggs and brown pigment are present in their lumen. In the livers with cirrhosis, immunopositivity to ?-SMA and desmin was observed in cells in portal and septal spaces, at the edge between fibrotic septa and the surrounding parenchyma and in perisinusoidal spaces. These cells vary in size, they are round, oval, spindle-shaped or irregular in shape, similar to vascular smooth muscle cells. The derangement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions detected in chronic cholangiopathies is most probably the pro-fibrogenic mechanism in liver cirrhosis of fallow deer (Dama dama) infected with the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). Conclusion Myofibroblasts, especially hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), play an important role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix components in the development of parasitic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the liver of fallow deer. PMID:23497565

  6. [Osseous hemangioma of the upper jaw].

    PubMed

    Fernández Nogueras, F J; Fernández Pérez, A; Moreno León, J; Fernández Nogueras, V

    1995-01-01

    Osseous hemangioma is a rare tumour of head and neck localisation. In this work the AA. present a case of the tumour located in the upper maxilla, considering the actual concept and the possibilities of differential diagnosis in relation with both radiologic and anatomopathological characteristics. PMID:7485856

  7. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Giant Haemangiomas of the Liver: Embolisation With Bleomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Bozkaya, Halil Cinar, Celal; Besir, Fahri Halit; Par?ldar, Mustafa Oran, Ismail

    2013-04-12

    PurposeThe management of patients with giant haemangioma of the liver remains controversial. Although the usual treatment method for symptomatic giant haemangioma is surgery, the classical paradigm of operative resection remains. In this study, we evaluated the symptomatic improvement and size-reduction effect of embolisation with bleomycin mixed with lipiodol for the treatment of symptomatic giant hepatic haemangioma.MethodsThis study included 26 patients [21 female, five male; age 41–65 years (mean 49.83 ± 1.53)] with symptomatic giant haemangioma unfit for surgery and treated with selective embolisation by bleomycin mixed with lipiodol. The patients were followed-up (mean 7.4 ± 0.81 months) clinically and using imaging methods. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0, and p < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.ResultsEmbolisation of 32 lesions in 26 patients was performed. The mean volume of the haemangiomas was 446.28 ± 88 cm{sup 3} (range 3.39–1559 cm{sup 3}) before intervention and 244.43 ± 54.38 cm{sup 3} (range 94–967 cm{sup 3}) after intervention. No mortality or morbidity related to the treatment was identified. Symptomatic improvement was observed in all patients, and significant volume reduction was achieved (p = 0.001).ConclusionThe morbidity of surgical treatment in patients with giant liver hemangioma were similar to those obtained in patients followed-up without treatment. Therefore, follow-up without treatment is preferred in most patients. Thus, minimally invasive embolisation is an alternative and effective treatment for giant symptomatic haemangioma of the liver.

  8. Early Surgical Management of Large Scalp Infantile Hemangioma Using the TopClosure® Tension-Relief System.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhanyong; Yang, Xilin; Zhao, Yueqiang; Fan, Huajun; Yu, Mosheng; Topaz, Moris

    2015-11-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular neoplasms of infancy and childhood. The majority do not need medical intervention. However, large ulcerated scalp IHs may lead to fatal bleeding as well as severe cosmetic disfigurement that indicate early surgical excision, inflicting substantial surgical risks, with short- and long-term morbidity.The TopClosure Tension-Relief System (TRS) is an innovative skin stretching and wound closure-secure system that facilitates primary closure of relatively large skin defects. This system has been shown as a substitute for skin grafts, flaps, or tissue expanders.We describe a case of a giant IH of the scalp usually requiring a complex surgical approach, which was immediately primarily closed applying the TRS.A 3-day-old female infant presented with a giant scalp hemangioma at birth that rapidly grew in the neonatal period with early signs of ulceration. The patient underwent surgical resection of the giant scalp hemangioma with immediate primary closure of the defect using the TRS. Surgical procedure and postoperative period were uneventful.Early surgical resections of IHs at infancy carry substantial surgical risks and morbidity. This is the first reported case of early resection of a scalp hemangioma in the neonatal period, with successful immediate primary closure by application of stress-relaxation technique through the TRS. The application of the TopClosure TRS in this age group has significant advantages. It reduces the complexity and length of surgery, reducing blood loss, eliminating donor site morbidity, improving wound aesthetics, and minimizing the need for future reconstructive procedures. PMID:26632734

  9. Proliferative hemangiomas: analysis of cytokine gene expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Most, D; Bresnick, S; Mehrara, B; Steinbrech, D S; Reinisch, J; Longaker, M T; Turk, A E

    1999-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of childhood that can lead to disfigurement and/or life-threatening consequences. The pathogenesis of hemangioma formation is likely to involve increased angiogenesis. Basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are cytokines that stimulate angiogenesis in multiple in vivo and in vitro models. Proliferative hemangiomas have been found to have elevated levels of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor protein, but the gene expression of these cytokines in human specimens has not been previously studied. We examined the gene expression and spatial distribution of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA in proliferative versus involuted human hemangioma specimens using nonisotopic in situ hybridization techniques. Thirteen hemangioma specimens were harvested during initial surgical excision. In situ hybridization was performed on frozen sections of both proliferative and involuted hemangioma specimens using genetically engineered antisense probes specific for basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA. Controls were an interleukin-6 sense sequence and a transforming growth factor-beta 1 antisense sequence. A large number of cells within the specimens of proliferative hemangiomas revealed localized gene expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (626 +/- 129 and 1660 +/- 371 cells/mm2, respectively). The majority of the cells were endothelial in origin. In contrast, involuted hemangioma specimens revealed significantly lower numbers of cells staining positive for basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (44 +/- 11 and 431 +/- 76 cells/mm2, respectively; p < 0.05). Transforming growth factor-beta 1 messenger RNA was slightly more expressed by involuted hemangiomas (117 +/- 30 cells/mm2). There were very low levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene expression from proliferative hemangiomas (37 +/- 24 cells/mm2; p < 0.02). These data demonstrate that (1) in situ hybridization allows identification and relative quantitation of cells expressing messenger RNA for specific growth factors in human hemangioma specimens; (2) basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA are up-regulated in proliferative hemangiomas; and (3) transforming growth factor-beta 1 messenger RNA remains low in both proliferative and involuted hemangiomas. Because basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA have been implicated in the pathobiology of human hemangioma formation, biochemical modulation of these angiogenic cytokines may eventually help inhibit proliferation and promote regression of hemangiomas. PMID:9915157

  10. Conservative Management of Cardiac Hemangioma for 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Slim, Mehdi; Neffati, Elyes; Boughzela, Essia

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hemangiomas are benign tumors with an unpredictable natural history. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, conservative management can be an alternative in some patients. We report a case of a left-sided cardiac hemangioma that we managed conservatively for 11 years without obvious major complications in the patient, an adult woman. PMID:26504439

  11. Sclerosing cholangitis secondary to bleomycin-iodinated embolization for liver hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shuo; Shi, Xiao-Ju; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Si-Yuan; Wang, Guang-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) is a rarely reported morbidity secondary to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with bleomycin-iodinated oil (BIO) for liver cavernous hemangioma (LCH). This report retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic and therapeutic course of a patient with LDH who presented obstructive jaundice 6 years after TACE with BIO. Preoperative imaging identified a suspected malignant biliary stricture located at the convergence of the left and right hepatic ducts. Operative exploration demonstrated a full-thickness sclerosis of the hilar bile duct with right hepatic duct stricture and right lobe atrophy. Radical hepatic hilar resection with right-side hemihepatectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed because hilar cancer could not be excluded on frozen biopsy. Pathological results showed chronic pyogenic inflammation of the common and right hepatic ducts with SC in the portal area. Secondary SC is a long-term complication that may occur in LCH patients after TACE with BIO and must be differentiated from hilar malignancy. Hepatic duct plasty is a definitive but technically challenging treatment modality for secondary SC. PMID:25516686

  12. [Head and neck hemangiomas: how and when to treat].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-wei; Wang, Yan-an; Zhou, Guo-yu; Zhu, Han-guang; Ye, Wei-min; Zhang, Zhi-yuan

    2007-08-01

    Hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors of infancy characterized by a proliferative growth phase followed by very slow inevitable regression (involutive phase) between one to ten years of age, about 60% to 70% of the lesions are found in the head and neck region. There are many treatment modalities reported in the literature for head and neck hemangiomas, including wait and see policy, drug therapy, sclerotherapy (steroids, bleomycin), cryotherapy, isotope radiotherapy, laser therapy, and surgical therapy. There still exist many controversies over the optimal treatment options for individual patient. Based on our clinical experience on 250 cases and literature review, a rational treatment regime for head and neck hemangioma was proposed in this study: (1) As it is not possible to predict, whether a hemangioma will remain small and unproblematic or grow into a very large lesion, early therapy is the only way out of this dilemma. A white or pink macule, a port-wine stain-like lesion initially appearing in the children can be effectively and easily removed by laser, thus preventing a growth in the size in the early stage. (2) The term of "wait and see" should be substituted by "close observation", and this approach should only be reserved for hemangiomas which are without visible growth or in the involutive phase. (3) Systematic drug therapy (steroids, interferon alpha-2a ) should be considered for large hemangioma, multiple hemangiomas, life-threatening hemangiomas and hemangiomas with complications such as ulceration, infection, bleeding, dysfunction, etc. Congestive heart failure, consumptive coagulopathy, and thrombocytopenia are also urgent indications for the institution of corticoid therapy. (4) Growing hemangioma can be treated effectively by systematic drug therapy, sclerotherapy, laser therapy or combined therapy. The argon laser (514 nm in wavelength, 0.5 mm in depth) is useful in the treatment of superficial telangiectasias and small, flat cutaneous hemangiomas. Flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser (FPDL, 585 nm or 595 nm in wavelength, 1.0-2.0 mm in depth) can be used in patients with cutaneous and flat hemangiomas at the sites of potential functional impairment. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm in wavelength) with continuous ice cube cooling is useful for subcutaneous or mixed hemangiomas, and often requires repeated treatments. For larger and deeper hemangiomas up to a depth of 2.0 cm, percutaneous interstitial Nd:YAG laser treatment may be preferred, because it may decrease possible cutaneous skin damage and more effectively reduce bulky, deep lesion. (5) Topical application of imiquimoid and intratumoral injection of steroids or bleomycin can be used in selected patients with rapidly growing hemangioma. (6) The indication for a primary operation is rare and limited to large hemangiomas in the eyelid or hemangiomas on the scalp. Surgical correction of large residuals, especially before formal education begins, to prevent considerable psychosocial impairment is still a well established procedure. The aim of treatment is to counter the proliferative growth, reduce the volume of hemangioma, and initialize the process of regression. Cryotherapy or isotope radiotherapy is nowadays seldom used for the treatment of hemangiomas, due to the high incidence of scarring, pigmentation, or depigmentation. A successful treatment of hemangiomas should be individualized and based on the size of the tumor, the localization, and the therapies available. PMID:17924011

  13. Sacroplasty for Symptomatic Sacral Hemangioma: A Novel Treatment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, V.; Sreedher, G.; Weiss, K.R.; Hughes, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Painful vertebral body hemangiomas have been successfully treated with vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Sacral hemangiomas are uncommon and as such painful sacral hemangiomas are rare entities. We report what we believe is only the second successful treatment of a painful sacral hemangioma with CT-guided sacroplasty. A 56-year-old woman with a history of right-sided total hip arthroplasty and lipoma excision presented to her orthopedic surgeon with persistent right-sided low back pain which radiated into her buttock and right groin and hindered her ability to walk and perform her activities of daily living. MRIs of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine and pelvis showed numerous lesions with imaging characteristics consistent with multiple hemangiomas including a 2.2×2.1 cm lesion involving the right sacrum adjacent to the right S1 neural foramen. Conservative measures including rest, physical therapy, oral analgesics and right-sided sacroiliac joint steroid injection did not provide significant relief. Given her lack of improvement and the fact that her pain localized to the right sacrum, the patient underwent CT-guided sacroplasty for treatment of a painful right sacral hemangioma. Under CT fluoroscopic guidance, a 10 gauge introducer needle was advanced through the soft tissues of the back to the margin of the lesion. Biopsy was then performed and after appropriate preparation, cement was then introduced through the needle using a separate cement filler cannula. Appropriate filling of the right sacral hemangioma was visualized using intermittent CT fluoroscopy. After injection of approximately 2.5 cc of cement, it was felt that there was near complete filling of the right sacral hemangioma. With satisfactory achievement of cement filling, the procedure was terminated. Pathology from biopsy taken at the time of the procedure was consistent with hemangioma. Image-guided sacroplasty with well-defined endpoints is an effective, minimally invasive and safe procedure. Patients with painful sacral hemangiomas can be treated with this technique with no significant complications. PMID:23693051

  14. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in the evaluation of hemangiomas of the liver in infants and children

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1987-09-01

    The vascular origin lesions of the liver (capillary hemangioma/infantile hemangioendothelioma) that present in infancy or early childhood often have a typical clinical picture of hepatomegaly and congestive heart failure. These lesions rarely present as asymptomatic hepatomegaly, simulating a primary hepatic malignancy. These lesions may also simulate a primary or secondary hepatic malignancy on cross-sectional imaging or angiography. Scintigraphic evaluations with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells offers an accurate method of identification of these lesions, and allows differentiation from other common primary or secondary hepatic masses in infancy or childhood. This scintigraphic method may also be used to follow these patients after medical, radiation, or embolization therapy. Experience with seven patients with these tumors is reported and compared with eight children with other primary or secondary liver tumors also evaluated by this method.

  15. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get viral hepatitis vaccines? How long do the hepatitis A and B vaccines protect you? Is it safe ... of viral hepatitis in the United States are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. This fact sheet ...

  16. Hemangioma of the Interatrial Septum: CT and MRI Features

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak-Paar, Maja; Huebner, Marisa; Stern-Padovan, Ranka; Lusic, Mario

    2011-02-15

    Hemangioma of the heart is a rare primary benign tumor mainly appearing as enhancing, homogenous, well-circumscribed mass. We report a case of a 61-year-old asymptomatic woman, whose echocardiography showed a cardiac mass, which was described as the atypical myxoma of the right atrium. For further imaging, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were undertaken, which showed a tumor located in the interatrial septum with imaging characteristics of hemangioma. In the literature, cardiac hemangioma is usually described as an intensely enhancing mass. In our opinion, early peripheral puddling of contrast material with filling in on delayed images is a typical pattern of its enhancement. This characteristic, in addition to high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, allows differentiation of a hemangioma from other benign and malignant tumors.

  17. Pedunculated cavernous hemangioma originating in the olfactory cleft.

    PubMed

    Su, Kaiming; Zhang, Weitian; Shi, Haibo; Yin, Shankai

    2014-09-01

    Sinonasal cavernous hemangioma is a rare condition that usually affects the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with severe epistaxis, nasal congestion, and olfactory dysfunction. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity revealed the presence of a red-blue tumor that had almost completely filled the nasopharynx. Preoperatively, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. During endoscopic surgery, the tumor was found to originate in the left olfactory cleft, and it had a long peduncle that contained blood vessels. Postoperative histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was a cavernous hemangioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an olfactory cleft cavernous hemangioma and the first case of olfactory cleft disease associated with a cavernous hemangioma to be reported in the English-language literature. PMID:25255356

  18. Orbital Hemangioma with Intracranial Vascular Anomalies and Hemangiomas: A New Presentation of PHACE Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Antonov, Nina K; Spence-Shishido, Allyson; Marathe, Kalyani S; Tlougan, Brook; Kazim, Michael; Sultan, Sally; Hess, Christopher P; Morel, Kimberly D; Frieden, Ilona J; Garzon, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    We present two cases of infants with a similar constellation of clinical findings: retro-orbital infantile hemangioma (IH), internal carotid artery (ICA) arteriopathy, and intracranial IH. In both cases, intracranial vascular anomalies and hemangiomas were found incidentally during evaluation of unilateral proptosis. Neither infant had evidence of cutaneous segmental IH of the face or neck, which might have provided a clue to the diagnosis of PHACE syndrome or of intracranial hemangiomas. In one case, intracranial involvement was particularly extensive and function threatening, with mass effect on the brain parenchyma. These cases serve to highlight the fact that clinical findings of proptosis, globe deviation, and strabismus should prompt immediate imaging to confirm the presence of orbital IHs and to exclude other diagnoses. Moreover, based on our cases and the embryologic origin of the orbit as a unique developmental unit, patients with confirmed retro-orbital IHs should undergo evaluation for anomalies associated with PHACE syndrome. Patients with orbital IHs and an additional major criterion for PHACE syndrome should be considered to have definite, and not just possible, PHACE syndrome. PMID:26446288

  19. Control for laser hemangioma treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Muckerheide, M.C.

    1982-02-23

    A laser is disclosed for directing a nominally 5 micron wavelength beam at a hemangioma or other variegated lesion. A fiber optic bundle for intercepting radiation reflected from the lesion at an intensity corresponding with the color intensity of the region at which the beam is directed. The output beam from the fiber optic bundle modulates a photodetector stage whose amplified output drives a galvanometer. The galvanometer shaft is coupled to the shaft of a potentiometer which is adjustable to regulate the laser power supply and, hence, the laser output energy level so laser beam energy is reduced when high absorption regions in the lesion are being scanned by the beam and increased as low absorption regions are being scanned.

  20. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePLUS

    ... certain medicines can also cause hepatitis. Less commonly, viral infections such as mononucleosis or cytomegalovirus can cause hepatitis. There are 2 main kinds of hepatitis: acute hepatitis (short-lived) and chronic hepatitis (lasting at least 6 months). Most people ...

  1. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... certain medicines can also cause hepatitis. Less commonly, viral infections such as mononucleosis or cytomegalovirus can cause hepatitis. There are 2 main kinds of hepatitis: acute hepatitis (short-lived) and chronic hepatitis (lasting at least 6 months). Most people ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... certain medicines can also cause hepatitis. Less commonly, viral infections such as mononucleosis or cytomegalovirus can cause hepatitis. There are 2 main kinds of hepatitis: acute hepatitis (short-lived) and chronic hepatitis (lasting at least 6 months). Most people ...

  3. Synovial Hemangioma of the Knee Joint: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Ibrahim; Nayman, Alaaddin; Koplay, Mustafa; Paksoy, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Synovial hemangioma is benign tumor of the joints and is seen relatively rare. The most affected joint is knee but should also be seen in other joints. The disease is usually symptomatic. They are classified as juxta-articular haemangioma, intra-articular haemangioma or an intermediate type of hemangioma with intra- and extraarticular components. Case Report A 19-years-old male patient presented with swollen and painful knee. The laboratory findings and physical examination were normal. MRI demonstrated a large lesion that was filling the suprapatellar bursa. Conclusions All radiologic examinations should be used in diagnosis but magnetic resonance imaging is the non-invasive method and excellent modality in the evaluation of soft tissues. In this paper, a 19-year-old male patient with the diagnosis of synovial hemangioma is reported and its radiologic findings are mentioned. PMID:26491492

  4. Role of connexins in infantile hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Blanke, Katja; Dähnert, Ingo; Salameh, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The circulatory system is one of the first systems that develops during embryogenesis. Angiogenesis describes the formation of blood vessels as a part of the circulatory system and is essential for organ growth in embryogenesis as well as repair in adulthood. A dysregulation of vessel growth contributes to the pathogenesis of many disorders. Thus, an imbalance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors could be observed in infantile hemangioma (IH). IH is the most common benign tumor during infancy, which appears during the first month of life. These vascular tumors are characterized by rapid proliferation and subsequently slower involution. Most IHs regress spontaneously, but in some cases they cause disfigurement and systemic complications, which requires immediate treatment. Recently, a therapeutic effect of propranolol on IH has been demonstrated. Hence, this non-selective ?-blocker became the first-line therapy for IH. Over the last years, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IH has been improved and possible mechanisms of action of propranolol in IH have postulated. Previous studies revealed that gap junction proteins, the connexins (Cx), might also play a role in the pathogenesis of IH. Therefore, affecting gap junctional intercellular communication is suggested as a novel therapeutic target of propranolol in IH. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the molecular processes, leading to IH and provide new insights of how Cxs might be involved in the development of these vascular tumors. PMID:23596415

  5. Symptomatic hemangioma of oral cavity treated with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.

    1995-05-01

    The CO2 laser has been used by our group as a secure and efficient tool for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangiomas which can be responsible for disturbance for swallowing, phonation and in hygienic, besides discomfort and bleeding to patients. During the last four years, twelve patients with symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma were treated at the Laser Unit of our University. The treatment consisted in the application of CO2 laser at medium to low intensity according to characteristics and location of the lesions. For hemangiomas located at sites of easy surgical access such as anterior 1/3 of the tongue, lips, bucal vestibule we use 10 to 37 J/mm2 over the surface of the lesion. When the hemangioma was located at difficult surgical access sites, such as, tonsils, posterior 1/3 of tongue, or at pharyngeal wall we used 3.0 to 4.0 J/mm2 encircling the whole hemangioma. This causes reduction in the size of the lesion throughout sclerosis of nutrition vessels. After this initial procedure we applied 0.8 to 1.0 J/mm2 over the whole extent of the lesion. For both procedures we observed no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. The patients referred minimal post-operative discomfort with good cicatricial evolution. The evident reduction in the vascularization and size could be confirmed by photographic documentation. The good results described above, with disappearance of symptoms lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser is an efficient and secure method of treatment for symptomatic hemangioma of the oral cavity.

  6. Isolated Cavernous Hemangioma: A Rare Benign Lesion of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Basbug, Murat; Yavuz, Ridvan; Dablan, Mahmut; Baysal, Birol; Gencoglu, Metehan; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cavernous hemangioma is a relatively rare benign gastric disease. Here we report the case of a 25-year-old male patient who had been admitted complaining of epigastric pain and hematemesis. Preoperative imaging indicated that the mass lesion palpated in the epigastric region was a probable mesenchymal tumor of gastric origin. Due to the hypervascular nature and submucosal localization of the mass, we did not obtain definitive preoperative diagnosis by endoscopic biopsy. The histologic diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma was confirmed by post-resection histopathologial evaluation of the mass. PMID:23024741

  7. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Hepatitis A Article Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can ... well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child ...

  8. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hepatitis B? Hepatitis B can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. Hepatitis B is incurable. A safe, ... can lead to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver cancer, and even death.Hepatitis A can cause varying ...

  9. Infantile hemangioma: pulsed dye laser versus surgical therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remlova, E.; Dostalova, T.; Michalusova, I.; Vranova, J.; Jelinkova, H.; Hubacek, M.

    2014-05-01

    Hemangioma is a mesenchymal benign tumor formed by blood vessels. Anomalies affect up to 10% of children and they are more common in females than in males. The aim of our study was to compare the treatment efficacy, namely the curative effect and adverse events, such as loss of pigment and appearance of scarring, between classical surgery techniques and laser techniques. For that reason a group of 223 patients with hemangioma was retrospectively reviewed. For treatment, a pulsed dye laser (PDL) (Rhodamine G, wavelength 595 nm, pulsewidth between 0.45 and 40 ms, spot diameter 7 mm, energy density 9-11 J cm-2) was used and the results were compared with a control group treated with classical surgical therapy under general anesthesia. The curative effects, mainly number of sessions, appearance of scars, loss of pigment, and relapses were evaluated as a marker of successful treatment. From the results it was evident that the therapeutic effects of both systems are similar. The PDL was successful in all cases. The surgery patients had four relapses. Classical surgery is directly connected with the presence of scars, but the system is safe for larger hemangiomas. It was confirmed that the PDL had the optimal curative effect without scars for small lesions (approximately 10 mm). Surgical treatment under general anesthesia is better for large hemangiomas; the disadvantage is the presence of scars.

  10. Role of pigment epithelium-derived factor in the involution of hemangioma: Autocrine growth inhibition of hemangioma-derived endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Jin; Yun, Jang-Hyuk; Heo, Jong-Ik; Lee, Eun Hui; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Tae Hyun; Cho, Chung-Hyun

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • PEDF was expressed and induced during the involuting phase of IH. • PEDF inhibited the cell growth of the involuting HemECs in an autocrine manner. • PEDF suppression restored the impaired cell growth of the involuting HemECs. - Abstract: Hemangioma is a benign tumor derived from abnormal blood vessel growth. Unlike other vascular tumor counterparts, a hemangioma is known to proliferate during its early stage but it is followed by a stage of involution where regression of the tumor occurs. The critical onset leading to the involution of hemangioma is currently not well understood. This study focused on the molecular identities of the involution of hemangioma. We demonstrated that a soluble factor released from the involuting phase of hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemECs) and identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) as an anti-angiogenic factor that was associated with the growth inhibition of the involuting HemECs. The growth inhibition of the involuting HemECs was reversed by suppression of PEDF in the involuting HemECs. Furthermore, we found that PEDF was more up-regulated in the involuting phase of hemangioma tissues than in the proliferating or the involuted. Taken together, we propose that PEDF accelerates the involution of hemangioma by growth inhibition of HemECs in an autocrine manner. The regulatory mechanism of PEDF expression could be a potential therapeutic target to treat hemangiomas.

  11. Sternal Cleft associated with Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Atrial Septal Defect, and Subglottic Hemangioma: A rarity

    PubMed Central

    Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Irandokht

    2014-01-01

    We present a 2-day-old female neonate with cleft of the upper sternum, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), atrial septal defect (ASD), and subglottic hemangioma. Dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and imaging were performed. She underwent a surgical repair of sternal cleft in neonatal life. After 8 months, she developed respiratory distress, apnea due to subglottic hemangioma. She underwent urgent tracheostomy. Subglottic hemangioma was treated with the KTP532 laser. PMID:24834387

  12. High-Resolution Micro-CT for Morphologic and Quantitative Assessment of the Sinusoid in Human Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jinghao; Hu, Chunhong; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoid plays a vital role in human cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL), and its morphologic investigation facilitates the understanding of microcirculation mechanism and pathological change of CHL. However, precise anatomical view of the hepatic sinusoid has been limited by the resolution and contrast available from existing imaging techniques. While liver biopsy has traditionally been the reliable method for the assessment of hepatic sinusoids, the invasiveness and sampling error are its inherent limitations. In this study, imaging of CHL samples was performed using in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation. ILPCI allowed clear visualization of soft tissues and revealed structural details that were invisible to conventional radiography. Combining the computed tomography (CT) technique, ILPCI-CT was used to acquire the high-resolution micro-CT images of CHL, and three dimensional (3D) microstructures of hepatic sinusoids were provided for the morphologic depiction and quantitative assessment. Our study demonstrated that ILPCI-CT could substantially improve the radiographic contrast of CHL tissues in vitro with no contrast agent. ILPCI-CT yielded high-resolution micro-CT image of CHL sample at the micron scale, corresponding to information on actual structures revealed at histological section. The 3D visualization provided an excellent view of the hepatic sinusoid. The accurate view of individual hepatic sinusoid was achieved. The valuable morphological parameters of hepatic sinusoids, such as thrombi, diameters, surface areas and volumes, were measured. These parameters were of great importance in the evaluation of CHL, and they provided quantitative descriptors that characterized anatomical properties and pathological features of hepatic sinusoids. The results highlight the high degree of sensitivity of the ILPCI-CT technique and demonstrate the feasibility of accurate visualization of hepatic sinusoids. Moreover, there is a correlation between the CHL and the size or morphology of hepatic sinusoids, which offers a potential use in noninvasive study and analysis of CHL. PMID:23308240

  13. Managment of superficial infantile capillary hemangiomas with topical timolol maleate solution.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Yusuf, Faraz; Sharma, Rajeev; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of eyelids and orbit in children. Recently, a topical beta blocker has been reported as an effective treatment for superficial capillary hemangiomas. We present a case report of two children having large capillary hemangiomas who responded well to topical treatment by 0.5% timolol maleate solution. After 12 months of treatment, the lesion has significantly reduced in size, thickness, and color in both cases. Thus, we conclude that long-term use of topical 0.5% timolol maleate solution is safe and effective in treating superficial capillary hemangiomas. PMID:24074395

  14. Effects of oral propranolol on a juxtapapillary capillary hemangioma: a single-subject pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Sahashi, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Tomoki; Tomita, Yasushi; Saito, Akiko M; Hirose, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Oral propranolol hydrochloride has been proven effective in treating infantile hemangiomas, and its potential efficacy in choroidal hemangiomas has been suggested. A 57-year-old woman with a juxtapapillary capillary hemangioma was treated with oral propranolol at Nagoya Medical Center in Japan in 2012. Although the condition of this patient partially improved, oral propranolol did not appear to have a critical therapeutic effect. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first pilot study to describe a case in which oral propranolol was used as a therapeutic approach for a retinal hemangioma. PMID:25856826

  15. Endoscopic nonembolized resection of an extensive sinonasal cavernous hemangioma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kovalerchik, Olga; Husain, Qasim; Mirani, Neena M.; Liu, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Sinonasal hemangiomas, although rare, must be considered in the evaluation of intranasal masses with profuse epistaxis. Although the availability of literature discussing cavernous hemangiomas in this location is limited, there have been no case reports of exclusively soft tissue sinonasal cavernous hemangiomas extending to the anterior skull base (ASB) that were resected purely endoscopically. Here, we describe the successful endoscopic resection of an extensive right sinonasal cavernous hemangioma extending to but not invading the ASB. Although highly vascular, in select cases, these tumors can be successfully resected endoscopically without embolization by experienced endoscopic sinus and skull base surgeons. PMID:24498525

  16. Red blood cell scan in cavernous hemangioma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, D.M.; Noyek, A.M.; Kirsh, J.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the larynx is an uncommon, difficult-to-diagnose vascular tumor for which there is no significant imaging literature to date. The possibility of improved diagnosis through RBC scanning might obviate injudicious biopsy and potential hemorrhage within the airway. Utilizing the radionuclide RBC scan, which labels the patient's own RBCs initially with cold pyrophosphate, and subsequently with technetium 99m as pertechnetate, we have identified successfully four patients with cavernous hemangioma of the larynx. All presented with a supraglottic mass involving at least the aryepiglottic fold and arytenoid region unilaterally. This report describes our satisfactory diagnostic imaging experience with the radionuclide RBC scan and suggests both its imaging specificity and its role in the management of this lesion.

  17. Carbonic anhydrase is abundant in fenestrated capillaries of cherry hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M; Jungkunz, W; Wörl, J; Marsch, W C

    1994-01-01

    A strong correlation has been found between carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and fenestrations in juxtaepithelial capillaries of several tissues, including psoriatic lesions of human skin. In the present study we demonstrate that the majority of the capillaries in cherry hemangiomas are fenestrated and histochemically react CA positively. Obviously the occurrence of CA in these capillaries corresponds to the fenestrations of venous capillaries, which are numerously revealed by electron microscopy. In normal undiseased skin no capillary staining for CA was observed. Therefore in a large proportion of the capillaries of cherry hemangiomas the correlation between fenestrations and CA activity also exists. We suggest that the histochemical demonstration of CA activity might serve as a sensitive and simple marker for fenestrated capillaries in skin tissue. PMID:7908484

  18. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Nasal Cavity Hemangiomas According to Histological Type

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Soo Chin; Lim, Myung Kwan; Jang, Tae Young; Kim, Yeo Ju; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Ha Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between two histological types of nasal hemangiomas (cavernous hemangioma and capillary or lobular capillary hemangioma). Materials and Methods CT (n = 20; six pre-contrast; 20 post-enhancement) and MRI (n = 7) images from 23 patients (16 men and seven women; mean age, 43 years; range, 13-73 years) with a pathologically diagnosed nasal cavity hemangioma (17 capillary and lobular capillary hemangiomas and six cavernous hemangiomas) were reviewed, focusing on lesion location, size, origin, contour, enhancement pattern, attenuation or signal intensity (SI), and bony changes. Results The 17 capillary and lobular hemangiomas averaged 13 mm (range, 4-37 mm) in size, and most (n = 13) were round. Fourteen capillary hemangiomas had marked or moderate early phase enhancement on CT, which dissipated during the delayed phase. Four capillary hemangiomas on MRI showed marked enhancement. Bony changes were usually not seen on CT or MRI (seen on five cases, 29.4%). Half of the lesions (2/4) had low SI on T1-weighted MRI images and heterogeneously high SI with signal voids on T2-weighted images. The six cavernous hemangiomas were larger than the capillary type (mean, 20.5 mm; range, 10-39 mm) and most had lobulating contours (n = 4), with characteristic enhancement patterns (three centripetal and three multifocal nodular), bony remodeling (n = 4, 66.7%), and mild to moderate heterogeneous enhancement during the early and delayed phases. Conclusion CT and MRI findings are different between the two histological types of nasal hemangiomas, particularly in the enhancement pattern and size, which can assist in preoperative diagnosis and planning of surgical tumor excision. PMID:25995686

  19. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePLUS

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis A virus. ... The hepatitis A virus is found mostly in the stools and blood of an infected person. The virus is present ...

  20. A rare case report of rib hemangioma mimicking a malignant bone tumor or metastatic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Akira; Nagashima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma of the rib is a rare benign vascular tumor. This benign disease induces osteolytic changes, and must be distinguished from a malignant bone tumor or metastatic tumor. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by excision biopsy or histological examination after surgical resection in many cases. We here in present a rare case of hemangioma of the rib. PMID:26454500

  1. Macrophages Contribute to the Progression of Infantile Hemangioma by Regulating the Proliferation and Differentiation of Hemangioma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Gang; Wang, Feng-Qin; Ren, Jian-Gang; Zhu, Jun-Yi; Cai, Yu; Zhao, Ji-Hong; Jia, Jun; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-12-01

    Macrophage infiltration has been implicated in infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy. However, the exact role of macrophages in IH remains unknown. This study aims to clarify the functional significance of macrophages in the progression of IH. The distribution of macrophages in human IH was analyzed, and our results revealed that polarized macrophages were more prevalent in proliferating IHs than in involuting IHs, which was consistent with the increased macrophage-related cytokines in proliferating IHs. In vitro results further demonstrated that polarized macrophages effectively promoted the proliferation of hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs) and suppressed their adipogenesis in an Akt- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2)-dependent manner. Moreover, M2- but not M1-polarized macrophages promoted the endothelial differentiation of HemSCs. Furthermore, mixing macrophages in a murine hemangioma model elevated microvessel density and postponed fat tissue formation, which was concomitant with the activation of Akt and Erk1/2 signals. Cluster analysis revealed a close correlation among the macrophage markers, Ki67, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p-Akt, and p-Erk1/2 in human IH tissues. Collectively, our results suggest that macrophages in IH contribute to tumor progression by promoting the proliferation and endothelial differentiation while suppressing the adipogenesis of HemSCs. These findings indicate that targeting the infiltrating macrophages in IH is a promising therapeutic approach to accelerate IH regression. PMID:26288359

  2. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    What are hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections? Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are serious infections that affect the liver. Both diseases ... term illness. What extra risks are caused by hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections during pregnancy? Not only ...

  3. Retinal Capillary Hemangioma Treated with Verteporfin Photodynamic Therapy and Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Shin Cho; Jin, Sun Young; Kim, Chul Gu; Kim, Jong Woo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of retinal capillary hemangioma treated with verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. Methods A 15-year-old female presented with metamorphopsia in the left eye for 7 days. Examination showed peripheral endophytic retinal capillary hemangioma, macular edema, and a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/50. The hemangioma and macular edema were treated with verteporfin photodynamic therapy and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. Results After 5 months of follow-up, involution of the hemangioma, reduction of macular edema, decrease of the feeder and draining vessel diameter, and improvement of best-corrected visual acuity to 20/25 was seen. Conclusions This verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide appeared to cause involution of the hemangioma with reduction in macular edema and improvement in visual acuity. PMID:17804927

  4. A practical guide to treatment of infantile hemangiomas of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia Wei; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Mai, Hua Ming; Wang, Yan An; Fan, Xin Dong; Qin, Zhong Ping; Wang, Xv Kai; Zhao, Yi Fang

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign vascular tumors in infancy and childhood. As hemangioma could regress spontaneously, it generally does not require treatment unless proliferation interferes with normal function or gives rise to risk of serious disfigurement and complications unlikely to resolve without treatment. Various methods for treating infant hemangiomas have been documented, including wait and see policy, laser therapy, drug therapy, sclerotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and so on, but none of these therapies can be used for all hemangiomas. To obtain the best treatment outcomes, the treatment protocol should be individualized and comprehensive as well as sequential. Based on published literature and clinical experiences, we established a treatment guideline in order to provide criteria for the management of head and neck hemangiomas. This protocol will be renewed and updated to include and reflect any cutting-edge medical knowledge, and provide the newest treatment modalities which will benefit our patients. PMID:24260591

  5. Hepatitis C and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the ... related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C AND HIV About 25% of people living with ...

  6. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePLUS

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  7. Review of topical beta blockers as treatment for infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Painter, Sally L; Hildebrand, Göran Darius

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of infantile hemangiomas changed from the use of oral corticosteroids to oral propranolol on the serendipitous discovery of propanolol's clinical effectiveness in 2008. Since then, clinicians have begun to use topical beta blockers-in particular, timolol maleate 0.5% gel forming solution-with good effect. Topical beta blockers are now used for lesions with both deep and superficial components and those that are amblyogenic. When initiated in the proliferative phase of the lesion, the effectiveness of the treatment can be seen within days. There is no consensus on dosing, treatment bioavailability, or clinical assessment of lesions, but these are topics for future research. PMID:26408055

  8. Large Genital Cavernous Hemangioma: A Rare Surgically Correctable Entity

    PubMed Central

    Gangkak, Goto; Mishra, Anoop; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Tomar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of 24-year-old male presenting with painless penoscrotal swelling for 3 years. On examination, a large soft bag of worm-like, superficial, nonpulsatile swelling was present in scrotum and penis. Color Doppler showed dilated tortuous vessels and on angiography no connections to corpora or vessels were seen. So a diagnosis of hemangioma was made and a surgical excision was carried out by circumcoronal and scrotal incisions. Postop course was uneventful. At 6 months of follow-up, no recurrence was seen and wound had healed with excellent cosmetic appearance. PMID:26693380

  9. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Skull and Meningioma: Association or Coincidence?

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, M.; Darmoul, M.; Hammedi, F.; Ben Nsir, A.; Hattab, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas of the skull are rare. Meningiomas are quite frequently encountered in a neurosurgical practice. The association between these two entities is nevertheless very uncommon. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman suffering from headache. The MRI showed a parietal meningioma with adjacent thick bone. The meningioma and the bone were removed. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of meningioma and revealed a cavernoma of the skull. The relationship between the lesions suggests more than a coincidental association. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain common causal connections. PMID:25960899

  10. [Maffucci's syndrome with giant tumor of the thoracic wall].

    PubMed

    Strza?ka, Marcin; Drozdz, W?odzimierz; Kulawik, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Maffucci's syndrome is a rare nonhereditary malformation of mesodremal dysplasia origin which consists of multiple hemangiomas of the soft tissue and multiple enchondromas. Only approximately 170 cases of this disease have been reported in the literature. Maffucci's syndrome is known to be associated with tumors of mesodermal origin. Chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma and angiosarcoma are the most common malignant neoplasms and the benign tumors consist of pituitary adenoma, adrenal cortical adenoma, parathyroid adenoma, thyroid adenoma and breast fibroadenoma. We present a case report of a 26-year old female patient with Maffucci's syndrome and a giant thorax tumor composed of fibroadenoma and canalicular adenoma. PMID:14679700

  11. Diode laser photocoagulation in PHACES syndrome hemangiomas: a case series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, U.; Russo, N.; Polimeni, A.; Favia, G.; Lacaita, M. G.; Limongelli, L.; Franco, S.

