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1

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China  

PubMed Central

We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas. PMID:24565026

Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Wang, Chengdong

2014-01-01

2

Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated with herpes virus infection; yet, they can also be observed in patients with skin tumors or acantholytic dermatoses. Cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection can coexist in association with other conditions such as acantholytic dermatoses, benign skin tumors, bullous disorders, hematologic malignancies, inflammatory dermatoses, and physical therapies. However, when a herpes virus infection is suspected based upon the discovery of epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis, but either the clinic presentation or lack of response to viral therapy or absence of confirmatory laboratory studies does not support the diagnosis of a viral infection, the possibility of a primary acantholytic dermatosis should be considered and additional lesional skin biopsies performed. Also, because hematoxylin and eosin staining is not the golden standard for confirmation of autoimmune bullous dermatoses, skin biopsies for direct immunofluorescence should be performed when a primary bullous dermatosis is suspected since the histopathology observed on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections can be misleading. PMID:25396080

Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

2014-01-01

3

Characterisation of three novel giant viruses reveals huge diversity among viruses infecting Prymnesiales (Haptophyta).  

PubMed

We have isolated three novel lytic dsDNA-viruses from Raunefjorden (Norway) that are putative members of the Mimiviridae family, namely Haptolina ericina virus RF02 (HeV RF02), Prymnesium kappa virus RF01 (PkV RF01), and Prymnesium kappa virus RF02 (PkV RF02). Each of the novel haptophyte viruses challenges the common conceptions of algal viruses with respect to host range, phylogenetic affiliation and size. PkV RF01 has a capsid of ~310 nm and is the largest algal virus particle ever reported while PkV RF01 and HeV RF02 were able to infect different species, even belonging to different genera. Moreover, PkV RF01 and HeV RF02 infected the same hosts, but phylogenetic analysis placed them in different groups. Our results reveal large variation among viruses infecting closely related microalgae, and challenge the common conception that algal viruses have narrow host range, and phylogeny reflecting their host affiliation. PMID:25546253

Johannessen, Torill Vik; Bratbak, Gunnar; Larsen, Aud; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Egge, Elianne S; Edvardsen, Bente; Eikrem, Wenche; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne

2015-02-01

4

Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton  

PubMed Central

As major consumers of heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton, microzooplankton are a critical link in aquatic foodwebs. Here, we show that a major marine microflagellate grazer is infected by a giant virus, Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV), which has the largest genome of any described marine virus (?730 kb of double-stranded DNA). The central 618-kb coding part of this AT-rich genome contains 544 predicted protein-coding genes; putative early and late promoter motifs have been detected and assigned to 191 and 72 of them, respectively, and at least 274 genes were expressed during infection. The diverse coding potential of CroV includes predicted translation factors, DNA repair enzymes such as DNA mismatch repair protein MutS and two photolyases, multiple ubiquitin pathway components, four intein elements, and 22 tRNAs. Many genes including isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, eIF-2?, and an Elp3-like histone acetyltransferase are usually not found in viruses. We also discovered a 38-kb genomic region of putative bacterial origin, which encodes several predicted carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, including an entire pathway for the biosynthesis of 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate, a key component of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CroV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus, with Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus as its closest relative, although less than one-third of the genes of CroV have homologs in Mimivirus. CroV is a highly complex marine virus and the only virus studied in genetic detail that infects one of the major groups of predators in the oceans. PMID:20974979

Fischer, Matthias G.; Allen, Michael J.; Wilson, William H.; Suttle, Curtis A.

2010-01-01

5

Provirophages and transpovirons as the diverse mobilome of giant viruses  

PubMed Central

A distinct class of infectious agents, the virophages that infect giant viruses of the Mimiviridae family, has been recently described. Here we report the simultaneous discovery of a giant virus of Acanthamoeba polyphaga (Lentille virus) that contains an integrated genome of a virophage (Sputnik 2), and a member of a previously unknown class of mobile genetic elements, the transpovirons. The transpovirons are linear DNA elements of ?7 kb that encompass six to eight protein-coding genes, two of which are homologous to virophage genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the free form of the transpoviron replicates within the giant virus factory and accumulates in high copy numbers inside giant virus particles, Sputnik 2 particles, and amoeba cytoplasm. Analysis of deep-sequencing data showed that the virophage and the transpoviron can integrate in nearly any place in the chromosome of the giant virus host and that, although less frequently, the transpoviron can also be linked to the virophage chromosome. In addition, integrated fragments of transpoviron DNA were detected in several giant virus and Sputnik genomes. Analysis of 19 Mimivirus strains revealed three distinct transpovirons associated with three subgroups of Mimiviruses. The virophage, the transpoviron, and the previously identified self-splicing introns and inteins constitute the complex, interconnected mobilome of the giant viruses and are likely to substantially contribute to interviral gene transfer. PMID:23071316

Desnues, Christelle; La Scola, Bernard; Yutin, Natalya; Fournous, Ghislain; Robert, Catherine; Azza, Saïd; Jardot, Priscilla; Monteil, Sonia; Campocasso, Angélique; Koonin, Eugene V.; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

6

Provirophages and transpovirons as the diverse mobilome of giant viruses.  

PubMed

A distinct class of infectious agents, the virophages that infect giant viruses of the Mimiviridae family, has been recently described. Here we report the simultaneous discovery of a giant virus of Acanthamoeba polyphaga (Lentille virus) that contains an integrated genome of a virophage (Sputnik 2), and a member of a previously unknown class of mobile genetic elements, the transpovirons. The transpovirons are linear DNA elements of ~7 kb that encompass six to eight protein-coding genes, two of which are homologous to virophage genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the free form of the transpoviron replicates within the giant virus factory and accumulates in high copy numbers inside giant virus particles, Sputnik 2 particles, and amoeba cytoplasm. Analysis of deep-sequencing data showed that the virophage and the transpoviron can integrate in nearly any place in the chromosome of the giant virus host and that, although less frequently, the transpoviron can also be linked to the virophage chromosome. In addition, integrated fragments of transpoviron DNA were detected in several giant virus and Sputnik genomes. Analysis of 19 Mimivirus strains revealed three distinct transpovirons associated with three subgroups of Mimiviruses. The virophage, the transpoviron, and the previously identified self-splicing introns and inteins constitute the complex, interconnected mobilome of the giant viruses and are likely to substantially contribute to interviral gene transfer. PMID:23071316

Desnues, Christelle; La Scola, Bernard; Yutin, Natalya; Fournous, Ghislain; Robert, Catherine; Azza, Saïd; Jardot, Priscilla; Monteil, Sonia; Campocasso, Angélique; Koonin, Eugene V; Raoult, Didier

2012-10-30

7

Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life.  

PubMed

The numerous and diverse eukaryotic viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes that at least partially reproduce in the cytoplasm of infected cells apparently evolved from a single virus ancestor. This major group of viruses is known as Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) or the proposed order Megavirales. Among the "Megavirales", there are three groups of giant viruses with genomes exceeding 500kb, namely Mimiviruses, Pithoviruses, and Pandoraviruses that hold the current record of viral genome size, about 2.5Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved, ancestral NLCDV genes clearly shows that these three groups of giant viruses have three distinct origins within the "Megavirales". The Mimiviruses constitute a distinct family that is distantly related to Phycodnaviridae, Pandoraviruses originate from a common ancestor with Coccolithoviruses within the Phycodnaviridae family, and Pithoviruses are related to Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. Maximum likelihood reconstruction of gene gain and loss events during the evolution of the "Megavirales" indicates that each group of giant viruses evolved from viruses with substantially smaller and simpler gene repertoires. Initial phylogenetic analysis of universal genes, such as translation system components, encoded by some giant viruses, in particular Mimiviruses, has led to the hypothesis that giant viruses descend from a fourth, probably extinct domain of cellular life. The results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses refute the fourth domain hypothesis and instead indicate that the universal genes have been independently acquired by different giant viruses from their eukaryotic hosts. PMID:25042053

Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

2014-10-01

8

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

9

The Giant Cafeteria roenbergensis Virus That Infects a Widespread Marine Phagocytic Protist Is a New Member of the Fourth Domain of Life  

PubMed Central

Background A recent work has provided strong arguments in favor of a fourth domain of Life composed of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs). This hypothesis was supported by phylogenetic and phyletic analyses based on a common set of proteins conserved in Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria, and viruses, and implicated in the functions of information storage and processing. Recently, the genome of a new NCLDV, Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV), was released. The present work aimed to determine if CroV supports the fourth domain of Life hypothesis. Methods A consensus phylogenetic tree of NCLDVs including CroV was generated from a concatenated alignment of four universal proteins of NCLDVs. Some features of the gene complement of CroV and its distribution along the genome were further analyzed. Phylogenetic and phyletic analyses were performed using the previously identified common set of informational genes present in Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria, and NCLDVs, including CroV. Findings Phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that CroV is clearly related to the Mimiviridae family. The comparison between the gene repertoires of CroV and Mimivirus showed similarities regarding the gene contents and genome organization. In addition, the phyletic clustering based on the comparison of informational gene repertoire between Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria, and NCLDVs unambiguously classified CroV with other NCLDVs and clearly included it in a fourth domain of Life. Taken together, these data suggest that Mimiviridae, including CroV, may have inherited a common gene content probably acquired from a common Mimiviridae ancestor. Conclusions This further analysis of the gene repertoire of CroV consolidated the fourth domain of Life hypothesis and contributed to outline a functional pan-genome for giant viruses infecting phagocytic protistan grazers. PMID:21559486

Colson, Philippe; Gimenez, Gregory; Boyer, Mickaël; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier

2011-01-01

10

The origins of giant viruses, virophages and their relatives in host genomes  

PubMed Central

Giant viruses have revealed a number of surprises that challenge conventions on what constitutes a virus. The Samba virus newly isolated in Brazil expands the known distribution of giant mimiviruses to a near-global scale. These viruses, together with the transposon-related virophages that infect them, pose a number of questions about their evolutionary origins that need to be considered in the light of the complex entanglement between host, virus and virophage genomes. See research article: http://www.virologyj.com/content/11/1/95. PMID:25184667

2014-01-01

11

Giant viruses: conflicts in revisiting the virus concept.  

PubMed

The current paradigm on the nature of viruses is based on early work of the 'phage group' (the pro-phage concept) and molecular biologists working on tumour viruses (the proto-oncogene concept). It posits that viruses evolved from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cellular genes that became infectious via their association with capsid genes. In this view, after their emergence viruses continued to evolve by stealing cellular genes (the escape model). This paradigm has been challenged recently by scientists who propose that viruses pre-dated modern cells. In particular, the discovery of Mimivirus has stimulated a lot of discussions on the nature of viruses. There are two major schools of thought, those who defend the escape model, suggesting that giant viruses are giant pickpockets (chimera), and those who emphasize their uniqueness and ancient origin. Comparative genomics of Mimivirus and related viruses (nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses) have produced a lot of data that have been interpreted according to the prejudices of the authors and thus failed until now to generate a consensus. I briefly review here the history of these debates and how they lead to new proposals, such as the definition of viruses as capsid-encoding organisms or else the recognition of their fundamentally cellular nature, the virocell concept. PMID:20551688

Forterre, Patrick

2010-01-01

12

Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

2014-01-01

13

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop  

E-print Network

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop Jean-Michel Claverie Structural viruses (such as record breaking Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus), with particle sizes of 0.2 to 0.6 µm mystery. They challenge the common vision of viruses, traditionally seen as highly streamlined genomes

Boyer, Edmond

14

Human Papilloma Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

Wright, V. Cecil

1989-01-01

15

Structures of giant icosahedral eukaryotic dsDNA viruses  

PubMed Central

In the last twenty years, numerous giant, dsDNA, icosahedral viruses have been discovered and assigned to the nucleocytoplasmic large dsDNA virus (NCLDV) clade. The major capsid proteins of these viruses consist of two consecutive jelly-roll domains, assembled into trimers, with pseudo 6-fold symmetry. The capsomers are assembled into arrays that have either p6 (as in Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1) or p3 symmetry (as in Mimivirus). Most of the NCLDV viruses have a membrane that separates the nucleocapsid from the external capsid. PMID:21909343

Xiao, Chuan; Rossmann, Michael G.

2011-01-01

16

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

17

Samba virus: a novel mimivirus from a giant rain forest, the Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of novel giant viruses from the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses group and their virophages has increased in the last decade and has helped to shed light on viral evolution. This study describe the discovery, isolation and characterization of Samba virus (SMBV), a novel giant virus belonging to the Mimivirus genus, which was isolated from the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. We also report the isolation of an SMBV-associated virophage named Rio Negro (RNV), which is the first Mimivirus virophage to be isolated in the Americas. Methods/results Based on a phylogenetic analysis, SMBV belongs to group A of the putative Megavirales order, possibly a new virus related to Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). SMBV is the largest virus isolated in Brazil, with an average particle diameter about 574 nm. The SMBV genome contains 938 ORFs, of which nine are ORFans. The 1,213.6 kb SMBV genome is one of the largest genome of any group A Mimivirus described to date. Electron microscopy showed RNV particle accumulation near SMBV and APMV factories resulting in the production of defective SMBV and APMV particles and decreasing the infectivity of these two viruses by several logs. Conclusion This discovery expands our knowledge of Mimiviridae evolution and ecology. PMID:24886672

2014-01-01

18

Vaginal infections in human immunodeficiency virus–infected women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the frequencies of vaginal infections among human immunodeficiency virus–infected women with those among human immunodeficiency virus–seronegative women. Study Design: Human immunodeficiency virus–seropositive women attending a comprehensive care center for human immunodeficiency virus disease at the outpatient department of an inner-city hospital in Houston underwent rigorous gynecologic evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases, including evidence

Andrew Helfgott; Nancy Eriksen; C. Michael Bundrick; Ronald Lorimor; Barbara Van Eckhout

2000-01-01

19

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Infection and Incidence  

MedlinePLUS

... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) Note: Javascript is disabled ... References & Resources Infographic Related Links Related Links Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks Red Book® Online Infection and Incidence ...

20

CELLULAR PATHOLOGY OF A GRANULOSIS VIRUS INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Nuclear and cytoplasmic ultrastructural changes were examined in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF) larval fat body cells infected with granulosis virus (GV). Soon after infection necleocapsidlike structures were observed within the nucleus associated with nuclear pores. The earliest cel...

21

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

22

Thirty-thousand-year-old distant relative of giant icosahedral DNA viruses with a pandoravirus morphology.  

PubMed

The largest known DNA viruses infect Acanthamoeba and belong to two markedly different families. The Megaviridae exhibit pseudo-icosahedral virions up to 0.7 ?m in diameter and adenine-thymine (AT)-rich genomes of up to 1.25 Mb encoding a thousand proteins. Like their Mimivirus prototype discovered 10 y ago, they entirely replicate within cytoplasmic virion factories. In contrast, the recently discovered Pandoraviruses exhibit larger amphora-shaped virions 1 ?m in length and guanine-cytosine-rich genomes up to 2.8 Mb long encoding up to 2,500 proteins. Their replication involves the host nucleus. Whereas the Megaviridae share some general features with the previously described icosahedral large DNA viruses, the Pandoraviruses appear unrelated to them. Here we report the discovery of a third type of giant virus combining an even larger pandoravirus-like particle 1.5 ?m in length with a surprisingly smaller 600 kb AT-rich genome, a gene content more similar to Iridoviruses and Marseillevirus, and a fully cytoplasmic replication reminiscent of the Megaviridae. This suggests that pandoravirus-like particles may be associated with a variety of virus families more diverse than previously envisioned. This giant virus, named Pithovirus sibericum, was isolated from a >30,000-y-old radiocarbon-dated sample when we initiated a survey of the virome of Siberian permafrost. The revival of such an ancestral amoeba-infecting virus used as a safe indicator of the possible presence of pathogenic DNA viruses, suggests that the thawing of permafrost either from global warming or industrial exploitation of circumpolar regions might not be exempt from future threats to human or animal health. PMID:24591590

Legendre, Matthieu; Bartoli, Julia; Shmakova, Lyubov; Jeudy, Sandra; Labadie, Karine; Adrait, Annie; Lescot, Magali; Poirot, Olivier; Bertaux, Lionel; Bruley, Christophe; Couté, Yohann; Rivkina, Elizaveta; Abergel, Chantal; Claverie, Jean-Michel

2014-03-18

23

Thirty-thousand-year-old distant relative of giant icosahedral DNA viruses with a pandoravirus morphology  

PubMed Central

The largest known DNA viruses infect Acanthamoeba and belong to two markedly different families. The Megaviridae exhibit pseudo-icosahedral virions up to 0.7 ?m in diameter and adenine–thymine (AT)-rich genomes of up to 1.25 Mb encoding a thousand proteins. Like their Mimivirus prototype discovered 10 y ago, they entirely replicate within cytoplasmic virion factories. In contrast, the recently discovered Pandoraviruses exhibit larger amphora-shaped virions 1 ?m in length and guanine–cytosine-rich genomes up to 2.8 Mb long encoding up to 2,500 proteins. Their replication involves the host nucleus. Whereas the Megaviridae share some general features with the previously described icosahedral large DNA viruses, the Pandoraviruses appear unrelated to them. Here we report the discovery of a third type of giant virus combining an even larger pandoravirus-like particle 1.5 ?m in length with a surprisingly smaller 600 kb AT-rich genome, a gene content more similar to Iridoviruses and Marseillevirus, and a fully cytoplasmic replication reminiscent of the Megaviridae. This suggests that pandoravirus-like particles may be associated with a variety of virus families more diverse than previously envisioned. This giant virus, named Pithovirus sibericum, was isolated from a >30,000-y-old radiocarbon-dated sample when we initiated a survey of the virome of Siberian permafrost. The revival of such an ancestral amoeba-infecting virus used as a safe indicator of the possible presence of pathogenic DNA viruses, suggests that the thawing of permafrost either from global warming or industrial exploitation of circumpolar regions might not be exempt from future threats to human or animal health. PMID:24591590

Legendre, Matthieu; Bartoli, Julia; Shmakova, Lyubov; Jeudy, Sandra; Labadie, Karine; Adrait, Annie; Lescot, Magali; Poirot, Olivier; Bertaux, Lionel; Bruley, Christophe; Couté, Yohann; Rivkina, Elizaveta; Abergel, Chantal; Claverie, Jean-Michel

2014-01-01

24

The greasy response to virus infections.  

PubMed

Virus replication requires lipid metabolism, but how lipids mediate virus infection remains obscure. In this issue, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee et al. (2013) reveal that IFITM proteins disturb cholesterol homeostasis to block virus entry. Previously, in Cell, Morita and colleagues (2013) showed the antiviral potency of the lipid mediator protectin D1. PMID:23601099

Tanner, Lukas Bahati; Lee, Benhur

2013-04-17

25

Transcriptional mapping in Chilo iridescent virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) belongs to the family Iridoviridae, which are icosahedral cytoplasmic DNA viruses with large, linear, and circularly permuted genomes. Previous studies on infected-cell-specific polypeptides suggested temporal regulation of CIV gene expression. Recently, we demonstrated three temporal classes at the transcriptional level, in CIV infections of a spruce budworm cell line. We also demonstrated a transcriptional cascade

S. M. D’Costa; H. J. Yao; S. L. Bilimoria

2004-01-01

26

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land  

E-print Network

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People's Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah­PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among influenza virus ecology has long regarded water- birds as a primary reservoir. Although the benchmark study

Clayton, Dale H.

27

Nipah virus infection: current scenario.  

PubMed

The emergence of Nipah virus (NiV) infection into the pig population and subsequently into the human population is believed to be due to changes in ecological conditions. In Malaysia, A major NiV outbreak occurred in pigs and humans from September 1998 to April 1999 that resulted in infection of 265 and death of 105 persons. About 1.1 million pigs had to be destroyed to control the outbreak. The disease was recorded in the form of a major outbreak in India in 2001 and then a small incidence in 2007, both the outbreaks in West Bengal only in humans without any involvement of pigs. There were series of human Nipah incidences in Bangladesh from 2001 till 2013 almost every year with mortality exceeding 70 %. The disease transmission from pigs acting as an intermediate host during Malaysian and Singapore outbreaks has changed in NIV outbreaks in India and Bangladesh, transmitting the disease directly from bats to human followed by human to human. The drinking of raw date palm sap contaminated with fruit bat urine or saliva containing NiV is the only known cause of outbreak of the disease in Bangladesh outbreaks. The virus is now known to exist in various fruit bats of Pteropus as well as bats of other genera in a wider belt from Asia to Africa. PMID:24426305

Kulkarni, D D; Tosh, C; Venkatesh, G; Senthil Kumar, D

2013-12-01

28

Divergent Roles of Autophagy in Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Viruses have played an important role in human evolution and have evolved diverse strategies to co-exist with their hosts. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit and manipulate different host cell processes, including cellular trafficking, metabolism and immunity-related functions, for their own survival. In this article, we review evidence for how autophagy, a highly conserved cellular degradative pathway, serves either as an antiviral defense mechanism or, alternatively, as a pro-viral process during virus infection. Furthermore, we highlight recent reports concerning the role of selective autophagy in virus infection and how viruses manipulate autophagy to evade lysosomal capture and degradation. PMID:24709646

Chiramel, Abhilash I.; Brady, Nathan R.; Bartenschlager, Ralf

2013-01-01

29

Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection.  

PubMed

Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in 'omics' resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems biological approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

Suthar, Mehul S; Pulendran, Bali

2014-06-01

30

RESEARCH Open Access Samba virus: a novel mimivirus from a giant rain  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Samba virus: a novel mimivirus from a giant rain forest, the Brazilian Amazon to the Mimivirus genus, which was isolated from the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. We also report of Mimiviridae evolution and ecology. Keywords: Mimiviridae, DNA virus, Giant virus, NCLDV, Virophage, Amazon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

Ebola Virus Infection: What Should Be Known?  

PubMed Central

Ebola virus infection is the present global consideration. This deadly virus can result in a deadly acute febrile hemorrhagic illness. The patient can have several clinical manifestations. As a new emerging infection, the knowledge on this infection is extremely limited. The interesting issues to be discussed include a) the atypical clinical presentation, b) new diagnostic tool, c) new treatment, and d) disease prevention. Those topics will be discussed in this special review.

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2014-01-01

32

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

33

Screening of parasitic and IHHNV infections in wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Rejang River at Kuching, Sarawak.  

PubMed

A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology. PMID:21602773

Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M

2011-04-01

34

Occult hepatitis B virus infection  

PubMed Central

Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) refers to the presence of HBV DNA in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen. Since OBI was first described in the late 1970s, there has been increasing interest in this topic. The prevalence of OBI varies according to the different endemicity of HBV infection, cohort characteristics, and sensitivity and specificity of the methods used for detection. Although the exact mechanism of OBI has not been proved, intra-hepatic persistence of viral covalently closed circular DNA under the host’s strong immune suppression of HBV replication and gene expression seems to be a cause. OBI has important clinical significance in several conditions. First, OBI can be transmitted through transfusion, organ transplantation including orthotopic liver transplantation, or hemodialysis. Donor screening before blood transfusion, prophylaxis for high-risk organ transplantation recipients, and dialysis-specific infection-control programs should be considered to reduce the risk of transmission. Second, OBI may reactivate and cause acute hepatitis in immunocompromised patients or those receiving chemotherapy. Close HBV DNA monitoring and timely antiviral treatment can prevent HBV reactivation and consequent clinical deterioration. Third, OBI may contribute to the progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease including hepatitis C. Finally, OBI seems to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma by its direct proto-oncogenic effect and by indirectly causing persistent hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this needs further investigation. We review published reports in the literature to gain an overview of the status of OBI and emphasize the clinical importance of OBI. PMID:25544873

Kwak, Min-Sun; Kim, Yoon Jun

2014-01-01

35

Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells  

SciTech Connect

Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

2012-03-22

36

Innate immunity to influenza virus infection  

PubMed Central

Influenza viruses are a major pathogen of both humans and animals. Recent studies using gene-knockout mice have led to an in-depth understanding of the innate sensors that detect influenza virus infection in a variety of cell types. Signalling downstream of these sensors induces distinct sets of effector mechanisms that block virus replication and promote viral clearance by inducing innate and adaptive immune responses. In this Review, we discuss the various ways in which the innate immune system uses pattern recognition receptors to detect and respond to influenza virus infection. We consider whether the outcome of innate sensor stimulation promotes antiviral resistance or disease tolerance, and propose rational treatment strategies for the acute respiratory disease that is caused by influenza virus infection. PMID:24762827

Iwasaki, Akiko; Pillai, Padmini S.

2014-01-01

37

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax.  

PubMed

Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Zarogoulidis, Paul

2014-10-01

38

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax  

PubMed Central

Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

2014-01-01

39

Lipid interactions during virus entry and infection  

PubMed Central

Summary For entry and infection viruses have developed numerous strategies to subjugate indispensable cellular factors and functions. Host cell lipids and cellular lipid synthesis machinery are no exception. Not only do viruses exploit existing lipid signalling and modifications for virus entry and trafficking, they also reprogram lipid synthesis, metabolism, and compartmentalization for assembly and egress. Here we review these various concepts and highlight recent progress in understanding viral interactions with host cell lipids during entry and assembly. PMID:25131438

Mazzon, Michela; Mercer, Jason

2014-01-01

40

Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in hu- mans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evac- uation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus.

James N. Mills; Asiah N. M. Alim; Michel L. Bunning; Ong Bee Lee; Kent D. Wagoner; Brian R. Amman; Patrick C. Stockton; Thomas G. Ksiazek

2009-01-01

41

DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

42

Pathogenesis of Rinderpest Virus Infection in Rabbits I. Clinical Signs, Immune Response, Histological Changes, and Virus Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

Rabbits were intravenously inoculated with an attenuated rinderpest virus (L strain), and general patterns of the disease were investigated. The rabbits developed fever with concomitant occurrence of diarrhea and lymphopenia. Early production of interferon was followed by a rise of neutralizing antibody. Histological examinations revealed an involvement of all of the lymphoid tissues, with primary lesions consisting of necrosis of the lymphoid follicles and formation of giant cells. Immunofluorescent examinations suggested that the virus growth was present in almost all of the lymphoid tissues. The possibility of application of this experimental system for the study of systemic infection by measles virus was discussed. Images PMID:4593339

Yamanouchi, Kazuya; Chino, Fumitoshi; Kobune, Fumio; Fukuda, Akiko; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

1974-01-01

43

Serosurvey of selected viruses in captive giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 92 giant pandas in three captive facilities were tested for antibodies against five viruses of carnivores. Antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV) in two facilities in which giant pandas were vaccinated were variable. The canine adenovirus (CAV-1) and canine parvovirus (CPV) titers in vaccinated group were both positive, but titers were not high and varied among

Qin Qin; Desheng Li; Hemin Zhang; Rong Hou; Zhihe Zhang; Chenglin Zhang; Jinguo Zhang; Fuwen Wei

2010-01-01

44

The Pathology of Influenza Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Influenza viruses are significant human respiratory pathogens that cause both seasonal, endemic infections and periodic, unpredictable pandemics. The worst pandemic on record, in 1918, killed approximately 50 million people worldwide. Human infections caused by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have raised concern about the emergence of another pandemic. The histopathology of fatal influenza virus pneumonias as documented over the past 120 years is reviewed here. Strikingly, the spectrum of pathologic changes described in the 1918 influenza pandemic is not significantly different from the histopathology observed in other less lethal pandemics or even in deaths occurring during seasonal influenza outbreaks. PMID:18039138

Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Morens, David M.

2008-01-01

45

Fibromyalgia-associated hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The objective was to determine whether there might be an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection and fibromyalgia (FM). We determined the prevalence of HCV infection in 112 FM patients, in comparison with matched rheum- atoid arthritis (RA) patients from the out-patient clinic of a teaching tertiary care general hospital. Furthermore, we looked for evidence of FM

J. RIVERA; A. DE DIEGO; M. TRINCHET; A. GARCIA MONFORTE

1997-01-01

46

Experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of pigs.  

PubMed

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged virus responsible for an acute non-specific syndrome in adult cattle including high fever, decrease in milk production and severe diarrhea. It also causes reproductive problems in cattle, sheep and goat including abortions, stillbirths and malformations. The role of pigs in the epidemiology of SBV has not yet been evaluated while this could be interesting seen their suggested role in the epidemiology of the closely related Akabane virus. To address this issue, four 12 week old seronegative piglets were subcutaneously infected with 1 ml of SBV infectious serum (FLI) and kept into contact with four non-infected piglets to examine direct virus transmission. Throughout the experiment blood, swabs and feces samples were collected and upon euthanasia at 28 dpi different organs (cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, lung, liver, iliac lymph nodes, kidney and spleen) were sampled. No clinical impact was observed and all collected samples tested negative for SBV in rRT-PCR. Despite the absence of viremia and virus transmission, low and short lasting amounts of neutralizing antibodies were found in 2 out of 4 infected piglets. The limited impact of SBV infection in pigs was further supported by the absence of neutralizing anti-SBV antibodies in field collected sera from indoor housed domestic pigs (n=106). In conclusion, SBV infection of pigs can induce seroconversion but is ineffective in terms of virus replication and transmission indicating that pigs have no obvious role in the SBV epidemiology. PMID:24679959

Poskin, Antoine; Van Campe, Willem; Mostin, Laurent; Cay, Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

2014-06-01

47

Studies on Beauregard sweetpotato clones naturally infected with viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of clonal sweetpotato naturally infected with viruses was investigated. Analyses included yield, canopy biomass, and root colour on twelve virus infected (V?+?) clones and corresponding virus-tested (V?) mericlones (clones derived from meristem-tip culture) of ‘Beauregard’ sweetpotato. All V?+ clones tested positive for Sweet potato feathery mottle virus and some clones additionally tested positive for Sweet potato virus G

Heather W Carroll; Arthur Q Villordon; Christopher A Clark; Don R La Bonte; Mary W Hoy

2004-01-01

48

Approaches and strategies for the treatment of influenza virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A and B viruses belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. These virus- es are responsible for severe morbidity and sig- nificant excess mortality each year. Infection with influenza viruses usually leads to respiratory involvement and can result in pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections. Vaccine approach- es to the prophy-laxis of influenza virus infec- tions have been problematic owing

Joseph M Colacino; Kirk A Staschke; W Graeme Laver

49

African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig ( Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with African swine fever (ASF) virus. Little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. This study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is

E. C Anderson; G. H Hutchings; N Mukarati; P. J Wilkinson

1998-01-01

50

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Neural Xenografts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly specific for its human host. To study HIV-1 infection of the human nervous system, we have established a small animal model in which second-trimester (11 to 17.5 weeks) human fetal brain or neural retina is transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of immunosuppressed adult rats. The human xenografts vascularized, formed a blood-brain barrier, and differentiated, forming neurons and glia. The xenografts were infected with cell-free HIV-1 or with HIV-1-infected human monocytes. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction revealed HIV-1 sequences in DNA from xenograft tissue exposed to HIV-1 virions, and in situ hybridization demonstrated HIV-1 mRNA localized in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Pathological damage was observed only in neural xenografts containing HIV-1-infected human monocytes, supporting the hypothesis that these cells mediate neurotoxicity. This small animal model allows the study of direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on developing human fetal neural tissues, and it should prove useful in evaluating antiviral therapies, which must ultimately target HIV-1 infection of the brain.

Cvetkovich, Therese A.; Lazar, Eliot; Blumberg, Benjamin M.; Saito, Yoshihiro; Eskin, Thomas A.; Reichman, Richard; Baram, David A.; del Cerro, Coca; Gendelman, Howard E.; del Cerro, Manuel; Epstein, Leon G.

1992-06-01

51

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver  

PubMed Central

Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries. PMID:22489261

Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

2012-01-01

52

Mimiviridae: clusters of orthologous genes, reconstruction of gene repertoire evolution and proposed expansion of the giant virus family  

PubMed Central

Background The family Mimiviridae belongs to the large monophyletic group of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV; proposed order Megavirales) and encompasses giant viruses infecting amoeba and probably other unicellular eukaryotes. The recent discovery of the Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV), a distant relative of the prototype mimiviruses, led to a substantial expansion of the genetic variance within the family Mimiviridae. In the light of these findings, a reassessment of the relationships between the mimiviruses and other NCLDV and reconstruction of the evolution of giant virus genomes emerge as interesting and timely goals. Results Database searches for the protein sequences encoded in the genomes of several viruses originally classified as members of the family Phycodnaviridae, in particular Organic Lake phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa viruses (OLPG), revealed a greater number of highly similar homologs in members of the Mimiviridae than in phycodnaviruses. We constructed a collection of 898 Clusters of Orthologous Genes for the putative expanded family Mimiviridae (MimiCOGs) and used these clusters for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genes that are conserved in most of the NCLDV. The topologies of the phylogenetic trees for these conserved viral genes strongly support the monophyly of the OLPG and the mimiviruses. The same tree topology was obtained by analysis of the phyletic patterns of conserved viral genes. We further employed the mimiCOGs to obtain a maximum likelihood reconstruction of the history of genes losses and gains among the giant viruses. The results reveal massive gene gain in the mimivirus branch and modest gene gain in the OLPG branch. Conclusions These phylogenomic results reported here suggest a substantial expansion of the family Mimiviridae. The proposed expanded family encompasses a greater diversity of viruses including a group of viruses with much smaller genomes than those of the original members of the Mimiviridae. If the OLPG group is included in an expanded family Mimiviridae, it becomes the only family of giant viruses currently shown to host virophages. The mimiCOGs are expected to become a key resource for phylogenomics of giant viruses. PMID:23557328

2013-01-01

53

Plant growth regulators and virus infection: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus infection can severely inhibit plant growth and distort development. This article reviews changes in plant growth regulator metabolism caused by infection. In general, virus infection decreases auxin and gibberellin concentrations and increases abscisic acid concentration. Ethylene production is stimulated in necrotic or chlorotic reactions to infection, but not where the virus spreads systemically without necrosis. While these broad trends

R. S. S. Fraser; R. J. Whenham

1982-01-01

54

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus  

E-print Network

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus Balaji for review December 30, 2009) Influenza A virus is being extensively studied because of its major impact on human and animal health. However, the dynamics of influenza virus infection and the cell types infected

55

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus  

E-print Network

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus Carl J,a and Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Paris, Franceb Orsay virus and Santeuil virus, the first known viruses capable of naturally infecting the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans

Wang, David

56

Influenza virus infection in a compromised immune system   

E-print Network

Severe influenza virus infection, including human infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses is characterised by massive pulmonary inflammation, immunopathology and excessive cytokine production, a process in ...

