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Sample records for giant magnetostrictive materials

  1. Novel giant magnetostrictive material current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan; Liu, Zhao; Lin, Qiuyan; Ge, Jinming; Zhang, Guoqing; Yu, Wenbin

    2015-07-01

    Because of the shortcomings of the traditional inductive current sensor and optical current sensor, this paper proposes a new type of current sensor that uses a giant magnetostrictive material (GMM) to monitor and control power lines. This paper introduces operating principle and structure design of a GMM current sensor. To eliminate the frequency- doubled effect and to obtain good linearity, we set the bias magnetic field to 11.53 kA/m and the prestress force to 6 MPa. The strains of the 100- and 200-mm GMM sticks under the same magnetic field were compared; the results showed that the 100-mm stick had a larger strain. The magnetic field interference during a single-phase measurement of power lines was also studied. Finally, we analyzed the device sensitivity and discussed its influencing factors. The sensitivity reached 4 × 10-9 m2/A.

  2. Application of Giant Magnetostrictive Materials for Sonar Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Nguyen Thang; van Hien, Nguyen; Thuy, Nguyen Phu; Hien, Vu The

    2001-04-01

    Giant magnetostrictive material (Terfenol-D) has been extensively used in many applications such as actuators and sonar projectors. However, its major disadvantage is the relative high price due to the complication of manufacturing process. A high strain at moderate field can only be obtained with the single crystal or grain oriented polycrystal. In addition, the use of Terfenol-D is limited at high frequencies because its electrical conductivity is as high as metals. Overcoming this problem by using laminated or rolled sheets of Terfenol-D requires expensive techniques due to their brittleness. In this paper, we present studies on the behavior of Terfenol-D rod under dynamic condition in a Tonpilz type transducer. In addition, a Zinc-bonded sample is prepared and measured to compare with that of the bulk material.

  3. Giant magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenas, Terrisa Ann

    The limitation of magnetostrictive composites has been in their low magnetostrictive response when compared to their monolithic counterparts. In this dissertation research is presented describing the methods and analysis used to create a giant magnetostrictive composite (GMC) producing giant strains at low fields, exhibiting magnetization ``jumping'' and the ΔE effect. This composite combines the giant magnetostrictive material, Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) in particle form, with a nonmetallic binder and is capable of producing strains (at room temperature) exceeding 1000 ppm at a nominal field of 1.5 kOe mechanically unloaded and 1200 ppm at 8 MPa preload (2.5 kOe). Several studies leading to the high response of this composite are presented. A connectivity study shows that a [1-3] connected composite produces 50% more strain than a [0-3] composite. A resin study indicates that the lower the viscosity of the resin, the greater the magnetostrictive response; this is attributed to the removal of voids during degassing. A void study correlates the increase in voids to the decrease in strain response. A model is used to correlate analysis with experimental results within 10% accuracy and shows that an optimal volume fraction exists based on the properties of the binder. Using a Polyscience Spurr low- viscosity (60 cps) binder this volume fraction is nominally 20%; this optimum is attributed to the balance of epoxy contracting on the particle (built-in preload) and the actuation delivered by the magnetostrictive material. In addition to the connectivity, resin, void, and volume-fraction study, particle size and gradation studies are presented. Widely dispersed (<106, <212, <300 μm), narrowly dispersed (<45, (90-106), (275-300) μm), and an optimized bimodal (18.7% of (45-90) μm with 81.3% of (250-300) μm) particle distributions are studied. Results show that the larger the particle size, the higher the magnetostrictive response; this is attributed to the reduction of

  4. Design and test of a micro-displacement actuator based on giant magnetostrictive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Liang; Yang, Dehua; Yang, Bintang; Chen, Kunxin

    2009-07-01

    To meet the performance requirements of co-focusing and co-phasing of segmented mirror active optics (SMAO) in modern astronomical telescope, micro-displacement actuators with nanometer resolution and millimeter stroke are necessary. The design and test of a micro-displacement actuator based on giant magnetostrictive material is present in this paper. The actuator's main components, such as giant magnetostrictive drive core, displacement pantograph mechanism and output guide mechanism, are discussed in detailed. The giant magnetostrictive drive mechanism generally may offer nanometer resolution and micron stroke. A displacement/stroke pantograph mechanism is designed with absolutely sealed flexible hydraulic structure (ASFHS) to enlarge the stroke. In addition, a secondary giant magnetostrictive drive mechanism is integrated to serve final resolution of final displacement output. In view of flexure exhibiting excellent mechanical properties free of friction, clearance and lubrication, a flexure guide mechanism with the capacity of excellent lateral load is designed to fulfill linear displacement output steadily. The sub-systems like the giant magnetostrictive drive core and displacement pantograph mechanism have been tested before integration of the whole actuator. The final test of the actuator is carried out with dual frequency laser interferometer at lab. Besides, to meet technical requirements of future extremely large telescope, further development issues mainly related to application practice of the actuator is discussed at the end.

  5. A one-dimension coupled hysteresis model for giant magnetostrictive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaojing; Sun, Le

    2007-02-01

    This paper addresses the development of a one-dimension model for quantifying magnetic-elastic-thermal coupling and hysteresis inherent to giant magnetostrictive materials. Firstly, the anhysteretic law is modeled by considering the Gibbs free energy function G( σ, M, T), and thermodynamic relations are used to obtain the constitutive expressions. These expressions character the effects of coupling between stress, magnetization, and temperature in the giant magnetostrictive material but hysteresis, i.e. strain and magnetic intensity described by above the constitutive expressions are single-valued function of the magnetization. And then pinning is incorporated to describe hysteresis based on Jiles-Atherton model. The model considered in the paper is demonstrated valid by comparing the predicted results with experimental data. Moreover, the model proposed in the paper is convenient to be used in engineering applications since the parameters referred to the model have definite physical mean and can all be easily determined by experiments.

  6. An analytical and explicit multi-field coupled nonlinear constitutive model for Terfenol-D giant magnetostrictive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Li, Meng-Han; Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Da-Guang

    2016-08-01

    For a giant magnetostrictive rod under the action of multiple physical loads, such as an external magnetic field, temperature and axial pre-stress, this paper proposes a general one-dimensional nonlinear magneto-thermo-mechanical coupled constitutive model. This model is based on the Taylor expansion of the elastic Gibbs free energy of giant magnetostrictive material and thermodynamic relations from the perspective of macro continuum mechanics. Predictions made using this model are in good agreement with experimental data for magnetization and the magnetostrictive strain curve under the collective effect of pre-stress and temperature. Additionally, the model overcomes the drawback of the existing magneto-thermo-mechanical constitutive model that cannot accurately predict the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain curve for different temperatures and pre-stresses. Furthermore, the constitutive model does not contain an implicit function and is compact, and can thus be applied in both situations of tensile and compressive stress and to both positive and negative magnetostrictive materials, and it is thus appropriate for engineering applications. Comprehensive analysis shows that the model fully describes the nonlinear coupling properties of a magnetic field, magnetostrictive strain and elasticity of a magnetostrictive material subjected to stress, a magnetic field and heat.

  7. Magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, Evangelos; Ktena, Aphrodite

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, after an introduction to the basics of magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials, some of their uses and applications are presented. New position sensors based on the magnetostriction effect and the magnetostrictive delay-line technique are presented with respect to their applicability in engineering systems. It is also shown that the magnetostriction effect can be used in measuring the M( H) and λ( H) functions as well as their uniformity response. Finally, the so-called magnetoelectric effect is discussed as one of the major future trends of magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials for sensing applications.

  8. The high frequency light load fatigue testing machine based on giant magnetostrictive material and stroke multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. D.; Li, D. S.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhong, K. M.; Sun, L. N.

    2013-08-01

    In the notebook and clamshell mobile phone, data communication wire often requires repeated bending. Generally, communication wire with the actual application conditions, the test data cannot assess bending resistance performance of data communication wire is tested conventionally using wires with weights of 90 degree to test bending number, this test method and device is not fully reflect the fatigue performance in high frequency and light load application condition, at the same time it has a large difference between the test data of the long-term reliability of high frequency and low load conditions. In this paper, high frequency light load fatigue testing machine based on the giant magnetostrictive material and stroke multiplier is put forward, in which internal reflux stroke multiplier is driven by giant magnetostrictive material to realize the rapid movement of light load. This fatigue testing device has the following advantages: (1) When the load is far less than the friction, reducing friction is very effective to improve the device performance. Because the body is symmetrical, the friction loss of radial does not exist in theory, so the stress situation of mechanism is good with high transmission efficiency and long service life. (2) The installation position of the output hydraulic cylinder, can be arranged conveniently as ordinary cylinder. (3) Reciprocating frequency, displacement and speed of high frequency movement can be programmed easily to change with higher position precision. (4)Hydraulic oil in this device is closed to transmit, which does not produce any environment pollution. The device has no hydraulic pump and tank, and less energy conversion processes, so it is with the trend of green manufacturing.

  9. Study on the dynamic characteristics of a high frequency brake based on giant magnetostrictive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ai Qun

    2016-06-01

    In order to meet the requirements of rapid and smooth braking, high-frequency braking using a giant magnetostrictive actuator is proposed, which can solve the problems in hydraulic braking, such as, it leaks easily, catches fire easily, is difficult to find failures, high cost on maintenance and repairing, etc. The main factors affecting the force of a high-frequency braking actuator are emphatically analyzed, the brakes dynamic model is established and a performance testing device for high frequency braking is constructed based on LabVIEW. The output force of the actuator increases with the excitation current of the driving coil increasing, and the increased multiple of the output force is greater than that of the excitation current; the range of the actuator force amplitude is 121.63 N ∼ 158.14 N, which changes little, while excitation frequency changes between 200 Hz ∼ 1000 Hz. In a minor range of pre-stress, the output force decreases with an increase in the axial pre-stress of the giant magnetostrictive rod, but is not obvious. It is known by finite element simulation analysis that high-frequency braking shortens the braking displacement and time effectively, which proves the feasibility and effectiveness of high frequency braking. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the output force of the actuator changes at the same frequency with excitation current; it is controllable and its mechanical properties meet the requirements of high frequency braking.

  10. Magnetization and magnetostriction in highly magnetostrictive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thoelke, J.B.

    1993-05-26

    The majority of this research has been in developing a model to describe the magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D, Tb{sub 1{minus}x}Dy{sub x}Fe{sub y} (x = 0.7-0.75 and y = 1.8--2.0), a rare earth-iron alloy which displays much promise for use in device applications. In the first chapter an introduction is given to the phenomena of magnetization and magnetostriction. The magnetic processes responsible for the observed magnetic properties of materials are explained. An overview is presented of the magnetic properties of rare earths, and more specifically the magnetic properties of Terfenol-D. In the second chapter, experimental results are presented on three composition of Tb{sub 1{minus}x}Dy{sub x}Fe{sub y} with x = 0.7, y= 1.9, 1.95, and x= 0.73, y= 1.95. The data were taken for various levels of prestress to show the effects of composition and microstructure on the magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D. In the third chapter, a theoretical model is developed based on the rotation of magnetic domains. The model is used to explain the magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D, including the observed negative strictions and large change in strain. The fourth chapter goes on to examine the magnetic properties of Terfenol-D along different crystallographic orientations. In the fifth chapter initial data are presented on the time dependence of magnetization in nickel.

  11. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  12. Development of thin-slice fiber Bragg grating-giant magnetostrictive material sensors used for measuring magnetic field of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guoping; Wang, Huaqiang; Liu, Jiayi; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Biyun

    2015-10-01

    The magnetic field is a physical medium used to realize the levitation and motion control of magnetic bearings. It is necessary to conduct the air-gap flux density measurement so as to validate theoretical analyses and provide instructions for practical design. A thin-slice fiber Bragg grating-giant magnetostrictive material (FBG-GMM) sensor, in which the FBG was stuck perpendicular to the principal magnetostriction orientation of a thin GMM slice, was proposed to measure magnetic-flux density in the small air gap. The configuration of FBG-GMM sensor was the same with that of a sensor of 1.5 mm×14 mm×7 mm TbDyFe slice stuck with a 1300 nm-wavelength FBG on the side of the slice. The FBG-GMM magnetic field sensor was tested on an U-shape electromagnet test setup under static conditions. The sensor had a linear region of 0.121 to 0.261 T with the sensitivity of 1089.056 pm/T. The FBG-GMM magnetic field sensor was introduced to measure the air-gap flux density of radial magnetic bearings. Measurement of static flux density was conducted with 2 FBG-GMM sensors compensated with a temperature FBG; and the measured data showed that the FBG-GMM sensor had feasible linear region and sensitivity to measure the air-gap flux density of magnetic bearings.

  13. Giant magnetoelectric effect in negative magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/positive magnetostrictive semiring structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lingyu; Zhou, Minhong; Bi, Ke; Lei, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni/PZT/TbFe2 and TbFe2/PZT composites with two semiring structures are prepared. The dependence between ME coupling and magnetostrictive property of the composite is discussed. Because Ni possesses negative magnetostrictive property and TbFe2 shows positive magnetostrictive property, the ME voltage coefficient of Ni/PZT/TbFe2 semiring structure is much larger than that of TbFe2/PZT. In these composites, the ME voltage coefficient increases and the resonance frequency gradually decreases with the increase of the semiring radius, showing that structural parameters are key factors to the composite properties. Due to the strong ME coupling effect, a giant ME voltage coefficient αE = 44.8 V cm-1 Oe-1 is obtained. This approach opens a way for the design of ME composites with giant ME voltage coefficient.

  14. Design, analysis, and modeling of giant magnetostrictive transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Frederick Theodore

    The increased use of giant magnetostrictive, Terfenol-D transducers in a wide variety of applications has led to a need for greater understanding of the materials performance. This dissertation attempts to add to the Terfenol-D transducer body of knowledge by providing an in-depth analysis and modeling of an experimental transducer. A description of the magnetostriction process related to Terfenol-D includes a discussion of material properties, production methods, and the effect of mechanical stress, magnetization, and temperature on the material performance. The understanding of the Terfenol-D material performance provides the basis for an analysis of the performance of a Terfenol-D transducer. Issues related to the design and utilization of the Terfenol-D material in the transducers are considered, including the magnetic circuit, application of mechanical prestress, and tuning of the mechanical resonance. Experimental results from two broadband, Tonpilz design transducers show the effects of operating conditions (prestress, magnetic bias, AC magnetization amplitude, and frequency) on performance. In an effort to understand and utlilize the rich performance space described by the experimental results a variety of models are considered. An overview of models applicable to Terfenol-D and Terfenol-D transducers is provided, including a discussion of modeling criteria. The Jiles-Atherton model of ferromagnetic hysteresis is employed to describe the quasi-static transducer performance. This model requires the estimation of only six physically-based parameters to accurately simulate performance. The model is shown to be robust with respect to model parameters over a range of mechanical prestress, magnetic biases, and AC magnetic field amplitudes, allowing predictive capability within these ranges. An additional model, based on electroacoustics theory, explains trends in the frequency domain and facilitates an analysis of efficiency based on impedance and admittance

  15. A critical analysis of the feasibility of pure strain-actuated giant magnetostrictive nanoscale memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowtham, P. G.; Rowlands, G. E.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Concepts for memories based on the manipulation of giant magnetostrictive nanomagnets by stress pulses have garnered recent attention due to their potential for ultra-low energy operation in the high storage density limit. Here, we discuss the feasibility of making such memories in light of the fact that the Gilbert damping of such materials is typically quite high. We report the results of numerical simulations for several classes of toggle precessional and non-toggle dissipative magnetoelastic switching modes. Material candidates for each of the several classes are analyzed and forms for the anisotropy energy density and ranges of material parameters appropriate for each material class are employed. Our study indicates that the Gilbert damping as well as the anisotropy and demagnetization energies are all crucial for determining the feasibility of magnetoelastic toggle-mode precessional switching schemes. The roles of thermal stability and thermal fluctuations for stress-pulse switching of giant magnetostrictive nanomagnets are also discussed in detail and are shown to be important in the viability, design, and footprint of magnetostrictive switching schemes.

  16. Characteristics of vibration energy harvesting using giant magnetostrictive cantilevers with resonant tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kotaro; Horibe, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Shigekazu; Shindo, Yasuhide; Narita, Fumio

    2015-12-01

    This work deals with the dynamic bending and energy harvesting characteristics of giant magnetostrictive cantilevers with resonant tuning both numerically and experimentally. The giant magnetostrictive cantilever is fabricated using a thin Terfenol-D layer, SUS layer, movable proof mass, etc, and, is designed to automatically adjust its own resonant frequency to match the external vibration frequency in real time. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted, and the resonant frequency, induced voltage and stress in the magnetostrictive cantilevers were predicted. The resonant frequency and induced voltage were also measured, and comparison was made between simulation and experiment. The time-varying behavior and self-tuning ability are discussed in detail.

  17. Hysteresis Modeling in Magnetostrictive Materials Via Preisach Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological characterization of hysteresis in magnetostrictive materials is presented. Such hysteresis is due to both the driving magnetic fields and stress relations within the material and is significant throughout, most of the drive range of magnetostrictive transducers. An accurate characterization of the hysteresis and material nonlinearities is necessary, to fully utilize the actuator/sensor capabilities of the magnetostrictive materials. Such a characterization is made here in the context of generalized Preisach operators. This yields a framework amenable to proving the well-posedness of structural models that incorporate the magnetostrictive transducers. It also provides a natural setting in which to develop practical approximation techniques. An example illustrating this framework in the context of a Timoshenko beam model is presented.

  18. Magnetomechanical local-global effects in magnetostrictive composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhajjar, Rani F.; Law, Chiu T.

    2015-10-01

    A constitutive model for magnetostrictive composite materials (MCMs) that describes the relations among stress, strain, magnetic field, and magnetization Liu and Zheng (2005 Acta Mech. Sin. 21 278-85) is implemented for multiphysics simulation for analysis of non-periodic or non-uniform microstructure effects. The multiphysics models that capture designed and actual microstructural details are used for predicting the responses of magnetostrictive composite materials under various mechanical and magnetic loading conditions. The approach overcomes the limitation with strain gages in the investigation of magnetostrictive strain due to stress localization around magnetostrictive phases. Three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) is used to measure the displacements and strain in the composites under fluctuating magnetic fields. The specimens are prepared using epoxy and particulate magnetostrictive materials with the particles in the range of approximately 20 to 300 microns range. We examine the displacement and strain fields obtained and compare the results to those obtained from fiber Bragg grating (FBG) measurements. The coupling coefficients obtained from this method were in agreement with those measured using other techniques. The validated model allows us to predict the effect of curing, preload, microstructure alignment and particle shape on the magnetostrictive strains.

  19. Giant magnetostriction in Tb-doped Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17} melt-spun ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin

    2013-12-23

    Giant magnetostriction is achieved in lightly Tb-doped Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17} melt-spun ribbons. The average perpendicular magnetostriction λ{sub ⊥} is −886 ppm along the melt-spun ribbon direction in the Fe{sub 82.89}Ga{sub 16.88}Tb{sub 0.23} alloy and the calculated parallel magnetostriction λ{sub ‖‖} is 1772 ppm. These values are more than four times as large as those found in binary Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17}. The enhanced magnetostriction is attributed to a small amount of Tb entering solution in the A2 matrix phase during rapid solidification. The strong localized magnetocrystalline anisotropy of terbium is thought to cause the giant magnetostriction.

  20. Research on giant magnetostrictive micro-displacement actuator with self-adaptive control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Tan, J. B.; Liu, Y. T.

    2005-01-01

    Giant magnetostrictive micro-displacement actuator has some unique characteristics, such as big output torque and high precision localization which can be in the nanometer scale. Because the relation between input magnetic field and output strain of giant magnetostrictive micro-displacement actuator exhibits hysteresis and eddy flow, the actuator has to be controlled and used in low input frequency mode or in static mode. When the actuator is controlled with a high input frequency (above 100 Hz), the output strain will exhibit strong nonlinearity. This paper found hysteresis and nonlinearity dynamic transfer function of the actuator based on Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model. The output strain of Jiles-Atherton hystersis model can reflect real output of actuator corresponding to the real input magnetic field, and this has been verified by experiment. Against the nonlinearity generated by hysteresis and eddy flow in this paper, the output strain of actuator is used for feedback to control system, and the control system adopted self-adaptive control algorithm, the ideal input and output model of actuator is used for a reference model and a hysteresis transfer function for the actuator real model. Through experiment, it has been verified that this algorithm can improve the dynamic frequency of the giant magnetostrictive micro-displacement actuator and guarantee high precision localization and linearity between the input magnetic field and output strain of the actuator at the same time.

  1. Giant volume magnetostriction in the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} single crystal at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, S. A. Pankratov, N. Yu.; Smarzhevskaya, A. I.; Politova, G. A.; Pastushenkov, Yu. G. Skokov, K. P.; Moral, A. del

    2015-05-21

    An investigation of the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} compound belonging to the class of intermetallic alloys of rare-earth and 3d-transition metals is presented. The magnetization, magnetostriction, and thermal expansion of the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} single crystal were studied. The forced magnetostriction and magnetostriction constants were investigated in the temperature range of the magnetic ordering close to the room temperature. The giant field induced volume magnetostriction was discovered in the room temperature region in the magnetic field up to 1.2 T. The contributions of both anisotropic single-ion and isotropic pair exchange interactions to the volume magnetostriction and magnetostriction constants were determined. The experimental results were interpreted within the framework of the Standard Theory of Magnetostriction and the Landau thermodynamic theory. It was found out that the giant values of the volume magnetostriction were caused by the strong dependence of the 3d-electron Coulomb charge repulsion on the deformations and width of the 3d-electron energy band.

  2. Displacement transducers using magnetostrictive delay line principle in amorphous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meydan, T.; Elshebani, M. S. M.

    1992-07-01

    Amorphous materials, due to their large magnetostriction and small anisotropy, can possess large delay-time variations with a low bias field. This principle has been exploited as a displacement transducer. The time delays were achieved by using an external bias field source.

  3. The principle and physical models of novel jetting dispenser with giant magnetostrictive and a magnifier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Li, J H; Duan, J A; Deng, G L

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop jetting technologies of glue in LED and microelectronics packaging, giant-magnetostrictive-material (GMM) is firstly applied to increase jetting response, and a new magnifying device including a lever and a flexible hinge is designed to improve jetting characteristics. Physical models of the jetting system are derived from the magnifying structure and working principle, which involves circuit model, electro-magneto-displacement model, dynamic model and fluid-solid coupling model. The system model is established by combining mathematical models with Matlab-Simulink. The effectiveness of the GMM-based dispenser is confirmed by simulation and experiments. The jetting frequency significantly increases to 250 Hz, and dynamic behaviors jetting needle are evaluated that the velocity and displacement of the jetting needle reaches to 320 mm•s-1 and 0.11 mm respectively. With the increasing of the filling pressure or the amplitude of the current, the dot size will become larger. The dot size and working frequency can be easily adjusted. PMID:26670008

  4. The principle and physical models of novel jetting dispenser with giant magnetostrictive and a magnifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Li, J. H.; Duan, J. A.; Deng, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop jetting technologies of glue in LED and microelectronics packaging, giant-magnetostrictive-material (GMM) is firstly applied to increase jetting response, and a new magnifying device including a lever and a flexible hinge is designed to improve jetting characteristics. Physical models of the jetting system are derived from the magnifying structure and working principle, which involves circuit model, electro-magneto-displacement model, dynamic model and fluid-solid coupling model. The system model is established by combining mathematical models with Matlab-Simulink. The effectiveness of the GMM-based dispenser is confirmed by simulation and experiments. The jetting frequency significantly increases to 250 Hz, and dynamic behaviors jetting needle are evaluated that the velocity and displacement of the jetting needle reaches to 320 mm•s-1 and 0.11 mm respectively. With the increasing of the filling pressure or the amplitude of the current, the dot size will become larger. The dot size and working frequency can be easily adjusted.

  5. The principle and physical models of novel jetting dispenser with giant magnetostrictive and a magnifier

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, C.; Li, J.H.; Duan, J.A.; Deng, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop jetting technologies of glue in LED and microelectronics packaging, giant-magnetostrictive-material (GMM) is firstly applied to increase jetting response, and a new magnifying device including a lever and a flexible hinge is designed to improve jetting characteristics. Physical models of the jetting system are derived from the magnifying structure and working principle, which involves circuit model, electro-magneto-displacement model, dynamic model and fluid-solid coupling model. The system model is established by combining mathematical models with Matlab-Simulink. The effectiveness of the GMM-based dispenser is confirmed by simulation and experiments. The jetting frequency significantly increases to 250 Hz, and dynamic behaviors jetting needle are evaluated that the velocity and displacement of the jetting needle reaches to 320 mm•s-1 and 0.11 mm respectively. With the increasing of the filling pressure or the amplitude of the current, the dot size will become larger. The dot size and working frequency can be easily adjusted. PMID:26670008

  6. Research on hysteresis loop considering the prestress effect and electrical input dynamics for a giant magnetostrictive actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuchuan; Yang, Xulei; Wereley, Norman M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, focusing on the application-oriented giant magnetostrictive material (GMM)-based electro-hydrostatic actuator, which features an applied magnetic field at high frequency and high amplitude, and concentrating on the static and dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA) considering the prestress effect on the GMM rod and the electrical input dynamics involving the power amplifier and the inductive coil, a methodology for studying the static and dynamic characteristics of a GMA using the hysteresis loop as a tool is developed. A GMA that can display the preforce on the GMM rod in real-time is designed, and a magnetostrictive model dependent on the prestress on a GMM rod instead of the existing quadratic domain rotation model is proposed. Additionally, an electrical input dynamics model to excite GMA is developed according to the simplified circuit diagram, and the corresponding parameters are identified by the experimental data. A dynamic magnetization model with the eddy current effect is deduced according to the Jiles–Atherton model and the Maxwell equations. Next, all of the parameters, including the electrical input characteristics, the dynamic magnetization and the mechanical structure of GMA, are identified by the experimental data from the current response, magnetization response and displacement response, respectively. Finally, a comprehensive comparison between the model results and experimental data is performed, and the results show that the test data agree well with the presented model results. An analysis on the relation between the GMA displacement response and the parameters from the electrical input dynamics, magnetization dynamics and mechanical structural dynamics is performed.

  7. Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yao, Youwei; Liu, Tianchen; Liu, Chian; Ulmer, M. P.; Cao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    As magnetic smart materials (MSMs), magnetostrictive materials have great potential to be selected as coating materials for lightweight x-ray telescope mirrors due to their capability to tune the mirror profile to the desired shape under a magnetic field. To realize this potential, it is necessary to study the deformation of the mirror substrate with the MSM coating subjected to a localized magnetic field. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to calculate the deformation of rectangular coated samples locally affected by magnetostrictive strains driven by an external magnetic field. As a specific case to validate the model, a square glass sample coated with MSMs is prepared, and its deformation is measured in a designed experimental setup by applying a magnetic field. The measured deformation of the sample is compared with the results calculated from the analytical model. The comparison results demonstrate that the analytical model is effective in calculating the deformation of a coated sample with the localized mismatch strains between the film and the substrate. In the experiments, different shape patterns of surface profile changes are achieved by varying the direction of the magnetic field. The analytical model and the experimental method proposed in this paper can be utilized to further guide the application of magnetostrictive coating to deformable lightweight x-ray mirrors in the future.

  8. Composite magnetostrictive materials for advanced automotive magnetomechanical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, R. W.; Dennis, K. W.; Jiles, D. C.; Snyder, J. E.; Chen, Y. H.

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we present the development of a composite magnetostrictive material for automotive applications. The material is based on cobalt ferrite, CoOṡFe2O3, and contains a small fraction of metallic matrix phase that serves both as a liquid-phase sintering aid during processing and enhances the mechanical properties over those of a simple sintered ferrite ceramic. In addition the metal matrix makes it possible to braze the material, making the assembly of a sensor relatively simple. The material exhibits good sensitivity and should have high corrosion resistance, while at the same time it is low in cost.

  9. Relationship between magnetomechanical effect, magnetostriction and anisotropy in magnetoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiles, D. C.; Chen, Y.; Kriegermeier-Sutton, B.; Snyder, J. E.; Dennis, K. W.; McCallum, R. W.

    2001-03-01

    The relationship between the magnetomechanical effect and magnetostriction in ferromagnetic materials has been investigated. For small changes of magnetic field H and applied stress σ a thermodynamic relation exists namely (fracdλdH)_σ=(fracdBdσ)H Therefore the sensitivity of magnetization to small applied stress should depend principally on the piezomagnetic coefficient d = (dλ/dH). This coefficient depends on the magnetostriction and anisotropy of the material. Although there is no general analytical relationship between magnetostriction and magnetization there are some special cases where such a formulation can be used. In the low field regime the following approximation can be used, λ = λs fracM^2M_s^2 and dλ/dM = 2λs M/M_s^2. Considering the rotation of magnetization against anisotropy in an untextured polycrystalline material with random distribution of easy axes using a one constant approximation to anisotropy, fracdMdH = fracμ0 M_s^2NK where N=3 for uniaxial anisotropy with K>0 such as in cobalt, N=3 for cubic anisotropy with K>0 such as iron and N = -2 for cubic anisotropy with K<0 as in nickel. The property of interest (dB/dσ) = (dλ/dH) = (dλ/dM)(dM/dH) is then given by fracdBdσ = frac2μ0 λs MNK This theoretical prediction has been compared with experimental results in iron cobalt and nickel and was found to be in good agreement.