    2014-01-01

    PHACES syndrome is a pediatric syndrome with cutaneous and extra-cutaneous manifestations, such as Posterior fossa defects, Hemangiomas, Arterial lesions, Cardiac abnormalities/aortic coarctation, Eye abnormalities and Sternal cleft. Facial hemangiomas affect the 75% of patients and may arise on the oral mucosa or perioral cutaneous regions. In this study we treated 26 Intraoral Haemangiomas (IH) and 15 Perioral Haemangiomas (PH) with diode laser photocoagulation using a laser of 800+/-10nm of wavelength. For IH treatment an optical fiber of 320 ?m was used, and the laser power was set ted at 4 W (t-on 200 ms / t-off 400ms; fluence: 995 J/cm2). For PH treatment an optical fiber of 400 ?m at the power of 5 W was used (t-on 100 ms / t-off 300 ms; fluence: 398 J/cm2). IH healed after one session (31%), the other (69%) after two sessions of Laser therapy. In each session, only a limited area of the PH was treated, obtaining a progressive improvement of the lesion. Diode laser photocoagulation is an effective option of treatment for IH and PH in patients affected by PHACE because of its minimal invasiveness. Moreover laser photocoagulation doesn't have side effects and can be performed repeatedly without cumulative toxicity. Nevertheless, more studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy in mid and long time period.

  12. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePLUS

    ... commonly used with viral hepatitis and related conditions. Web Resources American Liver Foundation A national nonprofit organization ... other liver diseases through research, education, and advocacy. Web site features a database directory of hepatitis clinical ...

  13. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen, causing injury to ... pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. Such conditions may include: Abnormal heart rhythms Dehydration ...

  14. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  15. Hepatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Kaul; Friedenberg; Rothstein

    2000-12-01

    Treatment of hepatic cysts should be considered only for those patients who are symptomatic. For simple cysts, percutaneous aspiration invariably leads to recurrence; laparoscopic deroofing is usually curative. Open deroofing (fenestration) should be reserved for cysts inaccessible by laparoscopy. Percutaneous instillation of sclerosing agents (ethanol, iophendylate, minocycline) into nonbiliary and nonparasitic cysts is an alternative therapeutic option in certain cases. Due to increased morbidity, hepatic resection should be reserved for polycystic liver disease, diffuse hepatic involvement, or recurrence after a deroofing procedure. Patients with congenital fibropolycystic disorders (eg, congenital hepatic fibrosis) with evidence of hepatic decompensation, should be considered for liver transplantation. For hepatic hydatid cysts, simple cystectomy or the PAIR (puncture, aspirate, inject, and reaspirate) technique with albendazole treatment have been shown to be equally successful. In the case of alveolar echinococcosis, hepatic resection and liver transplantation are the only effective modalities for localized and extensive hepatic disease, respectively. PMID:11096603

  16. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  17. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 507 Hepatitis C WHAT IS HEPATITIS C? HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? ... treatment may be less likely to work. Hep C treatment is less effective for coinfected people. Cure ...

  18. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  19. Development of pyogenic granuloma and hemangioma after placement of dental implants: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shamiri, Hashem Motahir; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight the development of pyogenic granuloma and hemangioma after the placement of dental implants. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed Interface, for articles published between 2000 and 2014 in English, relating to the occurrence of pyogenic granuloma or hemangioma in relation to dental implants. Results: Our search identified only four case reports of pyogenic granuloma and hemangioma related to dental implants as reported in the English literature. Conclusion: Placement of dental implants can cause development of pyogenic granuloma and hemangioma, indicating that placement of dental implants requires well-trained specialists with perfect skills in dental implantology. Furthermore, the critical selection of the appropriate case is of paramount importance to avoid the occurrence of such complications. PMID:25992330

  20. Preliminary Report On Combined Surgical- And Laser-Treatment Of Large Hemangiomas And Tattoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsbach, G.

    1981-05-01

    As most hemangiomas and tattoos require many sessions to be cured completely by argon-laser or conventional therapy I developed a new combined surgical and laser-therapy method for large hemangiomas and tattoos. This is a three step method. First: The skin lesion is treated by argon-laser with the point by point method, developed by ourself. Second: Under local or general anaesthesia a) the hemangioma is partially excised and undermined letting only the skin which is already treated by argon-laser-beams. Than the hemangioma is exstirpated in toto, the wound closed by running intradermal sutures and a pressure bandage applied, b) the tattoo is abraded as deep as possible, draped by lyofoam. Then a pressure bandage is applied. Third: The hemangioma as well as the tattoo are treated by argon-laser-beams after the operation. This method is safe and effective, gives good results, minimal scars in the case of hemangiomas and tattoos. In this paper the method is described and some cases are illustrated by pre- and postoperational photographs.

  1. Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    Beyond the inner solar system's terrestrial planets, with their compact orbits and rock -metal compositions, lies the realm of the outer solar system and the giant planets. Here the distance between planets jumps by an order of magnitude relative to the spacing of the terrestrial planets, and the masses of the giants are one to two orders of magnitude greater than Venus and Earth - the largest terrestrial bodies. Composition changes as well, since the giant planets are largely gaseous, with inferred admixtures of ice, rock, and metal, while the terrestrial planets are essentially pure rock and metal. The giant planets have many more moons than do the terrestrial planets, and the range of magnetic field strengths is larger in the outer solar system. It is the giant planets that sport rings, ranging from the magnificent ones around Saturn to the variable ring arcs of Neptune. Were it not for the fact that only Earth supports abundant life (with life possibly existing, but not proved to exist, in the martian crust and liquid water regions underneath the ice of Jupiter's moon Europa), the terrestrial planets would pale in interest next to the giant planets for any extraterrestrial visitor.

  2. Hepatitis C Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hepatitis C Antibody; Anti-HCV; HCV-PCR; HCV-RNA; Hepatitis C Viral Load Formal name: Viral Hepatitis C Antibody Screen; Viral Hepatitis C RNA by PCR; Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Related tests: ...

  3. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  4. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePLUS

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... Blood (serology) tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses.

  5. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in ...

  6. Photodynamic therapy suppresses tumor growth in an in vivo model of human hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Woo Jung; Park, Sang Woo; Xu, Lianji; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Min, Hye Sook; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Kim, Sukwha; Choi, Tae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against infantile hemangioma using a hemangioma animal model. Eighty-three hemangioma specimens from five children were implanted into nude mice. The gross and volume changes of the implants were evaluated for up to 13 weeks. The histological change of the implant was evaluated at 5 weeks after transplantation. Photodynamic therapy was performed between 6 and 10 weeks after transplantation. The photosensitizer uptake of the implant was evaluated at 24 h after photosensitizer administration. The implant response was evaluated at 0, 12, and 24 h after light delivery. The change in ATF3 levels, a transcription factor induced under severe hypoxic conditions, was investigated immediately after treatment. The implant volume increased slowly during the first 4 weeks and then involuted. At 5 weeks after transplantation, plump endothelial cells formed tightly packed sinusoidal channels, and the endothelial cells were positive for CD31 and GLUT1 expression. At 24 h after photosensitizer administration, confocal analysis showed that the photosensitizer was present within CD31-positive cells. The implant volume was significantly decreased in the treated implants compared with the untreated implants (p < 0.0001). At 24 h after light delivery, most cells had collapsed. ATF3 expression increased gradually and then reached a maximum level at 4 h after treatment. Photodynamic therapy was effective in the treatment of infantile hemangioma. Apoptosis, a major mechanism of hemangioma destruction in the early phase, might be caused by ischemic injury as well as direct effects of photodynamic therapy. PMID:23784382

  7. Congenital hepatic fibrosis--unusual presentations.

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Y; Deckelbaum, R J; Weizman, Z; Lijovetsky, G; Schiller, M

    1984-01-01

    Two children with congenital hepatic fibrosis presented atypically: one with prolonged fever and hepatomegaly associated with a giant intrahepatic biliary cyst and a second with ascites at an early age despite normal serum albumin concentrations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6391392

  8. Characterization of focal hepatic lesions with SPIO-enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Kang-Rong; Chen, Zu-Wang; Shen, Ji-Zhang; Chen, Cai-Zhong; Zhang, Shu-Jie

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced MRI in characterizing focal hepatic lesions. METHODS: Forty-three patients (32 men, 11 women, mean age 51 years, age range 25-74 years) with previously identified focal hepatic lesions were enrolled into this study. All the patients underwent plain,Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI and the SPIO enhanced MRI 1-7 d later. The surgico-pathologic diagnosis was aestablished in 31 cases and the diagnosis in other 12 cases was made on the basis of clinical findings and biochemical tests. The signal changes of lesions were analyzed and the CNRs of lesion-to-liver were measured before and after SPIO enhancement. The data were analyzed by paired t test. RESULTS: Focal hepatic lesions included primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 22), hemangioma (n = 5), cyst (n = 4), metastases (n = 5), cirrhotic nodule (n = 4), focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, n = 5) and other miscellaneous lesions (n = 6). After SPIO enhancement HCC demonstrated iso- or slight hyperintensity on T1WI and moderate hyperintersity on T2WI, hemangioma showed moderate hyperintensity on T1WI and obvious hyperintensity on T2WI, the SI of cyst had no change either on T1WI or on T2WI, cirrhotic nodules revealed iso-intensity on T2WI, and the SI of FNH decreased significantlyon T2WI. No specific manifestations were found in the other 6 miscellaneous lesions after SPIO enhancement. CONCLUSION: SPIO enhanced-MRI can improve the characterization confidence for diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions. PMID:11833077

  9. Spontaneous rupture of the kidney in the patients with synchronous renal hemangioma and nephrogenic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Memmedo?lu, Akif; Musayev, Jamal

    2015-12-01

    Most renal neoplasms in adults are epithelial in origin and mesenchymal tumors are rarely encountered. Vascular tumors and tumor-like lesions account for a very small subset. Hemangioma of the kidney is a rarely seen benign vascular neoplasm that probably arises from angioblastic cells. Its general sign is macroscopic hematuria with or without pain. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult or impossible. Previously, spontaneous rupture of the kidney caused by renal hemangioma was not reported in the English literature. In this study, two cases with a history of nephrogenic hypertension who presented with spontaneous renal rupture are presented. There wasn't any trauma history in the background of our patients. A long-standing nephrogenic hypertension was present in both patients. Patients underwent radical nephrectomy due to rupture of the renal tumor. In histopathological examination, capillary hemangioma was detected in the renal medulla in both cases. Patients didn't need antihypertensive therapy during the postoperative period. PMID:26623154

  10. Cavernous hemangioma of adult pancreas: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Utpal; Henkes, Nichole; Henkes, David; Rosenkranz, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic hemangioma is a rare type of benign vascular tumor. Low clinical suspicion and inability of current cross sectional imaging techniques to differentiate it from other pancreatic lesions, contribute to the difficulty in making the correct diagnosis. Without a definitive diagnosis, and due to concern for malignancy, in many instances, surgery is performed. We report a case of pancreas cavernous hemangioma in an 18-year-old female. The patient presented with three-month history of epigastric pain. Physical examination and routine blood tests were normal. Abdominal Computed Tomography scan revealed a 5 cm × 6 cm complex non-enhancing cystic mass in the head of pancreas. Magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS guided fine needle aspiration cytology were non-diagnostic. Because of uncontrolled symptoms, the patient underwent surgical resection. Histopathology and Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of pancreas. PMID:26361427

  11. Co-occurrence of intraoral hemangioma and port wine stain: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Bejai, Vishal; Rao, Sanath; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Hemangiomas are neoplastic proliferations of endothelial cells, characterized by a period of growth after birth, and eventual spontaneous involution. The course can be uneventful with spontaneous resolution; or it may be marked by complications such as infection, bleeding, ulceration, visual defects and feeding difficulties. Apart from these, rare life-threatening complications such as congestive heart failure and consumption coagulopathy may also be seen. Although hemangiomas commonly occur in the head and neck region, intraoral occurrence is relatively rare. A port wine stain is defined as a macular telangiectatic patch which is present at birth and remains throughout life. They may be localized or extensive, affecting a whole limb. This article reports a rare case of co-occurrence of port wine stain with intraoral hemangioma. PMID:23130257

  12. Spontaneous rupture of the kidney in the patients with synchronous renal hemangioma and nephrogenic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Memmedo?lu, Akif; Musayev, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Most renal neoplasms in adults are epithelial in origin and mesenchymal tumors are rarely encountered. Vascular tumors and tumor-like lesions account for a very small subset. Hemangioma of the kidney is a rarely seen benign vascular neoplasm that probably arises from angioblastic cells. Its general sign is macroscopic hematuria with or without pain. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult or impossible. Previously, spontaneous rupture of the kidney caused by renal hemangioma was not reported in the English literature. In this study, two cases with a history of nephrogenic hypertension who presented with spontaneous renal rupture are presented. There wasn’t any trauma history in the background of our patients. A long-standing nephrogenic hypertension was present in both patients. Patients underwent radical nephrectomy due to rupture of the renal tumor. In histopathological examination, capillary hemangioma was detected in the renal medulla in both cases. Patients didn’t need antihypertensive therapy during the postoperative period. PMID:26623154

  13. Intravascular Lobular Capillary Hemangioma in the Corpus Spongiosum.

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Ana; Cardoso, José Carlos; Calonje, Eduardo; Tellechea, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) or pyogenic granuloma is a very common benign vascular tumor. However, its etiology still remains unknown. This tumor classically arises from epithelium-lined tissue, such as skin and mucosa, but subcutaneous and intravenous variants have also been described. Intravenous LCH usually arises within the lumen of large caliber veins, but other intravascular examples have been reported in association with vascular malformations, namely port-wine stains and arteriovenous fistulas. A 54-year-old man presented after the sudden appearance of a subcutaneous nodule on his penile coronal sulcus. A partial biopsy disclosed a lesion with typical features of LCH but with the particularity of being located within the dilated vascular spaces of the corpus spongiosum. After the biopsy, the lesion completely regressed. Although no causal factor could be elicited, trauma was a possible trigger considering the site. Additionally, we speculate that perhaps the normal anatomy of the corpus spongiosum may mimic a similar "slow blood flow environment" found in some vascular malformations, thus providing a possible explanation for the unusual location of the lesion in our patient. This case represents, to our knowledge, the first intravascular LCH described in the corpus spongiosum. Awareness of this unusual intravascular variant of LCH is of paramount importance to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment, because the lesion may resolve even if incompletely excised, like in this case. PMID:26730699

  14. Breast cancer after radiotherapy for skin hemangioma in infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, M.; Mattsson, A.; Hakulinen, T.; Holm, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Between 1920 and 1959, 9675 women were irradiated in infancy for skin hemangioma at Radiumhemmet, Stockholm. They were exposed to low to moderate doses of ionizing radiation. The mean age at first exposure was 6 months and the mean absorbed dose to the breast anlage was 0.39 Gy (range < 0.01-35.8 Gy). The breast cancer incidence was analyzed by record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register for the period 1958-1986. Seventy-five breast cancers were found after a mean absorbed dose of 1.5 Gy in the breasts with cancer. The analyses showed a significant dose-response relationship with a linear model estimate for the excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.38 at 1 Gy (95% CI 0.09-0.85). This relationship was not modified significantly by age at exposure or by dose to the ovaries. The ERR increased significantly with time after exposure and for > 50 years after exposure the ERR at 1 Gy was 2.25 (95% CI 0.59-5.62). The fitted excess absolute risk (EAR) was 22.9 per 10{sup 4} breast-year gray. The breast absorbed dose and time after exposure were important risk determinants for breast cancer excess risk. Forty to 50 years of follow-up was necessary for the excess risk to be expressed. The study confirms previous findings that the breast anlage of female infants is sensitive to ionizing radiation. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bleibel, Wissam; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis affect hundreds of millions of patients all over the world. The majority of patients with cirrhosis will eventually develop complications related to portal hypertension. One of these recurrent and difficult to treat complications is hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have indicated that overt hepatic encephalopathy affects 30 to 45% of patients with cirrhosis and a higher percentage may be affected by minimal degree of encephalopathy. All of these factors add to the impact of hepatic encephalopathy on the healthcare system and presents a major challenge to the gastroenterologist, hospitalist and primary care physician. PMID:23006457

  16. Thoracic extraosseous, epidural, cavernous hemangioma: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manish S.; Borkar, Sachin A.; Kumar, Amandeep; Sharma, M. C.; Sharma, Bhawani S.; Mahapatra, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with mid-thoracic backache and progressive, ascending, spastic, paraparesis for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extraosseous, extradural mass, without any bone invasion at the T2-T4 vertebral levels, located dorsal to the thecal sac. The spinal cord was compressed ventrally. The lesion was totally excised after a T2-T4 laminectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. The authors reported this case and reviewed the literature, to explain why extraosseous, extradural, cavernous hemangiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extradural thoracic compressive myelopathy. PMID:24250167

  17. Thoracic extraosseous, epidural, cavernous hemangioma: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manish S; Borkar, Sachin A; Kumar, Amandeep; Sharma, M C; Sharma, Bhawani S; Mahapatra, Ashok K

    2013-07-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with mid-thoracic backache and progressive, ascending, spastic, paraparesis for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extraosseous, extradural mass, without any bone invasion at the T2-T4 vertebral levels, located dorsal to the thecal sac. The spinal cord was compressed ventrally. The lesion was totally excised after a T2-T4 laminectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. The authors reported this case and reviewed the literature, to explain why extraosseous, extradural, cavernous hemangiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extradural thoracic compressive myelopathy. PMID:24250167

  18. A giant ganglion cyst of hip joint causing lower limb edema.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weihua; Ge, Fangmin; Chen, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lower limb edema caused by a giant ganglion cyst of hip joint, rather than deep venous insufficiency or lymphedema, is unusual particularly for guiding clinical practice. In this study, we present a rare case of a 76-year-old man with a 3-month history of progressive swelling of right lower extremity and 2-month history of a known inguinal mass, which was initially thought as hemangioma by using ultrasound. But, subsequent computed tomography examination and exploration surgery revealed a giant ganglion cyst compressing the right femoral vein. Resection of the cyst led to complete resolution of symptoms postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge this is a very rare case of giant ganglion cyst of hip joint origin causing lower limb edema in the literature. PMID:20464050

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  20. Hepatitis D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain Nausea or vomiting Fever Loss of appetite Dark urine Joint pain Diagnosis Healthcare providers review symptoms ... risk behaviors associated with hepatitis D superinfection, including Sex with an infected partner Contact with the blood ...

  1. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who had hepatitis C Received a tattoo or acupuncture with needles that were not disinfected properly after ... have a tattoo license or permit or an acupuncture license) Received an organ transplant from a donor ...

  2. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2015 Q: What is hepatitis? A: Hepatitis is an inflammation ... urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Q: What are the different hepatitis viruses? A: Scientists ...

  3. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the following tests: Anti-delta agent antibody Liver biopsy Liver enzymes (blood test) ... against hepatitis B. Adults who are at high risk for hepatitis B ... If you do not get Hepatitis B, you cannot get Hepatitis D.

  4. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... Stomach ache Nausea Diarrhea No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will ...

  5. A mild and rare form of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome presenting with urethral bleeding due to penile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Ye?ilolva, Yavuz; K?l?nç, Ali; Aktoz, Tevfik; Onen, Abdurrrahman

    2011-02-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is characterized by a triad of cutaneous port-wine capillary malformations, hemihypertrophy, and varicose veins. Intermittent gross painless hematuria is usually the first clinical sign. An 8-year-old boy with multiple hemangiomas, including glans penis, and associated with KTS presented with urethral bleeding. Radiologic and endoscopic evaluation revealed neither intra-abdominal nor intravesical hemangioma. Urethral bleeding was thought to be related to glanular hemangioma extending to the anterior penile urethra. Although we were able to manage the case conservatively, many patients require endoscopic or surgical interventions. Radiologic and endoscopic evaluations and careful follow-up is essential for diagnosis and prompt treatment. PMID:20719363

  6. Coiling the arterial feeder: report on a successfully treated extensive hemangioma of the periprostatic venous plexus and the bladder neck.

    PubMed

    Mager, Rene; Thalhammer, Axel; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Frankenau, Peter; Haferkamp, Axel

    2014-11-01

    Extensive hemangioma of the prostate and the bladder is rare. In most cases, patients present for hematuria, hematospermia, or lower urinary tract symptoms. Confined lesions treatable with transurethral resection are most common but large hemangiomas requiring partial cystectomy are reported as well. Endoscopic or open surgery implies the risk for postoperative functional disability that is not reasonable for young patients. We present a case of an extensive symptomatic hemangioma of the periprostatic venous plexus and the bladder neck in a 46-year-old man, which was treated by superselective coiling of the arterial feeder with no recurrence at 6-month follow-up. PMID:25443950

  7. Rapid regrowth of a capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yoichi; Yamabe, Kazutoshi; Abe, Masamitsu

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of progressive gait disturbance. Neurological examinations showed mild weakness in his lower extremities and depreciation of deep sensation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed an intradural extramedullary enhanced lesion at the levels of the T10 and T11 vertebrae. Laminectomy of the T10 and T11 vertebrae was performed, and the vascular tumor on the spinal cord surface was completely resected. Histological analysis indicated that the lesion was a capillary hemangioma with an elevated proliferative index. Postoperatively, the patient showed rapid motor and sensory improvement. However, 6 months after the operation, MR imaging showed regrowth of the tumor although the clinical symptoms of the patient had not deteriorated. The patient has shown no tumor regrowth 9 years after the second operation. Capillary hemangiomas in the skin and soft tissues are often associated with high proliferative activity, and recurrence/regrowth is not infrequent. On the other hand, recurrence/regrowth of capillary hemangioma in the neuraxis after tumor resection has rarely been observed, even in cases of incomplete resection. The present case illustrates the treatment of recurrent capillary hemangioma of the spinal cord. PMID:23006883

  8. Delayed-onset of multiple cutaneous infantile hemangiomas due to propranolol: a case report.

    PubMed

    Porcel Chacón, Rocío; del Boz González, Javier; Navarro Morón, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Infantile hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumors in childhood. In view of its proven effectiveness in such cases, propranolol is the drug of choice. We present the case of a male infant who started treatment with propranolol shortly after birth due to heart disease. After 7 months, when the patient had suffered various respiratory exacerbations, this treatment was suspended. One week later, multiple skin lesions (ie, multifocal infantile hemangiomas) began to appear, with no extracutaneous involvement. It was decided to resume treatment with propranolol, although at lower doses than before, and the skin lesions improved rapidly, with some disappearing completely. Treatment was definitively withdrawn at age 16 months, with only slight recurrence of the lesions. The case described is of multifocal infantile hemangiomas without extracutaneous involvement appearing beyond the neonatal period after treatment with propranolol beginning in the first days of life. The details of the case support the hypothesis that this drug is not only therapeutic but also plays a prophylactic role against infantile hemangiomas. In turn, this supports the recent proposal that this drug may be useful in preventing the growth and spread of tumors with high angiogenic potential. It is postulated that the inhibition of ?-adrenergic receptors is associated with multiple intracellular processes related to the progression and metastasis of different tumors. PMID:25780066

  9. Usefulness of MRI in Delineation of Dermal and Subcutaneous Verrucous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, K; Banushree, CS

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has established itself as diagnostic modality of choice of soft tissue and musculoskeletal lesions but dermatological lesions have been diagnosed mainly by clinical examination. We present MRI features of dermal and subcutaneous verrucous hemangioma involving the dorsum of foot in a 20-year-old male and its usefulness in differentiating it from angiokeratoma with similar clinical features. PMID:26538751

  10. A rare case of pure primary hemangioma of the scapula: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LI, WEI; ZOU, FAN; DAI, MIN; ZHANG, BIN; NIE, TAO

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor, which may occur in any bone of the body. The most common locations are the spine and craniofacial bone; however, occurrence is extremely rare in the scapula. The current study presented the case of a 58-year-old female, with scapula hemangioma in the left shoulder who presented with joint ache that had lasted for ~1 year. The main clinical manifestations included local tenderness, an osseous lump and limited shoulder movement with a little pain, which was alleviated by rest. Roentgenogram, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the left acromion revealed a mass along the inner surface of the scapula of the left shoulder with polycystic expansion and bone destruction. The results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a pure primary tumor and the lesion was subsequently resected. Notably, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was capillary hemangioma. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical and imaging features of scapula hemangioma, which must be considered for the differential diagnosis of scapula tumors. In the present case, no recurrence was identified by X-ray examination 1 year after surgery. The long-term efficacy of surgical treatment requires continuous observation of the patient. PMID:26622831

  11. Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Giant Axonal Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Giant Axonal Neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare inherited ...

  12. Topical timolol solution versus laser in treatment of infantile hemangioma: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Abeer A; Alsharnoubi, Jehan

    2015-01-01

    Lasers, 595-nm pulsed dye and 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), have been used successfully for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas (IHs). Recently the use of a topical ?-blocker, specifically timolol maleate, has been promising in the treatment of IHs. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of topical timolol 5 mg/mL solution with that of combined sequential dual-wavelength laser in the treatment of IHs. Sixty children with IHs were divided randomly into two equal groups. Group 1 was treated with applications of timolol drops (5 mg/mL) twice daily. Group 2 was treated with sequential pulsed dye and Nd:Yag laser. Treatments were performed every month for a maximum of six sessions. Efficacy was evaluated clinically and by measuring the average hemoglobin level. A significant decrease in the average hemoglobin level was determined in both groups and a dramatic response was observed in superficial hemangiomas in the timolol group. The timolol group received treatment for an average of 4.0 ± 1.1 months and the laser group for 5.5 ± 0.9 months. The degree of improvement of mixed hemangiomas to laser treatment was greater than that of the timolol group. During 3 months of follow-up, no further improvement or relapse was reported in either group. Timolol solution is a safe and effective alternative to laser treatment in superficial hemangiomas. In mixed hemangiomas, the combined sequential 595-nm and 1,064-nm dual-wavelength laser provided better results than timolol solution because it penetrated deeply so that deep dermal blood vessels were reached. PMID:25740672

  13. Minimal invasive method to treat hemangiomas of the oral cavity with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.

    1997-05-01

    During the last six years we have developed a new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma. Our new technique, named 'laser encircling technique', has especially succeeded during hemangioma buccal maxillary surgeries. The treatment consisted in the application of a line of points of CO2 laser circling the lesion. Depending on the position and size of the lesion, we used from 0.4 to 4.0 Joules/mm2 laser energy density per pulse, causing reduction in the size of the lesion throughout the sclerosis of nutritional vessels which led to reduction in size, volume and color of the hemangiomas with no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. In this work forty male and female patients, twelve to fifty years old, presenting medium to small size hemangiomas situated in different sites of the oral cavity such as the tongue, mouth vestibule, pharynx, tonsil area and lips were treated by the procedure described above. The number of laser applications was defined by the peculiarities of each case, varying form 3 to 6 sessions at 4 week intervals, always under local or topic anesthesia. The patients complained about minimal posit operative discomfort and had good cicatrix evolution. The good results achieved by this technique lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser for these types of hemangioma is an efficient and very secure method of treatment. An important aspect of our technique is the fact that using relatively low laser power we do not perform real surgery but a less aggressive alternative of treatment.

  14. PHACE association with intracranial, oropharyngeal hemangiomas, and an atypical patent ductus arteriosus arising from the tortuous left subclavian artery in a premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang Hwan; Lee, Jung Ha; Kim, Hee Sup

    2012-01-01

    PHACE association is a rare neurocutaneous condition in which facial hemangiomas associate with a spectrum of posterior fossa malformations, arterial cerebrovascular anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, and eye anomalies. We reported a case of PHACE association in a premature infant showing facial, intracranial, and oropharyngeal hemangiomas with evidence of the Dandy-Walker variant and complicated cardiovascular anomalies, including a right-sided aortic arch and an atypical patent ductus arteriosus arising from a tortuous left subclavian artery. To our knowledge, intracranial hemangiomas are rare in PHACE association, and a concomitant oropharyngeal hemangioma has not been previously reported in the PHACE association literature. In infants presenting with large, plaque-like facial hemangiomas, it is important to conduct active cardiovascular and neurological evaluations. Special attention should be given to the laryngoscopic examination to search for additional hemangiomas in the airway. PMID:22359528

  15. Phase II Study to Assess the Efficacy of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in Patients With Large Cavernous Sinus Hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xin; Liu Xiaoxia; Mei Guanghai; Dai Jiazhong; Pan Li; Wang Enmin

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Cavernous sinus hemangioma is a rare vascular tumor. The direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage. Although radiosurgery plays an important role in managing cavernous sinus hemangiomas as a treatment alternative to microsurgery, the potential for increased toxicity with single-session treatment of large tumors is a concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with large cavernous sinus hemangiomas. Methods: Fourteen patients with large (volume >20 cm{sup 3}) cavernous sinus hemangiomas were enrolled in a prospective Phase II study between December 2007 and December 2010. The hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy dose was 21 Gy delivered in 3 fractions. Results: After a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 6-36 months), the magnetic resonance images showed a mean of 77% tumor volume reduction (range, 44-99%). Among the 6 patients with cranial nerve impairments before hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, 1 achieved symptomatic complete resolution and 5 had improvement. No radiotherapy-related complications were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: Our current experience, though preliminary, substantiates the role of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large cavernous sinus hemangiomas. Although a longer and more extensive follow-up is needed, hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of 21 Gy delivered in 3 fractions is effective in reducing the tumor volume without causing any new deficits and can be considered as a treatment modality for large cavernous sinus hemangiomas.

  16. Hepatitis E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with safe water, particularly before handling food; avoiding drinking water and/or ice of unknown purity; adhering to WHO safe food practices. In 2011, the first vaccine to prevent hepatitis E infection was registered in China. Although it is not available globally, it could ...

  17. Capillary hemangioma of the right main bronchus treated by sleeve resection in infancy.

    PubMed

    Paul, K P; Börner, C; Müller, K M; Vogt-Moykopf, I

    1991-04-01

    Respiratory distress developed in a 5-month-old female infant with roentgenographic evidence of hyperinflation of the right lung. Bronchoscopy revealed a vascular tumor extending from the medial wall of the right main bronchus leading to a check-valve mechanism. Radionuclide lung scans showed ventilation and perfusion of the right side reduced to 36 and 11% of the total lung ventilation and perfusion, respectively. At the age of 7 months a sleeve of the right main bronchus was resected and a reanastomosis performed. The operation specimen contained a capillary hemangioma measuring 1.2 X 0.6 cm. The postoperative course was uneventful. Perfusion of the right lung had markedly improved 6 months after the operation, and at the age of 2 yr and 9 months it was completely normal. Capillary hemangiomas must be considered a cause of bronchial obstruction in infancy, and surgery can be performed successfully. PMID:2008998

  18. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  19. Hepatitis B virus (image)

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    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  20. Hepatitis C FAQs

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  1. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a new liver. Several different viruses—named the hepatitis A, B, C, D and E viruses—can cause ... it. Different hepatitis viruses spread in different ways. Hepatitis A, the most common, is spread through food or ...

  2. Anti-angiogenic property of edible berry in a model of hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Mustafa; Gordillo, Gayle; Roy, Sashwati; Rovin, Brad; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K

    2003-06-01

    Hemangiomas represent a powerful model to study in vivo angiogenesis. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) is known to be responsible for recruiting macrophages to sites of infection or inflammation and facilitate angiogenesis. Recently we have demonstrated that edible berry extracts potently suppress inducible vascular endothelial growth factor expression and in vitro angiogenesis. Comparative analysis of several berry extracts led to the observation that wild blueberry and a berry mix were most effective. Our goal was to follow up on our findings with wild blueberry and the berry mix (OptiBerry). The present work rests on our current finding that these two berry powders significantly inhibit inducible MCP-1 expression in endothelioma cells. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of wild blueberry and berry mix in an in vivo model of experimental angiogenesis. Reporter studies showed that the berry powders significantly inhibited basal MCP-1 transcription and inducible nuclear factor kappaB transcription. Endothelioma cells pre-treated with berry powders showed diminished ability to form hemangioma. Histological analysis demonstrated markedly decreased infiltration of macrophages in hemangioma of treated mice compared to placebo-treated controls. The current results provide the first in vivo evidence substantiating the anti-angiogenic property of edible berries. PMID:12782326

  3. Rare case of adult pancreatic hemangioma and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Yang, Cheng

    2015-08-14

    Pancreatic hemangiomas are a rare type of cystic tumor, with very few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we present the case of a 28-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain. A physical examination failed to reveal any abnormalities that could explain her symptoms. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a multilocular cyst with moderately enhanced septa and fluid-fluid levels in the body and tail of the pancreas. A serous cystadenoma or pseudocyst of the pancreas was initially suspected, and the patient underwent a subtotal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. The pathologic diagnosis was a pancreatic hemangioma. This is the second case of pancreatic hemangioma with fluid-fluid levels reported in the literature. Upon imaging, the presentation of this tumor can resemble serous or mucinous cystadenomas, pseudocysts of the pancreas, and side-branch type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. This report reviews the clinical symptoms, radiologic features, pathologic characteristics, differential diagnoses, and treatment of this rare lesion type. PMID:26290651

  4. Central Retinal and Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion After Intralesional Injection of Sclerosant to Glabellar Subcutaneous Hemangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study is to describe vision loss caused by central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery occlusion as a consequence of sclerotherapy with a polidocanol injection to a glabellar hemangioma. An 18-year-old man underwent direct injection with a 23-gauge needle of 1 mL of a polidocanol-carbon dioxide emulsion into the glabellar subcutaneous hemangioma under ultrasound visualization of the needle tip by radiologists. He developed lid swelling the next day, and 3 days later at referral, the visual acuity in the left eye was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed central retinal artery occlusion and fluorescein angiography disclosed no perfusion at all in the left fundus, indicating concurrent posterior ciliary artery occlusion. The patient also showed mydriasis, blepharoptosis, and total external ophthalmoplegia on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the swollen medial rectus muscle. In a month, blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia resolved but the visual acuity remained no light perception. Sclerosing therapy for facial hemangioma may develop a severe complication such as permanent visual loss.

  5. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome due to a Vertebral Hemangioma and Postpartum Osteoporosis following Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Elmadag, Mehmet; Güzel, Yunus; Uzer, Gokcer; Tuncay, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    In pregnancy, advanced vertebral hemangiomas may be seen, and these require treatment. The case reported here is of a 35-year-old female in the 32nd week of pregnancy who was admitted to the orthopaedics clinic with a history of backache and difficulty walking. A burst fracture of L1 associated with a vertebral hemangioma was identified with an L3 compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. The local kyphosis angle between T12 and L2 was 27°. Kyphotic deformity was corrected and postoperatively, the measured T12–L2 local kyphotic angle was 9°. Twelve hours postoperatively, oral nutrition was allowed, but she developed nausea and vomiting and twenty-four hours postoperatively, an electrolyte imbalance developed. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which occurred following the correction of a kyphotic deformity that had developed secondary to an advanced hemangioma in pregnancy. PMID:25685576

  6. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

  7. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  8. Grizzly Giant Tree

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This giant sequoia is named the Grizzly Giant, the oldest sequoia tree in the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees, located within Yosemite National Park. It is believed to be between 1,900 and 2,400 years old. ...

  9. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2012-10-01

    The 2009 impact on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a Target of Opportunity program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  10. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2013-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere {10^20 J}.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  11. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2014-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution (enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection) and rapid frame rates (enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements).We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere (10^20 J).HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing (not achievable from the ground) is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  12. Treatment of lip hemangioma using forced dehydration with induced photocoagulation via diode laser: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Juliana; Camilotti, Renata Stifelman; Pagnoncelli, Rogério Miranda; Poli, Vladimir Dourado; da Silveira Gerzson, Alexandre; Gavin Zakszeski, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    Several vascular lesions are related to the lip area. There is no universally accepted protocol for the treatment of hemangiomas and vascular malformations. In the oral cavity, high-power lasers represent an excellent therapeutic option for this type of lesion. Their coagulative properties allow for the performance of procedures without the risk of bleeding, which promotes a better healing pattern and a differentiated postoperative appearance. This study describes three cases of lip hemangioma treated with forced dehydration with induced photocoagulation (FDIP) via diode laser. All the reported cases were followed up until complete healing of the operated area had total remission of lesions, with no complications or adverse effects. The findings of the present study suggest that FDIP is effective and useful in the treatment of hemangiomas in the oral cavity. Laser treatment of these lesions prevents their recurrence and is well tolerated by patients. PMID:25577591

  13. Retrospective case series of the imaging findings of facial nerve hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yunlong; Jin, Yanfang; Yang, Bentao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to compare high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and thin-section magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of facial nerve hemangioma. The HRCT and MRI characteristics of 17 facial nerve hemangiomas diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients included in the study suffered from a space-occupying lesion of soft tissues at the geniculate ganglion fossa. Affected nerve was compared for size and shape with the contralateral unaffected nerve. HRCT showed irregular expansion and broadening of the facial nerve canal, damage of the bone wall and destruction of adjacent bone, with "point"-like or "needle"-like calcifications in 14 cases. The average CT value was 320.9 ± 141.8 Hu. Fourteen patients had a widened labyrinthine segment; 6/17 had a tympanic segment widening; 2/17 had a greater superficial petrosal nerve canal involvement, and 2/17 had an affected internal auditory canal (IAC) segment. On MRI, all lesions were significantly enhanced due to high blood supply. Using 2D FSE T2WI, the lesion detection rate was 82.4 % (14/17). 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) revealed the lesions in all patients. HRCT showed that the average number of involved segments in the facial nerve canal was 2.41, while MRI revealed an average of 2.70 segments (P < 0.05). HRCT and MR findings of facial nerve hemangioma were typical, revealing irregular masses growing along the facial nerve canal, with calcifications and rich blood supply. Thin-section enhanced MRI was more accurate in lesion detection and assessment compared with HRCT. PMID:25108340

  14. [Diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the uterus diagnosed during pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Acevedo Gallegos, Sandra; Gallardo Gaona, Juan Manuel; Velázquez Torres, Berenice; Espino I Sosa, Salvador; Santarrosa Pérez, Miguel Angel; Guzmán Huerta, Mario E

    2011-07-01

    We report the case of a pregnancy of 16 weeks with anemia and a presumptive diagnosis of partial mole. In secondary care this diagnosis was ruled out through ultrasonography and diffuse cysts were found in the myometrium. Spectral Doppler ultrasound showed no flow, but it could be observed with power angiography. Cesarean section was performed at 38 weeks and hysterectomy 24 hours after because of intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Power angiography, spectral Doppler and serum human chorionic gonadotropin are the most useful diagnostic tools in the differential diagnosis of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the uterus. Postpartum hemorrhage is a likely complication. PMID:21966841

  15. Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma in a woman with multiple uterine fibromas, cysts to thyroid and kidney.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, S; Pandolfi, U; Villani, L; Terzuolo, G; Cremaschi, P; Benedetti, M; Marchesi, R

    1996-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is a relatively rare, homogeneous solitary tumor. Its complex histology may suggest a number of malignancies. We report one case diagnosed in a 62-years-old woman with a tendency to benign tumors (uterine fibromas) and cystes (thyroide, kidney). Bronchoscopy was normal. Pulmonary scintiscan was not done. Chest X-ray showed a 2 x 2 cm solitary, dense, homogeneous, delimited nodule of the LLL. The intraoperatory diagnosis of adenocarcinoma led to lobectomy. The final diagnosis of PSH was done on fixed and stained samples. She is in good condition after 13 months of follow-up. PMID:8702253

  16. [Extra-hepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Causse, X; Germanaud, J; Legoux, A; Legoux, J L

    1995-01-15

    A variety of prodromal symptoms of viral hepatitis (urticaria, fever, arthralgias, headache, polyradiculonevritis) are attributed to A, B, C, D or E hepatitis only when jaundice appears, and because they disappear with it. Spectacular extrahepatic symptoms (polyarteritis nodosa, cryoglobulinemia, glomerulonephritis, marrow aplasia...) may be associated with B or C hepatitis without any liver symptom. Some of the extrahepatic symptoms observed during chronic hepatitis C therapy with interferon (thyroid dysfunctions, cutaneo-mucous lichen) may be related to the immunomodulatory effects of interferon rather than to virus C itself. PMID:7725020

  17. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health issues. PMID:18331700

  18. The MET Gene Is a Common Integration Target in Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J-Induced Chicken Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Justice, James; Malhotra, Sanandan; Ruano, Miguel; Li, Yingying; Zavala, Guillermo; Lee, Nathan; Morgan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a simple retrovirus that can cause hemangiomas and myeloid tumors in chickens and is currently a major economic problem in Asia. Here we characterize ALV-J strain PDRC-59831, a newly studied U.S. isolate of ALV-J. Five-day-old chicken embryos were infected with this virus, and the chickens developed myeloid leukosis and hemangiomas within 2 months after hatching. To investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis, we employed high-throughput sequencing to analyze proviral integration sites in these tumors. We found expanded clones with integrations in the MET gene in two of the five hemangiomas studied. This integration locus was not seen in previous work characterizing ALV-J-induced myeloid leukosis. MET is a known proto-oncogene that acts through a diverse set of signaling pathways and is involved in many neoplasms. We show that tumors harboring MET integrations exhibit strong overexpression of MET mRNA. IMPORTANCE These data suggest that ALV-J induces oncogenesis by insertional mutagenesis, and integrations in the MET oncogene can drive the overexpression of MET and contribute to the development of hemangiomas. PMID:25673726

  19. Hepatitis B FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & Settings Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & Settings Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource ...