Campbell, Gillian Mhairi

2012-06-30

57

The impact of hepatitis A virus infection on hepatitis C virus infection: a competitive exclusion hypothesis.  

PubMed

We address the observation that, in some cases, patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are cleared of HCV when super-infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). We hypothesise that this phenomenon can be explained by the competitive exclusion principle, including the action of the immune system, and show that the inclusion of the immune system explains both the elimination of one virus and the co-existence of both infections for a certain range of parameters. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our findings. PMID:23192400

Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Chaib, Eleazar; Massad, Eduardo

2013-01-01

58

Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed Central

The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

Levy, J A

1993-01-01

59

Apoptosis in virus infection dynamics models  

PubMed Central

In this paper, on the basis of the simplified two-dimensional virus infection dynamics model, we propose two extended models that aim at incorporating the influence of activation-induced apoptosis which directly affects the population of uninfected cells. The theoretical analysis shows that increasing apoptosis plays a positive role in control of virus infection. However, after being included the third population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes immune response in HIV-infected patients, it shows that depending on intensity of the apoptosis of healthy cells, the apoptosis can either promote or comfort the long-term evolution of HIV infection. Further, the discrete-time delay of apoptosis is incorporated into the pervious model. Stability switching occurs as the time delay in apoptosis increases. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results and display the different impacts of a delay in apoptosis. PMID:24963975

Fan, Ruili; Dong, Yueping; Huang, Gang; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

60

Control of viruses infecting grapevine.  

PubMed

Grapevine is a high value vegetatively propagated fruit crop that suffers from numerous viruses, including some that seriously affect the profitability of vineyards. Nowadays, 64 viruses belonging to different genera and families have been reported in grapevines and new virus species will likely be described in the future. Three viral diseases namely leafroll, rugose wood, and infectious degeneration are of major economic importance worldwide. The viruses associated with these diseases are transmitted by mealybugs, scale and soft scale insects, or dagger nematodes. Here, we review control measures of the major grapevine viral diseases. More specifically, emphasis is laid on (i) approaches for the production of clean stocks and propagative material through effective sanitation, robust diagnosis, as well as local and regional certification efforts, (ii) the management of vectors of viruses using cultural, biological, and chemical methods, and (iii) the production of resistant grapevines mainly through the application of genetic engineering. The benefits and limitations of the different control measures are discussed with regard to accomplishments and future research directions. PMID:25591880

Maliogka, Varvara I; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fuchs, Marc; Katis, Nikolaos I

2015-01-01

61

Origin of the Transmitted Virus in HIV Infection: Infected Cells Versus Cell-Free Virus.  

PubMed

All human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected inocula, such as genital secretions, breast milk, and blood, contain both cell-free virus and infected cells. The relative contributions of cell-free and/or cell-associated virus in establishing an infection in a naive host during the different modes of HIV-1 acquisition remains unclear. Studies aim to elucidate the source of the acquired virus because strategies to prevent acquisition may have differential efficacy against the different modes of transmission. In this review, I will detail some of the challenges in identifying the source of the transmitted virus, genotypic and phenotypic differences among cell-free compared with cell-associated HIV-1, and implications on the efficacy for prevention strategies. PMID:25414422

Sagar, Manish

2014-12-15

62

Experimental encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs.  

PubMed

A field isolate of Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus was inoculated intravenously into 8 pigs. Four animals died at post inoculation day (PID) 2, the remaining being sacrificed at PID 5, 7, 11 and 15. Two control, in-contact pigs were sacrificed at PID 19. Virus was isolated from leucocytes and nasal swabs until PID 4, from rectal swabs until PID 2 and, in the pigs found dead at PID 2, from several organs. EMC virus was further isolated from brain and spleen of the pig sacrificed at PID 7. One of the 2 control pigs became infected: virus was isolated from nasal swabs at days 6 and 7 and from leucocytes at day 4 of the experiment. Serum-neutralizing (SN) antibody was detected in the injected pigs starting from PID 4; two days later, it was also revealed in the infected, in-contact control. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an experimental transmission of EMC virus infection in pigs by contact exposure. PMID:8237207

Foni, E; Barigazzi, G; Sidoli, L; Marcato, P S; Sarli, G; Della Salda, L; Spinaci, M

1993-07-01

63

The neurobiology of varicella zoster virus infection  

PubMed Central

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic herpesvirus that infects nearly all humans. Primary infection usually causes chickenpox (varicella), after which virus becomes latent in cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Although VZV cannot be isolated from human ganglia, nucleic acid hybridization and, later, polymerase chain reaction proved that VZV is latent in ganglia. Declining VZV-specific host immunity decades after primary infection allows virus to reactivate spontaneously, resulting in shingles (zoster) characterized by pain and rash restricted to 1-3 dermatomes. Multiple other serious neurological and ocular disorders also result from VZV reactivation. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the clinical and pathological complications of neurological and ocular disease produced by VZV reactivation, molecular aspects of VZV latency, VZV virology and VZV-specific immunity, the role of apoptosis in VZV-induced cell death, and the development of an animal model provided by simian varicella virus infection of monkeys. PMID:21342215

Gilden, D.; Mahalingam, R.; Nagel, M. A.; Pugazhenthi, S.; Cohrs, R. J.

2011-01-01

64

Influenza A virus infections in Chinese landbirds  

E-print Network

Water birds are considered the reservoir for avian infl uenza viruses. We examined this assumption by sampling and real-time reverse transcription–PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Infl uenza A infection was found, particularly...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Bush, Sarah E.; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Ip, Hon S.

2009-10-01

65

Winter Infections: Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

E-print Network

in Children #12;Symptoms of RSV is similar to the common cold A person with an RSV infection might cough) ­ Antibiotics do not help! #12;Common Cold (Rhinovirus) Picture: bubblews.com #12;Common Cold Most common viral not give you the common cold! Viruses can be contagious for up to 2-3 weeks!! http://www.cdc.gov/ge

Goldman, Steven A.

66

DNA-dependent RNA polymerase detects hidden giant viruses in published databanks.  

PubMed

Environmental metagenomic studies show that there is a "dark matter," composed of sequences not linked to any known organism, as determined mainly using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, which therefore ignore giant viruses. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) genes are universal in microbes and conserved in giant viruses and may replace rDNA for identifying microbes. We found while reconstructing RNAP subunit 2 (RNAP2) phylogeny that a giant virus sequenced together with the genome of a large eukaryote, Hydra magnipapillata, has been overlooked. To explore the dark matter, we used viral RNAP2 and reconstructed putative ancestral RNAP2, which were significantly superior in detecting distant clades than current sequences, and we revealed two additional unknown mimiviruses, misclassified as an euryarchaeote and an oomycete plant pathogen, and detected unknown putative viral clades. We suggest using RNAP systematically to decipher the black matter and identify giant viruses. PMID:24929085

Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Giorgi, Roch; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

2014-07-01

67

Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The AIDS epidemic continues. All health-care workers, including physicians and dental personnel, may be instrumental in recognizing risk factors associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Oral signs and symptoms of HIV infection may be the first presentation of the disease or may develop during the course of the disease and require management. Knowledge of the signs, symptoms and associated infections and tumours is needed to assist in recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13 PMID:21253078

Epstein, Joel B.; Mathias, Richard G.

1988-01-01

68

Ocular manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection.  

PubMed

Approximately 3.6 million persons in the United States are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a condition with both hepatic and extrahepatic sequelae. Although no pathognomonic manifestation of HCV infection in the eye has been demonstrated, associations between HCV infection and various ocular syndromes have been reported in small case series and individual patients. At this time, the ocular manifestations of HCV infections best supported by the literature include a dry eye syndrome similar to Sjögren syndrome, and ischemic retinopathy caused by either an HCV-induced vasculitis or treatment with interferon. Patients with diabetes seem to be more susceptible to interferon retinopathy and to subsequent permanent visual loss. There have been no cases of HCV transmission via corneal transplantation, suggesting that current cadaveric screening protocols are effective in preventing this route of transmission. Screening for HCV should be considered in patients with risk factors for HCV infection who suffer from unexplained ischemic retinopathy or dry eyes. PMID:12441848

Zegans, Michael E; Anninger, William; Chapman, Christopher; Gordon, Stuart R

2002-12-01

69

New perspectives in Respiratory Syncitial Virus infection.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children worldwide and it is associated with significant childhood morbidity. Acute infection may result in respiratory failure with varying degrees of severity, and increasing evidence supports a role of RSV infection as a key determinant for the development of subsequent chronic respiratory disease. Independent predictors of RSV severity include; prematurity, congenital heart disease, cystic fibrosis, immune defects and neuromuscular disorders. Passive immunization with palivizumab has proven to be safe and effective for preventing RSV hospitalization in infants at higher risk of acquiring severe RSV infection, but its expense and cumbersome monthly intravenous delivery schedule make it inaccessible to many. Furthermore, implementing prophylaxis in 32- to 35-week-gestational age infants and the mode of its administration still represent areas of uncertainty. In this review, we describe several aspects of RSV infection and analyze recent advances in the assessment of cost-effective palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:24059554

Del Vecchio, Antonio; Ferrara, Teresa; Maglione, Marco; Capasso, Letizia; Raimondi, Francesco

2013-10-01

70

Hepatitis B virus infection in northern India  

PubMed Central

Previous reports from India have been limited to the incidences of hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) in health and disease. This paper reports on a study undertaken over the last two years to determine the incidence of hepatitis B virus infection, the serotypes prevalent among apparently healthy individuals and patients with liver diseases, and the seasonal incidence of sporadic acute hepatitis in this geographic area. The incidences of infection in health and disease show an endemic pattern. The Y subtype predominates among healthy carriers and patients with chronic liver diseases, whereas the D subtype predominates in patients with acute hepatitis. The similarity of subtypes of HB Ag among the majority of healthy carriers and patients with chronic liver diseases suggests that the majority of asymptomatic carriers (subclinically infected) would develop chronic liver disease. The proportion of HB Ag-positive cases of acute hepatitis was significantly higher during the two summer seasons than during the two winter seasons; this could be due to more frequent transmission of the virus by the faecal/urinary—oral route and its activation during the summer months, especially in areas with poor hygienic conditions. The urinary/faecal excretion of virus could thus maintain the natural transmission of the virus in such an environment. PMID:4141943

Pal, S. R.; Chitkara, N. L.; Choudhury, S.; Dutta, D. V.; Deodhar, S. D.; Chhuttani, P. N.

1974-01-01

71

Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses  

PubMed Central

A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes) were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture. PMID:23921843

Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Kelly, Terra R.; Plancarte, Magdalena; Schobel, Seth; Lin, Xudong; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Boyce, Walter M.

2013-01-01

72

Sensory polymyeloradiculopathy associated with Toscana virus infection.  

PubMed

Sandfly viruses are arthropod-borne viruses that are endemic in the Mediterranean basin. The Toscana virus (TOSV) is the only serotype of sandfly viruses known to cause neurological symptoms in humans, usually aseptic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. We report a case of a 39-year-old man who was admitted to our department with progressive paresthesias of the lower limbs followed by dysesthesias of the upper thorax after a hiking trip to the Netherlands. The patient had also been suffering from epididymitis for several weeks before the neurological symptoms appeared but was treated by antibiotics accordingly. Lumber puncture results demonstrated mononuclear pleocytosis with elevated protein levels. MRI of the lumbar spine revealed polymyeloradiculopathy. Positive IgM antibodies against the Toscana serotype of sandfly virus were discovered in the patient's blood and CSF. There was also evidence for a recent infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The patient was treated conservatively with improvement in his neurological state. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an association between TOSV infection and polymyeloradiculopathy. PMID:24081884

Gonen, Ofer Michael; Sacagiu, Tzvika

2013-10-01

73

Pathological consequences of systemic measles virus infection.  

PubMed

The identification of poliovirus receptor-like 4 (PVRL4) as the second natural receptor for measles virus (MV) has closed a major gap in our understanding of measles pathogenesis, and explains how this predominantly lymphotropic virus breaks through epithelial barriers to transmit to a susceptible host. Advances in the development of wild-type, recombinant MVs which express fluorescent proteins making infected cells readily detectable in living tissues and animals, has also increased our understanding of this important and highly transmissible human disease. Thus, it is timely to review how these advances have provided new insights into MV infection of immune, epithelial and neural cells. This demands access to primate samples that help us understand the early and acute stages of the disease, which are challenging to dissect due to the mild/self-limiting nature of the infection. It also requires well-characterized and rather rare human tissue samples from patients who succumb to neurological sequelae to help study the consequences of the long-term persistence of this RNA virus in vivo. Collectively, these studies have provided unique insights into how the use of two cellular receptors, CD150 and PVRL4, governs the in vivo tissue-specific temporal patterns of virus spread and resulting pathological lesions. Analysis of tissue samples has also demonstrated the importance of differing mechanisms of virus cell-to-cell spread within lymphoid, epithelial and neural tissues in the dissemination of MV during acute and long-term persistent infections. Given the incentive to eradicate MV globally, and the inevitable question as to whether or not vaccination should cease in light of the existence of closely related morbilliviruses, a thorough understanding of measles pathological lesions is essential. PMID:25294240

Ludlow, Martin; McQuaid, Stephen; Milner, Dan; de Swart, Rik L; Duprex, W Paul

2015-01-01

74

Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

1981-06-01

75

Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Acute and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a serious health problem worldwide, however, there has been advancement in the treatment of HCV infection due to standard treatment using pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The literature indicates that therapy for HCV is becoming more individualized. In addition to considering genotype and viral RNA levels before treatment, achievement of an early virologic response (EVR) and a rapid virologic response (RVR) is now possible during therapy. Moreover, problem patients, such as non-responders, relapsers, HIV or HBV co-infected patients, patients with liver cirrhosis, and pre- or post-liver transplantation patients are an increasing fraction of the patients requiring treatment. This article reviews the literature regarding standard treatments and problem patients with acute and chronic HCV infection. It also includes discussion on contraindications and side effects of treatment with interferon and ribavirin, as well as new drug development. PMID:17461488

Weigand, Kilian; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Encke, Jens

2007-01-01

76

Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of almost all cases of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (NANBH). HCV is an RNA virus, unrelated to the hepatitis viruses, A, B, D, or E; it was first identified in 1989. Although most infections become chronic, and it may lead to chronic liver disease, most patients with HCV infection are asymptomatic. The predominant modes of transmission are by blood, blood products, or other parenteral exposure, particularly injecting drug use. More contentious is the role of sexual transmission, although evidence for this was provided by studies of NANBH. OBJECTIVE: This review considers the evidence for sexual transmission, and the types of studies used to estimate the rate of transmission and the factors that may influence it. METHOD: A Medline search using the keywords hepatitis C, sex, transmission, and prevalence in MeSH and free text. References in papers were searched, and some unpublished data identified. References were further selected to illustrate different methodologies. FINDINGS: Evidence for sexual transmission is provided by several types of study including prevalence studies in groups at risk of other STDs, investigation of cases identified from surveillance reports, and cross sectional and longitudinal partner studies. Many studies are limited by their small size, the sensitivity and specificity of early assays, lack of controls, or the difficulty of excluding other routes of transmission. One prospective cohort study reported an incidence of 12 per 1000 person years in the sexual partners of HCV infected patients. 1-3% of partners of HCV infected patients are found to be infected in cross sectional studies. Co-infection with HIV, duration of the relationship, or chronic liver disease may be independent cofactors increasing the risk of transmission. A meta-analysis of selected studies may be informative, and further larger prospective studies are required. There is a small but definite risk of sexual transmission of hepatitis C. ??? PMID:10195047

Rooney, G.; Gilson, R. J.

1998-01-01

77

Ebola virus (EboV) infection causes fatal  

E-print Network

Ebola virus (EboV) infection causes fatal haemorrhagic fever with mortality rates exceeding 75 Carette, J. E. et al. Ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann­Pick C1. Nature 24 is essential for Ebola virus infection. Nature 24 Aug 2011 (doi:10.1038/nature10380) ANTIVIRALS Achilles heel

Chandran, Kartik

78

Experimental Infection of Prairie Dogs with Monkeypox Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of experimental infection of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with monkeypox virus are described. After intraperitoneal infection, all of the animals died within 11 days. Virus was cultured from their blood and oropharynx several days before death; at necropsy, most of the organs tested contained monkeypox virus. Marked hepatic and splenic necrosis were observed, along with mild inflammatory changes in

Shu-Yuan Xiao; Elena Sbrana; Douglas M. Watts; Marina Siirin; Travassos da Rosa; Robert B. Tesh

2005-01-01

79

Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection  

E-print Network

Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection Simona Ozden1 , Michel Background. Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute, Afonso PV, et al (2007) Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection. PLoS ONE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated whole virus or viral subunits, depends largely on the matching of vaccine strain and circulating virus. Measles

A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; Vries de P

1992-01-01

81

ANALYSIS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION MODELS WITH HEPATOCYTE HOMEOSTASIS  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION MODELS WITH HEPATOCYTE HOMEOSTASIS TIMOTHY C. RELUGA ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY LOS ALAMOS, NM 87545 Abstract. Recently, we developed a model for hepatitis C infections with hepatotropic viruses, such as hepatitis B virus. Key words. HCV, viral dynamics, bifurcation

Reluga, Tim

82

Development of therapeutics for treatment of Ebola virus infection.  

PubMed

Ebola virus infection can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD). Patients usually show severe symptoms, and the fatality rate can reach up to 90%. No licensed medicine is available. In this review, development of therapeutics for treatment of Ebola virus infection and EVD will be discussed. PMID:25498866

Li, Haoyang; Ying, Tianlei; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

2015-02-01

83

Animal models of varicella zoster virus infection.  

PubMed

Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in varicella (chickenpox) followed by the establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. Declining T cell immunity due to aging or immune suppressive treatments can lead to VZV reactivation and the development of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles). HZ is often associated with significant morbidity and occasionally mortality in elderly and immune compromised patients. There are currently two FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of VZV: Varivax® (for varicella) and Zostavax® (for HZ). Both vaccines contain the live-attenuated Oka strain of VZV. Although highly immunogenic, a two-dose regimen is required to achieve a 99% seroconversion rate. Zostavax vaccination reduces the incidence of HZ by 51% within a 3-year period, but a significant reduction in vaccine-induced immunity is observed within the first year after vaccination. Developing more efficacious vaccines and therapeutics requires a better understanding of the host response to VZV. These studies have been hampered by the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate all aspects of VZV infections in humans. In this review, we describe different animal models of VZV infection as well as an alternative animal model that leverages the infection of Old World macaques with the highly related simian varicella virus (SVV) and discuss their contributions to our understanding of pathogenesis and immunity during VZV infection. PMID:25437040

Haberthur, Kristen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

2013-01-01

84

Host Species Barriers to Influenza Virus Infections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Most emerging infectious diseases in humans originate from animal reservoirs; to contain and eradicate these diseases we need to understand how and why some pathogens become capable of crossing host species barriers. Influenza virus illustrates the interaction of factors that limit the transmission and subsequent establishment of an infection in a novel host species. Influenza species barriers can be categorized into virus-host interactions occurring within individuals and host-host interactions, either within or between species, that affect transmission between individuals. Viral evolution can help surmount species barriers, principally by affecting virus-host interactions; however, evolving the capability for sustained transmission in a new host species represents a major adaptive challenge because the number of mutations required is often large.

Thijs Kuiken (Erasmus Medical Center;Department of Virology); Edward C. Holmes (Pennsylvania State University;Department of Biology); John McCauley (Compton Laboratory;Institute for Animal Health); Guus F. Rimmelzwaan (Erasmus Medical Center;Department of Virology); Catherine S. Williams (Pennsylvania State University;Department of Biology); Bryan T. Grenfell (National Institutes of Health, Pennsylvania State University;Fogarty International Center)

2006-04-21

85

Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus dual infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common mode of transmission and both are able to induce a chronic infection. Dual HBV/HCV chronic coinfection is a fairly frequent occurrence, especially in high endemic areas and among individuals at high risk of parenterally transmitted infections. The intracellular interplay between HBV and HCV has not yet been sufficiently clarified, also due to the lack of a proper in vitro cellular model. Longitudinal evaluation of serum HBV DNA and HCV RNA amounts has revealed that complex virological profiles may be present in coinfected patients. Dual HBV/HCV infection has been associated to a severe course of the liver disease and to a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the clinical importance, solid evidence and clear guidelines for treatment of this special population are still lacking. This review summarizes the available data on the virological and clinical features as well as the therapeutic options of the dual HBV/HCV infection, and highlights the aspects that need to be better clarified. PMID:25356020

Caccamo, Gaia; Saffioti, Francesca; Raimondo, Giovanni

2014-10-28

86

Genomic analysis of the smallest giant virus--Feldmannia sp. virus 158.  

PubMed

Genomic analysis of Feldmannia sp. virus 158, the second phaeovirus to be sequenced in its entirety, provides further evidence that large double-stranded DNA viruses share similar evolutionary pressures as cellular organisms. Reductive evolution is clearly evident within the phaeoviruses which occurred via several routes: the loss of genes from an ancestral virus core genome most likely through genetic drift; and as a result of relatively large recombination events that caused wholesale loss of genes. The entire genome is 154,641 bp in length and has 150 predicted coding sequences of which 87% have amino acid sequence similarities to other algal virus coding sequences within the family Phycodnaviridae. Significant similarities were found, for thirty eight coding sequences (25%), to genes in gene databanks that are known to be involved in processes that include DNA replication, DNA methylation, signal transduction, viral integration and transposition, and protein-protein interactions. Unsurprisingly, the greatest similarity was observed between the two known viruses that infect Feldmannia, indicating the taxonomic linkage of these two viruses with their hosts. Moreover, comparative analysis of phycodnaviral genomic sequences revealed the smallest set of core genes (10 out of a possible 31) required to make a functional nucleocytoplasmic large dsDNA virus. PMID:19054537

Schroeder, Declan C; Park, Yunjung; Yoon, Hong-Mook; Lee, Yong Seok; Kang, Se Won; Meints, Russel H; Ivey, Richard G; Choi, Tae-Jin

2009-02-01

87

Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus and other giant viruses: an open field to outstanding discoveries  

PubMed Central

In 2003, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) was first described and began to impact researchers around the world, due to its structural and genetic complexity. This virus founded the family Mimiviridae. In recent years, several new giant viruses have been isolated from different environments and specimens. Giant virus research is in its initial phase and information that may arise in the coming years may change current conceptions of life, diversity and evolution. Thus, this review aims to condense the studies conducted so far about the features and peculiarities of APMV, from its discovery to its clinical relevance. PMID:24976356

2014-01-01

88

Musculoskeletal infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal infections constitute an unusual clinical manifestation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Available information about patients' characteristics and their clinical course has been obtained mainly from case reports and small retrospective studies. Our retrospective study is the largest in the literature providing detailed information about the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HIV-infected patients with different musculoskeletal infections. We identified 30 patients with various infections of the musculoskeletal system during a 5-year period among a cohort of 3,000-4,000 HIV-infected patients, and we describe them along with all cases of musculoskeletal infections in patients with HIV reported in the literature since 1985. Septic arthritis was the most commonly reported infection of the musculoskeletal system. It usually affects young men with a median CD4 count of 241. The exact contribution of a previous history of intravenous drug abuse in the pathogenesis of septic arthritis is unclear from the present and previous studies. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated agent (31.3%). Numerous atypical pathogens were also identified as causes of septic arthritis. Approximately 90% of patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment. Osteomyelitis was a more serious infection which also affected young individuals but with lower CD4 counts (median, 41). Half the cases were due to atypical mycobacteria. The mortality rate in the previously reported cases and in our series was high (20%). Pyomyositis is an increasingly recognized infection of the striated muscles in HIV-infected patients. It affects almost exclusively males with advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count, 24). Most cases are due to Staphylococcus aureus (67%). Drainage of the involved muscle(s) accompanied by proper antibiotic treatment resulted in resolution of the infection in the majority of patients (90%). Although the incidence of musculoskeletal infections in patients with HIV from this and previous studies appears to be low (0.3%-3.5%), these infections add a significant morbidity and mortality in the affected individuals. Better understanding of their pathogenesis and clinical course would aid the proper diagnosis and management of these infections. PMID:9279334

Vassilopoulos, D; Chalasani, P; Jurado, R L; Workowski, K; Agudelo, C A

1997-07-01

89

West Nile Virus: Biology, Transmission, and Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Summary: West Nile Virus was introduced into the Western Hemisphere during the late summer of 1999 and has been causing significant and sometimes severe human diseases since that time. This article briefly touches upon the biology of the virus and provides a comprehensive review regarding recent discoveries about virus transmission, virus acquisition, and human infection and disease. PMID:23034323

Colpitts, Tonya M.; Conway, Michael J.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

2012-01-01

90

Antigenic Shift of Visna Virus in Persistently Infected Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visna viruses isolated from persistently infected sheep were antigenically distinct from the plaque-purified virus used for inoculation. The selection of antigenic variants under antibody pressure, thought to occur in vivo, was reproduced in sheep cell cultures inoculated with plaque-purified visna virus and maintained in antibody. Antigenic shift may be a mechanism for persistence of virus in slow or recurrent viral

O. Narayan; D. E. Griffin; J. Chase

1977-01-01

91

Human Jamestown canyon virus infection --- Montana, 2009.  

PubMed

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen belonging to the California serogroup of bunyaviruses. Although JCV is widely distributed throughout temperate North America, reports of human JCV infection in the United States are rare. This is the first report of human JCV infection detected in Montana, one of only 15 cases reported in the United States since 2004, when JCV became reportable. On May 26, 2009, a man aged 51 years with no travel history outside of Montana went to a local emergency department immediately following onset of fever, severe frontal headache, dizziness, left-sided numbness, and tingling. His blood pressure was elevated. Stroke was ruled out, oxygen was administered, medication was prescribed for hypertension, and the patient was sent home. One week later, the patient visited his primary-care physician complaining of continued neurologic symptoms consistent with acute febrile encephalitis and recent mosquito bites. Although West Nile virus (WNV) disease was diagnosed based on detection of WNV-immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies, subsequent testing indicated that the WNV antibodies were from a past infection and that his illness was caused by JCV. The final diagnosis of JCV infection was based on positive JCV-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results and a fourfold rise in paired sample JCV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titers. This finding represents a previously unrecognized risk for JCV infection in Montana; clinicians should consider JCV infection when assessing patients for suspected arboviral infections. PMID:21617630

2011-05-27

92

Management of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus are common infections and are seen frequently in clinical practice. Infection with these viruses results in cutaneous lesions that may be diagnosed clinically, but widely available laboratory testing is useful for confirmation. Asymptomatic herpes simplex virus shedding, or "subclinical reactivation," likely occurs in all persons infected with herpes simplex virus and results in the transmission of virus despite the absence of signs or symptoms that suggest active infection. Oral and intravenous acyclovir are effective in treating initial and recurrent herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections. The daily administration of oral acyclovir as suppressive therapy is effective in patients with frequently recurring genital infection with herpes simplex virus by reducing the number of symptomatic recurrences and the frequency of asymptomatic virus shedding. Two new antiviral agents, famciclovir and valacyclovir hydrochloride, have been approved for the short-term treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus and recurrent zoster in nonimmunocompromised hosts. Famciclovir and valacyclovir demonstrate superior pharmacokinetics compared with acyclovir and allow for less frequent daily dosing with higher achievable serum drug concentrations. The attenuated live varicella virus vaccine is now available in the United States and prevents primary varicella-zoster virus infection in susceptible children and adults. PMID:9143202

Erlich, K S

1997-01-01

93

KINETIC PROFILE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN THREE RAT STRAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Influenza infection is a respiratory disease of viral origin that can cause major epidemics in man. The influenza virus infects and damages epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and causes pneumonia. Lung lesions of mice infected with influenza virus resembl...

94

Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most strains of Ebola virus cause a rapidly fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans, yet there are still no biologic explanations that adequately account for the extreme virulence of these emerging pathogens. Here we show that Ebola Zaire virus infection in humans induces antibodies that enhance viral infectivity. Plasma or serum from convalescing patients enhanced the infection of primate kidney cells

Ayato Takada; Heinz Feldmann; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

2003-01-01

95

Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease  

PubMed Central

The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease. PMID:23662195

Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

2013-01-01

96

Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients with Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA without detectable hepatitis B surfaceantigen (HBsAg) is defined as occult HBV infection. In patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV, HIV interferes with the natural history of HBV infection by enhancing HBV replication, leading to more severe liver disease. The aim of this study was to assess occult HBV infection

Kayhan Azadmanesh; Minoo Mohraz; Arezoo Aghakhani; Rozita Edalat; Sara Jam; Ali Eslamifar; Mohammad Banifazl; Banafsheh Moradmand-Badie; Amitis Ramezani

2008-01-01

97

Euphorbia thymifolia suppresses herpes simplex virus-2 infection by directly inactivating virus infectivity.  

PubMed

1. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract and 3-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-d-glucose (3OG46HG) of Euphorbia thymifolia Linnea have been shown to exhibit anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the mode of action of these two compounds in suppressing HSV-2 multiplication. 2. The results demonstrated that the EtOAc extract and 3OG46HG affected virus infectivity in a dose-dependent manner. The EtOAc extract significantly reduced virus infectivity at a concentration of 4.0 microg/mL, whereas 3OG46HG obviously diminished virus infectivity at concentration of a 0.5 microg/mL. The virucidal ability of the EtOAc extract was affected by the incubation period, but not by the incubation temperature. In the case of the action of 3OG46HG against HSV-2, the effects of incubation time and temperature were negligible. 3. In summary, the EtOAc extract and 3OG46HG of E. thymifolia are concluded to inhibit HSV-2 multiplication by reducing virus infectivity. PMID:15854140

Yang, Chien-Min; Cheng, Hua-Yew; Lin, Ta-Chen; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

2005-01-01

98

Hepatitis C virus infection and autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with a number of extrahepatic disorders. The most studied conditions associated with HCV are type II mixed cryoglobulinemia and B cell lymphoma. However, many reports suggest that HCV might also be associated with a number of autoimmune disorders, both organ-specific and not organ-specific. Although concomitant treatment of HCV infection is a confounding factor when ascertaining the actual role of HCV in inducing autoimmune disease, a considerable amount of experimental data indicates that HCV is able to subvert the immune system and consequently induce autoimmunity. In the present review, we report a series of observations which associate chronic HCV infection with the onset of autoimmune disorders. PMID:23118549

Paroli, Marino; Iannucci, Gino; Accapezzato, Daniele

2012-01-01

99

Examining Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection and Replication by Cell-Free Infection with Recombinant Virus Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and quantitative cell-free infection assay, utilizing recombinant human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-based vectors, was developed in order to analyze early events in the virus replication cycle. Previous difficulties with the low infectivity and restricted expression of the virus have prevented a clear understanding of these events. Virus stocks were generated by transfecting cells with three plasmids:

DAVID DERSE; SHAWN A. HILL; PATRICIA A. LLOYD; HYE-KYUNG CHUNG; BARRY A. MORSE

2001-01-01

100

Autophagic flux without a block differentiates varicella-zoster virus infection from herpes simplex virus infection  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a process by which misfolded and damaged proteins are sequestered into autophagosomes, before degradation in and recycling from lysosomes. We have extensively studied the role of autophagy in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, and have observed that vesicular cells are filled with >100 autophagosomes that are easily detectable after immunolabeling for the LC3 protein. To confirm our hypothesis that increased autophagosome formation was not secondary to a block, we examined all conditions of VZV infection as well as carrying out two assessments of autophagic flux. We first investigated autophagy in human skin xenografts in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model of VZV pathogenesis, and observed that autophagosomes were abundant in infected human skin tissues. We next investigated autophagy following infection with sonically prepared cell-free virus in cultured cells. Under these conditions, autophagy was detected in a majority of infected cells, but was much less than that seen after an infected-cell inoculum. In other words, inoculation with lower-titered cell-free virus did not reflect the level of stress to the VZV-infected cell that was seen after inoculation of human skin in the SCID mouse model or monolayers with higher-titered infected cells. Finally, we investigated VZV-induced autophagic flux by two different methods (radiolabeling proteins and a dual-colored LC3 plasmid); both showed no evidence of a block in autophagy. Overall, therefore, autophagy within a VZV-infected cell was remarkably different from autophagy within an HSV-infected cell, whose genome contains two modifiers of autophagy, ICP34.5 and US11, not present in VZV. PMID:25535384

Buckingham, Erin M.; Carpenter, John E.; Jackson, Wallen; Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann M.; Grose, Charles

2015-01-01

101

Ebola virus (EBOV) infection: Therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Within less than a year after its epidemic started (in December 2013) in Guinea, Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the filoviridae, has spread over a number of West-African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia) and gained allures that have been unprecedented except by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although EBOV is highly contagious and transmitted by direct contact with body fluids, it could be counteracted by the adequate chemoprophylactic and -therapeutic interventions: vaccines, antibodies, siRNAs (small interfering RNAs), interferons and chemical substances, i.e. neplanocin A derivatives (i.e. 3-deazaneplanocin A), BCX4430, favipiravir (T-705), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ?-glucosidase inhibitors and a variety of compounds that have been found to inhibit EBOV infection blocking viral entry or by a mode of action that still has to be resolved. Much has to be learned from the mechanism of action of the compounds active against VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus), a virus belonging to the rhabdoviridae, that in its mode of replication could be exemplary for the replication of filoviridae. PMID:25481298

De Clercq, Erik

2015-01-01

102

African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease.  