  10. Characterization and improvement of magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nersessian, Nersesse

    The recent discovery of giant magnetostrictive materials is enabling the design of new and improved actuators. Monolithic magnetostrictive materials, however, possess a low operating frequency (< 1kHz), due to eddy current losses. Magnetostrictive composites incorporating magnetostrictive particulate in an insulating matrix reduce eddy current losses enabling the use of magnetostrictive materials in high frequency applications (e.g SONAR transducers). This dissertation focuses on the characterization and improvement of magnetostrictive composites. The first part involves quasi-static and high frequency characterization of Terfenol-D composites while the second part involves the improvement of magnetostrictive composites using first nickel and then Gd5Si2Ge 2 as the magnetostrictive particulate. The purpose of the quasistatic testing was to evaluate the behavior of magnetostrictive composites under combined magnetic, thermal, and mechanical loading, and to determine fundamental properties used for design of sonar transducers that incorporate these materials. The purpose of the high frequency testing was to determine the dynamic response of magnetostrictive composites. Results indicate that composite properties, as pertaining to SONAR transducers, are comparable to monolithic Terfenol-D while reducing brittleness, providing higher operational frequencies (up to 100 kHz) and easier manufacturability. The second part of the dissertation involves studies to improve magnetostrictive composites. In the first study hollow and solid spherical nickel composites were manufactured in an attempt to prove the feasibility of using demagnetizing fields to align spherical particles along an easy axis. This is important because magnetostrictive composites using spherical Terfenol-D particles aligned along the easy axis (i.e. the [111] axis) would possess a larger magnetostriction than current Terfenol-D composites. Magnetostriction measurements of the nickel composites didn

  11. Non-Joulian magnetostriction.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Harsh Deep; Wuttig, Manfred

    2015-05-21

    All magnets elongate and contract anisotropically when placed in a magnetic field, an effect referred to as Joule magnetostriction. The hallmark of Joulian magnetostriction is volume conservation, which is a broader definition applicable to self-accommodation of ferromagnetic, ferroelectric or ferroelastic domains in all functional materials. Here we report the discovery of 'giant' non-volume-conserving or non-Joulian magnetostriction (NJM). Whereas Joulian strain is caused by magnetization rotation, NJM is caused by facile (low-field) reorientation of magnetoelastically and magnetostatically autarkic (self-sufficient) rigid micro-'cells', which define the adaptive structure, the origin of which is proposed to be elastic gradients ultimately caused by charge/spin density waves. The equilibrium adaptive cellular structure is responsible for long-sought non-dissipative (hysteresis-free), linearly reversible and isotropic magnetization curves along all directions within a single crystal. Recently discovered Fe-based high magnetostriction alloys with special thermal history are identified as the first members of this newly discovered magnetic class. The NJM paradigm provides consistent interpretations of seemingly confounding properties of Fe-based alloys, offers recipes to develop new highly magnetostrictive materials, and permits simultaneously large actuation in longitudinal and transverse directions without the need for stacked composites. PMID:25993965

  12. Rare earth-iron magnetostrictive materials and devices using these materials

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Howard T.; Clark, Arthur E.; McMasters, O. Dale

    1981-12-29

    Grain-oriented polycrystalline or single crystal magnetostrictive materials n the general formula Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2-w, Tb.sub.x Ho.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2-w, Sm.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.x-w, Sm.sub.x Ho.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2-w, Tb.sub.x Ho.sub.y Dy.sub.z Fe.sub.2-w, or Sm.sub.x Ho.sub.y Dy.sub.z Fe.sub.2-w, wherein O.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.0.20, and x+y+z=1. X, y, and z are selected to maximize the magnetostrictive effect and the magnetomechanical coupling coefficient K.sub.33. These material may be used in magnetostrictive transducers, delay lines, variable frequency resonators, and filters.

  13. Magnetostrictive Pressure Regulating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor); Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A magnetostrictive pressure regulating system includes a magnetostrictive valve that incorporates a magnetostrictive actuator with at least one current-carrying coil disposed thereabout. A pressure force sensor, in fluid communication with the fluid exiting the valve, includes (i) a magnetostrictive material, (ii) a magnetic field generator in proximity to the magnetostrictive material for inducing a magnetic field in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material wherein lines of magnetic flux passing through the magnetostrictive material are defined, and (iii) a sensor positioned adjacent to the magnetostrictive material and in the magnetic field for measuring changes in at least one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux. The pressure of the fluid exiting the valve causes the applied force. A controller coupled to the sensor and to the current-carrying coil adjusts a current supplied to the current-carrying coil based on the changes so-measured.

  14. Magnetostrictive materials and method for improving AC characteristics in same

    DOEpatents

    Pulvirenti, Patricia P.; Jiles, David C.

    2001-08-14

    The present invention provides Terfenol-D alloys ("doped" Terfenol) having optimized performances under the condition of time-dependent magnetic fields. In one embodiment, performance is optimized by lowering the conductivity of Terfenol, thereby improving the frequency response. This can be achieved through addition of Group III or IV elements, such as Si and Al. Addition of these types of elements provides scattering sites for conduction electrons, thereby increasing resistivity by 125% which leads to an average increase in penetration depth of 80% at 1 kHz and an increase in energy conversion efficiency of 55%. The permeability of doped Terfenol remains constant over a wider frequency range as compared with undoped Terfenol. These results demonstrate that adding impurities, such as Si and Al, are effective in improving the ac characteristics of Terfenol. A magnetoelastic Gruneisen parameter, .gamma..sub.me, has also been derived from the thermodynamic equations of state, and provides another means by which to characterize the coupling efficiency in magnetostrictive materials on a more fundamental basis.

  15. Material for magnetostrictive sensors and other applications based on ferrite materials

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Snyder, John E.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Schwichtenberg, Carl R.; Jiles, David C.

    2000-07-25

    The present invention provides magnetostrictive compositions that include an oxide ferrite which provides mechanical properties that make the magnetostrictive compositions effective for use as sensors and actuators.

  16. Cobalt ferrite based magnetostrictive materials for magnetic stress sensor and actuator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiles, David C. (Inventor); Paulsen, Jason A. (Inventor); Snyder, John E. (Inventor); Lo, Chester C. H. (Inventor); Ring, Andrew P. (Inventor); Bormann, Keith A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Magnetostrictive material based on cobalt ferrite is described. The cobalt ferrite is substituted with transition metals (such manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) or mixtures thereof) by substituting the transition metals for iron or cobalt to form substituted cobalt ferrite that provides mechanical properties that make the substituted cobalt ferrite material effective for use as sensors and actuators. The substitution of transition metals lowers the Curie temperature of the material (as compared to cobalt ferrite) while maintaining a suitable magnetostriction for stress sensing applications.

  17. A general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-10-15

    For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.

  18. Epitaxial thin film deposition of magnetostrictive materials and its effect on magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Adam Marc

    Magnetostriction means that the dimensions of a material depend on its magnetization. The primary goal of this dissertation was to understand the effect of magnetostriction on the magnetic anisotropy of single crystal magnetostrictive thin films, where the epitaxial pinning of the material to a substrate could inhibit its conversion to new dimensions. In order to address this goal, several Fe-based binary alloys were deposited onto various substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The samples were characterized by an array of techniques including electron diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, vibrating sample magnetometry, ferromagnetic resonance, and x-ray absorption spectroscopies. The attempted growths of crystalline magnetostrictive thin films resulted in successful depositions of Fe1-xGax and Fe1-x Znx. Depositions onto MgO(001) substrates result in an in-plane cubic magnetic anisotropy, as expected from the cubic symmetry of the Fe-based thin films, and a strong out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy that forces the magnetization to lie in the plane of the films. Depositions onto ZnSe/GaAs(001) substrates feature an additional in-plane uniaxial anisotropy. The magnitudes and signs of the in-plane anisotropies depend on the Ga content. Furthermore, the cubic anisotropy constant of Fe1-xGax samples deposited onto MgO substrates switches sign at a lower Ga concentration than is seen in bulk Fe1-xGax. The effect on the magnetic anisotropy of depositing a magnetostrictive material as an epitaxial thin film is influenced by the material's magnetostrictive properties and the substrate upon which it is deposited. In particular, pinning a magnetoelastic material to a substrate will modify its cubic anisotropy, and depositions on substrates compliant to an anisotropic strain relaxation may result in a strong in-plane uniaxial anisotropy.

  19. Macroscopic modeling of anisotropic magnetostriction and magnetization in soft ferromagnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbengue, Serigne Saliou; Buiron, Nicolas; Lanfranchi, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic and magnetoelastic properties of soft ferromagnetic materials, used as laminated sheets, are sensitive to manufacturing processes such as rolling, cutting and coating. One of the effects of these processes is to induce an anisotropic behavior of materials. Therefore, an anhysteretic magnetostriction and magnetization calculation taking into account the anisotropy effect at macroscopic scale is presented. This model is based on the expression and then the minimization of the total energy in order to determine magnetization and magnetostriction at equilibrium. The total energy to minimize depends on energy terms identified from measurements of the magnetization and magnetostriction at a scale large enough to neglect the heterogeneity due to grains. Therefore, this approach attempts to reproduce ferromagnetic polycrystal behavior at macroscopic without knowing texture (Orientation Density Function) nor grain properties.

  20. Material for magnetostrictive sensors and other applications based on ferrite materials

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Snyder, John E.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Schwichtenberg, Carl R.; Jiles, David C.

    2002-03-05

    The present invention provides magnetostrictive composites that include an oxide ferrite and metallic binders which provides mechanical properties that make the magnetostrictive compositions effective for use as sensors and actuators.

  1. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  2. Giant magnetothermal conductivity and magnetostriction effect in the charge ordered Nd0.8Na0.2MnO3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samantaray, B.; Khan, N.; Midya, A.; Ravi, S.; Mandal, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present results on resistivity (ρ), magnetization (M), thermal conductivity (κ), magnetostriction (\\frac{Δ L}{L(0)}) and specific heat (C p ) of the charge-orbital ordered antiferromagnetic Nd0.8Na0.2MnO3 compound. Magnetic-field-induced antiferromagnetic/charge-orbital ordered insulating to ferromagnetic metallic transition leads to giant magnetothermal conductivity and magnetostriction effect. The low-temperature irreversibility behavior in ρ, M, κ and \\frac{Δ L}{L(0)} due to field cycling together with a striking similarity among the field and temperature dependence of these parameters manifest the presence of a strong and complex spin-charge-lattice coupling in this compound. The giant magnetothermal conductivity is attributed mainly to the suppression of phonon scattering due to the destabilization of spin fluctuations and static/dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion by the application of magnetic field.

  3. Non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of giant magnetostrictive film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. W.; Zhang, W. D. Xu, J.

    2014-03-15

    The non-linear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of a giant magnetostrictive film (GMF) subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were studied. Non-linear differential items were introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the GMF, and the non-linear dynamic model of the GMF subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The stochastic stability was analysed, and the probability density function was obtained. The condition of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and noise-induced chaotic response were determined, and the fractal boundary of the system's safe basin was provided. The reliability function was solved from the backward Kolmogorov equation, and an optimal control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that the system stability varies with the parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the process; the area of the safe basin decreases when the noise intensifies, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal; the system reliability improved through stochastic optimal control. Finally, the theoretical and numerical results were proved by experiments. The results are helpful in the engineering applications of GMF.

  4. Design and construction of a novel rotary magnetostrictive motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Blatchley, Charles C.; Ibeh, Christopher C.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetostriction can be used to induce linear incremental motion, which is effective in giant magnetostrictive inchworm motors. Such motors possess the advantage of combining small step incremental motion with large force. However, continuous rotation may be preferred in practical applications. This paper describes a novel magnetostrictive rotary motor using terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9) material as the driving element. The motor is constructed of two giant magnetostrictive actuators with shell structured flexure-hinge and leaf springs. These two actuators are placed in a perpendicular position to minimize the coupling displacement of the two actuators. The principal design parameters of the actuators and strain amplifiers are optimally determined, and its static analysis is undertaken through finite element analysis software. The small movements of the magnetostrictive actuators are magnified by about three times using oval shell structured amplifiers. When two sinusoidal wave currents with 90° phase shift are applied to the magnetostrictive actuators, purely rotational movement can be produced as in the orbit of a Lissajous diagram in an oscillograph, and this movement is used to drive the rotor of the motor. A prototype has been constructed and tested.

  5. Positioning devices based on submicro-textured magnetostrictive alloys (Fe85Ga15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannangoda, Gamage; Martirosyan, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Magnetostrictive materials can convert magnetic energy into kinetic energy. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, the rotation of small magnetic domains causes a change in a magnetostrictive materials shape in the direction of the magnetic field. Applying stronger magnetic field will tend to rotate more domains and makes the material to stretch even more until it reaches its saturation. This property has been used in many applications such as micro acoustic sensors, generators, marine sonar, devices, linear motors, robust actuators, automotive accessories, positioning devices etc. There is increasing interest in magnetostrictive applications after discovering the giant magnetostrictive alloys such as Galfenol and Terfenol-D which is capable of generating strains 100 times greater than traditional magnetostrictive materials at high temperatures. Even though Galfenol doesn't produce as much as magnetostriction as Terfenol-D, it can be constructed mechanically strong with tensile strengths up to 500 MPa and can be rolled, extruded, and welded. The magnetostrictive positioning devices based on submicro-textured magnetostrictive alloys (Fe85Ga15) and their advantages will be discussed.

  6. The design, construction and testing of a scour monitoring system using magnetostrictive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Steven Richard

    A system for the continuous monitoring of scour has been designed, constructed and implemented. The system detects the level of scour by attaching flow to a buried post at known depths, and detecting when individual sensors become unearthed. Two bio-inspired flow sensors were designed and constructed for use on the post. The first, resembling a seal whisker, utilized the magnetostrictive materials Alfenol and Galfenol and was optimized for >0.15m/s flow. The second, resembling seaweed, used a conventional permanent magnet and was optimized for <0.15m/s flow. A small, low powered data acquisition system was designed and constructed to monitor and record the data from the sensors. A total of four scour posts were installed at two different sites; two vertically to monitor conventional scour and two horizontally to monitor lateral riverbed migration. Data from the posts was analyzed and presented and lessons learned were documented.

  7. Note: high sensitivity self-bias magnetoelectric sensor with two different magnetostrictive materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Zhu, Yong

    2013-06-01

    The self-bias magnetoelectric (ME) sensor is designed, fabricated, and characterized for detecting weak ac magnetic-field. The two different magnetostrictive materials produce the gradient of magnetization, resulting in an internal magnetic field and a strong ME response. At zero-biased dc magnetic field, a low-frequency ME voltage coefficient (dVME∕dHac) of 22.11 mV∕Oe is achieved, which is 17.69 times higher than that of the previous magnets∕0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) sensor. Furthermore, the ME voltage coefficient reaches 2.73 V∕Oe at resonance. The induced ME voltage shows an excellent linear relationship to ac magnetic field when field amplitude varies from ~10(-7) Oe to 1 Oe. PMID:23822388

  8. Evaluation of magnetostrictive composite coated fabric as a fragment barrier material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwon Joong; Fahrenthold, Eric P.

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade a surge in fragment barrier research has led to investigation of numerous materials and material augmentations in the attempt to improve the ballistic performance of systems designed to protect personnel, vehicles or infrastructure from impact and blast loads. One widely studied material augmentation approach is the use of coatings, often polymers, to enhance the performance of protection systems constructed from metal, concrete, composite and fabric materials. In recent research the authors have conducted the first experimental study of the ballistic performance of fabrics coated with a magnetically responsive polymer. Zero field impact experiments on coated fabric targets showed a 61% increase in impact energy dissipation, although the coated targets were not competitive with neat fabrics on a protection per unit mass basis. Under an applied field of 110 kA m-1, the ballistic performance of the coated fabric was reduced. The reduction in performance may be attributed to a reduction in material damping and an increase in material modulus for the magnetostrictive component of the coating. Analysis of the coated fabric response to magnetic preloads suggests that coating tensile stresses and coating-fabric interface stresses induced by the applied field may also adversely affect ballistic performance.

  9. Characterization of the Dynamic Material Properties of Magnetostrictive Terfenol-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, Frederick T.; Flatau, Alison B.; Hall, David L.

    1996-01-01

    A major limitation in use of electromagnetic and/or magnetomechanical models for design of Terfenol-D actuators is the lack of reliable material property data for Terfenol-D. In particular data on the performance of Terfenol-D as employed in a transducer, operating under real world dynamic conditions is needed. To provide this information, Terfenol-D rod properties need to be measured under as run prestressed and magnetically biased states. Using a Terfenol-D actuator, the following properties can be measured and/or calculated: mechanical quality factor, speed of sound in the material, the resonant frequency, the anti-resonant frequency, two magnetic permeabilities (one at constant stress and one at constant strain), two Young's moduli (one at constant amplitude applied magnetic field and one at constant amplitude magnetic flux density in the material), the magnetomechanical coupling, and the axial strain coefficient. The development of the material properties measurements and calculations is based on the model of low signal, linear, magnetostriction from Clark, the linear transduction equations for a transducer from Hunt, and a one degree of freedom mechanical model of the transducer. The electrical impedance and admittance mobility loops are used to determine the resonant, anti-resonant, and half power point frequencies. The rest of the material properties indicated above can then be calculated using these frequencies, acceleration from an accelerometer mounted on the actuator arm, and readily measurable transducer and Terfenol-D rod parameters.

  10. Magnetic behavior of Joule-heated magnetic core-shell nanowires with positive magnetostrictive core material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Ioan; Astefanoaei, Iordana; Cimpoesu, Dorin; Stancu, Alexandru

    2015-10-01

    Temperature field is an important parameter to be known and controlled in the magnetization process of the core-shell nanowires. The paper analyzes the temperature dependence of hysteretic process in a core-shell nanowire subjected to a dc Joule heating process. An electrical current that passes through the wire induces a temperature and a thermal stress field in the system. Spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature in system was analyzed using a model based on time-dependent heat conduction equation. The stresses determined by thermal gradients and different expansion characteristics of core and shell materials were computed. The temperature and stress depend on the size parameters of the system, dc Joule current and the initial temperature of the system. The magnetic behavior of the nanowire was analyzed using the Micromag application. The magnetic state of the core is influenced by the temperature field induced by a dc current applied to the system. For core materials with positive magnetostriction coefficient the coercive field increases at the increase of dc current intensity passed through the system.

  11. Self-contained hybrid electro-hydraulic actuators using magnetostrictive and electrostrictive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban

    Hybrid electro-hydraulic actuators using smart materials along with flow rectification have been widely reported in recent years. The basic operation of these actuators involves high frequency bidirectional operation of an active material that is converted into unidirectional fluid motion by a set of valves. While theoretically attractive, practical constraints limit the efficacy of the solid-fluid hybrid actuation approach. In particular, inertial loads, fluid viscosity and compressibility combine with loss mechanisms inherent in the active material to limit the effective bandwidth of the driving actuator and the total output power. A hybrid actuator was developed by using magnetostrictive TerFeNOL-D as the active driving element and hydraulic oil as the working fluid. Tests, both with and without an external load, were carried out to measure the unidirectional performance of the actuator at different pumping frequencies and operating conditions. The maximum no-load output velocity was 84 mm/s with a 51 mm long rod and 88 mm/s with a 102 mm long rod, both noted around 325 Hz pumping frequency, while the blocked force was close to 89 N. Dynamic tests were performed to analyze the axial vibration characteristics of the Terfenol-D rods and frequency responses of the magnetic circuits. A second prototype actuator employing the same actuation principle was then designed by using the electrostrictive material PMN-32%PT as the driving element. Tests were conducted to measure the actuator performance for varying electrical input conditions and fluid bias pressures. The peak output velocity obtained was 330 mm/s while the blocked force was 63 N. The maximum volume flow rate obtained with the PMN-based actuator was more than double that obtained from the Terfenol-D--based actuator. Theoretical modeling of the dynamics of the coupled structural-hydraulic system is extremely complex and several models have been proposed earlier. At high pumping frequencies, the fluid inertia

  12. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

  13. Stochastic bifurcation and fractal and chaos control of a giant magnetostrictive film-shape memory alloy composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Qingxin Xu, Jia

    2014-05-07

    Stochastic bifurcation and fractal and chaos control of a giant magnetostrictive film–shape memory alloy (GMF–SMA) composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation were studied. Van der Pol items were improved to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of both GMF and SMA, and the nonlinear dynamic model of a GMF–SMA composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation was developed. The probability density function of the dynamic response of the system was obtained, and the conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation were analyzed. The conditions of noise-induced chaotic response were obtained in the stochastic Melnikov integral method, and the fractal boundary of the safe basin of the system was provided. Finally, the chaos control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the parameter variation process. The boundary of the safe basin of the system has fractal characteristics, and its area decreases when the noise intensifies. The system reliability was improved through stochastic optimal control, and the safe basin area of the system increased.

  14. Magnetostriction in glass-coated magnetic microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, A.; Zhukova, V.; Blanco, J. M.; Cobeño, A. F.; Vazquez, M.; Gonzalez, J.

    2003-03-01

    The hysteretic magnetic properties of glass coated magnetic microwires depend on the magnetostriction constant: Co-rich microwires with negative magnetostriction constant present an almost non-hysteretic loop with relatively high magnetic anisotropy field up to around 8 kA/m. In contrast, Fe-rich microwires with positive magnetostriction show rectangular hysteresis loops with switching field depending on diameter of the metallic nucleus and the thickness of the glass coating. The softest magnetic properties, such as large magnetic permeability, are observed in nearly zero magnetostrictive alloys. It is then obvious that the experimental determination of the saturation magnetostriction λs of glass-coated microwires is very important to predict their magnetic behaviour. Different methods for the determination of the saturation magnetostriction λs of tiny glass coated microwires have been reviewed and compared in this manuscript. Small angle magnetization rotation (SAMR) method and change of the giant magneto-impedance spectrum under applied stress have been employed in nearly zero magnetostrictive in as-prepared and current annealed glass-covered microwires. The conditions of applicability of these methods to the microwires have been analysed, taking into account the domain structure expected for vanishing magnetostriction constant of the metallic nucleus. These different techniques give similar saturation magnetostriction constant values. Heat treatment results in a significant change of λs.

  15. Magnetostrictive delay line characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Hauser, H.; Niarchos, D.

    2002-04-01

    A computerized secondary standard measurement system, concerning the characterization of soft magnetostrictive materials by means of measuring their magneto-elastic behavior has been developed. In this paper the measuring system is described, while experimental results and corresponding discussion on the system properties are also provided.

  16. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jammalamadaka, S Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U Mohanan; Chelvane, J Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between "open" (zero conductance) and "closed" (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature. PMID:26323326

  17. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U. Mohanan; Chelvane, J. Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between “open” (zero conductance) and “closed” (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature.

  18. Remote control of magnetostriction-based nanocontacts at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana; Kuntz, Sebastian; Berg, Oliver; Kittler, Wolfram; Kannan, U. Mohanan; Chelvane, J. Arout; Sürgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The remote control of the electrical conductance through nanosized junctions at room temperature will play an important role in future nano-electromechanical systems and electronic devices. This can be achieved by exploiting the magnetostriction effects of ferromagnetic materials. Here we report on the electrical conductance of magnetic nanocontacts obtained from wires of the giant magnetostrictive compound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 as an active element in a mechanically controlled break-junction device. The nanocontacts are reproducibly switched at room temperature between “open” (zero conductance) and “closed” (nonzero conductance) states by variation of a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the long wire axis. Conductance measurements in a magnetic field oriented parallel to the long wire axis exhibit a different behaviour where the conductance switches between both states only in a limited field range close to the coercive field. Investigating the conductance in the regime of electron tunneling by mechanical or magnetostrictive control of the electrode separation enables an estimation of the magnetostriction. The present results pave the way to utilize the material in devices based on nano-electromechanical systems operating at room temperature. PMID:26323326

  19. Magnetostrictive Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron A.; Hulse, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A magnetostrictive brake has been designed as a more energy-efficient alternative to a magnetic fail-safe brake in a robot. (In the specific application, failsafe signifies that the brake is normally engaged; that is, power must be supplied to allow free rotation.) The magnetic failsafe brake must be supplied with about 8 W of electric power to initiate and maintain disengagement. In contrast, the magnetostrictive brake, which would have about the same dimensions and the same torque rating as those of the magnetic fail-safe brake, would demand only about 2 W of power for disengagement. The brake (see figure) would include a stationary base plate and a hub mounted on the base plate. Two solenoid assemblies would be mounted in diametrically opposed recesses in the hub. The cores of the solenoids would be made of the magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D or equivalent. The rotating part of the brake would be a ring-and spring- disk subassembly. By means of leaf springs not shown in the figure, this subassembly would be coupled with the shaft that the brake is meant to restrain. With no power supplied to the solenoids, a permanent magnet would pull axially on a stepped disk and on a shelf in the hub, causing the ring to be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub. The friction associated with this axial squeeze would effect the braking action. Supplying electric power to the solenoids would cause the magnetostrictive cylinders to push radially inward against a set of wedges that would be in axial contact with the stepped disk. The wedges would convert the radial magnetostrictive strain to a multiplied axial displacement of the stepped disk. This axial displacement would be just large enough to lift the stepped disk, against the permanent magnetic force, out of contact with the ring. The ring would then be free to turn because it would no longer be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub.

  20. Concept of a novel nano displacement magnetostrictive actuator with self-sensing function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Pan, Zhongming

    2011-12-01

    Giant magnetostrictive materials can be used in the micro driving or sensing system for that the shape of materials changes under the different external magnetic field, which is called one effect of magnetostriction. As for the common Terfenol-D bars, the magnetostriction is expressed by the length change in the direction of the magnetic field, and the value of length change is too small to be detected. This paper presents a design of nano scale driving and measuring system which utilizes the thick film resistor (TFR) strain gauge mounted on the surface of Terfenol-D bar to measure the strain change of giant magnetostrictive materials directly, the in-situ measuring method has better flexibility and sensibility than indirect measuring methods such as capacitor sensor or other displacement measuring devices. A DSP based weak signal processing system has been developed to excite the micro displacement sensing system and calculate the strain of Terfenol-D bars from the signal output from thick film strain gauge instantly. The design scheme improves the resolution and accuracy of deformation measurement of the Terfenol-D bar, which is fundamental to the control of system and fulfills the requirements of real-time precise driving or sensing.

  1. Modeling of resonant magneto-electric effect in a magnetostrictive and piezoelectric laminate composite structure coupled by a bonding material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanyan, D.; Wang, Y.; Gao, J.; Li, M.; Shen, Y.; Li, J.; Viehland, D.

    2012-09-01

    The harmonic magneto-electro-elastic vibration of a thin laminated composite was considered. A theoretical model, including shear lag and vibration effects was developed for predicting the magneto-electric (ME) effect in a laminate composite consisting of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers. To avoid bending, we assumed that the composite was geometrically symmetric. For finite length symmetrically fabricated laminates, we derived the dynamic strain-stress field and ME coefficients, including shear lag and vibration effects for several boundary conditions. Parametric studies are presented to evaluate the influences of material properties and geometries on the strain distribution and the ME coefficient. Analytical expressions indicate that the shear lag and the vibration frequency strongly influence the strain distribution in the laminates and these effects strongly influence the ME coefficients.

  2. Optimal orientation field to manufacture magnetostrictive composites with high magnetostrictive performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xufeng; Ou, Jinping; Guan, Xinchun; Qi, Min

    2010-11-01

    Magnetostrictive properties have relationship with the applied orientation field during the preparation of giant magnetostrictive composites. To understand the dependence of the optimal orientation field on particle volume fraction, composites with 20%, 30% and 50% particles by volume were fabricated by distributing Terfenol-D particles in an unsaturated polyester resin under various orientation fields. Their magnetostrictive properties were tested without pre-stress at room temperature. The results indicate that as the particle volume fraction increases, the optimal orientation field increases. The main reason for this phenomenon is the packing density for the composites with higher particle volume fraction is larger than that for those with lower particle content.

  3. The possibility of giant dielectric materials for multilayer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Tatsuya; Endo, Makoto; Masuda, Kenichiro; Ishida, Keisuke

    2013-02-01

    There have been numerous reports on discovery of giant dielectric permittivity materials called internal barrier layer capacitor in the recent years. We took particular note of one of such materials, i.e., BaTiO3 with SiO2 coating. It shows expressions of giant electric permittivity when processed by spark plasma sintering. So we evaluated various electrical characteristics of this material to find out whether it is applicable to multilayer ceramic capacitors. Our evaluation revealed that the isolated surface structure is the sole cause of expressions of giant dielectric permittivity.

  4. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  5. Magnetostriction of field-structured magnetoelastomers.