  20. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & Settings Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & Settings Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource ...

  1. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  2. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA . The main uses for HBV tests include: To ...

  3. Fusion events lead to truncation of FOS in epithelioid hemangioma of bone.

    PubMed

    van IJzendoorn, David G P; de Jong, Danielle; Romagosa, Cleofe; Picci, Piero; Benassi, Maria Serena; Gambarotti, Marco; Daugaard, Soeren; van de Sande, Michiel; Szuhai, Karoly; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-09-01

    Epithelioid hemangioma of bone is a locally aggressive vascular neoplasm. It can be challenging to diagnose because of the wide histological spectrum, which can make it difficult to differentiate from other vascular neoplasms such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma or epithelioid angiosarcoma. COBRA-FISH karyotyping identified a balanced t(3;14) translocation. Transcriptome sequencing of the index case and two other epithelioid hemangiomas revealed a recurrent translocation breakpoint involving the FOS gene, which was fused to different partners in all three cases. The break was observed in exon 4 of the FOS gene and the fusion event led to the introduction of a stop codon. In all instances, the truncation of the FOS gene would result in the loss of the transactivation domain (TAD). Using FISH probes we found a break in the FOS gene in two additional cases, in none of these cases a recurrent fusion partner could be identified. In total, FOS was split in 5/7 evaluable samples. We did not observe point mutations leading to early stop codons in any of the 10 cases where RNA was available. Detection of FOS rearrangement may be a useful diagnostic tool to assist in the often difficult differential diagnosis of vascular tumors of bone. Our data suggest that the translocation causes truncation of the FOS protein, with loss of the TAD, which is thereby a novel mechanism involved in tumorigenesis. PMID:26173738

  4. Characterization of Endothelial Microparticles Induced by Different Therapeutic Drugs for Infantile Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Jian-Gang; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are complex vesicular structures with great significance in vascular pathophysiology. Here, we aimed to determine the impact of therapeutic drugs for infantile hemangioma, a common vascular tumor of infancy, on the biochemical features of EMPs. We exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells to propranolol (Pro), dexamethasone (Dex), or rapamycin (Rap). Compared with controls, Pro and Rap dramatically augmented EMP release, whereas Dex significantly suppressed EMP generation. Drug-stimulated EMPs could inherit but tended to lose specific endothelial surface antigens from their parental cells. On the one hand, markedly distinct messenger RNA expression patterns were observed within and between drug-stimulated endothelial cells and derived EMPs. On the other hand, Rap-treated endothelial cells and Pro-induced EMPs displayed downregulation of multiple angiogenesis-related molecules at messenger RNA level compared with corresponding controls. Meanwhile, among tested angiogenesis-associated microRNAs, twelve microRNAs were downregulated in drug-induced EMPs, whereas only let-7b and miR-133a were markedly upregulated. Collectively, these data may indicate selective and distinctive package of biomolecules into EMPs depending on specific drugs. Our findings may provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of pharmacological therapy for infantile hemangioma. PMID:26348824

  5. Color Doppler sonography and resistivity index in the differential diagnosis of hepatic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Nahar, N; Khan, N; Chakraborty, R K; Rima, S Z; Ara, R; Islam, S M; Mahmud, S; Alam, M N; Swapan, K; Akhter, M; Saleh, F M; Alam, M M; Alam, M M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of color doppler sonography and resistivity index (RI) in differentiating liver tumors. The study was carried out in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Mymensingh, Bangladesh, during the period of July 2009 to June 2011. Total 50 consecutive cases were studied. Among them 27 were hepatocellular carcinomas, 19 were metastatic tumors, 03 were hemangiomas and 01 was hepatic adenoma. Doppler sonographic findings were then correlated, case by case, with final diagnosis- either pathologically by USG guided Fine-needle aspiration or by other imaging modalities (e.g., CT scan and RBC liver scan for hepatic hemangioma). The RI value of hepatocellular carcinoma was 0.69±0.096 and in metastatic tumors 0.73±0.079. The results showed no significant difference between the RI of hepatocellular carcinomas and metastatic liver tumors but it was significantly higher than benign lesions (p<0.05). RI of hemangiomas was 0.49±0.64 and in one hepatic adenoma was 0.65. When RI was <0.6 for benign liver tumors and ?0.6 for malignant tumors we calculated a sensitivity of 89.14%, specificity of 66.7%, accuracy of 85.71% positive predictive value of 97.62% and negative predictive value of 28.57% in differentiating benign and malignant tumors. Thirty four of 46(73.9%) malignant lesions had intratumoral flow and 25% of benign lesions also showed intratumoral flow. The difference of intratumoral flow between malignant and benign lesions was significant (p<0.01). Two of 4 benign lesions (50%) had peritumoral vascularity where 6% of the malignant tumors showed peritumoral vascularity. In conclusion, combined studies of the type of intra-and peri-tumoral flow signals in CDFI and the parameter of RI would be more helpful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant liver tumors. PMID:24584370

  6. Giant Sequoia Pinecone

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A single giant sequoia pinecone rests in the bark of its parent. A large sequoia tree can have several thousand pinecones at a time. Although giant sequoia trees are among the largest trees in the world, their pinecones are comparatively small, usually only 2 inches or so....

  7. Giant Sequoia Pinecone

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A pinecone of a giant sequoia rests on the forest floor. A large sequoia tree can have several thousand pinecones at a time. Although giant sequoia trees are among the largest trees in the world, their pinecones are comparatively small, usually only 2 inches or so....

  8. One Possible Mechanism of Pulsed Dye Laser Treatment on Infantile Hemangioma: Induction of Endothelial Apoptosis and Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Level Changes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yongqian; Wang, Fagang; Jia, Qingwei; Xu, Rongjian; Dang, Wei; Chen, Qing; Lin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is an important treatment for superficial infantile hemangioma, but few studies report on its cellular mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in infantile hemangioma (IH) patients after laser treatment and effects of PDL irradiation on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, as well as to explore the biomolecular mechanisms and ultrastructure changes of the PDL effect. Methods: 74 children with infant hemangioma including 45 patients in proliferating phase, 18 patients in involuting phase, 11 patients in involuted phase and 10 healthy children were engaged in this study. The plasma VEGF levels of children were measured with the enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 24 hours after, HUVECs cultured in vitro were irradiated with PDL, cell apoptosis, mRNA levels of VEGF, and changes of ultrastructure were evaluated using flow cytometry, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Results: The serum VEGF concentrations in children with proliferating hemangiomas were significantly higher than in patients with involuting / involved hemangiomas and healthy patients. After receiving 3 laser treatments, the plasma VEGF levels of IH patients in proliferating hemangiomas decreased significantly. PDL irradiation could down-regulate VEGF mRNA expression of HUVECs, and increase cell apoptosis rate. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that PDL irradiation imparts apoptosis induction effects on HUVECs in vitro. Furthermore, our results suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor may be of particular importance in pathophysiology and PDL treatment of hemangiomas, also serum VEGF levels may be used as an aid in the follow up of IH. This provides valuable evidence of the PDL effect on infantile hemangioma. PMID:25653803

  9. Argon-pumped tunable dye laser therapy for facial port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults--a new technique using small spot size and minimal power

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibner, A.; Wheeland, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    A low power, argon-pumped tunable dye laser was used to deliver yellow light of 577 nm. Individual blood vessels within port-wine stain hemangiomas were treated with a 0.1-mm beam of light using 8 X magnification. This technique permits excellent resolution of facial and nuchal port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults without the adverse complications of textural change, permanent pigmentation abnormality, or hypertrophic scarring.

  10. Infantile Hemangioma—Mechanism(s) of Drug Action on a Vascular Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Greenberger, Shoshana; Bischoff, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), a benign vascular tumor, is the most common tumor of infancy, with an incidence of 5%–10% at the end of the first year. The tumor displays a distinctive life cycle consisting of a proliferating phase, occurring in the first months of life, followed by an involuting phase. Thus, IH represents a unique model of postnatal vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and vessel regression. Traditionally, corticosteroids were the drug of choice when treatment of IH was indicated. In recent years, beta-blockers, most specifically propranolol, have serendipitously been shown to be an effective pharmacological treatment. This article will focus on the mechanism of action of these two drugs, the old and the new treatments, in slowing the growth and accelerating involution of IH. PMID:22229118

  11. Simple and Easy Surgical Technique for Infantile Hemangiomas: Intralesional Excision and Primary Closure

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Takeo; Ishinagi, Hiroyoshi; Ejiri, Hirotaka; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a benign vascular tumor that gradually shrinks over several years. Involuting or involuted IHs usually retain their shape, however, and result in redundant skin or conspicuous scarring due to ulceration in the proliferating phase. We present a case series of 12 patients who underwent intralesional excision and primary closure for treatment of involuting or involuted IH. Methods: Twelve patients (5 boys, 7 girls) underwent our treatment method for involuting or involuted IH. A blinded assessor evaluated clinical result of each patient. Results: Surgical results were excellent in 4 patients, good in 6, and fair in 2. A small dog ear was prominent in 1 patient; nevertheless, all parents were satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Intralesional excision and primary closure for treatment of involuting or involuted IH is an easy and simple procedure that does not result in dog-ear formation or elongated residual scarring. PMID:25610518

  12. A cavernous hemangioma simulating an intracanalicular acoustic neurinoma--a case report.

    PubMed

    Sepehrnia, A; Rebolledo Godoy, A P; Reusche, E

    2000-01-01

    A case of an intrameatal cavernous hemangioma is reported. The 53-year-old patient presented with decreased hearing and a slight 7th nerve palsy on the left. Clinical features and preoperative radiological appearances were indistinguishable from those of an acoustic neurinoma. Though, DD the involvement of all three nerves (N. facialis, N. cochlearis, N. vestibularis) should have lead to another entity. The tumour showed intraoperatively no relationship to the 8th cranial nerve, but was very adherent to the facial nerve. The macroscopic appearance differed to the usual aspect of an acoustic neurinoma. The final diagnosis was made after the operation with histopathological methods. The clinical features and pathology of this type of tumour are discussed. PMID:11392290

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Extracellular Matrix Composition in Proliferating and Involuted Infantile Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyochun; Park, Hannara; O, Teresa M; Waner, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occur between the proliferating and involuted phases of infantile hemangiomas (IH), and are associated with angiogenic growth. We examined the composition of the ECM in proliferating and involuted IHs and assessed correlations between the composition of the ECM and whether the IH was in the proliferating or the involuted phase. Methods We evaluated IH samples from a cohort of patients who had five proliferating IHs and five involuted IHs. The following ECM molecules were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunohistochemistry: laminin, fibronectin, collagen type I, collagen type II, and collagen type III. Results The involuted IHs had higher levels of deposition of collagen type III than the proliferating IHs. The median values (interquartile ranges) were 1.135 (0.946-1.486) and 1.008 (0.780-1.166) (P=0.019), respectively. The level of laminin was higher in involuted IHs than in proliferating IHs, with median values (interquartile ranges) of 3.191 (2.945-3.191) and 2.479 (1.699-3.284) (P=0.047), respectively. Abundant collagen type III staining was found in involuted IHs. Laminin ?4 chain staining was clearly present within the basement membrane adjacent to the blood vessels, and was significantly more intense in involuted IHs than in proliferative IHs. Conclusions Involuted hemangiomas showed extensive deposition of collagen III and laminin, suggesting that differences in the composition of the ECM reflect stages of the development of IHs. This pattern may be due to the rapid senescence of IHs. PMID:26430624

  14. Effectiveness and Safety of Oral Propranolol versus Other Treatments for Infantile Hemangiomas: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohan; Qu, Xinhua; Zheng, Jiawei; Zhang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies evaluating treatments for infantile hemangiomas have produced inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of published data was conducted to investigate the effectiveness and safety of oral propranolol versus other treatments for infantile hemangiomas. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted based on literature (published from 1960 to December 1, 2014) found on the PubMed, EMBASE, and OVID search engines. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the outcome measures. Heterogeneity, publication bias and subgroup analysis were performed. Results A total of 61 studies involving 5,130 participants met the inclusion criteria. Propranolol was found to be a more effective modality in treating IHs (ORs = 0.92; 95%CI, 0.89–0.95) and had fewer complications compared to the other treatments including systemic steroids (ORs = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59–0.76); laser ablation (ORs = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43–0.67); other beta-adrenergic blockers (ORs = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.50–0.61) and surgery (ORs = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.28–0.81). A subgroup analysis of propranolol showed that a dose of 2 mg/kg/day or more yielded better outcomes (ORs = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.95; ORs = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.89–1.00), and IHs that had not been previously treated had better responses to propranolol treatment (ORs = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91–0.98). Conclusions The meta-analysis demonstrated that propranolol was more effective and safer than other therapies in treating IHs. It provides strong evidence for supporting the use of propranolol as a first-line therapy for IHs. PMID:26375455

  15. Radiotherapy of Painful Vertebral Hemangiomas: The Single Center Retrospective Analysis of 137 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miszczyk, Leszek; Tukiendorf, Andrzej

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: An evaluation of dose-response relationship and an attempt to define predictive factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 137 cases of painful vertebral hemangioma irradiations (101 patients). Fraction dose (fd) varied from 2 to 15 Gy (123 fractionated and 14 radiosurgical treatments), and total dose (TD) from 8 to 30 Gy (111 cases irradiated with fd of 2 GY to TD of 24 Gy). We evaluated pain relief, changes in analgesic requirements, and reossification. Results: Means of pain relief 1, 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy (defined as a decrease of primary pain level expressed in percent) were 60.5%, 65.4%, 68.3%, and 78.4%, respectively. Proportion of patients with no need for analgesics and patients using tramadol were 39%, 40%, 44%, 57%, and 20%, 17%, 22%, and 11% in these times. The proportion of patients experiencing complete/partial pain relief changed from 36/48% 1 month, to 64/22% 1.5 years after radiotherapy. No impact of radiotherapy on reossification was found. The positive impact of fd and TD increase for analgesics uptake reduction and pain relief was found. An increase of the fd by 1 Gy results in 27% chance of analgesics uptake reduction and 3.8% reduction of pain, whereas 14% analgesics uptake reduction and 2.2% of pain reduction in case of the TD. The predictive factors improving results were found: female gender, older age, better performance states (the chance of the lower analgesic treatment decreases over 2.5 times in comparison to the higher Zubrod degree), bigger Hb concentration, shorter symptoms duration and lower analgesics uptake before radiotherapy. Conclusions: The obtained data support the efficacy of radiotherapy in improving pain secondary to vertebral hemangioma, with the degree of pain amelioration being related to increasing fd and TD. The positive predictive factors were defined: female gender, older age, better performance status, increased Hb concentration, shorter symptoms duration, and lower analgesics uptake before radiotherapy.

  16. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please turn Javascript on. From Hollywood's "Walk of Stars" to Main Street, USA, people from all walks ... that includes many well-known names: Legendary television star Larry Hagman was diagnosed with advanced hepatitis C ...

  17. Unstable giant gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2006-03-15

    We find giant graviton solutions in Frolov's three parameter generalization of the Lunin-Maldacena background. The background we study has {gamma}-tilde{sub 1}=0 and {gamma}-tilde{sub 2}={gamma}-tilde{sub 3}={gamma}-tilde. This class of backgrounds provides a nonsupersymmetric example of the gauge theory/gravity correspondence that can be tested quantitatively, as recently shown by Frolov, Roiban, and Tseytlin. The giant graviton solutions we find have a greater energy than the point gravitons, making them unstable states. Despite this, we find striking quantitative agreement between the gauge theory and gravity descriptions of open strings attached to the giant.

  18. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hepatitis B can be spread through sharing needles, syringes, or other injection equipment. In addition, the hepatitis ... devices or other diabetes-care equipment such as syringes or insulin pens. How infectious is the hepatitis ...

  19. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  20. Seismology of Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaulme, Patrick; Schmider, Francois-Xavier; Guillot, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Seismology applied to giant planets could drastically change our understanding of their deep interiors, as it has happened with the Earth, the Sun, and many main-sequence and evolved stars. The study of giant planets' composition is important for understanding both the mechanisms enabling their formation and the origins of planetary systems, in particular our own. Unfortunately, its determination is complicated by the fact that their interior is thought not to be homogeneous, so that spectroscopic determinations of atmospheric abundances are probably not representative of the planet as a whole. Instead, the determination of their composition and structure must rely on indirect measurements and interior models. Giant planets are mostly fluid and convective, which makes their seismology much closer to that of solar-like stars than that of terrestrial planets. Hence, helioseismology techniques naturally transfer to giant planets. In addition, two alternative methods can be used: photometry of the solar light ref...

  1. The Giant Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  2. Clinical efficacy of propranolol in the treatment of hemangioma and changes in serum VEGF, bFGF and MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    WU, SHANYING; WANG, BIAO; CHEN, LIFEN; XIONG, SHUYUAN; ZHUANG, FULIAN; HUANG, XUNLEI; WANG, MEISHUI; HUANG, ZUGEN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical efficacy and safety of propranolol in the treatment of hemangioma, and to reveal its possible mechanism. A total of 129 cases of proliferative hemangioma were divided into two groups: i) Treatment (n=97), in which the patients received oral propranolol therapy and ii) observation (n=32), in which the patients underwent clinical observation. The changes in the hemangiomas were noted and compared between the two groups. In addition, the heart rate, blood glucose levels, liver, kidney and thyroid function of the patients in the treatment group were monitored prior to and following treatment; the ELISA method was used for the measurement of the patients' serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) at the same time-points. A significant difference in curative effect was found between the treatment and observation group. The concentration of free thyroxine and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone and the heart rate of the treatment group exhibited significant changes prior to and following medication, but no statistical significance was found in the changes in blood glucose, liver and kidney function and free triiodothyronine concentration. Furthermore, the serum concentrations of VEGF, bFGF and MMP-9 in the treatment group 8 weeks after medication were decreased significantly compared with those before treatment. In conclusion, oral propranolol has a good curative effect in the treatment of proliferative hemangioma, with few side effects and a high level of safety. The mechanism underlying the effects of propranolol may be associated with the downregulation of VEGF, bFGF and MMP-9 expression. PMID:26622443

  3. Clinical observation on the treatment of hemangioma by CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhigui

    1993-03-01

    Sixty-six cases of hemangioma were treated with CO2 laser alone (22 cases as a control group), or CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser (44 cases of the treated group). Optimum power dosage was first sought on normal volunteers. Arteriolar vasculature and lymphatics were blocked 3 - 5 times with procaine hydrochloride (5:1) to minimize local blood congestion. Results show that the healing rate of the treated group was significantly higher than that of the control group (X3 equals 3.92, P < 0.05). Eleven cases (50%) were complicated with exudation in the control as compared with 3 cases (6.8%) in the treated group (P < 0.01). Of the 18 cases completely cured in the control group, the number of treatments averaged at 11.4 times, while of the 39 cases completely cured in the treated group, the average number of treatments was 5.9 times, which is also statistically significant (P < 0.01). It is considered that CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser is superior than CO2 laser alone for the treatment of hemangioma. Furthermore, it is also proposed that the supplement of copper and Chinese herbal medicines may prevent the incidence of recurrence. Laser was used for the treatment of hemangioma in our country during the 1980s. In foreign literature, there were several reports using Nd:YAG and copper vapor laser for the treatment of agniomasimplex and nevus flammeus. Ar+ laser agglomeration was commonly used for the treatment of angioma conjunctive in our country, but the use of CO2 laser for the treatment of angioma epiderma is not well documented. We wish to report the use of CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser for the treatment of hemangioma in our hospital from April 1988 to December 1989.

  4. Preoperative Sclerotherapy Using Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate (Fibro-Vein™) Can Assist in the Management of Vertebral Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Omprakash; McAuliffe, Will; Wong, George; McCloskey, Eamonn; Lee, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions accounting for 2 to 3% of all spinal tumors. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging. Uncommonly, vertebral hemangiomas with significant epidural extension can result in radiculopathy or spinal cord compression. Decompressive surgery with or without stabilization is often required when neurological deficits are present. However, surgery can be associated with massive hemorrhage as these tumors are hypervascular. Preoperative embolization and sclerotherapy are well-known management strategies used to minimize intraoperative bleeding and improve symptoms. Recently, the use of sclerosants such as ethanol has decreased, due to reported complications such as Brown–Sequard syndrome. We describe the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (Fibro-Vein™, STD Pharmaceutical, Hereford, UK) as an effective alternative to ethanol in the preoperative management of vertebral hemangiomas. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported. In three patients, we demonstrated minimal intraoperative blood loss using a combination of preoperative embolization of arterial feeders and sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate to control and secure venous drainage. No patients developed complications related to the procedure. In addition to minimal blood loss, a clear dissection plane was also noted intraoperatively. PMID:24353964

  5. [Hepatic artery embolization for primary hepatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ye, W J

    1989-03-01

    Twenty patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) treated by hepatic arterial embolization in our department from Dec. 1986 to Mar. 1987 are reported. There were 15 males and 5 females. The ages ranged from 34 to 75 years with an average of 50.7. Preoperative diagnosis and localization of the tumor were done by AFP, B-us, CT and angiography (right lobe 15 cases, left lobe 1 case, both lobes 4 cases). Celiac and superior mesenteric angiography was carried out by femoral artery approach and then highly selective hepatic catheterization was utilized for hepatic arterial embolization. Antitumor agent (5-Fu, adriamycin), iophendylate and foamy gel sponge were used for peripheral and proximal embolization. Manifestations were improved in most of the patients after embolization, such as relief of abdominal pain, improvement of appetite, decrease of tumor size. Total necrosis of the tumor was found in 2 patients who underwent surgery 1 month after embolization. The side effects of the posthepatic embolization such as, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever could be relieved by symptomatic treatment. No severe complications, such as gangrene of the gall bladder, hepatic failure, liver abscess, intestinal necrosis or pulmonary embolization were found except 3 patients who died of renal failure after the procedure. The liver dys-function returned to normal within 2 weeks. Hepatic arterial embolization provides an alternative treatment for the patients with PHC who has compensated liver function without severe systemic diseases, especially renal endocrine problems and severe portal hypertension. They should have patent portal system as proved by angiography. The authors considered that this therapeutic embolization with hepatic chemotherapy infusion is safe and effective in the management of PHC. It may increase the resectability and provide palliative means for the advanced and terminal cases. PMID:2553366

  6. Cherry Hemangioma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  7. Strawberry Hemangioma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  8. Proposal of an ultrasonographic classification for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis: Echinococcosis multilocularis Ulm classification-ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Gruener, Beate; Kaltenbach, Tanja EM; Ansari-Bitzenberger, Sarina; Kern, Peter; Fuchs, Michael; Mason, Richard A; Barth, Thomas FE; Haenle, Mark M; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Graeter, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish an ultrasonographic classification based on a large sample of patients with confirmed hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE). METHODS: Clinical data and ultrasonography (US) findings of 185 patients (100 males; 85 females; mean age at diagnosis: 51.4 ± 17.6 years; mean age at time of US examination: 58.7 ± 18.2 years) were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the US morphology of hepatic AE lesions. The sonomorphological findings were grouped according to a five-part classification scheme. RESULTS: Application of the new classification resulted in the following distribution of sonomorphological patterns among the patients examined: hailstorm (54.1%); pseudocystic (13.5%); ossification (13.0%); hemangioma-like (8.1%); and metastasis-like (6.5%). Only 4.9% of lesions could not be assigned to a sonomorphological pattern. CONCLUSION: The sonomorphological classification proposed in the present study facilitates the diagnosis, interpretation and comparison of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in routine practice and in the context of scientific studies. PMID:26604646

  9. Erythropoietic and hepatic porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Gross, U; Hoffmann, G F; Doss, M O

    2000-11-01

    Porphyrias are divided into erythropoietic and hepatic manifestations. Erythropoietic porphyrias are characterized by cutaneous symptoms and appear in early childhood. Erythropoietic protoporphyria is complicated by cholestatic liver cirrhosis and progressive hepatic failure in 10%, of patients. Acute hepatic porphyrias (delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria) are characterized by variable extrahepatic gastrointestinal, neurological-psychiatric and cardiovascular manifestations requiring early diagnosis to avoid life-threatening complications. Acute hepatic porphyrias are pharmacogenetic and molecular regulatory diseases (without porphyrin accumulation) mainly induced by drugs, sex hormones, fasting or alcohol. The disease process depends on the derepression of hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase following haem depletion. In contrast to the acute porphyrias, nonacute, chronic hepatic porphyrias such as porphyria cutanea tarda are porphyrin accumulation disorders leading to cutaneous symptoms associated with liver disease, especially caused by alcohol or viral hepatitis. Alcohol, oestrogens, haemodialysis, hepatitis C and AIDS are triggering factors. Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common porphyria, followed by acute intermittent porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria. The molecular genetics of the porphyrias is very heterogenous. Nearly every family has its own mutation. The mutations identified account for the corresponding enzymatic deficiencies, which may remain clinically silent throughout life. Thus, the recognition of the overt disorder with extrahepatic manifestations depends on the demonstration of biochemical abnormalities due to these primary defects and compensatory hepatic overexpression of hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase in the acute porphyrias. Consequently, haem precursors are synthesized in excess. The increased metabolites upstream of the enzymatic defect are excreted into urine and faeces. The diagnosis is based on their evaluation. Primary enzymatic or molecular analyses are noncontributary and may be misleading. Acute polysymptomatic exacerbations accompany a high excretory constellation of porphyrin precursors delta-aminolaevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. Homozygous or compound heterozygous variants of acute hepatic porphyrias may already manifest in childhood. PMID:11117426

  10. Therapy of Delta Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yurdaydin, Cihan; Idilman, Ramazan

    2015-10-01

    Delta hepatitis is the less frequently encountered but most severe form of viral hepatitis. Acute delta hepatitis, as a result of coinfection with hepatitis B and hepatitis delta, is rare, but may lead to fulminant hepatitis, and no therapy exists for this form. Chronic delta hepatitis (CDH) mostly develops as a result of superinfection of a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). In general, HDV is the dominant virus. However, a dynamic shift of the dominant virus may occur with time in rare instances, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) may become the dominant virus, at which time nucleos(t)ide analog therapy may be indicated. Otherwise, the only established management of CDH consists of conventional or pegylated interferon therapy, which has to be administered at doses used for hepatitis B for a duration of at least 1 year. Posttreatment week-24 virologic response is the most widely used surrogate marker of treatment efficacy, but it does not represent a sustained virologic response, and late relapse can occur. As an easy-to-use simple serological test, anti-HDV-immunoglobulin M (IgM) correlates with histological inflammatory activity and clinical long-term outcome; however, it is not as sensitive as HDV RNA in assessing treatment response. No evidence-based rules for treating CDH exist, and treatment duration needs to be individualized based on virologic response at end of treatment or end of follow-up. Effective treatment may decrease liver-related complications, such as decompensation or liver-related mortality. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, interferons are contraindicated and liver transplantation has to be considered. Alternative treatment options are an urgent need in CDH. New treatment strategies targeting different steps of the HDV life cycle, such as hepatocyte entry inhibitors or prenylation inhibitors, are emerging and provide hope for the future. PMID:26253093

  11. Hepatic artery aneurysm in a patient with Behçet? disease and segmental pancreatitis developing after its embolization.

    PubMed

    Oto, A; Cekirge, S; Gülsün, M; Balkanci, F; Besim, A

    2000-01-01

    Segmental pancreatitis is an unusual form of acute pancreatitis mostly seen in the head of pancreas. We present the CT findings of a segmental pancreatitis in the body and tail of the pancreas developed following endovascular embolization of a giant hepatic artery aneurysm and arterioportal fistula in a patient with Behçet's disease. PMID:10939494

  12. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  13. Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuejun

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%{+-}4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%{+-}5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF.

  14. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ? 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion. PMID:24474093

  15. Extracranial vascular malformations (hemangiomas and vascular malformations) in children and adolescents – diagnosis, clinic, and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eivazi, Behfar; Werner, Jochen A.

    2014-01-01

    The field of extracranial vascular anomalies is considered as special focus of pediatric otolaryngology and it has shown a rapid development during the last years. The reason for this interest is finally also due to the global acceptance of the classification introduced by the ISSVA (International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies). Hemangiomas are the most frequently observed vascular tumors. Today the systemic propranolol therapy is mostly used for therapy of hemangiomas requiring treatment. Increasingly, the topical application of beta blocker is discussed while the benefit in the head and neck seems to be limited. Vascular malformations are classified according to the morphology of the affected part of the vascular system in arterial, venous, arterio-venous, lymphatic, capillary, and combined vascular malformations. Conventional surgery, sclerosing therapy, and laser treatment are invasive options for the treatment of lymphatic malformations. The options for the treatment of venous malformations could be significantly improved during the last years. In this context, the use of Nd:YAG laser, the conservative treatment of the localized disseminated intravascular coagulation with low-molecular weight heparin, the re-discovery of bleomycin as effective sclerosing agent, and the improvement of alcohol-based embolization agents must be mentioned. Today the treatment with dye laser is the preferred therapy for capillary malformations and it is superior to other therapeutic options as for example photodynamic therapy. Arterio-venous malformations as representatives for high-flow lesions are the high-risk lesions. Frequently they are compared to malignant head and neck tumors, in particular when a curative treatment can no longer be assured because of diffuse or multifocal extent and when the disease shows a progressive course. The combined treatment of embolization and surgical resection and if necessary consecutive defect reconstruction have turned out to be appropriate for arterio-venous malformations. Incurable findings are still a major challenge. Despite the introduction of antiangiogenetic drugs in oncology, the medicamentous therapeutic approach could not be established for arterio-venous malformations up to now. PMID:25587362

  16. [Treatment of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Miguet, J; Hrusovský, S

    1995-09-01

    Chronic forms of viral B,C and D hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis represent a serious healthcare problem. The study deals with the changes in the strategy in treating these diseases. During the chronic active hepatitis caused by the B hepatitis virus, the main aim of treatment is to cease multiplication of viruses, eliminate the clinical symptoms, prevent the development of cirrhosis, or the origin of hepatocellular carcinoma. The authors analyze the possibilities of the application of corticosteroids, viricidal drugs (vidarabin and interferons) and other medicaments (acyclovir, zidovudin, duramin, gancyclovir, chinacrin, and others) besides corticosteroids, interleukin 2 and tymozin from the group of immunomodulators were tested. The testing included the factor stimulating the colonies of granulocytes and myeloblasts and other substances. The therapy of acute protracted B hepatitis by means of interferon still requires controlled studies. Superinfection by D virus in chronic carriers of HBsAG causes chronic hepatitis which quickly leads to the development of cirrhosis. The therapy on basis of alpha interferon decreases the RNA virus D hepatitis serum level and leads to an improvement in the development of chronic hepatitis in half of the patients. Therapy of chronic C hepatitis on basis of corticosteroids is ineffective, and can be dangerous. Acyclovir is proved to be ineffective as well. The open study indicated certain positive results in application of interferon. The fulminant hepatitis can be defined as a development of encephalopathy and a decrease of the prothrombin time to less than 50% in the course of acute hepatitis. The break-point in the therapy of fulminant hepatitis took place in association with the performance of the transplantation of the liver. Impossibility to transplant the liver means that the effect of therapy of fulminant hepatitis is merely of supportive value. Majority of patients die due to neurologic complications, namely unmanageable oedema of the brain. But still, neither the antioedema therapy, e.g. on basis of manitol, as well as by means of corticosteroids, hemodialysis, hemofiltration, plasmapheresis and hemoperfusion, nor the treatment on basis of E1 prostaglandine improved the survival of patients. (Tab. 2, Ref. 82). PMID:8556359

  17. Formation of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Stevenson, D. J.

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution, and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our solar system contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium; these gases could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. The transiting extrasolar planet HD149026b, which is slightly more massive than Saturn, appears to have comparable amounts of light gases and heavy elements. The other observed transiting exoplanets are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our solar system, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of these planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the giant planet cores grow massive enough to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary question regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions can planets develop cores sufficiently massive to accrete gas envelopes within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks.

  18. Sexually acquired hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Brook, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current knowledge of sexually transmitted viral hepatitis in relation to epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and diagnosis with particular reference to resource-poor settings. Method: A search of published literature identified through Medline from 1966 to October 2001, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists taken from each article obtained. Textword and MeSH searches for hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G, delta, GB virus, GBV-C, and TT virus were linked to searches under the textword terms sex$, prevent$, and MeSH subheadings, microbiology, complications, drug therapy, therapy, diagnosis, epidemiology, transmission, and prevention and control. Conclusions: In heterosexual relationships, hepatitis B is readily transmitted sexually and hepatitis C and D less so, with no evidence for sexual transmission of hepatitis A. Hepatitis types A‘D are all transmissible sexually in male homosexual relationships under certain conditions. In resource-poor countries sexual transmission is generally only a significant route of transmission for hepatitis B. PMID:12181458

  19. Transumbilical Single-Incision Laparoscopic Resection of Focal Hepatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Peng; Tian, Yu; Siwo, Ernest Amos; Li, Yongnan; Yu, Hong; Yao, Dianbo; Lv, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is gaining in popularity as a minimally invasive technique. The reduced pain and superior cosmetic appearance it affords make it attractive to many patients. For this study, we focused on SILS, analyzing the outcomes of transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILLR) achieved at our institution between January 2010 and February 2013. Patients and Methods: Pre- and postoperative data from 17 patients subjected to transumbilical SILLR for various hepatic lesions (8 hemangiomas, 2 hepatocellular carcinomas, 2 metastases, 2 calculi of left intrahepatic duct, and 3 adenomas) were assessed. Altogether, eight wedge resections, seven left lateral lobectomies, a combination wedge resection/left lateral lobectomy, and a proximal left hemihepatectomy segmentectomy were performed, as well as four simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomies. In each instance, three ports were installed through an umbilical incision. Once vessels and bleeding were controlled, the lesion(s) were resected with 5-mm margins of normal liver. Resected tissues were then bagged and withdrawn through the umbilical incision. The follow-up period lasted for a minimum of 6 months. Results: All 17 patients were successfully treated through a single umbilical incision. The procedures required 55 to 185 minutes to complete, with blood loss of 30 to 830 mL. Subjects regained bowel activity 0.8 to 2.3 days postoperatively and were discharged after 3 to 10 days. There were few complications (23.5%), limited to pleural effusion, wound infection, and incisional hernia. Conclusions: Transumbilical SILLR is challenging to perform through conventional laparoscopic instrumentation. The risk of bleeding and technical difficulties is high for lesions of the posterosuperior hepatic segment. Surgical candidates should be carefully selected to optimize the benefits of this technique. PMID:25392646

  20. An innocent giant.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Lakhan Singh; Dhingra, Mandeep; Raghubanshi, Gunjan; Thami, Gurvinder Pal

    2014-11-01

    A cutaneous horn (cornu cutaneum) is a protrusion from the skin composed of a cornified material. It may be associated with a benign, premalignant, or malignant lesion at the base, masking numerous dermatoses. In a 24-year-old female, a giant cutaneous horn arising from a seborrheic keratosis located on the leg is presented. This case has been reported to emphasize that a giant cutaneous horn may also occur in young patients, even in photoprotected areas, and are not always associated with malignancy. PMID:25484426

  1. Giant perigenital seborrheic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti; Mishra, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a very common benign epidermal proliferation that is prevalent in all races. Most commonly occurring on the trunk, face, scalp, and the extremities, they can occur anywhere on the body except the palms and soles. The most common appearance is that of a very superficial verrucous plaque which appears to be stuck on the surface. Giant lesions are very rare, and their location on the genital area is rarer still. We report here a case of multiple giant SK lesions in a 59-year-old man. PMID:25657917

  2. Radiotherapy for Symptomatic Vertebral Hemangiomas: Results of a Multicenter Study and Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Heyd, Reinhard; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Rades, Dirk; Winkler, Cornelia; Eich, Hans T.; Bruns, Frank; Gosheger, Georg; Willich, Normann; Micke, Oliver

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: The current study analyzes the potential role of radiotherapy (RT) in symptomatic vertebral hemangioma (SVH). Methods and Materials: Seven cooperating German institutions collected clinical information, treatment plans, and outcome data for all patients with SVH referred for local RT. Results: From 1969 to 2008, a total of 84 patients with 96 symptomatic lesions were irradiated for SVH. The primary indication for radiotherapy was pain (97.6%), and 28.6% of patients had additional neurological symptoms. RT was performed at a median total dose of 34 Gy, with a median single dose of 2.0 Gy. After receiving a median follow-up of 68 months, the overall patient response rate was 90.5%. Complete symptom remission occurred in 61.9% of patients, 28.6% of patients had partial pain relief, and 9.5% of patients had no pain relief. In 26.2% of patients, radiological signs of reossification were observed in long-term follow-up but not significantly correlated with pain relief. Most importantly, total doses of >=34 Gy resulted in significantly greater symptomatic relief and control rate than total doses of <34 Gy. Conclusions: This study consists of the largest database of cases reported so far using RT for SVH. RT is easy, safe, and effective for pain relief treatment for SVH. Total doses of at least 34 Gy give the best symptomatic response.

  3. Congenital cutaneous hemangioma causing cardiac failure: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Nicole A; Lauren, Christine T; Starc, Thomas J; Kandel, Jessica J; Bateman, David A; Morel, Kimberly D; Meyers, Philip M; Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela; Wu, June K; Garzon, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a large congenital hemangioma (CH) on the neck causing cardiac failure and thrombocytopenia in a female neonate. A trial of medical therapy with corticosteroids and propranolol was attempted, but the patient ultimately underwent definitive treatment with embolization and surgical resection with a positive outcome. A review of the English language literature revealed 16 previously reported cases of CHs complicated by congestive heart failure. This series supports known demographic features of CHs, including a lack of gender discrepancy and a predilection to affect the head and neck. These CHs are rarely diagnosed in utero; most patients present with a mass at birth. Cardiac failure is identified prenatally or in the first days of life. A mild to moderate thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy, which is likely transient and distinct from classic Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, accompanies many of these cases. There is a 30% associated mortality rate. Both medical and interventional treatment modalities have been reported. Steroids are the most commonly used medication, but without any clear benefit. We hypothesize that, based on its possible mechanisms of action,propranolol may be a more effective treatment for CHs requiring treatment. As surgical intervention may be necessary, we recommend a multidisciplinary approach to treating patients with problematic CHs. PMID:23025620

  4. Characterizing infantile hemangiomas with a near-infrared spectroscopic handheld wireless device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Christopher J.; Hoi, Jennifer W.; Kim, Hyun K.; Behr, Gerald; Geller, Lauren; Antonov, Nina; Flexman, Molly; Garzon, Maria; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2015-03-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common vascular growths that occur in 5-10% of neonates and have the potential to cause disfiguring and even life-threatening complications. Currently, no objective tool exist to monitor either progression or treatment of IH. To address this unmet clinical need, we have developed a handheld wireless device (HWD) that uses diffuse optical spectroscopy for the assessment of IH. The system employs 4 wavelengths (l=780nm, 805nm, 850nm, and 905nm) and 6 source-detector pairs with distances between 0.6 and 20 mm. Placed on the skin surface, backreflection data is obtained and a multispectral evolution algorithm is used to determine total hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation. First results of an ongoing pilot study involving 13 patients (average enrollment age = 25 months) suggest that an increase in hypoxic stress over time can lead to the proliferation of IH. Involuting IH lesions showed an increase in tissue oxygen saturation as well as a decrease in total hemoglobin.