PubMed

Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with African swine fever (ASF) virus. Little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. This study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is able to infect the tick vector O. moubata. These ticks were able to transmit the disease to pigs. The virus persists in the lymphatic tissues for less than 34 weeks. Bushpigs infected with LIL 20/l virus but not VIC T90/l virus transmitted infection to in-contact pigs. Infected domestic pigs did not transmit the infection to in-contact bushpigs. ASF virus was able to replicate in in vitro cultures of bushpig leucocytes and endothelial cells. Recovered bushpigs could be reinfected with some strains of virus but not others. While it has been demonstrated that bushpigs remain carriers of ASFV following infection a complete understanding of their significance in the epidemiology of the disease awaits further investigations of their association with O. moubata. PMID:9659687

Anderson, E C; Hutchings, G H; Mukarati, N; Wilkinson, P J

1998-04-30

103

Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection  

PubMed Central

Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppress RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering. PMID:24427141

Huh, Sung Un; Paek, Kyung-Hee

2013-01-01

104

ROLE OF MONOCYTES IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION.  

EPA Science Inventory

ROLE OF MONOCYTES IN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION. Joleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Traingle Park, NC USA. RSV infection in airway epithelial cells (EC) results i...

105

T-lymphocyte senescence and hepatitis C virus infection  

E-print Network

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The degree of fibrosis progression and treatment-related outcomes are critically dependent on the age of the infected individual. Progressive ageing...

Hoare, Matthew

2010-07-06

106

Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 proteome reveals novel architectural and regulatory features of a giant virus.  

PubMed

The 331-kbp chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) genome was resequenced and annotated to correct errors in the original 15-year-old sequence; 40 codons was considered the minimum protein size of an open reading frame. PBCV-1 has 416 predicted protein-encoding sequences and 11 tRNAs. A proteome analysis was also conducted on highly purified PBCV-1 virions using two mass spectrometry-based protocols. The mass spectrometry-derived data were compared to PBCV-1 and its host Chlorella variabilis NC64A predicted proteomes. Combined, these analyses revealed 148 unique virus-encoded proteins associated with the virion (about 35% of the coding capacity of the virus) and 1 host protein. Some of these proteins appear to be structural/architectural, whereas others have enzymatic, chromatin modification, and signal transduction functions. Most (106) of the proteins have no known function or homologs in the existing gene databases except as orthologs with proteins of other chloroviruses, phycodnaviruses, and nuclear-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. The genes encoding these proteins are dispersed throughout the virus genome, and most are transcribed late or early-late in the infection cycle, which is consistent with virion morphogenesis. PMID:22696644

Dunigan, David D; Cerny, Ronald L; Bauman, Andrew T; Roach, Jared C; Lane, Leslie C; Agarkova, Irina V; Wulser, Kurt; Yanai-Balser, Giane M; Gurnon, James R; Vitek, Jason C; Kronschnabel, Bernard J; Jeanniard, Adrien; Blanc, Guillaume; Upton, Chris; Duncan, Garry A; McClung, O William; Ma, Fangrui; Van Etten, James L

2012-08-01

107

Paramecium bursaria Chlorella Virus 1 Proteome Reveals Novel Architectural and Regulatory Features of a Giant Virus  

PubMed Central

The 331-kbp chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) genome was resequenced and annotated to correct errors in the original 15-year-old sequence; 40 codons was considered the minimum protein size of an open reading frame. PBCV-1 has 416 predicted protein-encoding sequences and 11 tRNAs. A proteome analysis was also conducted on highly purified PBCV-1 virions using two mass spectrometry-based protocols. The mass spectrometry-derived data were compared to PBCV-1 and its host Chlorella variabilis NC64A predicted proteomes. Combined, these analyses revealed 148 unique virus-encoded proteins associated with the virion (about 35% of the coding capacity of the virus) and 1 host protein. Some of these proteins appear to be structural/architectural, whereas others have enzymatic, chromatin modification, and signal transduction functions. Most (106) of the proteins have no known function or homologs in the existing gene databases except as orthologs with proteins of other chloroviruses, phycodnaviruses, and nuclear-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. The genes encoding these proteins are dispersed throughout the virus genome, and most are transcribed late or early-late in the infection cycle, which is consistent with virion morphogenesis. PMID:22696644

Cerny, Ronald L.; Bauman, Andrew T.; Roach, Jared C.; Lane, Leslie C.; Agarkova, Irina V.; Wulser, Kurt; Yanai-Balser, Giane M.; Gurnon, James R.; Vitek, Jason C.; Kronschnabel, Bernard J.; Jeanniard, Adrien; Blanc, Guillaume; Upton, Chris; Duncan, Garry A.; McClung, O. William; Ma, Fangrui

2012-01-01

108

Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo  

PubMed Central

A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium), pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection. PMID:20298561

2010-01-01

109

Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world. PMID:25232248

Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

2014-01-01

110

Update on hepatitis B virus infection  

PubMed Central

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) leads to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and/or chronic liver failure. Despite extensive research, the immunopathogenesis is not completely understood. Viral persistence and clinical outcomes following HBV infection depend on viral factors and host factors; including genetic factors that determine a host’s immune mechanisms. The primary goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is to eradicate HBV or to at least maintain suppression of HBV replication. Despite recent advances in anti-viral agents for chronic HBV infection, complete eradication of the virus has been difficult to achieve. Agents for the treatment of CHB are divided mainly into two groups: immunomodulating agents and antiviral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Although NAs are safe, effective and easily administered orally, their long-term use poses the risk of drug resistance. Currently, international evidence-based guidelines have been developed to support physicians in managing CHB patients. However, treatment of patients with drug resistance is still challenging, as only a few classes of anti-HBV drugs are available and cross-resistance between drugs can occur. In addition, as the currently available genotypic test for detection of drug resistance still has limitations in identifying the different substitutions present in the same viral genome, the development of a new virologic test to overcome this limitation is necessary. Among the predictive factors associated with response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy, hepatitis B surface antigen quantification is considered to be a surrogate marker for monitoring response to PEG-IFN. Current practice guidelines stress the importance of profound and durable HBV viral suppression in the treatment of CHB patients. To this end, it is essential to choose a potent antiviral drug with a low risk of resistance for initial treatment of CHB to achieve sustained virological response. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HBV and currently available and developing treatment strategies against HBV infection. PMID:25309066

You, Chan Ran; Lee, Sung Won; Jang, Jeong Won; Yoon, Seung Kew

2014-01-01

111

ENHANCED AND PROLONGED PULMONARY INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION FOLLOWING PHOSGENE INHALATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Animal infectivity models have been important in the demonstration of enhanced susceptibility to viral and bacterial infection as a result of low level toxicant exposure. his study demonstrated an enhanced and prolonged viral infection using an influenza virus infectivity model i...

112

Rabies virus infects mouse and human lymphocytes and induces apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

Attenuated and highly neurovirulent rabies virus strains have distinct cellular tropisms. Highly neurovirulent strains such as the challenge virus standard (CVS) are highly neurotropic, whereas the attenuated strain ERA also infects nonneuronal cells. We report that both rabies virus strains infect activated murine lymphocytes and the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line in vitro. The lymphocytes are more permissive to the attenuated ERA rabies virus strain than to the CVS strain in both cases. We also report that in contrast to that of the CVS strain, ERA viral replication induces apoptosis of infected Jurkat T cells, and cell death is concomitant with viral glycoprotein expression, suggesting that this protein has a role in the induction of apoptosis. Our data indicate that (i) rabies virus infects lymphocytes, (ii) lymphocyte infection with the attenuated rabies virus strain causes apoptosis, and (iii) apoptosis does not hinder rabies virus production. In contrast to CVS, ERA rabies virus and other attenuated rabies virus vaccines stimulate a strong immune response and are efficient live vaccines. The paradoxical finding that a rabies virus triggers a strong immune response despite the fact that it infects lymphocytes and induces apoptosis is discussed in terms of the function of apoptosis in the immune response. PMID:9311815

Thoulouze, M I; Lafage, M; Montano-Hirose, J A; Lafon, M

1997-01-01

113

Pathogenesis of experimental Ebola virus infection in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

The subtype Zaire of Ebola (EBO) virus (Mayinga strain) was adapted to produce lethal infections in guinea pigs. In many ways, the disease was similar to EBO infections in nonhuman primates and humans. The guinea pig model was used to investigate the pathologic events in EBO infection that lead to death. Analytical methods included immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. Cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system, primarily macrophages, were identified as the early and sustained targets of EBO virus. During later stages of infection, interstitial fibroblasts in various tissues were infected, and there was evidence of endothelial cell infection and fibrin deposition. The distribution of lesions, hematologic profiles, and increases in serum biochemical enzymes associated with EBO virus infection in guinea pigs was similar to reported findings in experimentally infected nonhuman primates and naturally infected humans. PMID:9988186

Connolly, B M; Steele, K E; Davis, K J; Geisbert, T W; Kell, W M; Jaax, N K; Jahrling, P B

1999-02-01

114

Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells), and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. Conclusions/Significance This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans. PMID:17565380

Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Riviere, Jean-Pierre; Coffey, Lark L.; Afonso, Philippe V.; Mouly, Vincent; de Monredon, Jean; Roger, Jean-Christophe; El Amrani, Mohamed; Yvin, Jean-Luc; Jaffar, Marie-Christine; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Sourisseau, Marion; Schwartz, Olivier; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Desprès, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

2007-01-01

115

Hair Loss after Varicella Zoster Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) cutaneous infection occurs predominantly in epidermal and infundibular keratinocytes and accessorily in dermal dendritic cells. These latter cells play a role in cicatricial processes. Two patients are presented with localized alopecia after VZV infection. A 4-year-old girl presented localized hair loss affecting about 20% of her upper right eyelash immediately following the resolution of the varicella skin lesions. No regrowth was observed after 3 months. An 80-year-old woman with a prior history of localized alopecia areata of the left occipital area presented severe left herpes zoster affecting the V1 and V2 dermatomes. At precisely the same site of the previous episode, a localized plaque of alopecia areata recurred. After topical corticosteroid therapy, a progressive hair regrowth occurred after about 3 months. These case reports are the first relating cutaneous VZV infection as the origin for permanent cicatricial alopecia and transitory alopecia areata. Localized hair loss should be added to the cutaneous complications of VZV skin infection. PMID:23526118

Hayderi, Lara El; Nikkels-Tassoudji, Nazli; Nikkels, Arjen F.

2013-01-01

116

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in feral raccoons, Japan.  

PubMed

Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health. PMID:21470469

Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sashika, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2011-04-01

117

Canine Distemper Virus Infection Requires Cholesterol in the Viral Envelope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesterol is known to play an important role in stabilizing particular cellular membrane structures, so-called lipid or membrane rafts. For several viruses, a dependence on cholesterol for virus entry and\\/or morphogenesis has been shown. Using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that infection of cells by canine distemper virus (CDV) was not impaired after cellular cholesterol had been depleted

Heidi Imhoff; Veronika von Messling; Georg Herrler; Ludwig Haas

2007-01-01

118

Comparative pathology of select agent influenza A virus infections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Influenza A virus infections may spread rapidly in human populations and cause acute respiratory disease with variable mortality. Two of these influenza viruses have been designated as select agents because of the high case fatality rate: 1918 H1N1 virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) ...

119

Effect of Chloroquine on African Swine Fever Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY When present during the whole infective cycle, the lysosomotropic drug, chloroquine, inhibited cytopathic changes and production of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Vero cells. This inhibition decreased when the drug was added from 1 h to 4 h after infection. Chloroquine had no direct effect on the virus nor on viral adsorption and internalization. Electron microscopy showed that,

A. Geraldes; M. L. Valdeira

1985-01-01

120

Discovery of mammalian genes that participate in virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely upon the host cell for different steps in their life cycles. The characterization of cellular genes required for virus infection and\\/or cell killing will be essential for understanding viral life cycles, and may provide cellular targets for new antiviral therapies. RESULTS: Candidate genes required for lytic reovirus infection were identified by tagged

Edward L Organ; Jinsong Sheng; H Earl Ruley; Donald H Rubin

2004-01-01

121

If You Have Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection  

MedlinePLUS

If you have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection . . . If you have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, you are not alone. Today, approximately one ... Prevention (800) 232-4636 www.cdc.gov/hepatitis Hepatitis B Foundation (215) 489-4900 www.hepb.org ...

122

Zika Virus Infection Acquired During Brief Travel to Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease. PMID:23878182

Kwong, Jason C.; Druce, Julian D.; Leder, Karin

2013-01-01

123

Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.  

PubMed

Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease. PMID:23878182

Kwong, Jason C; Druce, Julian D; Leder, Karin

2013-09-01

124

Multiple occurrences of giant virus core genes acquired by eukaryotic genomes: the visible part of the iceberg?  

PubMed

Giant Viruses are a widespread group of viruses, characterized by huge genomes composed of a small subset of ancestral, vertically inherited core genes along with a large body of highly variable genes. In this study, I report the acquisition of 23 core ancestral Giant Virus genes by diverse eukaryotic species including various protists, a moss and a cnidarian. The viral genes are inserted in large scaffolds or chromosomes with intron-rich, eukaryotic-like genomic contexts, refuting the possibility of DNA contaminations. Some of these genes are expressed and in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta, a possible non-homologous displacement of the eukaryotic DNA primase by a viral D5 helicase/primase is documented. As core Giant Virus genes represent only a tiny fraction of the total genomic repertoire of these viruses, these results suggest that Giant Viruses represent an underestimated source of new genes and functions for their hosts. PMID:24998348

Filée, Jonathan

2014-10-01

125

Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

2014-01-01

126

The Inhibition of Infection by Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Influenza Virus by Extracts from Phytolacca americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Extracts of the leaves of Phytolacca americana and partially purified preparations of such extracts caused marked inhibition of the infection of Chenopodium quinoa by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and of the infection of monkey kidney cells and embryonated hen eggs by the A2\\/Hong Kong\\/t\\/68 (H3N2) strain of influenza virus. Both viruses became non-infective when mixed with preparations of the

J. A. Tomlinson; VALERIE M. WALKER; T. H. Flewett; GRIZEL R. BARCLAY

1974-01-01

127

Experimental Infection of Prairie Dogs with Monkeypox Virus  

PubMed Central

Studies of experimental infection of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with monkeypox virus are described. After intraperitoneal infection, all of the animals died within 11 days. Virus was cultured from their blood and oropharynx several days before death; at necropsy, most of the organs tested contained monkeypox virus. Marked hepatic and splenic necrosis were observed, along with mild inflammatory changes in the lungs. After intranasal (IN) infection, the primary pathologic changes were in the lungs and pleural cavity. Some of the IN infected animals (40%) survived, and monkeypox virus could be cultured from their nasal discharge and oropharynx for <22 days. Ulcerative lesions also developed on the lips, tongue, and buccal mucosa of the surviving animals. Our findings support an earlier report, which suggested that infected prairie dogs can transmit monkeypox virus by respiratory and mucocutaneous contact with susceptible animals and persons. PMID:15829191

Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Sbrana, Elena; Watts, Douglas M.; Siirin, Marina; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.

2005-01-01

128

Experimental Nipah virus infection in pteropid bats (Pteropus poliocephalus).  

PubMed

Seventeen grey-headed fruit bats (Pteropus poliocephalus) were inoculated subcutaneously with an isolate of Nipah virus derived from a fatally infected human. A control group of eight guinea-pigs was inoculated intraperitoneally with the same isolate in order to confirm virulence. Three of eight infected guinea-pigs developed clinical signs 7-9 days post-inoculation. Infected fruit bats developed a subclinical infection characterized by the transient presence of virus within selected viscera, episodic viral excretion and seroconversion. A range of histopathological changes was observed within the tissues of infected bats. Nipah virus was excreted in bat urine while neutralizing antibody was present in serum. This intermittent, low-level excretion of Nipah virus in the urine of bats may be sufficient to sustain the net reproductive value of the virus in a species where there is regular urine contamination of the fur, mutual grooming, and where urine droplets are a feature of the environment. PMID:17498518

Middleton, D J; Morrissy, C J; van der Heide, B M; Russell, G M; Braun, M A; Westbury, H A; Halpin, K; Daniels, P W

2007-05-01

129

Experimental infection of prairie dogs with monkeypox virus.  

PubMed

Studies of experimental infection of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with monkeypox virus are described. After intraperitoneal infection, all of the animals died within 11 days. Virus was cultured from their blood and oropharynx several days before death; at necropsy, most of the organs tested contained monkeypox virus. Marked hepatic and splenic necrosis were observed, along with mild inflammatory changes in the lungs. After intranasal (IN) infection, the primary pathologic changes were in the lungs and pleural cavity. Some of the IN infected animals (40%) survived, and monkeypox virus could be cultured from their nasal discharge and oropharynx for <22 days. Ulcerative lesions also developed on the lips, tongue, and buccal mucosa of the surviving animals. Our findings support an earlier report, which suggested that infected prairie dogs can transmit monkeypox virus by respiratory and mucocutaneous contact with susceptible animals and persons. PMID:15829191

Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Sbrana, Elena; Watts, Douglas M; Siirin, Marina; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Tesh, Robert B

2005-04-01

130

Identification of a role for nucleolin in rabies virus infection.  

PubMed

Rabies virus replicates in the cytoplasm of host cells, but rabies virus phosphoprotein (P-protein) undergoes active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Here we show that the largely nuclear P-protein isoform P3 can localize to nucleoli and forms specific interactions with nucleolin. Importantly, depletion of nucleolin expression inhibits viral protein expression and infectious virus production by infected cells. This provides the first evidence that lyssaviruses interact with nucleolin and that nucleolin is important to lyssavirus infection. PMID:25428867

Oksayan, S; Nikolic, J; David, C T; Blondel, D; Jans, D A; Moseley, G W

2015-02-01

131

Gene Repertoire of Amoeba-Associated Giant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, Marseillevirus, and Sputnik, a virophage, are intra-amoebal viruses that have been isolated from water collected in cooling towers. They have provided fascinating data and have raised exciting questions about viruses definition and evolution. Mimivirus and Marseillevirus have been classified in the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) class. Their genomes are the largest and fifth largest viral genomes

Philippe Colson; Didier Raoult

2010-01-01

132

Cell-mediated immunity to Sendai virus infection in mice.  

PubMed Central

The development of a cell-mediated immune response to Sendai virus infection in mice was examined by the use of a 51Cr release assay of cytotoxicity. A low level of "background cytotoxicity" to Sendai virus-infected L cells was found in the spleens of uninfected CBA mice. Spleen cells from Sendai-infected mice showed an elevated level of cytotoxicity against these target cells for a period of 5 weeks, commencing 4 days after infection of the mice. A more transient response was observed in the spleens of mice infected with a serologically distinct virus, the Kunz strain of influenza. This cross-reacting, cell-mediated immune response was intermediate between that observed in unsensitized and Sendai-sensitized spleen cells. The relevance of these cell-mediated immune responses to respiratory tract virus infections is discussed. Images PMID:188766

Anderson, M J; Bainbridge, D R; Pattison, J R; Heath, R B

1977-01-01

133

Inhibition of cowpox virus and monkeypox virus infection by mitoxantrone  

PubMed Central

Summary Mitoxantrone, an FDA-approved therapeutic for the treatment of cancer and multiple sclerosis, was previously reported to exhibit antiviral activity against vaccinia virus. To determine whether this activity extends to other orthopoxviruses, mitoxantrone was tested against cowpox and monkeypox. Mitoxantrone demonstrated an EC50 of 0.25 ?M against cowpox and 0.8 ?M against monkeypox. Intraperitoneal treatment of cowpox virus-challenged C57Bl/6 mice with 0.5 mg/kg mitoxantrone resulted in 25% survival and a significant increase in survival time. In an effort to improve its efficacy, mitoxantrone was tested for synergistic activity with cidofovir. In vitro tests demonstrated significant synergy between the two drugs against cowpox; however, no synergistic effect on animal survival or median time-to-death was seen in intranasally-infected BALB/c mice. Significantly fewer animals survived when treated with a combination of 0.5 mg/kg mitoxantrone and 100 mg/kg cidofovir than with 100 mg/kg cidofovir alone. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of limited anti-orthopoxvirus activity by mitoxantrone in an animal model. PMID:22182595

Altmann, Sharon E.; Smith, Alvin L.; Dyall, Julie; Johnson, Reed F.; Dodd, Lori E.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Paragas, Jason; Blaney, Joseph E.

2012-01-01

134

Inhibition of cowpox virus and monkeypox virus infection by mitoxantrone.  

PubMed

Mitoxantrone, an FDA-approved therapeutic for the treatment of cancer and multiple sclerosis, was previously reported to exhibit antiviral activity against vaccinia virus. To determine whether this activity extends to other orthopoxviruses, mitoxantrone was tested against cowpox and monkeypox. Mitoxantrone demonstrated an EC(50) of 0.25 ?M against cowpox and 0.8 ?M against monkeypox. Intraperitoneal treatment of cowpox virus-challenged C57Bl/6 mice with 0.5 mg/kg mitoxantrone resulted in 25% survival and a significant increase in survival time. In an effort to improve its efficacy, mitoxantrone was tested for synergistic activity with cidofovir. In vitro tests demonstrated significant synergy between the two drugs against cowpox; however, no synergistic effect on animal survival or median time-to-death was seen in intranasally-infected BALB/c mice. Significantly fewer animals survived when treated with a combination of 0.5 mg/kg mitoxantrone and 100 mg/kg cidofovir than with 100 mg/kg cidofovir alone. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of limited anti-orthopoxvirus activity by mitoxantrone in an animal model. PMID:22182595

Altmann, Sharon E; Smith, Alvin L; Dyall, Julie; Johnson, Reed F; Dodd, Lori E; Jahrling, Peter B; Paragas, Jason; Blaney, Joseph E

2012-02-01

135

Human immunodeficiency virus-infected multinucleated histiocytes in oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues from two asymptomatic patients.  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected multinucleated giant cells previously were detected only in the central nervous system of HIV-positive patients. Reported here are the first cases in which such infected cells were observed outside the central nervous system, in the oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues. Tonsils and adenoids were removed individually from two asymptomatic homosexual men. Follicular hyperplasia and many interfollicular multinucleated giant cells most often in contact with or in close proximity of the mucous membrane were seen. The latter were positive for lysozyme, alpha-1 anti-chymotrypsin, OKM1, and S-100 protein in accordance with a histiocytic origin. In situ hybridization with an HIV envelope-specific RNA probe demonstrated the presence of viral RNA in these multinucleated giant cells. These findings support the role of peripheral histiocytes as a primary virus reservoir early in the disease. They also underline the potential role of oropharyngeal tissue as a primary target in some cases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1992767

Rinfret, A.; Latendresse, H.; Lefebvre, R.; St-Louis, G.; Jolicoeur, P.; Lamarre, L.

1991-01-01

136

Neuralgic amyotrophy and hepatitis E virus infection  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether there is an association between an acute preceding hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), and if so, whether patients with HEV-related NA differ from patients without an associated HEV infection. Methods: HEV testing was conducted in a retrospective cohort of 28 Cornish patients with NA (2011–2013) and a prospective cohort of 38 consecutive Dutch patients with NA (2004–2007). Acute-phase serum samples were analyzed for the presence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG and HEV RNA (quantitative real-time PCR). Results: Five cases (10.6%) of acute hepatitis E infection were identified in a total group of 47 patients with NA of whom serum samples were available. In 4 patients, HEV RNA was detected in serum samples taken at presentation. All patients with HEV-associated NA had clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of bilateral brachial plexus involvement. Anti-HEV IgM positivity was not related to age, sex, disease severity, disease course, or outcome. Conclusions: Acute hepatitis E is found in 10% of patients with NA from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Further research is required to investigate the role of HEV in NA in other geographical locations and to determine pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:24401685

van Eijk, Jeroen J.J.; Madden, Richie G.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Hunter, Jeremy G.; Reimerink, Johan H.J.; Bendall, Richard P.; Pas, Suzan D.; Ellis, Vic; van Alfen, Nens; Beynon, Laura; Southwell, Lucy; McLean, Brendan; Jacobs, Bart C.; van Engelen, Baziel G.M.

2014-01-01

137

Hepatitis B virus infection and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a devastating malignant tumor arising from the peripheral intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. The incidence and mortality of ICC is markedly increasing over the past two decades worldwide, though the cause for this rise in incidence is unclear, thus intensifying the search for alternative etiological agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini or Clonorchis sinensis), fibropolycystic liver disease, and chemical carcinogen exposure are thought to be the risk factors for ICC. Nevertheless, the majority of ICC patients do not have any of these risk factors, and none of the established risk factors can explain the recent increasing trend of ICC. Therefore, identifying other risk factors may lead to the prevention and early detection of ICC. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the predominant cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV-endemic areas. This review discusses the evidence implicating chronic HBV infection as a likely etiology of ICC and the pathogenetic mechanisms that might be involved. PMID:24914333

Zhou, Hua-Bang; Hu, Jing-Yi; Hu, He-Ping

2014-01-01

138

Hepatitis B virus infection and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a devastating malignant tumor arising from the peripheral intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. The incidence and mortality of ICC is markedly increasing over the past two decades worldwide, though the cause for this rise in incidence is unclear, thus intensifying the search for alternative etiological agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini or Clonorchis sinensis), fibropolycystic liver disease, and chemical carcinogen exposure are thought to be the risk factors for ICC. Nevertheless, the majority of ICC patients do not have any of these risk factors, and none of the established risk factors can explain the recent increasing trend of ICC. Therefore, identifying other risk factors may lead to the prevention and early detection of ICC. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the predominant cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV-endemic areas. This review discusses the evidence implicating chronic HBV infection as a likely etiology of ICC and the pathogenetic mechanisms that might be involved. PMID:24914333

Zhou, Hua-Bang; Hu, Jing-Yi; Hu, He-Ping

2014-05-21

139

Bone health and human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed

Low bone mineral density is common among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and studies reporting increased fracture rates in this patient population are emerging. The causes of low bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and fractures in persons with HIV are likely multifactorial, involving traditional risk factors, HIV infection, and exposure to antiretroviral treatment. Specific antiretrovirals such as tenofovir may cause a greater loss of bone mineral density compared with other agents and have recently been linked to an increased risk for fracture. As a result, recent treatment guidelines suggest that clinicians consider avoiding tenofovir as initial therapy in postmenopausal women. Evaluating bone mineral density and vitamin D status in persons with HIV may be important steps in identifying those requiring pharmacotherapy; however, the appropriate timing for bone mineral density and vitamin D screening is uncertain, as is the appropriate method of replacing vitamin D in HIV-positive patients who are deficient. Further study is necessary to definitively determine the approach to evaluating bone health and managing low bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency in patients with HIV infection. PMID:23553497

Schafer, Jason J; Manlangit, Kristine; Squires, Kathleen E

2013-06-01

140

Simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in the white matter and degeneration of the cerebral cortex occur independently in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkey.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been successful to reduce progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nevertheless, recent autopsy analysis of the brain from patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection reported same or even increasing numbers of AIDS encephalopathy. This insufficient effect of HAART for central nervous system (CNS) complication might be explained by independent pathogenetic processes in lymph node and CNS. We inoculated macaques with three Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains and investigated relationship between degree of the lymph node pathology and that of AIDS-related brain pathology. Animals infected with T-cell-tropic viruses SIVmac239 and SHIV-RT developed typical AIDS pathology in the lymph node 46 to 156 weeks after infection. The cerebral cortex of these animals showed focal or diffuse gliosis, and electron microscopic analysis demonstrated degenerative changes, such as accumulation of dense lamellar bodies in the dendrites and swelling of astrocytic processes. However, there was no evidence of microglial nodules or multinucleated giant cells in the white mater. The animals infected with macrophage-tropic SIV239env/MERT did not develop lymph node pathology of AIDS in the same or longer period of infection. The white mater of the animal, however, showed microglial nodules with multinucleated giant cells, a pathological hallmark of AIDS encephalopathy. SIV immunoreactivity was demonstrated in these giant cells as well as macrophage/microglia cells. On the other hand, there was no abnormality in the cerebral cortex. These findings suggest that there are two independent pathogenetic processes in AIDS encephalopathy: immune response against virus infected macrophage/microglial cells in the white mater without immunodeficiency and cortical degeneration caused in the late stage of AIDS. PMID:12907395

Xing, Hui Qin; Moritoyo, Takashi; Mori, Kazuyasu; Tadakuma, Kei; Sugimoto, Chie; Ono, Fumiko; Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Izumo, Shuji

2003-08-01

141

Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. HIV-infected\\u000a patients have a high incidence of tuberculous meningitis as well. The exact incidence and prevalence of tuberculous meningitis\\u000a in HIV-infected patients are not known. HIV infection does not significantly alter the clinical manifestations, laboratory,\\u000a radiographic findings, or the response to therapy. Still, some differences have

Ravindra Kumar Garg; Manish Kumar Sinha

2011-01-01

142

Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR. PMID:24904547

Chan, Shiu-Wan

2014-01-01

143

Mimivirus and the emerging concept of “giantvirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently discovered Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus is the largest known DNA virus. Its particle size (750nm), genome length (1.2millionbp) and large gene repertoire (911 protein coding genes) blur the established boundaries between viruses and parasitic cellular organisms. In addition, the analysis of its genome sequence identified many types of genes never before encountered in a virus, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and

Jean-Michel Claverie; Hiroyuki Ogata; Stéphane Audic; Chantal Abergel; Karsten Suhre; Pierre-Edouard Fournier

2006-01-01

144

Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from giant panda and raccoon dogs in China  

PubMed Central

Background Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (H) genes from eight canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin gene sequences showed close clustering for geographic lineages, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains, all the CDV strains were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (91.5-99.8% nt and 94.4-99.8% aa). The giant panda and raccoon dogs all were 549Y on the HA protein in this study, irrespective of the host species. Conclusions These findings enhance our knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Chinese CDV isolates, and may facilitate the development of effective strategies for monitoring and controlling CDV for wild canids and non-cainds in China. PMID:23566727

2013-01-01

145

Estimating progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain a clearer understanding of the rate of progression to cirrhosis and its determinants in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a systematic review of published epidemiologic studies that incorporated assessment for cirrhosis has been undertaken. Inclusion criteria were more than 20 cases of chronic HCV infection, and information on either age of subjects or duration of infection. Of

Anthony J. Freeman; Gregory J. Dore; Matthew G. Law; Max Thorpe; Jan Von Overbeck; Andrew R. Lloyd; George Marinos; John M. Kaldor

2001-01-01

146

Behçet's disease in a patient with immunodeficiency virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who developed Behçet's disease is described. As various vasculitis syndromes have been encountered recently in association with HIV infection it is suggested that Behçet's disease may be related to the HIV infection in this patient.

D Buskila; D D Gladman; J Gilmore; I E Salit

1991-01-01

147

Development of vaccines for prevention of Ebola virus infection.  

PubMed

Ebola virus infection causes severe hemorrhagic fevers with high fatality rates up to 90% in humans, for which no effective treatment is currently available. The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa that has caused over 14,000 human infections and over 5000 deaths underscores its serious threat to the public health. While licensed vaccines against Ebola virus infection are still not available, a number of vaccine approaches have been developed and shown to protect against lethal Ebola virus infection in animal models. This review aims to summarize the advancement of different strategies for Ebola vaccine development with a focus on the discussion of their protective efficacies and possible limitations. In addition, the development of animal models for efficacy evaluation of Ebola vaccines and the mechanism of immune protection against Ebola virus infection are also discussed. PMID:25526819

Ye, Ling; Yang, Chinglai

2015-02-01

148

Revealing some virus infections by lymphocyte laser scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light scattering patterns have been calculated for a simple optical model constructed for single smooth and nonsmooth lymphocytes of healthy and infected individuals. It has been shown that the smooth and nonsmooth cells can be resolved using the intensities of the sideward and backward scattered light. We have found by calculations and validated by the flow-cytometer experiments that intensity distributions for the cells of lymphocyte populations can be used as a preliminary signatures of some virus infections. Potential biomedical applications of the findings for label-free flowcytometry detecting of individuals infected with viruses of hepatitises B or C and some others viruses are presented.

Ruban, Gennady I.; Berdnik, Vladimir V.; Marinitch, Dmitry V.; Goncharova, Natalia V.; Loiko, Valery A.