    PubMed

    Martin, James E; Anderson, Robert A; Read, Douglas; Gulley, Gerald

    2006-11-01

    We investigate the magnetostriction of field-structured magnetoelastomers, which are an important class of materials that have great potential as both sensors and actuators. Field-structured magnetoelastomers are synthesized by suspending magnetic particles in a polymeric resin and subjecting these to magnetic structuring fields during polymerization. These structuring fields can consist of as many as three orthogonal ac components, allowing a wide variety of particles structures--chains, sheets, or networks--to be formed. A principal issue is how particle structure and loading affects the magnetostriction of these materials. To investigate magnetostriction in these field-structured composites we have constructed a constant stress, optical cantilever apparatus capable of 1 ppm strain resolution. Magnetoelastomers having a wide range of particle loadings and structures are investigated, and it is shown that the observed deformation depends strongly on composite structure. The best magnetoelastomers exhibit a contractive strain of 10,000 ppm, the worst materials exhibit a negative, tensile response, which we show is due to the dominance of demagnetizing field effects over magnetostriction. Finally, some discussion is given to the surprising finding that magnetostriction is proportional to the sample prestrain. Simulations of a chain of particles in an elastomer show that particle clumping transitions can occur, but this does not account for the dependence of magnetostriction on prestrain. PMID:17279917

  6. Terbium-Aluminum (TbAl2) Binary Alloy as High Magnetostrictive Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Mary; Sanchez, Carlos; Bernal, Oscar; Kocharian, Armen; Cal State LA Team

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic phase diagram for the cubic intermetallic terbium-aluminum (Tb-Al) binary alloy is being investigated for the purpose of developing material with high magnetostrain properties that can be used for energy harvesting. Low temperature magnetizations, specific heat, combined with structural examinations are few of the techniques that are being used for this purpose. Preliminary DC magnetization results on as-cast material show magnetic ordering of around 109 K in zero applied fields that varies in magnitude and direction with the increase of applied magnetic field. The preliminary results will be discussed. Supported by Grant # NS-DMR1105380.

  7. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  8. Dirac State in Giant Magnetoresistive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Jo, N. H.; Ochi, M.; Huang, L.; Mou, D.; Kong, T.; Mun, E.; Wang, L.; Lee, Y.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Trivedi, N.; Arito, R.; Kaminski, A.

    We use ultrahigh resolution, tunable, vacuum ultraviolet laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the electronic properties of materials that recently were discovered to display titanic magnetoresistance. We find that that several of these materials have Dirac-like features in their band structure. In some materials those features are ``ordinary'' Dirac cones, while in others the linear Dirac dispersion of two crossing bands forms a linear object in 3D momentum space. Our observation poses an important question about the role of Dirac dispersion in the unusually high, non-saturating magnetoresistance of these materials. Research was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation EPiQS Initiative (Grant No. GBMF4411); CEM, a NSF MRSEC, under Grant No. DMR-1420451.

  9. Giant magnetoresistance materials for magnetic recording technology

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, R.H.; Adams, C.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work focused on a class of transition-metal-oxide (TMO) materials (LaMnO{sub 3} doped with Ca, Ba, or Sr) that exhibits an insulator-to-metal transition near a ferromagnetic phase transition temperature. This yields a very large magnetoresistance; thus these materials may have important uses as magnetic sensors in a variety of applications, ranging from automobiles to read heads for magnetic storage. In addition, the transport current in the ferromagnetic state is likely to be very highly polarized, which means that additional device applications using the phenomena of spin-polarized tunneling can be envisioned. Use of these materials as magnetic sensors depends upon learning to control the synthesis parameters (principally temperature, pressure and composition) to achieve a specific carrier concentration and/or mobility. A second challenge is the high magnetic fields ({ge}1 Tesla) currently required to achieve a large change in resistance. The authors began an investigation of two novel approaches to this field-sensitivity problem, involving the development of multilayer structures of the TMO materials. Finally, they began to explore the use of epitaxial strain as a means of changing the transport properties in thin-film multilayers.

  10. Magnetostrictive valve assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A magnetostrictive valve assembly includes a housing that defines a passage with a seat being formed therein. A magnetically-biased and axially-compressed magnetostrictive assembly slidingly fitted in the passage is configured as a hollow and open-ended conduit adapted to support a flow of a fluid therethrough. Current-carrying coil(s) disposed about the passage in the region of the magnetostrictive assembly generate a magnetic field in the passage when current flows through the coil(s). A hollow valve body with side ports is coupled on one end thereof to an axial end of the magnetostrictive assembly. The other end of the valve body is designed to seal with the seat formed in the housing's passage when brought into contact therewith.

  11. Modeling of magnetostriction in amorphous delay lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Hauser, H.; Ktena, A.

    2003-05-01

    A macroscopic model of the response of magnetostrictive delay lines (MDLs) under pulsed current excitation Ie is presented. The basic principles of the MDL operation are outlined and the relevant considerations of the control parameters are discussed. It is shown that the peak value of the voltage response is proportional to the derivative of the magnetostriction λ versus field H. The analytic expression derived for dλ/dH involves two identification parameters, c and A0. Parameter c has field dimensions and is a function of material parameters as described by the energetic model (EM) and proportional to the effective anisotropy field as predicted by EM, and A0 is a normalization constant, related to Ic and saturation magnetostriction λs. Preliminary results are presented comparing theoretical curves with experimental data on a Fe78Si7B15 amorphous ribbon sample with sufficient agreement.

  12. A constitutive model for magnetostriction based on thermodynamic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kwangsoo

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a general framework for the continuum-based formulation of dissipative materials with magneto-mechanical coupling in the viewpoint of irreversible thermodynamics. The thermodynamically consistent model developed for the magnetic hysteresis is extended to include the magnetostrictive effect. The dissipative and hysteretic response of magnetostrictive materials is captured through the introduction of internal state variables. The evolution rate of magnetostrictive strain as well as magnetization is derived from thermodynamic and dissipative potentials in accordance with the general principles of thermodynamics. It is then demonstrated that the constitutive model is competent to describe the magneto-mechanical behavior by comparing simulation results with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  13. Active and structural strain model for magnetostrictive transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapino, Marcelo J.; Smith, Ralph C.; Flatau, Alison B.

    1998-07-01

    We consider the modeling of strains generated by magnetostrictive materials in response to applied magnetic fields. The active or external component of the strain is due to the rotation of magnetic moments within the material to align with the applied field. This is characterized through consideration of the Jiles-Atherton mean field theory for ferromagnetic hysteresis in combination with a quadratic moment rotation model for magnetostriction. The second component of the strain reflects the passive or internal dynamics of the rod as it vibrates. This is modeled through force balancing which yields a wave equation with magnetostrictive inputs. The validity of a combined transducer model is illustrated through comparison with experimental data.

  14. Giant Mechanocaloric Effects in Fluorite-Structured Superionic Materials.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Claudio; Errandonea, Daniel

    2016-05-11

    Mechanocaloric materials experience a change in temperature when a mechanical stress is applied on them adiabatically. Thus, far, only ferroelectrics and superelastic metallic alloys have been considered as potential mechanocaloric compounds to be exploited in solid-state cooling applications. Here we show that giant mechanocaloric effects occur in hitherto overlooked fast ion conductors (FIC), a class of multicomponent materials in which above a critical temperature, Ts, a constituent ionic species undergoes a sudden increase in mobility. Using first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations, we found that the superionic transition in fluorite-structured FIC, which is characterized by a large entropy increase of the order of 10(2) JK(-1) kg(-1), can be externally tuned with hydrostatic, biaxial, or uniaxial stresses. In particular, Ts can be reduced several hundreds of degrees through the application of moderate tensile stresses due to the concomitant drop in the formation energy of Frenkel pair defects. We predict that the adiabatic temperature change in CaF2 and PbF2, two archetypal fluorite-structured FIC, close to their critical points are of the order of 10(2) and 10(1) K, respectively. This work advocates that FIC constitute a new family of mechanocaloric materials showing great promise for prospective solid-state refrigeration applications. PMID:27070506

  15. Magnetostrictive roller drive motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    A magnetostrictive drive motor is disclosed which has a rotary drive shaft in the form of a drum which is encircled by a plurality of substantially equally spaced roller members in the form of two sets of cones which are in contact with the respective cam surfaces on the inside surface of an outer drive ring. The drive ring is attached to sets of opposing pairs of magnetostrictive rods. Each rod in a pair is mutually positioned end to end within respective energizing coils. When one of the coils in an opposing pair is energized, the energized rod expands while the other rod is caused to contract, causing the drive ring to rock, i.e., rotate slightly in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction, depending upon which rod in a pair is energized. As the drive ring is activated in repetitive cycles in either direction, one set of drive cones attempts to roll up their respective cam surface but are pinned between the drive shaft drum and the drive ring. As the frictional force preventing sliding builds up, the cones become locked, setting up reaction forces including a tangential component which is imparted to the drive shaft drum to provide a source of motor torque. Simultaneously the other set of cones are disengaged from the drive shaft drum. Upon deactivation of the magnetostrictive rod coils, the force on the drive cones is released, causing the system to return to an initial rest position. By repetitively cycling the energization of the magnetostrictive rods, the drive shaft drum indexes in microradian rotational steps.

  16. Design of an innovative magnetostrictive patch actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquemani, S.; Giberti, H.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive actuators can be profitably used to reduce vibration in structures. However, this technology has been exploited only to develop inertial actuators, while patches actuators have not been ever used in practice. Patches actuators consist on a layer of magnetostrictive material, which has to be stuck to the surface of the vibrating structure, and on a coil surrounding the layer itself. However, the presence of the winding severely limits the use of such devices. As a matter of fact, the scientific literature reports only theoretical uses of such actuators, but, in practice it does not seem they were ever used. This paper presents an innovative solution to improve the structure of the actuator patches, allowing their use in several practical applications. The principle of operation of these devices is rather simple. The actuator patch is able to generate a local deformation of the surface of the vibrating structure so as to introduce an equivalent damping that dissipates the kinetic energy associated to the vibration. This deformation is related to the behavior of the magnetostrictive material immersed in a variable magnetic field generated by the a variable current flowing in the winding. Contrary to what suggested in the theoretical literature, the designed device has the advantage of generating the variable magnetic field no longer in close proximity of the material, but in a different area, thus allowing a better coupling. The magnetic field is then conveyed through a suitable ferromagnetic structure to the magnetostrictive material. The device has been designed and simulated through FEA. Results confirm that the new configuration can easily overcome all the limits of traditional devices.

  17. Modeling of Magnetostriction of Soft Elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, Andriushchenko; Leonid, Afremov; Mariya, Chernova

    2014-03-01

    Small magnetic particles placed in a relatively soft polymer (with elastic modulus E ~ 10 ÷ 100 kPa) are magnetically soft elastomers. The external magnetic field acts on each particle which leads to microscopic deformation of the material and consequently to changing of its shape - magnetostriction. For purposes of studying of magnetostriction the model of movable cellular automata (MCA), in which a real heterogeneous material is an ensemble of interacting elements of finite size - automata, is used. It's supposed to be that the motion of each automata can be described by Newton's Second law. The force acting on the i-th automata consists of the following components: volume-dependent force acting on the automata i which is caused by pressure from the surrounding automata; force of an external magnetic field acting on the i-th automata with some magnetic moment; and normal and tangential interaction force between a pair of i and j automata. This approach was used for modeling of magnetostriction elastomer.

  18. Rhombohedral magnetostriction in dilute iron (Co) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Nicholas J. Wun-Fogle, Marilyn; Restorff, J. B.; Petculescu, Gabriela; Clark, Arthur E.; Hathaway, Kristl B.; Schlagel, Deborah; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2015-05-07

    Iron is a well-utilized material in structural and magnetic applications. This does not mean, however, that it is well understood, especially in the field of magnetostriction. In particular, the rhombohedral magnetostriction of iron, λ{sub 111}, is anomalous in two respects: it is negative in sign, in disagreement with the prediction of first principles theory, and its magnitude decreases with increasing temperature much too rapidly to be explained by a power law dependence on magnetization. These behaviors could arise from the location of the Fermi level, which leaves a small region of the majority 3d t{sub 2g} states unfilled, possibly favoring small internal displacements that split these states. If this view is correct, adding small amounts of Co to Fe fills some of these states, and the value of λ{sub 111} should increase toward a positive value, as predicted for perfect bcc Fe. We have measured the magnetostriction coefficients (λ{sub 111} and λ{sub 100}) of pure Fe, Fe{sub 97}Co{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 94}Co{sub 6} single crystals from 77 K to 450 K. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been used to check for anomalies in the associated elastic constants, c{sub 44} and c′. The additional electrons provided by the cobalt atoms indeed produced positive contributions to both magnetostriction constants, λ{sub 111} and λ{sub 100}, exhibiting an increase of 2.8 × 10{sup −6} per at. % Co for λ{sub 111} and 3.8 × 10{sup −6} per at. % Co for λ{sub 100}.

  19. Directional magnetostrictive patch transducer based on Galfenol’s anisotropic magnetostriction feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Na, Suok-Min; Flatau, Alison B.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the investigation of a directional magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) composed of a highly textured Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) patch in the use of ultrasonic guided Lamb wave (GLW) inspection techniques for isotropic planar structures. Recently, the actuation and sensing performance of an MPT using a disc patch made of polycrystalline nickel was reported, based on GLW testing in thin aluminum plates. The nickel-based MPT appeared to have omnidirectional GLW sensitivity in the metallic plate because of the isotropic magnetostrictive nature of polycrystalline nickel with random orientation. In this work, we investigated two viable methods to control and improve MPT’s directional sensitivity for detecting GLWs in metallic plate structures. First, we proposed a circular MPT (CMPT) using the highly textured Galfenol patch with a large magnetostriction of ˜270 ppm along a <100> preferred orientation parallel to the patch’s rolling direction. The CMPT exhibited outstanding sensitivity to incoming GLWs along the <100> direction of the patch in a thin aluminum plate. This was mainly due to the unique anisotropic magnetostriction effect of the textured Galfenol patch. In addition to the use of the Galfenol material, we developed a novel cruciform MPT (XMPT) containing four solenoid sensing coils that possessed individual directional sensing preferences, corresponding to the orientations of the sensing coils. The directional sensing performance of the XMPT was initially validated by using the polycrystalline nickel patch with the isotropic magnetostrictive characteristic, exhibiting the remarkable directionality attributes of the individual sensing elements. Of particular interest was that the XMPT combined with the highly textured Galfenol patch demonstrated excellent directional sensitivity corresponding to the Galfenol’s preferred orientation. And the directional sensing feature was noticeably enhanced by incorporating the textured Galfenol

  20. Improvement in indirect magnetostriction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, S.; Kopasz, C.; Hargitai, C.

    1992-07-01

    The SAMR and AtS methods are simultaneously applied for determination magnetostriction constants to reduce the uncertainties in the interpretation of the quantities directly measured and to improve the accuracy in λ values determined.

  1. Development of magnetostrictive active members for control of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Avakian, Kevin M.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Boudreau, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this Phase 2 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project was to determine the technical feasibility of developing magnetostrictive active members for use as truss elements in space structures. Active members control elastic vibrations of truss-based space structures and integrate the functions of truss structure element, actively controlled actuator, and sensor. The active members must control structural motion to the sub-micron level and, for many proposed space applications, work at cryogenic temperatures. Under this program both room temperature and cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive active members were designed, fabricated, and tested. The results of these performance tests indicated that room temperature magnetostrictive actuators feature higher strain, stiffness, and force capability with lower amplifier requirements than similarly sized piezoelectric or electrostrictive active members, at the cost of higher mass. Two different cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive materials were tested at liquid nitrogen temperatures, both with larger strain capability than the room temperature magnetostrictive materials. The cryogenic active member development included the design and fabrication of a cryostat that allows operation of the cryogenic active member in a space structure testbed.

  2. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive transducers for guided ultrasonic waves in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropf, Matthew M.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2007-04-01

    The magnetostrictive effect is used to generate ultrasonic waves for a variety of health monitoring applications. Given the ductile nature of many ferromagnetic materials and the common geometrical configuration of magnetic inductance coils, magnetostrictive generation of ultrasound is especially suitable for long cylindrical waveguides such as thin wires. Furthermore, utilizing ultrasonic guided wave modes in such waveguides provides a robust tool for remote inspection of materials or environments over long distances. Through the use of different guided wave modes, structural health monitoring sensors could be tailored to suit individual applications. Guided wave modes offer a choice in displacement profile allowing sensors to be designed to be either sensitive or impervious to surface effects. The dispersivity of the guided wave velocity can also be optimized for applications involving time-of-flight measurements. Despite the advantages afforded by guided wave analysis, current magnetostrictive transducers, consisting of coil of wire and a bias magnet, can not perform at the frequencies necessary to excite higher order guided wave modes. In order to advance the capability of magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic guided waves in wires, the design parameters of inductance coils are examined. Using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, ultrasonic displacements are measured over a range of excitation frequencies for different coil configurations and parameters to determine the feasibility of developing a higher mode magnetostrictive transducer.

  3. Improved magnetostrictive transducer drive elements achieved by reduction of crystalline defects and improved crystalline orientation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMasters, D.

    1993-10-29

    The discovery of the giant magnetostrictive rare earth-iron alloys in the 1970's was a direct result of the efforts initiated at DOD's Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Silver Spring, MD in conjunction with DOE's Ames Laboratory (AL), Ames, IA. This research into these new materials was specifically targeted for the development of low frequency, high power transducers for underwater sonar systems. The most technologically advanced of these materials in TERFENOL-D, Tb(3)Dy(7)Fe(1.9-1.95) an intermetallic compound consisting of iron (Fe) and the rare earth metals terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy). Because of the advantages over existing transducer materials, the use of TERFENOL-D as a transducer drive element is expanding into a broad range of commercial applications and advanced defense systems. One of the disadvantages is the cost of these drivers, primarily the terbium and dysprosium raw materials.

  4. Vibration analysis of magnetostrictive thin-film composite cantilever actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Shang, Xinchun

    2016-09-01

    The transverse vibration of a composed cantilever beam with magnetostrictive layer is analyzed, which is employed to simulate dynamic response of an actuator. The high-order shear deformation theory of beam and the coupling magnetoelastic constitutive relationship are introduced to construct the governing equations, all interface conditions between magnetostrictive film and elastic substrate as well as the free stress condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam can be satisfied. In order to demonstrate validity of the presented mathematical modeling, the verification examples are also given. Furthermore, the effect of geometry and material parameters on dynamic characteristics of magnetostrictive cantilever beam, such as the nature frequency and amplitude, is discussed. Moreover, through computing the magneto-mechanical coupling factor of the beam structure, the variation tendency curves of the factor along with different parameters and frequencies of magnetostrictive cantilever beam actuator have been presented. These numerical results should be useful for the design of beam-type with magnetostrictive thin-film actuators.

  5. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling—the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field—is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams—which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics—we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  6. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling-the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field-is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams-which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics-we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism. PMID:24229099

  7. An Energy-Based Hysteresis Model for Magnetostrictive Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, F. T.; Smith, R. C.; Flatau, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling of hysteresis in magnetostrictive transducers. This is considered in the context of control applications which require an accurate characterization of the relation between input currents and strains output by the transducer. This relation typically exhibits significant nonlinearities and hysteresis due to inherent properties of magnetostrictive materials. The characterization considered here is based upon the Jiles-Atherton mean field model for ferromagnetic hysteresis in combination with a quadratic moment rotation model for magnetostriction. As demonstrated through comparison with experimental data, the magnetization model very adequately quantifies both major and minor loops under various operating conditions. The combined model can then be used to accurately characterize output strains at moderate drive levels. The advantages to this model lie in the small number (six) of required parameters and the flexibility it exhibits in a variety of operating conditions.

  8. Displacement sensors using soft magnetostrictive alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hristoforou, E. . Inst. of Material Science); Reilly, R.E. . Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-09-01

    The authors report results on the response of a family of displacement sensors, which are based on the magnetostrictive delay line (MDL) technique, using current conductor orthogonal to the MDL. Such sensing technique is based on the change of the magnetic circuit and the acoustic stress point of origin due to the displacement of a soft magnetic material above it. Integrated arrays of sensors can be obtained due to the acoustic delay line technique and they can be used as tactile arrays, digitizers or devices for medical application (gait analysis etc.), while absence of hysteresis and low cost of manufacturing make them competent in this sector of sensor market.

  9. Temperature dependence of the magnetostriction and the induced anisotropy in nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB alloys, and their fluxgate properties

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, O.V.; Petersen, J.R.; Herzer, G.

    1994-03-01

    Making use of the stress induced magnetic anisotropy in some iron-rich FeCuNbSiD nanocrystalline materials the authors studied the thermal dependence of their magnetostriction which becomes zero below the Curie temperature. The choice of a suitable composition and annealing temperature results in materials with zero magnetostriction at room temperature. Due to the low magnetostriction these materials have very promising fluxgate properties which were studied as well.

  10. Magnetostriction of field-structured magnetoelastomers.

    SciTech Connect

    Gulley, Gerald L. (Dominican University, River Forest, IL); Read, Douglas H.; Martin, James Ellis; Huber, Dale L.; Anderson, Robert Alan; Frankamp, Benjamin L.

    2005-12-01

    Field-structured magnetic particle composites are an important new class of materials that have great potential as both sensors and actuators. These materials are synthesized by suspending magnetic particles in a polymeric resin and subjecting these to magnetic fields while the resin polymerizes. If a simple uniaxial magnetic field is used, the particles will form chains, yielding composites whose magnetic susceptibility is enhanced along a single direction. A biaxial magnetic field, comprised of two orthogonal ac fields, forms particle sheets, yielding composites whose magnetic susceptibility is enhanced along two principal directions. A balanced triaxial magnetic field can be used to enhance the susceptibility in all directions, and biased heterodyned triaxial magnetic fields are especially effective for producing composites with a greatly enhanced susceptibility along a single axis. Magnetostriction is quadratic in the susceptibility, so increasing the composite susceptibility is important to developing actuators that function well at modest fields. To investigate magnetostriction in these field-structured composites we have constructed a sensitive, constant-stress apparatus capable of 1 ppm strain resolution. The sample geometry is designed to minimize demagnetizing field effects. With this apparatus we have demonstrated field-structured composites with nearly 10,000 ppm strain.

  11. Composition and crystallinity in electrochemically deposited magnetostrictive galfenol (FeGa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrine, Eliot C.; Hein, Matt; Robbins, William P.; Stadler, Bethanie J. H.

    2014-05-01

    Here, we report the first measurements of magnetostriction as a function of composition for electrodeposited iron-gallium alloys, also known as galfenol. Galfenol is an exciting material due to its large magnetostriction constant (up to 400 ppm) and robust mechanical properties. A wide range of sensors, actuators, and other transducers can be fabricated by taking advantage of galfenol's unique mix of magnetic and mechanical properties. Electrodeposition allows galfenol to be easily integrated into a variety of applications, such as toque sensors with conformal, monolithic active layers. In this work, we examine the underlying factors that influence magnetostriction in electrodeposited galfenol, including crystallinity and composition. Here, we have controlled the film composition, as measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, over the range of 5-25% gallium using a single plating bath by varying deposition parameters. This composition range corresponds to the region of largest expected magnetostriction for iron gallium alloys. However, our measured magnetostriction values were significantly lower than the values for single crystal galfenol from literature. The electrodeposited films in this work appeared polycrystalline when measured using x-ray diffraction. When the texture of the film is taken into account, the magnetostriction results closely matched the predicted values. These results show that it is possible to achieve magnetostrictive galfenol thin films over a wide range of compositions using electrodeposition.

  12. Composition and crystallinity in electrochemically deposited magnetostrictive galfenol (FeGa)

    SciTech Connect

    Estrine, Eliot C. Hein, Matt; Robbins, William P.; Stadler, Bethanie J. H.

    2014-05-07

    Here, we report the first measurements of magnetostriction as a function of composition for electrodeposited iron-gallium alloys, also known as galfenol. Galfenol is an exciting material due to its large magnetostriction constant (up to 400 ppm) and robust mechanical properties. A wide range of sensors, actuators, and other transducers can be fabricated by taking advantage of galfenol's unique mix of magnetic and mechanical properties. Electrodeposition allows galfenol to be easily integrated into a variety of applications, such as toque sensors with conformal, monolithic active layers. In this work, we examine the underlying factors that influence magnetostriction in electrodeposited galfenol, including crystallinity and composition. Here, we have controlled the film composition, as measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, over the range of 5–25% gallium using a single plating bath by varying deposition parameters. This composition range corresponds to the region of largest expected magnetostriction for iron gallium alloys. However, our measured magnetostriction values were significantly lower than the values for single crystal galfenol from literature. The electrodeposited films in this work appeared polycrystalline when measured using x-ray diffraction. When the texture of the film is taken into account, the magnetostriction results closely matched the predicted values. These results show that it is possible to achieve magnetostrictive galfenol thin films over a wide range of compositions using electrodeposition.

  13. Magnetostriction measurements of amorphous ribbons and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Chien

    The theme of the present work is to measure the saturation magnetostriction constants of amorphous ribbons and thin films. The saturation magnetostriction constants of amorphous ribbons, and thin films of Cosb{39}Nisb{31}Fesb8Sisb8Bsb{14}, CoZrY, and CoZrTb have been measured either by the Small Angle Magnetization Rotation (SAMR) method or by the initial susceptibility method. The SAMR method is used for the soft materials. It is found that the amorphous Cosb{39}Nisb{31}Fesb8Sisb8Bsb{14} prepared by ion beam deposition from an alloy target shows very soft magnetic properties and has a very small negative saturation magnetostriction, lambdasb{s}, of about {-}1×10sp{-7}. Sputtered films of CoZrTb show a strong perpendicular anisotropy when the Tb content is high. We have found that the SAMR method can be applied to CoZrTb films when the Tb content is low. The saturation magnetostriction constant of a sputtered film of Cosb{78.4}Zrsb{20.8}Tbsb{0.8} is 2×10sp{-6}. When the material is not magnetically soft or has a strong perpendicular anisotropy, the initial susceptibility method is used. The saturation magnetostriction constants of amorphous Cosb{77.2}Zrsb{20.4}Tbsb{2.4} and Cosb{72.2}Zrsb{14.6}Ysb{13.2} thin films are 6×10sp{-6}, and (2{˜}6)×10sp{-7}, respectively. The two methods, the SAMR and the initial susceptibility, utilize the same measurement setup making it a very convenient technique which is applicable for a range of materials.

  14. Magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio of galfenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paes, V. Z. C.; Mosca, D. H.

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present a detailed study on the magnetostrictive contribution to Poisson ratio for samples under applied mechanical stress. Magnetic contributions to strain and Poisson ratio for cubic materials were derived by accounting elastic and magneto-elastic anisotropy contributions. We apply our theoretical results for a material of interest in magnetomechanics, namely, galfenol (Fe1-xGax). Our results show that there is a non-negligible magnetic contribution in the linear portion of the curve of stress versus strain. The rotation of the magnetization towards [110] crystallographic direction upon application of mechanical stress leads to an auxetic behavior, i.e., exhibiting Poisson ratio with negative values. This magnetic contribution to auxetic behavior provides a novel insight for the discussion of theoretical and experimental developments of materials that display unusual mechanical properties.

  15. Understanding strong magnetostriction in Fe100−xGax alloys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Y. N.; Wu, R. Q.; Sun, L. Z.; Xu, D. S.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetostriction of ferromagnetic materials describes the change of their shape or dimension in response to the reorientation of magnetization under the influence of external magnetic field. Fe100−xGax binary alloys (Galfenol) have large magnetostriction and excellent ductility; and they are very promising rare-earth free materials for applications in sensors, actuators, energy-harvesters and spintronic devices. Here we report results of large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations for Galfenol, especially regarding the mechanism that leads to the sudden drop of tetragonal magnetostriction at x ~ 19, a long-standing puzzle for the community. Based on rigid band analysis, we propose possible ways to further optimize the performance of Galfenol for device applications. For example, we found that the substitution of a small amount of Cu for Ga (1.6%) in certain configuration may double the magnetostriction of Galfenol. PMID:24343479

  16. Phase-field simulation of domain structures and magnetostrictive response in Tb1-xDyxFe2 alloys near morphotropic phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Cheng-Chao; Yang, Tian-Nan; Huang, Hou-Bing; Hu, Jia-Mian; Wang, Jian-Jun; Shi, Yang-Guang; Shi, Da-Ning; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Phase-field method micromagnetic microelastic modeling is employed to simulate the thermal domain stability and enhanced magnetostrictive responses around the ferromagnetic morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in giant magnetostrictive Tb1-xDyxFe2 ( x ≈0.27 ) single crystal. The simulation shows that the rhombohedral and tetragonal phases coexist in equilibrium in the vicinity of MPB region due to the balance of weak magnetocrystalline anisotropy and strong exchange, magnetostatic and ferroelastic interaction. Enhanced magnetostrictive response is found in the vicinity of MPB, which could be attributed to the low-energy rotating pathways of local magnetization vectors in the phase coexisting region.

  17. Magnetostrictive wire-bonding clamp for semiconductor packaging: initial prototype design, modeling, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozor, David M.