  5. Cavernous hemangioma of the liver. A single institution report of 16 resections.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, S I; Husser, W C

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 27 years cavernous hemangioma of the liver has been diagnosed in 12 nonoperated patients and in 16 patients who had resection of the lesion at Strong Memorial Hospital. In almost all patients the diagnosis was suggested by an imaging procedure. In the 12 nonoperated patients the average size of the tumor was 4.7 cm (range: 3-8 cm). No problems related to the tumor occurred during the follow-up period. The average size of the resected lesion was 10 cm (range: 4-32 cm). The usual indication for resection was pain, mass, or a combination of these manifestations. Five lobectomies, five left lateral segmentectomies, two trisegmentectomies, two segmentectomies, and two enucleations were performed. There were no postoperative deaths. Review of the literature indicates that although rapid growth of the lesion occurred during pregnancy in one patient, the effects of pregnancy or contraceptive drugs on growth are inconsistent. Spontaneous rupture occurs infrequently, and the potential for rupture should not constitute an indication for resection, which should be performed selectively. Intraoperative blood loss may be appreciable, but a mortality rate near 0% has been reported in all institutional series. Images Figs. 2A-D. Figs. 3A-C. Figs. 3A-C. Figs. 4A and B. PMID:3555360

  6. Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor presenting in an 8-year-old boy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Hussa; Azouz, Haya; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumors are uncommon benign lesions. Accurately diagnosing hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor can be very challenging because the clinical presentation and radiological appearances are nonspecific and cannot be certainly distinguished from malignant neoplastic processes. Herein, we present a case of hepatic IPT in an 8-year-old boy who presented to clinic with a 3-mo history of a tender hepatic mass, fever of unknown origin, and 9-kg weight loss. The physical examination was notable for tender hepatomegaly. Laboratory investigations were notable for a normal hepatic profile and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. A T2-attenuated magnetic resonance imaging scan of the abdomen showed a 4.7 cm × 4.7 cm × 6.6 cm, contrast-enhancing, hyper-intense, well-defined lesion involving the right hepatic lobe. In view of the unremitting symptoms, tender hepatomegaly, thrombosed right hepatic vein, nonspecific radiological findings, and high suspicion of a deep-seated underlying infection or malignancy, a right hepatic lobectomy was recommended. Microscopically, the hepatic lesion exhibited a mixture of inflammatory cells (histiocytes, plasma cells, mature lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells) in a background of dense fibrous tissue. Immunohistochemically, the cells stained negative for SMA, ALK-1, CD-21 and CD-23, diffusely positive for CD-68, and focally positive for IgG4. The final histopathological diagnosis was consistent with hepatic IPT. At the postoperative 4-mo follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic without radiological evidence of recurrence. PMID:26229415

  7. Finite size giant magnon

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadanovic, Bojan; Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2009-06-15

    The quantization of the giant magnon away from the infinite size limit is discussed. We argue that this quantization inevitably leads to string theory on a Z{sub M} orbifold of S{sup 5}. This is shown explicitly and examined in detail in the near plane-wave limit.

  8. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-stranded, RNA virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family. TRANSMISSION HEV ... HEV IgM and IgG in serum. Detecting HEV RNA in serum or stools further confirms the serologic ...

  9. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About the Division of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chronic hepatitis B: update of recommendations. Hepatology. 2004 Mar;39(3):857–61. Mariano A, Mele A, ... age-specific HBsAg seroprevalence and endemicity. Vaccine. 2012 Mar 9;30(12):2212–9. Sagliocca L, Stroffolini ...

  11. Hepatitis Foundation International

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nutrients in the food you eat into muscles, energy, hormones, blood clotting factors and immune factors. ImageT4 ... GIVES Amazon will donate 0.5% of the price of your eligible AmazonSmile purchases to Hepatitis Foundation ...

  12. Know More Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft ... February 11, 2015 Page last updated: March 5, 2015 Content source: Division of Viral Hepatitis and ...

  13. Chemoembolization of hepatic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Carin F; Brown, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies with transarterial chemoembolization represents an essential component of interventional oncology. This article discusses patient selection, procedure technique, results, and complications associated with transarterial chemoembolization. PMID:18668189

  14. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the time the procedure takes place. To ensure immunity, it is important for individuals to complete the ... great majority of those vaccinated will devel- op immunity to the hepatitis B virus. The vaccine causes ...

  15. Hepatitis D Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John M

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews specific related aspects of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) reproduction, including virion structure, the RNA genome, the mode of genome replication, the delta antigens, and the assembly of HDV using the envelope proteins of its helper virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV). These topics are considered with perspectives ranging from a history of discovery through to still-unsolved problems. HDV evolution, virus entry, and associated pathogenic potential and treatment of infections are considered in other articles in this collection. PMID:26525452

  16. More on hepatic granulomas.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Resat; Yemisen, Mucahit; Balkan, Ilker Inanc

    2015-01-01

    We have read the case report of Nihon-Yanagi et al. The patient they described developed hepatic granuloma two times and the granulomatous lesion was surrounding metal staples/clips suggesting that the granuloma was due to surgical staples/clips.Hepatic granulomas (HGs) are reported in around 5 % of patient who undergo a liver biopsy and caused by several diseases including sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, hydatid cyst, brucellosis, typhoid fever, chronic hepatitis B and C and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Chronic hepatitis B and C infections are the most common and serious causes of liver damage in patient with renal failure. Their prevalence is a higher than people without renal failure. We have previously reported that the prevalences of HGs in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C are 1.5 and 1.3 % respectively. The described patient was on hemodialysis for 12 years. The other causes of HG seem excluded; however hepatitis B and C infections and PBC should have been tested and excluded before ascribing the HGs to surgical staples/clipping material. PMID:26586239

  17. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  18. Standard fractionation low-dose proton radiotherapy for diffuse choroidal hemangiomas in pediatric Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; MacDonald, Shannon M; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Mukai, Shizuo

    2013-06-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a nonhereditary congenital neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by leptomeningeal angiomatosis, facial nevus flammeus, and diffuse choroidal hemangioma, which when complicated by total retinal detachment, portend a poor prognosis. Management is often limited to salvage external beam irradiation. We present a modified proton therapy technique for young children with total bullous retinal detachments that uses standard fractionation low-dose proton radiotherapy to decrease the risk of radiation complications. Treatment techniques for young children who cannot cooperate with conventional radiation protocols are also described. PMID:23618630

  19. Giant uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    S?vulescu, F; Iordache, I; Albi?a, O; Hristea, R; Dumitru, C; Iordache, A; B?la?a, G; Iordache, C; Leau, D; Rogin, T; Vîrjoghe, V

    2011-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas represent the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. Giant uterine leiomyomas are very rare neoplasms and represents a great diagnosis and therapeutic challenge. This article illustrates a case of a 45-year old woman presented to our surgery department with a 10-month history of progressive increasing abdominal size, back pain, vague abdominal pressure sensations, weight loss, constipation and urinary frequency. Physical examination, laboratory evaluation, transabdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scanning suggested a giant abdominopelvic mass. Abdominal supracervical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histologically, the specimen was a 18.1 Kg uterine leiomyoma measuring 33/28/22 cm. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged from the hospital on the sixth postoperative day. PMID:22165069

  20. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets THE GIANT PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    and colour varies. #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets THE ICE GIANTS Uranus MU MJ/22 16 M a = 19.2 AU P = 84 yr Neptune MN MJ/18 19 M a = 30 AU P = 165 yr #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Giant Planets Uranus C2H2, CH4; in troposphere H2, H2O, NH3, PH3. Cloud cover of Uranus is uniform. On Neptune, belts

  1. Hot giant loop holography

    SciTech Connect

    Grignani, Gianluca; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2010-07-15

    We argue that there is a phase transition in the expectation value of the Polyakov loop operator in the large N limit of the high temperature deconfined phase of N=4 Yang-Mills theory on a spatial S{sup 3}. It occurs for the large completely symmetric representation of the SU(N) symmetry group. We speculate that this transition is reflected in the D-branes which are the string theory duals of giant loops.

  2. Giant thymic carcinoid.

    PubMed

    John, L C; Hornick, P; Lang, S; Wallis, J; Edmondson, S J

    1991-05-01

    Thymic carcinoid is a rare tumour. It may present with ectopic endocrine secretion or with symptoms of compression as a result of its size. A case is reported which presented with symptoms of compression where the size of the tumour was uniquely large such as to warrant the term giant thymic carcinoid. The typical histological features are described, together with its possible origin and its likely prognosis. PMID:1852667

  3. Diagnosing and treating hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tiberi, Olivia; Tognarelli, Joshua M; Cook, Nicola A; Crossey, Mary Me; Dhanjal, Novraj S; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-11-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a complex condition. This article considers the efficacy of the methods used in its diagnosis and management and discusses the impact of minimal hepatic encephalopathy on patients and the ethics of its treatment. PMID:26551495

  4. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & Settings Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & Settings Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource ...

  5. A giant graviton genealogy

    E-print Network

    Lozano, Yolanda; Prinsloo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this article we extend the construction of giant gravitons from holomorphic surfaces [arXiv:hep-th/0010206] to the ABJM correspondence. We construct a new class of 1/6-BPS M5-branes wrapping 5-manifolds in S^7/Z_k and supported by a large angular momentum in the orbifold space. These orbifold giant gravitons undergo a supersymmetry enhancement to 1/3-BPS and 1/2-BPS configurations in special cases. The compactification of M-theory on AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k to type IIA superstring theory on AdS_4 x CP^3 then gives rise to another new class of 1/6-BPS D4 and NS5-branes wrapping 4 and 5-manifolds in CP^3. The D4-branes carry a combination of D0-brane charge and angular momentum in the complex projective space, while the NS5-branes are supported only by D0-brane charge. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of a one-parameter family of 1/2-BPS M5-brane orbifold giant gravitons, and their D4 and NS5-brane CP^3 descendants.

  6. A giant graviton genealogy

    E-print Network

    Yolanda Lozano; Jeff Murugan; Andrea Prinsloo

    2013-06-19

    In this article we extend the construction of giant gravitons from holomorphic surfaces [arXiv:hep-th/0010206] to the ABJM correspondence. We construct a new class of 1/6-BPS M5-branes wrapping 5-manifolds in S^7/Z_k and supported by a large angular momentum in the orbifold space. These orbifold giant gravitons undergo a supersymmetry enhancement to 1/3-BPS and 1/2-BPS configurations in special cases. The compactification of M-theory on AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k to type IIA superstring theory on AdS_4 x CP^3 then gives rise to another new class of 1/6-BPS D4 and NS5-branes wrapping 4 and 5-manifolds in CP^3. The D4-branes carry a combination of D0-brane charge and angular momentum in the complex projective space, while the NS5-branes are supported only by D0-brane charge. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of a one-parameter family of 1/2-BPS M5-brane orbifold giant gravitons, and their D4 and NS5-brane CP^3 descendants.

  7. Pathological Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Vascular Lesions of the Brain: Distinct from De Novo Cavernous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Jin; Nahm, Ji Hae; Ko, Ji Eun; Shin, Hyun Joo; Chang, Jong-Hee; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the histologic and radiologic findings of vascular lesions after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) categorized as radiation-induced cavernous hemangioma (RICH). Materials and Methods Among 89 patients who underwent neurosurgery for cavernous hemangioma, eight RICHs from 7 patients and 10 de novo CHs from 10 patients were selected for histopathological and radiological comparison. Results Histologically, RICHs showed hematoma-like gross appearance. Microscopically, RICH exhibited a hematoma-like area accompanied by proliferation of thin-walled vasculature with fibrin deposits and infiltrating foamy macrophages. In contrast, CHs demonstrated localized malformed vasculature containing fresh and old clotted blood on gross examination. Typically, CHs consisted of thick, ectatic hyalinized vessels lined by endothelium under a light microscope. Magnetic resonance imaging of RICHs revealed some overlapping but distinct features with CHs, including enhancing cystic and solid components with absence or incomplete popcorn-like appearance and partial hemosiderin rims. Conclusion Together with histologic and radiologic findings, RICH may result from blood-filled space after tissue destruction by SRS, accompanied with radiation-induced reactive changes rather than vascular malformation. Thus, the term "RICH" would be inappropriate, because it is more likely to be an inactive organizing hematoma rather than proliferation of malformed vasculature. PMID:26446658

  8. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePLUS

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. You should take steps to ... All children should get the hepatitis B vaccine. Babies should get a ... B vaccine at birth. They should have all three shots in ...

  9. Progress in Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, A. P.

    Two very different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the gas and ice giant planets. The conventional explanation for the formation of gas giant planets, core accretion, presumes that a gaseous envelope collapses upon a roughly 10 Earth-mass, solid core that was formed by the collisional accumulation of planetary embryos orbiting in a gaseous disk. The more radical explanation, disk instability, hypothesizes that the gaseous portion of protoplanetary disks undergoes a gravitational instability, leading to the formation of self-gravitating clumps, within which dust grains coagulate and settle to form cores. Core accretion appears to require several million years or more to form a gas giant planet, implying that only long-lived disks would form gas giants. Disk instability, on the other hand, is so rapid (thousands of years), that gas giants could form in even the shortest-lived disks. Core accretion has severe difficulty in explaining the formation of the ice giant planets, unless two extra protoplanets are formed in the gas giant planet region and thereafter migrate outward. Recently, an alternative mechanism for ice giant planet formation has been proposed, based on observations of protoplanetary disks in the Orion nebula cluster: disk instability leading to the formation of four gas giant protoplanets with cores, followed by photoevaporation of the disk and gaseous envelopes of the protoplanets outside about 10 AU by a nearby OB star, producing ice giants. In this scenario, Jupiter survives unscathed, while Saturn is a transitional planet. These two basic mechanisms have very different predictions for gas and ice giant extrasolar planets, both in terms of their frequency and epoch of formation, suggesting a number of astronomical tests which could determine the dominant mechanism for giant planet formation.

  10. A quantitative evaluation of diffusion-weighted MR imaging of focal hepatic lesions by using an optimal b-value for differentiation of malignant and benign tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Kwang

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine an optimized b-value for the characterization of focal hepatic lesions (malignant and benign tumors) and to perform a quantitative analysis of the results. To achieve this, we obtained diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) from 30 focal hepatic disease patients (liver metastasis: 20 patients, and liver hemangioma: 10 patients) by using a 1.5 T MR system and varying the b-value from 0 through 200. The experimental results revealed that at a b-value of 50, the DWIs of the lesions showed high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs; SN R liver_meta . = 229.83 ± 19.08, SNR liver_hema . = 241.66 ± 29.02), high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs; CN R liver_meta . = 39.66 ± 3.87, C N R liver_hema . = 142.55 ± 12.97) and low signal intensities of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs; ADC liver_meta . = 1.40 × 10-3 ± 0.29, ADC liver_hema . = 2.55 × 10-3 ± 0.92). The focal hepatic lesions were clearly depicted, with DW images and ADC maps corresponding well. Thus, we could present an optimized b-value ( b = 50) for the characterization of focal hepatic lesions. Additionally, the ADC values of liver lesions were found to be useful in differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  11. Hepatitis G virus: is it a hepatitis virus?

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, R C; Keeffe, E B; Greenberg, H B

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis G virus (HGV) and GB virus C (GBV-C) are two newly discovered viral agents, different isolates of a positive-sense RNA virus that represents a new genus of Flaviviridae. The purpose of this review is to analyze new data that have recently been published on the epidemiology and associations between HGV and liver diseases such as posttransfusion hepatitis, acute and chronic non-A-E hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of HGV in coinfection with other hepatitis viruses, the response to antiviral therapy, and the impact of HGV on liver transplantation are also discussed. HGV is a transmissible blood-borne viral agent that frequently occurs as a coinfection with other hepatitis viruses due to common modes of transmission. The prevalence of HGV ranges from 0.9 to 10% among blood donors throughout the world and is found in 1.7% of volunteer blood donors in the United States. The majority of patients infected with HGV by blood transfusion do not develop chronic hepatitis, but hepatitis G viremia frequently persists without biochemical evidence of hepatitis. Serum HGV RNA has been found in 0 to 50% of patients with fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology and 14 to 36% of patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis. The association between HGV and chronic non-A-E hepatitis remains unclear. Although HGV appears to be a hepatotrophic virus, its role in independently causing acute and chronic liver diseases remains uncertain. PMID:9265860

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Giant axonal neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Giant axonal neuropathy On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed October 2007 What is giant axonal neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy is an inherited condition involving ...

  13. Giant Interatomic Coulombic Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisourat, Nicolas; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.; Koloren?, P?emysl; Scheit, Simona; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2012-11-01

    On the example of the giant helium dimer, we present an efficient electronic decay process for excited atoms or molecules embedded in a chemical environment, called Interatomic (intermolecular) Coulombic decay (ICD). After simultaneous ionization and excitation of a helium atom within a helium dimer, the excited ion relaxes by ICD to He+(1s) and the neighbor neutral helium is ionized to He+(1s) as well and emits a secondary electron. A short review on ab initio methods developed during the last 10 years to accurately describe ICD is reported. Finally, the main striking results on the helium dimer obtained experimentally and theoretically are summarized.

  14. Frequent FOS Gene Rearrangements in Epithelioid Hemangioma: A Molecular Study of 58 Cases With Morphologic Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Krausz, Thomas; Dickson, Brendan C; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2015-10-01

    Epithelioid hemangioma (EH) is a unique benign vasoformative tumor composed of epithelioid endothelial cells. Although a small subset of EHs with atypical features harbor ZFP36-FOSB fusions, no additional genetic abnormalities have been found to date in the remaining cases. On the basis of a novel FOS-LMNA gene fusion identified by RNA sequencing in an index case of a skeletal EH with typical morphology, we sought to investigate the prevalence of FOS rearrangement in a large cohort of EHs. Thus 57 additional EH cases lacking FOSB rearrangements were studied for FOS gene abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and results were correlated with morphologic appearance and clinical presentation. The EHs were subclassified as typical (n=25), cellular (n=21), and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) (n=12) variants. The ALHE was defined as an EH with a vascular "blow-out" pattern associated with a variable degree of inflammation. There were 17 (29%) cases bearing FOS gene rearrangements among 58 cases tested, including 12 male and 5 female patients, with a mean age of 42 years. Most FOS-rearranged EHs occurred in the bone (10) and soft tissue (6), whereas only 1 case was cutaneous. The predominant anatomic site was the extremity (12), followed by trunk (3), head and neck (1), and penis (1). The incidence of FOS rearrangement was significantly higher in bone (59%, P=0.006) and lower in head and neck (5%, P=0.009). Twelve of the FOS-rearranged cases were cellular EH (P=0.001) associated with moderate mitotic activity (2 to 5/10 HPF) and milder inflammatory background. All 12 ALHE cases lacked FOS gene abnormalities, suggesting different pathogenesis. In conclusion, FOS rearrangement was present in a third of EHs across different locations and histologic variants; however, it was more prevalent in cellular EH and intraosseous lesions, compared with those in skin, soft tissue, and head and neck. This genetic abnormality can be useful in challenging cases, to distinguish cellular EHs from malignant epithelioid vascular tumors. These results also suggest that dysregulation of the FOS family of transcription factors through chromosomal translocation is as a key event in the tumorigenesis of EH except for the ALHE variant. PMID:26135557

  15. Giant resonances in Mg-24 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Clark, HL.

    1999-01-01

    The giant resonance region in Mg-24 was studied with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV alpha particles at small angles including 0 degrees. The giant resonance peak was found to extend up to E-X = 41 MeV. Isoscalar E0, E1, and E2 strength...

  16. Solitary giant neurofibroma of thigh

    PubMed Central

    Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Hekmatnia, Ali; Ahrar, Hossein; Heidarpour, Mitra; Hekmatnia, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromas are rare, benign, nerve sheath tumors in the peripheral nervous system. The solitary type is found in those who do not have neurofibromatosis. Solitary neurofibromas are too rare in the giant type. We report a rare case of a solitary giant neurofibroma of the anterior right thigh. The diagnostic criteria, characteristics of imaging studies, and operative approach are represented. PMID:25221761

  17. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine

    E-print Network

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information stuck with a used needle. Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get 2 vaccinated? Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent. Hepatitis B vaccine may be given by itself or in the same shot with other vaccines. Routine hepatitis B

  18. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis A Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis A Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information 1,000 cases). Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A. 2 Who should get hepatitis A vaccine and when? WHO? Some people should be routinely vaccinated with hepatitis A vaccine: · All children between

  19. Durchbruch bei der Therapie der Hepatitis C

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Durchbruch bei der Therapie der Hepatitis C: Segen für die Patienten ­ Albtraum für die Behandler -Virushepatitis Oktober 2012 #12;H. Wedemeyer -Virushepatitis Oktober 2012 Hepatitisviren Hepatitis A Feinstone 1973 RNA Hepatitis B Blumberg 1965 DNA Hepatitis C Houghton 1988 RNA Hepatitis D Rizzetto 1977 RNA

  20. Hepatitis A Also Known As Hep A

    MedlinePLUS

    Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is a contagious viral infection that can easily affect children and adults. It is one of the most common types of hepatitis virus. Often when you hear about hepatitis A it may be linked to food related outbreaks ...

  1. [First case of hepatitis B virus genotype H infection in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Ural, Onur; Sayan, Murat; Akhan, S?la; Sümer, Sua; Sim?ek, Funda

    2013-07-01

    Clinical studies reported from Turkey indicate that hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype D is more prevalent than other genotypes. Epidemiological and clinical information on genotype H infection is currently limited. Genotype H infection is most likely due to its regional (Central and South America) prevalence throughout the world. The aim of this report is to present the first HBV genotype H infection in a chronic hepatitis B patient in Turkey. Laboratory findings of a 42 years old male patient admitted to our hospital revealed HBsAg (+), anti-HBs (-), HBeAg (-), anti-HBe (+), anti-HBc IgM (-), anti-HBc IgG (+), anti-HAV IgG (+), HBV-DNA: 5.689.776 IU/ml and high liver enzymes (ALT: 223 U/L, AST: 121 U/L). History of the patient indicated no risk factor (intravenous drug use, blood transfusion, suspicious sexual contact) related to HBV transmission. Since liver ultrasonography showed multiple hemangiomas, biopsy was performed and histologic activity index was found as 6/18 and fibrosis as 2/6, according to modified Knodell score system. HBV DNA isolated from the serum sample of the patient was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and polymerase gene segment of HBV was directly sequenced. UPGMA method was used for phylogenetic analysis, and the genotype of the virus was identified accordingly. The nucleotide sequence was compared to those from the international DNA data bank (GenBank). The genotyping of the patient revealed that the isolated HBV was genotype H. Treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was initiated and the patient responded to the treatment. This finding suggested that other HBV genotypes, except the predominant genotype D may also be in circulation in Turkey. In conclusion, detection of epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of HBV genotype H which is related to chronic hepatitis, seems to be necessary in order to better understand its circulation and progression around the world. PMID:23971934

  2. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T.; Aisien, Efe; Mba, Benjamin; Chennuri, Rohini; Sekosan, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options. PMID:25815217

  3. Toxin-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Annette M; Hendrickson, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    Toxins such as pharmaceuticals, herbals, foods, and supplements may lead to hepatic damage. This damage may range from nonspecific symptoms in the setting of liver test abnormalities to acute hepatic failure. The majority of severe cases of toxin-induced hepatic injury are caused by acetaminophen and ethanol. The most important step in the patient evaluation is to gather an extensive history that includes toxin exposure and exclude common causes of liver dysfunction. Patients whose hepatic dysfunction progresses to acute liver failure may benefit from transfer to a transplant service for further management. Currently, the mainstay in management for most exposures is discontinuing the offending agent. This manuscript will review the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of the different forms of toxin-induced hepatic injury and exam in-depth the most common hepatic toxins. PMID:24275171

  4. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased.

  5. Diseases and Insects of Giant Sequoia1

    E-print Network

    Diseases and Insects of Giant Sequoia1 John R. Parmeter, Jr.2 Abstract: Giant sequoias or evaluated, and much study is needed to provide data for sound management and protection of giant sequoia stands. Management implications of disease and insect impacts in stands of giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron

  6. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stinton, Laura M; Jayakumar, Saumya

    2013-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of cirrhotic patients. By definition, it has no obvious clinical manifestation and is characterized by neurocognitive impairment in attention, vigilance and integrative function. Although often not considered to be clinically relevant and, therefore, not diagnosed or treated, MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis of MHE has traditionally been achieved through neuropsychological examination, psychometric tests or the newer critical flicker frequency test. A new smartphone application (EncephalApp Stroop Test) may serve to function as a screening tool for patients requiring further testing. In addition to physician reporting and driving restrictions, medical treatment for MHE includes non-absorbable disaccharides (eg, lactulose), probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not result in reversal of the cognitive deficits associated with MHE. PMID:24106728

  7. [Primary hepatic carcinoid].

    PubMed

    Plásek, J; Vybíralová, M; Dvorácková, J; Petrusková, A; Sagan, J; Golián, M; Hrabovský, V; Petejová, N; Martínek, A

    2011-06-01

    Primary hepatic carcinoid (PHC) is considered to be particularly sporadic diagnosis; in current world literature about 60 cases have been reported. Most of the patients present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, icterus, flush, weight loss or respiratory disease; even though the course of the disease might stay asymptomatic for a long time. An illuminating case of at presentation oligosymptomatic 72-year-old patient, which was after extensive examination based on OctreoScan and histological verification diagnosed to have generalized PHC, is reported. Paliative therapy with somatostatine analogues followed. At autopsy 8 months later the clinical diagnosis of PHC was confirmed. PHC is difficult to diagnose both due to radiological similarity to other hepatic lesions and demanding exclusion of other primary foci. The diagnosis of PHC is based on negative imaging techniques result in other possible localizations. Minimal symptomatology in stage of generalization, atypical primary localization and rapid progression is of interest in current case. PMID:21751545

  8. Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Summary – Sept. 13, 2013 Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus Formats View PDF (PDF) 999 kB Download ... this summary. Understanding the Condition What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a disease caused by a ...

  9. Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari)

    MedlinePLUS

    Hepatic vein obstruction is a blockage of the hepatic vein, which carries blood away from the liver. ... Hepatic vein obstruction prevents blood from flowing out of the liver and back to the heart. This blockage can ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital hepatic fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research studies PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Congenital hepatic fibrosis On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed January 2012 What is congenital hepatic fibrosis? Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease of the ...

  11. Dressing the Giant Gluon

    E-print Network

    Antal Jevicki; Chrysostomos Kalousios; Marcus Spradlin; Anastasia Volovich

    2007-08-06

    We demonstrate the applicability of the dressing method to the problem of constructing new classical solutions for Euclidean worldsheets in anti-de Sitter space. The motivation stems from recent work of Alday and Maldacena, who studied gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling using a generalization of a particular worldsheet found by Kruczenski whose edge traces a path composed of light-light segments on the boundary of AdS. We dress this `giant gluon' to find new solutions in AdS_3 and AdS_5 whose edges trace out more complicated, timelike curves on the boundary. These solutions may be used to calculate certain Wilson loops via AdS/CFT.

  12. Imaging of giant cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tollard, E; Perot, G; Clavier, E; Gerardin, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the different imaging techniques for analysing giant intracranial aneurysms (digital subtraction angiography [DSA], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], computed tomography [CT]) imaging and explain their respective contribution to the understanding of the characteristics of these complex aneurysms. Giant aneurysms have a complex pathology with multiple stages of evolution and consequences. Therefore, complex imaging is mandatory to enhance the understanding of these parameters and to plan an often complicated treatment strategy. DSA remains the gold standard for analysing aneurysms, but non-invasive sectional imaging (CT, MRI) also provides essential information in the specific case of giant aneurysms. PMID:24698745

  13. Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  14. Hepatitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ?????? ????? ???????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Viral Hepatitis ????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (????) Viral Hepatitis ????? - ???? (Chinese - ...

  15. Institutional giants' cost cutting guide.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, B

    1991-04-17

    Look to this year's Institutional Giants, the country's largest schools, colleges, contract feeders, independent hospitals and hospital chains, and military food-service operations, for money-saving ideas. Their suggestions could fit into any foodservice operation. PMID:10111296

  16. Asymptomatic giant appendicolith managed conservatively

    PubMed Central

    Scroggie, Darren Leonard; Al-Whouhayb, Maitham

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old lady was found to have a giant appendicolith during a colorectal cancer screening colonoscopy, following a positive faecal occult blood test. Computed tomography confirmed the presence of a calcified giant appendicolith within the base of the appendix, which otherwise appeared normal. Appendicoliths are widely believed to be a major cause of acute appendicitis via obstruction of the appendix lumen, although this is disputed due to a lack of strong evidence. They may also cause chronic abdominal pain. All of the few cases of giant appendicoliths reported so far have been managed by extracting the lesions. Our patient was asymptomatic and had bilateral lung transplants, so a conservative watchful waiting approach was adopted. The authors propose expectant management of giant appendicoliths as a reasonable option in patients with significant operative risks. PMID:26598578

  17. Landscape of the lost giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    The Pleistocene megafauna extinction erased a group of remarkable animals. Whether humans had a prominent role in the extinction remains controversial, but it is emerging that the disappearance of the giants has markedly affected the environment.

  18. Pharma giants swap research programs.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical giants Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) agreed in late April to swap some assets, with Novartis handing off its vaccine business to GSK and getting most of the British company's cancer portfolio in return. PMID:25002632

  19. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  20. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Mark S. Marley; Jonathan Fortney; Sara Seager; Travis Barman

    2006-02-21

    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum--and hence its detectability and evolution--lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of extrasolar giant planets and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.

  1. Association between Hepatitis G and Unknown Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Soleiman-Meigooni, Saeed; Asgari, Ali; Hoseini-Shokouh, Seyyed Javad; Rajabi, Jalil; Kazemi-Galougahi, Mohammad Hassan; Moshtaghi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis G virus (HGV) is a hepatotrope virus with unknown importance. The genome of the virus has been detected in patients with acute or chronic non-A-E hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the association between hepatitis G and unknown chronic hepatitis. Methods: This case-control study was performed in Ebne-Sina military hospital in Hamadan, Iran. The cases were 35 military staff with unknown chronic hepatitis. The control group consisted of 59 healthy subjects who had normal levels of serum alanine aminoteransferase (ALT). The data were analyzed by SPSS, version18, using Fisher’s exact test, the Student’s t-test, and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Only one patient in the case group (2.9%) tested positive for HGV antibodies, and no one was infected in the control group. There was no association between HGV infection and unknown chronic hepatitis in our study (P=0.37). A significant association was found between the male gender and unknown chronic hepatitis (OR=14.9, P=0.01). Conclusion: No association between HGV infection and unknown chronic hepatitis was found in our study, so it was not necessary to evaluate these patients for HGV infection. PMID:26052409

  2. Hepatitis E, the neglected one.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Perrin, Hélène; Abravanel, Florence; Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Péron, Jean Marie

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. It is the first cause of acute viral hepatitis in the world with an estimated 20 million cases every year and 56 000 deaths. In developing countries, hepatitis E is a waterborne infection. In these countries, HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large outbreaks and affect young subjects with a significant mortality rate in pregnant women and patients with cirrhosis. In the developed countries, HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are responsible for autochthonous, sporadic hepatitis and transmission is zoonotic. HEV can cause neurological disorders and in immunocompromised patients, chronic infections. The progression of acute hepatitis E is most often mild and resolves spontaneously. Diagnostic tools include anti-HEV IgM antibodies in serum and/or viral RNA in the blood or stools by PCR. Ribavirin is used to treat chronic infection. A vaccine has been developed in China. PMID:26725910

  3. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    E-print Network

    Hulshof, Joost

    How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus Maria Xiridou1 *, Barbara Borkent Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract Background: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection

  4. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions planets with small cores/total heavy element abundances can accrete gaseous envelopes within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks.

  5. Hepatic transplantation: postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N; Heller, Matthew T; Tublin, Mitchell E

    2013-12-01

    Advances in surgical techniques and immunosuppression have made orthotopic liver transplantation a first-line treatment for many patients with end-stage liver disease. The early detection and treatment of postoperative complications has contributed significantly to improved graft and patient survival with imaging playing a critical role in detection. Complications that can lead to graft failure or patient mortality include vascular abnormalities, biliary abnormalities, allograft rejection, and recurrent or post-transplant malignancy. Vascular abnormalities include stenosis and thrombosis of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and inferior vena cava, as well as hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, and celiac stenosis. Biliary abnormalities include strictures, bile leak, obstruction, recurrent disease, and infection. While imaging is not used to diagnose allograft rejection, it plays an important role in identifying complications that can mimic rejection. Ultrasound is routinely performed as the initial imaging modality for the detection and follow-up of both early and delayed complications. Cholangiography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography are used to characterize biliary complications and computed tomography is used to confirm abnormal findings on ultrasound or for the evaluation of postoperative collections. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate the imaging appearances and management of complications associated with liver transplantation. PMID:23644931

  6. Rotation of Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}? , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{? }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{? }}{? }{con}? 1 (here {? }{con} is the convective time), and {{? }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}? 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  7. Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

    2015-04-18

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? have a potential therapeutic role in HCC. PMID:25914778

  8. Aplastica Anemia And Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cudillo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) is a severe and rare disease, characterized by hematopoietic bone marrow failure and peripheral cytopenia. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, activated T1 lymphocytes have been identified as effector cells. The disease can be successfully treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a syndrome of bone marrow failure following the development of acute seronegative hepatitis. HAA syndrome most often affects young males who presented severe pancytopenia two to three months after an episode of acute hepatitis. The clinical course of hepatitis is more frequently benign but a fulminant severe course is also described. The bone marrow failure can be explosive and severe and it is usually fatal if untreated, no correlations have been observed between severity of hepatitis and AA. In none of the studies a specific virus could be identified and most cases are seronegative for known hepatitis viruses. The clinical characteristics and response to immunotherapy indicate a central role for immune-mediated mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAA. The initial target organ of the immune response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure. Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic and blood lymphocytes with T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia. PMID:21415960

  9. Giant resonance study by 6li scattering 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinfeng

    2009-05-15

    Nuclear incompressibility Knm is an important parameter in the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS). The locations of the isocalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) and giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) of nuclei are directly ...

  10. Giant myoma and erythrocytosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozsaran, A A; Itil, I M; Terek, C; Kazandi, M; Dikmen, Y

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome in a patient with a giant subserous uterine myoma. She presented with plethora and an abdominal mass. After venesection of 4 units of blood, the preoperative haematocrit value of 53.3% and haemoglobin value of 17.5 g/dL had decreased to 48.6% and 16.8 g/dL levels, respectively. After the operative extraction of the giant subserous myoma with attached uterus weighing 14.2 kg, the haematocrit and the haemoglobin values had regressed to 40.3% and 14.3 g/dL levels, respectively. The findings indicated that the giant subserous myoma was the cause of the myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome in this patient. PMID:10554963

  11. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution. PMID:20074322

  12. Natural History of Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Shilpa; Ghany, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C infection is a common cause of cirrhosis and indication for liver transplantation in the United States. The incidence of chronic hepatitis C has been declining, but rates of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are projected to increase. The outcome of chronic hepatitis C is variable. It is estimated that 20% to 25% will develop cirrhosis over a 25-year to 30-year period. The rate of disease progression is influenced by many host, viral, and environmental factors. Few can be modified. PMID:26600216

  13. Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Lorraine A; Dumais, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is considered rare in the dog with little known about the clinicopathologic features. There are few reports in the veterinary literature concerning this benign, reactive lesion, formerly known as giant cell epulis. In humans, the four most commonly described reactive epulides are focal fibrous hyperplasia (fibrous epulis), pyogenic granuloma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. This case report describes the diagnosis and surgical management of a peripheral giant cell granuloma in a dog. PMID:26415387

  14. The hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram in alcoholic hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Siegel, M.E.; Harley, H.; Lee, K.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to identify abnormalities in the hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram (SA) in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SA's were performed in 35 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), 8; acute alcoholic hepatitis superimposed on cirrhosis (A/C), 14; and cirrhosis (C), 13. Posterior flows were done with a bolus of 10 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid with computer time-activity curves over the liver and left kidney. Curves were analyzed for per cent of hepatic arterial (HA) and portal venous contribution using the slope ratio method. Hepatic arterialization was estimated from the angle of the HA component of the curve. Reversal of the relative contribution of the hepatic and portal components of total flow were seen in all groups. Although quite severe in AH, the degree of reversal could not be used to differentiate among the groups. The average HA angle in AAH was 48.3 +- 8.1, in A/C 41.5 +- 10.6, and in C 30.4 +- 12.1. In reviewing the data of only those in the acute clinical phase of AH and not the recovery phase (1 AAH, 3 A/C) and those without other causes of alteration in hepatic arterialization (1 hepatoma, 1 portalcaval shunt, 6 renal failure), the average HA angle in AAH was 50.1 +- 6.6, 45.4 +- 8.2 in A/C, and 23.2 +- 4.2 in C. In 6 with renal failure (2 C, 2AAH, 2 A/C) the HA angle ws 52.7 +- 5.7. In all cases cirrhosis could be differentiated from both A/C (P=.05) and AAH (P<.01) using the HA angle. In absence of renal failure, portal shunt, or hepatoma, P was <.01 in both comparisons.

  15. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ga?an, C.; Miko?ajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  16. Review of Giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Joseph G; Chacko, J Anthony; Salter, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting primarily the elderly. Giant cell arteritis can cause sudden and potentially bilateral sequential vision loss in the elderly. Therefore, it is considered a medical emergency in ophthalmology and a significant cause of morbidity in an increasingly aging population. Ophthalmologists need to be able to recognize the classic symptoms and signs of this disease, and then be able to work-up and treat these patients in an efficient manner. An in-depth review of GCA from the literature as well as personal clinical experience follows. PMID:25859139

  17. Giant axonal neuropathy: MRS findings.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Alpay; Kutlu, Ramazan; Sigirci, Ahmet; Baysal, Tamer; Altinok, Tayfun; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2003-10-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare genetic disease of childhood involving the central and peripheral nervous systems. Axonal loss with several giant axons filled with neurofilaments is the main histopathological feature of peripheral nerve biopsies in this disease. Routine neuroimaging studies reveal diffuse hyperintensities in cerebral and cerebellar white matter. In this case report, the authors present the brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic features (normal N-acetylaspartate/creatine and increased choline/creatine and myoinositol/creatine ratios), which might indicate the absence of neuroaxonal loss and the presence of significant demyelination and glial proliferation in white matter, of an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with GAN. PMID:14569833

  18. A prospective self-controlled study of topical timolol 0.5% cream for large superficial infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yajing; Yang, Jingyan; Chen, Minyan; Chang, Lei; Wang, Tianyou; Ma, Gang; Jin, Yunbo; Chen, Hui; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2015-04-01

    Timolol has recently been reported to be an effective and safe treatment for small and superficial infantile hemangiomas (IH). However, it is controversial to choose it as an alternative to oral propranolol for large superficial IH. In this study, we generated a new modified timolol agent as the base of an ointment. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of this new agent, we recruited 20 patients with large superficial IH. The average age was 4 months old. The average area of the IH was 28.8 cm(2) . The treatment was continued for 2-6 months. Three assessors were asked to judge the changes in both the treated and untreated parts separately by comparing photographs. After an average of 3.25 months of treatment, the average visual analog scale scores were 5.5 and 4.3 for those with and without the medication, respectively. The treated parts regressed significantly more than the untreated parts (P < 0.05). There were no side-effects observed during treatment. High performance liquid chromatography was used to detect the serum concentration of timolol, and no timolol was detected in any of the blood samples (<0.02 ?g/mL). Our new modified timolol agent is proven to be an effective therapy option for IH. Prospective studies with high-precision serum timolol concentrations, with heart rate or blood pressure monitoring during treatment, are needed to evaluate potential systemic absorption when using timolol on large IH. PMID:25656976

  19. Evolution and History of Giant Sequoia1

    E-print Network

    Evolution and History of Giant Sequoia1 H. Thomas Harvey2 Abstract: Ancient ancestors of the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) were widespread throughout much of the Northern Hemi of present giant sequoia into the southwestern United States. The native range is now restricted to the west

  20. Hepatic encephalopathy: historical remarks.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Piero

    2015-03-01

    The history of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is briefly reviewed since the beginning of western medicine by Hippocrates. For about 2000 years the main evidence was the mere association between jaundice, fever and delirium. A clear link between delirium and cirrhosis was proven in the 17th century by Morgagni. In subsequent times the focus was manly the descriptions of symptoms and the only pathophysiological improvement was the evidence that jaundice, per se, does not alter brain function. Only at the end of the 19th century Hann et al proved the role of portal-systemic shunt and pf nitrogenous derivates in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. A terrific development of knowledge occurred in the last 60 years, after the works of Sherlock in London. Nowadays some consensus about HE was reached, so that new developments will likely occur. PMID:26041956

  1. [Chronic hepatitis B therapy].