2010-09-01

149

Revealing some virus infections by lymphocyte laser scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light scattering patterns have been calculated for a simple optical model constructed for single smooth and nonsmooth lymphocytes of healthy and infected individuals. It has been shown that the smooth and nonsmooth cells can be resolved using the intensities of the sideward and backward scattered light. We have found by calculations and validated by the flow-cytometer experiments that intensity distributions for the cells of lymphocyte populations can be used as a preliminary signatures of some virus infections. Potential biomedical applications of the findings for label-free flowcytometry detecting of individuals infected with viruses of hepatitises B or C and some others viruses are presented.

Ruban, Gennady I.; Berdnik, Vladimir V.; Marinitch, Dmitry V.; Goncharova, Natalia V.; Loiko, Valery A.

2011-02-01

150

Immunomodulation therapy for feline leukemia virus infection.  

PubMed

Clinically ill feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats, treated with Staphylococcus protein A (SPA) or oral interferon alpha (IFN), or both, were compared with cats treated with saline (SAL). Nine cats received SPA/SAL, nine received SPA/IFN, 10 received SAL/IFN, and eight received SAL/SAL. Twelve cats survived and completed the 100-week therapy. Significantly more owners of cats treated with SPA/SAL thought their cat's health improved during treatment compared to owners of cats treated with SAL/SAL (P=0.05, pair-wise comparison) or SPA/IFN (P=0.05, pair-wise comparison). No significant differences in body weight, temperature, hematocrit, red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte counts, white blood cell or neutrophil numbers, lymphocyte concentrations, bone-marrow cytopathology, FeLV status, survival time, activity, or appetite scores were observed. No significant differences in the owners' subjective assessment of their cat's health following treatment with SAL/IFN, SPA/IFN, or SAL/SAL were seen. Therapy with SPA as a single agent results in the owners' subjective impression of improved health of their FeLV-infected cats. PMID:11450836

McCaw, D L; Boon, G D; Jergens, A E; Kern, M R; Bowles, M H; Johnson, J C

2001-01-01

151

Prevalence of Hepatitis Virus Infections in an Institution for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 1,235 residents of Sonoma Developmental Center found 3 residents had hepatitis C virus infections, and 633 had past or current hepatitis B virus infections. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection rose rapidly with longer residence in institutions. Hepatitis A virus infection had occurred in 494 residents. (Contains…

Woodruff, Bradley A.; Vazquez, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

152

Hepatitis GB virus-C\\/hepatitis G virus infection in liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis GB virus-C (HGBV-C)\\/hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection was investigated in 106 children with liver disease (54 boys and 52 girls, mean age 7.3 years); 12 with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, 29 with positive hepatitis B surface antigen, nine with idiopathic fulminant hepatic failure, seven with graft dysfunction after liver transplantation associated with autoimmune features, 20 with cryptogenic liver

Ikuo Nagata; Nikos Tzampouras; Shilpa Chokshi; Nikolai V Naoumov; Paul Cheeseman; Heather M Smith; Alastair J Baker; Roger Williams; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

1997-01-01

153

Molecular and clinical aspects of hepatitis D virus infections  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus with circular, single-stranded genomic RNA which needs hepatitis B virus (HBV) as a helper virus for virion assembly and infectivity. HDV virions are composed of a circular shape HDV RNA and two types of viral proteins, small and large HDAgs, surrounded by HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). The RNA polymerase II from infected hepatocytes is responsible for synthesizing RNAs with positive and negative polarities for HDV, as the virus does not code any enzyme to replicate its genome. HDV occurs as co-infection or super-infection in up to 5% of HBsAg carriers. A recent multi-center study highlighted that pegylated interferon ?-2a (PEG-IFN) is currently the only treatment option for delta hepatitis. Nucleotide/nucleoside analogues, which are effective against HBV, have no relevant effects on HDV. However, additional clinical trials combining PEG-IFN and tenofovir are currently ongoing. The molecular interactions between HDV and HBV are incompletely understood. Despite fluctuating patterns of HBV viral load in the presence of HDV in patients, several observations indicate that HDV has suppressive effects on HBV replication, and even in triple infections with HDV, HBV and HCV, replication of both concomitant viruses can be reduced. Additional molecular virology studies are warranted to clarify how HDV interacts with the helper virus and which key cellular pathways are used by both viruses. Further clinical trials are underway to optimize treatment strategies for delta hepatitis. PMID:24175212

Dastgerdi, Elham Shirvani; Herbers, Ulf; Tacke, Frank

2012-01-01

154

Aerosol stability and respiratory infectivity of japanese B encephalitis virus.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to examine the aerosol stability and respiratory infectivity of Japanese B encephalitis virus. At 75 degrees F (about 24 degrees C), survival of the virus as aerosol was inversely related to relative humidity. After correction for physical decay, the mean virus half-lives of the virus were 28, 38, and 62 min at relative humiditis of 80, 55, and 30%, respectively. Virus recoveries as aerosol at 4 min aftr dissemination generally exceeded the theoretical limit of 100%, based on the amount disseminated, to suggest that the process of dissemination operated to deagglomerate or release bound virus from the tissue cells in suspension. Swiss-ICR mice and golden Syrian hamsters were highly susceptible to lethal infections after respiratory challenge. Hartley strain guinea pigs and Fisher-Dunning rats, although infected, based on seroconversion observations, survived the infections. Deaths occurred in squirrel monkeys only after exposure to a high aerosol dose of virus (10(6.0) plaque-forming units). Studies of the virus concentration dynamics and histopathological findings in mouse tissues after aerosol challenge supported a hypothesis for direct transport of virus across the foramina of the cribriform plate to the tissues of the central nervous system to produce primary encephalitis. PMID:6254888

Larson, E W; Dominik, J W; Slone, T W

1980-01-01

155

[Skin symptoms associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection].  

PubMed

The recently observed accelerated increase of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Hungary poses a major public concern for the healthcare system. Given the effective only but not the curative therapy, prevention should be emphasized. Current statistics estimate that about 50% of the infected persons are not aware of their human immunodeficiency virus-positivity. Thus, early diagnosis of the infection by serological screening and timely recognition of the disease-associated symptoms are crucial. The authors' intention is to facilitate early infection detection with this review on human immunodeficiency virus-associated skin symptoms, and highlight the significance of human immunodeficiency virus care in the everyday medical practice. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(1), 10-18. PMID:25544049

Tamási, Béla; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta

2015-01-01

156

QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF THE VIRUS-HOST RELATIONSHIP IN CHIMPANZEES AFTER INAPPARENT INFECTION WITH COXSACKIE VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Following oral administration of Coxsackie viruses (C viruses) to susceptible chimpanzees, these agents can be isolated from the throat for a period of approximately a week, from the blood for a few days, and from the stools for 2 to 3 weeks or even longer. Animals so infected respond with the formation of specific neutralizing antibodies which are maintained for at least 1 to 2 years. Such chimpanzees are immune when challenged orally with homologous strains of virus. They then excrete virus in the stools for 3 or 4 days (passive transfer); no virus can be recovered from the throats and blood of these animals, and neutralizing antibody levels remain unchanged. Animals immune to one antigenic type of C virus can be infected by feeding a different antigenic type. Following such a heterotypic challenge, virus can again be isolated from the throat, blood, and stools; neutralizing antibodies develop to the new strain. Antibodies to the Texas-1 type of C virus were already present in four chimpanzees upon their arrival in the laboratory from Africa. It was possible to set up intestinal carriage of the Texas-1 virus in these animals and to demonstrate a 10- to 100-fold increase in titer of neutralizing, as well as complement-fixing, antibody. Quantitative titrations of the amount of virus present in the stools and throat were performed. Immediately after the first feeding of virus relatively large amounts can be detected in the stools; the titer drops, but may be maintained for as long as 25 days at 10–2 to 10–3, furnishing evidence that virus multiplication has taken place. Virus in the throat reached the same order of magnitude at first as in the stools but there was a rapid decline to zero in a few days. The Ohio-1 virus differed from the others in that it persisted in the throat as long as in the stools, and in several instances reached a higher titer in the throat. Following homotypic challenge with all types, virus could be detected in the stools for only a relatively short period of time and at low concentration. Virus-neutralizing substances could not be detected in the stools or throat swabs of convalescent animals, at a time when their serum-neutralizing antibody titers were high. Under the limited conditions of the present experiments, C viruses had no effect on the infection of chimpanzees with three different antigenic types of poliomyelitis virus. Both poliomyelitis and C viruses set up independent infections without apparent interaction between them. No enhancement of the poliomyelitis infection took place, as was plain from the fact that none of the infected chimpanzees became paralyzed. a titration of Texas-1 C virus in four chimpanzees revealed that a suspension of infected tissue diluted to 106.0 could cause the development of the carrier state; accidental infection of control animals with other Coxsackie types indicated also that very little virus may be necessary to initiate infection. Seven distinct antigenic types of C virus were inoculated subcutaneously and intramuscularly at the same time into four chimpanzees. The response was the same as that following feeding; virus could be recovered from the throat, blood, and stools, and the animals developed neutralizing antibodies to all seven types of C virus. There was no detectable interference among the viruses. Cortisone did not bring about the reappearance of the virus excretion in chimpanzees previously infected and shown to be intestinal carriers of poliomyelitis and Coxsackie viruses. PMID:13052807

Melnick, Joseph L.; Kaplan, Albert S.

1953-01-01

157

Release of Viral Glycoproteins during Ebola Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maturation and release of the Ebola virus glycoprotein GP were studied in cells infected with either Ebola or recombinant vaccinia viruses. Significant amounts of GP were found in the culture medium in nonvirion forms. The major form represented the large subunit GP1that was shed after release of its disulfide linkage to the smaller transmembrane subunit GP2. The minor form were

Viktor E. Volchkov; Valentina A. Volchkova; Werner Slenczka; Hans-Dieter Klenk; Heinz Feldmann

1998-01-01

158

In vivo imaging of cidofovir treatment of cowpox virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variola virus and other members of the genus Orthopoxviruses constitute a prominent bioterrorism and public health threat. Treatment with the anti-viral drug cidofovir inhibits replication of orthopoxviruses in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we visualized the effect of cidofovir on viral kinetics in orthopoxvirus infected mice by using whole-body fluorescence imaging (FI). We engineered a cowpox virus (CPV)

Arthur Goff; Nancy Twenhafel; Aura Garrison; Eric Mucker; James Lawler; Jason Paragas

2007-01-01

159

Mixed Infection and the Genesis of Influenza Virus Diversity?  

PubMed Central

The emergence of viral infections with potentially devastating consequences for human health is highly dependent on their underlying evolutionary dynamics. One likely scenario for an avian influenza virus, such as A/H5N1, to evolve to one capable of human-to-human transmission is through the acquisition of genetic material from the A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 subtypes already circulating in human populations. This would require that viruses of both subtypes coinfect the same cells, generating a mixed infection, and then reassort. Determining the nature and frequency of mixed infection with influenza virus is therefore central to understanding the emergence of pandemic, antigenic, and drug-resistant strains. To better understand the potential for such events, we explored patterns of intrahost genetic diversity in recently circulating strains of human influenza virus. By analyzing multiple viral genome sequences sampled from individual influenza patients we reveal a high level of mixed infection, including diverse lineages of the same influenza virus subtype, drug-resistant and -sensitive strains, those that are likely to differ in antigenicity, and even viruses of different influenza virus types (A and B). These results reveal that individuals can harbor influenza viruses that differ in major phenotypic properties, including those that are antigenically distinct and those that differ in their sensitivity to antiviral agents. PMID:19553313

Ghedin, Elodie; Fitch, Adam; Boyne, Alex; Griesemer, Sara; DePasse, Jay; Bera, Jayati; Zhang, Xu; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Smit, Marita; Jennings, Lance; St. George, Kirsten; Holmes, Edward C.; Spiro, David J.

2009-01-01

160

Persistent Infection with Ebola Virus under Conditions of Partial Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans is associated with high mortality; however, some infected hosts clear the virus and recover. The mechanisms by which this occurs and the correlates of protective immunity are not well defined. Using a mouse model, we determined the role of the immune system in clearance of and protection against Ebola virus. All CD8 T-cell-deficient mice succumbed

Manisha Gupta; Siddhartha Mahanty; Patricia Greer; Jonathan S. Towner; Wun-Ju Shieh; Sherif R. Zaki; Rafi Ahmed; Pierre E. Rollin

2004-01-01

161

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

Fauci, Anthony S.

1988-01-01

162

Impact of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Chimpanzee Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) can cause CD4+ T cell loss and premature death. Here, we used molecular surveillance tools and mathematical modeling to estimate the impact of SIVcpz infection on chimpanzee population dynamics. Habituated (Mitumba and Kasekela) and non-habituated (Kalande) chimpanzees were studied in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Ape population sizes

Rebecca S. Rudicell; James Holland Jones; Emily E. Wroblewski; Gerald H. Learn; Yingying Li; Joel D. Robertson; Elizabeth Greengrass; Falk Grossmann; Shadrack Kamenya; Lilian Pintea; Deus C. Mjungu; Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf; Anna Mosser; Clarence Lehman; D. Anthony Collins; Brandon F. Keele; Jane Goodall; Beatrice H. Hahn; Anne E. Pusey; Michael L. Wilson

2010-01-01

163

EFFECT OF CHLORINE TREATMENT ON INFECTIVITY OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined the effect of chlorine treatment on the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Prodromal chimpanzee feces, shown to induce hepatitis in marmosets (Saguinus sp.), was clarified, and the virus was precipitated with 7% polyethylene glycol 6000, harvested and res...

164

Protective efficacy of neutralizing antibodies against Ebola virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebola virus causes lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, but no effective antiviral compounds are available for the treatment of this infection. The surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus is an important target of neutralizing antibodies. Although passive transfer of GP-specific antibodies has been evaluated in mouse and guinea pig models, protection was achieved only by treatment shortly

Ayato Takada; Hideki Ebihara; Steven Jones; Heinz Feldmann; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

2007-01-01

165

Schmallenberg virus infection among red deer, France, 2010-2012.  

PubMed

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%. PMID:24377838

Laloy, Eve; Bréard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Zientara, Stéphan; Klein, François; Hars, Jean; Rossi, Sophie

2014-01-01

166

Schmallenberg Virus Infection among Red Deer, France, 2010–2012  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%. PMID:24377838

Laloy, Eve; Bréard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Zientara, Stéphan; Klein, François; Hars, Jean

2014-01-01

167

[Expression of host genes in influenza virus infected cells].  

PubMed

The NS1 protein of influenza virus shuts off host gene expression by inhibiting the polyadenylation-site cleavage of host pre-mRNAs, resulting in a general decline in cellular protein synthesis. On the other hand, an activation of several host genes related to host antiviral defense such as interferon- alpha/beta, MxA, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, and Fas occures upon infection. Therefore, balance of the shut-off and the activation of cellular genes during virus growth may be crucial in determining the outcome of infection. To obtain a comprehensive view of the global effects of influenza virus infection on human respiratory epithelial cells at the cytoplasmic mRNA level, we performed oligo DNA microarray analysis using GeneChip arrays (Affymetrix). In NCl-H292 cells infected with A/Udorn/72 virus, more than 4-fold increase of expression level was observed for 164 genes at 12 h pi. Approximately 60% of the virus-stimulated genes (VSGs) were also stimulated with interferon-beta treatment and contained the genes known to possess antiviral activity. Interestingly, majority of the VSGs were stimulated before induction of interferons, suggesting that the stimulation of the VSGs during early phase of infection is not mediated by interferons, but it is triggered from within by the virus infection. PMID:15745156

Shimizu, Kazufumi; Kuroda, Kazumichi

2004-12-01

168

Experimental St. Louis encephalitis virus infection of sloths and cormorants.  

PubMed

Experimental infection of 11 Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus produced detectable viremias of seven to 27 (median 13) days duration and maximum titers of 2.7 to 6.5 (median 5.1) log10 median suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses (SMicLD50) per ml. Experimental SLE viremia onset was delayed and maximum titer depressed in two sloths concurrently infected with naturally acquired viruses. SLE viremias in four experimentally inoculated cormorants Phalacrocorax olivaceus were shorter, and of equal or lower titer, than in sloths. Colonized Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were infected by feeding on sloths circulating at least 4.8 log10 SMicLD50 of SLE virus per ml, and subsequently transmitted the infection to mice and chicks. An uninoculated baby Bradypus became infected by contact transmission from its mother. The antibody response of sloths to SLE virus was slow, being undetectable until several weeks post-inoculation. However, both sloth species developed high and long-lasting neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers. The complement-fixation antibody response in Bradypus was lower and slower to develop than in Choloepus. Sloths with naturally acquired SLE virus antibody did not become detectably viremic after experimental inoculation. Neither sloths nor cormorants become overly ill from SLE virus infection. PMID:6881434

Seymour, C; Kramer, L D; Peralta, P H

1983-07-01

169

Co-infection and disease severity of Maize dwarf mosaic virus and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two major maize viruses have been reported in the United States: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). These viruses co-occur in regions where maize is grown such that co-infections are likely. Co-infection of different strains of MCDV is also observed frequently...

170

Persistent Hepatitis C Virus Infection In Vitro: Coevolution of Virus and Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virological and cellular consequences of persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been elusive due to the absence of the requisite experimental systems. Here, we report the establishment and the charac- teristics of persistent in vitro infection of human hepatoma-derived cells by a recently described HCV genotype 2a infectious molecular clone. Persistent in vitro infection was characterized by the

Jin Zhong; Pablo Gastaminza; Josan Chung; Zania Stamataki; Masanori Isogawa; Guofeng Cheng; Jane A. McKeating; Francis V. Chisari

2006-01-01

171

Senescence Affects Endothelial Cells Susceptibility to Dengue Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Alteration in the endothelium leading to increased vascular permeability contributes to plasma leakage seen in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). An earlier study showed that senescent endothelial cells (ECs) altered the ECs permeability. Here we investigated the susceptibility of senescing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to dengue virus infection and determined if dengue virus infection induces HUVECs senescence. Our results suggest that DENV type-2 (DENV-2) foci forming unit (FFU) and extracellular virus RNA copy number were reduced by at least 35% and 85% in infection of the intermediate young and early senescent HUVECs, respectively, in comparison to infection of young HUVECs. No to low infectivity was recovered from infection of late senescent HUVECs. DENV infection also increases the percentage of HUVECs expressing senescence-associated (SA)-?-gal, cells arrested at the G2/M phase or 4N DNA content stage and cells with enlarged morphology, indicative of senescing cells. Alteration of HUVECs morphology was recorded using impedance-based real-time cell analysis system following DENV-2 infection. These results suggest that senescing HUVECs do not support DENV infection and DENV infection induces HUVECs senescence. The finding highlights the possible role of induction of senescence in DENV infection of the endothelial cells. PMID:24782642

AbuBakar, Sazaly; Shu, Meng-Hooi; Johari, Jefree; Wong, Pooi-Fong

2014-01-01

172

Evaluating the protective efficacy of a trivalent vaccine containing Akabane virus, Aino virus and Chuzan virus against Schmallenberg virus infection  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an arthropod borne pathogen, spread rapidly throughout the majority of Europe since 2011. It can cause a febrile disease, milk drop, diarrhea, and fetal malformation in ruminants. SBV, a member of the Simbu serogroup within the genus Orthobunyavirus, is closely related to Akabane virus (AKAV) and Aino virus (AINOV) among others. In the present study, 4 Holstein-Friesian calves were immunized twice four weeks apart with a multivalent, inactivated vaccine against AKAV and AINOV. Another 4 calves were kept as unvaccinated controls. All animals were clinically, serologically and virologically examined before and after challenge infection with SBV. AKAV- and AINOV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected one week before challenge infection, while SBV-specific antibodies were detectable only thereafter. SBV genome was detected in all vaccinated animals and 3 out of 4 controls in serum samples taken after challenge infection. In conclusion, the investigated vaccine was not able to prevent an SBV-infection. Thus, vaccines for other related Simbu serogroup viruses can not substitute SBV-specific vaccines as an instrument for disease control. PMID:24313924

2013-01-01

173

Inhalational monkeypox virus infection in cynomolgus macaques.  

PubMed

An inhalation exposure system was characterized to deliver aerosolized monkeypox virus (MPXV), and a non-human primate (NHP) inhalation monkeypox model was developed in cynomolgus macaques. A head-only aerosol exposure system was characterized, and two sampling methods were evaluated: liquid impingement via an impinger and impaction via a gelatin filter. The aerosol concentrations obtained with the gelatin filter and impinger were virtually identical, indicating that either method is acceptable for sampling aerosols containing MPXV. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) for individual aerosol tests in the aerosol system characterization and the NHP study ranged from 1.08 to 1.15 ?m, indicating that the aerosol particles were of a sufficient size to reach the alveoli. Six cynomolgus macaques (four male and two female) were used on study. The animals were aerosol exposed with MPXV and received doses between 2.51 × 10(4) to 9.28 × 10(5) plaque forming units (PFUs) inhaled. Four of the six animals died or were euthanized due to their moribund conditions. Both animals that received the lowest exposure doses survived to the end of the observation period. The inhalation LD(50) was determined to be approximately 7.8 × 10(4) pfu inhaled. These data demonstrate that an inhalation MPXV infection model has been developed in the cynomolgus macaque with disease course and lethal dose similar to previously published data. PMID:23061051

Barnewall, Roy E; Fisher, David A; Robertson, Ashley B; Vales, Pauline A; Knostman, Katherine A; Bigger, John E

2012-01-01

174

Apoptosis of Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Hepatocytes Prevents Release of Infectious Virus?  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis of infected cells is critically involved in antiviral defense. Apoptosis, however, may also support the release and spread of viruses. Although the elimination of infected hepatocytes is required to combat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, it is still unknown which consequences hepatocyte apoptosis has for the virus and whether or not it is advantageous to the virus. To study this, we designed a cell culture model consisting of both HBV-producing cell lines and primary human hepatocytes serving as an infection model. We showed that the release of mature, enveloped virions was 80% to 90% reduced 24 h after the induction of apoptosis in HBV-replicating hepatoma cells or HBV-infected hepatocytes. Importantly, HBV particles released from apoptotic hepatocytes were immature and nonenveloped and proved not to be infectious. We found an inverse correlation between the strength of an apoptotic stimulus and the infectivity of the virus particles released: the more potent the apoptotic stimulus, the higher the ratio of nonenveloped capsids to virions and the lower their infectivity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HBV replication and, particularly, the expression of the HBx protein transcribed from the viral genome during replication do not sensitize cells to apoptosis. Our data clearly reject the hypothesis that the apoptosis of infected hepatocytes facilitates the propagation of HBV. Rather, these data indicate that HBV needs to prevent the apoptosis of its host hepatocyte to ensure the release of infectious progeny and, thus, virus spread in the liver. PMID:20719950

Arzberger, Silke; Hösel, Marianna; Protzer, Ulrike

2010-01-01

175

Amoeba\\/Amoebal Symbiont Genetic Transfers: Lessons from Giant Virus Neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living amoebae serve as hosts for a variety of amoebae-resisting microorganisms, including giant viruses and certain bacteria. The latter include symbiotic bacteria as well as bacteria exhibiting a pathogenic phenotype towards amoebae. Amoebae-resisting bacteria have been shown to be widespread in water and to use the amoebae as a reservoir, a replication niche, a protective armour as well as a

Vincent Thomas; Gilbert Greub

2010-01-01

176

The Aedes aegypti Toll Pathway Controls Dengue Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference–based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway–associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway. PMID:18604274

Xi, Zhiyong; Ramirez, Jose L.; Dimopoulos, George

2008-01-01

177

Herpes simplex virus infection of the human sensory neuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 was used to infect cultures of human embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells. Infected cultured were studied by electron microscopy. Viral nucleocapsids were observed to be internalized into neuronal cells bodies and neuritic extensions by fusion of the viral envelope and the plasma membrane. No signs of internalization by endocytosis were noted. Nucleocapsids were

E. Lycke; B. Hamark; Maria Johansson; Antonina Krotochwil; J. Lycke; B. Svennerholm

1988-01-01

178

Immunopathology and Infectious Diseases Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Alters  

E-print Network

.2010.091288) Pulmonary diseases are frequent complications of HIV-1 infection, affecting 75% to 85Immunopathology and Infectious Diseases Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Alters Chemokine. Kirschner,§ and Todd A. Reinhart* From the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology,* Graduate

Kirschner, Denise

179

Natural intrauterine infection with Schmallenberg virus in malformed newborn calves.  

PubMed

We surveyed morphologic alterations in calves in Belgium that were naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born with deformities during January-March 2012. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues. Natural intrauterine SBV infection of calves might cause serious damage to the central nervous system and muscles. PMID:25062351

Bayrou, Calixte; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Sarlet, Michael; Sartelet, Arnaud; Cassart, Dominique; Desmecht, Daniel

2014-08-01

180

Sheep persistently infected with Border disease readily transmit virus to calves seronegative to BVD virus.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea- and Border disease viruses of sheep belong to the highly diverse genus pestivirus of the Flaviviridae. Ruminant pestiviruses may infect a wide range of domestic and wild cloven-hooved mammals (artiodactyla). Due to its economic importance, programs to eradicate bovine viral diarrhea are a high priority in the cattle industry. By contrast, Border disease is not a target of eradication, although the Border disease virus is known to be capable of also infecting cattle. In this work, we compared single dose experimental inoculation of calves with Border disease virus with co-mingling of calves with sheep persistently infected with this virus. As indicated by seroconversion, infection was achieved only in one out of seven calves with a dose of Border disease virus that was previously shown to be successful in calves inoculated with BVD virus. By contrast, all calves kept together with persistently infected sheep readily became infected with Border disease virus. The ease of viral transmission from sheep to cattle and the antigenic similarity of bovine and ovine pestiviruses may become a problem for demonstrating freedom of BVD by serology in the cattle population. PMID:24315041

Braun, U; Reichle, S F; Reichert, C; Hässig, M; Stalder, H P; Bachofen, C; Peterhans, E

2014-01-10

181

Immune modulation in primary vaccinia virus zoonotic human infections.  

PubMed

In 2010, the WHO celebrated the 30th anniversary of the smallpox eradication. Ironically, infections caused by viruses related to smallpox are being increasingly reported worldwide, including Monkeypox, Cowpox, and Vaccinia virus (VACV). Little is known about the human immunological responses elicited during acute infections caused by orthopoxviruses. We have followed VACV zoonotic outbreaks taking place in Brazil and analyzed cellular immune responses in patients acutely infected by VACV. Results indicated that these patients show a biased immune modulation when compared to noninfected controls. Amounts of B cells are low and less activated in infected patients. Although present, T CD4(+) cells are also less activated when compared to noninfected individuals, and so are monocytes/macrophages. Similar results were obtained when Balb/C mice were experimentally infected with a VACV sample isolated during the zoonotic outbreaks. Taking together, the data suggest that zoonotic VACVs modulate specific immune cell compartments during an acute infection in humans. PMID:22229039

Silva Gomes, Juliana Assis; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Quinan, Bárbara Resende; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Santos Abrahão, Jônatas; Côrrea-Oliveira, Rodrigo; da Fonseca, Flávio Guimarães

2012-01-01

182

Experimental Infection of Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) with Monkeypox Virus  

PubMed Central

A proposed new small-animal (rodent) model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of severe orthopoxvirus infections is described. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) were infected intraperitoneally and intranasally with monkeypox virus (MPXV). A fulminant illness developed in all animals, and they died 6–9 days after infection. Virus was cultured from the blood and oropharynx several days before death; at necropsy, all of the organs tested contained relatively high titers of MPXV. The major pathologic findings were in the liver, which showed centrilobular necrosis, steatosis, and basophilic inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. Splenic necrosis was also observed, as well as interstitial inflammation in the lungs. The pathologic features of MPXV in ground squirrels are similar to that described with MPXV in macaques and severe variola (smallpox) virus infection in humans. PMID:15498157

Watts, Douglas M.; Sbrana, Elena; Siirin, Marina; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Xiao, Shu-Yuan

2004-01-01

183

Intestinal mucosal inflammation associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) in producing intestinal disease was studied prospectively in 74 HIV-infected individuals with (43) or without (31) the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Thirty-one subjects had enteric infections; all but one had AIDS. Alteration in bowell habits was the most common symptom and occurred independently of enteric infections. Abnormal histopathology was present in

Donald P. Kotler; Safak Reka; Frederic Clayton

1993-01-01

184

Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

185

In vitro infection of primary and retrovirus-infected human leukocytes by human foamy virus.  

PubMed Central

The infectivity of human foamy virus (HFV) was examined in primary and cultured human leukocytes. Cell-free infectious viral stocks of HFV were prepared from the human kidney cell line 293 transfected with an infectious molecular clone of HFV. HFV productively infects a variety of human myeloid and lymphoid cell lines. In addition, primary cell cultures enriched for human CD4+, monocytes and brain-derived microglial cells, were readily infected by HFV. Interestingly, while infected primary CD4+ lymphocytes and microglial cells showed marked cytopathology characteristic of foamy virus, HFV-infected monocyte-derived macrophages failed to show any cytopathology. In addition, marked cytotoxicity due to HFV infection was seen in both human T-cell leukemia virus type 1- and human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T-cell lines and in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected monocytoid cell lines. Thus, HFV infection produces differential cytopathology in a wide host range of primary human leukocytes and hematopoietic cell lines. PMID:8627751

Mikovits, J A; Hoffman, P M; Rethwilm, A; Ruscetti, F W

1996-01-01

186

Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis) to four limbs (quadriparesis), with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis), motor axons (polyradiculitis), and peripheral nerves [Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), brachial plexopathy]. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides an explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long-term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neuropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms). Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies). Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal reports. PMID:22461779

Leis, A. Arturo; Stokic, Dobrivoje S.

2012-01-01

187

Evidence of Infection with H4 and H11 Avian Influenza Viruses among Lebanese Chicken Growers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human infections with H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses are well documented. Exposure to poultry is the most important risk factor for humans becoming infected with these viruses. Data on human infection with other low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses is sparse but suggests that such infections may occur. Lebanon is a Mediterranean country lying under two major migratory birds

Ghazi Kayali; Elie Barbour; Ghassan Dbaibo; Carelle Tabet; Maya Saade; Houssam A. Shaib; Jennifer Debeauchamp; Richard J. Webby

2011-01-01

188

Virus Enrichment for Single Virus Infection by Using 3D Insulator Based Dielectrophoresis  

PubMed Central

We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that enables virus enrichment for single virus infection, by using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). A 3D-constricted flow channel design enabled the production of an iDEP force in the microfluidic chip. iDEP using a chip with multiple active virus filters (AVFs) was more accurate and faster than using a chip with a single AVF, and improved the efficiency of virus trapping. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure required for fabrication of constricted flow channel. Influenza virus (A PR/8) was enriched by a negative DEP force when sinusoidal wave was applied to the electrodes within an amplitude range of 20 Vp-p and a frequency of 10 MHz. AVF-mediated virus enrichment can be repeated simply by turning the current ON or OFF. Furthermore, the negative AVF can inhibit virus adhesion onto the glass substrate. We then trapped and transported one of the enriched viruses by using optical tweezers. This microfluidic chip facilitated the effective transport of a single virus from AVFs towards the cell-containing chamber without crossing an electrode. We successfully transported the virus to the cell chamber (v?=?10 µm/s) and brought it infected with a selected single H292 cell. PMID:24918921

Masuda, Taisuke; Maruyama, Hisataka; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

2014-01-01

189

Secondary dengue virus type 4 infections in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study was designated to describe clinical and biological features of patients with a suspected diagnosis of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Central Vietnam. One hundred and twenty-five consecutive patients hospitalized at Khanh Hoa and Binh Thuan Provincial hospitals between November 2001 and January 2002 with a diagnosis of suspected dengue infection were included in the present study. Viruses were isolated in C6/36 and VERO E6 cell cultures or detected by RT-PCR. A hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI) was done on each paired sera using dengue antigens type 1-4, Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus antigen, Chickungunya virus antigen and Sindbis virus antigen. Anti-dengue and anti-JE virus IgM were measured by a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Anti-dengue and anti-JE virus IgG were measured by an ELISA test. Dengue viruses were isolated in cell culture and/or detected by RT-PCR in 20.8% of blood samples. DEN-4 and DEN-2 serotypes were found in 18.4% and 2.4% of the patients, respectively. A total of 86.4% of individuals had a diagnosis of acute dengue fever by using the HI test and/or dengue virus-specific IgM capture-ELISA and/or virus isolation and/or RT-PCR. The prevalence of primary and secondary acute dengue infection was 4% and 78.4%, respectively. Anti-dengue IgG ELISA test was positive in 88.8% of the patients. In 5 cases (4%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection was positive by serology but the cell culture was negative. No Chickungunya virus or Sindbis virus infection was detected by the HI test. In patients with acute dengue virus infection, the most common presenting symptom was headache, followed by conjunctivitis, petechial rash, muscle and joint pain, nausea and abdominal pain. Four percent of hospitalized patients were classified as dengue hemorrhagic fever. The clinical presentation and blood cell counts were similar between patients hospitalized with acute dengue fever and patients with other febrile illnesses. PMID:15906664

Buchy, Philippe; Vo, Van Luong; Bui, Khanh Toan; Trinh, Thi Xuan Mai; Glaziou, Philippe; Le, Thi Thu Ha; Le, Viet Lo; Bui, Trong Chien

2005-01-01

190

Infection of cells by Sindbis virus at low temperature  

SciTech Connect

Sindbis virus, which belongs to the family Togaviridae genus Alphavirus infects a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate cells. The initial steps of Sindbis virus infection involve attachment, penetration and uncoating. Two different pathways of infection have been proposed for Alphaviruses. One proposed mechanism involves receptor mediated virion endocytosis followed by membrane fusion triggered by endosome acidification. This virus-host membrane fusion model, well established by influenza virus, has been applied to other unrelated membrane-containing viruses including Alphaviruses. The other mechanism proposes direct penetration of the cell plasma membrane by the virus glycoproteins in the absence of membrane fusion. This alternate model is supported by both ultrastructural [Paredes, A.M., Ferreira, D., Horton, M., Saad, A., Tsuruta, H., Johnston, R., Klimstra, W., Ryman, K., Hernandez, R., Chiu, W., Brown, D.T., 2004. Conformational changes in Sindbis virions resulting from exposure to low pH and interactions with cells suggest that cell penetration may occur at the cell surface in the absence of membrane fusion. Virology 324(2), 373-386] and biochemical [Koschinski, A., Wengler, G., Wengler, G., and Repp, H., 2005. Rare earth ions block the ion pores generated by the class II fusion proteins of alphaviruses and allow analysis of the biological functions of these pores. J. Gen. Virol. 86(Pt. 12), 3311-3320] studies. We have examined the ability of Sindbis virus to infect Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cells at temperatures which block endocytosis. We have found that under these conditions Sindbis virus infects cells in a temperature- and time-dependent fashion.