    1998-06-01

    A magnetostrictive wire-bonding clamp for use in semiconductor packaging applications has been developed by Mechatronic Technology Co. Semiconductor industry trends, requiring high process throughput on increasing lead count packaging, make the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D a candidate for this application. To construct this small, lightweight device, small samples of Terfenol-D were prepared by ETREMA Products, Inc. This paper reports the initial design, mathematical modeling, and experiments related to this initial prototype.

  18. The influence of the adhesive bonding on the magnetoelectric effect in bilayer magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galichyan, T. A.; Filippov, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of the interlayer adhesive bonding is considered in bilayer magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structure. The expression for the frequency dependence of the magnetoelectric voltage coefficient in the electromechanical resonance region is obtained using the simultaneous solution of the motion equations for the magnetostrict- ive, adhesive, piezoelectric phases and material equations. It is shown that in the passage to the limits this expression for the coefficient transforms to the expression for ideal connection between the layers.

  19. Biosensor based on magnetostrictive microcantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suiqiong; Orona, Lisa; Li, Zhimin; Cheng, Z.-Y.

    2006-02-01

    Magnetostrictive microcantilever (MSMC) as remote biosensor platform is reported. The mass sensitivity of the MSMCs is simulated and compared with the other microcantilevers. MSMCs with a thickness of 30-35μm and different lengths and widths were fabricated from the magnetostrictive metal glass coated with a copper layer by sputtering. The resonance behavior of the MSMCs was experimentally determined. It is experimentally found that the MSMCs work well in either air or liquid. For MSMCs operated in air, a Q value of more than 500 was obtained. For MSMCs operated in water, the Q value reaches more than 30. The application of a MSMC as a biosensor platform is demonstrated by in situ detection of the yeast cells in water using the MSMC sensor.

  20. Vibration control via stiffness switching of magnetostrictive transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a computational study is presented of structural vibration control that is realized by switching a magneto-strictive transducer between high and low stiffness states. Switching is accomplished by either changing the applied magnetic field with a voltage excitation or changing the shunt impedance on the transducer's coil (i.e., the magneto-strictive material's magnetic boundary condition). Switched-stiffness vibration control is simulated using a lumped mass supported by a damper and the magneto-strictive transducer (mount), which is represented by a nonlinear, electromechanical model. Free vibration of the mass is calculated while varying the mount's stiffness according to a reference switched-stiffness vibration control law. The results reveal that switching the magnetic field produces the desired change in stiffness, but also an undesired actuation force that can significantly degrade the vibration control. Hence, a modified switched-stiffness control law that accounts for the actuation force is proposed and implemented for voltage-controlled stiffness switching. The influence of the magneto-mechanical bias condition is also discussed. Voltage-controlled stiffness switching is found to introduce damping equivalent to a viscous damping factor up to about 0.13; this is shown to primarily result from active vibration reduction caused by the actuation force. The merit of magneto-strictive switched-stiffness vibration control is then quantified by comparing the results of voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching to the performance of optimal magneto-strictive shunt damping. For the cases considered, optimal resistive shunt damping performed considerably better than both voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching.

  1. Vibration Control via Stiffness Switching of Magnetostrictive Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a computational study is presented of structural vibration control that is realized by switching a magnetostrictive transducer between high and low stiffness states. Switching is accomplished by either changing the applied magnetic field with a voltage excitation or changing the shunt impedance on the transducer's coil (i.e., the magnetostrictive material's magnetic boundary condition). Switched-stiffness vibration control is simulated using a lumped mass supported by a damper and the magnetostrictive transducer (mount), which is represented by a nonlinear, electromechanical model. Free vibration of the mass is calculated while varying the mount's stiffness according to a reference switched-stiffness vibration control law. The results reveal that switching the magnetic field produces the desired change in stiffness, but also an undesired actuation force that can significantly degrade the vibration control. Hence, a modified switched-stiffness control law that accounts for the actuation force is proposed and implemented for voltage-controlled stiffness switching. The influence of the magneto-mechanical bias condition is also discussed. Voltage-controlled stiffness switching is found to introduce damping equivalent to a viscous damping factor up to about 0.13; this is shown to primarily result from active vibration reduction caused by the actuation force. The merit of magnetostrictive switched-stiffness vibration control is then quantified by comparing the results of voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching to the performance of optimal magnetostrictive shunt damping. For the cases considered, optimal resistive shunt damping performed considerably better than both voltage- and shunt-controlled stiffness switching.

  2. Magnetostriction and the Advantages of Using Noncontact Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji Ghalamestani, Setareh; Vandevelde, Lieven; Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Melkebeek, Jan A. A.

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic noise in electrical machines and transformers are a large portion of the total noise of the device. Part of this magnetic noise is caused by the deformation of the ferromagnetic laminations due to the magnetic field. This effect is called magnetostriction, and it strongly depends on the applied magnetic field, the material properties and external pressure to the material. A strain gauge measurement setup has been applied before to measure the magnetostrictive behaviour of ferromagnetic materials. The results obtained by this setup suffered from some limitations such as the need to filter high-frequency harmonics. Also the measurement results for excitation below 0.8 T were not easily distinguished from the present noise. Therefore, a new setup using heterodyne laser interferometers has been built. With this new setup, on the contrary to the strain gauge setup, the sample preparation is simple. This new setup and the gradual improvements toward the optimal performance of the setup are presented in this paper.

  3. Semi-empirical magnetostrictive delay line modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Mojmír; Hristoforou, Evangelos

    In this paper, analogous approach as commonly used at the electric lines was adopted to model the magneostrictive delay line (MDL) operating on amorphous ribbons and wires like that of composition Fe 78Si 7B 15. Particularly, the damping and deterioration of the propagating magnetostrictive wave along the sample and their relation to the intrinsic material properties were of primary interest. Two damping factors taken into the consideration lead to a second-order differential equation of motion that could be solved analytically for instance of a rectangular-pulse excitation. The Laplace transform and convolution, in most of cases as a discrete procedure, has to be utilized in all other cases. Theoretical assessment confronted with some experimental results is showing a fairly good agreement.

  4. Single-particle mechanism of magnetostriction in magnetoactive elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Viktor M.; Snarskii, Andrei A.; Zorinets, Denis; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2016-06-01

    Magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) are composite materials comprised of micrometer-sized ferromagnetic particles in a nonmagnetic elastomer matrix. A single-particle mechanism of magnetostriction in MAEs, assuming the rotation of a soft magnetic, mechanically rigid particle with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in magnetic fields is identified and considered theoretically within the framework of an alternative model. In this mechanism, the total magnetic anisotropy energy of the filling particles in the matrix is the sum over single particles. Matrix displacements in the vicinity of the particle and the resulting direction of the magnetization vector are calculated. The effect of matrix deformation is pronounced well if the magnetic anisotropy coefficient K is much larger than the shear modulus µ of the elastic matrix. The feasibility of the proposed magnetostriction mechanism in soft magnetoactive elastomers and gels is elucidated. The magnetic-field-induced internal stresses in the matrix lead to effects of magnetodeformation and may increase the elastic moduli of these composite materials.

  5. Giant induced magnetic anisotropy In strain annealed Co-based nanocomposite alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernion, Samuel J.; Ohodnicki, Paul. R.; Grossmann, Jane; Leary, Alex; Shen, Shen; Keylin, Vladimir; Huth, Joseph F.; Horwath, John; Lucas, Matthew S.; McHenry, Michael E.

    2012-09-01

    Low loss switching of soft magnetic materials at high frequencies benefits from tuning the induced anisotropy. We show induced anisotropies, Ku, as large as 1.89×104 J /m3, developed by strain annealing of Co-rich nanocomposite alloys. Crystalline phases in this alloy system have large negative magnetostrictive coefficients, leading to anisotropy fields per unit stress over twice those developed in FINEMET. Tunable permeability and reduced thicknesses achieved in this process can mitigate eddy-current losses. Giant induced magnetic anisotropies are discussed in light of models for the micromechanisms of amorphous metal deformation, stress-assisted transformations in the crystallites, and directional pair ordering.

  6. Nebular and Interstellar Materials in a Giant Cluster IDP of Probable Cometary Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.; Nguyen, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Comets contain a complex mixture of materials with presolar and Solar System origins. Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) are associated with comets by their fragile nature, unequilibrated anhydrous mineralogy and high abundances of circumstellar grains and isotopically anomalous organic materials. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples returned by the Stardust spacecraft contain presolar materials as well as refractory 16O-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusion- (CAI), chondrule-, and AOA-like materials. We are conducting coordinated chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic studies of a giant cluster CP-IDP (U2-20-GCA) to determine the proportions of inner Solar System and interstellar materials. We previously found that this IDP contains abundant presolar silicates (approx. 1,800 ppm) and 15N-rich hotspots [6].

  7. Chatter active control in a lathe machine using magnetostrictive actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosouhi, R.; Behbahani, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the chatter phenomena in lathe machines. Chatter is one of the main causes of inaccuracy, reduction of life cycle of the machine and tool wear in machine tools. This phenomenon limits the depth of cut as a function of the cutting speed, which consequently reduces the material removal rate and machining efficiency. Chatter control is therefore important since it increases the stability region in machining and increases the critical depth of cut in machining case. To control the chatter in lathe machines, a magnetostrictive actuator is used. The materials with magnetostriction properties are kind of smart materials of which their length changes as a result of applying an exterior magnetic field, which make them suitable for control applications. It is assumed that the actuator applies the proper force exactly at the point where the machining force is applied on the tool. In this paper the chatter stability lobes is excelled as a result of applying a PID controller on the magnetostrictive actuator equipped-tool in turning.

  8. A physically based model for stress sensing using magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoffe, Alexander; Weber, Yarden; Shilo, Doron

    2015-12-01

    Magnetostrictive composites are of considerable interest for real-time remote force sensing and structural health monitoring. In this paper, we introduce a new procedure for modeling the magnetic field induced by an external load applied on an epoxy-based composite material filled with Terfenol-D particles. This model is based on an assumed sequence of physical processes that occur at the microscopic scale, and it includes both domain switching and magnetization rotation. The modeling procedure is demonstrated on a problem relevant for load sensing applications in which the magnetostrictive composite is subjected to a uniaxial compression. Comparison of the calculated and experimental results strengthens the validity of the assumed sequence of physical processes and provides valuable insights important for application developments.

  9. Magnetostrictive vibration damper and energy harvester for rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2015-04-01

    Vibrations generated by machine driveline components can cause excessive noise and structural dam- age. Magnetostrictive materials, including Galfenol (iron-gallium alloys) and Terfenol-D (terbium-iron- dysprosium alloys), are able to convert mechanical energy to magnetic energy. A magnetostrictive vibration ring is proposed, which generates electrical energy and dampens vibration, when installed in a machine driveline. A 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model incorporating magnetic, mechanical, and electrical dynamics is constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on the model, a parametric study considering magnetostrictive material geometry, pickup coil size, bias magnet strength, flux path design, and electrical load is conducted to maximize loss factor and average electrical output power. By connecting various resistive loads to the pickup coil, the maximum loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D due to electrical energy loss are identified as 0.14 and 0.34, respectively. The maximum av- erage electrical output power for Galfenol and Terfenol-D is 0.21 W and 0.58 W, respectively. The loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D are increased to 0.59 and 1.83, respectively, by using an L-C resonant circuit.

  10. Magnetostrictive Vibration Damper and Energy Harvester for Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrations generated by machine driveline components can cause excessive noise and structural damage. Magnetostrictive materials, including Galfenol (iron-gallium alloys) and Terfenol-D (terbium-iron-dysprosium alloys), are able to convert mechanical energy to magnetic energy. A magnetostrictive vibration ring is proposed, which generates electrical energy and dampens vibration, when installed in a machine driveline. A 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model incorporating magnetic, mechanical, and electrical dynamics is constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on the model, a parametric study considering magnetostrictive material geometry, pickup coil size, bias magnet strength, flux path design, and electrical load is conducted to maximize loss factor and average electrical output power. By connecting various resistive loads to the pickup coil, the maximum loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D due to electrical energy loss are identified as 0.14 and 0.34, respectively. The maximum average electrical output power for Galfenol and Terfenol-D is 0.21 W and 0.58 W, respectively. The loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D are increased to 0.59 and 1.83, respectively, by using an L-C resonant circuit.

  11. Investigation of the influence of magnetostriction and magnetic forces on transformer core noise and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phophongviwat, Teeraphon

    Transformer noise is of increasing environmental concern so continued efforts are being made by electrical steel and transformer producers to satisfy users by reducing the noise. Magnetostriction and magnetic forces are the main causes of transformer core noise and vibration. Understanding of the relationship from the core material to core structure and core vibration to core noise can help the design of low noise transformer cores. The most appropriate parameter for investigating the relationship between noise and vibration is sound pressure (in the unit of Pascals) in the frequency domain because it is not A-weighted. In this study, the side surfaces of transformer cores were found to emit higher noise than front and top surfaces at low magnetic induction. When the magnetic induction was increased, the effect of magnetic force increased and caused the front surfaces to emit higher noise. For three phase three limb transformer cores, the front surface of the middle limb generated higher noise than the outer limbs due to the effect of T-joint. However this does not translate higher noise level because of the phase difference of the vibration between the limbs. Due to this A-weighted sound power level of three phase, three limb transformer cores were shown to be lower than single phase transformer cores, although at the same cross sectional area and core window size the three phase cores has larger size.. A model, developed to separate the effects of magnetostriction and magnetic forces on transformer core vibration, showed that at low induction, magnetostriction is more significant than magnetic forces. The magnetic forces become more significant than magnetostriction when the induction is increased. Magnetostriction primarily depends on material and stress but magnetic forces principally depend on core building. Louder noise can be generated from a core built with low magnetostriction material than higher magnetostriction if the building tolerances are worse. The

  12. Design of a Magnetostrictive-Hydraulic Actuator Considering Nonlinear System Dynamics and Fluid-Structure Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John Philip

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators (EHAs) utilize fluid rectification via one-way check valves to amplify the small, high-frequency vibrations of certain smart materials into large motions of a hydraulic cylinder. Although the concept has been demonstrated in previously, the operating frequency of smart material EHA systems has been limited to a small fraction of the available bandwidth of the driver materials. The focus of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical performance of a magnetostrictive EHA considering key system components: rectification valves, smart material driver, and fluid-system components, leading to an improved actuator design relative to prior work. The one-way valves were modeled using 3-D finite element analysis, and their behavior was characterized experimentally by static and dynamic experimental measurement. Taking into account the effect of the fluid and mechanical conditions applied to the valves within the pump, the dynamic response of the valve was quantified and applied to determine rectification bandwidth of different valve configurations. A novel miniature reed valve, designed for a frequency response above 10~kHz, was fabricated and tested within a magnetostrictive EHA. The nonlinear response of the magnetostrictive driver, including saturation and hysteresis effects, was modeled using the Jiles-Atherton approach to calculate the magnetization and the resulting magnetostriction based on the applied field calculated within the rod from Maxwell's equations. The dynamic pressure response of the fluid system components (pumping chamber, hydraulic cylinder, and connecting passages) was measured over a range of input frequencies. For the magnetostrictive EHA tested, the peak performance frequency was found to be limited by the fluid resonances within the system. A lumped-parameter modeling approach was applied to model the overall behavior of a magnetostrictive EHA, incorporating models for the reed valve response

  13. Torsional dependence of the magnetostriction of a Co-rich non-magnetostrictive amorphous wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragoneses, P.; Blanco, J. M.; Domínguez, L.; González, J.; Kulakowski, K.

    The influence of the torsion strain on the coefficients λ(0) and A of the linear dependence of the magnetostriction constant on the applied stress, λ = λ(0) + Aσ, has been investigated in a non-magnetostrictive Co-Fe (Co-rich) amorphous wire. The measurements of the magnetostriction were carried out by means of the small-angle magnetization rotation (SAMR) method on the as-quenched and Joule heated wire. The current annealing was carried out at 550 mA (˜ 450° C) for 2 min. For the as-quenched samples, the magnetostriction is negative and increases with torsion, despite the negative sign of its strain derivative.

  14. Hysteresis of the resonance frequency of magnetostrictive bending cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Michael; Kremer, Ramona; Sutor, Alexander; Lerch, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    Magnetostrictive bending cantilevers are applicable for wirelessly measuring physical quantities such as pressure and strain. Exploiting the ΔE-effect, the resonance frequency of the cantilevers is shifted because of a change in the magnetic biasing field. The biasing field, in turn, depends on the applied pressure or strain, respectively. With a view to the application as a reliable sensor, maximum sensitivity but minimum hysteresis in the biasing field/resonance frequency dependence is preferred. In this contribution, monomorph bending cantilevers fabricated using magnetostrictive Fe49Co49V2 and Metglas 2605SA1 are investigated regarding their applicability for future sensors. For this purpose, the biasing field-dependent polarization of the magnetostrictive materials and bending of the cantilevers are determined. Furthermore, a setup to magnetically bias the cantilevers and determine the bending resonance frequency is presented. Here, the resonance frequency is identified by measuring the impulse response employing a laser Doppler vibrometer. The measurement results reveal that cantilevers made of Fe49Co49V2 possess a distinct hysteretic behaviour at low magnetic biasing field magnitudes. This is ascribed to the polarization and bending hysteresis. Cantilevers fabricated using Metglas 2605SA1 feature a lower resonance frequency shift compared to cantilevers with Fe49Co49V2, which would result in a lower sensitivity of the sensor. However, their resonance frequency hysteresis is almost negligible.

  15. Cryogenic magnetostrictive transducers and devices for commercial, military, and space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisensel, G. N.; McMasters, O. D.; Chave, Robert G.

    1998-06-01

    The unique attributes of magnetostrictive materials have been used to develop a wide variety of electromechanical transducers and devices. Most of these applications have been at or above room temperature. However, many applications at cryogenic temperatures also require high authority, high precision, efficient actuation. Other technologies, including all piezoelectric systems, tend to be inoperable or impractical and unreliable at cryogenic temperatures. Magnetostrictive materials have already demonstrated improved performance at low temperature down to near absolute zero with strains as high as 1% possible. These unique material attributes combine with novel magnetic field generation, transducer and mechanism concepts to meet the challenges of resolution, size, weight, power, thermal and reliability requirements of actuators for many cryogenic applications. Positioning and shaping optics in space, cryogen valving and pumping, heat switches, industrial processing, and active vibration control are just some examples of the many commercial, military and space applications where cryogenic magnetostrictive technologies are overcoming barriers to provide solutions.

  16. Broadband giant-refractive-index material based on mesoscopic space-filling curves.

    PubMed

    Chang, Taeyong; Kim, Jong Uk; Kang, Seung Kyu; Kim, Hyowook; Kim, Do Kyung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Shin, Jonghwa

    2016-01-01

    The refractive index is the fundamental property of all optical materials and dictates Snell's law, propagation speed, wavelength, diffraction, energy density, absorption and emission of light in materials. Experimentally realized broadband refractive indices remain <40, even with intricately designed artificial media. Herein, we demonstrate a measured index >1,800 resulting from a mesoscopic crystal with a dielectric constant greater than three million. This gigantic enhancement effect originates from the space-filling curve concept from mathematics. The principle is inherently very broad band, the enhancement being nearly constant from zero up to the frequency of interest. This broadband giant-refractive-index medium promises not only enhanced resolution in imaging and raised fundamental absorption limits in solar energy devices, but also compact, power-efficient components for optical communication and increased performance in many other applications. PMID:27573337

  17. Application of high-temperature superconducting wires to magnetostrictive transducers for underwater sonar

    SciTech Connect

    Voccio, J.P.; Joshi, C.H.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1994-07-01

    Recently discovered cryogenic magnetostrictive materials show maximum strains greater than any room temperature materials. These cryogenic magnetostrictors can be combined with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to create a sonar transducer with high efficiency and high acoustic power density. A prototype low-frequency (< 1,000 Hz) magnetostrictive transducer is described. This transducer uses a terbium-dysprosium (TbDy) magnetostrictor rod with HTS coils cooled to 50--80 K using a single-stage cryocooler. The device is designed for operation at water depths of 100 m and is believed to be the first fully integrated prototype demonstration of HTS.

  18. Evaluation of material microstructure changes in high speed tool steel by the non-collinear wave mixing technique with MST(magnetostrictive transducer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeongseok; Lee, Dong Jin; Cho, Younho

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of material microstructure changes plays an important role in predicting material failure. Both destructive and nondestructive testings can be used to evaluate the variation of material microstructure. Destructive methods are used to directly verify the changes of material via microstructure picture in a vigorous manner while nonlinear ultrasonic NDE can render a promising tool for the cases. In this study, the MST driven non-collinear wave mixing technique is implemented to evaluate the material microstructure changes in high speed tool steel. The resonant wave is used to analyze the acoustic nonlinearity which is influenced by microstructure changes with various austenitizing temperature effects. Correlation microstructure change between the acoustic nonlinearity and material microstructure is accomplished to explore the feasibility of the non-collinear mixing technique.

  19. An Anisotropic Model for Magnetostriction and Magnetization Computing for Noise Generation in Electric Devices.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Serigne Saliou; Buiron, Nicolas; Lanfranchi, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    During the manufacturing process and use of ferromagnetic sheets, operations such as rolling, cutting, and tightening induce anisotropy that changes the material's behavior. Consequently for more accuracy in magnetization and magnetostriction calculations in electric devices such as transformers, anisotropic effects should be considered. In the following sections, we give an overview of a macroscopic model which takes into account the magnetic and magnetoelastic anisotropy of the material for both magnetization and magnetostriction computing. Firstly, a comparison between the model results and measurements from a Single Sheet Tester (SST) and values will be shown. Secondly, the model is integrated in a finite elements code to predict magnetostrictive deformation of an in-house test bench which is a stack of 40 sheets glued together by the Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation (VPI) method. Measurements on the test bench and Finite Elements results are presented. PMID:27092513

  20. Energy harvesting with coupled magnetostrictive resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Suketu; Phipps, Alex; In, Visarath; Cavaroc, Peyton; Matus-Vargas, Antonio; Palacios, Antonio; Gonzalez-Hernandez, H. G.

    2014-03-01

    We report the investigation of an energy harvesting system composed of coupled resonators with the magnetostrictive material Galfenol (FeGa). A coupled system of meso-scale (1-10 cm) cantilever beams for harvesting vibration energy is described for powering and aiding the performance of low-power wireless sensor nodes. Galfenol is chosen in this work for its durability, compared to the brittleness often encountered with piezoelectric materials, and high magnetomechanical coupling. A lumped model, which captures both the mechanical and electrical behavior of the individual transducers, is first developed. The values of the lumped element parameters are then derived empirically from fabricated beams in order to compare the model to experimental measurements. The governing equations of the coupled system lead to a system of differential equations with all-to-all coupling between transducers. An analysis of the system equations reveals different patterns of collective oscillations. Among the many different patterns, a synchronous state appears to yield the maximum energy that can be harvested by the system. Experiments on coupled system shows that the coupled system exhibits synchronization and an increment in the output power. Discussion of the required power converters is also included.

  1. Development of highly magnetostrictive iron-gallium and iron-gallium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisukhumbowornchai, Nakorn

    2001-10-01

    Magnetostrictive materials that exhibit high mechanical strength, good ductility, large magnetostriction at low saturation fields under both no-load and high-imposed loading conditions, and low cost are of great interest for use in numerous magnetomechanical sensors and actuators. The main purposes of this research are to (i)identify such alloys based on Fe and relatively inexpensive alloying elements, (ii)develop low cost processing of these alloys using directional solidification and thermomechanical processing, and (iii)develop an understanding of how alloying elements and crystal structures influence magnetostriction in Fe. This work for the first time shows that BCC Fe-Ga based alloys show large low field magnetostriction. The magnetostriction values increase as Ga content increases and a preferred [001] crystallographic texture is approached. The values as high as 271 × 10-6 are obtained in the polycrystalline Fe-27.5 at.% Ga rod directionally grown at the rate of 22.5 mm/hour. These large values are obtained at very low applied fields (as low as 65 Oe) and with very small hysteresis. Alloys investigated here include Fe-x at.% Ga (x = 15, 20 and 27.5), Fe-y at.% Ga- (20-y) at.% Al (y = 0, 5, 10 and 15), Fe-13.75 at.% Ga- 13.75 at.% Al, Fe-15 at.% Al, Fe-15 at.% Al-4 at.% Co, Fe-15 at.% Ga-4 at.% Co, Fe-15 at.% Mo, Fe-20 at.% Re, Fe-20 at.% Rh and Fe-10 at.% Sn. A directional casting process involving solidification by rapid one-dimensional heat extraction produced rods with a weak [110] preferred orientation resulting in low magnetostriction. A directional growth process involving controlled crucible movement in a furnace down the temperature gradient resulted in rods with a preferred orientation approaching [001] direction and a large magnetostriction. Orientation imaging microscopy study of texture evolution showed that a low-cost thermomechanical processing sequence of hot rolling, two-stage warm rolling reduction of about 60-65% with 900°C intermediate

  2. Modelling the magnetorefractive effect in giant magnetoresistive granular and layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennicke, R. T.; Bozec, D.; Kravets, V. G.; Vopsaroiu, M.; Matthew, J. A. D.; Thompson, S. M.

    2006-08-01

    The Zhang-Levy-Granovskii (Z-L-G) model of the magnetorefractive effect (MRE) in granular films and the Jacquet-Valet (J-V) model, originally developed for magnetic multilayers, are compared and their common origin demonstrated. Simulations in an extended Hagen-Rubens (H-R) model give new insight into the variation with wavelength of the MRE, and the relative dependence of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and the MRE to material and experimental parameters such as bulk and interface scattering parameters, mean free paths, grain diameter, polarisation and reflection geometry is explored. The sensitivity of the size, wavelength dependence and the position of the depth of the minimum in the MRE spectra to the different parameters is verified. We establish powerful new equations to correlate the MRE and GMR, and we analyse their validity for a variety of film parameters. This suggests a new approach to the use of the MRE in sensing GMR in the films.

  3. Temperature-dependent magnetostriction as the key factor for martensite reorientation in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L’vov, Victor A.; Kosogor, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic field application leads to spatially inhomogeneous magnetostriction of twinned ferromagnetic martensite. When the increasing field and magnetostrictive strain reach certain threshold values, the motion of twin boundaries and magnetically induced reorientation (MIR) of twinned martensite start. The MIR leads to giant magnetically induced deformation of twinned martensite. In the present article, the threshold field (TF) and temperature range of observability of MIR were calculated for the Ni–Mn–Ga martensite assuming that the threshold strain (TS) is temperature-independent. The calculations show that if the TS is of the order of 10‑4, the TF strongly depends on temperature and MIR can be observed only above the limiting temperature (~220 K). If the TS is of the order of 10‑6, the TF weakly depends on temperature and MIR can be observed at extremely low temperatures. The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with available experimental data.

  4. Developing Electrocaloric (EC) Materials with Giant EC Response and Chip-Scale EC Cooling Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiming

    2015-03-01

    The direct and efficient coupling between the electric signals and the elastic, thermal, optical and magnetic signals in ferroelectric based electroactive materials makes them attractive for exploiting a broad range of cross-coupling phenomena which have great promise for new device technologies. This talk will present the recent advances at Penn State in developing electrocaloric materials which may provide alternative cooling technology to replace the century old vapor compression cycle (VCC) based cooling which employs strong greenhouse gases as the refrigerants. Electrocaloric effect (ECE), which is the temperature and entropy change of insulating dielectric materials under electric fields, is attractive to realize efficient cooling devices. However, the relatively small ECE observed in dielectrics in the last century make it unimpressive for any practical applications. Experimental results on the ECE in the relaxor ferroelectric polymers and general theoretical considerations for achieving large ECE will be presented. This talk will also discuss considerations on and present recent works in using nanocomposites to further enhancing the ECE beyond the pure relaxor polymers, on the giant ECE in a class of dielectric liquid, and in bulk ferroelectric ceramics near the invariant critical point. The works related to developing the chip-scale EC cooling devices, exploiting the newly discovered large ECE in ferroelectric materials and featuring high cooling power density and high efficiency, will also be presented. This work has been supported by DoE BES and by ARO.

  5. Piezoelectric/magnetostrictive resonant inchworm motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesner, John E.; Teter, Joseph P.

    1994-05-01

    Magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials were used to create a linear motor operating on the inchworm principle. This motor operates at an electrical resonance, switching power internally between inductive and capacitive components. Magnetic coils surrounding the two Terfenol-D rods which drive the inchworm's center expanding element form the inductive component. Piezoelectric stacks that control the end clamping action are the capacitive components. The normal electrical phase relationship between these components provides natural drive timing for the inchworm. The motor direction can be easily reversed by changing the magnetic bias on the Terfenol. A prototype motor was built that achieved a stall load of 26 lb and no-load speed of 1 inch/sec vs the design of 30 lb and 1.3 inch/sec. A new type of power supply that switches power from a dc source was built for the motor. This power supply uses a small number of components to exactly supply the energy used in each inchworm cycle. It tracks the motor circuit resonance and is not affected by frequency shifts.

  6. Thermo-magnetic history effects in the giant magnetostriction across the first-order transition and minor hysteresis loops modeling in Fe0.955Ni0.045Rh alloy.