    PubMed

    Morovi?, Miro; Troselj-Vuki?, Biserka; Klarin, Ivo; Hrsti?, Irena; Ostoji?, Rajko

    2009-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is associated with the development of cirrhosis in more than one third of patients and in a large proportion of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Current standard treatment includes pegylated interferon alfa-2a and five oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues: entecavir, tenofovir, adefovir, telbivudine and lamivudine (listed according to antiviral efficacy). The advantage of interferon treatment is the possibility of long-term remission in one third of carefully selected HbeAg+ patients without development of resistance. However, interferon treatment is not efficient in the majority of patients. The advantage of treatment with nucleoside and nucleotide analogues is the possibility to suppress HBV DNA to undetectable levels in 70%-90% of patients. However, analogue treatment is a long-term treatment (possibly life-long) and is associated with the development of resistance. PMID:20198897

  2. [Prevention of hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Morillas, Rosa M; Sala, Marga; Planas, Ramon

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis which, in addition to producing a great social impact, deteriorates the quality of life of patients and is considered a sign of advanced liver disease and therefore a clinical indication for liver transplant evaluation. Patients who have had episodes of HE have a high risk of recurrence. Thus, after the HE episode resolves, it is recommended: control and prevention of precipitating factors (gastrointestinal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, use of diuretics with caution, avoid nervous system depressant medications), continued administration of non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose or lactitol, few or non-absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin and assess the need for a liver transplant as the presence of a HE episode carries a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. PMID:24480288

  3. Acute hepatitis after amiodarone infusion

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Paulo; Dias, Adelaide; Gonçalves, Helena; Albuquerque, Aníbal; Gama, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis is a very rare, but potentially fatal, adverse effect of intravenous amiodarone. We present a case of an 88-year-old man with history of ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and severely depressed left ventricular function that was admitted to our coronary care unit with diagnosis of decompensated heart failure and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. A few hours after the beginning of intravenous amiodarone he developed an acute hepatitis. There was a completely recovery within the next days after amiodarone withdrawn and other causes of acute hepatitis have been ruled out. This case highlights the need for close monitoring of hepatic function during amiodarone infusion in order to identify any potential hepatotoxicity and prevent a fatal outcome. Oral amiodarone is, apparently, a safe option in these patients. PMID:26488027

  4. Hepatitis E infection during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Verma, Natasha; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question Many of my patients are from Southeast Asia where hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is quite common. What precautions can I suggest they take before traveling to these areas and what is the risk of contracting HEV during pregnancy? Answer Hepatitis E is a water-borne pathogen transmitted by the fecal-oral route. To reduce the risk of contracting HEV while traveling to endemic areas, it is important to maintain hygienic practices such as hand washing with safe water, particularly before handling food, avoiding drinking water or using ice cubes of unknown purity, and avoiding eating unpeeled fruits and vegetables. Currently there is no vaccine available in Canada for HEV. Hepatitis E infection during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester, is characterized by a more severe infection that sometimes results in fulminant hepatitis, increasing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. PMID:26175368

  5. Acute hepatitis after amiodarone infusion.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Paulo; Dias, Adelaide; Gonçalves, Helena; Albuquerque, Aníbal; Gama, Vasco

    2015-10-16

    Acute hepatitis is a very rare, but potentially fatal, adverse effect of intravenous amiodarone. We present a case of an 88-year-old man with history of ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and severely depressed left ventricular function that was admitted to our coronary care unit with diagnosis of decompensated heart failure and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. A few hours after the beginning of intravenous amiodarone he developed an acute hepatitis. There was a completely recovery within the next days after amiodarone withdrawn and other causes of acute hepatitis have been ruled out. This case highlights the need for close monitoring of hepatic function during amiodarone infusion in order to identify any potential hepatotoxicity and prevent a fatal outcome. Oral amiodarone is, apparently, a safe option in these patients. PMID:26488027

  6. [Therapeutic update in hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Devesa, María José; Cuenca, Francisca; Izquierdo, Sonia; Sánchez-Pobre, Pilar; Ladero, José María; López-Alonso, Gustavo; Díaz-Rubio, Manuel; Rey, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is a major health burden affecting 130-170 million people worldwide. Approximately 10-30% of those with chronic hepatitis C will progress to cirrhosis over 20-30 years. The development of new direct-acting antivirals has changed the management of the disease, allowing efficacious Interferon-free therapies superior to prior treatment regimens with minimal side effects, even in some subgroups previously thought to be difficult to cure such as cirrhotic patients. PMID:26365735

  7. Giant resonances in O-16 

    E-print Network

    Lui, YW; Clark, HL; Youngblood, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Giant resonances in O-16 have been studied with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV alpha particles at small angles, Isoscalar E0, E1, and E2 strength corresponding to 48 +/- 10%, 32 +/- 7%, and 53 +/- 10%, of the respective energy-weighted sum rule...

  8. [Surgery for emphysematous giant bullae].

    PubMed

    Chihara, K; Okita, K; Tamari, S; Hirano, M

    2011-04-01

    We address 3 important keys to obtain successful outcomes in surgery for emphysematous giant bullae. It is the 1st step to select patients who might benefit from bullectomy based on functional imaging. The chest computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary perfusion scintigram provide information regarding with pulmonary vascular beds which could be recruited by bullectomy. In addition, dynamic-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during breathing can show a patient with paradoxical inflation of giant bulla during expiration, which means impairment of ventilation of the adjacent normal parenchyma, and is a promising sign for successful outcome of bullectomy. Second, it should be emphasized to perform a proper procedure in bullectomy. If a giant bulla has a wide bottom, it should be recommended to open the bulla and to plicate it by sutures without injury of vessels on the bottom of the bulla rather than simple bullectomy with staples. Finally, it is important to keep inflated lung avoiding atelectasis following operation by minimum pressure of suction. We show here sequential bullectomies on a 41-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) GOLD IV due to bilateral giant bullae and poor vascular reserve, and address our strategy described above. PMID:21491730

  9. Cutaneous giant cell hyalin angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Martin, R W; Lumadue, J A; Corio, R L; Kalb, R L; Hood, A F

    1993-08-01

    Giant cell hyalin angiopathy (GCHA) is an unusual histologic finding associated with inflammation. The lesion has previously only been reported intraorally and is usually preceded by trauma. We report the first case of cutaneous GCHA. The eosinophilic, amorphous material (so-called "hyalin") stained for light chain products, suggesting that their deposition resulted from a reactive process associated with inflammation. PMID:7693779

  10. Cloud formation in giant planets

    E-print Network

    Christiane Helling

    2007-11-23

    We calculate the formation of dust clouds in atmospheres of giant gas-planets. The chemical structure and the evolution of the grain size distribution in the dust cloud layer is discussed based on a consistent treatment of seed formation, growth/evaporation and gravitational settling. Future developments are shortly addressed.

  11. Nursery of Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion).

    New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud.

    This image is a large-scale mosaic assembled from individual photographs obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. The mosaic is a composite of images obtained at mid-infrared wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). The brightest infrared cloud near the top center corresponds to DR21, which presumably contains a cluster of newly forming stars at a distance of 10,000 light-years.

    Protruding out from DR21 toward the bottom left of the image is a gaseous outflow (green), containing both carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen. Data from the Spitzer spectrograph, which breaks light into its constituent individual wavelengths, indicate the presence of hot steam formed as the outflow heats the surrounding molecular gas. Outflows are physical signatures of processes that create supersonic beams, or jets, of gas. They are usually accompanied by discs of material around the new star, which likely contain the materials from which future planetary systems are formed. Additional newborn stars, depicted in green, can be seen surrounding the DR21 region.

    The red filaments stretching across this image denote the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These organic molecules, comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are excited by surrounding interstellar radiation and become luminescent at wavelengths near 8.0 microns. The complex pattern of filaments is caused by an intricate combination of radiation pressure, gravity and magnetic fields. The result is a tapestry in which winds, outflows and turbulence move and shape the interstellar medium.

    To the lower left of the mosaic is a large bubble of gas and dust, which may represent the remnants of a past generation of stars.

  12. Formation of Gas Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; D'Angelo, Gennaro

    2006-09-01

    The observed physical properties and orbits of giant planets, models of their internal structure and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium; these gasses could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger percentages of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of elements heavier than helium. The transiting extrasolar planet HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable amounts of light gases and heavy elements. The other observed transiting exoplanets are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of these planets. Extrasolar planets orbiting very close to their stars almost certainly formed at larger distances and migrated inwards as a consequence of gravitational interactions with their protoplanetary disks. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the giant planet cores grow massive enough to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary question regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions can planets develop cores sufficiently massive to accrete gas envelopes within the lifetimes of typical gaseous protoplanetary disks.

  13. Current research of hepatic cirrhosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xi-Xian; Jiang, Shu-Lin; Yao, Dong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is a common disease that poses a serious threat to public health, and is characterized by chronic, progressive and diffuse hepatic lesions preceded by hepatic fibrosis regardless of the exact etiologies. In recent years, considerable achievements have been made in China in research of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and especially the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in much improved prognosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this paper, the authors review the current status of research in hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and their major complications. PMID:15655809

  14. Guiding the Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    New ESO Survey Provides Targets for the VLT Giant astronomical telescopes like the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) must be used efficiently. Observing time is expensive and there are long waiting lines of excellent research programmes. Thus the work at the telescope must be very well prepared and optimized as much as possible - mistakes should be avoided and no time lost! Astronomers working with the new 8-m class optical/infrared telescopes must base their observations on detailed lists of suitable target objects if they want to perform cutting-edge science. This is particularly true for research programmes that depend on observations of large samples of comparatively rare, distant objects. This type of work requires that extensive catalogues of such objects must be prepared in advance. One such major catalogue - that will serve as a very useful basis for future VLT observations - has just become available from the new ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). The Need for Sky Surveys Astronomers have since long recognized the need to carry out preparatory observations with other telescopes in order to "guide" large telescopes. To this end, surveys of smaller or larger parts of the sky have been performed by wide-field telescopes, paving the way for subsequent work at the limits of the largest available ground-based telescopes. For instance, a complete photographic survey of the sourthern sky (declination < -17.5°) was carried out in the 1970's with the ESO 1-metre Schmidt Telescope in support of the work at the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory. However, while until recently most observational programmes could rely on samples of objects found on photographic plates, this is no longer possible. New image surveys must match the fainter limiting magnitudes reached by the new and larger telescopes. Modern digital, multi-colour, deep imaging surveys have thus become an indispensable complement to the 8-m telescopes. The new generation of imaging surveys will, without doubt, be the backbone of future research and are likely to be as long-lived as their earlier counterparts, which have served the astronomical community so well over the past decades. The new surveys are now becoming possible, thanks to the new, extremely light-sensitive CCD-mosaics mounted on wide-field telescopes. The ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) A very successful, major step in this direction has recently been taken at ESO. It concerns an imaging survey with the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, aimed at defining targets for the first year of operation of the VLT. In addition to serving the future observers, this survey is also public , i.e., the resulting data are made available to all interested parties. The project is known as the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). It is supervised by a Working Group with members from the European astronomical community ( [1]) that has been responsible for defining the survey strategy and for monitoring the progress. It has been a major challenge to carry out such a public survey in the very short time available. The work by the EIS Team has involved the survey observations at the NTT, development of a pipeline to process the raw data, advanced data reduction, identification of large samples of astronomically "interesting" targets and, not least, the distribution of images and other survey products before the start of operation of the VLT. To cope with the ambitious one-year timetable, a novel type of collaboration between ESO and the astronomical communities in the ESO Member States was set up. It has allowed to combine efficiently the scientific and technical expertise of the community with ESO in-house know-how and infrastructure. This model has been very successful and may well set the example for future surveys. Science Goals of EIS EIS is in many aspects a novel approach for large-scale, ground-based optical observations, in support of large-telescope science. The speed with which raw EIS data have been converted to deliverable products is quite unprecedented, given the nature and scope of t

  15. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    PubMed Central

    Antonsen, J.; Balachandran, R.; Helgstrand, F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hematogenous spread of bacteria from the bowel due to bacterial translocation has been postulated in animal and trauma studies. This case presents a patient with possible hematogenous bacterial spreading after acute laparotomy. Case presentation A 57-year old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. A computed tomography showed mechanical small bowel obstruction. A laparotomy was performed showing no contamination, and no bowel resection was performed. The patient was not given any antibiotics during this time. The patient was re-admitted 24 h after discharge with fever, elevated white count and abdominal pain. A computed tomography showed newly developed intrahepatic abscesses. These were treated with antibiotics, and the patient was discharged with follow-up ultrasound showing diminished abscesses. Discussion This case discusses the possible pathophysiology behind the development of intrahepatic abscesses after small bowel obstruction. Conclusion Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses. PMID:26410805

  16. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A be prevented? The hepatitis A vaccine offers immunity to adults and children older than age 1. ... Treatment with immune globulin can provide short-term immunity to hepatitis A when given before exposure or ...

  17. Hepatitis A - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Thai (???????) Turkish (Türkçe) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Arabic (???????) Hepatitis A ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Turkish (Türkçe) Hepatitis A Vaccine English Hepatit A A?isi - ...

  18. Hepatitis B - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Laotian (Lao) Portuguese (português) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Turkish (Türkçe) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Amharic (amarunya) Hepatitis: Type ... Tagalog (Tagalog) PDF Stanford University, Asian Liver Center Turkish (Türkçe) Hepatitis B Vaccine English Hepatit B A?isi - ...

  19. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & Settings Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & Settings Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource ...

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed. PMID:26675364

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed. PMID:26675364

  2. Hepatitis C: progress and problems.

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, J A

    1994-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of posttransfusion hepatitis. HCV isolates differ in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Nucleotide changes are concentrated in hypervariable regions and may be related to immune selection. In most immunocompetent persons, HCV infection is diagnosed serologically, using antigens from conserved regions. Amplification of RNA may be necessary to detect infection in immunosuppressed patients. Transmission by known parenteral routes is frequent; other means of spread are less common and may represent inapparent, percutaneous dissemination. Infection can lead to classical acute hepatitis, but most infected persons have no history of acute disease. Once infected, most individuals apparently remain carriers of the virus, with varying degrees of hepatocyte damage and fibrosis ensuing. Chronic hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, disease progression varies widely, from less than 2 years to cirrhosis in some patients to more than 30 years with only chronic hepatitis in others. Determinants important in deciding outcome are unknown. Alpha interferon, which results in sustained remission in selected patients, is the only available therapy. Long-term benefits from such therapy have not been demonstrated. Prevention of HCV infection by vaccination is likely to be challenging if ongoing viral mutation results in escape from neutralization and clearance. PMID:7834603

  3. Ontogeny of rat hepatic adrenoceptors

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.K.; Schanberg, S.M.; Kuhn, C.M.

    1983-10-01

    Hepatic alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-2 adrenoceptors were characterized during development of the rat through Scatchard analysis of (3H)prazosin, (3H)rauwolscine and (125I)pindolol binding to liver membrane preparations. Major changes in adrenoceptor numbers occur shortly before birth at weaning. The fetal rat liver is characterized by a large number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors, which falls 10-fold by birth. The number of hepatic beta-2 adrenoceptors decreases gradually during development, and is lower at all times than the number of alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The developmental profile of the hepatic alpha-1 adrenoceptor is biphasic: there is a 2 to 3-fold fall in alpha-1 adrenoceptor number at birth and a 3- to 5-fold rise at weaning. While absolute numbers of alpha-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors do not correlate precisely with reported actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine on hepatic metabolism during ontogeny, the increasing ratio of alpha-1/beta-2 hepatic adrenoceptors may contribute to the conversion from predominantly beta effects of catecholamines reported in fetal and suckling rat liver to the predominantly alpha-1 effects that are well documented in the adult male rat.

  4. A giant peritoneal loose body.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Won Seo; Kim, Youn Wha

    2013-08-01

    Peritoneal loose bodies (PLBs) are usually discovered incidentally during laparotomy or autopsy. A few cases of giant PLBs presenting with various symptoms have been reported in the literature. Here, we describe a case of a giant PLB incidentally found in the pelvic cavity of a 50-year-old man. Computed tomography revealed a free ovoid mass in the pelvic cavity that consisted of central dense, heterogeneous calcifications and peripheral soft tissue. The mass was an egg-shaped, hard, glistening concretion measuring 7.5×7.0×6.8 cm and weighing 160 g. This concretion consisted of central necrotic fatty tissue surrounded by concentrically laminated, acellular, fibrous material. Small PLBs usually do not require any specific treatment. However, if PLBs cause alimentary or urinary symptoms due to their large size, surgical removal may be recommended. It is essential for clinicians to be aware of this entity and its characteristic features to establish the correct diagnosis. PMID:24009634

  5. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, ?smail Önder; Do?an, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; ?alk, ?smail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  6. Hepatitis B reactivation and timing for prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz

    2015-01-01

    It is known that immunotherapy and cancer chemotherapy may cause hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers and inactive chronic hepatitis B patients. Guidelines recommend antiviral prophylaxis regardless of HBV DNA levels to prevent reactivation. We read from the article written by Liu et al that Lamivudine was given inadequate time for antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:25717269

  7. RELATED ARTICLES Pricey Hepatitis C Drug Draws

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    /AIDS. Hepatitis B and C are most well known and justifiably feared because they cause chronic liver cirrhosis the future burden of Hepatitis B so they do not develop chronic Hepatitis and subsequent liver cirrhosis is as simple as a pill a day and, like HIV, you can prevent disease progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer

  8. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...Proclamation 8845 of July 27, 2012 World Hepatitis Day, 2012 By the President of the United...in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the health...of their infection status. On World Hepatitis Day, we call attention to this...

  9. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ...Proclamation 9001 of July 25, 2013 World Hepatitis Day, 2013 By the President of the United...Proclamation Each year, we mark World Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that...one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver cancer...

  10. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...Proclamation 8696--World Hepatitis Day, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal...Proclamation 8696 of July 27, 2011 World Hepatitis Day, 2011 By the President of the United...millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths of...

  11. Electrodynamics in Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets such as HD209458b are strongly ionized by the UV flux of their host stars. We show that photoionization on such planets creates a dayside ionosphere that extends from the thermosphere to the 100 mbar level. The resulting peak electron density near the 1 mbar level is higher than that encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the model conductivity is in fact comparable to the atmospheres of Sun-like stars. As a result, the momentum and energy balance in the upper atmosphere of HD209458b and similar planets can be strongly affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Despite much weaker ionization, electrodynamics is nevertheless also important on the giant planets of the solar system. We use a generic framework to constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in extrasolar planets, and compare the results with conductivites based on the same approach for Jupiter and Saturn. By using a generalized Ohm's law and assumed magnetic fields, we then demonstrate the basic effects of wind-driven ion drag in giant planet atmospheres. Our results show that ion drag is often significant in the upper atmosphere where it can also substantially alter the energy budget through resistive heating.

  12. Observed Properties of Giant Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa; Colegrove, Owen

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Giant Cells has been suggested by both theory and observation for over 45 years. We have tracked the motions of supergranules in SDO/HMI Doppler velocity data and find larger (Giant Cell) flows that persist for months. The flows in these cells are clockwise around centers of divergence in the north and counter-clockwise in the south. Equatorward flows are correlated with prograde flows - giving the transport of angular momentum toward the equator that is needed to maintain the Sun's rapid equatorial rotation. The cells are most pronounced at mid- and high-latitudes where they exhibit the rotation rates representative of those latitudes. These are clearly large, long-lived, cellular features, with the dynamical characteristics expected from the effects of the Sun's rotation, but the shapes of the cells are not well represented in numerical models. While the Giant Cell flow velocities are small (<10 m/s), their long lifetimes should nonetheless substantially impact the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's near surface layers.

  13. Mass transfer from giant donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovskii, K.; Ivanova, N.

    2015-06-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass-loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass-transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in the donor's response to mass-loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass-transfer rate via L1 allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass-transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolve stably through the conservative mass transfer varies from 1.5 to 2.2, which is about twice as large as previously believed. In underdeveloped giants with shallow convective envelopes, this critical ratio may be even larger. When the convective envelope is still growing, and in particular for most cases of massive donors, the critical mass ratio gradually decreases to this value, from that of radiative donors.

  14. Kepler rapidly rotating giant stars

    E-print Network

    Costa, A D; Bravo, J P; Paz-Chinchón, F; Chagas, M L das; Leão, I C; de Oliveira, G Pereira; da Silva, R Rodrigues; Roque, S; de Oliveira, L L A; da Silva, D Freire; De Medeiros, J R

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of sub-stellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present letter we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points for remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the Sun rotation. These giants are combined with 6 other recently listed in the literature for mid-IR diagnostic based on WISE information, from which a trend for an infrared excess is revealed for at least a half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  15. Real-time ultrasonography as a monitoring technique for interstitial Nd:YAG laser treatment of voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Jochen A.; Gottschlich, Stefan; Lippert, Burkard M.; Folz, Benedikt J.

    1998-01-01

    Voluminous vascular anomalies of the head and neck region are still treated with conventional surgery although Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser therapy is an effective treatment method. One hundred thirty give patients with voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations were treated with interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy, partly complemented by a non-contact mode Nd:YAG laser light application. The vascular tumors had a diameter of more than 3 cm in two or all three dimensions. Treatment was carried out under ultrasound and manual control. Nearly 60% of the patients showed a complete clinical regression of the vascular tumor, a third of the patients had a partial regression and were satisfied with the treatment outcome. Four patients were treated unsuccessfully with the laser and three of them subsequently underwent conventional surgery. Only 10 patients showed cosmetic and functional deficits. These results on the interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy of voluminous hemangiomas and vascular malformations in a large patient group demonstrated the high effectiveness of this novel and innovative therapy modality.

  16. Hepatitis A infection during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Question Many of my patients are from Southeast Asia, where hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is quite common. What precautions can I suggest my pregnant patients take before traveling to these areas and what is the risk of contracting HAV during pregnancy? Answer Hepatitis A virus is a water-borne pathogen transmitted by the fecal-oral route. To reduce the risk of contracting HAV while traveling to endemic areas, it is important to maintain hygienic practices such as hand washing with safe water, particularly before handling food, avoiding drinking water or using ice cubes of unknown purity, and avoiding eating unpeeled fruits and vegetables. An HAV vaccine is available and can be administered before traveling to endemic countries. Hepatitis A virus infection has a largely favourable expected outcome even during pregnancy. Infection occurring in the second or third trimester has been reported to be associated with preterm labour.

  17. Medical Officer -Hepatitis Treatment, Global Hepatitis Programme The WHO Global Hepatitis Programme (GHP) secretariat is located in the HIV/TB/Malaria (HTM)

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    Medical Officer - Hepatitis Treatment, Global Hepatitis Programme The WHO Global Hepatitis structure. The Global Hepatitis Programme (GHP) is structured along the four axes of the Framework for Global Action for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis (GAPCVH). The Department provides

  18. Strategic Information Officer -Hepatitis, Global Hepatitis Programme The WHO Global Hepatitis Programme (GHP) secretariat is located in the HIV/TB/Malaria (HTM)

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    Strategic Information Officer - Hepatitis, Global Hepatitis Programme The WHO Global Hepatitis structure. The Global Hepatitis Programme (GHP) is structured along the four axes of the Framework for Global Action for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis (GAPCVH). The Department provides

  19. Update on Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a liver disorder affecting both children and adults, is characterized by inflammatory liver histology, elevated transaminase levels, circulating nonorganspecific autoantibodies, and increased levels of immunoglobulin G, in the absence of a known etiology. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity: smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody define AIH type 1 and antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 and/or liver cytosol type 1 define AIH type 2. AIH type 1 affects both adults and children, while AIH type 2 is mainly a paediatric disease, though it does occasionally affects young adults. AIH should be considered during the diagnostic workup of any patient with increased liver enzyme levels. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone with or without azathioprine, with symptom free long-term survival for the majority of patients. For those who do not respond to standard treatment, or who are difficult-to-treat, mycophenolate mofetil and, in the absence of a response, calcineurin inhibitors should be tried in addition to steroids. The pathogenesis of AIH is not fully understood, although there is mounting evidence that genetic susceptibility, molecular mimicry and impaired immunoregulatory networks contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune attack. Liver damage is thought to be mediated primarily by CD4 T-cells, although recent studies support the involvement of diverse populations, including Th17 cells. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of AIH is likely to contribute to the development of novel treatments, such as the adoptive transfer of autologous expanded antigenspecific regulatory T-cells, which ultimately aim at restoring tolerance to liver-derived antigens. PMID:26357634

  20. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin®. PMID:26355220

  1. Hepatitis C, stigma and cure

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Rui Tato; Barreira, David Pires

    2013-01-01

    The infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important global chronic viral infections worldwide. It is estimated to affect around 3% of the world population, about 170-200 million people. Great part of the infections are asymptomatic, the patient can be a chronic carrier for decades without knowing it. The most severe consequences of the chronic infection are liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which appears in 20%-40% of the patients, leading to hepatic failure and death. The HCV was discovered 25 years ago in 1989, is a RNA virus and classified by the World Health Organization as an oncogenic one. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most important cancers, the fifth worldwide in terms of mortality. It has been increasing in the Ocidental world, mainly due to chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is not only a liver disease and a cause of cirrhosis, but also a mental, psychological, familiar, and social disease. The stigma that the infected person sometimes carries is tremendous having multiple consequences. The main cause is lack of adequate information, even in the health professionals setting. But, besides the “drama” of being infected, health professionals, family, society and the infected patients, must be aware of the chance of real cure and total and definitive elimination of the virus. The treatment for hepatitis C has begun in the last 80´s with a percentage of cure of 6%. Step by step the efficacy of the therapy for hepatitis C is rapidly increasing and nowadays with the very new medications, the so called Direct Antiviral Agents-DAAs of new generation, is around 80%-90%. PMID:24187444

  2. Hepatitis C: Issues in Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine K; Jonas, Maureen M

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C infection is a global health problem. Most infected children have not been identified. Perinatal transmission is the most common mode of acquisition. Liver disease owing to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection progresses slowly in individuals infected early in life. Serious complications rarely affect patients during childhood. Successful treatment of HCV in adults has improved and recommendations have changed. Treatment in children should be deferred until direct-acting antivirals and interferon-free regimens are available to this population. If treatment cannot be deferred, regimens including peginterferon and ribavirin can be given to children with compensated liver disease. PMID:26600227

  3. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert S.

    2005-08-01

    Liver transplantation is a life-saving therapy to correct liver failure, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C infection. But despite the successful use of living donors and improvements in immunosuppression and antiviral therapy, organ demand continues to outstrip supply and recurrent hepatitis C with accelerated progression to cirrhosis of the graft is a frequent cause of graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Appropriate selection of candidates and timing of transplantation, coupled with better pre- and post-transplant antiviral therapy, are needed to improve outcomes.

  4. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. PMID:25742731

  5. [Pulmonary embolism and anaphylactic shock caused by rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Baguet, J P; Tremel, F; Thony, F; Brion, J P; Longère, P; Mallion, J M

    1999-10-01

    A 44 year old man was admitted to hospital as an emergency for shock associated with giant urticaria and atrial fibrillation. Angiography showed pulmonary embolism, and an image suggesting a hydatid cyst of the liver was observed by echocardiography in the sub-costal view, confirmed by liver ultrasonic scan and serology. After treatment with Albendazole, the cyst was removed surgically and histology showed the characteristic appearances of hydatid disease. The final diagnosis was rupture of a hydatid cyst into a sub-hepatic vein with anaphylactic shock and pulmonary embolism. PMID:10562907

  6. Electrophysiological Recordings from the Giant Fiber System

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Marcus J

    2010-01-01

    The giant fiber system (GFS) of Drosophila is a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates the escape response in the fly. It is one of the few adult neural circuits from which electrophysiological recordings can be made routinely. This article describes a simple procedure for stimulating the giant fiber neurons directly in the brain of the adult fly and obtaining recordings from the output muscles of the giant fiber system. PMID:20647357

  7. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ?sh/?olinec and ?sh·?olinec prove to be important self-consistently derived quantities. I present some striking, explicit, asymptotic analytical theorems and results involving these quantities. Perhaps the most astonishingly unexpected and gratifying single result is this: for the very value Nature gives us for the relevant temperature exponent (?=15; CNO cycle) for nuclear-energy generation, ?sh and ?olinec behave in a well defined, precisely inverse manner for a given value of core-mass, Mc. This emphasizes that the internal behaviour of such stars is definitely anti-homologous rather than homologous: dense cores physically promote diffuse surrounding envelopes. I also extend the ideas yet further in a way which (I) links the structural and evolutionary behaviour of stars from the main sequence through horizontal-branch phases of evolution, and (II) also has implications for post-main-sequence developments in more massive stars. The end results is that the post-main-sequence developments of all stars - low-mass, intermediate-mass, and high-mass - as they expand to become giants, are finally seen to be examples of one underpinning fact: that dense cores with this surrounding shells naturally follow hydrogen exhaustion. While "this has been know all along" from oft-repeated computer calculations, we now know why analytically. That matters to true theorists. What follows is a requested, much expanded version of my Cambridge talk.

  8. ORIGIN OF LITHIUM ENRICHMENT IN K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Reddy, Bacham E.; Lambert, David L.

    2011-03-20

    In this Letter, we report on a low-resolution spectroscopic survey for Li-rich K giants among 2000 low-mass (M {<=} 3 M{sub sun}) giants spanning the luminosity range from below to above the luminosity of the clump. Fifteen new Li-rich giants including four super Li-rich K giants (log {epsilon}(Li) {>=}3.2) were discovered. A significant finding is that there is a concentration of Li-rich K giants at the luminosity of the clump or red horizontal branch. This new finding is partly a consequence of the fact that our low-resolution survey is the first large survey to include giants well below and above the red giant branch (RGB) bump and clump locations in the H-R diagram. Origin of the lithium enrichment may be plausibly attributed to the conversion of {sup 3}He via {sup 7}Be to {sup 7}Li by the Cameron-Fowler mechanism but the location for the onset of the conversion is uncertain. Two possible opportunities to effect this conversion are discussed: the bump in the first ascent of the RGB and the He-core flash at the tip of the RGB. The finite luminosity spread of the Li-rich giants serves to reject the idea that Li enhancement is, in general, a consequence of a giant swallowing a large planet.

  9. WHEN GIANTS DREAMED ABOUT THE FLOOD THE BOOK OF GIANTS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Enoch and the Book of Giants still persists, as is evident in the official title of the Giants in the books that comprise 1 Enoch, the Book of Giants is given much less attention, although its offi- cial of these texts were available ear- lier in J.T. MILIK, The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumrân Cave 4

  10. Hepatic lipase deficiency produces glucose intolerance, inflammation and hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Blasco, Irene; Herrero-Cervera, Andrea; Vinué, Ángela; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Piqueras, Laura; Sanz, María Jesús; Burks, Deborah Jane; González-Navarro, Herminia

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus constitute a major problem to global health, and their incidence is increasing at an alarming rate. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which affects up to 90% of obese people and nearly 70% of the overweight, is commonly associated with MetS characteristics such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. In the present study, we demonstrate that hepatic lipase (HL)-inactivation in mice fed with a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet produced dyslipidemia including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels. These changes were accompanied by glucose intolerance, pancreatic and hepatic inflammation and steatosis. In addition, compared with WT mice, HL(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced circulating MCP1 levels, monocytosis and higher percentage of CD4+Th17+ cells. Consistent with increased inflammation, livers from HL(-/-) mice had augmented activation of the stress SAPK/JNK- and p38-pathways compared with the activation levels of the kinases in livers from WT mice. Analysis of HL(-/-) and WT mice fed regular chow diet showed dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance in HL(-/-) mice without any other changes in inflammation or hepatic steatosis. Altogether, these results indicate that dyslipidemia induced by HL-deficiency in combination with a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet promotes hepatic steatosis and inflammation in mice which are, at least in part, mediated by the activation of the stress SAPK/JNK- and p38-pathways. Future studies are warranted to asses the viability of therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of these kinases to reduce hepatic steatosis associated to lipase dysfunction. PMID:26423094

  11. Management of hepatic vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Plessier, Aurélie; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Valla, Dominique-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Primary damage to hepatic vessels is rare. (i) Hepatic arterial disorders, related mostly to iatrogenic injury and occasionally to systemic diseases, lead to ischemic cholangiopathy. (ii) Hepatic vein or inferior vena cava thrombosis, causing primary Budd-Chiari syndrome, is related typically to a combination of underlying prothrombotic conditions, particularly myeloproliferative neoplasms, factor V Leiden, and oral contraceptive use. The outcome of Budd-Chiari syndrome has markedly improved with anticoagulation therapy and, when needed, angioplasty, stenting, TIPS, or liver transplantation. (iii) Extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis is related to local causes (advanced cirrhosis, surgery, malignant or inflammatory conditions), or general prothrombotic conditions (mostly myeloproliferative neoplasms or factor II gene mutation), often in combination. Anticoagulation at the early stage prevents thrombus extension and, in 40% of the cases, allows for recanalization. At the late stage, gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension can be prevented in the same way as in cirrhosis. (iv) Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (or venoocclusive disease), caused by agents toxic to bone marrow progenitors and to sinusoidal endothelial cells, induces portal hypertension and liver dysfunction. Decreasing the intensity of myeloablative regimens reduces the incidence of sinusoidal toxicity. (v) Obstruction of intrahepatic portal veins (obliterative portal venopathy) can be associated with autoimmune diseases, prothrombotic conditions, or HIV infection. The disease can eventually be complicated with end-stage liver disease. Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is common. Anticoagulation should be considered. (vi) Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is induced by the uneven perfusion due to obstructed sinusoids, or portal or hepatic venules. It causes pure portal hypertension. PMID:22300463

  12. Access to hepatitis C medicines

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, Delphi GM; Prasad, Tara L; Rook, Laurien A; Iyer, Jayasree K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C is a global epidemic. Worldwide, 185 million people are estimated to be infected, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries. Recent advances in the development of antiviral drugs have produced therapies that are more effective, safer and better tolerated than existing treatments for the disease. These therapies present an opportunity to curb the epidemic, provided that they are affordable, that generic production of these medicines is scaled up and that awareness and screening programmes are strengthened. Pharmaceutical companies have a central role to play. We examined the marketed products, pipelines and access to medicine strategies of 20 of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies. Six of these companies are developing medicines for hepatitis C: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co. and Roche. These companies employ a range of approaches to supporting hepatitis C treatment, including pricing strategies, voluntary licensing, capacity building and drug donations. We give an overview of the engagement of these companies in addressing access to hepatitis C products. We suggest actions companies can take to play a greater role in curbing this epidemic: (i) prioritizing affordability assessments; (ii) developing access strategies early in the product lifecycle; and (iii) licensing to manufacturers of generic medicines. PMID:26549908

  13. Warm Disks from Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of warm debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of mass ejected from colliding protoplanets is typically around 0.4 Earth masses. This mass is ejected in the form of fragments that then spread into the terrestrial planet region around the star. The fragments undergo cascading collisions as they orbit, forming an infrared-emitting debris disk at ~1 AU from the star.The authors then calculate the infrared flux profile expected from these simulated disks. They show that the warm disks can exist and radiate for up to ~100 Myr before the fragments are smashed into micrometer-sized pieces small enough to be blown out of the solar system by radiation pressure.The Spitzer Space Telescope has, thus far, observed tens of warm-debris-disk signatures roughly consistent with the authors predictions, primarily located at roughly 1 AU around stars with ages of 10100 Myr. This region is near the habitable zone of these stars, which makes it especially interesting that these systems may currently be undergoing a giant impact stage perhaps on the way to forming terrestrial planets.CitationH. Genda et al 2015 ApJ 810 136. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/136

  14. Warm Disks from Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of warm debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of mass ejected from colliding protoplanets is typically around 0.4 Earth masses. This mass is ejected in the form of fragments that then spread into the terrestrial planet region around the star. The fragments undergo cascading collisions as they orbit, forming an infrared-emitting debris disk at ~1 AU from the star.The authors then calculate the infrared flux profile expected from these simulated disks. They show that the warm disks can exist and radiate for up to ~100 Myr before the fragments are smashed into micrometer-sized pieces small enough to be blown out of the solar system by radiation pressure.The Spitzer Space Telescope has, thus far, observed tens of warm-debris-disk signatures roughly consistent with the authors predictions, primarily located at roughly 1 AU around stars with ages of 10100 Myr. This region is near the habitable zone of these stars, which makes it especially interesting that these systems may currently be undergoing a giant impact stage perhaps on the way to forming terrestrial planets.CitationH. Genda et al 2015 ApJ 810 136. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/136

  15. Hepatitis A: Old and New

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus, is a common cause of hepatitis worldwide. Spread of infection is generally person to person or by oral intake after fecal contamination of skin or mucous membranes; less commonly, there is fecal contamination of food or water. Hepatitis A is endemic in developing countries, and most residents are exposed in childhood. In contrast, the adult population in developed countries demonstrates falling rates of exposure with improvements in hygiene and sanitation. The export of food that cannot be sterilized, from countries of high endemicity to areas with low rates of infection, is a potentially important source of infection. After ingestion and uptake from the gastrointestinal tract, the virus replicates in the liver and is excreted into the bile. Cellular immune responses to the virus lead to destruction of infected hepatocytes with consequent development of symptoms and signs of disease. Humoral immune responses are the basis for diagnostic serologic assays. Acute HAV infection is clinically indistinguishable from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. In young children the disease is often asymptomatic, whereas in older children and adults there may be a range of clinical manifestations from mild, anicteric infection to fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical variants include prolonged, relapsing, and cholestatic forms. Management of the acute illness is supportive, and complete recovery without sequelae is the usual outcome. Research efforts during World War II led to the development of passive immunoprophylaxis. Pooled immune serum globulin is efficacious in the prevention and attenuation of disease in exposed individuals. More recently, active immunoprophylaxis by vaccination has been accomplished. Future eradication of this disease can now be contemplated. PMID:11148002

  16. Giant comets and human culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, W. M.

    2003-07-01

    Our understanding of Earth history on geological timescales is in a state of flux due to the realisation in recent years that the Earth is a bombarded planet. However recent findings suggest that a celestial input may also be important on much shorter timescales. Apart from the current hazard, the night sky in prehistoric times appears to have been dominated by a giant, short-period comet and its debris, and interactions with this material may have had a strong influence on human cultural development.