Wang Gongbo [Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Hernandez, Raquel [Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Weninger, Keith [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Brown, Dennis T. [Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)]. E-mail: dennis_brown@ncsu.edu

2007-06-05

191

Dissecting the Role of COPI Complexes in Influenza Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

As an obligate pathogen, influenza virus requires host cell factors and compartments to mediate productive infection and to produce infectious progeny virus. Recently, several small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown screens revealed influenza virus host dependency proteins, all of which identified at least two subunits of the coat protein I (COPI) complex. COPI proteins oligomerize to form coated vesicles that transport contents between the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum, and they have also been reported to mediate endosomal trafficking. However, it remains unclear which steps in the influenza virus infection cycle rely on the COPI complex. Upon systematic dissection of the influenza virus infection cycle, from entry to progeny virion production, we found that prolonged exposure to COPI complex disruption through siRNA depletion resulted in significant defects in virus internalization and trafficking to late endosomes. Acute inhibition of COPI complex recruitment to the Golgi apparatus with pharmacological compounds failed to recapitulate the same entry defects as observed with the COPI-depleted cells but did result in specific decreases in viral membrane protein expression and assembly, leading to defects in progeny virion production. Taken together, our findings suggest that COPI complexes likely function indirectly in influenza virus entry but play direct roles in viral membrane protein expression and assembly. PMID:23255804

Sun, Eileen; He, Jiang

2013-01-01

192

Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza B virus infection: efficacy and resistance  

PubMed Central

Many aspects of the biology and epidemiology of influenza B viruses are far less studied than for influenza A viruses, and one of these aspects is effectiveness and resistance to the clinically available antiviral drugs, the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Acute respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of death in children and adults, and influenza is among the few respiratory infections that can be prevented and treated by vaccination and antiviral treatment. Recent data has suggested that influenza B virus infections are of specific concern to pediatric patients because of the increased risk of severe disease. Treatment of influenza B is a challenging task for the following reasons: NAIs (e.g., oseltamivir and zanamivir) are the only FDA-approved class of antivirals available for treatment;the data suggest that oseltamivir is less effective than zanamivir in pediatric patients;zanamivir is not prescribed to patients younger than 7;influenza B viruses are less susceptible than influenza A viruses to NAIs in vitro;although the level of resistance to NAIs is low, the number of different molecular markers of resistance is higher than for influenza A viruses, and they are not well defined;the relationship between levels of NAI phenotypic resistance and known molecular markers, frequency of emergence, transmissibility, and fitness of NAI-resistant variants are not well established. This review presents current knowledge of the effectiveness of NAIs for influenza B virus and antiviral resistance in clinical, surveillance, and experimental studies. PMID:24013000

Burnham, Andrew J.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Govorkova, Elena A.

2013-01-01

193

Antiviral activity of lanatoside C against dengue virus infection.  

PubMed

Dengue infection poses a serious threat globally due to its recent rapid spread and rise in incidence. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or effective antiviral drug for dengue virus infection. In response to the urgent need for the development of an effective antiviral for dengue virus, the US Drug Collection library was screened in this study to identify compounds with anti-dengue activities. Lanatoside C, an FDA approved cardiac glycoside was identified as a candidate anti-dengue compound. Our data revealed that lanatoside C has an IC50 of 0.19?M for dengue virus infection in HuH-7 cells. Dose-dependent reduction in dengue viral RNA and viral proteins synthesis were also observed upon treatment with increasing concentrations of lanatoside C. Time of addition study indicated that lanatoside C inhibits the early processes of the dengue virus replication cycle. Furthermore, lanatoside C can effectively inhibit all four serotypes of dengue virus, flavivirus Kunjin, alphavirus Chikungunya and Sindbis virus as well as the human enterovirus 71. These findings suggest that lanatoside C possesses broad spectrum antiviral activity against several groups of positive-sense RNA viruses. PMID:25251726

Cheung, Yan Yi; Chen, Karen Caiyun; Chen, Huixin; Seng, Eng Khuan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2014-11-01

194

Epstein-Barr virus infection and human malignancies  

PubMed Central

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpes virus which establishes a life-long persistent infection in over 90% of the human adult population world-wide. Based on its association with a variety of lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, EBV has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article we discuss the evidence supporting an aetiological role for EBV in the pathogenesis of human tumours. The biology of EBV infection will be described with special emphasis on viral transforming gene products. A brief survey of EBV-associated tumours is followed by a discussion of specific problems. Evidence is presented which suggests that failures of the EBV-specific immunity may play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated tumours also in patients without clinically manifest immunodeficiencies. Finally, the timing of EBV infection in the pathogenesis of virus-associated malignancies is discussed. There is good evidence that EBV infection precedes expansion of the malignant cell populations in some virus-associated tumours. However, this is clearly not always the case and for some of these tumours there are indications that clonal genetic alterations may occur prior to EBV infection. Thus, whilst there is good evidence to suggest that EBV is a human carcinogen, its precise role(s) in the development of virus-associated human tumours requires clarification. PMID:11488990

Niedobitek, Gerald; Meru, Nadine; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

2001-01-01

195

Cholesterol is required for infection by Semliki Forest virus  

PubMed Central

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and many other enveloped animal viruses enter cells by a membrane fusion reaction triggered by the low pH within the endocytic pathway. In vitro, SFV fusion requires cholesterol in the target membrane, but the role of cholesterol in vivo is unknown. In this paper, the infection pathway of SFV was studied in mammalian and inset cells substantially depleted of sterol. Cholesterol-depleted cells were unaltered in their ability to bind, internalize, and acidify virus, but were blocked in SFV fusion and subsequent virus replication. Depleted cells could be infected by the cholesterol-independent vesicular stomatitis virus, which also enters cells via endocytosis and low pH-mediated fusion. The block in SFV infection was specifically reversed by cholesterol but not by cholestenone, which lacks the critical 3 beta-hydroxyl group. Cholesterol thus is central in the infection pathway of SFV, and may act in vivo to modulate infection by SFV and other pathogens. PMID:1671572

1991-01-01

196

Evolution of in vitro persistence of two strains of canine parainfluenza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lytic stock virus (CPI+) exhibited prominent CPE in Vero cell monolayers. The non-syncytial giant cell forming strain (CPI-) was isolated from brain tissues of a dog after experimental infection with syncytial giant cell-forming (CPI+) virus. In mixed infection experiments, CPI(-) virus interfered with the replication of CPI(+) virus in that simultaneously infected cells showed strand-forming CPE typical of CPI(-)

W. Baumgärtner; S. Krakowka; J. Blakeslee

1987-01-01

197

A case of Ebola virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1976 an investigator at the Microbiological Research Establishment accidentally inoculated himself while processing material from patients in Africa who had been suffering from a haemorrhagic fever of unknown cause. He developed an illness closely resembling Marburg disease, and a virus was isolated from his blood that resembled Marburg virus but was distinct serologically. The course of the illness

R T Emond; B Evans; Etw Bowen; G Lloyd

1977-01-01

198

A Pathogenic Threshold of Virus Load Defined in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus or Simian-Human Immunodeficiency VirusInfected Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if a specific pathogenic threshold of plasma viral RNA could be defined irrespective of virus strain, RNA levels in the plasma of more than 50 infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were measured. Animals were inoculated intravenously with either simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strains of known pathogenic potential (SIV8980, SIVsmm-3, SIVmac32H\\/J5, SIVmac32H\\/1XC, reverse transcriptase-SHIV,

PETER TEN HAAFT; BABS VERSTREPEN; KLAUS UBERLA; BRIGITTE ROSENWIRTH; JONATHAN HEENEY

1998-01-01

199

78 FR 63218 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing Direct-Acting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidance for Industry on Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing Direct-Acting...industry entitled ``Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing Direct-Acting...industry entitled ``Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Developing...

2013-10-23

200

Viral transcription during Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research has been to study the transcription process during nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection of S. frugiperda cells. The challenge raised at the beginning of the project was to find the RNA polymerases(s) responsible for the viral RNA synthesis. The results reported here provide the probable answer to this question. It was found that the early viral RNA, being alpha-amanitin sensitive, was transcribed by the host RNA polymerase II. However, the switch later in infection implied an amanitin-resistant viral transcription, as shown in the RNA-DNA hybridization experiments between viral DNA and (/sup 3/H)-RNA synthesized in nuclei isolated from infected cells. A major breakthrough came with the purification of RNA polymerases from infected cells. The DEAE-Sephadex profile showed a distinct peak of alpha-amanitin resistant RNA polymerase activity, which was not present in the DEAE-Sephadex RNA polymerase profile of uninfected cells. This novel activity was, therefore, induced by the nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection. RNA polymerases were isolated from both normal and infected cells. The virus-induced polymerase was characterized and its properties were compared to those of the host RNA polymerase. The results obtained so far suggest that the virus-induced RNA polymerase may be the enzyme responsible for the transcription of the viral late genes.

Fuchs, L.Y.

1985-01-01

201

Cohabitation reaction-diffusion model for virus focal infections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of virus infection fronts has been typically modeled using a set of classical (noncohabitation) reaction-diffusion equations for interacting species. However, for some single-species systems it has been recently shown that noncohabitation reaction-diffusion equations may lead to unrealistic descriptions. We argue that previous virus infection models also have this limitation, because they assume that a virion can simultaneously reproduce inside a cell and diffuse away from it. For this reason, we build a several-species cohabitation model that does not have this limitation. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis for the most relevant parameters of the model, and we compare the predicted infection speed with observed data for two different strains of the T7 virus.

Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

2014-12-01

202

Infection of the choroid plexus by feline immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human, simian, and feline immunodeficiency viruses rapidly penetrate into the brain and trigger an inflammatory process\\u000a that can lead to significant neurologic disease. However, the mechanisms that permit efficient trafficking of macrophage-tropic\\u000a and the more neurotoxic lymphocytotropic isolates are still poorly understood. One potential source of virus entry may be\\u000a the blood-CSF barrier provided by the choroid plexus. Infected

D. C. Bragg; T. A. Childers; M. B. Tompkins; W. A. Tompkins; R. B. Meeker

2002-01-01

203

Hepatitis G virus infection in fulminant hepatic failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—RNA sequences of the recently identified hepatitis GB virus C (HGBV-C), also named hepatitis G virus (HGV), have been detected in patients with idiopathic fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) but the role of this agent in the disease remains controversial.Aims—To investigate the presence and implications of HGV infection in a large series of Spanish patients with FHF.Patients—Sixty eight patients with FHF,

J C Sáiz; M Sans; A Mas; E Olmedo; X Forns; F X López-Labrador; J C Restrepo; J Costa; J M Salmerón; M Guilera; S Ampurdanés; J M Sánchez-Tapias; M T Jiménez de Anta; J Rodés

1997-01-01

204

Human immunodeficiency viruses: SIV infection in wild gorillas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) from west central Africa are recognized as the reservoir of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpzPtt) that have crossed at least twice to humans: this resulted in the AIDS pandemic (from human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 group M) in one instance and infection of just a few individuals in Cameroon (by HIV-1 group N) in another. A third HIV-1

Fran van Heuverswyn; Yingying Li; Cecile Neel; Elizabeth Bailes; Brandon F. Keele; Weimin Liu; Severin Loul; Christelle Butel; Florian Liegeois; Yanga Bienvenue; Eitel Mpoudi Ngolle; Paul M. Sharp; George M. Shaw; Eric Delaporte; Beatrice H. Hahn; Martine Peeters

2006-01-01

205

BLACK CREEK CANAL VIRUS INFECTION INSIGMODON HISPIDUSIN SOUTHERN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1,500 small mammals were collected and tested for antibodies cross-reactive to Sin Nombre virus (Hantavirus: Bunyaviridae) at 89 sites in a 1,600 km2 study area of southern Florida. More than 95% of the 123 seropositive animals were cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), suggesting infection by Black Creek Canal Virus, although seroreactive Rattus rattus (5 of 294) and Peromyscus

GREGORY E. GLASS; WALTER LIVINGSTONE; JAMES N. MILLS; W. GARY HLADY; JOSHUA B. FINE; WILLIAM BIGGLER; TREVOR COKE; DWIGHT FRAZIER; STEPHANIE ATHERLEY; PIERRE E. ROLLIN; THOMAS G. KSIAZEK; C. J. PETERS; JAMES E. CHILDS

1998-01-01

206

Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in northeastern Romania.  

PubMed

We conducted a serological survey of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in northeastern Romania to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in this population. Overall, 162 (28%) of 573 women had evidence of past or current HBV infection, and 48 (8.4%) were carriers. The prevalence of past or current infection rose with age, but did not differ by educational level, occupation, or rural versus urban residence. Integration of hepatitis B vaccine into routine childhood immunization schedules, with the first dose given at birth, may have a substantial impact on HBV infection in Romania by preventing both perinatal and early childhood transmission. PMID:8282474

Woodruff, B A; Popovici, F; Beldescu, N; Shapiro, C N; Hersh, B S

1993-10-01

207

Infection of influenza virus neuraminidase-vaccinated mice with homologous influenza virus leads to strong protection against heterologous influenza viruses.  

PubMed

Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza pandemics. Here, we studied the protective effect against heterologous influenza viruses, including A/reassortant/NYMC X-179A (pH1N1), A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1), A/Chicken/Jiangsu/7/2002 (H9N2) and A/Guizhou/54/89×A/PR/8/34 (A/Guizhou-X) (H3N2), in mice first vaccinated with a DNA vaccine of haemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) of A/PR/8/34 (PR8) and then infected with the homologous virus. We showed that PR8 HA or NA vaccination both protected mice against a lethal dose of the homologous virus; PR8 HA or NA DNA vaccination and then PR8 infection in mice offered poor or excellent protection, respectively, against a second, heterologous influenza virus challenge. In addition, before the second heterologous influenza infection, the highest antibody level against nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M1 and M2) proteins was found in the PR8 NA-vaccinated and PR8-infected group. The level of induced cellular immunity against NP and M1 showed a trend consistent with that seen in antibody levels. However, PR8 HA+NA vaccination and then PR8 infection resulted in limited protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge. Results of the present study demonstrated that infection of the homologous influenza virus in mice already immunized with a NA vaccine could provide excellent protection against subsequent infection of a heterologous influenza virus. These findings suggested that NA, a major antigen of influenza virus, could be an important candidate antigen for universal influenza vaccines. PMID:25170051

He, Biao; Chang, Haiyan; Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Chaoyang; Liu, Xueying; Zheng, Dan; Fang, Fang; Sun, Bing; Chen, Ze

2014-12-01

208

Detection and diagnosis of rice-infecting viruses  

PubMed Central

Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen–antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases. PMID:24130554

Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shiba, Takuya; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Ueno, Takanori; Hirae, Masahiro; Sasaya, Takahide

2013-01-01

209

Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients are known to be at risk of developing liver complications i.e. cirrhosis and liver cancer. However, the risks of morbidity and mortality are underestimated because they do not take into account non-liver consequences of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Numerous extrahepatic manifestations have been reported in up to 74% of patients, from perceived to disabling conditions. The majority of data concern hepatitis C virus-related autoimmune and/or lymphoproliferative disorders, from mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis to frank lymphomas. More recently, other hepatitis C virus-associated disorders have been reported including cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. This review aims to outline most of the extrahepatic manifestations that are currently being investigated, including some of autoimmune and/or lymphoproliferative nature, and others in which the role of immune mechanisms appears less clear. Beyond the liver, hepatitis C virus chronic infection should be analyzed as a multifaceted systemic disease leading to heavy direct and indirect costs. The accurate consideration of extrahepatic consequences of such a systemic infection significantly increases the weight of its pathological burden. The need for effective viral eradication measures is underlined. PMID:25458776

Cacoub, Patrice; Gragnani, Laura; Comarmond, Cloe; Zignego, Anna Linda

2014-12-15

210

Epidemiology of BHV 1 virus infections in dairy herds.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1) infections was studied in 20 dairy herds. Periodic serological surveillance of these herds during three consecutive years (1980-82) was combined with clinical studies. In 19 herds seropositive cows were found indicating previous exposure to BHV 1. One herd had its first experience with BHV 1 during the study. No indication of virus circulation for at least three years was found in eight herds. In five herds an interval of 2 years without an indication of virus circulation was followed by infections in yearlings, first- and second-calf cows during the third year. One or two cycles of virus circulation in calves and/or yearlings during the 3 year survey were detected in six herds. Most BHV 1 infections passed unnoticed. Signs of respiratory disease in association with BHV 1 infection were observed in three herds: young animals were most seriously affected. Clinical manifestations of BHV 1 infections were less pronounced than a few years ago when infections in cows caused frank signs and diagnosis was frequently possible on the basis of a typical clinical picture. BHV 1 was the cause of abortions in the herd that experienced its first infections during this survey. A survey of the age-specific BHV 1 neutralizing antibody pattern may be helpful for tracing animals and herds at risk of an outbreak of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. PMID:6315812

van Nieuwstadt, A. P.; Verhoeff, J.

1983-01-01

211

First Study of Different Insect Cells to Triatoma Virus Infection.  

PubMed

The use of viruses for biological control is a new option to be considered. The family Dicistroviridae, which affects only invertebrates, is one of the families that have been proposed for this purpose. The Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, affects triatomine transmitters of Chagas disease, which is endemic in Latin America but also expanding its worldwide distribution. To this end, we attempted virus replication in Diptera, Aedes albopictus (clone C6/36) and Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda (SF9, SF21) and High Five (H5) cell lines. The methodologies used were transfection process, direct inoculation (purified virus), and inoculation of purified virus with trypsin. Results were confirmed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, RT-PCR, electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. According to the results obtained, further analysis of susceptibility/infection of H5 cells to TrV required to be studied. PMID:25481388

Susevich, María Laura; Marti, Gerardo Aníbal; Metz, Germán Ernesto; Echeverría, María Gabriela

2014-12-01

212

A fatal case of chikungunya virus infection with liver involvement.  

PubMed

Recovery from chikungunya is previously considered universal and mortality due to the virus is rare and unusual. Findings from recent chikungunya outbreaks occurred in Reunion Island and India have since challenged the conventional view on the benign nature of the illness. Malaysia has experienced at least of 4 outbreaks of chikungunya since 1998. In the present on-going large outbreak due to chikungunya virus of Central/East African genotype, a previous healthy sixty six years gentleman without co-morbidity was noted to have severe systemic infection by the virus and involvement of his liver. He subsequently passed away due to cardiovascular collapse after 5 days of illness. PMID:21265260

Chua, H H; Abdul Rashid, K; Law, W C; Hamizah, A; Chem, Y K; Khairul, A H; Chua, K B

2010-03-01

213

Role of Phosphatidylserine Receptors in Enveloped Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We recently demonstrated that a soluble protein, Gas6, can facilitate viral entry by bridging viral envelope phosphatidylserine to Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on target cells. The interaction between phosphatidylserine, Gas6, and Axl was originally shown to be a molecular mechanism through which phagocytes recognize phosphatidylserine exposed on dead cells. Since our initial report, several groups have confirmed that Axl/Gas6, as well as other phosphatidylserine receptors, facilitate entry of dengue, West Nile, and Ebola viruses. Virus binding by viral envelope phosphatidylserine is now a viral entry mechanism generalized to many families of viruses. In addition to Axl/Gas6, various molecules are known to recognize phosphatidylserine; however, the effects of these molecules on virus binding and entry have not been comprehensively evaluated and compared. In this study, we examined most of the known human phosphatidylserine-recognizing molecules, including MFG-E8, TIM-1, -3, and -4, CD300a, BAI1, and stabilin-1 and -2, for their abilities to facilitate virus binding and infection. Using pseudotyped lentiviral vectors, we found that a soluble phosphatidylserine-binding protein, MFG-E8, enhances transduction. Cell surface receptors TIM-1 and -4 also enhance virus binding/transduction. The extent of enhancement by these molecules varies, depending on the type of pseudotyping envelope proteins. Mutated MFG-E8, which binds viral envelope phosphatidylserine without bridging virus to cells, but, surprisingly, not annexin V, which has been used to block phagocytosis of dead cells by concealing phosphatidylserine, efficiently blocks these phosphatidylserine-dependent viral entry mechanisms. These results provide insight into understanding the role of viral envelope phosphatidylserine in viral infection. IMPORTANCE Envelope phosphatidylserine has previously been shown to be important for replication of various envelope viruses, but details of this mechanism(s) were unclear. We were the first to report that a bifunctional serum protein, Gas6, bridges envelope phosphatidylserine to a cell surface receptor, Axl. Recent studies demonstrated that many envelope viruses, including vaccinia, dengue, West Nile, and Ebola viruses, utilize Axl/Gas6 to facilitate their entry, suggesting that the phosphatidylserine-mediated viral entry mechanism can be shared by various enveloped viruses. In addition to Axl/Gas6, various molecules are known to recognize phosphatidylserine; however, the effects of these molecules on virus binding and entry have not been comprehensively evaluated and compared. In this study, we examined most human phosphatidylserine-recognizing molecules for their abilities to facilitate viral infection. The results provide insights into the role(s) of envelope phosphatidylserine in viral infection, which can be applicable to the development of novel antiviral reagents that block phosphatidylserine-mediated viral entry. PMID:24478428

Chen, Irvin S. Y.

2014-01-01

214

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

Fauci, Anthony S.

1988-02-01

215

Junin virus infects mouse cells and induces innate immune responses.  

PubMed

Junín virus is the causative agent for Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and its natural host is the New World rodent Calomys musculinus. The virus is transmitted to humans by aerosolization, and it is believed that many of the clinical symptoms are caused by cytokines produced by sentinel cells of the immune system. Here we used the Junín virus vaccine strain Candid 1 to determine whether mouse cells could be used to study virus entry and antiviral innate immune responses. We show that Candid 1 can infect and propagate in different mouse-derived cell lines through a low-pH-dependent, transferrin receptor 1-independent mechanism, suggesting that there is a second entry receptor. In addition, Candid 1 induced expression of the antiviral cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and beta interferon in macrophages, and this induction was independent of viral replication. Using Candid 1, as well as virus-like particles bearing the viral glycoprotein, to infect different primary cells and established macrophage cell lines with deletions in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, we show that TLR2 is a cellular sensor of both the Parodi and Candid 1 viral glycoproteins. Because Junín virus is highly lethal in humans, the use of an experimentally tractable model system, such as the mouse, could provide a better understanding of the antiviral innate cellular responses to Junín virus and the role of these responses in pathogenesis. PMID:21880772

Cuevas, Christian D; Lavanya, Madakasira; Wang, Enxiu; Ross, Susan R

2011-11-01

216

Tranylcypromine Reduces Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, including encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), a drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type-virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, infection with the acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection. PMID:24590478

Yao, Hui-Wen; Lin, Pin-Hung; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Tung, Yuk-Ying

2014-01-01

217

Tranylcypromine reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection in mice.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, including encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), a drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type-virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, infection with the acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection. PMID:24590478

Yao, Hui-Wen; Lin, Pin-Hung; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Hsu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Shun-Hua

2014-05-01

218

Experimental rabies virus infection of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).  

PubMed

A captive colony of adult Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was experimentally infected with a rabies virus (RABV) variant isolated from the salivary glands of a naturally infected Big Brown Bat and passaged once through murine neuroblastoma cell culture. Bats were divided into 11 groups, which were composed of one to three noninfected and one to three infected individuals each. Twenty of 38 animals were infected intramuscularly into both left and right masseter muscles; they received a total of 10(3.2) median mouse intracerebral lethal dose (MICLD50) of Big Brown Bat RABV variant. Experimental outcome after viral exposure was followed in the bats for 140 days postinoculation (PI). Of 20 infected bats, 16 developed clinical rabies, and the mean incubation period was 24 days (range: 13-52 days). Three infected bats never seroconverted and succumbed early to infection (13 days). Four infected bats that survived until the end of the experiment without any signs of disease maintained detectable antibody titers until the third month PI, peaking between days 13 and 43, and consequent drop-off below the threshold for detection occurred by day 140. Limited excretion of virus in saliva of infected bats during the clinical course of disease was observed in two individuals on days 13 and 15 PI (<24 hr prior to onset of clinical illness). No bat-to-bat transmission of RABV to noninfected bats was detected. PMID:18689646

Jackson, Felix R; Turmelle, Amy S; Farino, David M; Franka, Richard; McCracken, Gary F; Rupprecht, Charles E

2008-07-01

219

Giant viruses coexisted with the cellular ancestors and represent a distinct supergroup along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya  

PubMed Central

Background The discovery of giant viruses with genome and physical size comparable to cellular organisms, remnants of protein translation machinery and virus-specific parasites (virophages) have raised intriguing questions about their origin. Evidence advocates for their inclusion into global phylogenomic studies and their consideration as a distinct and ancient form of life. Results Here we reconstruct phylogenies describing the evolution of proteomes and protein domain structures of cellular organisms and double-stranded DNA viruses with medium-to-very-large proteomes (giant viruses). Trees of proteomes define viruses as a ‘fourth supergroup’ along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Trees of domains indicate they have evolved via massive and primordial reductive evolutionary processes. The distribution of domain structures suggests giant viruses harbor a significant number of protein domains including those with no cellular representation. The genomic and structural diversity embedded in the viral proteomes is comparable to the cellular proteomes of organisms with parasitic lifestyles. Since viral domains are widespread among cellular species, we propose that viruses mediate gene transfer between cells and crucially enhance biodiversity. Conclusions Results call for a change in the way viruses are perceived. They likely represent a distinct form of life that either predated or coexisted with the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) and constitute a very crucial part of our planet’s biosphere. PMID:22920653

2012-01-01

220

Chikungunya virus and West Nile virus infections imported into Belgium, 2007-2012.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Arboviral infections are emerging among tourists travelling to (sub)tropical regions. This study aims to describe the importation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) into Belgium over a 6-year period from 2007 to 2012. Clinical samples were obtained from travellers presenting at the outpatient clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium or submitted to the Central Laboratory for Clinical Biology of the ITM. Testing was performed by serology and/or by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1288 returning travellers were investigated for CHIKV infection resulting in 34 confirmed and two probable diagnoses (2·80%). Out of 899 patients, four confirmed and one probable imported WNV infections were diagnosed (0·55%). No locally acquired cases have been registered in Belgium until now and the geographical origin of the imported infections reflects the global locations where the viruses are circulating. PMID:24690286

VAN DEN Bossche, D; Cnops, L; Meersman, K; Domingo, C; VAN Gompel, A; VAN Esbroeck, M

2014-04-01

221

Antigen-Specific Expansion of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Acute Measles Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skewing of the T-cell receptor repertoire of CD81 T cells has been shown in some persistent infections with viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and Epstein-Barr virus. We have demonstrated that similar distortions also occur in nonpersistent measles virus infection. In addition, two of four children immunized with live, attenuated measles virus showed larger and more persistent

JUTHATHIP MONGKOLSAPAYA; ASSAN JAYE; MARGARET F. C. CALLAN; ALBERT F. MAGNUSEN; ANDREW J. MCMICHAEL

1999-01-01

222

Role of upper endoscopy in diagnosing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically decreased opportunistic infections (OIs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, gastrointestinal disease continues to account for a high proportion of presenting symptoms in these patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms in treated patients who respond to therapy are more likely to the result of drug-induced complications than OI. Endoscopic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract remains

Ana Luiza Werneck-Silva; Ivete Bedin Prado

2009-01-01

223

The pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats.  

PubMed Central

The cotton rat is susceptible to respiratory synctial virus infection in both the upper and lower portions of the respiratory tract. Virus replicates to high titer in the nose and lungs and to relatively low titer in the trachea. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated viral antigen in the nasal epithelium and the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium but not in the trachea or the alveolar cells of the lungs. Histopathologic changes included a desquamative, exudative rhinitis of moderate severity and a mild proliferative bronchiolitis. Serum neutralizing antibody developed in all animals by the ninth day after infection, reaching extremely high titer in several instances. Unlike the previously described response of experimentally infected infant ferrets, cotton rats are uniformly susceptible to pulmonary infection throughout life, thereby offering a model for long-term pulmonary studies heretofore not available. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figures 1 and 2 Figures 3 and 4 Figure 8 Figure 7 p[791]-a PMID:362946

Prince, G. A.; Jenson, A. B.; Horswood, R. L.; Camargo, E.; Chanock, R. M.

1978-01-01

224

Diagnosis of Hepatitis A Virus Infection: a Molecular Approach  

PubMed Central

Current serologic tests provide the foundation for diagnosis of hepatitis A and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Recent advances in methods to identify and characterize nucleic acid markers of viral infections have provided the foundation for the field of molecular epidemiology and increased our knowledge of the molecular biology and epidemiology of HAV. Although HAV is primarily shed in feces, there is a strong viremic phase during infection which has allowed easy access to virus isolates and the use of molecular markers to determine their genetic relatedness. Molecular epidemiologic studies have provided new information on the types and extent of HAV infection and transmission in the United States. In addition, these new diagnostic methods have provided tools for the rapid detection of food-borne HAV transmission and identification of the potential source of the food contamination. PMID:16418523

Nainan, Omana V.; Xia, Guoliang; Vaughan, Gilberto; Margolis, Harold S.

2006-01-01

225

Experimental infection of vertebrates of the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp, Maryland with Keystone and Jamestown Canyon viruses.  

PubMed

Experimental studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) to Jamestown Canyon (JC) and/or Keystone (KEY) virus infection. Viremia occurred in 5 of 6 deer inoculated with JC virus; however, all deer developed KEY virus neutralizing antibody. Based on the observation that antibody elicited by primary infection of deer with either KEY or JC virus exhibited partial heterologous neutralization in vitro, cross-challenge experiments were performed in these animals. Keystone virus failed to infect deer 30 days post primary JC virus infection; however, deer became infected when challenged with KEY virus 80 days after the initial JC virus infection as indicated by a substantial increase in antibody titer. Similarly, JC virus failed to produce viremia in immune animals infected with KEY virus 80 days previously, although 2 of the 3 animals challenged had serological evidence of infection. Three field-collected cottontail rabbits with no evidence of KEY antibody were readily susceptible to KEY virus infection and developed viremias of 1-4 days' duration; rabbits with KEY virus antibody did not develop viremia upon KEY virus challenge. Eight antibody-negative field-collected gray squirrels became viremic following injection with KEY virus; however, a comparable group of squirrels did not become viremic when injected with JC virus. PMID:453437

Watts, D M; Tammariello, R F; Dalrymple, J M; Eldridge, B F; Russell, P K; Top, F H

1979-03-01

226

Host Neutralizing Responses in Hepatitis C Virus Infection Mirjam B. Zeisel1, 2  

E-print Network

Host Neutralizing Responses in Hepatitis C Virus Infection Mirjam B. Zeisel1, 2 , Samira Fafi. Key words: hepatitis C virus; virus-host cell interaction; viral entry; neutralizing antibodies 1;Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of hepatitis world-wide. The majority of infected

Boyer, Edmond

227

Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus (HBV and HIV) infection share transmission patterns and risk factors, which explains high prevalence of chronic HBV infection in HIV infected patients. The natural course of HBV disease is altered by the HIV infection with less chance to clear acute HBV infection, faster progression to cirrhosis and higher risk of liver-related death in HIV-HBV co-infected patients than in HBV mono-infected ones. HIV infected patients with chronic hepatitis B should be counseled for liver damage and surveillance of chronic hepatitis B should be performed to screen early hepatocellular carcinoma. Noninvasive tools are now available to evaluate liver fibrosis. Isolated hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) are a good predictive marker of occult HBV infection. Still the prevalence and significance of occult HBV infection is controversial, but its screening may be important in the management of antiretroviral therapy. Vaccination against HBV infection is recommended in non-immune HIV patients. The optimal treatment for almost all HIV-HBV co-infected patients should contain tenofovir plus lamivudine or emtricitabine and treatment should not be stopped to avoid HBV reactivation. Long term tenofovir therapy may lead to significant decline in hepatitis B surface Antigen. The emergence of resistant HBV strains may compromise the HBV therapy and vaccine therapy. PMID:25516647

Phung, Bao-Chau; Sogni, Philippe; Launay, Odile

2014-01-01

228

Glycosaminoglycan Sulfation Requirements for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the surface of cultured cells are important in the first step of efficient respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We evaluated the importance of sulfation, the major biosynthetic modification of GAGs, using an improved recombinant green fluorescent protein-expressing RSV (rgRSV) to assay infection. Pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with 50 mM sodium chlorate, a selective inhibitor of sulfation, for

LOUAY K. HALLAK; DOROTHE SPILLMANN; PETER L. COLLINS; MARK E. PEEPLES

2000-01-01

229

Impact of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Health Status and Quality of Life: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

E-print Network

Impact of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Health Status and Quality of Life: A Retrospective Cohort several months after Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Their frequency and their impact on quality. (2009) Impact of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Health Status and Quality of Life: A Retrospective

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Locus-Specific Gene Expression Pattern Suggests a Unique Propagation Strategy for a Giant Algal Virus  

PubMed Central

Emiliania huxleyi virus strain 86 is the largest algal virus sequenced to date and is unique among the Phycodnaviridae since its genome is predicted to contain six RNA polymerase subunit genes. We have used a virus microarray to profile the temporal transcription strategy of this unusual virus during infection. There are two distinct transcription phases to the infection process. The primary phase is dominated by a group of coding sequences (CDSs) expressed by 1 h postinfection that are localized to a subregion of the genome. The CDS of the primary group have no database homologues, and each is associated with a unique promoter element. The remainder of the CDSs are expressed in a secondary phase between 2 and 4 hours postinfection. Compartmentalized transcription of the two distinctive phases is discussed. We hypothesize that immediately after infection the nucleic acid of the virus targets the host nucleus, where primary-phase genes are transcribed by host RNA polymerase which recognizes the viral promoter. Secondary-phase transcription may then be conducted in the cytoplasm. PMID:16840348

Allen, Michael J.; Forster, Thorsten; Schroeder, Declan C.; Hall, Matthew; Roy, Douglas; Ghazal, Peter; Wilson, William H.