    PubMed

    Manekar, Meghmalhar; Sharma, V K; Roy, S B

    2012-05-30

    Results of temperature- and magnetic field-dependent strain measurements across the first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition in Fe(0.955)Ni(0.045)Rh are presented. Distinct thermal and magnetic field hystereses are observed in the measured strain across the phase transition. The minor hysteresis loops inside the hysteretic regime across the temperature-driven transition are modeled using the Preisach model of hysteresis. The applicability of the Preisach model to explain the general features of minor hysteresis loops is discussed for a disorder influenced first-order transition. The minor hysteresis loops show the property of retaining the memory of the starting or end point of the temperature cycle followed within the hysteretic region. A larger temperature excursion within the hysteretic region wipes out the memory of a smaller temperature cycle which contains one of the extrema of the larger cycle. The end-point memory and the wiping-out property of the minor hysteresis loops can be described quite well within the Preisach model, irrespective of the temperature history followed to reach a particular starting point. Thermo-magnetic history effects across the magnetic field-induced transition are explained, which will enable the choice of the starting point of an experimental cycle in the field-temperature phase space so as to achieve the desired functionality. Our results highlight the necessity to understand the influence of disorder on a first-order phase transition so as to achieve a repeatable performance of materials whose functionalities are based on such a transition. PMID:22543692

  7. An Anisotropic Model for Magnetostriction and Magnetization Computing for Noise Generation in Electric Devices

    PubMed Central

    Mbengue, Serigne Saliou; Buiron, Nicolas; Lanfranchi, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    During the manufacturing process and use of ferromagnetic sheets, operations such as rolling, cutting, and tightening induce anisotropy that changes the material’s behavior. Consequently for more accuracy in magnetization and magnetostriction calculations in electric devices such as transformers, anisotropic effects should be considered. In the following sections, we give an overview of a macroscopic model which takes into account the magnetic and magnetoelastic anisotropy of the material for both magnetization and magnetostriction computing. Firstly, a comparison between the model results and measurements from a Single Sheet Tester (SST) and values will be shown. Secondly, the model is integrated in a finite elements code to predict magnetostrictive deformation of an in-house test bench which is a stack of 40 sheets glued together by the Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation (VPI) method. Measurements on the test bench and Finite Elements results are presented. PMID:27092513

  8. Giant magnetostrain based on strong single ion anisotropy of rare earth materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, M.; Raasch, S.; Rotter, M.; Frontzek, M.; Meyer, D. C.; Leisegang, T.; Zschintzsch, M.; Svoboda, P.; Loewenhaupt, M.

    2008-05-01

    The volume, shape and microstructure of solids can be influenced by magnetic fields. Much effort is focused on magnetic shape memory (MSM) materials. Recently, the MSM effect has been discovered to occur also in the paramagnetic state, e.g. in RCu2 compounds (R = rare earth). RMSM materials distinguish themselves from conventional MSM materials by the new origin of the magnetoic anisotropy: the strong rare-earth single ion anisotropy. Due to the pseudo-hexagonal symmetry of RCu2, three orientational variants exists, each of them rotated by about 60 deg with respect to the others. Switching these variants by an external field results in a change of the macroscopic shape. The strain is in the order of one percent (= Giant MagnetoStrain). The variant's fraction remains unchanged when ramping down the field. The virgin state can be recovered by heating or by a perpendicularly directed field. We present temperature and field dependent measurements of magnetostrain and magentization at the model substance Tb0.5Dy0.5Cu2. The macroscopic characterization of the sample is complemented by a detailed microscopic analysis done by elastic neutron scattering. Although the GMS effect of RCu2 was worked out at single crystals, the principle of this magneto-mechanical coupling phenomenon is also useful for polycrystalline or microscaled applications. The existence of this structural irreversibility shows the potential to construct field controlled actuators or switches.

  9. Foreign Body Giant Cell-Related Encapsulation of a Synthetic Material Three Years After Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Jonas; Barbeck, Mike; Sader, Robert A; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Russe, Philippe; Choukroun, Joseph; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2016-06-01

    Bone substitute materials of different origin and chemical compositions are frequently used in augmentation procedures to enlarge the local bone amount. However, relatively little data exist on the long-term tissue reactions. The presented case reports for the first time histological and histomorphometrical analyses of a nanocrystaline hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute material implanted in the human sinus cavity after an integration period of 3 years. The extracted biopsy was analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with focus on the tissue reactions, vascularization, new bone formation, and the induction of a foreign body reaction. A comparably high rate of connective tissue (48.25%) surrounding the remaining bone substitute granules (42.13%) was observed. Accordingly, the amount of bone tissue (9.62%) built the smallest fraction within the biopsy. Further, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive and -negative multinucleated giant cells (4.35 and 3.93 cells/mm(2), respectively) were detected on the material-tissue interfaces. The implantation bed showed a mild vascularization of 10.03 vessels/mm(2) and 0.78%. The present case report shows that after 3 years, a comparable small amount of bone tissue was observable. Thus, the foreign body response to the bone substitute seems to be folded without further degradation or regeneration. PMID:26824327

  10. Giant Negative Area Compressibility Tunable in a Soft Porous Framework Material.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weizhao; Gładysiak, Andrzej; Anioła, Michalina; Smith, Vincent J; Barbour, Leonard J; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2015-07-29

    A soft porous material [Zn(L)2(OH)2]n·Guest (where L is 4-(1H-naphtho[2,3-d]imidazol-1-yl)benzoate, and Guest is water or methanol) exhibits the strongest ever observed negative area compressibility (NAC), an extremely rare property, as at hydrostatic pressure most materials shrink in all directions and few expand in one direction. This is the first NAC reported in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and its magnitude, clearly visible and by far the highest of all known materials, can be reversibly tuned by exchanging guests adsorbed from hydrostatic fluids. This counterintuitive strong NAC of [Zn(L)2(OH)2]n·Guest arises from the interplay of flexible [-Zn-O(H)-]n helices with layers of [-Zn-L-]4 quadrangular puckered rings comprising large channel voids. The compression of helices and flattening of puckered rings combine to give a giant piezo-mechanical response, applicable in ultrasensitive sensors and actuators. The extrinsic NAC response to different hydrostatic fluids is due to varied host-guest interactions affecting the mechanical strain within the range permitted by exceptionally high flexibility of the framework. PMID:25945394

  11. REVIEW ARTICLE: Magnetostrictive delay lines: engineering theory and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.

    2003-02-01

    A review of the engineering theory and the sensing element applications of the magnetostrictive delay line (MDL) technique is presented. The state of the art of magnetic materials and effects used in sensor design is overviewed and the operation of MDLs and their basic engineering properties are discussed. The resulting position, stress and field sensors based on this technique as well as their most significant applications are demonstrated. Finally, the industrialization process and the integration of the sensors with electronic circuitry as well as their evaluation with respect to the state of the art are discussed.

  12. Strain Induced Vortex Core Switching in Planar Magnetostrictive Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostler, T. A.; Cuadrado, R.; Chantrell, R. W.; Rushforth, A. W.; Cavill, S. A.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of magnetic vortex cores is of great interest because the gyrotropic mode has applications in spin torque driven magnetic microwave oscillators, and also provides a means to flip the direction of the core for use in magnetic storage devices. Here, we propose a new means of stimulating magnetization reversal of the vortex core by applying a time-varying strain gradient to planar structures of the magnetostrictive material Fe8 1Ga1 9 (Galfenol), coupled to an underlying piezoelectric layer. Using micromagnetic simulations we have shown that the vortex core state can be deterministically reversed by electric field control of the time-dependent strain-induced anisotropy.

  13. Acoustic panels using magnetostrictive Metglas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerver, Michael J.; Goldie, James H.; Makseyn, Scott; Oleksy, John; Doherty, John J.; Remington, Paul

    1999-06-01

    Passive barriers to transmission of sound waves at frequencies below 500 Hz require large masses. Active noise cancellation systems, on the other hand, are complicated and expensive. We are developing a method for noise control, using an array of panels of magnetostrictive Metglas, which combines the low mass and flexibility of active noise control with the relatively low cost and simplicity of passive noise control. The method is based on the well known fact that an acoustic panel with a reaction mass, resonant at the frequency of the sound wave, will completely reflect that wave, simulating an infinite mass. By wrapping a coil around each Metglas panel, and terminating the coil in an impedance, the stiffness of the Metglas, and hence the resonant frequency of the panel, can be controlled by varying the terminal impedance. By choosing a terminal impedance which is itself frequency dependent, the panel can be made to resonate, and hence to have effective infinite mass, at all frequencies (over some fairly large range) simultaneously. This generally requires negative impedance, which can be produced by a simple circuit with an amplifier and feedback loop. In effect, the Metglas acts like both microphone and speaker in an active noise control system. Preliminary experimental results will be presented.

  14. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  15. Effects of particle size on magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive composites with low particulate volume fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xufeng; Guan, Xinchun; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    In the past ten years, there have been several investigations on the effects of particle size on magnetostrictive properties of polymer-bonded Terfenol-D composites, but they didn't get an agreement. To solve the conflict among them, Terfenol-D/unsaturated polyester resin composite samples were prepared from Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2 powder with 20% volume fraction in six particle-size ranges (30-53, 53-150, 150-300, 300-450, 450-500 and 30-500μm). Then their magnetostrictive properties were tested. The results indicate the 53-150μm distribution presents the largest static and dynamic magnetostriction among the five monodispersed distribution samples. But the 30-500μm (polydispersed) distribution shows even larger response than 53-150μm distribution. It indicates the particle size level plays a doubleedged sword on magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive composites. The existence of the optimal particle size to prepare polymer-bonded Terfenol-D, whose composition is Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2, is resulted from the competition between the positive effects and negative effects of increasing particle size. At small particle size level, the voids and the demagnetization effect decrease significantly with increasing particle size and leads to the increase of magnetostriction; while at lager particle size level, the percentage of single-crystal particles and packing density becomes increasingly smaller with increasing particle size and results in the decrease of magnetostriction. The reason for the other scholars got different results is analyzed.

  16. Review of magnetostrictive patch transducers and applications in ultrasonic nondestructive testing of waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Kwon, Young Eui

    2015-09-01

    A magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) is a transducer that exploits the magnetostrictive phenomena representing interactions between mechanical and magnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials. Since MPT technology was mainly developed and applied for nondestructive ultrasonic testing in waveguides such as pipes and plates, this paper will accordingly review advances of this technology in such a context. An MPT consists of a magnetic circuit composed of permanent magnets and coils, and a thin magnetostrictive patch that works as a sensing and actuating element which is bonded onto or coupled with a test waveguide. The configurations of the circuit and magnetostrictive patch therefore critically affect the performance of an MPT as well as the excited and measured wave modes in a waveguide. In this paper, a variety of state-of-the-art MPT configurations and their applications will be reviewed along with the working principle of this transducer type. The use of MPTs in wave experiments involving phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials is also briefly introduced. PMID:26048175

  17. Effects of intrinsic magnetostriction on tube-topology magnetoelectric sensors with high magnetic field sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, Scott M.; Fitchorov, Trifon; Obi, Ogheneyunume; Chen, Yajie Harris, Vincent G.; Jiang, Liping; Hao, Hongbo; Wu, Shuangxia

    2014-05-07

    Three quasi-one-dimensional magnetoelectric (ME) magnetic field sensors, each with a different magnetostrictive wire material, were investigated in terms of sensitivity and noise floor. Magnetostrictive Galfenol, iron-cobalt-vanadium, and iron-nickel wires were examined. Sensitivity profiles, hysteresis effects, and noise floor measurements for both optimally biased and zero-biased conditions are presented. The FeNi wire (FN) exhibits high sensitivity (5.36 mV/Oe) at bias fields below 22 Oe and an optimal bias of 10 Oe, whereas FeGa wire (FG) exhibits higher sensitivity (6.89 mW/Oe) at bias fields >22 Oe. The sensor of FeCoV wire (FC) presents relatively low sensitivity (2.12 mV/Oe), due to low magnetostrictive coefficient. Each ME tube-topology sensor demonstrates relatively high sensitivity at zero bias field, which results from a magnetic shape anisotropy and internal strain of the thin magnetostrictive wire.

  18. Optimization of sputter deposition parameters for magnetostrictive Fe62Co19Ga19/Si(100) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, S. U.; Tsai, T. L.

    2012-04-01

    A good magnetostrictive material should have large saturation magnetostriction (λS) and low saturation (or anisotropy) field (HS), such that its magnetostriction susceptibility (SH) can be as large as possible. In this study, we have made Fe62Co19Ga19/Si(100) nano-crystalline films by using the dc magnetron sputtering technique under various deposition conditions: Ar working gas pressure (pAr) was varied from 1 to 15 mTorr; sputtering power (Pw) was from 10 to 120 W; deposition temperature (TS) was from room temperature (RT) to 300 °C, The film thickness (tf) was fixed at 175 nm. Each magnetic domain looked like a long leaf, with a long-axis of about 12-15 μm and a short-axis of about 1.5 μm. The optimal magnetic and electrical properties were found from the Fe62Co19Ga19 film made with the sputter deposition parameters of pAr = 5 mTorr, Pw = 80 W, and TS = RT. Those optimal properties include λS = 80 ppm, HS = 19.8 Oe, SH = 6.1 ppm/Oe, and electrical resistivity ρ = 57.0 μΩ cm. Note that SH for the conventional magnetostrictive Terfenol-D film is, in general, equal to 1.5 ppm/Oe only.

  19. Magnetostriction behavior of Co-Fe-Si-B amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Polo, C.; Pulido, E. ); Rivero, G.; Hernando, A. )

    1990-05-01

    It is well known that the saturation magnetostriction constant of nearly-zero-magnetostriction amorphous alloys exhibits a dependence on both magnetic field and applied stress. Therefore the anisotropy field induced by the applied stress does not depend linearly on the stress strength. Experiments carried out on Co-rich amorphous alloys show a stress dependence of the anisotropy field as that expected by assuming long-range fluctuations of the magnetoelastic anisotropy. In this report the existence of local fluctuations of saturation magnetostriction is shown to be a reasonable cause of the stress dependence of magnetostriction.

  20. Development of highly magnetostrictive composites for applications in magnetomechanical torque sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yonghua

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate and develop a magnetomechanical material with high magnetomechanical response and low hysteresis. This material will be used in electronic torque sensors for advanced steering systems in automobiles which will replace the costly and fuel inefficient hydraulic steering systems currently in use. Magnetostruction and the magnetomechanical effect under torsional stress of magnetostrictive composites have been investigated in the present study.

  1. Progress towards developing neutron tolerant magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Brian; Tittmann, Bernhard; Rempe, Joy; Daw, Joshua; Kohse, Gordon; Carpenter, David; Ames, Micheal; Ostrovsky, Yakov; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hualte; Wernsman, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Current generation light water reactors (LWRs), sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs), small modular reactors (SMRs), and next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs) provide harsh environments in and near the core that can severely test material performance and limit their operational life. To address this issue, several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) research programs are evaluating the long duration radiation performance of fuels and materials. In To reduce the amount of Material and Test Reactor (MTR) irradiations required, DOE is also funding development of enhanced instrumentation that will be able to obtain data, with unprecedented accuracy and resolution, that are required to validate new multi-scale multiphysics modeling tools . It is not feasible to obtain such data with the current state of instrumentation technology. To address this need, PSU and collaborators have started an experiment to test the potential for utilizing ultrasonic instruments in-pile. Ultrasonic sensors must be resistant to high neutron flux, high gamma radiation, and high temperature. PSU and collaborators have designed, fabricated, and started to irradiate piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers designed to perform in such harsh environments. Three piezoelectric transducers were fabricated with aluminum nitride, zinc oxide, and bismuth titanate as the active element. The transducers are coupled kovar and aluminum waveguides of which pulse-echo ultrasonic measurements are made in-situ. Two magnetostrictive transducers were fabricated with Remendur and Arnokrome as the active elements. These devices will be pulsed and monitored in-situ. (1) Selection of candidate sensor materials as well as optimization of test assembly parameters (2) High temperature benchmark testing and (3) initial data from the irradiation will be reported.

  2. Synthesis of Giant Zeolite Crystals by a Bulk-Material Dissolution Technique.

    PubMed

    Shimizu; Hamada

    1999-09-01

    Using a quartz glass tube as a bulk silica source under aqueous hydrothermal conditions afforded giant crystals of MFI zeolite about 3 mm in size (see photo). Similar procedures were successfully applied to bulk aluminosilicate ceramics to synthesize large crystals of other zeolites, such as ANA, JBW, CAN, and SOD. PMID:10508361

  3. Modeling a magnetostrictive transducer using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, L. A. L.; Deep, G. S.; Lima, A. M. N.; Neff, H.

    2001-05-01

    This work reports on the applicability of the genetic algorithm (GA) to the problem of parameter determination of magnetostrictive transducers. A combination of the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model with a quadratic moment rotation model is simulated using known parameters of a sensor. The simulated sensor data are then used as input data for the GA parameter calculation method. Taking the previously known parameters, the accuracy of the GA parameter calculation method can be evaluated.

  4. A Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Actuator Using a Persistent High Temperature Superconducting Magnet. Part 1; Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett; Bromberg, Leslie; Teter, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic magnetostrictive materials, such as rare earth zinc crystals, offer high strains and high forces with minimally applied magnetic fields, making the material ideally suited for deformable optics applications. For cryogenic temperature applications the use of superconducting magnets offer the possibility of a persistent mode of operation, i.e., the magnetostrictive material will maintain a strain field without power. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are attractive options if the temperature of operation is higher than 10 degrees Kelvin (K) and below 77 K. However, HTS wires have constraints that limit the minimum radius of winding, and even if good wires can be produced, the technology for joining superconducting wires does not exist. In this paper, the design and capabilities of a rare earth zinc magnetostrictive actuator using bulk HTS is described. Bulk superconductors can be fabricated in the sizes required with excellent superconducting properties. Equivalent permanent magnets, made with this inexpensive material, are persistent, do not require a persistent switch as in HTS wires, and can be made very small. These devices are charged using a technique which is similar to the one used for charging permanent magnets, e.g., by driving them into saturation. A small normal conducting coil can be used for charging or discharging. Because of the magnetic field capability of the superconductor material, a very small amount of superconducting magnet material is needed to actuate the rare earth zinc. In this paper, several designs of actuators using YBCO and BSCCO 2212 superconducting materials are presented. Designs that include magnetic shielding to prevent interaction between adjacent actuators will also be described. Preliminary experimental results and comparison with theory for BSCCO 2212 with a magnetostrictive element will be discussed.

  5. Magnetostrictive bending of cantilever beams and plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Victor H.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    2003-11-01

    The models currently used to determine strains, stresses, and deflections in beams and plates made of magnetostrictive films deposited on nonmagnetic substrates are based on the assumption that the film is relatively thin compared to the substrate. Despite the lack of self-consistency and the limitations of these models, they can be used to calculate approximate strains and deflections when the ratio of the thickness of the film to the thickness of the substrate is smaller than about 0.001; even then they do not consistently predict stresses or energies. Unfortunately, the large deflections required in modern applications are only achievable with films that do not satisfy this assumption of relative film thinness, and the results obtained with the traditional models show large errors. In these circumstances it is necessary to introduce robust methods that can be applied regardless of the relative magnitude of the thickness of the film. In this article, one such method is presented. The method represents a self-consistent approach based on the minimization of the total internal energy of a film-substrate system, performed based on the assumption that the magnetostrictive strains can be modeled as anisotropic expansional strains. The expressions obtained using this approach can be used to calculate strains, stresses, deflections, and energies in an accurate way. The method is suitable for generalization to the cases in which the deformation of beams and plates is produced not only due to magnetostriction in the films, but may also include thermal, piezoelectric, or hygroscopic strains.

  6. Magnetostrictively actuated control flaps for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Millott, T.; Friedmann, P.P.

    1994-12-31

    High vibration levels can impose constraints on helicopter operations and hinder passenger acceptance. Vibration reduction using blade root pitch control introduces a significant power penalty and may adversely affect the airworthiness of the flight control system. Comparable levels of vibration reduction can be achieved using considerably less power through an actively controlled trailing edge flap mounted on the blade. Such a device would have no effect on helicopter airworthiness since it is controlled by a loop separate from the primary flight control system which utilizes the swashplate. Control flap actuation using the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D is studied in this paper by designing a minimum weight actuator, subject to a set of actuation and stress constraints. The resulting device is capable of producing vibration reduction in excess of 90% at cruise conditions.

  7. Theory of shear magnetostriction in amorphous and crystalline ferromagnetic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, V.; Kok, W. C.; Nex, C. M. M.

    1984-06-01

    The theory of shear magnetostriction (SMS) in ferromagnetic metallic systems is formulated in terms of Green functions in real space for a tight binding model. This is general enough to include amorphous ("glassy") alloys, as well as crystalline materials. It is shown that the SMS coefficient λ s( EF) must have at least four zeros as a function of band filling EF through the d-band, which explains the change in sign between Fe alloys and Co, Ni alloys. A method is presented for computing the indefinite integral of the imaginary part of the product of two Green functions expressed as continued fractions, not necessarily over the same band width, and some preliminary calculations explore the importance of various terms.

  8. Giant electric-field-induced strain in lead-free piezoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Yang, Yurong; Meng, X K

    2016-01-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the structures, electrical, and magnetic properties of compressive BiFeO3 films under electric-field and pressure perpendicular to the films. A reversible electric-field-induced strain up 10% is achieved in the compressive BiFeO3 films. The giant strain originates from rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase transition under electric-filed, and is recoverable from tetragonal-rhombohedral (T-R) phase transition by compressive stress. Additionally, the weak ferromagnetism in BiFeO3 films is largely changed in R-T phase transition under electric-filed and T-R phase transition under pressure - reminiscent of magnetoelectric effect and magnetoelastic effect. These results suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the giant filed-induced strain, large magnetoelectric effect and magnetoelastic effect. PMID:27139526

  9. Giant electric-field-induced strain in lead-free piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan; Yang, Yurong; Meng, X. K.

    2016-05-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the structures, electrical, and magnetic properties of compressive BiFeO3 films under electric-field and pressure perpendicular to the films. A reversible electric-field-induced strain up 10% is achieved in the compressive BiFeO3 films. The giant strain originates from rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase transition under electric-filed, and is recoverable from tetragonal-rhombohedral (T-R) phase transition by compressive stress. Additionally, the weak ferromagnetism in BiFeO3 films is largely changed in R-T phase transition under electric-filed and T-R phase transition under pressure – reminiscent of magnetoelectric effect and magnetoelastic effect. These results suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the giant filed-induced strain, large magnetoelectric effect and magnetoelastic effect.

  10. Giant electric-field-induced strain in lead-free piezoelectric materials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lan; Yang, Yurong; Meng, X. K.

    2016-01-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the structures, electrical, and magnetic properties of compressive BiFeO3 films under electric-field and pressure perpendicular to the films. A reversible electric-field-induced strain up 10% is achieved in the compressive BiFeO3 films. The giant strain originates from rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase transition under electric-filed, and is recoverable from tetragonal-rhombohedral (T-R) phase transition by compressive stress. Additionally, the weak ferromagnetism in BiFeO3 films is largely changed in R-T phase transition under electric-filed and T-R phase transition under pressure – reminiscent of magnetoelectric effect and magnetoelastic effect. These results suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the giant filed-induced strain, large magnetoelectric effect and magnetoelastic effect. PMID:27139526

  11. Coupled magnetoelastic theory of magnetic and magnetostrictive hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Sablik, M.J. ); Jiles, D.C. . Ames Lab.)

    1993-07-01

    A physical model is developed for the coupling between magnetic and magnetostrictive hysteresis and for the effect of mechanical stress on both types of hysteresis. The Jiles-Atherton-Sablik model for magnetomechanical hysteresis is reviewed and interpreted. In that model, under applied stress, the magnetization is coupled to magnetostriction through the derivative of the magnetostriction with respect to magnetization. The magnetostriction is also a function of the magnetization even in the absence of stress. An expression for the magnetostriction is derived from minimization of the internal energy with respect to strains, which is necessary for mechanical equilibrium. In the case where stress [sigma]/Y, where Y is Young's modulus, and a magnetostrain which goes to zero at saturation ([Delta]E effect). From the magnetostrain, the magnetostriction is obtained, using the convention that magnetostriction is zero in the unmagnetized state. By taking into account fluctuations in the magnetic energy due to hysteresis, one finds that the magnetostriction initially moves to higher values as the magnitude of the flux density B decreases from its extremum value in [lambda] versus B plots. Various numerical cases are evaluated, and the modeling is compared to previous measurements in polycrystalline iron and steel and in terfenol and Ni-Zn ferrites.

  12. Testing Results of Magnetostrictive Ultrasonic Sensor Cables for Signal Loss

    SciTech Connect

    JT Evans

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this test was to determine the signal strength and resolution losses of a magnetostrictive ultrasonic system with an extended signal cable. The cable of interest carries electrical signals between the pulse generator/receiver and the magnetostrictive transducer. It was desired to determine the loss introduced by different lengths of the signal cable (6', 100', and 200').

  13. Magnetostriction of Co-Fe-Based Amorphous Soft Magnetic Microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, A.; Churyukanova, M.; Kaloshkin, S.; Sudarchikova, V.; Gudoshnikov, S.; Ipatov, M.; Talaat, A.; Blanco, J. M.; Zhukova, V.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the correlation between magnetic softness and magnetostriction coefficient for as-prepared and annealed Co-Fe-rich microwires. We found that the hysteresis loops and magnetostriction coefficients of Co and Fe-rich microwires depend not only on the chemical composition of the metal but also on internal stress. Consequently, both hysteresis loop and magnetostriction coefficient can be adjusted by annealing. We varied the time and temperature of annealing and observed changes of the character of the hysteresis loops. These changes correlated with evolution of the magnetostriction coefficient. Drastic changes of the hysteresis loop for Co-rich microwires were attributed to changes of the sign and value of the magnetostriction coefficient.

  14. A versatile platform for magnetostriction measurements in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernpeintner, M.; Holländer, R. B.; Seitner, M. J.; Weig, E. M.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Huebl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present a versatile nanomechanical sensing platform for the investigation of magnetostriction in thin films. It is based on a doubly clamped silicon nitride nanobeam resonator covered with a thin magnetostrictive film. Changing the magnetization direction within the film plane by an applied magnetic field generates a magnetoelastic stress and thus changes the resonance frequency of the nanobeam. A measurement of the resulting resonance frequency shift, e.g., by optical interferometry, allows to quantitatively determine the magnetostriction constants of the thin film. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we determine the magnetostriction constants of a 10 nm thick polycrystalline cobalt film, showing very good agreement with literature values. The presented technique aims, in particular, for the precise measurement of magnetostriction in a variety of (conducting and insulating) thin films, which can be deposited by, e.g., electron beam deposition, thermal evaporation, or sputtering.

  15. Stress dependent magnetostriction in highly magnetostrictive Fe100-xGax, 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, A. E.; Yoo, J.-H.; Cullen, J. R.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Petculescu, G.; Flatau, A.

    2009-04-01

    Saturation magnetostriction measurements along the [100] axis of Fe100-xGax single crystal rods (˜25×6mm diameter) were observed to have a linear dependence on [100] applied compressive stresses for 20magnetostriction. For x =20.9 and 29.5, the stress T dependencies of the saturation magnetostrictions were found to be 0.136×10-6TMPa-1 and 0.281×10-6TMPa-1, respectively. Values of the third order elastic constants, c3's, calculated from these values agree both in sign and magnitude with those obtained from stress dependent measurements of Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios. In sum, we conclude that the Fe100-xGax magnetostriction for 0

  16. Optimisation Of a Magnetostrictive Wave Energy Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundon, T. R.; Nair, B.

    2014-12-01

    Oscilla Power, Inc. (OPI) is developing a patented magnetostrictive wave energy converter aimed at reducing the cost of grid-scale electricity from ocean waves. Designed to operate cost-effectively across a wide range of wave conditions, this will be the first use of reverse magnetostriction for large-scale energy production. The device architecture is a straightforward two-body, point absorbing system that has been studied at length by various researchers. A large surface float is anchored to a submerged heave (reaction) plate by multiple taut tethers that are largely made up of discrete, robust power takeoff modules that house the magnetostrictive generators. The unique generators developed by OPI utilize the phenomenon of reverse magnetostriction, which through the application of load to a specific low cost alloy, can generate significant magnetic flux changes, and thus create power through electromagnetic induction. Unlike traditional generators, the mode of operation is low-displacement, high-force, high damping which in combination with the specific multi-tether configuration creates some unique effects and interesting optimization challenges. Using an empirical approach with a combination of numerical tools, such as ORCAFLEX, and physical models, we investigated the properties and sensitivities of this system arrangement, including various heave plate geometries, with the overall goal of identifying the mass and hydrodynamic parameters required for optimum performance. Furthermore, through a detailed physical model test program at the University of New Hampshire, we were able to study in more detail how the heave plate geometry affects the drag and added mass coefficients. In presenting this work we will discuss how alternate geometries could be used to optimize the hydrodynamic parameters of the heave plate, allowing maximum inertial forces in operational conditions, while simultaneously minimizing the forces generated in extreme waves. This presentation

  17. Measurement of the magnetostriction constants of amorphous thin films on kapton substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, C.; Kim, T. W.; Gambino, R. J.; Jahnes, C.