  17. Giant odontogenic fibroma of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Baser, Brajendra; Kinger, Arvind; Mitra, Geeti V; Roy, Manya Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic fibroma is a benign ectomesenchymal tumor classified as central and peripheral on the basis of its location and as an epithelium rich or epithelium poor based on its histological features. Radiological findings consist of radiolucent areas with well-defined bony margins. The lesion is detected early because of its location and usually treated with surgical excision and curettage. We present a case of giant odontogenic fibroma of right maxilla presenting as gross facial deformity and posing a dual challenge of excising the tumor mass and reconstructing the ensuing defect. PMID:25593878

  18. A giant juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Do?an, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Salk, Ismail; Müderris, Suphi

    2013-05-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are locally growing and highly vascular tumors. They are primarily treated through surgical excision ranging from an open approach to an endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old man with a giant juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that bilaterally obliterated the pterygopalatine fossa, invaded the sphenoid bone, and extended to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically using the endoscopic approach and declared cured and discharged without any complications. PMID:23714961

  19. Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested

    MedlinePLUS

    HEPATITIS C What to Expect When Getting Tested Getting tested for Hepatitis C • A blood test, called a Hepatitis C Antibody Test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with Hepatitis C. • The Hepatitis C Antibody Test, sometimes called the ...

  20. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V. R. Roopesh; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S.; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M.; Gundamaneni, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar; Verma, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysms are rare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass. At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery. The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed. PMID:25883491

  1. Sodium in weak G-band giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Lambert, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium abundances have been determined for eight weak G-band giants whose atmospheres are greatly enriched with products of the CN-cycling H-burning reactions. Systematic errors are minimized by comparing the weak G-band giants to a sample of similar but normal giants. If, further, Ca is selected as a reference element, model atmosphere-related errors should largely be removed. For the weak-G-band stars (Na/Ca) = 0.16 +/- 0.01, which is just possibly greater than the result (Na/Ca) = 0.10 /- 0.03 from the normal giants. This result demonstrates that the atmospheres of the weak G-band giants are not seriously contaminated with products of ON cycling.

  2. Statistics of Giant Arcs in Galaxy Clusters

    E-print Network

    Neal Dalal; Gilbert Holder; Joseph Hennawi

    2003-10-11

    We study the expected properties and statistics of giant arcs produced by galaxy clusters in a LambdaCDM universe and investigate how the characteristics of CDM clusters determine the properties of the arcs they generate. Due to the triaxiality and substructure of CDM halos, the giant arc cross section for individual clusters varies by more than an order of magnitude as a function of viewing angle. In addition, the shallow density cusps and triaxiality of CDM clusters cause systematic alignments of giant arcs which should be testable with larger samples from forthcoming lensing surveys. We compute the predicted statistics of giant arcs for the LambdaCDM model and compare to results from previous surveys. The predicted arc statistics are in excellent agreement with the numbers of giant arcs observed around low redshift (0.2 0.6 clusters. This excess, if real, appears to be due to the presence of highly massive or concentrated clusters at high redshifts.

  3. Giant Gravitons on Deformed pp-waves

    E-print Network

    Alex Hamilton; Jeff Murugan

    2006-09-19

    The recently constructed Lunin-Maldacena deformation of $AdS_{5}\\times S^{5}$ is known to support two inequivalent Penrose limits that lead to BPS pp-wave geometries. In this note, we construct new giant graviton solutions on these backgrounds. A detailed study of the spectra of small fluctuations about these solutions reveals a remarkably rich structure. In particular, the giants that we contruct fall into two classes, one of which appears to remain stable in the Penrose limit independently of the strength of the deformation. The other class of giants, while more difficult to treat analytically, seems to exhibit a shape deformation not unlike the so-called "squashed giants" seen in the pp-wave with a constant NS $B$-field turned on. Some consideration is also given to the associated giant operators in the BMN limit of the dual ${\\cal N}=1$ SYM gauge theory.

  4. Giant Gravitons on Deformed pp-waves

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, A; Hamilton, Alex; Murugan, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The recently constructed Lunin-Maldacena deformation of $AdS_{5}\\times S^{5}$ is known to support two inequivalent Penrose limits that lead to BPS pp-wave geometries. In this note, we construct new giant graviton solutions on these backgrounds. A detailed study of the spectra of small fluctuations about these solutions reveals a remarkably rich structure. In particular, the giants that we contruct fall into two classes, one of which appears to remain stable in the Penrose limit independently of the strength of the deformation. The other class of giants, while more difficult to treat analytically, seems to exhibit a shape deformation not unlike the so-called "squashed giants" seen in the pp-wave with a constant NS $B$-field turned on. Some consideration is also given to the associated giant operators in the BMN limit of the dual ${\\cal N}=1$ SYM gauge theory.

  5. Giant Planet Formation, Evolution, and Internal Structure

    E-print Network

    Helled, Ravit; Podolak, Morris; Boley, Aaron; Meru, Farzana; Nayakshin, Sergei; Fortney, Jonathan J; Mayer, Lucio; Alibert, Yann; Boss, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    The large number of detected giant exoplanets offers the opportunity to improve our understanding of the formation mechanism, evolution, and interior structure of gas giant planets. The two main models for giant planet formation are core accretion and disk instability. There are substantial differences between these formation models, including formation timescale, favorable formation location, ideal disk properties for planetary formation, early evolution, planetary composition, etc. First, we summarize the two models including their substantial differences, advantages, and disadvantages, and suggest how theoretical models should be connected to available (and future) data. We next summarize current knowledge of the internal structures of solar- and extrasolar- giant planets. Finally, we suggest the next steps to be taken in giant planet exploration.

  6. Separating gas-giant and ice-giant planets by halting pebble accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, M.; Johansen, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the solar system giant planets come in two flavours: gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn) with massive gas envelopes, and ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) with much thinner envelopes around their cores. It is poorly understood how these two classes of planets formed. High solid accretion rates, necessary to form the cores of giant planets within the life-time of protoplanetary discs, heat the envelope and prevent rapid gas contraction onto the core, unless accretion is halted. We find that, in fact, accretion of pebbles (~cm sized particles) is self-limiting: when a core becomes massive enough it carves a gap in the pebble disc. This halt in pebble accretion subsequently triggers the rapid collapse of the super-critical gas envelope. Unlike gas giants, ice giants do not reach this threshold mass and can only bind low-mass envelopes that are highly enriched by water vapour from sublimated icy pebbles. This offers an explanation for the compositional difference between gas giants and ice giants in the solar system. Furthermore, unlike planetesimal-driven accretion scenarios, our model allows core formation and envelope attraction within disc life-times, provided that solids in protoplanetary discs are predominantly made up of pebbles. Our results imply that the outer regions of planetary systems, where the mass required to halt pebble accretion is large, are dominated by ice giants and that gas-giant exoplanets in wide orbits are enriched by more than 50 Earth masses of solids.

  7. The Hepatitis B Virus Receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui

    2015-11-13

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects 240 million people worldwide. A liver-specific bile acid transporter named the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as the cellular receptor for HBV and its satellite, the hepatitis D virus (HDV). NTCP likely acts as a major determinant for the liver tropism and species specificity of HBV and HDV at the entry level. NTCP-mediated HBV entry interferes with bile acid transport in cell cultures and has been linked with alterations in bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in vivo. The human liver carcinoma cell line HepG2, complemented with NTCP, now provides a valuable platform for studying the basic biology of the viruses and developing treatments for HBV infection. This review summarizes critical findings regarding NTCP's role as a viral receptor for HBV and HDV and discusses important questions that remain unanswered. PMID:26436705

  8. Redox regulation of hepatitis C in nonalcoholic and alcoholic liver

    E-print Network

    Seronello, Scott; Sheikh, Muhammad Y.; Choi, Jinah

    2007-01-01

    borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244(than hepatitis B virus (HBV) [27], which also causes viralviral effects on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has been shown to negatively regulate hepatitis B

  9. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name...

  10. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name...

  11. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name...

  12. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name...

  13. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name...

  14. Hepatitis B therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Kurbegov, Amethyst C; Sokol, Ronald J

    2009-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver disease throughout the world, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in many individuals. Children are more likely to develop chronic HBV infection as they demonstrate greater immunotolerance to the virus, and response to therapy in children remains disappointing. Three therapeutic agents for chronic HBV infection in children have been approved in the USA, including standard IFN-alpha, lamivudine and adefovir. IFN-alpha has been the most effective ( approximately 30% hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] seroconversion; 10% hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] seroconversion), although benefits are primarily observed in children with alanine aminotransferase levels over two-times the upper limit of normal and must be weighed against significant side effects. Studies comparing the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in children treated with IFN-alpha and in untreated controls show that the rate of anti-HBeAb seroconversion tends to overlap in treated and untreated patients within a few years of follow-up, suggesting that IFN-alpha simply accelerates a spontaneous event. Lamivudine's virologic response rates mirror those of IFN-alpha (23-31% HBeAg seroconversion) with easier administration and a better safety profile but lower HBsAg seroconversion (2-3%) and high rates of drug resistance. Adefovir data show low rates of resistance and a good safety profile, but virologic response was limited to adolescent patients and was lower than that of lamivudine (16% HBeAg seroconversion; <1% HBsAg seroconversion). Entecavir and tenofovir, both approved therapies for adults with chronic HBV infection, are in trials for use in children. Future therapies will probably include these agents as well as combined therapies. Finally, watchful waiting of children is an option since current therapies are only 30% effective at best, although the long-term impact of therapy in childhood on rates of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. PMID:19210112

  15. Hepatic Angiomyolipoma Mimicking Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Li, Hong-Yan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chang-Chun; Liu, Shu-Hong; Gao, Xu-Dong; Qu, Jian-Hui; Liu, Ze; Chang, Xiu-Juan; Lu, Yin-Ying; Zeng, Zhen; Lou, Min; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the liver with marked histological diversity. The present study was to review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical pathological features of HAML resembling hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nine patients who underwent surgical resection and had pathological diagnosis of HAML were retrospectively analyzed. All of 9 patients (5 males and 4 females) had a solitary hepatic mass with a median size of 4?cm (from 1.4?cm to 15.3?cm). Seven cases were identified as incidental liver tumors during health screening and 2 patients were diagnosed for hepatic mass when visited hospitals with unspecific abdominal discomfort. Before resection, 6 cases were diagnosed as HCC on MRI. MRI on chemical shift imagings showed a large amount of lipids in 5 cases. The enhancement pattern of MRI was classified into 2 types: in 2 cases, lesions with small or no vessels that demonstrated prolonged enhancement (1 mixed subtype and 1 myomatous subtype) and in 7 cases, lesions with abundant central vessels that show rapid washout (3 mixed subtypes and 4 myomatous subtypes) in the portal venous/delayed phase. All patients underwent resection of hepatic tumor and no recurrence was observed during follow-up (range: 2–24 months) of median 10 months. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells demonstrated positive immunostaining for human melanoma black-45, smooth muscle actin, and CD34. In conclusion, all of 9 patients with HAML presented with none or nonspecific clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of HAML relies on disease and immunohistochemistry, but not MRI due to its resemblance to HCC. PMID:25526436

  16. CT of hepatic schistosomiasis mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Fataar, S.; Bassiony, H.; Satyanath, S.; Rudwan, M.A.; Khaffaji, S.; El Magdy, W.; Al-Ansari, A.G.; Hanna, R.

    1985-07-01

    Schistosomal periportal fibrosis produced a typical pattern on computed tomography in five patients. Low-density periportal tissue, present throughout the liver, enhanced strongly after the administration of contrast medium. While rounded in cross section, the thickened periportal tissue produced linear and branching patterns when imaged in longitudinal section. In all cases, the sonographic features were typical of schistosomal periportal fibrosis. A lack of awareness of the distinctive features of periportal fibrosis may result in a mistaken diagnosis of hepatic metastases.

  17. [Drug (statine)-induced hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, L B; Zvenigorodskaia, L A; Khomeriki, S G; Efremov, L I; Cherkashova, E A

    2009-01-01

    In the article is presented the case of development of medicinal hepatitis as result of irrational use of statin treatment at patient with Ischemic heart disease and nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease against morbid obesity. The clinical observation reflects the necessity of usage of liver protectors in prevention of possible side effects of hypolipidemic statin treatment and emphasizes the advantage of double cholesterol inhibition. PMID:19938288

  18. Hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Marinaki, Smaragdi; Boletis, John N; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Delladetsima, Ioanna K

    2015-01-01

    Despite reduction of hepatitis C prevalence after recognition of the virus and testing of blood products, hemodialysis (HD) patients still comprise a high risk group. The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in dialysis is not fully understood while the clinical outcome differs from that of the general population. HD patients show a milder liver disease with lower aminotransferase and viral levels depicted by milder histological features on liver biopsy. Furthermore, the “silent” clinical course is consistent with a slower disease progression and a lower frequency of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Potential explanations for the “beneficial” impact of uremia and hemodialysis on chronic HCV infection are impaired immunosurveillance leading to a less aggressive host response to the virus and intradialytic release of “hepatoprotective” cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-? and hepatocyte growth factor. However, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a higher liver disease related cardiovascular and all-cause mortality of HD patients. Therapy is indicated in selected patients groups including younger patients with low comorbidity burden and especially renal transplant candidates, preferably after performance of a liver biopsy. According to current recommendations, choice of treatment is IFN or pegylated interferon with a reported sustained viral response at 30%-40% and a withdrawal rate ranging from 17% to 30%. New data regarding combination therapy with low doses of ribavirin which provide higher standard variable rates and good safety results, offer another therapeutic option. The new protease inhibitors may be the future for HCV infected HD patients, though data are still lacking. PMID:25848478

  19. [Hepatic pseudotumor in acute fascioliasis].

    PubMed

    Castillo Contreras, Ofelia Brisaida; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    We report a 61-year-old woman who was hospitalized because of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant related to a liver tumor (ultrasound and tomographic findings). A collection of blood was obtained by a biopsy and there were no tumor cells. With the suspicion of acute fascioliasis (liver stage), due to severe eosinophilia and recent travel to endemic area of Fasciola hepatica, arc II and ELISA Fas 2 we carried out and were positive. Parasitological stool examinations were negative. During hospitalization a hepatic subcapsular hematoma presented as a complication and the patient developed fever because of cholangiolitic microabscesses in the left hepatic lobe. Percutaneous drainage was performed and positive cultures of secretions were obtained She received antibiotic coverage with vancomycin and imipenem. Treatment for Fasciola hepatica was initiated with nitaxozanida but it was discontinued due to oral intolerance. Later, she received a single dose of 250 mg triclabendazole with clinical and laboratory improvement. We presented this case because it is an unusual pseudotumoral presentation in acute hepatic fascioliasis. This parasitic disease is an emerging zoonosis in Perú. PMID:23650836

  20. Infrared Spectral Properties of M Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Goes, C.; Ramirez, R. M.; Kraemer, K. E.; Engelke, C. W.

    2015-09-01

    We observed a sample of 20 M giants with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Most show absorption structure at 6.6-6.8 ?m which we identify as water vapor, and in some cases, the absorption extends from 6.4 ?m into the SiO band at 7.5 ?m. Variable stars show stronger H2O absorption. While the strength of the SiO fundamental at 8 ?m increases monotonically from spectral class K0 to K5, the dependence on spectral class weakens in the M giants. As with previously studied samples, the M giants show considerable scatter in SiO band strength within a given spectral class. All of the stars in our sample also show OH band absorption, most noticeably in the 14-17 ?m region. The OH bands behave much like the SiO bands, increasing in strength in the K giants but showing weaker dependence on spectral class in the M giants, and with considerable scatter. An examination of the photometric properties reveals that the V-K color may be a better indicator of molecular band strength than the spectral class. The transformation from Tycho colors to Johnson B-V color is double-valued, and neither B-V nor {B}T-{V}T color increases monotonically with spectral class in the M giants like they do in the K giants.

  1. Young Growth Management of Giant Sequoia1 Donald P. Gasser

    E-print Network

    Young Growth Management of Giant Sequoia1 Donald P. Gasser Giant sequoia is an outstanding and ecology of giant sequoia has been addressed in other papers in this proceedings as well as in recent The growth of giant sequoia is of interest to managers throughout the world. Growth has been examined within

  2. Direct Imaging of Giant Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Motohide

    Since the first detection of exoplanets around a Sun-like star 51 Peg in 1995, their detection and characterization are mainly led by indirect methods such as radial velocity and transit methods. However, recent progresses of observational techniques have finally enabled the direct imaging observations of giant planets of solar-system-scale orbit (with their semi-major axes less than about 50 AU) around A-type stars (e.g., Marois et al. 2008, 2010) and G-type stars (e.g., Kuzuhara et al. 2013). Direct imaging is useful to obtain the physical and atmospheric parameters of exoplanets. In fact not only colors but also a medium-resolution spectroscopy of such planets has been successfully obtained for their atmospheric characterization (Barman et al. 2013). Their masses are typically a few to ~10 Jupiter masses and they orbit at a Saturn- to-Pluto distance. Therefore, like hot-Jupiters and super-Earths they are unlike any solar-system planets, and called wide-orbit giant planets. A recent large search for planets and disk on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope (SEEDS project) has detected a 3-5 Jupiter-masses planet around a Sun-like star GJ 504 (Kuzuhara et al. 2013). It is the coolest planetary companion so far directly imaged and its near-infrared color is “bluer” than that of other directly imaged planets. In this contribution, I will review the recent progresses on direct imaging of exoplanets, highlight the results of the SEEDS project, and discuss the future developments.

  3. Giant virus in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The viral nature of the first “giant virus,” Mimivirus, was realized in 2003, 10 y after its initial isolation from the water of a cooling tower in Bradford, UK. Soon after its genome was sequenced, the mining of the Global Ocean Sampling environmental sequence database revealed that the closest relatives of Mimivirus, only known to infect Acanthamoeba, were to be found in the sea. These predicted marine Mimivirus relatives remained elusive until 2010, with the first genomic characterization of a virus infecting a heterotrophic unicellular eukaryote, the microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. The genome analysis of a virus (PgV) infecting the common unicellular algae Phaeocystis globosa now shows that it is a bona fide member of the Mimivirus family (i.e., the Megaviridae), extending the realm of these giant viruses to abundant blooming phytoplankton species. Despite its smaller genome size (460 kb encoding 434 proteins), PgV exhibits the most intriguing feature of the previously characterized Megaviridae: an associated virophage. However, the 19-kb virophage genome, devoid of a capsid gene, is packaged in the PgV particle and propagated as a “viral plasmid,” the first ever described. The PgV genome also exhibits the duplication of “core genes,” normally present as single copies and a putative new type of mobile element. In a DNA polymerase phylogeny including representatives of the three cellular domains, PgV and the other Megaviridae cluster into their own clade deeply branching between domains Archaea and Eukarya domains, thus exhibiting the topology of a fourth domain in the Tree of Life. PMID:24563700

  4. The Metallicity of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorngren, Daniel P.; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Unique clues about the formation processes of giant planets can be found in their bulk compositions. Transiting planets provide us with bulk density determinations that can then be compared to models of planetary structure and evolution, to deduce planet bulk metallicities. At a given mass, denser planets have a higher mass fraction of metals. However, the unknown hot Jupiter "radius inflation" mechanism leads to under-dense planets that severely biases this work. Here we look at cooler transiting gas giants (Teff < 1000 K), which do not exhibit the radius inflation effect seen in their warmer cousins. We identified 40 such planets between 20 M_Earth and 20 M_Jup from the literature and used evolution models to determine their bulk heavy-element ("metal") mass. Several important trends are apparent. We see that all planets have at least ~10 M_Earth of metals, and that the mass of metal correlates strongly with the total mass of the planet. The heavy-element mass goes as the square root of the total mass. Both findings are consistent with the core accretion model. We also examined the effect of the parent star metallicity [Fe/H], finding that planets around high-metallicity stars are more likely to have large amounts of metal, but the relation appears weaker than previous studies with smaller sample sizes had suggested. We also looked for connections between bulk composition and planetary orbital parameters and stellar parameters, but saw no pattern, which is also an important result. This work can be directly compared to current and future outputs from planet formation models, including population synthesis.

  5. Peripheral giant cell granuloma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Breault, L G; Fowler, E B; Wolfgang, M J; Lewis, D M

    2000-01-01

    The peripheral giant cell granuloma is a reactive lesion of the soft tissue of the oral cavity. Clinical appearance ranges from normal tissue coloration to dark red or purplish. These are elevated lesions generally 5-15 mm in diameter. Etiology is considered to be chronic irritation. To decrease the risk of clinical recurrence, treatment is complete excision to include the underlying periosteum. Histologic features of the peripheral giant cell granuloma include multinucleated giant cells with a stroma that may contain osteoblasts, myofibroblasts, macrophages, and Langerhans cells. A case report is presented. PMID:12004669

  6. Hepatic histology in hepatitis C virus carriers coinfected with hepatitis G virus

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, J; Guella, L; Wight, D; Pearson, G; Hinton, J; Parker, H; Allain, J; Alexander, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—A novel flavivirus has been described recently and designated hepatitis G virus (HGV). The virus is transmitted by the parenteral route but it is uncertain whether it is associated with chronic liver disease because liver biopsy is difficult to justify in this group. ?Aims—To examine histological features of liver biopsy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) according to the presence or absence of HCV and HGV RNA. ?Methods—One hundred and thirty one consecutive HCV carriers undergoing staging liver biopsy were studied retrospectively. In each, HCV RNA and HGV RNA were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on serum samples collected at the time of biopsy. The presence of each RNA was correlated with histological features blind to the RNA results; individual histological features of inflammation or fibrosis were scored separately. ?Results—Nineteen patients were positive for both HGV and HCV RNA in serum, 91 were positive for HCV RNA alone, two were positive for HGV RNA alone, and 19 were negative for both RNA species. Neither age nor sex differed between the groups; a greater proportion of intravenous drug users were HGV RNA positive, but this was not statistically significant. There was no effect of HGV coinfection on the stage of fibrosis or any other histological parameter except steatosis; patients with HCV and HGV RNA had a higher mean score for fat than those patients with HCV RNA alone (p<0.05). ?Conclusions—HGV coinfection has no important effects on histological features in chronic HCV carriers. It is unlikely that HGV infection causes chronic liver disease. ?? Keywords: hepatitis C virus; hepatitis G virus; RNA; histology PMID:9505894

  7. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-05-15

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-/sup +/g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state.

  8. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenomas with hemihypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tantrige, Priyan Maleuwe; Hassanally, Delilah

    2011-01-01

    Giant juvenile fibroadenomas in patients with hemihypertrophy are exceptionally rare. We present a very interesting case of a 13 year old girl with hemihypertrophy of the left side presenting with recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the left breast. The giant fibroadenomas occurred twice in the left breast over two years. The first had a diameter of 12 cm and was excised through an inframammary incision. The second occurred a year later, had a diameter of 11 cm, and was associated with three smaller fibroadenomas. These lesions were removed through a single periareolar incision. The procedures were complicated by keloid scarring but the results were improved with steroid impregnated tape dressing and local methylprednisolone injection. This report adds to our experience in managing patients with recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenomas complicated by hemihypertrophy and raises awareness to anticipate keloid scarring. PMID:21778581

  9. "GIANT" Steps to Create Online Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Online orientation is provided due to the flexibility of online learning. The online orientation consists of the GIANT steps which stands for Get support, Identify your curriculum, Assemble your program, Navigate students through the pilot project and Test students.

  10. THE FORMATION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    E-print Network

    Gammie, Charles F.

    , music, movies, and thesis advisors. Steve Thorsett was always there to discuss pulsars and other matters with the formation of giant molecular clouds. Chapter 1 reviews observations of interstellar gas clouds of mass M

  11. Chromospheric activity of cool giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiman-Cameron, T. Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the seventh year of IUE twenty-six spectra of seventeen cool giant stars ranging in spectral type from K3 thru M6 were obtained. Together with spectra of fifteen stars observed during the sixth year of IUE, these low-resolution spectra have been used to: (1) examine chromospheric activity in the program stars and late type giants in general, and (2) evaluate the extent to which nonradiative heating affects the upper levels of cool giant photospheres. The stars observed in this study all have well determined TiO band strengths, angular diameters (determined from lunar occulations), bolometric fluxes, and effective temperatures. Chromospheric activity can therefore be related to effective temperatures providing a clearer picture of activity among cool giant stars than previously available. The stars observed are listed.

  12. Tests of the Giant Impact Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The giant impact hypothesis has gained popularity as a means of explaining a volatile-depleted Moon that still has a chemical affinity to the Earth. As Taylor's Axiom decrees, the best models of lunar origin are testable, but this is difficult with the giant impact model. The energy associated with the impact would be sufficient to totally melt and partially vaporize the Earth. And this means that there should he no geological vestige of Barber times. Accordingly, it is important to devise tests that may be used to evaluate the giant impact hypothesis. Three such tests are discussed here. None of these is supportive of the giant impact model, but neither do they disprove it.

  13. The asteroseismic revolution of red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stello, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    The ultra-high precision photometric time-series data from space missions like CoRoT and Kepler has transformed the field of asteroseismology in the past five years. In particular, red giant stars turned out to reveal extremely rich seismic signatures of their internal structure including details about their core burning and radial differential rotation. The results for the K giants quickly showed to be truly spectacular, and after a few years of continuous observations by NASA's Kepler mission we entered the realm of much bigger giants. In this review of the dramatic progress in red giant asteroseismology, I will show how the seismic properties scale as the stars evolve, and provide informed estimates of potential applicability to RSGs

  14. Guide to Understanding Hemangiomas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with the physician prior to and throughout treatment. Design and Production by Robin Williamson, Williamson Creative Services, ... of conditions or symptoms that fall into a pattern that have been given the term “PHACES”: P ...

  15. Galactic halo tomography with red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Haibo; Liu, Xiaowei; Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu

    2015-08-01

    Red giant stars are excellent tracers to probe the struture, chemistry and assemblage history of the Galactic halo. Using the extremely high-precision photometry of the recently re-calibrated (to a few mmag precision) Stripe 82 data, we have shown that 1) the intrinsic widths of metallicity-dependent stellar loci of both main-sequence (MS) stars and red giant stars are zero; 2) there are systematic differences between the metallicity dependent stellar loci of MS stars and of red giants. Taking advantage of the above facts, in this talk, I will present a new method to discriminate giant stars from MS stars based on the SDSS photometry. The method yields the photometric metallicities of the selected candidates of red giant stars simultaneously, and is capable of achieving a completeness of about 70 per cent and an efficiency of about 80 per cent in selecting metal-poor red giant stars of [Fe/H] < -1.2. Applying the method to the re-calibrated SDSS Stripe 82 photometry, about 10,000 red giants are selected. Their number density distribution and metallicity distributions at different distances, up to a maxium value of 120 kpc, are derived, and provide a clear and direct evidence for dual Galactic halos. A few hundreds of thousands of red giants are expected to be selected from the whole SDSS imaging footprint. Some early results using this larger sample to map the 3D structure/substructures, shapes and chemistry of the Galactic halos will also be discussed.

  16. Models of Irradiated Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Adam Burrows; David Sudarsky

    2002-07-23

    We review some of the characteristics of irradiated extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), in anticipation of their direct detection from the ground and from space. Spectral measurements are the key to unlocking their structural and atmospheric characteristics and to determining the true differences between giant planets and brown dwarfs. In this spirit, the theoretical spectral and atmospheric calculations we summarize here are in support of the many searches for EGPs to be conducted in the coming decade by astronomers from around the world.

  17. ALLYLISOPROPYLACETAMIDE INDUCES RAT HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In rat liver, allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) treatment strongly induced (25-fold) the activity of rat hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). y either the oral or the subcutaneous routes, AIA produced a long-lasting induction (30 to 4O hours) of hepatic ODC activity. hree analogs o...

  18. Hepatitis” – Prevention and management in dental practice

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet

    2015-01-01

    Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. were searched using the keywords hepatitis, dentist, liver disease, and infection control. Manual search of various journals and books was also carried out. Only highly relevant articles from English literature were considered for the present review. The results revealed that the dentists were among the high-risk groups for hepatitis, and they have little information on the factors associated with adherence to hepatitis B vaccination. A dentist can play a major role in the prevention of hepatitis by considering each and every patient as a potential carrier of hepatitis. Proper infection control, sterilization, and prophylactic vaccination protocols should be followed in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis. PMID:26097847

  19. Severe biliary complications after hepatic artery embolization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Duan, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Nin-Xing; Feng, Yu-Quan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism and treatment of severe biliary complications arising from hepatic artery embolization (HAE). METHODS: Of seven cases of intra- and extrahepatic biliary damage resulting from hepatic artery embolization reported since 1987 , 6 patients suffered from hepatic haemangioma, the other case was due to injection of TH compound into the hepatic artery during operation. The hepatic artery was injected with ethanol so as to evaluate the liver damage in experimental rats. RESULTS: All the cases were found to have destructive damage of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct at the hilum with biliary hepatocirrhosis. Experimental results revealed necrosis of the liver parenchyma, especially around the portal tract and obliteration of intrahepatic bile duct. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent the severe biliary complications of HAE, the use of HAE for hepatic haemangioma which was widely practiced in China, should be re-evaluated. Hepatic arterial embolization of hepatic haemangioma may resulte in severe destructive biliary damages and its indiscriminate use should be prohibited. PMID:11833085

  20. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9001 of July 25, 2013 World Hepatitis Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year, we mark World Hepatitis Day to bring attention to...

  1. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... August 1, 2011 Part VI The President Proclamation 8696--World Hepatitis Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Hepatitis Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Across our...

  2. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ....) [FR Doc. 2012-18974 Filed 8-1-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8845 of July 27, 2012 World Hepatitis Day... Americans who are chronically infected are unaware of their infection status. On World Hepatitis Day,...

  3. Autochthonous hepatitis E in southwest England.

    PubMed

    Dalton, H R; Thurairajah, P H; Fellows, H J; Hussaini, H S; Mitchell, J; Bendall, R; Banks, M; Ijaz, S; Teo, C-G; Levine, D F

    2007-05-01

    Although autochthonous hepatitis E has been reported in developed countries, its extent and nature in the United Kingdom are unclear. The aim of the present study was to report the natural history, lifestyle risk factors and molecular epidemiology of autochthonous hepatitis E infection in southwest England. Three hundred and thirty-three patients with unexplained hepatitis were tested for markers of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection over a 7-year period. HEV RNA isolated from the cases was amplified and characterized. Of the 333 patients, 21 had autochthonous hepatitis E. Patients were middle-aged or elderly and males were more commonly affected. Clinical manifestations ranged from asymptomatic infection to severe hepatitis. Of the 21 patients, 20 recovered within 6 weeks. None of the cases had travelled to an area endemic for HEV. None of the patients were vegetarian and all ate pork. Of the 21 cases, 20 occurred in the spring, summer and autumn months. All polymerase-chain-reaction-confirmed cases carried HEV genotype 3, which bore close sequence homology to HEV circulating in UK pigs. In the United Kingdom, autochthonous hepatitis E may be more common than previously recognized. Although the mode of transmission remains to be determined, it may be a zoonosis with pigs as a reservoir. Hepatitis E should be considered a public health issue in the United Kingdom. PMID:17439519

  4. Radioimmunoassay for hepatitis B core antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnelli, E.; Pereira, C.; Triolo, G.; Vernace, S.; Paronetto, F.

    1982-02-01

    Serum hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an important marker of hepatitis B virus replication. We describe an easy, sensitive radioimmunoassay for determination of HBcAg in detergent-treated serum pellets containing Dane particles. Components of a commercial kit for anticore determination are used, and HBcAG is measured by competitive inhibition of binding of /sub 125/I-labeled antibodies to HBcAg with HBcAg-coated beads. We assayed for HBcAG in the sera of 49 patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive chronic hepatitis, 50 patients with HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis, and 30 healthy volunteers. HBcAg was detected in 41% of patients with HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis but not in patients with HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis Be antigen (an antigen closely associated with the core of Dane particles) determined in the same sera by radioimmunoassay, was not detected in 50% of HBcAg-positive sera.

  5. New developments in hepatitis A control.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, L.

    1995-01-01

    An inactivated vaccine for hepatitis A was recently licensed in Canada. This is the first important development in control of the disease in 50 years. This article presents new information about the vaccine and about the groups who might benefit from it. It also provides a review of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of hepatitis A. PMID:7647625

  6. Formation of Giant Planets and Brown Dwarves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2003-01-01

    According to the prevailing core instability model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Ongoing theoretical modeling of accretion of giant planet atmospheres, as well as observations of protoplanetary disks, will help decide this issue. Observations of extrasolar planets around main sequence stars can only provide a lower limit on giant planet formation frequency . This is because after giant planets form, gravitational interactions with material within the protoplanetary disk may cause them to migrat inwards and be lost to the central star. The core instability model can only produce planets greater than a few jovian masses within protoplanetary disks that are more viscous than most such disks are believed to be. Thus, few brown dwarves (objects massive enough to undergo substantial deuterium fusion, estimated to occur above approximately 13 jovian masses) are likely to be formed in this manner. Most brown dwarves, as well as an unknown number of free-floating objects of planetary mass, are probably formed as are stars, by the collapse of extended gas/dust clouds into more compact objects.

  7. Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrier, G.; Johansen, A.; Janson, M.; Rafikov, R.

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels, represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debate. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by comparing different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios with presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "brown dwarfs" or "giant planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium (D)-burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal-enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite D burning in their core. Deuterium burning (or lack thereof) thus plays no role in either brown dwarf or giant planet formation. Consequently, we argue that the International Astronomical Union (IAU) definition for distinguishing these two populations has no physical justification and results in scientific confusion. In contrast, brown dwarfs and giant planets might bear some imprints of their formation mechanism, notably in their mean density and the physical properties of their atmosphere. Future direct imaging surveys will undoubtedly provide crucial information and perhaps provide some clear observational diagnostics to unambiguously distinguish these different astrophysical objects.

  8. Hepatic Resection Using a Water Jet Dissector

    PubMed Central

    Stain, S. C.; Guastella, T.; Maddern, G. J.; Blumgart, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity in major hepatic resection is often related to hemorrhage. A high pressure, high velocity water jet has been developed and has been utilized to assist in hepatic parenchymal transection. Sixty-seven major hepatic resections were performed for solid hepatic tumors. The tissue fracture technique was used in 51 patients (76%), and the water jet dissector was used predominantly in 16 patients (24%). The extent of hepatic resection using each technique was similar. The results showed no difference in operative duration (p = .499). The mean estimated blood loss using the water jet was 1386 ml, and tissue fracture technique 2450 ml (p = .217). Transfusion requirements were less in the water jet group (mean 2.0 units) compared to the tissue fracture group (mean 5.2 units); (p = .023). Results obtained with the new water dissector are encouraging. The preliminary results suggest that blood loss may be diminished. PMID:8387808

  9. Chronic hepatitis E: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Arvind R; Kotwal, Vikram; Chawla, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute, self-limited, water borne disease similar to hepatitis A, endemic to developing countries. However, over the past decade, zoonotic transmission and progression to chronicity in human patients has been identified, resulting in persistently elevated transaminase levels, progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. In addition to liver injury, neurological, renal and rheumatological manifestations have also been reported. Chronic hepatitis E occurs mainly in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus patients with low CD4 counts and in patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy. Diagnosis is established by persistent elevation of hepatitis E virus RNA in the stool or serum. This population often requires treatment with antiviral agents, particularly ribavirin, as spontaneous clearance with reduction in immunosuppression occurs only in about a third of the patients. The purpose of this review, is to further discuss the clinical presentation, and recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of chronic hepatitis E. PMID:26380044

  10. Giant electrocaloric effect around Tc.

    PubMed

    Rose, Maimon C; Cohen, R E

    2012-11-01

    We use molecular dynamics with a first-principles-based shell model potential to study the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in lithium niobate, LiNbO(3), and find a giant electrocaloric effect along a line passing through the ferroelectric transition. With an applied electric field, a line of maximum ECE passes through the zero field ferroelectric transition, continuing along a Widom line at high temperatures with increasing fields, and along the instability that leads to homogeneous ferroelectric switching below T(c) with an applied field antiparallel to the spontaneous polarization. This line is defined as the minimum in the inverse capacitance under an applied electric field. We investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and an applied electric field on the ECE. The behavior we observe in LiNbO(3) should generally apply to ferroelectrics; we therefore suggest that the operating temperature for refrigeration and energy scavenging applications should be above the ferroelectric transition region to obtain a large electrocaloric response. The relationship between T(c), the Widom line, and homogeneous switching should be universal among ferroelectrics, relaxors, multiferroics, and the same behavior should be found under applied magnetic fields in ferromagnets. PMID:23215332

  11. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  12. Giant resonances of endohedral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2008-04-01

    It is demonstrated for the first time that the effect of a fullerene shell on the photoionization of a “caged” atom in an endohedral can result in the formation of giant endohedral resonances or GER. This is illustrated by the concrete case of the Xe@C60 photoionization cross section that, at 17 eV, exhibits a powerful resonance with total oscillator strengths of about 25. The prominent modification of the 5 p 6 electron photoionization cross section of Xe@C60 takes place due to the strong fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and the oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of the photoelectron from Xe by the C60. These two factors transform the smoothly decreasing 5 p 6 cross section of Xe into a rather complex curve with a powerful maximum for Xe@C60, with the oscillator strength of it being equal to 25. We also present the results for the dipole angular anisotropy parameter that is strongly affected by the reflection of the photoelectron waves, but not modified by C60 polarization.

  13. Giant resonances of endohedral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, Arkadiy; Chernysheva, Larissa

    2008-05-01

    We demonstrate for that the effect of fullerene shell upon photoionization of the ``caged'' atom in an endohedral can result in formation of Giant Endohedral Resonances or GER. This is illustrated by the concrete case of Xe@C60 photoionization cross-section that exhibits at 17 eV a powerful resonance with total oscillator strengths of about 25. The prominent modification of the 5p^6 electron photoionization cross-section of Xe@C60 takes place due to strong fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and oscillation of this cross-section due to the reflection of the photoelectron from Xe by the C60. These two factors transform the smoothly decreasing 5p^6 cross-section of Xe into a rather complex curve with a powerful maximum for Xe@C60, with the oscillator strength of it being equal to 25! We present also the results for the dipole angular anisotropy parameter that is strongly affected by the reflection of the photoelectron waves but not modified by C60 polarization.

  14. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., lo, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  15. A giant thunderstorm on Saturn.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Kurth, W S; Gurnett, D A; Zarka, P; Dyudina, U A; Ingersoll, A P; Ewald, S P; Porco, C C; Wesley, A; Go, C; Delcroix, M

    2011-07-01

    Lightning discharges in Saturn's atmosphere emit radio waves with intensities about 10,000 times stronger than those of their terrestrial counterparts. These radio waves are the characteristic features of lightning from thunderstorms on Saturn, which last for days to months. Convective storms about 2,000 kilometres in size have been observed in recent years at planetocentric latitude 35° south (corresponding to a planetographic latitude of 41° south). Here we report observations of a giant thunderstorm at planetocentric latitude 35° north that reached a latitudinal extension of 10,000 kilometres-comparable in size to a 'Great White Spot'-about three weeks after it started in early December 2010. The visible plume consists of high-altitude clouds that overshoot the outermost ammonia cloud layer owing to strong vertical convection, as is typical for thunderstorms. The flash rates of this storm are about an order of magnitude higher than previous ones, and peak rates larger than ten per second were recorded. This main storm developed an elongated eastward tail with additional but weaker storm cells that wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. Unlike storms on Earth, the total power of this storm is comparable to Saturn's total emitted power. The appearance of such storms in the northern hemisphere could be related to the change of seasons, given that Saturn experienced vernal equinox in August 2009. PMID:21734705

  16. [Treatment of giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Sailler, L; Pugnet, G; Bienvenu, B

    2013-07-01

    Corticosteroids (CS) remain the main treatment for giant cell arteritis (GCA). The choice of initial prednisone dosage (from 0.5 to 1 mg/kg/d) takes into account the disease severity and comorbidities in order to reduce the drug side effects. Low-dose aspirin may benefit to patients suffering ischemic complications or with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Randomised controlled trials are necessary to precise its benefit-to-risk ratio. Methotrexate has a moderate corticosteroid sparing effect but it does not prevent cephalic complications and there is no evidence of a reduced frequency of CS adverse effects with this drug. Hydroxychloroquine and infliximab or adalimumab did not prevent relapses in double blind controlled trials. High doses of intravenous methylprednisolone are often prescribed for severe ischemic complications though there is no evidence that such doses are superior to classical doses. In corticosteroid dependent patients, the benefit-to-risk ratio of immunosuppressive drugs is unknown. Dapsone is no longer prescribed due to severe adverse effects. Efficacy of tocilizumab is very promising but its benefit-to-risk ratio in old people is largely unknown. Finding a well tolerated corticosteroid sparing drug remains a challenge and further studies are necessary to reduce the long term rate of cardiovascular events and the burden of CS adverse effects. PMID:23562185

  17. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., Io, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  18. Separating gas-giant and ice-giant planets by halting pebble accretion

    E-print Network

    Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In the Solar System giant planets come in two flavours: 'gas giants' (Jupiter and Saturn) with massive gas envelopes and 'ice giants' (Uranus and Neptune) with much thinner envelopes around their cores. It is poorly understood how these two classes of planets formed. High solid accretion rates, necessary to form the cores of giant planets within the life-time of protoplanetary discs, heat the envelope and prevent rapid gas contraction onto the core, unless accretion is halted. We find that, in fact, accretion of pebbles (~ cm-sized particles) is self-limiting: when a core becomes massive enough it carves a gap in the pebble disc. This halt in pebble accretion subsequently triggers the rapid collapse of the super-critical gas envelope. As opposed to gas giants, ice giants do not reach this threshold mass and can only bind low-mass envelopes that are highly enriched by water vapour from sublimated icy pebbles. This offers an explanation for the compositional difference between gas giants and ice giants in the S...