2006-01-01

231

Relationships between A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection and infections with other respiratory viruses  

PubMed Central

Background A(H1N1)pdm09, a new influenza pandemic virus emerged in 2009. The A(H1N1)pdm09 infection had several unique characteristics which included rapid transmissibility and high morbidity in obese individuals, pregnant women and individuals suffering from chronic diseases. Objectives To study the relationships between A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection and infections with other respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumo virus (hMPV), adenovirus and seasonal influenza. Methods Samples (nasopharyngeal swabs or aspirates) collected between 2007 until 2012 from patients of various ages that were hospitalized due to respiratory virus infections were analyzed for the presence of various respiratory viruses, using qRT-PCR. Results In 2009–2010, when the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 first appeared, two major infection peaks were noted and individuals of various ages were infected. Following the decline of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, the percentages of patients infected with adenovirus and hMPV increased, while infection frequency with RSV B and with seasonal influenza virus decreased. Furthermore, RSV infections were delayed and very few percentages of patients were co-infected with more than one virus. Interestingly, the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus lost its dominancy when it reappeared in the winter of 2010–2011, and at this time, only the incidence of RSV infections was affected by the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Conclusions The A(H1N1)pdm09 virus had distinct effects on other respiratory viruses when it first appeared versus later, when it evolved from being a pandemic to a seasonal virus. PMID:24698156

Meningher, Tal; Hindiyeh, Musa; Regev, Liora; Sherbany, Hilda; Mendelson, Ella; Mandelboim, Michal

2014-01-01

232

Innate immune responses in raccoons after raccoon rabies virus infection.  

PubMed

Zoonotic wildlife diseases pose significant health risks not only to their primary vectors but also to humans and domestic animals. Rabies is a lethal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RV). This RNA virus can infect a range of terrestrial mammals but each viral variant persists in a particular reservoir host. Active management of these host vectors is needed to minimize the negative impacts of this disease, and an understanding of the immune response to RV infection aids strategies for host vaccination. Current knowledge of immune responses to RV infection comes primarily from rodent models in which an innate immune response triggers activation of several genes and signalling pathways. It is unclear, however, how well rodent models represent the immune response of natural hosts. This study investigates the innate immune response of a primary host, the raccoon, to a peripheral challenge using the raccoon rabies virus (RRV). The extent and temporal course of this response during RRV infection was analysed using genes predicted to be upregulated during infection (IFNs; IFN regulatory factors; IL-6; Toll like receptor-3; TNF receptor). We found that RRV activated components of the innate immune system, with changes in levels of transcripts correlated with presence of viral RNA. Our results suggest that natural reservoirs of rabies may not mimic the immune response triggered in rodent models, highlighting the need for further studies of infection in primary hosts. PMID:24085257

Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Sribalachandran, Hariharan; Rosatte, Rick; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Kyle, Christopher J

2014-01-01

233

Induction of apoptosis in frog virus 3-infected cells.  

PubMed

The ability of frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species of the family Iridoviridae, to induce apoptosis was examined by monitoring DNA cleavage, chromatin condensation, and cell-surface expression of phosphotidylserine (PS) in fathead minnow (FHM) and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. In productively infected FHM cells, DNA fragmentation was first noted at 6-7 h postinfection and was clearly seen by 17 h postinfection, while chromatin condensation was detected at 8.5 h postinfection. As with some other viruses, FV3-induced apoptosis did not require de novo viral gene expression as both heat-inactivated and UV-inactivated virus readily triggered DNA fragmentation in FHM cells. Moreover, FV3-induced apoptosis was blocked in FHM cells by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that virus infection triggers programmed cell death through activation of the caspase cascade. FV3 infection also triggered apoptosis in BHK cells as monitored by TUNEL and annexin V binding assays. To determine whether FV3, similar to other large DNA viruses, encoded proteins that block or delay apoptosis, mock- and FV3-infected FHM cells were osmotically shocked and assayed for DNA fragmentation 3 hours later. DNA fragmentation was clearly seen whether or not shocked cells were previously infected with FV3, indicating that infection with FV3 did not block apoptosis induced by osmotic shock in FHM cells. The above results demonstrate that iridoviruses triggered apoptosis and that the induction of programmed cell death did not require viral gene expression. However, it remains to be determined if virion attachment to target cells is sufficient to induce cell death, or if apoptosis is triggered directly or indirectly by one or more virion-associated proteins. PMID:12642103

Chinchar, V G; Bryan, Locke; Wang, J; Long, Scott; Chinchar, G D

2003-02-15

234

Ectromelia Virus Inhibitor of Complement Enzymes Protects Intracellular Mature Virus and Infected Cells from Mouse Complement?  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses produce complement regulatory proteins to subvert the host's immune response. Similar to the human pathogen variola virus, ectromelia virus has a limited host range and provides a mouse model where the virus and the host's immune response have coevolved. We previously demonstrated that multiple components (C3, C4, and factor B) of the classical and alternative pathways are required to survive ectromelia virus infection. Complement's role in the innate and adaptive immune responses likely drove the evolution of a virus-encoded virulence factor that regulates complement activation. In this study, we characterized the ectromelia virus inhibitor of complement enzymes (EMICE). Recombinant EMICE regulated complement activation on the surface of CHO cells, and it protected complement-sensitive intracellular mature virions (IMV) from neutralization in vitro. It accomplished this by serving as a cofactor for the inactivation of C3b and C4b and by dissociating the catalytic domain of the classical pathway C3 convertase. Infected murine cells initiated synthesis of EMICE within 4 to 6 h postinoculation. The levels were sufficient in the supernatant to protect the IMV, upon release, from complement-mediated neutralization. EMICE on the surface of infected murine cells also reduced complement activation by the alternative pathway. In contrast, classical pathway activation by high-titer antibody overwhelmed EMICE's regulatory capacity. These results suggest that EMICE's role is early during infection when it counteracts the innate immune response. In summary, ectromelia virus produced EMICE within a few hours of an infection, and EMICE in turn decreased complement activation on IMV and infected cells. PMID:20610727

Moulton, Elizabeth A.; Bertram, Paula; Chen, Nanhai; Buller, R. Mark L.; Atkinson, John P.

2010-01-01

235

Discovery of mammalian genes that participate in virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely upon the host cell for different steps in their life cycles. The characterization of cellular genes required for virus infection and/or cell killing will be essential for understanding viral life cycles, and may provide cellular targets for new antiviral therapies. Results Candidate genes required for lytic reovirus infection were identified by tagged sequence mutagenesis, a process that permits rapid identification of genes disrupted by gene entrapment. One hundred fifty-one reovirus resistant clones were selected from cell libraries containing 2 × 105 independently disrupted genes, of which 111 contained mutations in previously characterized genes and functionally anonymous transcription units. Collectively, the genes associated with reovirus resistance differed from genes targeted by random gene entrapment in that known mutational hot spots were under represented, and a number of mutations appeared to cluster around specific cellular processes, including: IGF-II expression/signalling, vesicular transport/cytoskeletal trafficking and apoptosis. Notably, several of the genes have been directly implicated in the replication of reovirus and other viruses at different steps in the viral lifecycle. Conclusions Tagged sequence mutagenesis provides a rapid, genome-wide strategy to identify candidate cellular genes required for virus infection. The candidate genes provide a starting point for mechanistic studies of cellular processes that participate in the virus lifecycle and may provide targets for novel anti-viral therapies. PMID:15522117

Organ, Edward L; Sheng, Jinsong; Ruley, H Earl; Rubin, Donald H

2004-01-01

236

Role of Regulatory T Cells during Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Summary The host response to viruses includes multiple cell types that have regulatory function. Most information focuses on CD4+ regulatory T cells that express the transcription factor Foxp3+ (Tregs), which are the topic of this review. We explain how viruses through specific and non-specific means can trigger the response of thymus-derived natural Tregs as well as induce Tregs. The latter derive under appropriate stimulation conditions either from uncommitted precursors or from differentiated cells that convert to become Tregs. We describe instances where Tregs appear to limit the efficacy of antiviral protective immunity and other perhaps more common immune-mediated inflammatory conditions, where the Tregs function to limit the extent of tissue damage that occurs during a virus infection. We discuss the controversial roles that Tregs may play in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus infections. The issue of plasticity is discussed, since this may result in Tregs losing their protective function when present in inflammatory environments. Finally, we mention approaches used to manipulate Treg numbers and function and assess their current value and likely future success to manage the outcome of virus infection, especially those that are responsible for chronic tissue damage. PMID:23947355

Veiga-Parga, Tamara; Sehrawat, Sharvan; Rouse, Barry T.

2013-01-01

237

The role of cell proteins in dengue virus infection.  

PubMed

Despite 70years of study, dengue disease continues to be a global health burden. Treatment is only supportive based on presenting symptoms. To date, there is no licensed prophylactic vaccine and no specific antiviral drugs available. The pathogenesis mechanisms during dengue virus infections remain poorly understood, and the complete picture on risk factors for developing severe clinical illness is still unknown. Viruses as obligate intracellular parasites depend on the host cell machinery for replication. As a result of a co-evolution process for million years, viruses have developed sophisticated strategies to hijack and use cellular factors for entry, replication and propagation, alternate host transmission and to combat host cell defenses. This review focuses on recent reports about cellular proteins involved along the dengue virus replication cycle, in prime cellular targets during the infection of both humans and mosquito hosts and also on the proteomics and other approaches that are being used to reveal the entire orchestration and most significant processes altered during infection. Identification of the key host cell factors involve in these processes will provide a better understanding of how viruses replicate and cause disease, and how to develop more effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:24930603

Salazar, Ma Isabel; Del Angel, Rosa María; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Ludert, Juan E; Pando-Robles, Victoria

2014-12-01

238

Protective effect of fluvastatin on influenza virus infection.  

PubMed

Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors and have pleiotropic effects. It has been suggested that statins may be a potential treatment during the next influenza pandemic. In a previous study we found that a statin/caffeine combination protects BALB/c mice against Influenza A, subtypes haemagglutinin type 5 and neuraminidase type 1 (H5N1), H3N2 and H1N1 infection. The effect of statins alone on influenza virus infection, however, is not known. In this study, it was investigated whether fluvastatin is capable of inhibiting influenza A virus replication in vitro. The results demonstrated that the synthesis of viral RNA and protein was affected by fluvastatin treatment. Virus production was markedly reduced when fluvastatin was administered simultaneously with the virus; however, a greater inhibition was observed when fluvastatin was added following viral adsorption. The selectivity index [SI; 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50)/50% inhibition concentration (IC50)], however, was only 21. It was further demonstrated that fluvastatin protects host cells against influenza-induced inflammation by reducing the production of tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin 8 and interferon ?. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that fluvastatin exerted a minor inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection, which involved anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24676773

Peng, Jing; Zhang, Dingmei; Ma, Yu; Wang, Guoling; Guo, Zhongmin; Lu, Jiahai

2014-06-01

239

Is the Gut the Major Source of Virus in Early Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection? ?  

PubMed Central

The acute phases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection are characterized by rapid and profound depletion of CD4+ T cells from the guts of infected individuals. The large number of CD4+ T cells in the gut (a large fraction of which are activated and express the HIV/SIV coreceptor CCR5), the high level of infection of these cells, and the temporal coincidence of this CD4+ T-cell depletion with the peak of virus in plasma in acute infection suggest that the intestinal mucosa may be the major source of virus driving the peak viral load. Here, we used data on CD4+ T-cell proportions in the lamina propria of the rectums of SIV-infected rhesus macaques (which progress to AIDS) and sooty mangabeys (which do not progress) to show that in both species, the depletion of CD4+ T cells from this mucosal site and its maximum loss rate are often observed several days before the peak in viral load, with few CD4+ T cells remaining in the rectum by the time of peak viral load. In contrast, the maximum loss rate of CD4+ T cells from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens and lymph nodes coincides with the peak in virus. Analysis of the kinetics of depletion suggests that, in both rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, CD4+ T cells in the intestinal mucosa are a highly susceptible population for infection but not a major source of plasma virus in acute SIV infection. PMID:19458001

Lay, Matthew D. H.; Petravic, Janka; Gordon, Shari N.; Engram, Jessica; Silvestri, Guido; Davenport, Miles P.

2009-01-01

240

Spatial Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cougars  

PubMed Central

The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations. PMID:21197421

Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Biek, Roman

2010-01-01

241

Spatial analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cougars.  

PubMed

The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations. PMID:21197421

Wheeler, David C; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

2010-07-01

242

Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.  

PubMed

Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3) were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed. PMID:24023659

Hoffmann, Markus; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Drexler, Jan Felix; Glende, Jörg; Erdt, Meike; Gützkow, Tim; Losemann, Christoph; Binger, Tabea; Deng, Hongkui; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Drosten, Christian; Herrler, Georg

2013-01-01

243

Differential Sensitivity of Bat Cells to Infection by Enveloped RNA Viruses: Coronaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Filoviruses, and Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3) were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed. PMID:24023659

Hoffmann, Markus; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Drexler, Jan Felix; Glende, Jörg; Erdt, Meike; Gützkow, Tim; Losemann, Christoph; Binger, Tabea; Deng, Hongkui; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Drosten, Christian; Herrler, Georg

2013-01-01

244

Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest

Guiming Wang; Richard B Minnis; Jerrold L Belant; Charles L Wax

2010-01-01

245

Hsp70 Protein Positively Regulates Rabies Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The Hsp70 chaperone plays a central role in multiple processes within cells, including protein translation, folding, intracellular trafficking, and degradation. This protein is implicated in the replication of numerous viruses. We have shown that rabies virus infection induced the cellular expression of Hsp70, which accumulated in Negri body-like structures, where viral transcription and replication take place. In addition, Hsp70 is present in both nucleocapsids purified from infected cells and in purified virions. Hsp70 has been shown to interact with the nucleoprotein N. The downregulation of Hsp70, using specific chaperone inhibitors, such as quercetin or RNA interference, resulted in a significant decrease of the amount of viral mRNAs, viral proteins, and virus particles. These results indicate that Hsp70 has a proviral function during rabies virus infection and suggest that Hsp70 is involved in at least one stage(s) of the viral life cycle, such as viral transcription, translation, and/or production. The mechanism by which Hsp70 controls viral infection will be discussed. PMID:22345440

Lahaye, Xavier; Vidy, Aurore; Fouquet, Baptiste

2012-01-01

246

WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN REINDEER (RANGIFER TARANDUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family (genus Flavivirus) transmitted among bird populations by mosquitoes and incidentally infecting mammals. First recognized in the United States in 1999, WNV has spread across the United States in subsequent years. Numerous cas...

247

Cerebellum progesterone concentration decreased in canine distemper virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progesterone has neuroprotective effects including augmentation of myelination in the central and peripheral nervous system. This study was designed to determine if demyelinating lesions in the cerebellum resulting from canine distemper virus (CDV) infection are associated with progesterone levels. Progesterone was measured using radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebellum, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata, parietal, frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices as

Gul Fatma Yarim; Siyami Karahan; Murat Yarim

2007-01-01

248

Outbreak of West Nile virus infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999.  

PubMed Central

From July 25 to October 1, 1999, 826 patients were admitted to Volgograd Region, Russia, hospitals with acute aseptic meningoencephalitis, meningitis, or fever consistent with arboviral infection. Of 84 cases of meningoencephalitis, 40 were fatal. Fourteen brain specimens were positive in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, confirming the presence of West Nile/Kunjin virus. PMID:11266303

Platonov, A. E.; Shipulin, G. A.; Shipulina, O. Y.; Tyutyunnik, E. N.; Frolochkina, T. I.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Yazyshina, S.; Platonova, O. V.; Obukhov, I. L.; Zhukov, A. N.; Vengerov, Y. Y.; Pokrovskii, V. I.

2001-01-01

249

Clinorotation effects on virus infected wheat leaf tissue electric conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our results on the electric conductivity of Apogee wheat leaf tissue infected with wheat streak mosaic virus and grown under simulated microgravity conditions. It is shown that the electric conductivity measurements may be effective in the detection of physiologic changes in plants caused by the impact of abiotic and biotic agents.

Mishchenko, L. T.; Torop, V. V.; Mishchenko, I. A.

250

Severe tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis has now been well documented as a complication of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but no studies concern patients requiring admission to the ICU. We report 12 cases of severe disseminated tuberculosis in patients who were seropositive for HIV. Eight patients had diffuse pulmonary involvement responsible for acute respiratory failure, 7 of whom required mechanical ventilation. Four developed

B. Gachot; M. Wolff; B. Clair; B. Régnier

1990-01-01

251

The Variegate Neurological Manifestations of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), after which the virus becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. With advancing age or immunosuppression, cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines, and the virus reactivates to cause zoster (shingles), dermatomal distribution, pain, and rash. Zoster is often followed by chronic pain (postherpetic neuralgia), cranial nerve palsies, zoster paresis, vasculopathy, meningoencephalitis, and multiple ocular disorders. This review covers clinical, laboratory, and pathological features of neurological complications of VZV reactivation, including diagnostic testing to verify active VZV infection in the nervous system. Additional perspectives are provided by discussions of VZV latency, animal models to study varicella pathogenesis and immunity, and of the value of vaccination of elderly individuals to boost cell-mediated immunity to VZV and prevent VZV reactivation. PMID:23884722

Nagel, Maria A.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Mahalingam, Ravi

2014-01-01

252

Association of inconclusive sera for human immunodeficiency virus infection with malaria and Epstein-Barr virus infection in Central Africa.  

PubMed

Among 464 sera from adults in Cameroon, 56 (12.1%) gave inconclusive HIV serology. All were negative for HIV-1 DNA; 44.6% (n = 25) were significantly associated with Plasmodium (42.8%) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (17.8%) infections. In Central Africa, sera giving inconclusive results for HIV are frequently associated with malaria, EBV infection, or both. PMID:24478507

Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Talla, Frédéric; Péré, Hélène; Kebe, Khady; Matta, Mathieu; Sosso, Maurice Aurelien; Bélec, Laurent

2014-02-01

253

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Ear (Otitis Externa) Syphilis Tetanus Tonsillitis Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic Synovitis Tuberculosis Urinary Tract Infections Vaginal Yeast Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) ...

254

The diversity of viruses infecting humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most human viruses have been discovered through the diseases they cause in animals, plants, bacteria or fungi. Recent finds include human bocaviruses, which now seem to have a global distribution, and cause respiratory tract disease in infants, and several new pathogenic human coronaviruses. The SARS coronavirus, genetically distinct from all previously known coronaviruses, caused a disease which was highly transmissible

Brian W. J. Mahy

2006-01-01

255

Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, André T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Júnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zélia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

2010-01-01

256

Agrobacterium-mediated infectivity of cloned digitaria streak virus DNA.  

PubMed

A monomeric clone of double-stranded DNA synthesized in vitro DNA of the geminivirus Digitaria streak (DSV) was subcloned as a tandem dimeric unit into a binary vector of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, creating a plasmid pDS2. Inoculation of digitaria sanguinalis with A. tumefaciens carrying pDS2 resulted in viral infection. The symptoms, virus particles, and DNA forms obtained were indistinguishable from those of a natural DSV infection of D. sanguinalis. Inoculations have also induced infections in Zea mays and Avena sativa. The sequence of the Agrobacterium-mediated infectious clone of DSV has been determined. PMID:3341112

Donson, J; Gunn, H V; Woolston, C J; Pinner, M S; Boulton, M I; Mullineaux, P M; Davies, J W

1988-01-01

257

Clinical Features of Adult Patients with Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection Progressing to Chronic Infection  

PubMed Central

Background. Information regarding the progression of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to chronic infection in adults is scarce. Methods. Twenty-five adult patients with acute HBV infection (14 men and 11 women, 18–84 years old), whose clinical features progressed to those of chronic infection (group A) or did not (group B), were studied retrospectively. Results. There were 3 and 22 patients in groups A and B, respectively. Two of the 3 patients of group A lacked the typical symptoms of acute hepatitis. No differences were found between groups with respect to age, sex, or HBV genotypes. However, total bilirubin and alanine aminotransaminase levels were significantly lower in group A. Conclusions. Three of the 25 adult patients with acute HBV infection progressed to chronic infection. Hepatitis was mild in these patients. Patients with mild acute hepatitis B or unapparent HBV infection may have a higher risk of progressing to chronic infection. PMID:25349743

Michitaka, Kojiro; Hiraoka, Atsushi; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Ninomiya, Keiko; Ninomiya, Tomoyuki; Horiike, Norio

2014-01-01

258

Antiviral Activity of HPMPC (Cidofovir) Against ORF Virus Infected Lambs  

PubMed Central

(S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine (HPMPC, cidofovir, CDV, Vistide®) is an acyclic nucleoside analogue with a potent and selective activity against a broad spectrum of DNA viruses including the poxviruses. In this study we present the results of different treatment regimens in lambs experimentally infected with orf virus with different cidofovir formulations prepared in Beeler basis and Unguentum M. Our results show that choice of excipient, concentration of cidofovir and treatment regimen were all important to the clinical outcome of the therapy. Whilst one particular regimen appeared to exacerbate the lesion, treatment with 1% w/v cidofovir cream, prepared in Beeler Basis, for 4 consecutive days did result in milder lesions that resolved more quickly than untreated lesions. Furthermore the scabs of the treated animals contained significantly lower amounts of viable virus meaning there should be less contamination of the environment with virus than would normally occur. PMID:17049627

Scagliarini, A.; McInnes, C.J.; Gallina, L.; Dal, Pozzo F.; Scagliarini, L.; Snoeck, R.; Prosperi, S.; Sales, J.; Gilray, J.A.; Nettleton, P.F.

2007-01-01

259

Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infection in Southern Brazil: clinical and epidemiological evaluation.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus share a similar transmission pathway and are often diagnosed in the same patient. These patients tend to have a faster progression of hepatic fibrosis. This cross-sectional study describes the demographic features and clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis co-infected patients in Paraná, Southern Brazil. A total of 93 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients attending a tertiary care academic hospital in Southern Brazil were included. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data were evaluated. Hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus positive serology was found in 6.6% of patients. The anti-hepatitis C virus serum test was positive in 85% (79/93) of patients, and the infection was confirmed in 72% of the cases. Eighteen patients (19%) were human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus positive (detectable HBsAg). Among co-infected patients, there was a high frequency of drug use, and investigations for the detection of co-infection were conducted late. A low number of patients were eligible for treatment and, although the response to antiretroviral therapy was good, there was a very poor response to hepatitis therapy. Our preliminary findings indicate the need for protocols aimed at systematic investigation of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, thus allowing for early detection and treatment of co-infected patients. PMID:25019374

Raboni, Sonia Mara; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Beloto, Nayara Carvalho Polido; Demeneck, Henrique; Oliveira, Andre; Largura, Denis; Sagrado, Andressa Gervasoni; Lima, Bárbara Perdonsini; Franzoni, João Paulo; Pedroso, Maria Lucia

2014-01-01

260

In vivo imaging of cidofovir treatment of cowpox virus infection.  

PubMed

Variola virus and other members of the genus Orthopoxviruses constitute a prominent bioterrorism and public health threat. Treatment with the anti-viral drug cidofovir inhibits replication of orthopoxviruses in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we visualized the effect of cidofovir on viral kinetics in orthopoxvirus infected mice by using whole-body fluorescence imaging (FI). We engineered a cowpox virus (CPV) expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). Single-step growth curves and calculated 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of wild-type CPX (Wt-CPV) and GFP-expressing CPX (GFP-CPV) were comparable. Whole-body FI first detected GFP fluorescence in the mesenteric tissue of untreated animals on post-infection day (PID) 1. On PID 3 GFP signal was detected throughout the mesentery, in all abdominal organs by PID 5 and in most major organs, except for the heart and brain by PID 6. Infected animals treated with 25mg/kg of cidofovir also began showing signs of viral replication on PID 1, however, the fluorescent signal was limited only to discrete foci throughout the course of the infection. This work describes the first use of an established Orthopox model of infection to evaluate drug efficacy and track virus progression on a macroscopic level. PMID:17524511

Goff, Arthur; Twenhafel, Nancy; Garrison, Aura; Mucker, Eric; Lawler, James; Paragas, Jason

2007-09-01

261

Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces autophagy in MDBK cells.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae). The signaling pathways and levels of signaling molecules are altered in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BVDV. Autophagy is a conservative biological degradation pathway that mainly eliminates and degrades damaged or superfluous organelles and macromolecular complexes for intracellular recycling in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy can also be induced as an effective response to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to different stresses, such as nutrient or growth factor deprivation, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species exposure and pathogen infection. However, the effects of BVDV infection on autophagy in MDBK cells remain unclear. Therefore, we performed an analysis of autophagic activity after BVDV NADL infection using real-time PCR, electron microscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and Western blotting analysis. The results demonstrated that BVDV NADL infection increased autophagic activity and significantly elevated the expression levels of the autophagy-related genes Beclin1 and ATG14 in MDBK cells. However, the knockdown of Beclin1 and ATG14 by RNA interference (RNAi) did not affect BVDV NADL infection-related autophagic activity. These findings provided a novel perspective to elaborate the effects of viral infection on the host cells. PMID:24972811

Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Ren, Yan; Guo, Fei; Ni, Wei; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Pengyan; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuangfu

2014-07-01

262

Endemic Lagos bat virus infection in Eidolon helvum.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses suggest lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus, originated from bats. However, the role of bats in the maintenance, transmission and evolution of lyssaviruses is poorly understood. A number of genetically diverse lyssaviruses are present in Africa, including Lagos bat virus (LBV). A high seroprevalence of antibodies against LBV was detected in Eidolon helvum bats. Longitudinal seroprevalence and age-specific seroprevalence data were analysed and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis used to follow 98 bats over 18 months. These data demonstrate endemic infection, with evidence of horizontal transmission, and force of infection was estimated for differing age categories. The CMR analysis found survival probabilities of seronegative and seropositive bats were not significantly different. The lack of increased mortality in seropositive animals suggests infection is not causing disease after extended incubation. These key findings point towards acute transmission of bat lyssaviruses in adapted bat hosts that occurs at a far higher rate than the occurrence of disease. PMID:22370126

Hayman, D T S; Fooks, A R; Rowcliffe, J M; McCrea, R; Restif, O; Baker, K S; Horton, D L; Suu-Ire, R; Cunningham, A A; Wood, J L N

2012-12-01

263

The Innate Immune Playbook for Restricting West Nile Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes annual epidemics of encephalitic disease throughout the world. Despite the ongoing risk to public health, no approved vaccines or therapies exist for use in humans to prevent or combat WNV infection. The innate immune response is critical for controlling WNV replication, limiting virus-induced pathology, and programming protective humoral and cell-mediated immunity to WNV infection. The RIG-I like receptors, Toll-like receptors, and Nod-like receptors detect and respond to WNV by inducing a potent antiviral defense program, characterized by production of type I IFN, IL-1? and expression of antiviral effector genes. Recent research efforts have focused on uncovering the mechanisms of innate immune sensing, antiviral effector genes that inhibit WNV, and countermeasures employed by WNV to antagonize innate immune cellular defenses. In this review, we highlight the major research findings pertaining to innate immune regulation of WNV infection. PMID:24178712

Quicke, Kendra M.; Suthar, Mehul S.

2013-01-01

264

CD81 and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a global public health problem affecting over 160 million individuals worldwide. Its symptoms include chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is an enveloped RNA virus mainly targeting liver cells and for which the initiation of infection occurs through a complex multistep process involving a series of specific cellular entry factors. This process is likely mediated through the formation of a tightly orchestrated complex of HCV entry factors at the plasma membrane. Among HCV entry factors, the tetraspanin CD81 is one of the best characterized and it is undoubtedly a key player in the HCV lifecycle. In this review, we detail the current knowledge on the involvement of CD81 in the HCV lifecycle, as well as in the immune response to HCV infection. PMID:24509809

Fénéant, Lucie; Levy, Shoshana; Cocquerel, Laurence

2014-01-01

265

Rna syntheses in BHK21 cells infected by rabies virus.  

PubMed

In BHK21 cells infected by rabies virus, viral RNA syntheses are detectable from the first 4 hours till at least 20h after the adsorption period. Cellular RNA syntheses are not inhibited by the virus. The viral RNA syntheses are 10 times lower than syntheses induced in infected cells by VSV. They are also slower since the maximum is between 8 and 12h after infection. At least 3 categories of molecules are synthesized: 1) short (+) molecules sedimenting between 8 and 25 S, and possibly at 30 S; 2) partially or totally double-stranded structures sedimenting between 25 and 35 S; 3) (+) and (--) molecules of the genome length. The relative amount of these 3 categories of molecules does not seem to vary during the viral cycle. PMID:911111

Ermine, A; Flamand, A

1977-01-01

266

Risk factors for hepatitis E virus infection and disease.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E, caused by hepatitis E virus, is a disease of global significance, causing 20 million infections each year. Genotypes 1 and 2 have vastly different epidemiological patterns from genotypes 3 and 4. In genotype 1 and 2 endemic areas, most infections and illness occur in persons 15-30 years of age, with pregnant women being the most likely to experience severe disease. In genotype 3 and 4 endemic areas, most infections and illness occur in those of age 40-60 years, with males representing a large portion of those with severe disease. However, the lack of an easily accessible serologic assay in many countries continues to be a barrier to the diagnosis and recognition of hepatitis E virus. PMID:25399510

Kmush, Brittany L; Nelson, Kenrad E; Labrique, Alain B

2015-01-01

267

Liver transplantation in cirrhosis due to hepatitis D virus infection.  

PubMed

In a series of 49 patients transplanted for cirrhosis due to hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection and receiving anti-HBs immunoglobulins, the 2-year actuarial rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection was only 13%, a prevalence much lower than the 29% rate in patients transplanted for HBV-DNA-negative cirrhosis and the 96% rate in patients transplanted for HBV-DNA-positive cirrhosis. HBV reinfection after transplantation in patients with cirrhosis due to HDV infection was invariably associated with HDV reinfection. In a few patients, in the absence of HBV reinfection, transient replication of HDV took place and was not associated with liver lesions of hepatitis. In conclusion, patients with cirrhosis due to HDV infection are good candidates for liver transplantation. PMID:8509633

Samuel, D; Bismuth, H; Benhamou, J P

1993-01-01

268

Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.  

PubMed

There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

2013-10-01

269

Cutaneous manifestations of opportunistic infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed Central

Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) presents most commonly as a cutaneous disease and is caused by two organisms. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae and Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana. Biopsy confirmation of cutaneous BA is essential because lesions can mimic nodular Kaposi's sarcoma in appearance. Although the vast majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with BA have CD4 lymphocyte counts of less than 100 cells per mm3, the disease responds well to antimicrobial therapy. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial skin pathogen affecting HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of skin disease due to S. aureus may be explained by high nasal carriage rates for the organism ( > or = 50%) and altered immune function in conjunction with an impaired cutaneous barrier. Herpes simplex virus causes mucocutaneous disease early in the course HIV infection and ulcerative lesions at any site in advanced HIV infection. Herpes zoster is common early in the course of HIV infection; recurrent and disseminated herpes zoster infections are characteristic of patients with advanced HIV disease. Acyclovir resistance is usually seen in patients with large, untreated, ulcerative lesions of herpes simplex virus and in patients with chronic, verrucous lesions of varicella-zoster virus. Cutaneous cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidiomycosis are markers of disseminated disease and require biopsy confirmation. Scabies is easily diagnosed but may be atypical in presentation and difficult to eradicate in advanced HIV disease. PMID:7553576

Tappero, J W; Perkins, B A; Wenger, J D; Berger, T G

1995-01-01

270

A Cellular Model to Explain the Pathogenesis of Infection by the Hepatitis B Virus  

E-print Network

A Cellular Model to Explain the Pathogenesis of Infection by the Hepatitis B Virus ROBERT J. H; revised 10 November 1993 ABSTRACT The natural history of infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) depends transient infection to subclinical chronic hepatitis. Persistent infection often leads to the development

Nowak, Martin A.