    1998-06-01

    The saturation magnetostriction constants of thin films of amorphous Co39Ni31Fe8Si8B14 and CoZrTb have been measured either by the small angle magnetization rotation (SAMR) method or by the initial susceptibility method. The SAMR method is used for the soft materials. When the material is magnetically hard or has a strong perpendicular anisotropy, the initial susceptibility method is used. It is found that the amorphous Co39Ni31Fe8Si8B14 prepared by ion beam deposition from an alloy target shows very soft magnetic properties and has a very small negative saturation magnetostriction, λs, of -1×10-7. Sputtered films of CoZrTb show a strong perpendicular anisotropy when the concentration of Tb is high. We have found that the SAMR method can be applied to CoZrTb films when the Tb content is low. The saturation magnetostricition constant of a sputtered film of Co78.4Zr20.8Tb0.8 is 2×106. When the Tb content is high, however, the initial susceptibility method is used to measure magnetostriction.

  18. Magnetostrictive GMR spin valves with composite FeGa/FeCo free layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Luping; Zhan, Qingfeng; Yang, Huali; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Shuanglan; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-03-01

    We have fabricated strain-sensitive spin valves on flexible substrates by utilizing the large magnetostrictive FeGa alloy to promote the strain sensitivity and the composite free layer of FeGa/FeCo to avoid the drastic reduction of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio. This kind of spin valve (SV-FeGa/FeCo) displays a MR ratio about 5.9%, which is comparable to that of the conventional spin valve (SV-FeCo) with a single FeCo free layer. Different from the previously reported works on magnetostrictive spin valves, the SV-FeGa/FeCo displays an asymmetric strain dependent GMR behavior. Upon increasing the lateral strain, the MR ratio for the ascending branch decreases more quickly than that for the descending branch, which is ascribed to the formation of a spiraling spin structure around the FeGa/FeCo interface under the combined influences of both magnetic field and mechanical strain. A strain sensitivity of GF = 7.2 was achieved at a magnetic bias field of -30 Oe in flexible SV-FeGa/FeCo, which is significantly larger than that of SV-FeCo.

  19. Application of the SAMR method to high magnetostrictive samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, P.; Lopez, E.; Trujillo, M. C. Sanchez; Aroca, C.

    1988-12-01

    Magnetostriction measurement by using the small angle magnetization rotation method (SAMR) has been performed in high magnetostrictive amorphous samples. To apply the SAMR method to these samples, a theoritical model about the influence of the internal stresses and magnetization distribution has been proposed. The dependence of the magnetostriction, λ s, with the temperature and applied stress was measured in as-cast and in different annealed samples. In the as-cast samples the existence of a stray field and a dependence of λ s with the applied stress has been observed.

  20. Amorphous magnetostrictive wires used in delay lines for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we give a review on the use of amorphous magnetostrictive wires in delay lines for sensing applications. Initially, we demonstrate the engineering model of the operation of magnetostrictive delay lines (MDL), illustrating the micro-strain generation, propagation and detection. Accordingly, we present the developed sensing elements based on this technique. The sensing elements are based on the parameters affecting the operation of the MDL, which are the ambient field, the interrogating electromagnetic field and the mechanical action on the magnetic element. Finally, we discuss on the development of a new magnetostrictive device, which incorporate the excitation and sensing means and can be used in sensing applications.

  1. Progress towards developing neutron tolerant magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Brian; Tittmann, Bernhard; Rempe, Joy; Daw, Joshua; Kohse, Gordon; Carpenter, David; Ames, Michael; Ostrovsky, Yakov; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hualte; Wernsman, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Current generation light water reactors (LWRs), sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs), small modular reactors (SMRs), and next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs) produce harsh environments in and near the reactor core that can severely tax material performance and limit component operational life. To address this issue, several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) research programs are evaluating the long duration irradiation performance of fuel and structural materials used in existing and new reactors. In order to maximize the amount of information obtained from Material Testing Reactor (MTR) irradiations, DOE is also funding development of enhanced instrumentation that will be able to obtain in-situ, real-time data on key material characteristics and properties, with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. Such data are required to validate new multi-scale, multi-physics modeling tools under development as part of a science-based, engineering driven approach to reactor development. It is not feasible to obtain high resolution/microscale data with the current state of instrumentation technology. However, ultrasound-based sensors offer the ability to obtain such data if it is demonstrated that these sensors and their associated transducers are resistant to high neutron flux, high gamma radiation, and high temperature. To address this need, the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF) is funding an irradiation, led by PSU, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor to test the survivability of ultrasound transducers. As part of this effort, PSU and collaborators have designed, fabricated, and provided piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are optimized to perform in harsh, high flux, environments. Four piezoelectric transducers were fabricated with either aluminum nitride, zinc oxide, or bismuth titanate as the active element that were coupled to either Kovar or aluminum waveguides and two

  2. Progress towards developing neutron tolerant magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Brian; Tittmann, Bernhard; Rempe, Joy; Daw, Joshua; Kohse, Gordon; Carpenter, David; Ames, Michael; Ostrovsky, Yakov; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hualte; Wernsman, Bernard

    2015-03-31

    Current generation light water reactors (LWRs), sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs), small modular reactors (SMRs), and next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs) produce harsh environments in and near the reactor core that can severely tax material performance and limit component operational life. To address this issue, several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) research programs are evaluating the long duration irradiation performance of fuel and structural materials used in existing and new reactors. In order to maximize the amount of information obtained from Material Testing Reactor (MTR) irradiations, DOE is also funding development of enhanced instrumentation that will be able to obtain in-situ, real-time data on key material characteristics and properties, with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. Such data are required to validate new multi-scale, multi-physics modeling tools under development as part of a science-based, engineering driven approach to reactor development. It is not feasible to obtain high resolution/microscale data with the current state of instrumentation technology. However, ultrasound-based sensors offer the ability to obtain such data if it is demonstrated that these sensors and their associated transducers are resistant to high neutron flux, high gamma radiation, and high temperature. To address this need, the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF) is funding an irradiation, led by PSU, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor to test the survivability of ultrasound transducers. As part of this effort, PSU and collaborators have designed, fabricated, and provided piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are optimized to perform in harsh, high flux, environments. Four piezoelectric transducers were fabricated with either aluminum nitride, zinc oxide, or bismuth titanate as the active element that were coupled to either Kovar or aluminum waveguides and two

  3. Optimization of magnetostriction, coercive field and magnetic transition temperature in nanocrystalline TbDyFe+Zr/Nb multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, S. F.; Kelsch, M.; Kronmüller, H.

    1999-06-01

    The magnetostrictive properties of TbDyFe/Nb multilayers containing 2 at% Zr as an additive have been investigated after different annealing treatments for the (Terfenol-D near) composition of [Tb 0.27Dy 0.73] 0.27Fe 0.73. The multilayer structure has been produced by ion-beam sputtering on a sapphire substrate. After 10 min annealing of the multilayers at temperatures from 873 to 973 K the parallel magnetostriction increased from λ‖(0.8 T)=265 to 520 ppm accompanied by an increase of the magnetic phase transition temperature from TC=333 to 592 K, while the increase of the coercive fields from μ0Hc<5 to 75 mT lies distinctively below 100 mT. These properties are suitable for applications of giant magnetostrictive films in microsystems where values of λ>500 ppm, TC>500 K and μ0Hc≪100 mT are required. Establishing a nanocrystalline microstructure with grain sizes d< dc˜15 nm ( dc is the critical grain diameter) smaller than the exchange length is essential for the combination of intrinsic magnetic properties (increased λ and TC) with soft magnetic properties ( μ0Hc of a few mT) as typical for an amorphous microstructure. It is shown by microstructural XRD and TEM investigations that such a nanocrystalline microstructure can be realized by a suitable heat treatment of TbDyFe+Zr/Nb multilayers. Introducing Nb spacer layers effectively reduces grain growth for certain annealing temperatures while Zr is assumed to play a dominant role in forming nucleation centers of nanograins. In combination, both effects can be well used to optimize the magnetostrictive layer properties.

  4. The effect of the condensation of ice materials in the atmosphere on the thermal evolution of ice giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    Though Uranus and Neptune are similar in mass and radius, the former is significantly fainter than the latter. As previous theoretical studies of thermal evolution of the ice giants demonstrated, the faintness of Uranus is not explained by simple three-layer models that are composed of a H/He-dominated envelope, an ice mantle and a rocky core. Namely, the observed effective temperature of Uranus is lower than theoretically predicted (e.g., Fortney et al., 2011; Nettelmann et al., 2013). Since the speed of the thermal evolution is determined by how efficiently the planetary atmosphere radiates energy, the atmospheric structure is important. If the atmosphere contains ice materials such as water, ammonia and methane, those materials have been condensed and removed from the atmosphere during the cooling. In this study, we quantify the impact of the condensation of ice components in the atmosphere on the thermal evolution, which previous studies ignore, to explain the current luminosity of Uranus. To do so, we simulate the thermal cooling of ice giants, based on three layer models with a relatively ice-component-rich, H/He-dominated atmosphere on top of a water mantle that surrounds a rocky core. We demonstrate that the effect of the condensation makes the timescale of the thermal cooling of the planet shorter by an order of magnitude than in the case without condensation. Such accelerated cooling is shown to be fast enough to explain the current faintness of Uranus. We also discuss what caused the difference in current luminosity between Uranus and Neptune.

  5. Performance of improved magnetostrictive vibrational power generator, simple and high power output for practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Toshiyuki

    2015-05-07

    Vibration based power generation technology is utilized effectively in various fields. Author has invented novel vibrational power generation device using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beam structure consisting of a rod of iron-gallium alloy wound with coil and yoke accompanied with permanent magnet. When bending force is applied on the tip of the device, the magnetization inside the rod varies with induced stress due to the inverse magnetostrictive effect. In vibration, the time variation of the magnetization generates voltage on the wound coil. The magnetostrictive type is advantageous over conventional such using piezoelectric or moving magnet types in high efficiency and high robustness, and low electrical impedance. Here, author has established device configuration, simple, rigid, and high power output endurable for practical applications. In addition, the improved device is lower cost using less volume of Fe-Ga and permanent magnet compared to our conventional, and its assembly by soldering is easy and fast suitable for mass production. Average power of 3 mW/cm{sup 3} under resonant vibration of 212 Hz and 1.2 G was obtained in miniature prototype using Fe-Ga rod of 2 × 0.5× 7 mm{sup 3}. Furthermore, the damping effect was observed, which demonstrates high energy conversion of the generator.

  6. Performance of improved magnetostrictive vibrational power generator, simple and high power output for practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    Vibration based power generation technology is utilized effectively in various fields. Author has invented novel vibrational power generation device using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beam structure consisting of a rod of iron-gallium alloy wound with coil and yoke accompanied with permanent magnet. When bending force is applied on the tip of the device, the magnetization inside the rod varies with induced stress due to the inverse magnetostrictive effect. In vibration, the time variation of the magnetization generates voltage on the wound coil. The magnetostrictive type is advantageous over conventional such using piezoelectric or moving magnet types in high efficiency and high robustness, and low electrical impedance. Here, author has established device configuration, simple, rigid, and high power output endurable for practical applications. In addition, the improved device is lower cost using less volume of Fe-Ga and permanent magnet compared to our conventional, and its assembly by soldering is easy and fast suitable for mass production. Average power of 3 mW/cm3 under resonant vibration of 212 Hz and 1.2 G was obtained in miniature prototype using Fe-Ga rod of 2 × 0.5× 7 mm3. Furthermore, the damping effect was observed, which demonstrates high energy conversion of the generator.

  7. Vertical positioning surveillance by magnetostrictive transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. S.; Lopes, C.; Pinto, O. O.; Nunes, C. D.; Borges, M. F.; Strohaecker, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    This work purpose is to create a positioning automated system of a tailstock to perform impact resistance tests on silicone mammary implants. This system is capable to measure and oversight the positioning through interrelation between three main components: programmable logic controller, human-machine interface and magnetostrictive transducer. Together, these components form an operational closed loop that ensures an appropriate positioning for the impact device. The paper describes how the closed loop works and also the algorithm implemented in the programmable logic controller which surveys the positioning. As a last topic, the paper presents the operator work on the machine's operation in conjunction with human-machine interface. The results were satisfactory and in accordance with the limits determined on ABNT NBR ISO 14607 for this method of tests.

  8. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  9. Development of a Capacitive Measurement Apparatus for Steel Alloy Magnetostriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milby, Christopher L.; Wiewel, Joseph L.; Beckner, Matthew W.; Boley, Mark S.

    2008-03-01

    In our laboratory we have developed steel alloy torque transducers that operate via a magnetoelastic principle, converting applied stress to an external magnetic field signal subsequent to appropriate magnetic pre-conditioning. We have found that linearity, repeatability, and sensitivity of these transducers is highly dependent on the nickel and chromium content of these alloys which is directly linked to the extent that these materials enhance or degrade the ``engineering magnetostriction coefficient'' of the alloy; therefore its measurement is fundamental to the application of these alloys. In our present apparatus, we applied a large current to produce a saturating axial magnetic field in the sample, which was physically connected to change the capacitance between two large adjustable plates, then related this change to a capacitance bridge voltage to ascertain a sample dimensional change on the order of ppm. Values agreeing with previously measured coefficients were found for pure nickel, while values in qualitative agreement with the magnetoelastic sensitivity of several steel alloys applied in magnetic torque sensing technology were also found, confirming that our apparatus can predict the optimal materials for magnetic torque sensing.

  10. Plant nanobionic materials with a giant temperature response mediated by pectin-Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Raffaele; Daraio, Chiara; Maresca, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Conventional approaches to create biomaterials rely on reverse engineering of biological structures, on biomimicking, and on bioinspiration. Plant nanobionics is a recent approach to engineer new materials combining plant organelles with synthetic nanoparticles to enhance, for example, photosynthesis. Biological structures often outperform man-made materials. For example, higher plants sense temperature changes with high responsivity. However, these properties do not persist after cell death. Here, we permanently stabilize the temperature response of isolated plant cells adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Interconnecting cells, we create materials with an effective temperature coefficient of electrical resistance (TCR) of −1,730% K−1, ∼2 orders of magnitude higher than the best available sensors. This extreme temperature response is due to metal ions contained in the egg-box structure of the pectin backbone, lodged between cellulose microfibrils. The presence of a network of CNTs stabilizes the response of cells at high temperatures without decreasing the activation energy of the material. CNTs also increase the background conductivity, making these materials suitable elements for thermal and distance sensors. PMID:25825744

  11. Plant nanobionic materials with a giant temperature response mediated by pectin-Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Raffaele; Daraio, Chiara; Maresca, Bruno

    2015-04-14

    Conventional approaches to create biomaterials rely on reverse engineering of biological structures, on biomimicking, and on bioinspiration. Plant nanobionics is a recent approach to engineer new materials combining plant organelles with synthetic nanoparticles to enhance, for example, photosynthesis. Biological structures often outperform man-made materials. For example, higher plants sense temperature changes with high responsivity. However, these properties do not persist after cell death. Here, we permanently stabilize the temperature response of isolated plant cells adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Interconnecting cells, we create materials with an effective temperature coefficient of electrical resistance (TCR) of -1,730% K(-1), ∼2 orders of magnitude higher than the best available sensors. This extreme temperature response is due to metal ions contained in the egg-box structure of the pectin backbone, lodged between cellulose microfibrils. The presence of a network of CNTs stabilizes the response of cells at high temperatures without decreasing the activation energy of the material. CNTs also increase the background conductivity, making these materials suitable elements for thermal and distance sensors. PMID:25825744

  12. Nonlinear Modeling and Characterization of the Villari Effect and Model-guided Development of Magnetostrictive Energy Harvesters and Dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhangxian

    The Villari effect, through which mechanical energy is transferred to magnetic energy in magnetostrictive materials can be utilized in energy harvester and damper designs. Significant research has been conducted on two magnetostrictive materials, Terfenol-D (TbxDy1-xFe2.0, x ≈ 0.3) and Galfenol (Fe1-xGax, 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.3), due to their high magnetomechanical coupling. Both materials have strengths and weaknesses. Terfenol-D exhibits low eddy current loss, but it is brittle and difficult to machine. Terfenol-D also provides higher magnetostriction while requiring a large magnetic field. On the other hand, Galfenol is mechanically robust, and thus can be machined, welded, and formed into complex geometries. However, due to its severe eddy current effect, lamination is necessary in high frequency applications. This work first characterized the Villari effect of Galfenol in terms of the piezo-magnetic constant d33* and hysteresis loss. The stress-flux density loops of oriented, polycrystalline Fe18.4Ga81.6 Galfenol were measured at quasi-static and dynamic regimes (up to 800 Hz). Advanced modeling tools are necessary for magnetostrictive device development. On the material level, this work proposed a dynamic, discrete energy-averaged (DEA) model incorporating time-dependent volume fractions into the static DEA framework. This dynamic DEA model took eddy current loss, mechanical loss, and pinning site loss into account and accurately simulated the measured Villari effect up to 600 Hz. On the system level, this work integrated a hysteresis static DEA model with a 3D finite element (FE) framework, and accurately modeled stress-flux density minor loops in a quasi-static state. Based on the assumption that the magnetostriction and magnetization are uniaxial, this work also proposed an efficient 2D FE framework describing nonlinear magnetostrictive responses via interpolation functions. This enhanced knowledge of the Villari effect facilitates magnetostrictive vibration

  13. A new hybrid longitudinal-torsional magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karafi, Mohammad Reza; Hojjat, Yousef; Sassani, Farrokh

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid longitudinal-torsional magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer (HL-TMUT) is introduced. The transducer is composed of a magnetostrictive exponential horn and a stainless steel tail mass. In this transducer a spiral magnetic field made up of longitudinal and circumferential magnetic fields is applied to the magnetostrictive horn. As a result, the magnetostrictive horn oscillates simultaneously both longitudinally and torsionally in accordance with the Joule and Wiedemann effects. The magnetostrictive exponential horn is designed in such a manner that it has the same longitudinal and torsional resonant frequency. It is made up of ‘2V Permendur’, which has isotropic magnetic properties. The differential equations of the torsional and longitudinal vibration of the horn are derived, and a HL-TMUT is designed with a resonant frequency of 20 573 Hz. The natural frequency and mode shapes of the transducer are considered theoretically and numerically. The experimental results show that this transducer resonates torsionally and longitudinally with frequencies of 20 610 Hz and 20 830 Hz respectively. The maximum torsional displacement is 1.5 mrad m-1 and the maximum longitudinal displacement is 0.6 μm. These are promising features for industrial applications.

  14. Giant amplification of light in non-hermitian photonic materials (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tureci, Hakan E.; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Ge, Li

    2015-09-01

    In photonics and quantum optics, a key challenge facing any technological application has traditionally been the mitigation of optical losses. Recent work has shown that a new class of optical materials, called Parity-Time symmetric materials, that consist of a precisely balanced distribution of loss and gain can be exploited to engineer novel functionalities for propagating and filtering electromagnetic radiation. Here we show a generic property of optical systems that feature an arbitrary distribution of loss and gain, described by non-Hermitian operators, namely that overall lossy optical systems can transiently amplify certain input signals by several orders of magnitude. We present a mathematical framework to analyze the dynamics of wave propagation in media with an arbitrary distribution of loss and gain and construct the initial conditions to engineer such non-Hermitian power amplifiers.

  15. Presolar Materials in a Giant Cluster IDP of Probable Cometary Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.; Nguyen, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) have been linked to comets by their fragile structure, primitive mineralogy, dynamics, and abundant interstellar materials. But differences have emerged between 'cometary' CP-IDPs and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust Mission samples. Particles resembling Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), chondrules, and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in Wild 2 samples are rare in CP-IDPs. Unlike IDPs, presolar materials are scarce in Wild 2 samples. These differences may be due to selection effects, such as destruction of fine grained (presolar) components during the 6 km/s aerogel impact collection of Wild 2 samples. Large refractory grains observed in Wild 2 samples are also unlikely to be found in most (less than 30 micrometers) IDPs. Presolar materials provide a measure of primitive-ness of meteorites and IDPs. Organic matter in IDPs and chondrites shows H and N isotopic anomalies attributed to low-T interstellar or protosolar disk chemistry, where the largest anomalies occur in the most primitive samples. Presolar silicates are abundant in meteorites with low levels of aqueous alteration (Acfer 094 approximately 200 ppm) and scarce in altered chondrites (e.g. Semarkona approximately 20 ppm). Presolar silicates in minimally altered CP-IDPs range from approximately 400 ppm to 15,000 ppm, possibly reflecting variable levels of destruction in the solar nebula or statistical variations due to small sample sizes. Here we present preliminary isotopic and mineralogical studies of a very large CP-IDP. The goals of this study are to more accurately determine the abundances of presolar components of CP-IDP material for comparison with comet Wild 2 samples and meteorites. The large mass of this IDP presents a unique opportunity to accurately determine the abundance of pre-solar grains in a likely cometary sample.

  16. Feasibility of Magnetostrictive Sensor Inspection of Containments

    SciTech Connect

    Kwun, H.

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study on the feasibility of using guided waves for long-range global inspection of containment metallic pressure boundaries (i.e., steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments) in nuclear power plants. Of particular concern in this study was the potential of the guided-wave approach for remotely inspecting the regions that are inaccessible; for example, regions where the metallic pressure boundary is backed by concrete on one or both sides. The study includes a literature review on long-range guided-wave inspection techniques, a modeling study of the behavior of guided waves in plates with different boundary conditions (e.g., freestanding and backed by concrete on one or both sides), and an experimental investigation of the feasibility of a guided-wave technique called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for (1) generating and detecting guided waves in plates and (2) detecting a defect over a long range. Results of the study showed (1) that it is feasible to achieve long-range global inspection of plates, including regions that are inaccessible, using low-frequency guided waves and (2) that the MsS technique is well suited for this application. Recommendations are made to further test and develop the MsS technique for practical implementation for containment inspection in nuclear power plants.

  17. Magnetoelectric effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive multilayer (2-2) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Avellaneda, M.; Harshe, G.

    1994-07-01

    We consider the magnetoelectric effect arising in a multilayer composite consisting of bonded layers of a piezoelectric ceramic and a magnetostrictive material operating in the linear regime. Magnetoelectric coupling arises from the mechanical contacts between layers and the electric/mechanical and magnetic/mechanical coupling in each phase. Calculations of the magnetoelectric coefficient alpha * as well as of the figures of merit k(sub me) and k(sub me,cl) are presented. These calculations fully take into account the electric, magnetic and mechanical mismatch in the material properties, as well as the volume-fractions of both materials. We derive the optimal volume fraction f(sub 1)(sup crit) of piezoelectric material needed to maximize the figure of merit k(sub fme) or k(sub me,cl) for the composite and give criteria for optimizing the magnetoelectric effect in terms of the choice of the individual constituents. We computed the figures of merit of a variety of piezoelectric /magnetostrictive combinations. The combinations CoFe2O4/PZT5H (k(sub me) = 14%), Terfenol D/PZT5A (k(sub me) = 22%) and Terfenol D/PZT4 (k(sub me) = 30%) show reasonable energy transfer to be useful as magnetoelectric transducers. 11 refs.

  18. Progress Report 2011: Understanding compound phase transitions in Heusler alloy giant magnetocaloric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Shane

    2011-12-13

    Our goal is to gain insight into the fundamental physics that is responsible for magnetocaloric effects (MCE) and related properties at the atomic level. We are currently conducting a systematic study on the effects of atomic substitutions in Ni2MnGa-based alloys, and also exploring related full- and half-Heusler alloys, for example Ni-Mn-X (X=In, Sn, Sb), that exhibit a wide variety of interesting and potentially useful physical phenomena. It is already known that the magnetocaloric effect in the Heusler alloys is fundamentally connected to other interesting phenomena such as shape-memory properties. And the large magnetic entropy change in Ni2Mn0.75Cu0.25Ga has been attributed to the coupling of the first-order, martensitic transition with the second-order ferromagnetic paramagnetic (FM-PM) transition. Our research to this point has focused on understanding the fundamental physics at the origin of these complex, compound phase transitions, and the novel properties that emerge. We synthesize the materials using a variety of techniques, and explore their material properties through structural, magnetic, transport, and thermo-magnetic measurements.

  19. Hot cracks in rubber: origin of the giant toughness of rubberlike materials.

    PubMed

    Carbone, G; Persson, B N J

    2005-09-01

    We study crack propagation in rubberlike materials and show that the nonuniform temperature distribution which occurs in the vicinity of the crack tip has a profound influence on the crack propagation, and may strongly enhance the crack propagation energy G(v) for high crack velocities v. At very low crack-tip velocities, the heat produced at the crack tip can diffuse away, but already at moderate crack-tip velocities a very large temperature increase occurs close to the crack tip resulting in a "hot-crack" propagation regime. The transition between the low-speed regime and the hot-crack regime is very abrupt and may result in unstable crack motion, e.g., stick-slip motion or catastrophic failure. PMID:16197007

  20. The nature of photoinduced changes in the magnetostriction of yttrium-iron garnet single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N. V.

    2011-05-15

    A model of the occurrence of photoinduced changes in linear magnetostriction is proposed based on a complex experimental study of magnetostrictive strains in yttrium-iron garnets Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} with low contents of different impurities. Analytical expressions for calculating the magnetostriction in yttrium-iron garnet single crystals with different types of doping are presented. The correlation of the photoinduced change in the magnetostriction with the crystallographic features of the samples is demonstrated. The changes in the magnetostriction constants are analyzed quantitatively for samples prepared in different ways.

  1. Magnetostriction and palæomagnetism of igneous rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, John W.; Buddington, A.F.; Balsley, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    IN a recent communication, Stott and Stacey1 report on a “crucial experiment” from which they conclude: “This excellent agreement between the dip and the directions of artificial thermoremanent magnetization of the stressed and unstressed rocks indicates that large systematic errors due to magnetostriction are most improbable in igneous rocks of types normally used for palæomagnetic work”. This experiment was intended to test the proposals2 and measurements3 bearing on the role of magnetostriction in rock magnetism. We present here our reasons for believing that the experiment was not crucial and that the conclusion is not justified.

  2. Continuous method for manufacturing grain-oriented magnetostrictive bodies

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, Edwin D.; Verhoeven, John D.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; McMasters, O. Dale

    1988-01-01

    The invention comprises a continuous casting and crystallization method for manufacturing grain-oriented magnetostrictive bodies. A magnetostrictive alloy is melted in a crucible having a bottom outlet. The melt is discharged through the bottom of the crucible and deposited in an elongated mold. Heat is removed from the deposited melt through the lower end portion of the mold to progressively solidify the melt. The solid-liquid interface of the melt moves directionally upwardly from the bottom to the top of the mold, to produce the axial grain orientation.

  3. Design, test and model of a hybrid magnetostrictive hydraulic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2009-08-01

    The basic operation of hybrid hydraulic actuators involves high frequency bi-directional operation of an active material that is converted to uni-directional motion of hydraulic fluid using valves. A hybrid actuator was developed using magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D as the driving element and hydraulic oil as the working fluid. Two different lengths of Terfenol-D rod, 51 and 102 mm, with the same diameter, 12.7 mm, were used. Tests with no load and with load were carried out to measure the performance for uni-directional motion of the output piston at different pumping frequencies. The maximum no-load flow rates were 24.8 cm3 s-1 and 22.7 cm3 s-1 with the 51 mm and 102 mm long rods respectively, and the peaks were noted around 325 Hz pumping frequency. The blocked force of the actuator was close to 89 N in both cases. A key observation was that, at these high pumping frequencies, the inertial effects of the fluid mass dominate over the viscous effects and the problem becomes unsteady in nature. In this study, we also develop a mathematical model of the hydraulic hybrid actuator in the time domain to show the basic operational principle under varying conditions and to capture phenomena affecting system performance. Governing equations for the pumping piston and output shaft were obtained from force equilibrium considerations, while compressibility of the working fluid was taken into account by incorporating the bulk modulus. Fluid inertia was represented by a lumped parameter approach to the transmission line model, giving rise to strongly coupled ordinary differential equations. The model was then used to calculate the no-load velocities of the actuator at different pumping frequencies and simulation results were compared with experimental data for model validation.

  4. Mirroring the dynamic magnetic behavior of magnetostrictive Co/(Ag,Cu,Ta) multilayers grown onto rigid and flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agra, K.; Gomes, R. R.; Della Pace, R. D.; Dorneles, L. S.; Bohn, F.; Corrêa, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the magnetoimpedance effect in a wide frequency range in magnetostrictive Co/(Ag,Cu,Ta) multilayers grown onto rigid and flexible substrates. We observe a direct correlation between structural and quasi-static magnetic properties and the magnetoimpedance effect, since they are directly dependent on the nature of the spacer material. Moreover, we verify that all these properties are insensitive to the kind of employed substrate. We compare the magnetoimpedance results measured for multilayers in rigid and flexible substrates and discuss them in terms of different mechanisms that govern the impedances changes, magnetic anisotropy, structural character, and of numerical calculation results found in the literature. The fact that magnetostrictive multilayers can be reproduced in distinct kinds of substrates corresponds to an important advance for their applicability. The results place multilayers grown onto flexible substrates as attractive candidates for application as probe element in the development of MI-based sensor devices.