  19. Giant elves: Lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses in giant planets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque Estepa, Alejandro; Dubrovin, Daria; José Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco; Ebert, Ute; Parra-Rojas, Francisco Carlos; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin

    2015-04-01

    We currently have direct optical observations of atmospheric electricity in the two giant gaseous planets of our Solar System [1-5] as well as radio signatures that are possibly generated by lightning from the two icy planets Uranus and Neptune [6,7]. On Earth, the electrical activity of the troposphere is associated with secondary electrical phenomena called Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) that occur in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere. This led some researchers to ask if similar processes may also exist in other planets, focusing first on the quasi-static coupling mechanism [8], which on Earth is responsible for halos and sprites and then including also the induction field, which is negligible in our planet but dominant in Saturn [9]. However, one can show that, according to the best available estimation for lightning parameters, in giant planets such as Saturn and Jupiter the effect of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) dominates the effect that a lightning discharge has on the lower ionosphere above it. Using a Finite-Differences, Time-Domain (FDTD) solver for the EMP we found [10] that electrically active storms may create a localized but long-lasting layer of enhanced ionization of up to 103 cm-3 free electrons below the ionosphere, thus extending the ionosphere downward. We also estimate that the electromagnetic pulse transports 107 J to 1010 J toward the ionosphere. There emissions of light of up to 108 J would create a transient luminous event analogous to a terrestrial elve. Although these emissions are about 10 times fainter than the emissions coming from the lightning itself, it may be possible to target them for detection by filtering the appropiate wavelengths. [1] Cook, A. F., II, T. C. Duxbury, and G. E. Hunt (1979), First results on Jovian lightning, Nature, 280, 794, doi:10.1038/280794a0. [2] Little, B., C. D. Anger, A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Senske, H. H. Breneman, W. J. Borucki, and The Galileo SSI Team (1999), Galileo images of lightning on Jupiter, Icarus, 142, 306-323, doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6195. [3] Dyudina, U. A., A. D. Del Genio, A. P. Ingersoll, C. C. Porco, R. A. West, A. R. Vasavada, and J. M. Barbara (2004), Lightning on Jupiter observed in the H? line by the Cassini imaging science subsystem, Icarus, 172, 24-36, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.014. [4] Baines, K. H., et al. (2007), Polar lightning and decadal-scale cloud variability on Jupiter, Science, 318, 226-229, doi:10.1126/science.1147912. [5] Dyudina, U. A., A. P. Ingersoll, S. P. Ewald, C. C. Porco, G. Fischer, W. S. Kurth, and R. A. West (2010), Detection of visible lightning on Saturn, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09205, doi:10.1029/2010GL043188. [6] Zarka, P., and B. M. Pedersen (1986), Radio detection of Uranian lightning by Voyager 2, Nature, 323, 605-608, doi:10.1038/323605a0. [7] Gurnett, D. A., W. S. Kurth, I. H. Cairns, and L. J. Granroth (1990), Whistlers in Neptune's magnetosphere'Evidence of atmospheric lightning, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 20,967-20,976, doi:10.1029/JA095iA12p20967. [8] Yair, Y., Y. Takahashi, R. Yaniv, U. Ebert, and Y. Goto (2009), A study of the possibility of sprites in the atmospheres of other planets, J. Geophys. Res., 114, E09002, doi:10.1029/2008JE003311. [9] Dubrovin, D., A. Luque, F. J. Gordillo-Vázquez, Y. Yair, F. C. Parra-Rojas, U. Ebert, and C. Price (2014), Impact of lightning on the lower ionosphere of Saturn and possible generation of halos and sprites, Icarus, 241, 313-328, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.06.025. [10] Luque, A., D. Dubrovin, F. J. Gordillo-Vázquez, U. Ebert, F. C. Parra-Rojas, Y. Yair, and C. Price (2014), Coupling between atmospheric layers in gaseous giant planets due to lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, doi:10.1002/2014JA020457.

  20. Rapid Rotators among APOGEE Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carlberg, J. K.; Nidever, D. L.; Majewski, S. R.; Shetrone, M. D.; Smith, V. V.; Patterson, R. J.; Cunha, K.; Holtzman, J. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pan, K.

    2012-05-01

    The Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a part of the SDSS-III survey. APOGEE is a high-resolution (R 22,500) multi-fiber near-infrared (1.5-1.7 mu) spectroscopic survey of 100,000 candidate stars selected from all populations of the Milky Way. The majority of the APOGEE targets are expected to be red giants. Past studies have shown that a small fraction (1-2%) of red giant stars shows rather high projected rotational velocities (vsini > 10 km/s), whereas most of the red giants rotates slowly (vsini 2 km/s). The unusual rapid rotation for this type of giants may indicate that they experience either a rare and poorly understood stage of evolution, or swallow low-massive companions (such as brown dwarfs or planets). Due to the combination of high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the APOGEE provides us with a unique possibility to study the stellar rotation for a large sample of cool stars, and particularly to uncover the largest sample of rapidly rotating red giants to date. Even conservative estimates of the fraction of rapidly rotating giants imply that we can increase the number of known rapid rotators by almost an order of magnitude. For the first half of a year of science operations, which started in September 2011, APOGEE has produced spectra of more than 20,000 unique science targets. These single-visit spectra have lower than final SNR, and they will be improved after two more visits to the same target during the next two years of observations to reach the program SNR. In this paper we present the first sample of rapidly rotating red giants selected from reduced APOGEE spectra presently available. We test different approaches to the estimation of the spectral line broadening and rotational velocity.

  1. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David

    2011-12-15

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside {approx}15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  2. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas?

    PubMed Central

    Temesgen, Wudneh M.; Wachtel, Mitchell; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare, with an incidence of less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor (OGCT) of the pancreas is one of the three types of PGCT, which are now classified as undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient is a 57 year old woman who presented with a 3 week history of epigastric pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Imaging studies revealed an 18 cm × 15 cm soft tissue mass with cystic components which involved the pancreas, stomach and spleen. Exploratory laparotomy with distal pancreatectomy, partial gastrectomy and splenectomy was performed. Histology revealed undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells with production of osteoid and glandular elements. DISCUSSION OGCT of the pancreas resembles benign-appearing giant cell tumors of bone, and contain osteoclastic-like multinucleated cells and mononuclear cells. OGCTs display a less aggressive course with slow metastasis and lymph node spread compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Due to the rarity of the cancer, there is a lack of prospective studies on treatment options. Surgical en-bloc resection is currently considered first line treatment. The role of adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not been established. CONCLUSION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare pancreatic neoplasms with unique clinical and pathological characteristics. Osteoclastic giant cell tumors are the most favorable sub-type. Surgical en bloc resection is the first line treatment. Long-term follow-up of patients with these tumors is essential to compile a body of literature to help guide treatment. PMID:24631915

  3. Treatment of Infantile Hemangioma in Regional Hospitals With eHealth Support: Evaluation of Feasibility and Acceptance by Parents and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Renselaar, Wilco; Breugem, Corstiaan C; Pasmans, Suzanne GMA

    2014-01-01

    Background Since beta blockers became the preferred treatment for infantile hemangiomas (IH), the number of patients eligible for treatment is increasing. Currently treatment of IH with beta blockers is mainly reserved for expert centers, where wait times are lengthening. This demonstrated the need for development of a more efficient and accessible way of providing care for children needing treatment for IH. An eHealth intervention, Hemangioma Treatment Plan (HTP), was developed to treat IH in regional hospitals with online support from an academic doctor. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of the eHealth intervention by determining its use, acceptance, and usability. By evaluating the feasibility, usage can be predicted and points for improvement can be defined, thereby facilitating implementation of the intervention. Methods Parents of children with an IH, presenting between October 2012 and November 2013 at the tertiary expert Center for Congenital Vascular Anomalies Utrecht, requiring treatment with a beta blocker, were asked to participate in the digital HTP. Both parents and regional doctors were sent a study questionnaire. Acceptance and usability of the HTP were evaluated by using the modified Technology Acceptance Model. Results A total of 31 parents and 22 regional doctors participated in the eHealth intervention and received the questionnaire, and 25 parents and 15 doctors responded (response rates respectively 81% and 68%). A majority of the parents (96%, 24/25) and the regional doctors (87%, 13/15) considered the eHealth intervention useful in the care for IH. Most parents (76%, 19/25) and over half of the regional doctors (53%, 8/15) found the HTP easy to use. Technical problems using the HTP were reported by 28% (7/25) of the parents and 73% (11/15) of the doctors. The majority of parents (92%, 23/25) felt positive about usage of the HTP during treatment of their child. All regional doctors (100%, 15/15) felt positive about transition of treatment from the tertiary expert center to them, and 93% (14/15) felt positive about using the HTP. Conclusions Our eHealth intervention shows good feasibility, especially among parents. Improvement with respect to technical problems, training of regional doctors, and achieving organizational support might be needed for successful implementation in the future. PMID:25367558

  4. Efficacy of low-dose 90Sr-90Y therapy combined with topical application of 0.5% timolol maleate solution for the treatment of superficial infantile hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, HONG-JIAN; LIU, QINGHONG; DENG, XIAO-LI; GUAN, YAN-XING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of low-dose 90Sr-90Y therapy combined with the topical application of 0.5% timolol maleate solution for the treatment of superficial infantile hemangiomas (IHs). A total of 72 infants with hemangiomas were allocated at random into the observation group (17 cases aged ?3 months, 20 cases aged >3 months) or the control group (15 cases aged ?3 months, 20 cases aged >3 months). The observation group was treated with low-dose 90Sr-90Y combined with timolol, while the control group received an identical dose of 90Sr-90Y with physiological saline. Data were collected for statistical analysis, and treatment efficacy was compared between the two groups. In the observation group, 100% (37/37) of subjects exhibited an ‘excellent’ response to the treatment, while 94.1% (16/17) of patients aged ?3 months and 85.0% (17/20) aged >3 months were classed as being cured. In the control group, the treatment was classed as ‘effective’ in 100% (35/35) of the subjects, while the excellent response rate was 86.7% (13/15) among the infants aged ?3 months and 75.0% (15/20) among the infants aged >3 months. The ‘cure’ rates in the control group were 66.7% (10/15) and 60.0% (12/20) for the ?3-month- and >3-month-old subjects, respectively. The excellent response and cure rates were notably higher in the observation group than those in the control group. Comparison between the two groups revealed a ?2 value of 13.90 (P<0.01) for excellent responses in subjects aged ?3 months, while for patients aged >3 months the ?2 value was 28.57 (P<0.01). Analysis of the cure responses gave similar results [?3 months, ?2=23.22 (P<0.01); >3 months, ?2=15.67 (P<0.01)]. At 3–4 months after the first course of treatment, the cure rate was 33.3% (11/33) in the observation group, which was significantly higher than the rate of 18.32% (4/22) in the control group (?2=5.92, P<0.05). No serious adverse reactions were observed in either group. In summary, low-dose 90Sr-90Y therapy combined with the topical application of 0.5% timolol maleate induces a rapid response in superficial IH, with excellent efficacy and no obvious adverse reactions, and may represent a clinically applicable intervention.

  5. Hepatic immune tolerance induced by hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Chuan; Hung, Chien-Hui; Lu, Lina; Qian, Shiguang

    2015-11-14

    The liver, which is a metabolic organ, plays a pivotal role in tolerance induction. Hepatic stellate cells (HpSCs), which are unique non-parenchymal cells, exert potent immunoregulatory activity during cotransplantation with allogeneic islets effectively protecting the islet allografts from rejection. Multiple mechanisms participate in the immune tolerance induced by HpSCs, including the marked expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), attenuation of effector T cell functions and augmentation of regulatory T cells. HpSC conditioned MDSC-based immunotherapy has been conducted in mice with autoimmune disease and the results show that this technique may be promising. This article demonstrates how HpSCs orchestrate both innate immunity and adaptive immunity to build a negative network that leads to immune tolerance. PMID:26576077

  6. Hepatic immune tolerance induced by hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ching-Chuan; Hung, Chien-Hui; Lu, Lina; Qian, Shiguang

    2015-01-01

    The liver, which is a metabolic organ, plays a pivotal role in tolerance induction. Hepatic stellate cells (HpSCs), which are unique non-parenchymal cells, exert potent immunoregulatory activity during cotransplantation with allogeneic islets effectively protecting the islet allografts from rejection. Multiple mechanisms participate in the immune tolerance induced by HpSCs, including the marked expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), attenuation of effector T cell functions and augmentation of regulatory T cells. HpSC conditioned MDSC-based immunotherapy has been conducted in mice with autoimmune disease and the results show that this technique may be promising. This article demonstrates how HpSCs orchestrate both innate immunity and adaptive immunity to build a negative network that leads to immune tolerance. PMID:26576077

  7. Electrodynamics on extrasolar giant planets

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J. Y-K.

    2014-11-20

    Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially be used to constrain electrodynamics in the future.

  8. Electrodynamics on Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Y-K. Cho, J.

    2014-11-01

    Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially be used to constrain electrodynamics in the future.

  9. An MHD Model for Magnetar Giant Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y.; Lin, J.; Zhang, L.; Reeves, K. K.; Zhang, Q. S.; Yuan, F.

    2014-04-01

    Giant flares on soft gamma-ray repeaters that are thought to take place on magnetars release enormous energy in a short time interval. Their power can be explained by catastrophic instabilities occurring in the magnetic field configuration and the subsequent magnetic reconnection. By analogy with the coronal mass ejection events on the Sun, we develop a theoretical model via an analytic approach for magnetar giant flares. In this model, the rotation and/or displacement of the crust causes the field to twist and deform, leading to flux rope formation in the magnetosphere and energy accumulation in the related configuration. When the energy and helicity stored in the configuration reach a threshold, the system loses its equilibrium, the flux rope is ejected outward in a catastrophic way, and magnetic reconnection helps the catastrophe develop to a plausible eruption. By taking SGR 1806-20 as an example, we calculate the free magnetic energy released in such an eruptive process and find that it is more than 1047 erg, which is enough to power a giant flare. The released free magnetic energy is converted into radiative energy, kinetic energy, and gravitational energy of the flux rope. We calculated the light curves of the eruptive processes for the giant flares of SGR 1806-20, SGR 0526-66, and SGR 1900+14, and compared them with the observational data. The calculated light curves are in good agreement with the observed light curves of giant flares.

  10. An MHD model for magnetar giant flares

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Y.; Lin, J.; Zhang, Q. S.; Zhang, L.; Reeves, K. K.; Yuan, F. E-mail: jlin@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-04-10

    Giant flares on soft gamma-ray repeaters that are thought to take place on magnetars release enormous energy in a short time interval. Their power can be explained by catastrophic instabilities occurring in the magnetic field configuration and the subsequent magnetic reconnection. By analogy with the coronal mass ejection events on the Sun, we develop a theoretical model via an analytic approach for magnetar giant flares. In this model, the rotation and/or displacement of the crust causes the field to twist and deform, leading to flux rope formation in the magnetosphere and energy accumulation in the related configuration. When the energy and helicity stored in the configuration reach a threshold, the system loses its equilibrium, the flux rope is ejected outward in a catastrophic way, and magnetic reconnection helps the catastrophe develop to a plausible eruption. By taking SGR 1806–20 as an example, we calculate the free magnetic energy released in such an eruptive process and find that it is more than 10{sup 47} erg, which is enough to power a giant flare. The released free magnetic energy is converted into radiative energy, kinetic energy, and gravitational energy of the flux rope. We calculated the light curves of the eruptive processes for the giant flares of SGR 1806–20, SGR 0526–66, and SGR 1900+14, and compared them with the observational data. The calculated light curves are in good agreement with the observed light curves of giant flares.

  11. Infrared spectral properties of M giants

    E-print Network

    Sloan, G C; Ramirez, R M; Kraemer, K E; Engelke, C W

    2015-01-01

    We observed a sample of 20 M giants with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Most show absorption structure at 6.6-6.8 um which we identify as water vapor, and in some cases, the absorption extends from 6.4 um into the SiO band at 7.5 um. Variable stars show stronger H2O absorption. While the strength of the SiO fundamental at 8 um increases monotonically from spectral class K0 to K5, the dependence on spectral class weakens in the M giants. As with previously studied samples, the M giants show considerable scatter in SiO band strength within a given spectral class. All of the stars in our sample also show OH band absorption, most noticeably in the 14-17 um region. The OH bands behave much like the SiO bands, increasing in strength in the K giants but showing weaker dependence on spectral class in the M giants, and with considerable scatter. An examination of the photometric properties reveals that the V-K color may be a better indicator of molecular band strength than the spectral class...

  12. Convection and Mixing in Giant Planet Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazan, A.; Helled, R.; Kovetz, A.; Podolak, M.

    2015-04-01

    The primordial internal structures of gas giant planets are unknown. Often giant planets are modeled under the assumption that they are adiabatic, convective, and homogeneously mixed, but this is not necessarily correct. In this work, we present the first self-consistent calculation of convective transport of both heat and material as the planets evolve. We examine how planetary evolution depends on the initial composition and its distribution, whether the internal structure changes with time, and if so, how it affects the evolution. We consider various primordial distributions, different compositions, and different mixing efficiencies and follow the distribution of heavy elements in a Jupiter-mass planet as it evolves. We show that a heavy-element core cannot be eroded by convection if there is a sharp compositional change at the core-envelope boundary. If the heavy elements are initially distributed within the planet according to some compositional gradient, mixing occurs in the outer regions resulting in a compositionally homogeneous outer envelope. Mixing of heavy materials that are injected in a convective gaseous envelope are found to mix efficiently. Our work demonstrates that the primordial internal structure of a giant planet plays a substantial role in determining its long-term evolution and that giant planets can have non-adiabatic interiors. These results emphasize the importance of coupling formation, evolution, and internal structure models of giant planets self-consistently.

  13. Hepatic and renal effects of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Di Tomasso, Nora; Monaco, Fabrizio; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Although associated with low morbidity and mortality, cardiopulmonary bypass remains a "non-physiologic" device that carries a set of complications. Hepatic and renal impairment are associated with a poor outcome. The knowledge of pathophysiology, risk factors and therapeutic interventions can help the anaesthesiologist in preventing these complications in daily practice. The present narrative review provides an update of the literature on the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on hepatic and renal functions, focussing on markers of hepatic and renal injuries, perioperative strategies in preserving organ function and replacement therapies. PMID:26060027

  14. Hepatic regeneration from hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Austin, Timothy W; Lagasse, Eric

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, numerous investigators have reported novel cellular fates of multipotent stem or progenitor cells. In this review, we discuss the unexpected observations that hematopoietic stem cells can contribute to the hepatocyte lineage in humans and in rodent models of liver disease and regeneration. A key unresolved issue regarding hepatic regeneration from hematopoietic stem cells is whether the mechanism occurs through transdetermination, cell fusion, or other processes. A better understanding of the various stem or progenitor cells of the hepatic lineage may facilitate cellular transplantation approaches for the correction of hepatic function in patients with end-stage liver disease. PMID:12490303

  15. [Skin manifestations related to hepatitis C viruses].

    PubMed

    Doutre, M S; Beylot, C; Beylot-Barry, M; Couzigou, P; Beylot, J

    1995-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus causes both hepatic and extrahepatic disorders, particularly as regards dermatology. The link between essential mixed cryoglobulinemias and the C virus infection has been clearly evidenced., whereas its frequency seems low in other systemic vasculitis such as polyarteritis nodosa. Similarly, the link between C virus hepatopathy and porphyria cutanea tarda is now proven. Lichen planus is also described as being associated with this virus, but further epidemiological studies are required to determine the exact prevalence of lichen in C virus hepatopathy cases. Finally, various cutaneous disorders, such as urticaria, erythema multiforme, dermo-hypodermitis, etc, occasionally arise during acute or chronic hepatitis C. PMID:7481154

  16. CT and MR imaging of radiation hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, E.C.; Lee, J.K.; Weyman, P.J.

    1987-03-01

    The authors describe two cases of radiation hepatitis evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and CT with CT angiography (CTA) additionally performed in one patient. On CT the radiation hepatitis appeared as sharply demarcated region of lower attenuation than the adjacent normal liver. The region of radiation hepatitis demonstrated decreased perfusion in the portal venous phase of CTA, and 4 min delayed images following CTA showed increased density or relative increased accumulation of contrast. Magnetic resonance in both cases showed that the area of low density on CT had high signal on the T2-weighted image and had increased water content as determined by proton spectroscopic imaging method.

  17. Immunopathogenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David E

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in therapy, hepatitis C virus infection remains a major global health issue with 3 to 4 million incident cases and 170 million prevalent chronic infections. Complex, partially understood, host-virus interactions determine whether an acute infection with hepatitis C resolves, as occurs in approximately 30% of cases, or generates a persistent hepatic infection, as occurs in the remainder. Once chronic infection is established, the velocity of hepatocyte injury and resultant fibrosis is significantly modulated by immunologic as well as environmental factors. Immunomodulation has been the backbone of antiviral therapy despite poor understanding of its mechanism of action. PMID:26600217

  18. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, transfusions and risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Akbar, N; Basuki, B; Mulyanto; Garabrant, D H; Sulaiman, A; Noer, H M

    1997-11-01

    This study identifies the risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and measures the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis C (anti-HCV) in the general population of Jakarta. A population-based sample of 985 people aged 15 and above was surveyed. Risk factors were identified through questionnaires and home visits. Serum was analysed for HBsAg, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), anti-HCV, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The seroprevalence was: 4.0% (39/985) for HBsAg, 17.2% (170/985) for anti-HBs, and 3.9% (38/985) for anti-HCV. The risk factors for hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection had little in common. Low socioeconomic status was a strong risk factor for HBsAg (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 18.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.35-139.50). In addition, the Chinese group has 2.97 higher risk of having HBV infection compared with the Malayan ethnic group (adjusted OR 2.97; 95% CI 1.22-7.83). There was moderate positive trend between family size and risk of HBsAg positivity (P = 0.130). Age over 50 (adjusted OR 14.72; 95% CI 4.35-49.89) and history of transfusion were significant risk factors for hepatitis C (adjusted OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.25-7.33). Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections have different risk factors in Jakarta, a high risk in population for both diseases. Hepatitis B transmission is associated with low socioeconomic status, Chinese ethnic group and large family size, while hepatitis C is associated with an older age and a history of transfusions. PMID:9430042

  19. A GIANT SAMPLE OF GIANT PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mickaliger, M. B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Palliyaguru, N.; Langston, G. I.; Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Lyutikov, M.; Ransom, S. M.

    2012-11-20

    We observed the Crab pulsar with the 43 m telescope in Green Bank, WV over a timespan of 15 months. In total we obtained 100 hr of data at 1.2 GHz and seven hours at 330 MHz, resulting in a sample of about 95,000 giant pulses (GPs). This is the largest sample, to date, of GPs from the Crab pulsar taken with the same telescope and backend and analyzed as one data set. We calculated power-law fits to amplitude distributions for main pulse (MP) and interpulse (IP) GPs, resulting in indices in the range of 2.1-3.1 for MP GPs at 1.2 GHz and in the range of 2.5-3.0 and 2.4-3.1 for MP and IP GPs at 330 MHz. We also correlated the GPs at 1.2 GHz with GPs from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), which were obtained simultaneously at a higher frequency (8.9 GHz) over a span of 26 hr. In total, 7933 GPs from the 43 m telescope at 1.2 GHz and 39,900 GPs from the GBT were recorded during these contemporaneous observations. At 1.2 GHz, 236 (3%) MP GPs and 23 (5%) IP GPs were detected at 8.9 GHz, both with zero chance probability. Another 15 (4%) low-frequency IP GPs were detected within one spin period of high-frequency IP GPs, with a chance probability of 9%. This indicates that the emission processes at high and low radio frequencies are related, despite significant pulse profile shape differences. The 43 m GPs were also correlated with Fermi {gamma}-ray photons to see if increased pair production in the magnetosphere is the mechanism responsible for GP emission. A total of 92,022 GPs and 393 {gamma}-ray photons were used in this correlation analysis. No significant correlations were found between GPs and {gamma}-ray photons. This indicates that increased pair production in the magnetosphere is likely not the dominant cause of GPs. Possible methods of GP production may be increased coherence of synchrotron emission or changes in beaming direction.

  20. Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of glucose (sugar). It's like a meter! It helps regulate the levels of medicine you are taking. (Before some medicines can work, the liver has to start them up.) It also regulates hormones in your body. It's ...

  1. Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, jaundice and dark urine.These symptoms can last up to five ... fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, jaundice and dark urine. Acute symptoms can last several months, during ...

  2. Hepatic fatty acid composition differs between chronic hepatitis C patients with and without steatosis.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca M; Mohammed, Saira S; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Prayitno, Nita R; Ma, David W L; Nguyen, Augustin; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Heathcote, E Jenny; Allard, Johane P

    2009-04-01

    Hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition may influence steatosis development in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In a cross-sectional study, we compared the hepatic FA profile in hepatitis C patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 33) steatosis (> or =5% of hepatocytes involved). FA composition of hepatic and RBC total lipids was measured by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in liver and plasma, blood biochemistry, and nutritional status were also assessed. Patients with steatosis had more fibrosis, higher necroinflammatory activity of their hepatitis C infection, were more often infected with genotype 3, and had lower serum cholesterol. Monounsaturated FA in the liver were higher and trans FA were lower in patients with steatosis. Lower stearic acid and higher oleic acid in hepatic total lipids suggested higher Delta9-desaturase activity. alpha-Linolenic acid in the liver was higher and the ratios of long-chain PUFA:essential FA precursors were lower for (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA. Plasma vitamin C was lower in steatosis, but RBC FA composition and other parameters did not differ. We conclude that hepatic FA composition is altered in patients with hepatitis C and steatosis, probably due to modulation of enzymatic elongation and desaturation. Oxidative stress or nutritional status does not seem to play a predominant role for development of steatosis in CHC. PMID:19211827

  3. Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels and communicative interspecific hunting between the grouper, Plectropomus pessuliferus, and the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus. We provide evidence of the following: (1) associations are nonrandom, (2) groupers

  4. What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Journal Articles What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis? PDF Version Size: 58 KB November 2014 What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series ...

  5. FIRST RECORDS OF A GIANT PELAGIC TUNICATE, BATHOCHORDAEUS CHARON

    E-print Network

    FIRST RECORDS OF A GIANT PELAGIC TUNICATE, BATHOCHORDAEUS CHARON (UROCHORDATA, LARVACEA), FROM several specimens of a unique, giant larvacean, Bathochordaeus charon Chun 1900. This species may genus. History of Bathochordaem charon Collections Collection data for all known specimens are given

  6. TECHNICAL NOTE Microsatellite marker isolation and development for the giant

    E-print Network

    Scheel, David

    TECHNICAL NOTE Microsatellite marker isolation and development for the giant Pacific Octopus Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) and examined them for 31 individuals from Prince William Sound genetics The giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini (Wu¨lker 1910), previously Octopus dofleini

  7. Open Clusters Ages from Giant Star Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Russel J.; Jones, Jeremy; Quinn, Samuel N.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.

    2016-01-01

    The nearest open clusters serve as important benchmarks for theories of stellar evolution, and with the discoveries of gas giant planets in these clusters, they are poised to serve as benchmarks for theories of planet evolution. The value of these clusters stems from members having identical relative ages, but their value would be redoubled if their absolute ages were more robustly determined. We note, in particular, that recent studies that account for the rapid stellar rotation of main sequence turnoff stars find that current age estimates are biased by ~20%. Here we present CHARA Array angular size measurements of giant stars in the Praesepe, Coma Berenices and Hyades open clusters. These measurements are used to provide independent age estimates of the clusters, and to test evolutionary models that span from the main sequence to the red giant branch.

  8. Compositional constraints on giant planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Tobias; Encrenaz, Therese

    2006-10-01

    Using Ockham's razor as a guide, we have tried to find the simplest model for the formation of giant planets that can explain current observations of atmospheric composition. While this "top-down" approach is far from sufficient to define such models, it establishes a set of boundary conditions whose satisfaction is necessary. Using Jupiter as the prototype, we find that a simple model for giant planet formation that begins with a solar nebula of uniform composition and relies on accretion of low temperature icy planetesimals plus collapse of surrounding solar nebula gas supplies that satisfaction. We compare the resulting predictions of elemental abundances and isotope ratios in the atmospheres of the other giants with those from contrasting models and suggest some key measurements to make further progress.

  9. Giant Gravitons and a Correspondence Principle

    E-print Network

    Balasubramanian, V; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Naqvi, Asad

    2002-01-01

    We propose a correspondence between the physics of certain small charge black holes in AdS_k x S^l and large charge black holes in AdS_l x S^k. The curvature singularities of these solutions arise, following Myers and Tafjord, from a condensate of giant gravitons. When the number of condensed giants N_g is much greater than the number of background branes N, we propose that the system has an equivalent description in terms of N giant gravitons condensed in a background created by N_g branes. Our primary evidence is an exact correspondence between gravitational entropy formulae of small and large charge solutions in different dimensions.

  10. Electrically controlled giant piezoresistance in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Neuzil, Pavel; Wong, Chee Chung; Reboud, Julien

    2010-04-14

    Herein we demonstrate giant piezoresistance in silicon nanowires (NWs) by the modulation of an electric field-induced with an external electrical bias. Positive bias for a p-type device (negative for an n-type) partially depleted the NWs forming a pinch-off region, which resembled a funnel through which the electrical current squeezed. This region determined the total current flowing through the NWs. In this report, we combined the electrical biasing with the application of mechanical stress, which impacts the charge carriers' concentration, to achieve an electrically controlled giant piezoresistance in nanowires. This phenomenon was used to create a stress-gated field-effect transistor, exhibiting a maximum gauge factor of 5000, 2 orders of magnitude increase over bulk value. Giant piezoresistance can be tailored to create highly sensitive mechanical sensors operating in a discrete mode such as nanoelectromechanical switches. PMID:20192246

  11. Giant plasmene nanosheets, nanoribbons, and origami.

    PubMed

    Si, Kae Jye; Sikdar, Debabrata; Chen, Yi; Eftekhari, Fatima; Xu, Zaiquan; Tang, Yue; Xiong, Wei; Guo, Pengzhen; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui; Bao, Qiaoliang; Zhu, Weiren; Premaratne, Malin; Cheng, Wenlong

    2014-11-25

    We introduce Plasmene- in analogy to graphene-as free-standing, one-particle-thick, superlattice sheets of nanoparticles ("meta-atoms") from the "plasmonic periodic table", which has implications in many important research disciplines. Here, we report on a general bottom-up self-assembly approach to fabricate giant plasmene nanosheets (i.e., plasmene with nanoscale thickness but with macroscopic lateral dimensions) as thin as ?40 nm and as wide as ?3 mm, corresponding to an aspect ratio of ?75,000. In conjunction with top-down lithography, such robust giant nanosheets could be milled into one-dimensional nanoribbons and folded into three-dimensional origami. Both experimental and theoretical studies reveal that our giant plasmene nanosheets are analogues of graphene from the plasmonic nanoparticle family, simultaneously possessing unique structural features and plasmon propagation functionalities. PMID:25265019

  12. Treatment of Overt Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Norman L

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is defined by an altered mental status in the setting of portosystemic shunting, with or without cirrhosis. The basis of HE is probably multi-factorial, but increased ammonia delivery to the brain is thought to play a pivotal role. Medical therapies have typically focused on reducing blood ammonia concentrations. These measures are moderately effective, but further improvements will require identification of new therapeutic targets. Two medications, lactulose and rifaximin, are currently approved for the treatment of HE in the USA - new compounds are available off-label, and are in clinical trials. The presence of HE is associated with a higher risk of death in cirrhotic patients. Liver transplantation typically cures HE, but HE does not increase the MELD score, and therefore does not contribute to the likelihood of liver transplantation. PMID:26195208

  13. Alcoholic Hepatitis: Steroids vs. Pentoxifylline

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Laura; Gobejishvili, Leila; Crittenden, Neil; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) remains a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and is actually increasing in certain areas of Europe. Thus, there is a pressing need for new therapies/approaches. Major barriers for reducing morbidity, mortality, and costs of care include: lack of translational animal and human studies of new therapies for AH; limited trials of combination therapies in AH targeted at specific disease mechanisms (e.g., gut permeability, cytokines, oxidative stress); limited studies on non-invasive, non-mortality end points; few studies on mechanisms of steroid non-responsiveness; and inadequate prognostic indicators, to name only a few. In spite of these gaps, we have made major advances in understanding mechanisms for AH and appropriate therapies for AH. This article reviews mechanisms and rationale for use of steroids and pentoxifylline in AH and future directions in therapy. PMID:23750115

  14. Irreversible Electroporation of Hepatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Froud, Tatiana; Suthar, Rekhaben; Barbery, Katuska

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide problem of epidemic proportions, best treated in a multidisciplinary setting. Major advances have been made in all specialties that manage patients with HCC, with surgical options at one end of the spectrum and palliative chemotherapy on the other, and the vast majority of patients require the involvement and expertise of interventional oncology. Several ablative and transarterial technologies are currently available. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new ablative technology that uses high-voltage, low-energy DC current to create nanopores in the cell membrane, disrupting the homeostasis mechanism and inducing cell death by initiating apoptosis. This article discusses the evolution of IRE as well as its safety and efficacy in the context of other ablative therapies in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. PMID:24436519

  15. Modeling Hepatitis C treatment policy.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuypers, Marshall A.; Lambert, Gregory Joseph; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John,; Finley, Patrick D.; Ross, David; Chartier, Maggie

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. As the nation's largest provider of care for HCV, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) invests extensive resources in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This report documents modeling and analysis of HCV treatment dynamics performed for the VHA aimed at improving service delivery efficiency. System dynamics modeling of disease treatment demonstrated the benefits of early detection and the role of comorbidities in disease progress and patient mortality. Preliminary modeling showed that adherence to rigorous treatment protocols is a primary determinant of treatment success. In depth meta-analysis revealed correlations of adherence and various psycho-social factors. This initial meta-analysis indicates areas where substantial improvement in patient outcomes can potentially result from VA programs which incorporate these factors into their design.

  16. Detecting Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in an Endemic Country for Hepatitis B: The Role of Psychometrics and Serum IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chu, Chi-Jen; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Wang, Yen-Po; Liu, Pei-Yi; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims It remains unknown what the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is in Taiwan, a highly endemic country for chronic viral hepatitis infection. It is also unclear whether abnormal serum cytokine levels can be indicative of the presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. We aimed to standardize the tests of psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score and predictive value of proinflammatory cytokines in minimal hepatic encephalopathy in Taiwan. Methods 180 healthy subjects and 94 cirrhotic patients without a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy from a tertiary center were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Blood sampling for determination of serum levels of interleukin 6 and 18 and tumor necrosis factor-? was performed. Based on the normogram of psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score from healthy volunteers, patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy were identified from the cirrhotic patients using the criterion of a psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score less than ?4. Results In the healthy subjects, age and education were predictors of subtests of psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy was identified in 27 (29%) cirrhotic patients. Serum interleukin 6 level (OR = 6.50, 95% CI = 1.64–25.76, P = 0.008) was predictive of the presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy after multivariate analysis. Conclusions The psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score can be a useful tool for detecting patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy in Taiwan and around one third of cirrhotic outpatients fulfill this diagnosis. A high serum interleukin 6 level is predictive of the presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26039496

  17. A Common Polymorphism within the IGF2 Imprinting Control Region Is Associated with Parent of Origin Specific Effects in Infantile Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Brent; Yao, Xiaopan; Deng, Yanhong; Waner, Milton; Spock, Christopher; Tom, Laura; Persing, John; Narayan, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common tumor of the pediatric age group, affecting up to 4% of newborns ranging from inconsequential blemishes, to highly aggressive tumors. Following well defined growth phases (proliferative, plateau involutional) IH usually regress into a fibro-fatty residuum. Despite the high prevalence of IH, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of disease. A reported six fold decrease in IGF2 expression (correlating with transformation of proliferative to involuted lesions) prompted us to study the IGF-2 axis further. We demonstrate that IGF2 expression in IH is strongly related to the expression of a cancer testes and suspected oncogene BORIS (paralog of CTCF), placing IH in the unique category of being the first known benign BORIS positive tumor. IGF2 expression was strongly and positively related to BORIS transcript expression. Furthermore, a stronger association was made when comparing BORIS levels against the expression of CTCF via either a percentage or difference between the two. A common C/T polymorphism at CTCF BS6 appeared to modify the correlation between CTCF/BORIS and IGF2 expression in a parent of origin specific manner. Moreover, these effects may have phenotypic consequences as tumor growth also correlates with the genotype at CTCF BS6. This may provide a framework for explaining the clinical variability seen in IH and suggests new insights regarding CTCF and BORIS related functionality in both normal and malignant states. PMID:26496499

  18. A Common Polymorphism within the IGF2 Imprinting Control Region Is Associated with Parent of Origin Specific Effects in Infantile Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Brent; Yao, Xiaopan; Deng, Yanhong; Waner, Milton; Spock, Christopher; Tom, Laura; Persing, John; Narayan, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common tumor of the pediatric age group, affecting up to 4% of newborns ranging from inconsequential blemishes, to highly aggressive tumors. Following well defined growth phases (proliferative, plateau involutional) IH usually regress into a fibro-fatty residuum. Despite the high prevalence of IH, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of disease. A reported six fold decrease in IGF2 expression (correlating with transformation of proliferative to involuted lesions) prompted us to study the IGF-2 axis further. We demonstrate that IGF2 expression in IH is strongly related to the expression of a cancer testes and suspected oncogene BORIS (paralog of CTCF), placing IH in the unique category of being the first known benign BORIS positive tumor. IGF2 expression was strongly and positively related to BORIS transcript expression. Furthermore, a stronger association was made when comparing BORIS levels against the expression of CTCF via either a percentage or difference between the two. A common C/T polymorphism at CTCF BS6 appeared to modify the correlation between CTCF/BORIS and IGF2 expression in a parent of origin specific manner. Moreover, these effects may have phenotypic consequences as tumor growth also correlates with the genotype at CTCF BS6. This may provide a framework for explaining the clinical variability seen in IH and suggests new insights regarding CTCF and BORIS related functionality in both normal and malignant states. PMID:26496499

  19. Novel Application of Percutaneous Cryotherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Oral Bleeding From a Noninvoluting Congenital Hemangioma Involving the Right Buccal Space and Maxillary Tuberosity

    SciTech Connect

    Salehian, Sepand; Gemmete, Joseph J.; Kasten, Steven; Edwards, Sean P.