271

Antiviral activity of ginseng extract against respiratory syncytial virus infection  

PubMed Central

Panax ginseng has been known to have a number of immuno-modulatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether Panax Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) has in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. KRGE improved the survival of human lung epithelial cells against RSV infection and inhibited RSV replication. In addition, KRGE treatment suppressed the expression of RSV-induced inflammatory cytokine genes (IL-6 and IL-8) and the formation of reactive oxygen species in epithelial cell cultures. Oral administration of mice with KRGE resulted in lowering lung viral loads after RSV infection. Additionally, the in vivo effects of KRGE showed an enhanced level of interferon-? (IFN-?) producing dendritic cells subsequent to RSV infection. Taken together, these results suggested that KRGE has antiviral activity against RSV infection. PMID:24756136

LEE, JONG SEOK; KO, EUN-JU; HWANG, HYE SUK; LEE, YU-NA; KWON, YOUNG-MAN; KIM, MIN-CHUL; KANG, SANG-MOO

2014-01-01

272

Antiviral activity of ginseng extract against respiratory syncytial virus infection.  

PubMed

Panax ginseng has been known to have a number of immuno-modulatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether Panax Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) has in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. KRGE improved the survival of human lung epithelial cells against RSV infection and inhibited RSV replication. In addition, KRGE treatment suppressed the expression of RSV-induced inflammatory cytokine genes (IL-6 and IL-8) and the formation of reactive oxygen species in epithelial cell cultures. Oral administration of mice with KRGE resulted in lowering lung viral loads after RSV infection. Additionally, the in vivo effects of KRGE showed an enhanced level of interferon-? (IFN-?) producing dendritic cells subsequent to RSV infection. Taken together, these results suggested that KRGE has antiviral activity against RSV infection. PMID:24756136

Lee, Jong Seok; Ko, Eun-Ju; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Yu-Na; Kwon, Young-Man; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo

2014-07-01

273

Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years. PMID:25516637

Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

2014-01-01

274

Dynamics of influenza A virus infections in permanently infected pig farms: evidence of recurrent infections, circulation of several swine influenza viruses and reassortment events  

PubMed Central

Concomitant infections by different influenza A virus subtypes within pig farms increase the risk of new reassortant virus emergence. The aims of this study were to characterize the epidemiology of recurrent swine influenza virus infections and identify their main determinants. A follow-up study was carried out in 3 selected farms known to be affected by repeated influenza infections. Three batches of pigs were followed within each farm from birth to slaughter through a representative sample of 40 piglets per batch. Piglets were monitored individually on a monthly basis for serology and clinical parameters. When a flu outbreak occurred, daily virological and clinical investigations were carried out for two weeks. Influenza outbreaks, confirmed by influenza A virus detection, were reported at least once in each batch. These outbreaks occurred at a constant age within farms and were correlated with an increased frequency of sneezing and coughing fits. H1N1 and H1N2 viruses from European enzootic subtypes and reassortants between viruses from these lineages were consecutively and sometimes simultaneously identified depending on the batch, suggesting virus co-circulations at the farm, batch and sometimes individual levels. The estimated reproduction ratio R of influenza outbreaks ranged between 2.5 [1.9-2.9] and 6.9 [4.1-10.5] according to the age at infection-time and serological status of infected piglets. Duration of shedding was influenced by the age at infection time, the serological status of the dam and mingling practices. An impaired humoral response was identified in piglets infected at a time when they still presented maternally-derived antibodies. PMID:24007505

2013-01-01

275

Revised MT-2006-115 Inhibition of hepatitis C virus infection in cell culture by small interfering RNAs  

E-print Network

Revised MT-2006-115 Inhibition of hepatitis C virus infection in cell culture by small interfering@pasteur.fr Short title: Silencing of hepatitis C virus infection * Manuscript #12;2 ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment of chronic HCV infections. #12;3 INTRODUCTION Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Transcription and temporal cascade in Chilo iridescent virus infected cells.  

PubMed

Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) is the type species for genus Iridovirus, and belongs to the family Iridoviridae. Members of this family are large, isometric, cytoplasmic DNA viruses. Our laboratory has established that CIV replicates productively in the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. Given the economic importance of this host and the dearth of knowledge on this virus, we have initiated host-virus interaction and molecular studies on CIV. This report focuses on regulation of transcription in CIV infections. We carried out northern analyses on total cellular RNA from infections of IPRI-CF-124T cells, using a complete genomic library of CIV and several putative gene-specific probes. Our data show a temporal cascade based on analysis of 137 detectable transcripts comprising 38 immediate-early (IE), 34 delayed-early (DE), and 65 late (L) transcripts. Analysis with gene-specific probes supported the cascade pattern. Both helicase and RNA polymerase were immediate-early; major capsid protein was late. The CIV gene expression cascade appears to operate primarily at the transcriptional level. Temporal classes observed are consistent with earlier studies at the polypeptide level and with transcriptional patterns in frog virus 3, genus Ranavirus in the Iridoviridae. Our results provide an important basis for understanding mechanisms driving the CIV temporal cascade. PMID:11765918

D'Costa, S M; Yao, H; Bilimoria, S L

2001-01-01

277

High doses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chicken meat are required to infect ferrets  

PubMed Central

High pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused fatal infections in mammals through consumption of infected bird carcasses or meat, but scarce information exists on the dose of virus required and the diversity of HPAIV subtypes involved. Ferrets were exposed to different HPAIV (H5 and H7 subtypes) through consumption of infected chicken meat. The dose of virus needed to infect ferrets through consumption was much higher than via respiratory exposure and varied with the virus strain. In addition, H5N1 HPAIV produced higher titers in the meat of infected chickens and more easily infected ferrets than the H7N3 or H7N7 HPAIV. PMID:24894438

2014-01-01

278

High doses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chicken meat are required to infect ferrets.  

PubMed

High pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused fatal infections in mammals through consumption of infected bird carcasses or meat, but scarce information exists on the dose of virus required and the diversity of HPAIV subtypes involved. Ferrets were exposed to different HPAIV (H5 and H7 subtypes) through consumption of infected chicken meat. The dose of virus needed to infect ferrets through consumption was much higher than via respiratory exposure and varied with the virus strain. In addition, H5N1 HPAIV produced higher titers in the meat of infected chickens and more easily infected ferrets than the H7N3 or H7N7 HPAIV. PMID:24894438

Bertran, Kateri; Swayne, David E

2014-01-01

279

The distribution of challenge virus standard rabies virus versus skunk street rabies virus in the brains of experimentally infected rabid skunks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal that the bizarre behavioral changes which occur during rabies infection are due to selective infection of limbic system neurons was further studied in skunks (a species important in naturally occurring disease). A detailed immunohistochemical study of brains of skunks experimentally infected with either Challenge virus standard (CVS) or street rabies virus revealed only trace amounts of viral antigen

N. L. Smart; K. M. Charlton

1992-01-01

280

Naturally Occurring Animal Models of Human Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E caused by HEV is a clinically important global disease. There are currently four well-characterized genotypes of HEV in mammalian species, although numerous novel strains of HEV likely belonging to either new genotypes or species have recently been identified from several other animal species. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are limited to infection in humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 infect an expanding host range of animal species and are zoonotic to humans. Historical animal models include various species of nonhuman primates, which have been indispensable for the discovery of human HEV and for understanding its pathogenesis and course of infection. With the genetic identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV, a number of naturally occurring animal models such as swine, chicken, and rabbit have recently been developed for various aspects of HEV research, including vaccine trials, pathogenicity, cross-species infection, mechanism of virus replication, and molecular biology studies. Unfortunately, the current available animal models for HEV are still inadequate for certain aspects of HEV research. For instance, an animal model is still lacking to study the underlying mechanism of severe and fulminant hepatitis E during pregnancy. Also, an animal model that can mimic chronic HEV infection is critically needed to study the mechanism leading to chronicity in immunocompromised individuals. Genetic identification of additional novel animal strains of HEV may lead to the development of better naturally occurring animal models for HEV. This article reviews the current understanding of animal models of HEV infection in both natural and experimental infection settings and identifies key research needs and limitations. PMID:24936039

Yugo, Danielle M.; Cossaboom, Caitlin M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2014-01-01

281

Serological evidence of Ebola virus infection in Indonesian orangutans.  

PubMed

Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) belong to the family Filoviridae and cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of EBOV (Reston virus) in nonhuman primates and domestic pigs in the Philippines and the serological evidence for its infection of humans and fruit bats, information on the reservoirs and potential amplifying hosts for filoviruses in Asia is lacking. In this study, serum samples collected from 353 healthy Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Kalimantan Island, Indonesia, during the period from December 2005 to December 2006 were screened for filovirus-specific IgG antibodies using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant viral surface glycoprotein (GP) antigens derived from multiple species of filoviruses (5 EBOV and 1 MARV species). Here we show that 18.4% (65/353) and 1.7% (6/353) of the samples were seropositive for EBOV and MARV, respectively, with little cross-reactivity among EBOV and MARV antigens. In these positive samples, IgG antibodies to viral internal proteins were also detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, while the specificity for Reston virus, which has been recognized as an Asian filovirus, was the highest in only 1.4% (5/353) of the serum samples, the majority of EBOV-positive sera showed specificity to Zaire, Sudan, Cote d'Ivoire, or Bundibugyo viruses, all of which have been found so far only in Africa. These results suggest the existence of multiple species of filoviruses or unknown filovirus-related viruses in Indonesia, some of which are serologically similar to African EBOVs, and transmission of the viruses from yet unidentified reservoir hosts into the orangutan populations. Our findings point to the need for risk assessment and continued surveillance of filovirus infection of human and nonhuman primates, as well as wild and domestic animals, in Asia. PMID:22815803

Nidom, Chairul A; Nakayama, Eri; Nidom, Reviany V; Alamudi, Mohamad Y; Daulay, Syafril; Dharmayanti, Indi N L P; Dachlan, Yoes P; Amin, Mohamad; Igarashi, Manabu; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Yoshida, Reiko; Takada, Ayato

2012-01-01

282

Hepatitis C virus infection in Schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil.  

PubMed

The involvement of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the severity of liver disease in chronic schistosomiasis was investigated in 215 Brazilian patients with S. mansoni infections, but without evidence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Forty-three had hepatointestinal (HIS) and 172 had hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS), and 135 had compensated (HSSC), and 37 had decompensated (HSSD) liver disease. Fifty-two (24%) were found to have evidence of HCV infection (seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies and/or HCV-RNA). These comprised 35 (95%) of the 37 with HSSD, 16 (12%) of the 135 with HSSC, and 1 (2.4%) of the 43 with HIS, compared with only 1 (2%) of 50 control patients without S. mansoni. Testing of matched liver tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 25 patients (6 HSSC and 19 HSSD) with HCV infections showed that 17 (68%) had "active" viral infections, in that negative strand HCV-RNA (the presumed replicative intermediate of the virus) could be detected in liver and/or PBMCs. Among these 25, negative strand HCV-RNA was found in 16 (84%) of the 19 with chronic active hepatitis, but in only 1 (17%) of the 6 with mild or inactive disease (P < 0.01). HCV-RNA was detected in matched spleen specimens from 9 of 10 patients (all of whom were also positive in PBMCs), suggesting that the spleen is an important extrahepatic reservoir of the virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7545213

Pereira, L M; Melo, M C; Saleh, M G; Massarolo, P; Koskinas, J; Domingues, A L; Spinelli, V; Mies, S; Williams, R; McFarlane, I G

1995-04-01

283

Chayote mosaic virus, a New Tymovirus Infecting Cucurbitaceae.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Chayote mosaic virus (ChMV) is a putative tymovirus isolated from chayote crops in Costa Rica. ChMV was characterized at the host range, serological, and molecular levels. ChMV was transmitted mechanically and induced disease symptoms mainly in Cucurbitaceae hosts. Asymptomatic infections were detected in other host families. Serologically, ChMV is related to the Andean potato latent virus (APLV) and the Eggplant mosaic virus (EMV), both members of the genus Tymovirus infecting solanaceous hosts in the Caribbean Basin and South America. The sequence of the genomic RNA of ChMV was determined and its genetic organization was typical of tymoviruses. Comparisons with other tymoviral sequences showed that ChMV was a new member of the genus Tymovirus. The phylogenetic analyses of the coat protein gene were consistent with serological comparisons and positioned ChMV within a cluster of tymoviruses infecting mainly cucurbit or solanaceous hosts, including APLV and EMV. Phylogenetic analyses of the replicase protein gene confirmed the close relationship of ChMV and EMV. Our results suggest that ChMV is related to two tymoviruses (APLV and EMV) of proximal geographical provenance but with different natural host ranges. ChMV is the first cucurbit-infecting tymovirus to be fully characterized at the genomic level. PMID:18944472

Bernal, J J; Jiménez, I; Moreno, M; Hord, M; Rivera, C; Koenig, R; Rodríguez-Cerezo, E

2000-10-01

284

Predominant Infection of CD150+ Lymphocytes and Dendritic Cells during Measles Virus Infection of Macaques  

PubMed Central

Measles virus (MV) is hypothesized to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, followed by viremia mediated by infected monocytes. However, neither of these cell types express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (CD150), which has been identified as the receptor for wild-type MV. We have infected rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with a recombinant MV strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP); thus bringing together the optimal animal model for measles and a virus that can be detected with unprecedented sensitivity. Blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavages were collected every 3 d, and necropsies were performed upon euthanasia 9 or 15 d after infection. EGFP production by MV-infected cells was visualized macroscopically, in both living and sacrificed animals, and microscopically by confocal microscopy and FACS analysis. At the peak of viremia, EGFP fluorescence was detected in skin, respiratory and digestive tract, but most intensely in all lymphoid tissues. B- and T-lymphocytes expressing CD150 were the major target cells for MV infection. Highest percentages (up to 30%) of infected lymphocytes were detected in lymphoid tissues, and the virus preferentially targeted cells with a memory phenotype. Unexpectedly, circulating monocytes did not sustain productive MV infection. In peripheral tissues, large numbers of MV-infected CD11c+ MHC class-II+ myeloid dendritic cells were detected in conjunction with infected T-lymphocytes, suggesting transmission of MV between these cell types. Fluorescent imaging of MV infection in non-human primates demonstrated a crucial role for lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of measles and measles-associated immunosuppression. PMID:18020706

de Swart, Rik L; Yanagi, Yusuke; van Amerongen, Geert; McQuaid, Stephen; Yüksel, Selma; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H; Duprex, W. Paul; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E

2007-01-01

285

CD8+ T Cells Control Ross River Virus Infection in Musculoskeletal Tissues of Infected Mice.  

PubMed

Ross River virus (RRV), chikungunya virus, and related alphaviruses cause debilitating polyarthralgia and myalgia. Mouse models of RRV and chikungunya virus have demonstrated a role for the adaptive immune response in the control of these infections. However, questions remain regarding the role for T cells in viral control, including the magnitude, location, and dynamics of CD8(+) T cell responses. To address these questions, we generated a recombinant RRV expressing the H-2(b)-restricted glycoprotein 33 (gp33) determinant derived from the glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Using tetramers, we tracked gp33-specific CD8(+) T cells during RRV-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We found that acute RRV infection induces activation of CD8(+) T cell responses in lymphoid and musculoskeletal tissues that peak from 10-14 d postinoculation, suggesting that CD8(+) T cells contribute to control of acute RRV infection. Mice genetically deficient for CD8(+) T cells or wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells had elevated RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue, but not joint-associated tissues, at 14 d postinoculation, suggesting that the ability of CD8(+) T cells to control RRV infection is tissue dependent. Finally, adoptively transferred T cells were capable of reducing RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue of Rag1(-/-) mice, indicating that T cells can contribute to the control of RRV infection in the absence of B cells and Ab. Collectively, these data demonstrate a role for T cells in the control of RRV infection and suggest that the antiviral capacity of T cells is controlled in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:25488988

Burrack, Kristina S; Montgomery, Stephanie A; Homann, Dirk; Morrison, Thomas E

2015-01-15

286

STAT2 signaling and dengue virus infection  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus (DENV) is an important human pathogen whose byzantine relationship with the immune response is poorly understood. DENV causes dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, diseases for which palliative care is the only treatment. DENV immunopathogenesis studies are complicated by the lack of an immunocompetent small-animal model, and this has hindered anti-DENV drug and vaccine development. This review describes strategies that DENV uses to evade the type I interferon response and focuses on how data gained from the study of DENV NS5-mediated STAT2 degradation may be used to create immunocompetent DENV mouse models and design anti-DENV therapeutics. PMID:24778924

Morrison, Juliet; García-Sastre, Adolfo

2014-01-01

287

Inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus infection by nitric oxide.  

PubMed Central

Inhibitory effects of nitric oxide (NO) on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection were investigated by using a VSV-susceptible mouse neuroblastoma cell line, NB41A3. Productive VSV infection of NB41A3 cells was significantly inhibited by an organic NO donor, S-nitro-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), while the control compound N-acetylpenicillamine (NAP) had no effect. Survival rate of VSV-infected cells was greatly increased by the treatment with SNAP, while the NAP treatment did not have any effect. Adding SNAP 30 min prior to infection resulted in complete inhibition of viral production when a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) was used. Substantial inhibition of viral production was also obtained with treating cells 6 h earlier before infection with a higher MOI. Activating the neuronal NO synthase by treating cells with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) led to significant inhibition of viral production by cells infected at the three doses of virus tested (MOIs of 0.1, 1, and 5). The inhibitory effect of NMDA on viral infection was totally blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor N-methyl-L-arginine. However, adding hemoglobin, a strong NO-binding protein and thus an inactivator of NO activity, did not reverse the NMDA-induced inhibition of viral production, suggesting that NO might exert its antiviral effects inside the NO-producing cells. Collectively, these data support the anti-VSV effects of NO, which might be one of the important factors of natural immunity in controlling the initial stages of VSV infection in the central nervous system. PMID:7533852

Bi, Z; Reiss, C S

1995-01-01

288

Glycan Analysis and Influenza A Virus Infection of Primary Swine Respiratory Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

To better understand influenza virus infection of pigs, we examined primary swine respiratory epithelial cells (SRECs, the primary target cells of influenza viruses in vivo), as a model system. Glycomic profiling of SRECs by mass spectrometry revealed a diverse range of glycans terminating in sialic acid or Gal?Gal. In terms of sialylation, ?2–6 linkage was more abundant than ?2–3, and NeuAc was more abundant than NeuGc. Virus binding and infection experiments were conducted to determine functionally important glycans for influenza virus infection, with a focus on recently emerged swine viruses. Infection of SRECs with swine and human viruses resulted in different infectivity levels. Glycan microarray analysis with a high infectivity “triple reassortant” virus ((A/Swine/MN/593/99 (H3N2)) that spread widely throughout the North American swine population and a lower infectivity human virus isolated from a single pig (A/Swine/ONT/00130/97 (H3N2)) showed that both viruses bound exclusively to glycans containing NeuAc?2–6, with strong binding to sialylated polylactosamine and sialylated N-glycans. Treatment with mannosamine precursors of sialic acid (to alter NeuAc/NeuGc abundances) and linkage-specific sialidases prior to infection indicated that the influenza viruses tested preferentially utilize NeuAc?2–6-sialylated glycans to infect SRECs. Our data indicate that NeuAc?2–6-terminated polylactosamine and sialylated N-glycans are important determinants for influenza viruses to infect SRECs. As NeuAc?2–6 polylactosamine glycans play major roles in human virus infection, the importance of these receptor components in virus infection of swine cells has implications for transmission of viruses between humans and pigs and for pigs as possible adaptation hosts of novel human influenza viruses. PMID:20724471

Bateman, Allen C.; Karamanska, Rositsa; Busch, Marc G.; Dell, Anne; Olsen, Christopher W.; Haslam, Stuart M.

2010-01-01

289

Characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus primary infection in pediatric liver transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Pediatric liver transplant recipients are at high risk of Epstein-Barr virus infection. However the incidence of clinical symptoms and the graft function at the time of acute infection remains poorly documented. The aim of this study was to monitor the clinical and biochemical events associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.Methods: Clinical and biological patterns associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection

Françoise Smets; Monique Bodeus; Patrick Goubau; Raymond Reding; Jean-Bernard Otte; Jean-Paul Buts; Etienne Marc Sokal

2000-01-01

290

Antiviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections.  

PubMed Central

Depending on the stage of their intervention with the viral replicative cycle, human immunodeficiency virus inhibitors could be divided into the following groups: (i) adsorption inhibitors (i.e., CD4 constructs, polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, and polyoxometalates), (ii) fusion inhibitors (i.e., plant lectins, succinylated or aconitylated albumins, and betulinic acid derivatives), (iii) uncoating inhibitors (i.e., bicyclams), (iv) reverse transcription inhibitors acting either competitively with the substrate binding site (i.e., dideoxynucleoside analogs and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates) or allosterically with a nonsubstrate binding site (i.e., non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (v) integration inhibitors, (vi) DNA replication inhibitors, (vii) transcription inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and Tat antagonists), (viii) translation inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and ribozymes), (ix) maturation inhibitors (i.e., protease inhibitors, myristoylation inhibitors, and glycosylation inhibitors), and finally, (x) budding (assembly/release) inhibitors. Current knowledge, including the therapeutic potential, of these various inhibitors is discussed. In view of their potential clinical the utility, the problem of virus-drug resistance and possible strategies to circumvent this problem are also addressed. PMID:7542558

De Clercq, E

1995-01-01

291

Hepatitis B virus coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a review.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Due to the shared modes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. It is estimated that 10% of HIV-infected patients worldwide are coinfected with HBV. In areas where an HBV vaccination program is implemented, the HBV seroprevalence has declined significantly. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, HBV coinfection accelerates immunologic and clinical progression of HIV infection and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is initiated, while HIV infection increases the risk of hepatitis events, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease related to chronic HBV infection. With the advances in antiviral therapy, concurrent, successful long-term suppression of HIV and HBV replication can be achieved in the cART era. To reduce the disease burden of HBV infection among HIV-infected patients, adoption of safe sex practices, avoidance of sharing needles and diluent, HBV vaccination and use of cART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine or lamivudine are the most effective approaches. However, due to HIV-related immunosuppression, using increased doses of HBV vaccine and novel approaches to HBV vaccination are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HBV vaccine among HIV-infected patients. PMID:25356024

Sun, Hsin-Yun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching

2014-10-28

292

The effect of stress on the neuropathogenesis of Theiler's virus-infection in the central nervous system  

E-print Network

). One of the best animal models of MS is the demyelination induced by Theiler's virus. The early events that occur during Theiler's virus infection are crucial in the effective clearance of virus from the CNS. Failure to clear virus results...

Campbell, Ted Ryan

1998-01-01

293

Experimental infection of pregnant gilts with swine hepatitis E virus  

PubMed Central

To determine the effect of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on pregnant gilts, their fetuses, and offspring, 12 gilts were intravenously inoculated with swine HEV. Six gilts, who were not inoculated, served as controls. All inoculated gilts became actively infected and shed HEV in feces, but vertical transmission was not detected in the fetuses. There was no evidence of clinical disease in the gilts or their offspring. Mild multifocal lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 4 of 12 inoculated gilts. There was no significant effect of swine HEV on fetal size, fetal viability, or offspring birth weight or weight gain. The offspring acquired anti-HEV colostral antibodies but remained seronegative after the antibodies waned by 71 days of age. Swine HEV infection induced subclinical hepatitis in pregnant gilts, but had no effect on the gilts' reproductive performance, or the fetuses or offspring. Fulminant hepatitis associated with HEV infection was not reproduced in gilts. PMID:14620868

Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Thacker, Brad J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Guenette, Denis K.; Buitenwerf, Ryan M.; Royer, Ryan L.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2003-01-01

294

[Cutaneous infection with the cytomegalovirus virus in AIDS patients].  

PubMed

Cutaneous cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been observed in a variety of nonspecific skin lesions. Because of this fact, its diagnosis is rare and frequently accidental. The presence of the virus has also been observed in apparently normal skin, from both a clinical and histological point of view. In this context, skin biopsy and immunohistochemistry are often the first means of diagnosis of systemic CMV infection. In 180 skin biopsies carried out on HIV patients in the Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Unit, typical histopathological findings of CMV infection in a nonspecific skin lesion were observed in only one patient. Although the patient showed no extracutaneous manifestations at this time, she died soon after this diagnosis. Because of this fact, we review the literature and discuss the difficulties and implications of the diagnosis of cutaneous CMV infection in AIDS patients. PMID:9341040

Franca, I; Poiares-Baptista, A; Pais, M J; Araújo, C; Chorão, M; Ricardo, J L; Mansinho, K

1997-01-01

295

Effects of Aging on Influenza Virus Infection Dynamics  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The consequences of influenza virus infection are generally more severe in individuals over 65 years of age (the elderly). Immunosenescence enhances the susceptibility to viral infections and renders vaccination less effective. Understanding age-related changes in the immune system is crucial in order to design prophylactic and immunomodulatory strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Here, we propose different mathematical models to provide a quantitative understanding of the immune strategies in the course of influenza virus infection using experimental data from young and aged mice. Simulation results suggested a central role of CD8+ T cells for adequate viral clearance kinetics in young and aged mice. Adding the removal of infected cells by natural killer cells did not improve the model fit in either young or aged animals. We separately examined the infection-resistant state of cells promoted by the cytokines alpha/beta interferon (IFN-?/?), IFN-?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). The combination of activated CD8+ T cells with any of the cytokines provided the best fits in young and aged animals. During the first 3 days after infection, the basic reproductive number for aged mice was 1.5-fold lower than that for young mice (P < 0.05). IMPORTANCE The fits of our models to the experimental data suggest that the increased levels of IFN-?/?, IFN-?, and TNF-? (the “inflammaging” state) promote slower viral growth in aged mice, which consequently limits the stimulation of immune cells and contributes to the reported impaired responses in the elderly. A quantitative understanding of influenza virus pathogenesis and its shift in the elderly is the key contribution of this work. PMID:24478442

Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.; Wilk, Esther; Canini, Laetitia; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Binder, Sebastian C.; Uvarovskii, Alexey; Ross, Ted M.; Guzmán, Carlos A.

2014-01-01

296

Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

297

Potassium Ion Channels of Chlorella Viruses Cause Rapid Depolarization of Host Cells during Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have established that chlorella viruses encode K channels with different structural and functional properties. In the current study, we exploit the different sensitivities of these channels to Cs to determine if the membrane depolarization observed during virus infection is caused by the activities of these channels. Infection of Chlorella NC64A with four viruses caused rapid membrane depolarization of

Florian Frohns; Anja Kasmann; Detlef Kramer; Britta Schafer; Mario Mehmel; Ming Kang; James L. Van Etten; Sabrina Gazzarrini; Anna Moroni; Gerhard Thiel

2006-01-01

298

Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China  

PubMed Central

Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry. PMID:25418710

Ma, Qing-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Su-Chun; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Hou, Guang-Yu; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Sui, Zheng-Hong

2014-01-01

299

Infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to birds. Birds of some species get ill and die,  

E-print Network

Infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to birds. Birds of some species get ill and die, while Virus (WNV) 3 circulates and multiplies for several days in a mosquito's blood before penetrating its salivary glands. After an in- cubation period of 10 to 14 days, an infected mosquito can transmit the virus

Kaye, Jason P.

300

Large viruses and infected microeukaryotes in Ross Sea summer pack ice habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of Ross Sea summer pack ice habitats between 66 and 75°S were examined for viruses 𔒦 nm capsid diameter. Maximum abundances of these viruses likely to infect eukaryotes were 106-107 ml-1 brine in surface, interior, and bottom habitats and constituted up to 18% of the total (all sizes) viruses. There is abundant ultrastructural evidence for infection of a

M. M. Gowing

2003-01-01

301

Cross-species infection of Deformed Wing virus poses a new threat to pollinator conservation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we provide the evidence that Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), one of the most prevalent and common viruses in honey bees Apis mellifera, could cause an infection in bumble bees, Bombus huntii and that the virus infection could spread over the entire body of B. huntii. Our results showed that gut of...

302

Multidisciplinary Prospective Study of Mother-to-Child Chikungunya Virus Infections  

E-print Network

Multidisciplinary Prospective Study of Mother-to-Child Chikungunya Virus Infections on the Island-to-child chikungunya virus infections on the Island of La Re´union. PLoS Med 5(3): e60. doi:10. 1371/journal, antepartum fetal death; CHIKV, chikungunya virus; CI, confidence interval; CNS, central nervous system; CSF

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Persistence and Fitness of Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Acquired in Primary Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the persistence and fitness of multidrug-resistant (MDR) viruses acquired during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (PHI). In four individuals, MDR infections persisted over the entire study period, ranging from 36 weeks to 5 years, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. In stark contrast, identified source partners in two cases showed expected outgrowth of wild-type (WT) virus within

Bluma G. Brenner; Jean-Pierre Routy; Marco Petrella; Daniela Moisi; Maureen Oliveira; Mervi Detorio; Bonnie Spira; Vidal Essabag; Brian Conway; Richard Lalonde; Rafick-Pierre Sekaly; Mark A. Wainberg

2002-01-01

304

Subclinical highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection among vaccinated chickens, China.  

PubMed

Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry. PMID:25418710

Ma, Qing-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Su-Chun; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Hou, Guang-Yu; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Sui, Zheng-Hong; Chen, Ji-Ming

2014-12-01

305

Antibodies against prM protein distinguish between previous infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Southeast Asia, dengue viruses often co-circulate with other flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus, and due to the presence of shared antigenic epitopes it is often difficult to use serological methods to distinguish between previous infections by these flaviviruses. RESULTS: Convalescent sera from 69 individuals who were known to have had dengue or Japanese encephalitis virus infection were

Mary Jane Cardosa; Seok Mui Wang; Magdline Sia H Sum; Phaik Hooi Tio

2002-01-01

306

Establishment of a new cell line from the heart of giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and its application in toxicology and virus susceptibility.  

PubMed

A new marine fish cell line, derived from the heart of giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), was established and characterized. The cell line was designated as ELGH and subcultured with more than 60 passages. The ELGH cells were mainly composed of fibroblast-like cells and multiplied well in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) at 28 °C. Chromosome analysis indicated that the modal chromosome number was 48. The fluorescent signals were detected in ELGH when transfected with green fluorescent protein reporter plasmids. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 ) of the extracellular products (ECPs) from Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio alginolyticus E333 on ELGH cells was 60.02 and 12.49 ?g mL(-1) , respectively. Moreover, the ELGH cells showed susceptibility to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), but not to soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV), red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) and spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), which was demonstrated by the presence of a severe cytopathic effect (CPE) and increased viral titres. In addition, electron microscopy observation showed that abundant virus particles were present in the infected cells. Taken together, our data above provided the potential utility of ELGH cells for transgenic and genetic manipulation, as well as cytotoxicity testing and virus pathogenesis. PMID:24372271

Guo, C Y; Huang, Y H; Wei, S N; Ouyang, Z L; Yan, Y; Huang, X H; Qin, Q W

2015-02-01

307

Gene silencing: a therapeutic approach to combat influenza virus infections.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT? Selective gene silencing technologies such as RNA interference (RNAi) and nucleic acid enzymes have shown therapeutic potential for treating viral infections. Influenza virus is one of the major public health concerns around the world and its management is challenging due to a rapid increase in antiviral resistance. Influenza vaccine also has its limitations due to the emergence of new strains that may escape the immunity developed by the previous year's vaccine. Antiviral drugs are the primary mode of prevention and control against a pandemic and there is an urgency to develop novel antiviral strategies against influenza virus. In this review, we discuss the potential utility of several gene silencing mechanisms and their prophylactic and therapeutic potential against the influenza virus. PMID:25598342

Khanna, Madhu; Saxena, Latika; Rajput, Roopali; Kumar, Binod; Prasad, Rajendra

2015-01-01

308

Systems biology unravels interferon responses to respiratory virus infections  

PubMed Central

Interferon production is an important defence against viral replication and its activation is an attractive therapeutic target. However, it has long been known that viruses perpetually evolve a multitude of strategies to evade these host immune responses. In recent years there has been an explosion of information on virus-induced alterations of the host immune response that have resulted from data-rich omics technologies. Unravelling how these systems interact and determining the overall outcome of the host response to viral infection will play an important role in future treatment and vaccine development. In this review we focus primarily on the interferon pathway and its regulation as well as mechanisms by which respiratory RNA viruses interfere with its signalling capacity. PMID:24600511

Kroeker, Andrea L; Coombs, Kevin M

2014-01-01

309

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: The Spectrum Beyond AIDS  

PubMed Central

Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time. It is the most profound manifestation of infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since 1984, serologic methods have existed to detect antibody to HIV. Several other clinical entities have been detected and are attributable to HIV infection. Appropriate counsel must accompany antibody testing. The author discusses the acute seroconversion event, as well as asymptomatic carrier status, including generalized lymphadenopathy. He also reviews the symptomatic states that do not meet the surveillance definition of AIDS, including treatments where available. PMID:21263801

Willoughby, Brain C.

1987-01-01

310

Host detection and the stealthy phenotype in influenza virus infection.  