  5. Helical anisotropy and Matteucci effect in Co-Si-B amorphous wires with negative magnetostriction (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, J.; Takajo, M.; Humphrey, F. B.

    1994-05-01

    The Co-Si-B amorphous wires having the negative magnetostriction comprises shell and core domains and exhibits the re-entrant flux reversal as the Fe-Si-B wire with positive magnetostriction. One of the characteristic features of Co based wires is that a sharp pulse voltage generation between two wire ends (Matteucci effect) is accompanied with re-entrant flux reversal, which is useful for sensor application because of no need for sense windings. In this work, we studied the origin of the large Matteucci effect of Co-Si-B wires by domain observation with a Kerr microscope and by Sixtus-Tonks experiments by driving the reverse domain propagation with the circular fields generated by the current through wires. We also tried to measure the hysteresis loop in the circular direction by integrating the Matteucci voltage. It was found that the domain patterns of the Co-Si-B wire surface is not the previously reported bamboo configuration but the helical configuration. Most of the anisotropy of the amorphous materials is magnetostrictive in origin. The helical anisotropy of Co based wire seems consistent, if we assume the same residual stress distribution as in the steel rod quenched into the water. Because of the helical anisotropy, the Co wire has the big circular component of magnetization in the core domain as well as in the shell domain, and both domain can interact near the interface region. It was found that reverse domain propagation along the wire axis can be caused by application of the circular field and that the shell domain moves discontinuously during the re-entrant flux reversal in the core domain. These circular magnetization components in both core and shell domains due to helical anisotropy and their interaction seems responsible for the large Matteucci effect in the Co-Si-B wires.

  6. Equivalent body-force model for magnetostrictive transduction in EMATs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Peter B.; Ribichini, Remo

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are an attractive alternative to standard piezoelectric probes in those applications where couplant fluid cannot be used, i.e. high speed or high temperature testing, or when specific wave-modes have to be excited. When used on ferromagnetic samples, EMATs generate elastic waves through three different transduction mechanisms: the Lorentz force, the magnetization force and magnetostriction. The modeling of such phenomena has drawn the attention of several researchers, leading to different physical formalizations, especially for magnetostriction, being the most complex mechanism. This work presents a physics-based model for tangential bias field magnetostrictive EMATs employing surface tractions equivalent to the inertia body forces caused by magnetostrictive strains. This type of modeling had been previously used to validate a Finite Element model for normal bias field EMATs and here is extended to the tangential bias field configuration. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed model is equivalent to a recently developed method using the spatial convolution integral of body forces with Green's tensor to model elastic wave generation in a solid half-space.

  7. Synthesis and magnetostrictive properties of Pr1-xDyx(Fe0.8Co0.2)1.93 cubic Laves compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. G.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, L.; Hu, C. C.; Pan, Q.; Shi, D. N.

    2016-05-01

    The structure, magnetic properties and magnetostriction of high-pressure synthesized Pr1-xDyx(Fe0.8Co0.2)1.93 compounds were investigated. These compounds, which could not be readily synthesized under ambient pressure, exhibit single cubic Laves phase owing to the effects of high-pressure annealing. The Curie temperature increases with increasing x, indicating that 3d-4f coupling becomes stronger with the increase of Dy concentration. The saturation magnetization decreases with increasing x, which can be ascribed to the competition of sublattice magnetization. The easy magnetization direction of the compound lies along <111 > with x ≤ 0.05 while lies along <100 > when x ≥ 0.10. Meanwhile, the low-field magnetostriction λ∥ - λ⊥ of the compound system peaks at x = 0.05 and then decreases with increasing x, which reveals that the composition anisotropy compensation between Pr3+ and Dy3+ might be realized in Pr1-xDyx(Fe0.8Co0.2)1.93 system. Pr0.95Dy0.05(Fe0.8Co0.2)1.93 compound combines a large low-field magnetostriction (648 ppm at 3 kOe) and the merits of low-cost raw materials, which may make it a potential material for magnetostrictive application.

  8. Magnetostriction of rare-earth random magnetic anisotropy spin glasses

    SciTech Connect

    del Moral, A.; Arnaudas, J.I.

    1989-05-01

    A model of magnetostriction for single-ion random magnetic anisotropy (RMA) spin glasses (SG) is developed, the calculation being based on the replica technique. An overall uniform strain is assumed and coupled to the local easy axis (or easy plane) by an adequate projection. The obtained bulk magnetostriction becomes proportional to the average quadrupolar moment, which depends upon the assumed ferromagnetic uniform exchange, J/sub 0/, and the RMA crystal field (CEF), D/sub 0/, strengths. Magnetostriction measurements parallel (lambda/sub X/) and perpendicular (lambda/sub perpendicular/) to the applied magnetic field (up to 7 T) have been performed between 4.2 and 150 K (much larger than the SG temperature, T/sub SG/) for the amorphous spin glasses R/sub 40/Y/sub 23/Cu/sub 37/ (R = Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er). Anisotropic magnetostriction is a forced effect, with no sign of saturation, and is quite large well above T/sub SG/. The developed model fits quantitatively and remarkably well the temperature variation of the anisotropic magnetostriction, lambda/sub t/ = lambda/sub X/-lambda/sub perpendicular/, in the case of Tb, Dy, and Ho alloys. The values obtained from the fit for D/sub 0/, respectively, are +3.0, +1.25, and +0.6 K. For Er, D/sub 0/ becomes -0.37 K. The signs of D/sub 0/ are in agreement with having local axial anisotropy for the Tb, Dy, and Ho compounds, and planar for the Er one, in good agreement with the signs of the ..cap alpha../sub J/ Stevens quadrupolar parameter.

  9. Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Can Hui; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    A new type of electroluminescent device achieves giant stretchability by integrating electronic and ionic components. The device uses phosphor powders as electroluminescent materials, and hydrogels as stretchable and transparent ionic conductors. Subject to cyclic voltage, the phosphor powders luminesce, but the ionic conductors do not electrolyze. The device produces constant luminance when stretched up to an area strain of 1500%. PMID:26610277

  10. An Innocent Giant

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Lakhan Singh; Dhingra, Mandeep; Raghubanshi, Gunjan; Thami, Gurvinder Pal

    2014-01-01

    A cutaneous horn (cornu cutaneum) is a protrusion from the skin composed of a cornified material. It may be associated with a benign, premalignant, or malignant lesion at the base, masking numerous dermatoses. In a 24-year-old female, a giant cutaneous horn arising from a seborrheic keratosis located on the leg is presented. This case has been reported to emphasize that a giant cutaneous horn may also occur in young patients, even in photoprotected areas, and are not always associated with malignancy. PMID:25484426

  11. Experimental Exploration of the Origin of Magnetostriction in Single Crystal Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Q.; Lograsso, T.A.; Ruffoni, M.P.; Azimonte, C.; Pascarelli, S.; Miller, D.J.

    2010-08-19

    The magnetostrictive atomic strain in a pure Fe single crystal was measured by differential x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The obtained tetragonal magnetostriction constant, (3/2){lambda}{sub 100}, was determined to be 45 ppm, consistent with the previously reported theoretical value calculated from a spin-orbit coupling theory. These results provide a foundation for understanding the origin of magnetostriction in pure Fe as well as Fe-based binary alloys.

  12. Sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product and preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr; Pickus, Milton R.

    1979-01-01

    A sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product characterized by a grain oriented morphology. The grain oriented morphology is obtained by magnetically aligning powder particles of the magnetostrictive alloy prior to sintering. Specifically disclosed are grain oriented sintered compacts of Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2 and their method of preparation. The present sintered products have enhanced magnetostrictive properties.

  13. Influence of initial particle size on the magnetostriction of sintered cobalt ferrite derived from nanocrystalline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaja Mohaideen, K.; Joy, P. A.

    2013-11-01

    The role of initial particle size on the magnetostriction coefficient of sintered cobalt ferrite derived from nanocrystalline powders is studied. Nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite with different sizes in the range 3-80 nm are synthesized by an autocombustion method using metal nitrates and glycine. It has been observed that the initial particle size of the starting powders has a strong influence on the magnetostrictive behavior of sintered cobalt ferrite. Highest magnetostrictive strain and strain derivative are obtained for sintered ferrite derived from nanoparticles of size < 5 nm. The results show that higher magnetostriction coefficient for sintered cobalt ferrite can be achieved by compacting nanocrystalline particles of very small size.

  14. Frequency control of a spin-torque oscillator using magnetostrictive anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min Gyu Albert; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Park, Byong-Guk; Lee, Seok-Hee

    2016-01-01

    We report the working principle of a spin-torque oscillator, of which the frequency is efficiently controlled by manipulating the magnetostrictive anisotropy. To justify the scheme, we simulate a conventional magnetic-tunnel junction-based oscillator which is fabricated on a piezoelectric material. By applying mechanical stress to a free layer using a piezoelectric material, the oscillation frequency can be controlled to ensure a broad tuning range without a significant reduction of the dynamic resistance variation. Such controllability, which appears in the absence of an external magnetic field, will not only enable the integration of spin-torque oscillators and conventional complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor technology but will also broaden the applicability of spin-torque oscillators.

  15. U-shape magnetostrictive vibration based power generator for universal use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, T.

    2016-04-01

    Vibrational power generator extracts electrical energy from ambient vibration. Author invented novel configuration using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beams of iron-gallium alloy and magnetic material, and features high efficiency, high robustness, and low electrical impedance. In this paper, author proposes U-shape generator for universal use. It consists of the parallel beams and fixed and free end beams forming U-shape frame flexibly modified for variety of mechanical input. Miniature U-shape prototype using Fe-Ga rod 6 by 0.5 by 13 mm3 exhibited average power of 3.7 mW under vibration of 166 Hz and 2.5 G. L-shape type was demonstrated to generate electromotive force by two directional vibrations. In switch type, maximum energy of 0.7 mJ was retrieved by one pushing force. The performances are sufficient to drive wireless module for heath monitoring and remote control.

  16. A Magnetostrictive Composite-Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Sully M. M.; Braga, Arthur M. B.; Weber, Hans I.; Bruno, Antonio C.; Araújo, Jefferson F. D. F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a light and compact optical fiber Bragg Grating sensor for DC and AC magnetic field measurements. The fiber is coated by a thick layer of a magnetostrictive composite consisting of particles of Terfenol-D dispersed in a polymeric matrix. Among the different compositions for the coating that were tested, the best magnetostrictive response was obtained using an epoxy resin as binder and a 30% volume fraction of Terfenol-D particles with sizes ranging from 212 to 300 μm. The effect of a compressive preload in the sensor was also investigated. The achieved resolution was 0.4 mT without a preload or 0.3 mT with a compressive pre-stress of 8.6 MPa. The sensor was tested at magnetic fields of up to 750 mT under static conditions. Dynamic measurements were conducted with a magnetic unbalanced four-pole rotor. PMID:22163644

  17. A magnetostrictive acceleration sensor for registration of chest wall displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniusas, E.; Mehnen, L.; Krell, C.; Pfützner, H.

    2000-06-01

    The present study concerns a novel acceleration sensor built up using a bimetallic strip with one freely oscillating end. The strip consists of a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon glued on a nonmagnetic metal ribbon. The sensor's effectiveness is demonstrated for the case of chest wall displacements as resulting from cardiorespiratory activity. The cheap and easy-to-handle novel sensor offers multiple information on the so-called sleep apnea syndrome.

  18. Optimization on magnetic transitions and magnetostriction in TbxDyyNdz(Fe0.9Co0.1)1.93 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C. C.; Shi, Y. G.; Shi, D. N.; Zhou, X. G.; Fan, J. Y.; Lv, L. Y.; Tang, S. L.

    2013-10-01

    The structure, magnetic transitions, and magnetostriction of TbxDyyNdz(Fe0.9Co0.1)1.93 polycrystalline compounds have been investigated, with the ratio of x, y, and z spanning the line of minimum magnetic anisotropy. Anisotropy compensation with lower Tb content was realized in Tb0.253Dy0.657Nd0.09(Fe0.9Co0.1)1.93 compound. The spin configuration diagram accompanied with different crystal structures was constructed to illustrate the arrangement for the easy magnetization direction and crystal structure. An optimized effect on magnetostriction especially at the relatively low field of 1 kOe (197 ppm) was observed in Tb0.253Dy0.657Nd0.09(Fe0.9Co0.1)1.93 compound, which is about two times larger than that of the sample free of Nd (62 ppm). Meanwhile, the polycrystalline saturation magnetostriction (λs=945 ppm) of Tb0.253Dy0.657Nd0.09(Fe0.9Co0.1)1.93 is even much larger than that of the Ho-doped multicomponent single crystal compound Tb0.2Dy0.22Ho0.58Fe2 (λs=530 ppm). Low content of heavy rare earth Tb, high Curie temperature, and large ratio between magnetostriction and the absolute value of the first anisotropy constant λa/|K1| were obtained in Tb0.253Dy0.657Nd0.09(Fe0.9Co0.1)1.93 compound, which may make it a potential material for magnetostrictive application.

  19. A Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Actuator using a Persistent High Temperature Superconducting Magnet, Part 1: Concept and Design. Part 1; Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett C.; Bromberg, Leslie; Teter, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Cryogenic magnetostrictive materials, such as rare earth zinc crystals, offer high strains and high forces with minimally applied magnetic fields, making the material ideally suited for deformable optics applications. For cryogenic temperature applications, such as Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), the use of superconducting magnets offer the possibility of a persistent mode of operation, i.e., the magnetostrictive material will maintain a strain field without power. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are attractive options if the temperature of operation is higher than 10 degrees Kelvin (K) and below 77 K. However, HTS wires have constraints that limit the minimum radius of winding, and even if good wires can be produced, the technology for joining superconducting wires does not exist. In this paper, the design and capabilities of a rare earth zinc magnetostrictive actuator using bulk HTS is described. Bulk superconductors can be fabricated in the sizes required with excellent superconducting properties. Equivalent permanent magnets, made with this inexpensive material, are persistent, do not require a persistent switch as in HTS wires, and can be made very small. These devices are charged using a technique which is similar to the one used for charging permanent magnets, e.g., by driving them into saturation. A small normal conducting coil can be used for charging or discharging. Very fast charging and discharging of HTS tubes, as short as 100 microseconds, has been demonstrated. Because of the magnetic field capability of the superconductor material, a very small amount of superconducting magnet material is needed to actuate the rare earth zinc. In this paper, several designs of actuators using YBCO and BSCCO 2212 superconducting materials are presented. Designs that include magnetic shielding to prevent interaction between adjacent actuators will also be described. Preliminary experimental results and comparison with theory for BSSCO 2212 with a

  20. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium using polyclonal antibody immobilized magnetostrictive biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guntupalli, R.; Hu, Jing; Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Barbaree, James M.; Huang, T. S.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2006-05-01

    Novel mass-sensitive, magnetostrictive sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted by the sensor in response to an applied, time varying, magnetic field. This magnetostrictive platform has a unique advantage over conventional sensor platforms in that measurement is wireless or remote. These biosensors can thus be used in-situ for detecting pathogens and biological threat agents. In this work, we have used a magnetostrictive platform immobilized with a polyclonal antibody (the bio-molecular recognition element) to form a biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium. Upon exposure to solutions containing Salmonella typhimurium bacteria, the bacteria were bound to the sensor and the additional mass of the bound bacteria caused a shift in the sensor's resonant frequency. Responses of the sensors to different concentrations of S. typhimurium were recorded and the results correlated with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of samples. Good agreement between the measured number of bound bacterial cells (attached mass) and frequency shifts were obtained. The longevity and specificity of the selected polyclonal antibody were also investigated and are reported.

  1. Magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Cu substituted Co-ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra Sekhar, B.; Rao, G. S. N.; Caltun, O. F.; Dhana Lakshmi, B.; Parvatheeswara Rao, B.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Copper substituted cobalt ferrite, Co1-xCuxFe2O4 (x=0.00-0.25), nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion method. X-ray diffraction analysis on the samples was done to confirm the cubic spinel structures and Scherrer equation was used to estimate the mean crystallite size as 40 nm. Using the obtained nanoparticles, fabrication of the sintered pellets was done by standard ceramic technique. Magnetic and magnetostrictive measurements on the samples were made by strain gauge and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques, respectively. Maximum magnetostriction and strain derivative values were deduced from the field dependent magnetostriction curves while the magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization (51.7-61.9 emu/g) and coercivity (1045-1629 Oe) on the samples were estimated from the obtained magnetic hysteresis loops. Curie temperature values (457-315 °C) were measured by a built in laboratory set-up. Copper substituted cobalt ferrites have shown improved strain derivative values as compared to the pure cobalt ferrite and thus making them suitable for stress sensing applications. The results have been explained on the basis of cationic distributions, strength of exchange interactions and net decreased anisotropic contributions due to the increased presence of Co2+ ions in B-sites as a result of Cu substitutions.

  2. Quasi-static characterization and modeling of the bending behavior of single crystal galfenol for magnetostrictive sensors and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Supratik

    2009-12-01

    Iron-gallium alloys (Galfenol) are structural magnetostrictive materials that exhibit high free-strain at low magnetic fields, high stress-sensitivity and useful thermo-mechanical properties. Galfenol, like smart materials in general, is attractive for use as a dynamic actuator and/or sensor material and can hence find use in active shape and vibration control, real-time structural health monitoring and energy harvesting applications. Galfenol possesses significantly higher yield strength and greater ductility than most smart materials, which are generally limited to use under compressive loads. The unique structural attributes of Galfenol introduce opportunities for use of a smart material in applications that involve tension, bending, shear or torsion. A principal motivation for the research presented in this dissertation is that bending and shear loads lead to development of non-uniform stress and magnetic fields in Galfenol which introduce significantly more complexity to the considerations to be modeled, compared to modeling of purely axial loads. This dissertation investigates the magnetostrictive response of Galfenol under different stress and magnetic field conditions which is essential for understanding and modeling Galfenol's behavior under bending, shear or torsion. Experimental data are used to calculate actuator and sensor figures of merit which can aid in design of adaptive structures. The research focuses on the bending behavior of Galfenol alloys as well as of laminated composites having Galfenol attached to other structural materials. A four-point bending test under magnetic field is designed, built and conducted on a Galfenol beam to understand its performance as a bending sensor. An extensive experimental study is conducted on Galfenol-Aluminum laminated composites to evaluate the effect of magnetic field, bending moment and Galfenol-Aluminum thickness ratio on actuation and sensing performance. A generalized recursive algorithm is presented for

  3. Synthesis, magnetic properties and magnetostriction of Pr(Fe0.75Co0.15Cu0.01Nb0.04B0.05)1.93 bulk nanocrystalline synthesized under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Cheng-Chao; Shi, Yang-Guang; Shi, Da-Ning; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline Pr(Fe0.75Co0.15Cu0.01Nb0.04B0.05)1.93 alloys were synthesized by annealing its melt-spinning ribbons under different pressures and temperatures. It was demonstrated that the average grain size decreases with increasing pressure from 3 GPa to 6 GPa under the same annealing temperature of 853 K but increases with increasing temperature from 823 K to 923 K under the same annealing pressure of 6 GPa. A negative correlation between the coercivity and average grain size was found in the present investigated system. Grain refinement without losing the advantage of volume fraction of magnetostrictive phase offers the sample annealed under 6 GPa and 853 K the optimized magnetostrictive property, which might make it potential material for magnetostrictive application.

  4. Engineering of magnetostriction in Fe3Pt1-xIrx by controlling the Ir concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odkhuu, Dorj; Yun, Won Seok; Rhim, S. H.; Hong, Soon Cheol

    2011-04-01

    A tremendous change in both the sign and magnitude of magnetostriction (λ001) in Fe3Pt1-xIrx (x=0-1.0) was discovered through a first-principles study using the highly precise full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The obtained λ001 values span a wide range from -1050 (x=0) to +2670 ppm (x=0.25), a significantly large enhancement over the λ001 values attained for Galfenol, a widely investigated material. Further analysis confirmed that this large effect originates mainly from the nonmagnetic Ir and Pt with induced moments, of which the 5d orbital has larger spin-orbit coupling than the 3d orbital of Fe.

  5. A uniaxial stress capacitive dilatometer for high-resolution thermal expansion and magnetostriction under multiextreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Küchler, R; Stingl, C; Gegenwart, P

    2016-07-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction are directional dependent thermodynamic quantities. For the characterization of novel quantum phases of matter, it is required to study materials under multi-extreme conditions, in particular, down to very low temperatures, in very high magnetic fields or under high pressure. We developed a miniaturized capacitive dilatometer suitable for temperatures down to 20 mK and usage in high magnetic fields, which exerts a large spring force between 40 to 75 N on the sample. This corresponds to a uniaxial stress up to 3 kbar for a sample with cross section of (0.5 mm)(2). We describe design and performance test of the dilatometer which resolves length changes with high resolution of 0.02 Å at low temperatures. The miniaturized device can be utilized in any standard cryostat, including dilution refrigerators or the commercial physical property measurement system. PMID:27475567

  6. A uniaxial stress capacitive dilatometer for high-resolution thermal expansion and magnetostriction under multiextreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küchler, R.; Stingl, C.; Gegenwart, P.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction are directional dependent thermodynamic quantities. For the characterization of novel quantum phases of matter, it is required to study materials under multi-extreme conditions, in particular, down to very low temperatures, in very high magnetic fields or under high pressure. We developed a miniaturized capacitive dilatometer suitable for temperatures down to 20 mK and usage in high magnetic fields, which exerts a large spring force between 40 to 75 N on the sample. This corresponds to a uniaxial stress up to 3 kbar for a sample with cross section of (0.5 mm)2. We describe design and performance test of the dilatometer which resolves length changes with high resolution of 0.02 Å at low temperatures. The miniaturized device can be utilized in any standard cryostat, including dilution refrigerators or the commercial physical property measurement system.

  7. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    McMasters, O.D.

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetostrictive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube. 5 figs.

  8. Harmonic analysis of AC magnetostriction measurements under non-sinusoidal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Hisashi; Yabumoto, Masao; Mizokami, Masato; Okazaki Yasuo

    1996-09-01

    A new system for analyzing ac magnetostriction of electrical steel sheets has been developed. This system has the following advantages: (a) AC magnetostriction waveforms can be precisely measured up to 4 kHz, and analyzed to harmonic components; (b) non-sinusoidal flux density can be excited to simulate the distorted waveform in an actual transformer core.

  9. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  10. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

  11. Critical Behavior of Thermal Expansion and Magnetostriction in the Vicinity of the First order transition at the Curie Point of Gd5(SixGe1-x)4

    SciTech Connect

    Mangui Han

    2004-12-19

    Thermal expansion (TE) and magnetostriction (MS) measurements have been conducted for Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} with a series of x values to study its critical behavior in the vicinity of transition temperatures. It was found that the Curie temperature of Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} for x 0 {approx} 0.5 is dependent on magnetic field, direction of change of temperature (Tc on cooling was lower than Tc on heating), purity of Gd starting material, compositions, material preparation methods, and also can be triggered by the external magnetic field with a different dT/dB rate for different x values. For Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}), Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2.09}Ge{sub 1.91}), it was also found that the transition is a first order magneto-structural transition, which means the magnetic transition and crystalline structure transition occur simultaneously, and completely reversible. Temperature hysteresis and phase coexistence have been found to confirm that it is a first order transformation. While for Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 0.15}Ge{sub 3.85}), it is partially reversible at some temperature range between the antiferromagnetic and the ferromagnetic state. For Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2.3}Ge{sub 1.7}) and Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 3}Ge{sub 1}), it was a second order transformation between the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, because no {Delta}T have been found. Giant magnetostriction was only found on Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}), Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2.09}Ge{sub 1.91}) in their vicinity of first order transformation. MFM images have also been taken on polycrystal sample Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2.09}Ge{sub 1.91}) to investigate the transformation process. The results also indicates that the Curie temperature was lower and the thermally-induced strain higher in the sample made from lower purity level Gd starting materials compared with the sample made from high purity Gd metal. TE, MS, MFM and VSM measurements

  12. Characterization of bending magnetostriction in iron-gallium alloys for nanowire sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Patrick Ramon

    This research explores the possibility of using electrochemically deposited nanowires of magnetostrictive iron-gallium (Galfenol) to mimic the sensing capabilities of biological cilia. Sensor design calls for incorporating Galfenol nanowires cantilevered from a membrane and attached to a conventional magnetic field sensor. As the wires deflect in response to acoustic, air flow, or tactile excitation, the resultant bending stresses induce changes in magnetization that due to the scale of the nanowires offer the potential for excellent spatial resolution and frequency bandwidth. In order to determine the suitability for using Galfenol nanowires in this role, the first task was experimentally characterizing magnetostrictive transduction in bending beam structures, as this means of operation has been unattainable in previous materials research due to low tensile strengths in conventional alloys such as Terfenol-D. Results show that there is an appreciable sensing response from cantilevered Galfenol beams and that this phenomenon can be accurately modeled with an energy based formulation. For progressing experiments to the nanowire scale, a nanomanipulation instrument was designed and constructed that interfaces within a scanning electron microscope and allows for real time characterization of individual wires with diameters near 100 nm. The results of mechanical tensile testing and dynamic resonance identification reveal that the Galfenol nanowires behave similarly to the bulk material with the exception of a large increase in ultimate tensile strength. The magnetic domain structure of the nanowires was theoretically predicted and verified with magnetic force microscopy. An experimental methodology was developed to observe the coupling between bending stress and magnetization that is critical for accurate sensing, and the key results indicate that specific structural modifications need to be made to reduce the anisotropy in the nanowires in order to improve the

  13. Determination of the magnetostrictive atomic environments in FeCoB alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J.; Quirós, C.; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Aroca, C.; Ranchal, R.; Ruffoni, M.; Pascarelli, S.

    2012-04-01

    The atomic environments of Fe and Co involved in the magnetostriction effect in FeCoB alloys have been identified by differential extended x-ray fine structure (DiffEXAFS) spectroscopy. The study, done in amorphous and polycrystalline FeCoB films, demonstrates that the alloys are heterogeneous and that boron plays a crucial role in the origin of their magnetostrictive properties. The analysis of DiffEXAFS in the polycrystalline and amorphous alloys indicates that boron activates magnetostriction when entering as an impurity into octahedral interstitial sites of the Fe bcc lattice, causing its tetragonal distortion. Magnetostriction would be explained then by the relative change in volume when the tetragonal axis of the site is reoriented under an externally applied magnetic field. The experiment demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of DiffEXAFS to characterize magnetostrictive environments that are undetectable in their related EXAFS spectra.

  14. Influence of the anisotropy on the ``SAMR'' method for measuring magnetostriction in amorphous ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, A.; Vázquez, M.; Madurga, V.; Ascasibar, E.; Liniers, M.

    1986-09-01

    The small angle magnetization rotation (SAMR) method has been found to be quite convinient for measuring magnetostriction in metallic glasses with low magnetostriction. Nevertheless the method fails in some sense when applied to high magnetostrictive samples. The origin of such failure has been analysed. The method becomes reliable when the sample saturates under the action of the axial field H z. On the other hand the sensitivity decreases with H2z. Since the internal str esses are the main source of anisotropy, via magnetoelastic coupling, the higher magnetostriction is, the stronger H z, required for saturating, becomes. Therefore the sensitivity of the method drops with the square of the magnetostriction of the sample. Some experiments confirming this explanation are shown.

  15. Design and Testing of a Dynamically-Tuned Magnetostrictive Spring with Electrically-Controlled Stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidler, Justin; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the development of an electrically-controlled, variable-stiffness spring based on magnetostrictive materials. The device, termed a magnetostrictive Varispring, can be applied as a semi-active vibration isolator or switched stiffness vibration controller for reducing transmitted vibrations. The Varispring is designed using 1D linear models that consider the coupled electrical response, mechanically-induced magnetic diffusion, and the effect of internal mass on dynamic stiffness. Modeling results illustrate that a Terfenol-D-based Varispring has a rise time almost an order of magnitude smaller and a magnetic diffusion cut-off frequency over two orders of magnitude greater than a Galfenol-based Varispring. The results motivate the use of laminated Terfenol-D rods for a greater stiffness tuning range and increased bandwidth. The behavior of a prototype Varispring is examined under vibratory excitation up to 6 MPa and 25 Hz using a dynamic load frame. For this prototype, stiffness is indirectly varied by controlling the excitation current. Preliminary measurements of continuous stiffness tuning via sinusoidal currents up to 1 kHz are presented. The measurements demonstrate that the Young's modulus of the Terfenol-D rod inside the Varispring can be continuously varied by up to 21.9 GPa. The observed stiffness tuning range is relatively constant up to 500 Hz, but significantly decreases thereafter. The stiffness tuning range can be greatly increased by improving the current and force control such that a more consistent current can be applied and the Varispring can be accurately tested at a more optimal bias stress.