    2011-02-15

    Cryotherapy is the application of varying extremes of cold temperatures to destroy abnormal tissue. The intent of this article is to describe a novel technique using percutaneous cryotherapy for treating a noninvoluting congenital craniofacial hemangioma (NICH). An 18-year-old woman with type 1 von Willebrand's disease, as well as a qualitative platelet aggregation disorder, presented with multiple recurrent episodes of oral bleeding from a NICH involving the right buccal space and maxillary tuberosity. The patient was initially treated with a combination of endovascular particulate embolization, percutaneous sclerotherapy, tissue cauterization, and laser therapy between the ages of 4 and 8 years of age. At 18 years of age, the patient presented with recurrent episodes of oral bleeding related to the NICH. Endovascular embolization was performed using particulate and a liquid embolic agent with limited success. Due to the refractory nature of this bleeding, the patient underwent successful lesion ablation using percutaneous cryotherapy. At 9-month follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic with no episodes of recurrent bleeding.

  20. HEPATITIS B INFORMATION & VACCINATION WAIVER Hepatitis B is a serious infectious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. The hepatitis B virus

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    by a virus that attacks the liver. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause life-long infection that may lead to cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, or death. There is no cure for hepatitis B

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation Downregulate miR-29: miR-29 Overexpression Reduces Hepatitis C Viral Abundance in Culture

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Sarmistha

    Background.?Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)–induced liver fibrosis involves upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)–? and subsequent hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate HCV infection ...

  2. Selecting a path against Hepatitis C Virus 

    E-print Network

    Simeon, Rudo Lyndon

    2013-12-12

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently affects ~5% of the world’s population and has relatively limited treatment options for infected patients. Genetic suppressor elements (GSE) derived from a gene or genome of interest can act as transdominant...

  3. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... infection, as well as hepatitis B screenings for pregnant women at their first prenatal visit. After...

  4. Molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury and repair 

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Neil C

    In this thesis I examined molecular mechanisms involved in acute and chronic liver injury, and also studied basic pathways mediating tumour promotion. Acute hepatic failure secondary to paracetamol poisoning is associated ...

  5. STAPLE copy of Hepatitis B Surface

    E-print Network

    Hamburger, Peter

    STAPLE copy of Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (anti-HBs) titer lab results here! Department and complete the bottom portion of the page. Section A: HEPATITIS IMMUNIZATION RECORD Hepatitis B Surface ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Section B: HEPATITIS B VACCINATION DECLINATION I understand that due to my chance of occupational exposure

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Hepatic lipase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affects the body's ability to break down fats (lipids). People with this disorder have increased amounts of ... It is unclear what effect this change in lipid levels has on people with hepatic lipase deficiency. ...

  7. Giant Retroperitoneal Fibrolipoma - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Bhuiyan, M H; Mahmud, R; Biswas, N

    2015-07-01

    Lipomas are common benign adipose tumours generally located at superficial locations but deep seated lipomas are rather infrequent out of which retroperitoneal location of giant lipoma is rare. Fibrolipoma is one of the uncommon variant of lipoma. There is no different evidence in clinical profile, management, and prognosis of fibro lipoma from other variants of lipomas. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Here we present a case of 13 year old lady with giant retroperitoneal fibrolipoma which was completely excised through laparotomy. And the patient remains well one year after surgery without recurrence of the disease. PMID:26329961

  8. A Giant Purely Polypoid Esophageal Leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Brichon, Pierre-Yves; Laverriere, Marie-Hélène; Guigard, Sebastien; Chaffanjon, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    We present a case of a giant (13-cm length) purely polypoid esophageal leiomyoma without any intramural development. This form of leiomyoma is rare and develops due to proliferation originating from the muscularis mucosae, although the intramural type originates in the muscularis propria. This should not be confused with giant fibrovascular polyps, which are postulated to arise at the pharyngoesophageal junction when a flap of mobile, redundant submucosa prolapses distally and may cause asphyxia when protruding into the mouth. Our case was successfully removed by a right thoracotomy. PMID:26140772

  9. Statistical theory of decay of giant resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    1990-02-01

    A general formulation of the decay of giant resonances is presented. Giant resonances are assumed to be excited by a ?-ray through the semidirect process, and decay by particle emission in compound or pre-equilibrium processes. The S-matrix for the semidirect process is evaluated and inserted into the general expression of the transmission matrices, which are used as inputs to the compound or pre-equilibrium fluctuation cross section. The results are compared with those of Dias et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 (1986) 1998], which are based on a different approach and have been used in analysis of the data.

  10. A giant osteoma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Pushkar; Deshmukh, Vikram; Garde, J B

    2015-06-01

    An osteoma is a benign, slow growing osteogenic tumor characterized by proliferation of either compact or cancellous bone. It can be central, peripheral or extraskeletal. Clinically osteomas are usually asymptomatic. These lesions often go undetected unless incidentally found on radiographic survey or until they have extended to such an extent that they cause facial asymmetry or functional impairment. The most common site of osteoma to develop in maxillofacial region is skull. Giant osteomas in mandible are rare. We present and discuss a case of giant osteoma of right mandible which was surgically excised. PMID:26028874

  11. Theortetical Models of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    A. Burrows; W. B. Hubbard; J. I. Lunine; T. Guillot; D. Saumon; M. Marley; R. S. Freedman

    1996-08-28

    The recent discoveries of giant planets around nearby stars have galvanized the planetary science community, astronomers, and the public at large. Since {\\it direct} detection is now feasible, and is suggested by the recent acquisition of Gl229 B, it is crucial for the future of extrasolar planet searches that the fluxes, evolution, and physical structure of objects from Saturn's mass to 15 Juipter masses be theoretically investigated. We discuss our first attempts to explore the characteristics of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), in aid of both NASA's and ESA's recent plans to search for such planets around nearby stars.

  12. Giant monopole strength in Ni-58 

    E-print Network

    Lui, YW; Clark, HL; Youngblood, David H.

    2000-01-01

    . Except for a some- what larger background at lower excitation in the earlier data, they are in excellent agreement up to the Ex530 MeV limit of the earlier data. Multipole strength distributions were obtained using ??slice analysis?? @3,4# where a... work is shown by the solid line. Giant monopole Y.-W. Lui, H. L. Clark Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University ~Received 3 November 1999 The strength distribution of the giant monopole resonanc MeV using small-angle scattering of 240-MeV a...

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyunwook; Han, Youngjin; Son, Da Hye; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Aortic complications of giant cell arteritis are a rare cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Here, we describe a case of a ruptured aortic aneurysm in a patient with giant call arteritis (GCA) who was preoperatively suspected of having an infectious aortic aneurysm. Intraoperative inspection revealed infectious granulation tissue on the anterior wall of the abdominal aorta. GCA was finally confirmed by pathological diagnosis. Our findings suggest that the surgical and postoperative treatment of nonatheromatous aortic aneurysm should be based on accurate diagnosis. PMID:26448922

  14. MAPPING DIRECTLY IMAGED GIANT EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, Veselin; Apai, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing number of directly imaged giant exoplanets, the current atmosphere models are often not capable of fully explaining the spectra and luminosity of the sources. A particularly challenging component of the atmosphere models is the formation and properties of condensate cloud layers, which fundamentally impact the energetics, opacity, and evolution of the planets. Here we present a suite of techniques that can be used to estimate the level of rotational modulations these planets may show. We propose that the time-resolved observations of such periodic photometric and spectroscopic variations of extrasolar planets due to their rotation can be used as a powerful tool to probe the heterogeneity of their optical surfaces. In this paper, we develop simulations to explore the capabilities of current and next-generation ground- and space-based instruments for this technique. We address and discuss the following questions: (1) what planet properties can be deduced from the light curve and/or spectra, and in particular can we determine rotation periods, spot coverage, spot colors, and spot spectra?; (2) what is the optimal configuration of instrument/wavelength/temporal sampling required for these measurements?; and (3) can principal component analysis be used to invert the light curve and deduce the surface map of the planet? Our simulations describe the expected spectral differences between homogeneous (clear or cloudy) and patchy atmospheres, outline the significance of the dominant absorption features of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, and provide a method to distinguish these two types of atmospheres. Assuming surfaces with and without clouds for most currently imaged planets the current models predict the largest variations in the J band. Simulated photometry from current and future instruments is used to estimate the level of detectable photometric variations. We conclude that future instruments will be able to recover not only the rotation periods, cloud cover, cloud colors, and spectra but even cloud evolution. We also show that a longitudinal map of the planet's atmosphere can be deduced from its disk-integrated light curves.

  15. CT of radiation-induced hepatic injury

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Moss, A.A.; Quivey, J.M.; Federle, M.P.; Wara, W.M.

    1980-09-01

    The CT findings in three patients with radiation-induced hepatic injury are discussed. In each patient a sharply defined band of low density was identified within the liver in an area of prior radiation. The low density bands resolved on follow-up examination. Computed tomography is useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected radiation hepatitis and in differentiating radiation change from metastatic disease.

  16. Extrasolar Giant Planets: Masses and Luminosities from Insitu Formation Theories

    E-print Network

    Wuchterl, Günther

    Extrasolar Giant Planets: Masses and Luminosities from In­situ Formation Theories G¨unther Wuchterl direct detection of an extrasolar planet. The giant planet formation process is relatively slow Heidelberg, Germany Abstract. Their expected luminosities make young giant planets favorable for the first

  17. Evaluation of Glyphosate for Managing Giant Reed (Arundo donax)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed is an invasive plant of riparian habitats throughout California and the United States. Two herbicides approved for controlling giant reed in California are glyphosate and imazapyr. Sources indicate that 1.5% to 5% glyphosate solutions are effective at controlling giant reed. Imazapyr has ...

  18. Objects or Ecosystems? Giant Sequoia Management in National Parks 1

    E-print Network

    Objects or Ecosystems? Giant Sequoia Management in National Parks 1 David J. Parsons2 Abstract: Policies and programs aimed at protecting giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) in the national parks ecosystems. We now recognize that the long-term preservation of giant sequoia depends on our ability

  19. Management of Giant Sequoia in the National Forests

    E-print Network

    Management of Giant Sequoia in the National Forests of the Sierra Nevada, California1 Robert R. Rogers2 Abstract: The Forest Service avoided positive management activities within giant sequoia giant sequoia regeneration and increase tree vigor. General management direction is contained

  20. Silvics of Giant Sequoia1 C. Phillip Weatherspoon2

    E-print Network

    Silvics of Giant Sequoia1 C. Phillip Weatherspoon2 Abstract:Ecological relationships-including habitat and life history---of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) in natural stands the management practice departs from natural stand processes. Management of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigan

  1. Genetic Variation and Early Performance of Giant Sequoia

    E-print Network

    Genetic Variation and Early Performance of Giant Sequoia in Plantations1 W. J. Libby2 Abstract: Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) is genetically less variable than expected or related conifers. Giant sequoia seedlings from open-pollinated seeds of isolated trees or from small

  2. Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1

    E-print Network

    Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1 Douglas D. Piirto2 Abstract: Wood properties of giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea [Lindl.] Decne.) were compared with those for other coniferous content, and decay resistance of young-growth giant sequoia are comparable to or more fa vorable than

  3. Giant Sequoia Management in the National Forests of California1

    E-print Network

    Giant Sequoia Management in the National Forests of California1 Ronald E. Stewart Sandra H. Key that manage giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz). The history and biology of the species objectives are to protect, preserve, and restore the existing giant sequoia groves and to extend the range

  4. Management Perspective of the Symposium on Giant Sequoia1

    E-print Network

    Management Perspective of the Symposium on Giant Sequoia1 J. Thomas Ritter 2 Abstract: Management of the giant sequoia must recognize that our society has strong emotional support for protection greater emphasis to the significance of future genera- tions of the species, of the giant sequoia

  5. Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) in Europe1

    E-print Network

    Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) in Europe1 Wolfgang Knigge 2 Abstract in botanical gardens, arboreta, and parks, Giant Sequoia survived to significant size in many countries are Giant Sequoia's wood qualities, i.e., knottiness, width of annual rings, heartwood formation, fiber

  6. The Mass-Metallicity Relation for Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Thorngren, Daniel P; Lopez, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet discoveries of recent years have provided a great deal of new data for studying the bulk compositions of giant planets. Here we identify 38 transiting giant planets ($20 M_\\oplus 50 M_\\oplus$) suggest significant amounts of heavy elements in H/He envelopes, rather than cores, such that metal-enriched giant planet atmospheres should be the rule.

  7. PRODUCTIVITY OF A RESIDENT GIANT CANADA GOOSE FLOCK IN NORTHEASTERN

    E-print Network

    PRODUCTIVITY OF A RESIDENT GIANT CANADA GOOSE FLOCK IN NORTHEASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA BY J. DAVID HILLE OF A RESIDENT GIANT CANADA GOOSE FLOCK IN NORTHEASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA 'i This thesis is approved as a creditable.. !,' i i t i I , r t I i ~ --- --- #12;PRODUCTIVITY OF A RESIDENT GIANT CANADA GOOSE FLOCK

  8. Hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F.; Lee, P.; Lee, C.; Huang, L.; Chang, L.; Liu, S.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the immunogenicity and safety of existing recommendations for hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants.?METHODS—Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (H-B-VAX II, 5 µg per dose) was given to 85 preterm infants divided into two groups, using two different schedules. Forty four group A infants with birthweights of < 2000 g received three doses at 1, 2, and 7 months of age. Forty one group B infants with birthweights of ?2000 g received three doses at 0, 1, and 6 months of age.?RESULTS—After vaccination, 42 infants from group A (95%) and 37 infants from group B (90%) developed protective levels of antibody. The final seropositive rate and the geometric mean concentration of hepatitis B surface antibody between the two groups were not significantly different. The immune response of preterm infants to hepatitis B vaccines was similar to that of term infants in a previous study.?CONCLUSIONS—Preterm infants can be given hepatitis B vaccines using one of the above two different schedules, at a cutoff birthweight of 2000 g.?? Keywords: hepatitis B vaccine, prematurity, antibodies PMID:9377137

  9. The Path to a Cure for Hepatitis C in People With HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research The Path to a Cure for Hepatitis C in People With HIV Related Links Hepatitis Mycobacteria ... such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria, hepatitis C, hepatitis, B, Pneumocystis carinii , cryptococci, fungi, and human ...

  10. Primary hepatic tuberculosis mimicking intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic tuberculosis (TB) is usually associated with pulmonary or miliary TB, but primary hepatic TB is very uncommon even in countries with high prevalence of TB. The clinical manifestation of primary hepatic TB is atypical and imaging modalities are unhelpful for differential diagnosis of the liver mass. Image-guided needle biopsy is the best diagnostic method for primary hepatic TB. In the cases presented here, we did not perform liver biopsy because we believed the liver masses were cholangiocarcinoma, but primary hepatic TB was ultimately confirmed by postoperative pathology. Here we report two cases of patients who were diagnosed with primary hepatic TB mimicking mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26236700

  11. HEPATITIS B VACCINE DECLARATION FORM Please submit this completed Hepatitis B Vaccine Form to

    E-print Network

    HEPATITIS B VACCINE DECLARATION FORM Please submit this completed Hepatitis B Vaccine Form and students not engaged in employment or research activity may not be eligible for free vaccination. . Please VACCINE" Please contact me at the above phone number to schedule. Employee Signature Date: II. "I DECLINE

  12. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF GIANT ARCS IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon

    2011-01-20

    We measure the redshift distribution of a sample of 28 giant arcs discovered as a part of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey. Gemini/GMOS-North spectroscopy provides precise redshifts for 24 arcs, and 'redshift desert' constrains for the remaining 4 arcs. This is a direct measurement of the redshift distribution of a uniformly selected sample of bright giant arcs, which is an observable that can be used to inform efforts to predict giant arc statistics. Our primary giant arc sample has a median redshift z = 1.821 and nearly two-thirds of the arcs, 64%, are sources at z {approx}> 1.4, indicating that the population of background sources that are strongly lensed into bright giant arcs resides primarily at high redshift. We also analyze the distribution of redshifts for 19 secondary strongly lensed background sources that are not visually apparent in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging, but were identified in deeper follow-up imaging of the lensing cluster fields. Our redshift sample for the secondary sources is not spectroscopically complete, but combining it with our primary giant arc sample suggests that a large fraction of all background galaxies that are strongly lensed by foreground clusters reside at z {approx}> 1.4. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that our well-selected, spectroscopically complete primary giant arc redshift sample can be reproduced with a model distribution that is constructed from a combination of results from studies of strong-lensing clusters in numerical simulations and observational constraints on the galaxy luminosity function.

  13. Neutron Skin and Giant Resonances in Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Vadim Rodin

    2007-04-02

    Some aspects, both experimental and theoretical, of extracting the neutron skin $\\Delta R$ from properties of isovector giant resonances are discussed. Existing proposals are critically reviewed. The method relying on the energy difference between the GTR and IAS is shown to lack sensitivity to $\\Delta R$. A simple explanation of the linear relation between the symmetry energy and the neutron skin is also given.

  14. Isoscalar giant resonance strength in Si-28 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, Y. -W; Clark, H. L.

    2007-01-01

    Data taken previously covering the giant resonance region from 9 MeV 2 MeV in Si-28 with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV alpha particles at small angles including 0(degrees) have been reanalyzed. Treating all of the observed cross section...

  15. Isoscalar giant resonances in (48)Ca 

    E-print Network

    Lui, Y. -W; Youngblood, David H.; Shlomo, S.; Chen, X.; Tokimoto, Y.; Krishichayan; Anders, M.; Button, J.

    2011-01-01

    The giant resonance region from 9.5 MeV MeV in (48)Ca has been studied with inelastic scattering of 240-MeV alpha particles at small angles, including 0 degrees. 95(-15)(+11)% of E0 energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR), 83(-16)(+10)% of E2...

  16. Study of giant resonances with pions

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results on giant resonances obtained with pion-inelastic scattering and with single- and double-charge-exchange scattering are reviewed. The states discussed are isobaric analog states, double-isobaric analog states, and isovector L = 0, 1, and 2 collective states. 36 references.

  17. The stable K0 giant star ? Gem

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, David F.

    2014-12-01

    A nine-season spectroscopic study of the photosphere of ? Gem (K0 III) shows this low-luminosity giant to be stable, with no effective temperature variations above ?2 K, and no secular temperature variations over the 2002-2010 time span above 0.2 K per year. The radial-velocity variations are consistent with an orbital variation of ?40 m s{sup –1}. The projected rotation rate is found to be 1.70 ± 0.20 km s{sup –1} with a macroturbulence dispersion of 4.53 ± 0.10 km s{sup –1}. The third-signature plot is also invariant and shows a granulation velocity gradient 20% smaller than the solar gradient. The absolute shift of the third-signature plot gives a blueshift-corrected radial velocity of 3385 ± 70 m s{sup –1}. Bisector mapping of the Fe I ?6253 line yields a flux deficit of 12% ± 1% in area, somewhat smaller than for other giants, but the shape and the position of the peak at 4.8 km s{sup –1} is consistent with other giants. All of the investigated photospheric parameters are consistent with ? Gem being a low-luminosity giant in agreement with its absolute magnitude.

  18. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  19. Recovery From Giant Eruptions in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, A.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We perform radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study how very massive stars recover from giant eruptions. The post eruption star experience strong mass loss due to strong winds, driven by radial pulsations in the star*s interior, that operate by the ?-mechanism. The mass loss history obtained in our simulations resembles ? Car*s history.

  20. The Stable K0 Giant Star ? Gem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, David F.

    2014-12-01

    A nine-season spectroscopic study of the photosphere of ? Gem (K0 III) shows this low-luminosity giant to be stable, with no effective temperature variations above ~2 K, and no secular temperature variations over the 2002-2010 time span above 0.2 K per year. The radial-velocity variations are consistent with an orbital variation of ~40 m s-1. The projected rotation rate is found to be 1.70 ± 0.20 km s-1 with a macroturbulence dispersion of 4.53 ± 0.10 km s-1. The third-signature plot is also invariant and shows a granulation velocity gradient 20% smaller than the solar gradient. The absolute shift of the third-signature plot gives a blueshift-corrected radial velocity of 3385 ± 70 m s-1. Bisector mapping of the Fe I ?6253 line yields a flux deficit of 12% ± 1% in area, somewhat smaller than for other giants, but the shape and the position of the peak at 4.8 km s-1 is consistent with other giants. All of the investigated photospheric parameters are consistent with ? Gem being a low-luminosity giant in agreement with its absolute magnitude.

  1. Convection and giant planet formation G. Wuchterl

    E-print Network

    Wuchterl, Günther

    Convection and giant planet formation G. Wuchterl Institut f¨ur Astronomie der Universit¨at Wien, A­1180 Wien Abstract. Convection is of key importance in stellar structure, evolution and formation. Only planet structure. I will show that 1. Mixing length convection significantly reduces the critical mass

  2. Giant Quadrupole-Resonance in Ni Isotopes 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Garg, U.; Peterson, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of 129 MeV alpha particles has been used to excite the giant quadrupole resonance in Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-62, Ni-64. The resonance was found to exhaust 58 +/- 12%, 76 +/- 14%, 78 +/- 14%, and 90 +/-16% of the E2 energy-weighted sum...

  3. MFR PAPER 1200 The Giant Pacific Octopus

    E-print Network

    breeding activities. Information on its behavior has been increased through the use of scuba diving (High, 1960). Prior to the advent of scuba diving, giant octo- puses were occasionally encountered. Little was known about the life and habits of the octopus until scuba ap- paratus permitted man

  4. Gas accretion and giant planet formation

    E-print Network

    Wuchterl, Günther

    it. For a given core mass the properties of such core­envelope proto giant planets are largely¨at Wien, T¨urkenschanzstraße 17, A--1180 Wien, Austria Abstract The nucleated instability (or core accretion) hypothesis assumes that condensible element cores grow in the presence of the solar nebula

  5. Theory of giant planet atmospheres and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam Seth

    2014-06-01

    Giant exoplanet atmospheres have now been studied by transit spectroscopy, spectroscopy and photometry at secondary eclipse, photometric light curves as a function of orbital phase, very high-resolution spectroscopic velocity measurements, and high-contrast imaging. Moreover, there is a correspondence between brown dwarf and giant planet atmospheres and spectra that has been profitably exploited for many years to better understand exoplanets. In this presentation, I endeavor to review the information extracted by these techniques about close-in giant exoplanet compositions and temperatures. Then, I will summarize the expected character of the spectra, light curves, and polarizations of the objects soon to be studied using high-contrast imaging by GPI, SPHERE, WFIRST-AFTA, and Subaru/HiCIAO as a function of mass, age, Keplerian elements, and birth properties (such as entropy). The goal will be to frame the theoretical discussion concerning what physical information can be gleaned in the next years about giant planet atmospheres by direct (or almost direct) imaging and characterization campaigns, and their role as stepping stones to the even more numerous sub-Neptunes, super-Earths, and Earths.

  6. Vocal repertoire of the social giant otter.

    PubMed

    Leuchtenberger, Caroline; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Duplaix, Nicole; Magnusson, William E; Mourão, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    According to the "social intelligence hypothesis," species with complex social interactions have more sophisticated communication systems. Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) live in groups with complex social interactions. It is likely that the vocal communication of giant otters is more sophisticated than previous studies suggest. The objectives of the current study were to describe the airborne vocal repertoire of giant otters in the Pantanal area of Brazil, to analyze call types within different behavioral contexts, and to correlate vocal complexity with level of sociability of mustelids to verify whether or not the result supports the social intelligence hypothesis. The behavior of nine giant otters groups was observed. Vocalizations recorded were acoustically and statistically analyzed to describe the species' repertoire. The repertoire was comprised by 15 sound types emitted in different behavioral contexts. The main behavioral contexts of each sound type were significantly associated with the acoustic variable ordination of different sound types. A strong correlation between vocal complexity and sociability was found for different species, suggesting that the communication systems observed in the family mustelidae support the social intelligence hypothesis. PMID:25373985

  7. Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... January ; 58(1): 26?35. doi:10.1002/art.23176 How Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis Diagnosed? A diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica is based primarily on the patient's medical history and symptoms, and on a physical examination. No ...

  8. Reading on the Shoulders of Giants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Chaim, Michael; Riendeau, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on his successful scientific career, Isaac Newton highlighted his intellectual debt to his predecessors. "If I have seen further," he wrote, "it was "only" by standing on the shoulders of giants." The authors have chosen the title of their article as a token of recognition of their debt to the teachings of Newton and other intellectuals…

  9. Ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate for quantifying liver fat content

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Chen, Tian; Xia, Liang-Hua; Qian, Juan; Lv, Guo-Yi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To establish and validate a simple quantitative assessment method for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on a combination of the ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate. METHODS: A total of 170 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects were examined by ultrasound and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) on the same day. The ultrasound hepatic/renal echo-intensity ratio and ultrasound hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate were obtained from ordinary ultrasound images using the MATLAB program. RESULTS: Correlation analysis revealed that the ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate were significantly correlated with 1H-MRS liver fat content (ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio: r = 0.952, P = 0.000; hepatic echo-intensity attenuation r = 0.850, P = 0.000). The equation for predicting liver fat content by ultrasound (quantitative ultrasound model) is: liver fat content (%) = 61.519 × ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio + 167.701 × hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate -26.736. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the liver fat content ratio of the quantitative ultrasound model was positively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and triglyceride, but negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal point for diagnosing fatty liver was 9.15% in the quantitative ultrasound model. Furthermore, in the quantitative ultrasound model, fatty liver diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 94.7% and 100.0%, respectively, showing that the quantitative ultrasound model was better than conventional ultrasound methods or the combined ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate. If the 1H-MRS liver fat content had a value < 15%, the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound quantitative model would be 81.4% and 100%, which still shows that using the model is better than the other methods. CONCLUSION: The quantitative ultrasound model is a simple, low-cost, and sensitive tool that can accurately assess hepatic fat content in clinical practice. It provides an easy and effective parameter for the early diagnosis of mild hepatic steatosis and evaluation of the efficacy of NAFLD treatment. PMID:25548498

  10. Decorin deficiency promotes hepatic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsolt; Kovalszky, Ilona; Fullár, Alexandra; Kiss, Katalin; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Iozzo, Renato V; Baghy, Kornélia

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma represents one of the most-rapidly spreading cancers in the world. In the majority of cases, an inflammation-driven fibrosis or cirrhosis precedes the development of the tumor. During malignant transformation, the tumor microenvironment undergoes qualitative and quantitative changes that modulate the behavior of the malignant cells. A key constituent for the hepatic microenvironment is the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin, known to interfere with cellular events of tumorigenesis mainly by blocking various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) such as EGFR, Met, IGF-IR, PDGFR and VEGFR2. In this study, we characterized cell signaling events evoked by decorin deficiency in two experimental models of hepatocarcinogenesis using thioacetamide or diethyl nitrosamine as carcinogens. Genetic ablation of decorin led to enhanced tumor occurrence as compared to wild-type animals. These findings correlated with decreased levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) and a concurrent elevation in retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation via cyclin dependent kinase 4. Decreased steady state p21(Waf1/Cip1) levels correlated with enhanced expression of transcription factor AP4, a known transcriptional repressor of p21(Waf1/Cip1), and enhanced c-Myc protein levels. In addition, translocation of ?-catenin was a typical event in diethyl nitrosamine-evoked tumors. In parallel, decreased phosphorylation of both c-Myc and ?-catenin was observed in Dcn(-/-) livers likely due to the hindered GSK3?-mediated targeting of these proteins to proteasomal degradation. We discovered that in a genetic background lacking decorin, four RTKs were constitutively activated (phosphorylated), including three known targets of decorin such as PDGFR?, EGFR, IGF-IR, and a novel RTK MSPR/RON. Our findings provide powerful genetic evidence for a crucial in vivo role of decorin during hepatocarcinogenesis as lack of decorin in the liver and hepatic stroma facilitates experimental carcinogenesis by providing an environment devoid of this potent pan-RTK inhibitor. Thus, our results support future utilization of decorin as an antitumor agent in liver cancer. PMID:24361483

  11. Core Formation in Giant Gaseous Protoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helled, R.; Schubert, G.

    2008-12-01

    Sedimentation rates of silicate grains in gas giant protoplanets formed by disk instability are calculated for protoplanetary masses between 1 MSaturn to 10 MJupiter. Giant protoplanets with masses of 5 MJupiter or larger are found to be too hot for grain sedimentation to form a silicate core. Smaller protoplanets are cold enough to allow grain settling and core formation. Grain sedimentation and core formation occur in the low mass protoplanets because of their slow contraction rate and low internal temperature. It is predicted that massive giant planets will not have cores, while smaller planets will have small rocky cores whose masses depend on the planetary mass, the amount of solids within the body, and the disk environment. The protoplanets are found to be too hot to allow the existence of icy grains, and therefore the cores are predicted not to contain any ices. It is suggested that the atmospheres of low mass giant planets are depleted in refractory elements compared with the atmospheres of more massive planets. These predictions provide a test of the disk instability model of gas giant planet formation. The core masses of Jupiter and Saturn were found to be ~ 0.25 M? and ~ 0.5 M?, respectively. The core masses of Jupiter and Saturn can be substantially larger if planetesimal accretion is included. The final core mass will depend on planetesimal size, the time at which planetesimals are formed, and the size distribution of the material added to the protoplanet. Jupiter's core mass can vary from 2 to 12 M?. Saturn's core mass is found to be ~ 8 M?.

  12. Core formation in giant gaseous protoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helled, Ravit; Schubert, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    Sedimentation rates of silicate grains in gas giant protoplanets formed by disk instability are calculated for protoplanetary masses between 1 M to 10 M. Giant protoplanets with masses of 5 M or larger are found to be too hot for grain sedimentation to form a silicate core. Smaller protoplanets are cold enough to allow grain settling and core formation. Grain sedimentation and core formation occur in the low mass protoplanets because of their slow contraction rate and low internal temperature. It is predicted that massive giant planets will not have cores, while smaller planets will have small rocky cores whose masses depend on the planetary mass, the amount of solids within the body, and the disk environment. The protoplanets are found to be too hot to allow the existence of icy grains, and therefore the cores are predicted not to contain any ices. It is suggested that the atmospheres of low mass giant planets are depleted in refractory elements compared with the atmospheres of more massive planets. These predictions provide a test of the disk instability model of gas giant planet formation. The core masses of Jupiter and Saturn were found to be ˜0.25 M and ˜0.5 M, respectively. The core masses of Jupiter and Saturn can be substantially larger if planetesimal accretion is included. The final core mass will depend on planetesimal size, the time at which planetesimals are formed, and the size distribution of the material added to the protoplanet. Jupiter's core mass can vary from 2 to 12 M. Saturn's core mass is found to be ˜8 M.

  13. Core Formation in Giant Gaseous Protoplanets

    E-print Network

    Ravit Helled; Gerald Schubert

    2008-08-20

    Sedimentation rates of silicate grains in gas giant protoplanets formed by disk instability are calculated for protoplanetary masses between 1 M_Saturn to 10 M_Jupiter. Giant protoplanets with masses of 5 M_Jupiter or larger are found to be too hot for grain sedimentation to form a silicate core. Smaller protoplanets are cold enough to allow grain settling and core formation. Grain sedimentation and core formation occur in the low mass protoplanets because of their slow contraction rate and low internal temperature. It is predicted that massive giant planets will not have cores, while smaller planets will have small rocky cores whose masses depend on the planetary mass, the amount of solids within the body, and the disk environment. The protoplanets are found to be too hot to allow the existence of icy grains, and therefore the cores are predicted not to contain any ices. It is suggested that the atmospheres of low mass giant planets are depleted in refractory elements compared with the atmospheres of more massive planets. These predictions provide a test of the disk instability model of gas giant planet formation. The core masses of Jupiter and Saturn were found to be ~0.25 M_Earth and ~0.5 M_Earth, respectively. The core masses of Jupiter and Saturn can be substantially larger if planetesimal accretion is included. The final core mass will depend on planetesimal size, the time at which planetesimals are formed, and the size distribution of the material added to the protoplanet. Jupiter's core mass can vary from 2 to 12 M_Earth. Saturn's core mass is found to be ~8 M_Earth.

  14. Robotic Repair of Giant Paraesophageal Hernias

    PubMed Central

    Seetharamaiah, Rupa; Romero, Rey Jesús; Kosanovic, Radomir; Gallas, Michelle; Verdeja, Juan-Carlos; Rabaza, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Giant paraesophageal hernia accounts for 5% of all hiatal hernias, and it is commonly seen in elderly patients with comorbidities. Some series report complication rates up to 28%, recurrence rates between 10% and 25%, and a mortality rate close to 2%. Recently, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has shown equivocal benefits when used for elective surgeries, whereas for complex procedures, the benefits appear to be clearer. The purpose of this study is to present our preliminary experience in robotic giant paraesophageal hernia repair. Methods: We retrospectively collected data from patients who had a diagnosis of giant paraesophageal hernia and underwent a paraesophageal hernia repair with the da Vinci Surgical System. Results: Nineteen patients (12 women [63.1%]) underwent surgery for giant paraesophageal hernia at our center. The mean age was 70.4 ± 13.9 years (range, 40–97 years). The mean American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 2.15. The mean surgical time and hospital length of stay were 184.5 ± 96.2 minutes (range, 96–395 minutes) and 4.3 days (range, 2–22 days), respectively. Nissen fundoplications were performed in 3 cases (15.7%), and 16 patients (84.2%) had mesh placed. Six patients (31.5%) presented with gastric volvulus, and 2 patients had other herniated viscera (colon and duodenum). There were 2 surgery-related complications (10.5%) (1 dysphagia that required dilatation and 1 pleural injury) and 1 conversion to open repair (partial gastric resection). No recurrences or deaths were observed in this series. Conclusion: In our experience robotic giant paraesophageal hernia repair is not different from the laparoscopic approach in terms of complications and mortality rate, but it may be associated with lower recurrence rates. However, larger series with longer follow-up are necessary to further substantiate our results. PMID:24398199

  15. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J M; Newkirk, K M; McRee, A E; Whittemore, J C; Ramsay, E C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic lesions in nondomestic felids are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic lesions in 90 captive, nondomestic felids including tigers, cougars, and lions. Hepatic lesions were histologically characterized as vacuolar change (lipidosis or glycogenosis), biliary cysts, biliary hyperplasia, hepatitis, necrosis, neoplasia, fibrosis, veno-occlusive disease, cholestasis, hematoma, congestion, or hemorrhage. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed for vacuolar change, benign biliary lesions, hepatitis, lipogranulomas, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with species as the outcome variable. Ninety cats met the inclusion criteria. Seventy livers (78%) contained 1 or more lesions. Hepatocellular vacuolar change (41/90 [46%]) was the most common lesion overall. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, lipogranulomas, and hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia were also common. One snow leopard had veno-occlusive disease. Tigers were more likely than other felids to have no significant hepatic histologic lesions (odds ratio [OR], 12.687; P = .002), and lions were more likely to have biliary cysts (OR, 5.97; P = .021). Six animals (7%) died of hepatic disease: cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 2) and 1 each of hepatic lipidosis, hepatocellular necrosis, pyogranulomatous hepatitis, and suppurative cholecystitis. Hepatocellular iron and copper accumulations were present in 72 of 90 (80%) and 10 of 90 (11%) sections, respectively. Sinusoidal fibrosis was common (74/90 [82%]) and primarily centrilobular (65/74 [88%]). Hepatocellular iron, copper, and fibrosis were not significantly associated with hepatic lesions. Primary hepatic disease was not a common cause of death in nondomestic felids in this study. PMID:24788521

  16. Prevention of Perinatal Hepatitis B Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Noele P.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the most common form of chronic hepatitis worldwide, is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 360 million people globally. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. An estimated 15%–40% of persons chronically infected develop HBV-related complications, such as cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma, and 25% die from these complications. MTCT can occur during pregnancy or during delivery. Screening pregnant women for HBV infection, providing infant postexposure prophylaxis, and maternal treatment with antiviral medications are strategies for reducing MTCT transmission rates and the global burden of new chronic HBV infections. Administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine within 24 hours of birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, is 85%–95% efficacious for prevention of MTCT. Despite timely post-exposure prophylaxis, MTCT occurs in 5%–15% of infants. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) positive mothers with HBV DNA level ?106 copies/mL (>200 000 IU/mL) are at greatest risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. Consensus recommendations and evidence-based guidelines for management of chronic HBV infection and screening of pregnant women have been developed. The safety and efficacy of antiviral drug use during pregnancy are areas of ongoing research. Substantial advances have been achieved globally in reducing MTCT, but MTCT remains an ongoing health problem. Attaining a better understanding of the mechanisms of MTCT, implementing existing policies on maternal screening and infant follow-up, and addressing research gaps are critical for further reductions in MTCT transmission. PMID:25232477

  17. Scheel & Bisson: Movement patterns of giant Pacific octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini 4 February 2012 p 1 Movement patterns of giant Pacific octopuses,

    E-print Network

    Scheel, David

    Scheel & Bisson: Movement patterns of giant Pacific octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini 4 February 2012 p 1 Movement patterns of giant Pacific octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini (Wülker, 1910) D. Scheel attached sonic transmitters to, and tracked, 40 giant Pacific octopuses (Enteroctopus dofleini) ranging

  18. Hepatic and Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Review

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Tamer; Esmat, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Egypt caused by the trematode Schistosoma which has different species. Hepatic schistosomiasis represents the best known form of chronic disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is related to the host cellular immune response. This leads to granuloma formation and neo angiogenesis with subsequent periportal fibrosis manifested as portal hypertension, splenomegaly and esophageal varices. Intestinal schistosomiasis is another well identified form of chronic schistosomal affection. Egg deposition and granuloma formation eventually leads to acute then chronic schistosomal colitis and is commonly associated with polyp formation. It frequently presents as abdominal pain, diarrhea, tenesmus and anal pain. Definite diagnosis of schistosomiasis disease depends on microscopy and egg identification. Marked progress regarding serologic diagnosis occurred with development of recent PCR techniques that can confirm schistosomal affection at any stage. Many antischistosomal drugs have been described for treatment, praziquantel being the most safe and efficient drug. Still ongoing studies try to develop effective vaccines with identification of many target antigens. Preventive programs are highly needed to control the disease morbidity and to break the cycle of transmission. PMID:25685451

  19. Hepatic encephalopathy in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Roger F

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis in alcoholic patients that is characterized clinically by personality changes, sleep abnormalities, and impaired motor coordination, as well as cognitive dysfunction progressing to stupor and coma. Procedures used for diagnosis and grading of HE include neurologic assessment, electroencephalography, psychometric testing, and use of the critical flicker frequency test. Neuropathologically, HE in cirrhosis is principally a disorder of neuroglia characterized by Alzheimer type II astrocytosis and activation of microglia. However, thalamic and cerebellar neuronal pathologies have been noted as well as lesions to globus pallidus and substantia nigra, leading to a condition known as "parkinsonism in cirrhosis." Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to account for the pathogenesis of HE in cirrhosis, including the neurotoxic actions of ammonia and manganese (normally removed via the hepatobiliary route), impaired brain energy metabolism, central proinflammatory mechanisms, and alterations of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Treatment of HE in cirrhosis continues to rely on ammonia-lowering strategies such as lactulose, antibiotics, probiotics and l-ornithine l-aspartate with nutritional management consisting of adequate (but not excessive) dietary protein and vitamin B1 supplements. l-DOPA may improve parkinsonian symptoms. Liver transplantation leads to recovery of central nervous system function in the majority of cases. PMID:25307598

  20. Prevention and control of hepatitis C in rhode island.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Scott, Nicole E; Lemire, Angela; Larson, H Elsa; Bandy, Utpala

    2014-07-01

    Concern about the morbidity and mortality of hepatitis C infection is increasing. Persons born from 1945 to 1965 are most significantly affected, with the majority unaware of their infection, and will otherwise go untreated. Up to three-fourths of hepatitis C-related deaths occur in this population of "baby boomers." Since 2007, mortality from hepatitis C has exceeded that from HIV, nationally and in Rhode Island. New treatment options for hepatitis C emphasize the potential for cure of hepatitis C that is distinct from HIV. Financial resources and integration of hepatitis C partners and services in Rhode Island will be instrumental in reducing hepatitis C infections and increasing the number of cases cured. We describe public health investments in the past, present, and future to implement strategies for effectively addressing hepatitis C in the state. PMID:24983017