  16. Shape anisotropy in zero-magnetostrictive rapidly solidified amorphous nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotărescu, C.; Atitoaie, A.; Stoleriu, L.; Óvári, T.-A.; Lupu, N.; Chiriac, H.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic behavior of zero-magnetostrictive rapidly solidified amorphous nanowires has been investigated in order to understand their magnetic bistability. The study has been performed both experimentally - based on inductive hysteresis loop measurements - and theoretically, by means of micromagnetic simulations. Experimental hysteresis loops have shown that the amorphous nanowires display an axial magnetic bistability, characterized by a single-step magnetization reversal when the applied field reaches a critical value called switching field. The simulated loops allowed us to understand the effect of shape anisotropy on coercivity. The results are key for understanding and controlling the magnetization processes in these novel nanowires, with important application possibilities in new miniaturized sensing devices.

  17. Adaptive techniques for Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with magnetostriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banas, L'ubomir

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we propose a time-space adaptive method for micromagnetic problems with magnetostriction. The considered model consists of coupled Maxwell's, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) and elastodynamic equations. The time discretization of Maxwell's equations and the elastodynamic equation is done by backward Euler method, the space discretization is based on Whitney edge elements and linear finite elements, respectively. The fully discrete LLG equation reduces to an ordinary differential equation, which is solved by an explicit method, that conserves the norm of the magnetization.

  18. Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Giant Axonal Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Giant Axonal Neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare inherited ...

  19. Displacement sensors using soft magnetostrictive alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Reilly, R. E.

    1994-09-01

    We report results on the response of a family of displacement sensors, which are based on the magentostrictive delay line (MDL) technique, using current conductors orthogonal to the MDL. Such sensing technique is based on the change of the magnetic circuit at the acoustic stress point of origin due to the displacement of a soft magnetic material above it. Integrated arrays of sensors can be obtained due to the acoustic delay line technique and they can be used as tactile arrays, digitizers or devices for medical applications (gait analysis etc.), while absence of hysteresis and low cost of manufacturing make them competent in this sector of sensor market.

  20. Magnetostriction of growth textured Tb-Zn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, D. W.; Lograsso, T. A.

    1999-11-01

    The magnetostrictive performance of aligned microstructural composites of Tb-Zn alloys were experimentally tested at 77 K under compressive loads ranging from approximately 0-50 MPa and applied magnetic field up to 2000 Oe. Tb-8a/oZn, Tb-42a/oZn and the eutectic composition of Tb-27.8a/oZn were all directionally solidified to prepare aligned, textured microstructures. The eutectic sample grew with lamellar plates with the magnetically hard axes for each phase parallel with the rod axis and exhibited a strain of less than 100 ppm. The Tb-42a/oZn alloy solidified with TbZn dendrites in the magnetically hard [1 1 1] direction and exhibited a strain of 375 ppm. The Tb-8a/oZn alloy solidified pure Tb dendrites in the magnetically easy direction, the b-axis, yet it only displayed a 350-ppm magnetostriction at a maximum field of 2000 Oe due to the high anisotropy of the Tb dendrites.

  1. Dynamically tuned magnetostrictive spring with electrically controlled stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the design and testing of an electrically controllable magnetostrictive spring that has a dynamically tunable stiffness (i.e., a magnetostrictive Varispring). The device enables in situ stiffness tuning or stiffness switching for vibration control applications. Using a nonlinear electromechanical transducer model and an analytical solution of linear, mechanically induced magnetic diffusion, Terfenol-D is shown to have a faster rise time to stepped voltage inputs and a significantly higher magnetic diffusion cut-off frequency relative to Galfenol. A Varispring is manufactured using a laminated Terfenol-D rod. Further rise time reductions are achieved by minimizing the rod’s diameter and winding the electromagnet with larger wire. Dynamic tuning of the Varispring’s stiffness is investigated by measuring the Terfenol-D rod’s strain response to dynamic, compressive, axial forces in the presence of sinusoidal or square wave control currents. The Varispring’s rise time is \\lt 1 ms for 1 A current switches. Continuous modulus changes up to 21.9 GPa and 500 Hz and square wave modulus changes (dynamic {{Δ }}E effect) up to 12.3 GPa and 100 Hz are observed. Stiffness tunability and tuning bandwidth can be considerably increased by operating about a more optimal bias stress and improving the control of the electrical input.

  2. Dynamics, Bifurcations and Normal Forms in Arrays of Magnetostrictive Energy Harvesters with All-to-All Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus-Vargas, Antonio; González-Hernandez, Hugo G.; Chan, Bernard S.; Palacios, Antonio; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; in, Visarath; Naik, Suketu; Phipps, Alex; Longhini, Patrick

    Modeling and bifurcation analysis of an energy harvesting system composed of coupled resonators using the Galfenol-based magnetostrictive material are presented. The analysis in this work should be broad enough to be applicable to a large class of vibratory-based energy harvesting systems since various types of vibratory harvesters share the same normal forms, e.g. magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials. A combined model of the mechanical and electrical domains of a single energy harvester is discussed first. Building on this model, the governing equations of the coupled system are derived, leading to a system of differential equations with an all-to-all coupling between the resonators. A bifurcation analysis of the system equations reveals different patterns of collective oscillations. Among the many different patterns, a synchronous state exists and it is stable over a broad region of parameter space. This pattern has the potential to yield significant increases in power output and it will be used as a starting point to guide future experimental work. A Hamiltonian approach is employed to study analytically the nature of the bifurcations and to calculate an expression for the onset of synchronization valid for any number of harvesters.

  3. Temperature dependence of the magnetostriction in polycrystalline PrFe{sub 1.9} and TbFe{sub 2} alloys: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Huang, H. F.; Xia, W. B.; Zhang, S. Y.; Wei, J.; Tang, S. L. Du, Y. W.; Zhang, L.

    2014-05-07

    A remarkable magnetostriction λ{sub 111} as large as 6700 ppm was found at 70 K in PrFe{sub 1.9} alloy. This value is even larger than the theoretical maximum of 5600 ppm estimated by the Steven's equivalent operator method. The temperature dependence of λ{sub 111} for PrFe{sub 1.9} and TbFe{sub 2} alloys follows well with the single-ion theory rule, which yields giant estimated λ{sub 111} values of about 8000 and 4200 ppm for PrFe{sub 1.9} and TbFe{sub 2} alloys, respectively, at 0 K. The easy magnetization direction of PrFe{sub 1.9} changes from [111] to [100] as temperature decreases, which leads to the abnormal decrease of the magnetostriction λ. The rare earth sublattice moment increases sharply in PrFe{sub 1.9} alloy with decreasing temperature, resulting in the remarkably largest estimated value of λ{sub 111} at 0 K according to the single-ion theory.

  4. Temperature dependence of the magnetostriction in polycrystalline PrFe1.9 and TbFe2 alloys: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Zhang, L.; Huang, H. F.; Xia, W. B.; Zhang, S. Y.; Wei, J.; Tang, S. L.; Du, Y. W.

    2014-05-01

    A remarkable magnetostriction λ111 as large as 6700 ppm was found at 70 K in PrFe1.9 alloy. This value is even larger than the theoretical maximum of 5600 ppm estimated by the Steven's equivalent operator method. The temperature dependence of λ111 for PrFe1.9 and TbFe2 alloys follows well with the single-ion theory rule, which yields giant estimated λ111 values of about 8000 and 4200 ppm for PrFe1.9 and TbFe2 alloys, respectively, at 0 K. The easy magnetization direction of PrFe1.9 changes from [111] to [100] as temperature decreases, which leads to the abnormal decrease of the magnetostriction λ. The rare earth sublattice moment increases sharply in PrFe1.9 alloy with decreasing temperature, resulting in the remarkably largest estimated value of λ111 at 0 K according to the single-ion theory.

  5. Thermal Expansion and Magnetostriction of Heavy Fermion CeRu2Si2 at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Daiki; Kaido, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Yuta; Minegishi, Mitsuyuki; Matsumoto, Koichi; Abe, Satoshi; Murayama, Shigeyuki

    We have measured linear thermal expansion and magnetostriction of single crystal CeRu2Si2 that is well known as a heavy fermion metamagnetic compound. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction along the a-axis (B || a) and the c-axis (B || c) were measured by the capacitive dilatometer at temperatures down to 12 mK and in magnetic fields up to 9 T. We observed a strong anisotropy between a and c axis. In addition, negative deviations from Landau-Fermi liquid behavior for thermal expansion and magnetostriction coefficients were found below 50 mK and 0.4 T indicating non Fermi liquid behavior.

  6. Real-time integrity monitoring of composite laminates with magnetostrictive sensory layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anand; Bhattacharya, Bishakh

    2008-12-01

    Fundamental research and development in smart materials and structures have shown great potential for enhancing the functionality, serviceability and increased life span of civil and mechanical infrastructure systems. Researchers from diverse disciplines have been drawn into vigorous efforts to develop smart and intelligent structures that can monitor their own conditions, detect impending failure, control damage and adapt to changing environments. Smart structures are generally created through synthesis by combining sensing, processing and actuating elements integrated with conventional structural materials. The conventional non-destructive evaluation techniques are not very effective in monitoring the structural integrity of composite structures due to their micro-mechanical complexities. With the commercial availability of the magnetostrictive (MS) material Terfenol-D in particulate form, it is now feasible to develop particulate sensors to detect damage with minimum effect on structural integrity. In present investigation, the electromagnetic response in the MS layer at the onset of delamination in one of the weakest ply of the composite laminate has been analyzed. For the numerical analysis symmetric and asymmetric carbon epoxy laminates with one of its layers embedded with Terfenol-D particles have been taken. Terfenol-D layer experiences a change in stress due to onset of delamination causing a change in its magnetic state, which can be sensed as induced open circuit voltage in the sensing coil enclosing the laminate beam. The effect of material properties, lamination schemes and placement of MS layer on the sensing capabilities has been analyzed.

  7. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films. PMID:25322105

  8. High spatial resolution distributed optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on magnetostriction by optical frequency-domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yang; Liu, Tiegen; Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Kun; Feng, Bowen; Jiang, Junfeng

    2015-03-01

    The distributed optical fiber magnetic field sensors have a capability of spatially resolving the magnetic field along the entire sensing fiber that is distinguishes from other sensing methods. We present a distributed optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on magnetostriction using Rayleigh backscattering spectra shift in OFDR (optical frequency-domain reflectometry). As the spectral shift of Rayleigh backscattering can be used to achieve a distributed strain measurements with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution using OFDR. In the proposed sensor, the magnetostrictive Fe-Co-V alloy thin films as sensing materials are attached to a 51 m standard single mode fiber (SMF). We detect the strain coupled to SMF caused by variation of magnetic field by measuring Rayleigh Backscattering spectra shift in OFDR. In our experiment, we measure the range of the magnetic field is from 12.9 mT~143.3 mT using proposed method. The minimal measurable magnetic field variation is 12.9 mT when the spatial resolution is 4 cm. The minimal measurable magnetic field variation can be improved to 5.3 mT by increasing the spatial resolution to 14 cm. Moreover, we present the simulation result of two dimension (2D) distribution for the static magnetic field using the Maxwell software program.

  9. On the magnetic and magnetoelastic uniformity measurements on magnetostrictive ribbons and wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petridis, C.; Ktena, A.; Bolshakova, I.; Hristoforou, E.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, results on magnetic and magnetoelastic uniformity measurements concerning magnetostrictive ribbons are presented. Measurements are based on the magnetostrictive delay line (MDL) technique, which is used for the determination of B( H) and λ( H) loops of long magnetostrictive ribbons, wires and rods of uniform rectangular cross section. The principle of operation for the B( H) and λ( H) loop determination is based on the biasing field effect at the receiving and excitation coil of the MDL, respectively. The automated device used allowed the in situ parametric control of field, frequency, temperature and mechanical stress. The magnetic and magnetoelastic softening of amorphous Fe-Si-B ribbons, after stress-current annealing, is illustrated. This technique may be used for the non-destructive quality control of magnetostrictive ribbons and wires, used as sensing cores.

  10. Dependence of magnetostriction of sputtered Tb-Fe films on preparation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.; Arai, K.I.; Ishiyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M. . Research Institute of Electrical Communication); Honda, T. . Sendai Research Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Amorphous Tb-Fe thin films prepared by sputtering method in the compositional range Tb[sub x]Fe[sub 1[minus]x] (x = 0--0.5) have been investigated in view of their potential for use in electromagnetic thin film actuators. The authors examined the magnetostriction and the coercive force for the Tb-Fe films for different sputtering conditions to obtain both soft magnetic properties 2nd large magnetostriction in this system. As a result, they obtained Tb-Fe thin films having large magnetostrictions (180[times]10[sup [minus]6] at 1kOe) and low coercive force (60--70 Oe). These films were prepared under the conditions of the composition of 45--50at%Tb, Ar gas pressure of 4mTorr, rf input power of 200W and using water cooled substrates. A trial actuator using magnetostrictive thin films is also reported.

  11. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400 to 600 C; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature. 2 figs.

  12. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. Dale; Gibson, Edwin D.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Finnemore, Douglas K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400.degree. to 600.degree. C.; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature.

  13. Theory of magnetoelectric effect in a bilayer magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, D. A.; Galichyan, T. A.

    2013-11-01

    A theory of the magnetoelectric effect in a bilayer magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structure is presented. As objects of research, structures in the form of nickel-lead zirconate-titanate and permendur-lead zirconate-titanate based plates are chosen. Joint solution of the motion equation for a magnetostrictive and piezoelectric medium and of the constitutive equations yields an expression for the magnetoelectric voltage coefficient in the region of electromechanical resonance.

  14. Torsional actuation with extension-torsion composite coupling and a magnetostrictive actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, Christopher M.; Chandra, Ramesh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1995-04-01

    An analytical-experimental study of using magnetostrictive actuators in conjunction with an extension-torsion coupled composite tube to actuate a rotor blade trailing-edge flap to actively control helicopter vibration is presented. Thin walled beam analysis based on Vlasov theory was used to predict the induced twist and extension in a composite tube with magnetostrictive actuation. The study achieved good correlation between theory and experiment. The Kevlar-epoxy systems showed good correlation between measured and predicted twist values.

  15. Atmosphere expansion and mass loss of close-orbit giant exoplanets heated by stellar XUV. I. Modeling of hydrodynamic escape of upper atmospheric material

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Sasunov, Yu. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Erkaev, N. V.

    2014-11-10

    In the present series of papers we propose a consistent description of the mass loss process. To study in a comprehensive way the effects of the intrinsic magnetic field of a close-orbit giant exoplanet (a so-called hot Jupiter) on atmospheric material escape and the formation of a planetary inner magnetosphere, we start with a hydrodynamic model of an upper atmosphere expansion in this paper. While considering a simple hydrogen atmosphere model, we focus on the self-consistent inclusion of the effects of radiative heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas with its consequent expansion in the outer space. Primary attention is paid to an investigation of the role of the specific conditions at the inner and outer boundaries of the simulation domain, under which different regimes of material escape (free and restricted flow) are formed. A comparative study is performed of different processes, such as X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) heating, material ionization and recombination, H{sub 3}{sup +} cooling, adiabatic and Lyα cooling, and Lyα reabsorption. We confirm the basic consistency of the outcomes of our modeling with the results of other hydrodynamic models of expanding planetary atmospheres. In particular, we determine that, under the typical conditions of an orbital distance of 0.05 AU around a Sun-type star, a hot Jupiter plasma envelope may reach maximum temperatures up to ∼9000 K with a hydrodynamic escape speed of ∼9 km s{sup –1}, resulting in mass loss rates of ∼(4-7) · 10{sup 10} g s{sup –1}. In the range of the considered stellar-planetary parameters and XUV fluxes, that is close to the mass loss in the energy-limited case. The inclusion of planetary intrinsic magnetic fields in the model is a subject of the follow-up paper (Paper II).

  16. Themal Expansion and Magnetostriction of YbAuCu4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkeuchi, Tetsuya; Hirose, Yusuke; Tsunoda, Ryoma; Honda, Fuminori; Settai, Rikio

    Precise thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements were performed on the heavyfermion compound YbAuCu4 in order to examine the crossover valence transition at TV which was proposed by the nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient α under magnetic fields shows a broad peak, which shifts to higher temperatures with increasing magnetic fields. The corresponding linear thermal expansion Δℓ/.ℓ parallel to the magnetic field of 7.0 T shows a marked decrease below about 10 K, indicating a contraction of sample length at low temperatures. These results are discussed in relation to the observed temperature dependence of the nuclear quadrupole frequency νQ under magnetic fields.

  17. Landauer limit of energy dissipation in a magnetostrictive particle.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kuntal

    2014-12-10

    According to Landauer's principle, a minimum amount of energy proportional to temperature must be dissipated during the erasure of a classical bit of information compensating the entropy loss, thereby linking the information and thermodynamics. Here, we show that the Landauer limit of energy dissipation is achievable in a shape-anisotropic single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnet having two mutually anti-parallel degenerate magnetization states that store a bit of information. We model the magnetization dynamics using the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of thermal fluctuations and show that on average the Landauer bound is satisfied, i.e. it is in accordance with the generalized Landauer's principle for small systems with stochastic fluctuations. PMID:25379608

  18. Spin Model of Magnetostrictions in Multiferroic Mn Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Furukawa, Nobuo; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2010-07-01

    We theoretically study origins of the ferroelectricity in the multiferroic phases of the rare-earth (R) Mn perovskites, RMnO3, by constructing a realistic spin model including the spin-phonon coupling, which reproduces the entire experimental phase diagram in the plane of temperature and Mn-O-Mn bond angle for the first time. Surprisingly we reveal a significant contribution of the symmetric (S·S)-type magnetostriction to the ferroelectricity even in a spin-spiral-based multiferroic phase, which can be larger than the usually expected antisymmetric (S×S)-type contribution. This explains well the nontrivial behavior of the electric polarization. We also predict the noncollinear deformation of the E-type spin structure and a wide coexisting regime of the E and spiral states, which resolve several experimental puzzles.

  19. Spin model of magnetostrictions in multiferroic Mn perovskites.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Furukawa, Nobuo; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2010-07-16

    We theoretically study origins of the ferroelectricity in the multiferroic phases of the rare-earth (R) Mn perovskites, RMnO(3), by constructing a realistic spin model including the spin-phonon coupling, which reproduces the entire experimental phase diagram in the plane of temperature and Mn-O-Mn bond angle for the first time. Surprisingly we reveal a significant contribution of the symmetric (S·S)-type magnetostriction to the ferroelectricity even in a spin-spiral-based multiferroic phase, which can be larger than the usually expected antisymmetric (S×S)-type contribution. This explains well the nontrivial behavior of the electric polarization. We also predict the noncollinear deformation of the E-type spin structure and a wide coexisting regime of the E and spiral states, which resolve several experimental puzzles. PMID:20867801

  20. Magnetostrictive behaviors of Fe-Si(001) single-crystal films under rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Tetsuroh; Aida, Takuya; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Magnetostrictive behaviors under rotating magnetic fields are investigated for bcc(001) single-crystal films of Fe100-x-Six(x = 0, 6, 10 at. %). The magnetostriction observation directions are along bcc[100] and bcc[110] of the films. The magnetostriction waveform varies greatly depending on the observation direction. For the observation along [100], the magnetostriction waveform of all the films is bathtub-like and the amplitude stays at almost constant even when the magnetic field is increased up to the anisotropy field. On the other hand, the waveform along [110] is triangular and the amplitude increases with increasing magnetic field up to the anisotropy field and then saturates. In addition, the waveform of Fe90Si10 film is distorted triangular when the applied magnetic fields are less than its anisotropy field. These magnetostrictive behaviors under rotating magnetic fields are well explained by employing a proposed modified coherent rotation model where the anisotropy field and the magnetization reversal field are determined by using measured magnetization curves. The results show that magnetocrystalline anisotropy plays important role on magnetostrictive behavior under rotating magnetic fields.

  1. Image analysis of the microstructure of pseudo-1-3 magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Guan, Xinchun; Ou, Jinping

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies did by some scholars proved applying a magnetic field during the manufacture process of polymer-bonded Terfenol-D could orient the magnetic easy direction of the particles along the field direction and form a pseudo-1-3 structure. Compared to the 0-3 composites composed of Terfenol-D particles dispersed randomly in a polymer matrix, pseudo-1-3 magnetostrictive composites present much larger magnetostrictive performance. In this paper, magnetostrictive composites based on Terfenol-D particles in an unsaturated polyester resin matrix were fabricated under different magnetic fields. Magentostriction was tested and compared to get the detail effects of orientation fields on magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe their microstructures. Image analysis was applied to describe the microstructures. The distribution of the angles between the major axis of the particles and the magnetic field direction was used to evaluate the arrangement of particles in the matrix quantitatively. The results confirm particle chain-like structures in composites prepared under larger magnetic field, and show that particle arrangement changes with the strength of the orientation field, which is result in the changes of magnetostrictive performance.

  2. Variable temperature study of the crystal and magnetic structures of the giant magnetoresistant materials LMnAsO(L = La, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, N.; Wildman, E. J.; Skakle, J. M. S.; McLaughlin, A. C.; Smith, R. I.; Fitch, A. N.

    2011-04-01

    A variable temperature neutron and synchrotron diffraction study has been performed on the giant magnetoresistant oxypnictides LMnAsO (L = La, Nd). The low-temperature magnetic structures have been studied, and results show a spin reorientation of the Mn2+ spins below TN (Nd) for NdMnAsO. The Mn2+ spins rotate from alignment along c to alignment into the basal plane, and the Mn2+ and Nd3+ moments refine to 3.54(4) μB and 1.93(4) μB, respectively, at 2 K. In contrast, there is no change in magnetic structure with temperature for LaMnAsO. There is no evidence of a structural transition down to 2 K; however, discontinuities in the cell volume and L-O and Mn-As bond lengths are detected at ˜150 K for both materials. This temperature coincides with the electronic transition previously reported and suggests a coupling between electronic and lattice degrees of freedom.

  3. Highly strain-sensitive magnetostrictive tunnel magnetoresistance junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassolizadeh, Ali; Hayes, Patrick; Rott, Karsten; Reiss, Günter; Quandt, Eckhard; Meyners, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) junctions with CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB layers are promising for strain sensing applications due to their high TMR effect and magnetostrictive sense layer (CoFeB). TMR junctions available even in submicron dimensions can serve as strain sensors for microelectromechanical systems devices. Upon stress application, the magnetization configuration of such junctions changes due to the inverse magnetostriction effect resulting in strain-sensitive tunnel resistance. Here, strain sensitivity of round-shaped junctions with diameters of 11.3 μm, 19.2 μm, 30.5 μm, and 41.8 μm were investigated on macroscopic cantilevers using a four-point bending apparatus. This investigation mainly focuses on changes in hard-axis TMR loops caused by the stress-induced anisotropy. A macrospin model is proposed, supported by micromagnetic simulations, which describes the complete rotation of the sense layer magnetization within TMR loops of junctions, exposed to high stress. Below 0.2‰ tensile strain, a representative junction with 30.5 μm diameter exhibits a very large gauge factor of 2150. For such high gauge factor a bias field H = - 3.2 kA / m is applied in an angle equal to 3 π / 2 toward the pinned magnetization of the reference layer. The strain sensitivity strongly depends on the bias field. Applying stress along π / 4 against the induced magnetocrystalline anisotropy, both compressive and tensile strain can be identified by a unique sensor. More importantly, a configuration with a gauge factor of 400 at zero bias field is developed which results in a straightforward and compact measuring setup.

  4. Giant Magnons Meet Giant Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Diego M.

    2008-07-28

    We study the worldsheet reflection matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. The D-brane corresponds to a maximal giant graviton that wraps an S{sup 3} inside S{sup 5}. In the gauge theory, the open string is described by a spin chain with boundaries. We focus on open strings with a large SO(6) charge and define an asymptotic boundary reflection matrix. Using the symmetries of the problem, we review the computation of the boundary reflection matrix, up to a phase. We also discuss weak and strong coupling computations where we obtain the overall phase factor and test our exact results.

  5. Fully coupled, dynamic model of a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon and its validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmair, Bernhard Huber, Thomas; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Fuger, Markus; Suess, Dieter

    2014-01-14

    Magnetostrictive amorphous ribbons are widely used in electronic article surveillance as well as for magnetoelastic sensors. Both applications utilize the fact that the ribbons' resonant frequency can be read out remotely by applying external magnetic AC fields. This paper proposes a magnetomechanical model to simulate the dynamics of such ribbons. The goal was to only use general material properties as input parameters, which are usually denoted in the data sheet of amorphous metals. Thus, only the magnetization curve at zero stress has to be gained via measurement. The magnetization under stress is calculated thereof. The equation of motion for a longitudinally oscillating ribbon is derived and coupled to Maxwell's equations for magnetostatics. The fully coupled initial value problem is solved simultaneously by a finite difference approach. The model is validated by comparing calculated and measured resonant frequencies of various amorphous ribbons, which turned out to be in good agreement. When slightly adapting single material properties from the data sheet, the match is almost perfect. The model is then used to calculate the local magnetic and mechanical properties inside static and vibrating ribbons. These local distributions can be directly linked to the field dependence of the resonant frequency and its higher harmonics.

  6. Numerical computation for a new way to reduce vibration and noise due to magnetostriction and magnetic forces of transformer cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lihua; Yang, Qingxin; Yan, Rongge; Li, Yongjian; Zhang, Xian; Yan, Weili; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    Magnetostriction (MS) caused by the global magnetization of limbs and yokes and magnetic forces are the undisputed causes of the vibration and noise in power transformer cores. This paper presents a novel way to reduce the vibration and noise, in which nanocrystalline soft magnetic composite (NSMC) material with high permeability is used to fill the step-lap joint gaps of the power transformer magnetic cores. In order to numerically predict the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 3-D magneto-mechanical strong coupled model including MS and magnetic anisotropy of steel sheet was founded. Then, the numerical model was applied to analyze the step-lap joint region of the corner of magnetic cores. The analysis results illustrated that the deformation and noise of core with NSMC are lower than with the traditional epoxy damping material. Moreover, the validity of the proposed new way was verified by the simplified step-lap joint cores, which were achieved based on Epstein Frames.

  7. Effect of thermal deformation on giant magnetoresistance of flexible spin valves grown on polyvinylidene fluoride membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luping, Liu; Qingfeng, Zhan; Xin, Rong; Huali, Yang; Yali, Xie; Xiaohua, Tan; Run-wei, Li

    2016-07-01

    We fabricated flexible spin valves on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes and investigated the influence of thermal deformation of substrates on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) behaviors. The large magnetostrictive Fe81Ga19 (FeGa) alloy and the low magnetostrictive Fe19Ni81 (FeNi) alloy were selected as the free and pinned ferromagnetic layers. In addition, the exchange bias (EB) of the pinned layer was set along the different thermal deformation axes α 31 or α 32 of PVDF. The GMR ratio of the reference spin valves grown on Si intrinsically increases with lowering temperature due to an enhancement of spontaneous magnetization. For flexible spin valves, when decreasing temperature, the anisotropic thermal deformation of PVDF produces a uniaxial anisotropy along the α 32 direction, which changes the distribution of magnetic domains. As a result, the GMR ratio at low temperature for spin valves with EB∥ α 32 becomes close to that on Si, but for spin valves with EB∥ α 31 is far away from that on Si. This thermal effect on GMR behaviors is more significant when using magnetostrictive FeGa as the free layer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374312, 51401230, 51522105, and 51471101) and the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team, China (Grant No. 2015B11001).

  8. Magnetostrictive gradient in Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 induced by high magnetic field gradient applied during solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengfei; Liu, Tie; Dong, Meng; Yuan, Yi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    We investigated how high magnetic field gradients affected the magnetostrictive performance of Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 during solidification. At high applied magnetic field gradients, the magnetostriction exhibited a gradient distribution throughout the alloy. Increasing the magnetic field gradient also increased the magnetostriction gradient. We attributed the graded magnetostrictive performance to the gradient distribution of (Tb, Dy)Fe2 phase in the alloy and its orientation.

  9. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  10. Wide operation frequency band magnetostrictive vibration power generator using nonlinear spring constant by permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumachi, S.; Ueno, T.

    2016-04-01

    We study magnetostrictive vibration based power generator using iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol). The generator is advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric material in the point of high efficiency highly robust and low electrical impedance. Generally, the generator exhibits maximum power when its resonant frequency matches the frequency of ambient vibration. In other words, the mismatch of these frequencies results in significant decrease of the output. One solution is making the spring characteristics nonlinear using magnetic force, which distorts the resonant peak toward higher or lower frequency side. In this paper, vibrational generator consisting of Galfenol plate of 6 by 0.5 by 13 mm wound with coil and U shape-frame accompanied with plates and pair of permanent magnets was investigated. The experimental results show that lean of resonant peak appears attributed on the non-linear spring characteristics, and half bandwidth with magnets is 1.2 times larger than that without. It was also demonstrated that the addition of proof mass is effective to increase the sensitivity but also the bandwidth. The generator with generating power of sub mW order is useful for power source of wireless heath monitoring for bridge and factory machine.