PubMed

The innate host response to influenza virus infection plays a critical role in determining the subsequent course of infection and the clinical outcome of disease. The host has a diverse array of detection and effector mechanisms that are able to recognize and initiate effective antiviral responses. In opposition, the virus utilizes a number of distinct mechanisms to evade host detection and effector activity in order to remain "stealthy" throughout its replication cycle. In this review, we describe these host and viral mechanisms, including the major pattern recognition receptor families (the TLRs, NLRs, and RLRs) in the host and the specific viral proteins such as NS1 that are key players in this interaction. Additionally, we explore nonreductive mechanisms of viral immune evasion and propose areas important for future inquiry. PMID:25038940

Dash, Pradyot; Thomas, Paul G

2015-01-01

311

Virus Competition for Shedding and Tumor Formation Over Time in Marek's Disease Virus Dual-infected Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was designed to determine what effect multiple virulent Marek’s disease viruses have on each other over time during dual-infection. Serotype 1 viruses able to be differentiated were administered either simultaneously or with a short (24 hours) or long (13 days) interval. Virus frequency ...

312

Experimental infection of laying turkeys with Rhinotracheitis virus: Distribution of virus in the tissues and serological response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty?four laying turkey hens shown to be free of antibodies to turkey rhinotracheitis virus were inoculated intranasally with an isolate of the virus. A mild respiratory disease developed between 5 and 9 days post infection (pi). Two birds were selected at random at intervals between days 1 and 20 pi, killed and tissues examined for the presence of virus. At

R. C. Jones; R. A. Williams; C. E. Savage; G. P. Wilding

1988-01-01

313

Performance of virus isolation and Directigen® Flu A to detect influenza A virus in experimental human infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: few data exist to assess the sensitivity of different specimen types for viral detection during the course of influenza virus infection. Objectives: this study assessed the relationships between quantitative influenza A virus replication and antigen detectability by the enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) Directigen® Flu A in different type of samples during experimental human infection. Study design: fourteen volunteers were

Laurent Kaiser; Marcus S Briones; Frederick G Hayden

1999-01-01

314

Electroporation-mediated infection of tobacco leaf protoplasts with tobacco mosaic virus RNA and cucumber mosaic virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions were established for the introduction of both tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) RNAs into tobacco mesophyll protoplasts by electroporation. The proportion of infected protoplasts was quantified by staining with viral coat protein-specific antibodies conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate. Approximately 30–40% of the protoplasts survived electroporation. Under optimal conditions, up to 75% of these were infected with

M. Nishiguchi; W. H. R. Langridge; A. A. Szalay; M. Zaitlin

1986-01-01

315

A unicellular algal virus, Emiliania huxleyi virus 86, exploits an animal-like infection strategy.  

PubMed

Emiliania huxleyi virus 86 (EhV-86) belongs to the family Phycodnaviridae, a group of viruses that infect a wide range of freshwater and marine eukaryotic algae. Phycodnaviridae is one of the five families that belong to a large and phylogenetically diverse group of viruses known as nucleocytoplasmic large dsDNA viruses (NCLDVs). To date, our understanding of algal NCLDV entry is based on the entry mechanisms of members of the genera Chlorovirus and Phaeovirus, both of which consist of non-enveloped viruses that 'inject' their genome into their host via a viral inner-membrane host plasma membrane fusion mechanism, leaving an extracellular viral capsid. Using a combination of confocal and electron microscopy, this study demonstrated for the first time that EhV-86 differs from its algal virus counterparts in two fundamental areas. Firstly, its capsid is enveloped by a lipid membrane, and secondly, EhV-86 enters its host via either an endocytotic or an envelope fusion mechanism in which an intact nucleoprotein core still encapsulated by its capsid is seen in the host cytoplasm. Real-time fluorescence microscopy showed that viral internalization and virion breakdown took place within the host on a timescale of seconds. At around 4.5 h post-infection, virus progeny were released via a budding mechanism during which EhV-86 virions became enveloped with host plasma membrane. EhV-86 therefore appears to have an infection mechanism different from that employed by other algal NCLDVs, with entry and exit strategies showing a greater analogy to animal-like NCLDVs. PMID:19474246

Mackinder, Luke C M; Worthy, Charlotte A; Biggi, Gaia; Hall, Matthew; Ryan, Keith P; Varsani, Arvind; Harper, Glenn M; Wilson, William H; Brownlee, Colin; Schroeder, Declan C

2009-09-01

316

Lessons for tuberculosis vaccines from respiratory virus infection.  

PubMed

There is a worldwide epidemic of increasingly drug-resistant TB. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination provides partial protection against disseminated disease in infants but poor protection against later pulmonary TB. Cell-mediated protection against respiratory virus infections requires the presence of T cells in lung tissues, and the most effective prime-boost immunizations for Mycobacterium tuberculosis also induce lung-resident lymphocytes. These observations need to be taken into account when designing future vaccines against M. tuberculosis. PMID:18844591

Beverley, Peter Charles Leonard; Tchilian, Elma Zaven

2008-10-01

317

Interstitial pneumonitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--A study was performed to identify the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features of interstitial pneumonitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS--A retrospective review was made of the case notes, chest radiographs, and histopathological results of seven HIV-1 antibody positive patients with symptomatic diffuse pulmonary disease and a pathological diagnosis of non-specific interstitial pneumonitis. RESULTS--All patients had dyspnoea,

M H Griffiths; R F Miller; S J Semple

1995-01-01

318

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common pathogens associated with a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal infections in childhood.\\u000a Different HPV types can cause common warts, genital warts, low-grade as well as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.\\u000a Anogenital warts represent an issue with legal and clinical implications and evaluation of children for the possibility of\\u000a sexual abuse should be considered in

Ioannis N. Mammas; George Sourvinos; Demetrios A. Spandidos

2009-01-01

319

Regional Aggressive Root Resorption Caused by Neuronal Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin) root resorption occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface against resorption. Therefore, the normal nerve pattern is important for diagnostics and for predicting the course of severe unexpected root resorption. PMID:23097724

Kjær, Inger; Strøm, Carsten; Worsaae, Nils

2012-01-01

320

Small RNA profiles from virus-infected fresh market vegetables.  

PubMed

Functional small RNAs, such as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), exist in freshly consumed fruits and vegetables. These siRNAs can be derived either from endogenous sequences or from viruses that infect them. Symptomatic tomatoes, watermelons, zucchini, and onions were purchased from grocery stores and investigated by small RNA sequencing. By aligning the obtained small RNA sequences to sequences of known viruses, four different viruses were identified as infecting these fruits and vegetables. Many of these virally derived small RNAs along with endogenous small RNAs were found to be highly complementary to human genes. However, the established history of safe consumption of these vegetables suggests that this sequence homology has little biological relevance. By extension, these results provide evidence for the safe use by humans and animals of genetically engineered crops using RNA-based suppression technologies, especially vegetable crops with virus resistance conferred by expression of siRNAs or miRNAs derived from viral sequences. PMID:25389086

Frizzi, Alessandra; Zhang, Yuanji; Kao, John; Hagen, Charles; Huang, Shihshieh

2014-12-10

321

A Bacteriophage-Related Chimeric Marine Virus Infecting Abalone  

PubMed Central

Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV) can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin). The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB) protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria. PMID:21079776

Zhuang, Jun; Cai, Guiqin; Lin, Qiying; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

2010-01-01

322

Influence of Hydrogel Substrate on Cell Growth and Virus Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of cells with their extracellular matrix is of great importance when cells adapt to their environment. The purpose of this thesis is to design substrates with controllable properties and to study cellular interaction on these substrates. Firstly, enzymatically cross-linked gelatin hydrogels with different elastic modulus were prepared. Then, we studied the condition of cell growth and virus infection on these hydrogels as a followed-up. In the first part of the study, we made enzymatically cross-linked gelatin hydrogels with five different elastic modulus. As a parameter of stiffness, elastic modulus varies from 2.4 KPa to 7.5 KPa based on which hydrogels are graded from soft to hard. In the second part, we studied the growth of rabbit kidney cells cultured on hydrogels of different stiffness. Growth curves of the cells were made to study the abilities of soft and hard hydrogels to support cell proliferation. Result shows that cell proliferation rate differs when using hydrogel substrates of different stiffness as substrates. In the third part of this thesis, we infected rabbit kidney cells with pseudorabies virus for a period of time. And confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the influence of hydrogels with different elastic modulus on infectivity of the virus.

Yang, Fan

323

Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Chacma Baboons, South Africa  

PubMed Central

During previous studies of susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV DNA was detected in 2/6 wild-caught baboons. In the present study, HBV DNA was amplified from 15/69 wild-caught baboons. All animals were negative for HBV surface antigen and antibody against HBV core antigen. Liver tissue from 1 baboon was immunohistochemically negative for HBV surface antigen but positive for HBV core antigen. The complete HBV genome of an isolate from this liver clustered with subgenotype A2. Reverse transcription PCR of liver RNA amplified virus precore and surface protein genes, indicating replication of virus in baboon liver tissue. Four experimentally naive baboons were injected with serum from HBV DNA–positive baboons. These 4 baboons showed transient seroconversion, and HBV DNA was amplified from serum at various times after infection. The presence of HBV DNA at relatively low levels and in the absence of serologic markers in the baboon, a nonhuman primate, indicates an occult infection. PMID:23631817

Dickens, Caroline; Kew, Michael C.; Purcell, Robert H.

2013-01-01

324

Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunizations among Asian American College Students: Infection, Exposure, and Immunity Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, exposure, and immunity among Asian American college students as a basis for evaluating HBV screening and vaccination policy. Participants and Methods: Self-identified Asian American college students aged 18 years or older were examined. Serological tests of HBV surface…

Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

325

Molecular Ecology and Natural History of Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Wild-Living Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest

Weimin Liu; Michael Worobey; Yingying Li; Brandon F. Keele; Frederic Bibollet-Ruche; Yuanyuan Guo; Paul A. Goepfert; Mario L. Santiago; Jean-Bosco N. Ndjango; Cecile Neel; Stephen L. Clifford; Crickette Sanz; Shadrack Kamenya; Michael L. Wilson; Anne E. Pusey; Nicole Gross-Camp; Christophe Boesch; Vince Smith; Koichiro Zamma; Michael A. Huffman; John C. Mitani; David P. Watts; Martine Peeters; George M. Shaw; William M. Switzer; Paul M. Sharp; Beatrice H. Hahn

2008-01-01

326

Hepatitis B Virus Infection during Pregnancy: Transmission and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. In endemic areas, HBV infection occurs mainly during infancy and early childhood, with mother to child transmission (MTCT) accounting for approximately half of the transmission routes of chronic HBV infections. Prevention of MTCT is an essential step in reducing the global burden of chronic HBV. Natal transmission accounts for most of MTCT, and providing immunoprophylaxis to newborns is an excellent way to block natal transmission. Prenatal transmission is responsible for the minority of MTCT not preventable by immunoprophylaxis. Because of the correlation between prenatal transmission and the level of maternal viremia, some authors find it sound to offer lamivudine in women who have a high viral load (more than 8 to 9 log 10 copies/mL). In addition to considerations regarding the transmission of HBV to the child, the combination of HBV infection and pregnancy raises several unique management issues. Chronic HBV infection during pregnancy is usually mild but may flare after delivery or with discontinuing therapy. Management of chronic HBV infection in pregnancy is mostly supportive with antiviral medications indicated in a small subset of HBV infected women with rapidly progressive chronic liver disease. PMID:25197539

Navabakhsh, Behrouz; Mehrabi, Narges; Estakhri, Arezoo; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Poustchi, Hossein

2011-01-01

327

Genomewide Association Analysis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Mice? †  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants, with about half being infected in their first year of life. Yet only 2 to 3% of infants are hospitalized for RSV infection, suggesting that individual susceptibility contributes to disease severity. Previously, we determined that AKR/J (susceptible) mice developed high lung RSV titers and showed delayed weight recovery, whereas C57BL/6J (resistant) mice demonstrated low lung RSV titers and rapid weight recovery. In addition, we have reported that gene-targeted mice lacking the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr; ATP-binding cassette subfamily C, member 7) are susceptible to RSV infection. For this report, recombinant backcross and F2 progeny derived from C57BL/6J and AKR/J mice were infected with RSV, their lung titers were measured, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed. A major QTL, designated Rsvs1, was identified on proximal mouse chromosome 6 in both recombinant populations. Microarray analysis comparing lung transcripts of the parental strains during infection identified several candidate genes that mapped to the Rsvs1 interval, including Cftr. These findings add to our understanding of individual RSV susceptibility and strongly support a modifier role for CFTR in RSV infection, a significant cause of respiratory morbidity in infants with cystic fibrosis. PMID:20015999

Stark, James M.; Barmada, M. Michael; Winterberg, Abby V.; Majumber, Nilanjana; Gibbons, William J.; Stark, Marilyn A.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Medvedovic, Mario; Kolls, Jay; Bein, Kiflai; Mailaparambil, Beena; Krueger, Marcus; Heinzmann, Andrea; Leikauf, George D.; Prows, Daniel R.

2010-01-01

328

Rapid Communication Herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs expressed abundantly during latent infection are  

E-print Network

(reviewed in Roizman et al., 2007). Following inoculation at a peripheral site, the virus lytically infectsRapid Communication Herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs expressed abundantly during latent infection proteins and are hypothesized to play important roles in establishing and/or maintaining latent infections

Knipe, David M.

329

Platforms for exploring host-pathogen interactions in hepatitis C virus infection  

E-print Network

Afflicting almost 200 million worldwide, hepatitis C virus (HCV) mounts a chronic infection of liver hepatocytes that causes substantial morbidity and mortality. An understanding of host-virus interactions will drive the ...

Trehan, Kartik

2012-01-01

330

Autochthonous Dobrava-Belgrade virus infection in Eastern Germany.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old male patient from Borna, Saxony, in Eastern Germany, suffered from acute kidney injury (AKI) and symptoms typical for a hantavirus infection. These symptoms included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and acute renal failure. Serological investigations by indirect IgM and IgG in-house ELISAs, commercial immunofluorescence and line assays, as well as chemiluminescence focus reduction neutralization assay confirmed an acute Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infection of the patient. Serological and RT-PCR analyses of striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) trapped in a neighboring region of the residence of the patient identified an infection by DOBV, genotype Kurkino. This is the first report of an autochthonous DOBV infection in a German patient living far from the known endemic region in the north of the country. This finding has implications for the awareness of physicians in areas which are not recognized as hantavirus endemic regions but where the reservoir host of the virus is present. PMID:24495905

Rasche, Franz Maximilian; Schmidt, Sabrina; Kretzschmar, Christian; Mertens, Marc; Thiel, Jörg; Groschup, Martin H; Schlegel, Mathias; Mayer, Christof; Lindner, Tom H; Schiekofer, Stephan; Ulrich, Rainer G

2015-02-01

331

Avian influenza virus infection dynamics in shorebird hosts.  

PubMed

To gain insight into avian influenza virus (AIV) transmission, exposure, and maintenance patterns in shorebirds at Delaware Bay during spring migration, we examined temporal AIV prevalence trends in four Charadriiformes species with the use of serial cross-sectional data from 2000 through 2008 and generalized linear and additive models. Prevalence of AIV in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres morinella) increased after arrival, peaked in mid-late May, and decreased prior to departure. Antibody prevalence also increased over this period; together, these results suggested local infection and recovery prior to departure. Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa), Sanderlings (Calidris alba), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla) were rarely infected, but dynamic changes in antibody prevalence differed among species. In Red Knots, declining antibody prevalence over the stopover period suggested AIV exposure prior to arrival at Delaware Bay with limited infection at this site. Antibody prevalence was consistently high in Laughing Gulls and low in Sanderlings. Both viral prevalence and antibody prevalence in Sanderlings varied directly with those in turnstones, suggesting virus spillover to Sanderlings. Results indicate that, although hundreds of thousands of birds concentrate at Delaware Bay during spring, dynamics of AIV infection differ among species, perhaps due to differences in susceptibility, potential for contact with AIV at this site, or prior exposure. Additionally, Ruddy Turnstones possibly act as a local AIV amplifying host rather than a reservoir. PMID:22493108

Maxted, Angela M; Luttrell, M Page; Goekjian, Virginia H; Brown, Justin D; Niles, Lawrence J; Dey, Amanda D; Kalasz, Kevin S; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

2012-04-01

332

Immunological memory in latent Japanese encephalitis virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Long term B-cell memory to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in latently infected mice was investigated by adoptive cell transfer. Both IgM and IgG memory were elicited by antigen challenge or cyclophosphamide induced reactivation of virus. A weak antigen-specific IgM response for a brief period and a strong IgG response were detected in Swiss albino mice exposed to secondary infection. A correlation between the secondary IgM antibody and protection against JEV challenge was observed in adoptive transfer experiments. This was abrogated by pretreatment of the serum with 2-mercaptoethanol. Similarly secondary immune splenic T-cells up to day 5 post-reactivation provided protection. These results suggest that a long term antigen-specific IgM and IgG memory was induced by JEV challenge in latently infected mice. Further, the role of IgM antibody and T-cells in the response of mice to secondary JEV infection has been shown. PMID:2460122

Kulshreshtha, R.; Mathur, A.; Chaturvedi, U. C.

1988-01-01

333

Host Immune Status and Response to Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV), identified over 30 years ago, remains a serious threat to life, health, and productivity in developing countries where access to clean water is limited. Recognition that HEV also circulates as a zoonotic and food-borne pathogen in developed countries is more recent. Even without treatment, most cases of HEV-related acute viral hepatitis (with or without jaundice) resolve within 1 to 2 months. However, HEV sometimes leads to acute liver failure, chronic infection, or extrahepatic symptoms. The mechanisms of pathogenesis appear to be substantially immune mediated. This review covers the epidemiology of HEV infection worldwide, the humoral and cellular immune responses to HEV, and the persistence and protection of antibodies produced in response to both natural infection and vaccines. We focus on the contributions of altered immune states (associated with pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and immunosuppressive agents used in cancer and transplant medicine) to the elevated risks of chronic infection (in immunosuppressed/immunocompromised patients) and acute liver failure and mortality (among pregnant women). We conclude by discussing outstanding questions about the immune response to HEV and interactions with hormones and comorbid conditions. These questions take on heightened importance now that a vaccine is available. PMID:24396140

Krain, Lisa J.; Nelson, Kenrad E.

2014-01-01

334

Serological examination and egg production of progeny of fowl experimentally infected with Egg Drop Syndrome 1976 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following EDS'76 virus (BC14 virus) infection of breeder chickens by the conjunctival route, vertical transmission occurred in the first week after infection. In the progeny which had been infected with EDS'76 virus by the vertical route, increasing haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) litres to BC14 virus and increasing numbers of birds with HI litres were observed from 3 weeks to 15 weeks

J. H. H. van Eck

1982-01-01

335

Differing Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Pseudorabies Virus Infections on Centrosomal Function  

PubMed Central

Efficient intracellular transport of the capsid of alphaherpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), is known to be dependent upon the microtubule (MT) network. Typically, the MT network radiates from an MT-organizing center (MTOC), which is, in most cases, the centrosome. During herpesvirus egress, it has been assumed that capsids travel first from the nucleus to the centrosome and then from the centrosome to the site of envelopment. Here we report that the centrosome is no longer a primary MTOC in HSV-1-infected cells, but it retains this function in cells infected by another alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PrV). As a result, MTs formed at late times after infection with PrV grow from a major, centralized MTOC, while those formed after HSV-1 infection arise from dispersed locations in the cytoplasm, indicating the presence of alternative and minor MTOCs. Thus, loss of the principal MT nucleating center in cells following HSV-1 infection raises questions about the mechanism of HSV-1 capsid egress. It is possible that, rather than passing via the centrosome, capsids may travel directly to the site of envelopment after exiting the nucleus. We suggest that, in HSV-1-infected cells, the disruption of centrosomal functions triggers reorganization of the MT network to favor noncentrosomal MTs and promote efficient viral spread. PMID:23596303

Labetoulle, Marc; Rixon, Frazer J.

2013-01-01

336

[Modern immunological and clinical determinants of virus dengue infection].  

PubMed

The growing problem of widespread viral infections is a challenge for modern medicine. Emerging reports of dengue virus infections in Europe create a new epidemic problem. The virus responsible for causing the symptoms of the disease is transmitted by mosquitoes. Over 50% of the world's population lives in areas where the risk of dengue feveris high. In total, according to WHO, infected with dengue is 2.4 million people and outbreaks of endemic diseases are present in 100 countries that threaten the 2.5 billion population. There are four serotypes of dengue virus, which belong to the family Flaviviridae and the type of Flavirus. Serotypes are known as DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4. Contact each of the serotypes of the virus causes long-lasting resistance to the other, and each of them is responsible for the induction of disease epidemics, including severe cases. In the first stage of the disease should seek to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. Because of the elevated body temperature is recommended to administer paracetamol formulations and the use of cold compresses. Contraindicated is the use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In severe forms of dengue patients absolutely should be hospitalized and treatment in the intensive care centers. In the treatment of shock, it is recommended that the administration of isotonic crystalloid fluids at 5-10 ml/kg/hr. under the control of hematocrit and fill peripheral microcirculation. The administration of blood products for the large current is required to control bleeding. Dengue vaccine containing DEN-DEN chimeras is still at the stage of preclinical studies. PMID:25546995

P?usa, Tadeusz

2014-11-01

337

Crystal structure of a nematode-infecting virus.  

PubMed

Orsay, the first virus discovered to naturally infect Caenorhabditis elegans or any nematode, has a bipartite, positive-sense RNA genome. Sequence analyses show that Orsay is related to nodaviruses, but molecular characterizations of Orsay reveal several unique features, such as the expression of a capsid-? fusion protein and the use of an ATG-independent mechanism for translation initiation. Here we report the crystal structure of an Orsay virus-like particle assembled from recombinant capsid protein (CP). Orsay capsid has a T = 3 icosahedral symmetry with 60 trimeric surface spikes. Each CP can be divided into three regions: an N-terminal arm that forms an extended protein interaction network at the capsid interior, an S domain with a jelly-roll, ?-barrel fold forming the continuous capsid, and a P domain that forms surface spike projections. The structure of the Orsay S domain is best aligned to T = 3 plant RNA viruses but exhibits substantial differences compared with the insect-infecting alphanodaviruses, which also lack the P domain in their CPs. The Orsay P domain is remotely related to the P1 domain in calicivirus and hepatitis E virus, suggesting a possible evolutionary relationship. Removing the N-terminal arm produced a slightly expanded capsid with fewer nucleic acids packaged, suggesting that the arm is important for capsid stability and genome packaging. Because C. elegans-Orsay serves as a highly tractable model for studying viral pathogenesis, our results should provide a valuable structural framework for further studies of Orsay replication and infection. PMID:25136116

Guo, Yusong R; Hryc, Corey F; Jakana, Joanita; Jiang, Hongbing; Wang, David; Chiu, Wah; Zhong, Weiwei; Tao, Yizhi J

2014-09-01

338

Improving clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem, leading to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-related deaths. Universal hepatitis B vaccination is the most cost-effective way to eradicate HBV infection with the remarkable reduction of chronic carriage, neonatal fulminant hepatitis and childhood HCC. The introduction of highly effective antiviral agents, including lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, telbivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and pegylated interferons further improve short-, medium- and long-term outcomes of chronic HBV infection, such as ALT normalization, HBV DNA suppression, HBeAg seroconversion, HBsAg seroclearance, fibrosis regression, reduction of cirrhosis, HCC, liver-related deaths and the need for liver transplantation. Above all, sustained and profound viral suppression is the key to improve the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:25241970

Su, Tung-Hung; Kao, Jia-Horng

2015-02-01

339

Alcoholic hepatitis and concomitant hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcohol abuse are two most important causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic hepatitis is a unique clinical syndrome among patients with chronic and active alcohol abuse with a potential for high short-term mortality. About 20% of patients presenting with alcoholic hepatitis have concomitant HCV infection. Mortality from alcoholic hepatitis is increased in the presence of concomitant hepatitis C due to synergistic interaction between HCV and alcohol in causing hepatocellular damage. Large prospective randomized studies are needed to develop guidelines on the use of corticosteroids among patients with alcoholic hepatitis and concomitant HCV infection. The impact of antiviral therapy on mortality and outcome in the setting of alcoholic hepatitis remains a novel area for future research. PMID:25232227

Shoreibah, Mohamed; Anand, Bhupinderjit S; Singal, Ashwani K

2014-01-01

340

Molecular evidence of simian virus 40 infections in children  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies have detected simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA in certain human tumors and normal tissues. The significance of human infections by SV40, which was first discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines used between 1955 and 1963, remains unknown. The occurrence of SV40 infections in unselected hospitalized children was evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analyses were done on archival tissue specimens from patients positive for SV40 neutralizing antibody. SV40 DNA was identified in samples from 4 of 20 children (1 Wilms' tumor, 3 transplanted kidney samples). Sequence variation among SV40 regulatory regions ruled out laboratory contamination of specimens. This study shows the presence of SV40 infections in pediatric patients born after 1982.

Butel, J. S.; Arrington, A. S.; Wong, C.; Lednicky, J. A.; Finegold, M. J.

1999-01-01

341

Inapparent Virus Infections and their Interactions in Pupae of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY When honey bee pupae from seemingly healthy Australian colonies were injected with various salt solutions, inapparent infections of black queen-cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV) and, occasionally, cricket paralysis virus were activated. The activated viruses replicated to detectable concentrations after pupae were incubated at 35 °C for 3 days. Inapparent infections of SBV, but not

D. L. Anderson; A. J. Gibbs

1988-01-01

342

Infection of XC Cells by MLVs and Ebola Virus Is Endosome-Dependent but Acidification-Independent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors of endosome acidification or cathepsin proteases attenuated infections mediated by envelope proteins of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and Ebola virus, as well as ecotropic, amphotropic, polytropic, and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), indicating that infections by these viruses occur through acidic endosomes and require cathepsin proteases in the susceptible cells such as TE671 cells. However, as previously

Haruka Kamiyama; Katsura Kakoki; Hiroaki Yoshii; Masatomo Iwao; Tsukasa Igawa; Hideki Sakai; Hideki Hayashi; Toshifumi Matsuyama; Naoki Yamamoto; Yoshinao Kubo; Robert J. Geraghty

2011-01-01

343

Mixed infections of Pepino mosaic virus strains modulate the evolutionary dynamics of this emergent virus.  

PubMed

Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe economic losses in tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the Northern hemisphere, despite persistent attempts of control. In fact, it is considered one of the most significant viral diseases for tomato production worldwide, and it may constitute a good model for the analysis of virus emergence in crops. We have combined a population genetics approach with an analysis of in planta properties of virus strains to explain an observed epidemiological pattern. Hybridization analysis showed that PepMV populations are composed of isolates of two types (PepMV-CH2 and PepMV-EU) that cocirculate. The CH2 type isolates are predominant; however, EU isolates have not been displaced but persist mainly in mixed infections. Two molecularly cloned isolates belonging to each type have been used to examine the dynamics of in planta single infections and coinfection, revealing that the CH2 type has a higher fitness than the EU type. Coinfections expand the range of susceptible hosts, and coinfected plants remain symptomless several weeks after infection, so a potentially important problem for disease prevention and management. These results provide an explanation of the observed epidemiological pattern in terms of genetic and ecological interactions among the different viral strains. Thus, mixed infections appear to be contributing to shaping the genetic structure and dynamics of PepMV populations. PMID:19759144

Gómez, P; Sempere, R N; Elena, S F; Aranda, M A

2009-12-01

344

Differential Proteome Analysis of Chikungunya Virus Infection on Host Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. Methodology and Principal Findings The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE). Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) and cell cycle regulation. Conclusion/Significance This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission). While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans. PMID:23593481

Thio, Christina Li-Ping; Yusof, Rohana; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz Akmar; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

2013-01-01

345

[Hepatitis E virus infection in Albania].  

PubMed

Acute HEV in Albania make up 35.7% of acute non A-non B hepatitis and 2.4% of all acute viral hepatitis cases, affecting women more with a 2:1 ratio, and are described more frequently in adults (73.3%) older than 35 years. In the general population (control group), the prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies increases progressively with age, from 1.2% in the younger than 9 years, to 17.7% among the over 60, in general the average is of 9.7%. A statistical comparison of anti-HEV antibodies in healthy persons younger than 20, and those 20 years old and over is significant (p < 0.0001). HEV transmission by blood transfusion, mentioned by some authors, could be related to the infection of blood donors. We have not found any positive cases in thalassemic children who received between 24 and 169 transfusions. The prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in pregnant women is lower than in the general population (p < 0.0001). In patients with chronic liver disease, in comparison with the general population (control group), there is no statistical significant difference (p = NS). PMID:11313227

Adhami, J E; Angoni, R

2001-01-01

346

Ebola virus infection induces irregular dendritic cell gene expression.  

PubMed

Abstract Filoviruses subvert the human immune system in part by infecting and replicating in dendritic cells (DCs). Using gene arrays, a phenotypic profile of filovirus infection in human monocyte-derived DCs was assessed. Monocytes from human donors were cultured in GM-CSF and IL-4 and were infected with Ebola virus Kikwit variant for up to 48?h. Extracted DC RNA was analyzed on SuperArray's Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell Oligo GEArray and compared to uninfected controls. Infected DCs exhibited increased expression of cytokine, chemokine, antiviral, and anti-apoptotic genes not seen in uninfected controls. Significant increases of intracellular antiviral and MHC I and II genes were also noted in EBOV-infected DCs. However, infected DCs failed to show any significant difference in co-stimulatory T-cell gene expression from uninfected DCs. Moreover, several chemokine genes were activated, but there was sparse expression of chemokine receptors that enabled activated DCs to home to lymph nodes. Overall, statistically significant expression of several intracellular antiviral genes was noted, which may limit viral load but fails to stop replication. EBOV gene expression profiling is of vital importance in understanding pathogenesis and devising novel therapeutic treatments such as small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:25493356

Melanson, Vanessa R; Kalina, Warren V; Williams, Priscilla

2015-02-01

347

Management of hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is relatively higher than those without MHD. Chronic HCV infection detrimentally affects the life quality and expectancy, leads to renal transplant rejection, and increases the mortality of MHD patients. With the application of erythropoietin to improve uremic anemia and avoid blood transfusion, the new HCV infections during MHD in recent years are mainly caused by the lack of stringent universal precautions. Strict implementation of universal precautions for HCV transmission has led to markedly decreased HCV infections in many hemodialysis units, but physicians still should be alert for the anti-HCV negative HCV infection and occult HCV infection in MHD patients. Standard interferon alpha and pegylated interferon alpha monotherapies at a reduced dose are currently the main treatment strategies for MHD patients with active HCV replication, but how to increase the sustained virological response and decrease the side effects is the key problem. IFN?-free treatments with two or three direct-acting antivirals without ribavirin in MHD patients are waiting for future investigations. PMID:25018852

Yu, Yue-Cheng; Wang, Yue; He, Chang-Lun; Wang, Mao-Rong; Wang, Yu-Ming

2014-06-27

348

Human genes involved in hepatitis B virus infection  

PubMed Central

Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant public health problem because it is a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Roughly one-third of the world population has been infected with HBV and there are about 350 million (5%-6%) persistent carriers. HBV causes 80% of all liver cancer cases and is the second most important carcinogen, after smoking tobacco. There is an approximate 90% risk of becoming a persistent carrier following perinatal infection in infants born to e antigen positive carrier mothers and a 30% risk in pre-school children. Only 5%-10% of adults become persistent carriers following infection. Of individuals persistently infected with HBV, 10%-30% will develop liver cirrhosis and HCC. These highly variable outcomes in both clearance rates and disease outcomes in persistently infected individuals cannot be fully explained by differences in immunological, viral or environmental factors. Thus, differences in host genetic factors may affect the natural history of hepatitis B. PMID:24976707

Zeng, Zheng

2014-01-01

349

Primary Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmnd-2 Infection in Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mandrills are the only nonhuman primate (NHP) naturally infected by two types of simian immunodefi- ciency virus (SIV): SIVmnd-1 and SIVmnd-2. We have already reported that the high SIVmnd-1 replication during primary infection contrasts with only transient changes in CD4 and CD8 cell counts. Since early virus-host interactions predict viral control and disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus- infected patients,

Richard Onanga; Sandrine Souquiere; Maria Makuwa; Augustin Mouinga-Ondeme; Francois Simon; Cristian Apetrei; Pierre Roques

2006-01-01

350

IFITM Proteins Restrict Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins restrict the entry processes of several pathogenic viruses, including the flaviviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus (DENV). DENV infects cells directly or via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in Fc-receptor-bearing cells, a process thought to contribute to severe disease in a secondary infection. Here we investigated whether ADE-mediated DENV infection bypasses IFITM-mediated restriction or whether IFITM proteins

Ying Kai Chan; I-Chueh Huang; Michael Farzan

2012-01-01

351

Safety and pharmacokinetics of vitamin A therapy for infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections.  

PubMed Central

Infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection have low serum vitamin A levels. We treated 21 respiratory syncytial virus-infected children with 12,500 to 25,000 IU of oral vitamin A. Vitamin A levels were normalized at 6 h, and none of the children experienced vitamin A toxicity or exacerbation of respiratory illness. Vitamin A treatment of previously healthy respiratory syncytial virus-infected infants at these doses is safe and well tolerated. PMID:7625814

Neuzil, K M; Gruber, W C; Chytil, F; Stahlman, M T; Graham, B S

1995-01-01

352

Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion  

SciTech Connect

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

Wang, H.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Kao, Y.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, T-J. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wong, M.-L. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

2005-08-26

353

The Warthin-Finkeldey-type giant cell in HIV infection, what is it?  

PubMed

A study was conducted to ascertain the origin of the Warthin-Finkeldey-type giant cell that is common to lymphoid tissues of HIV-infected individuals. Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in situ hybridization (ISH) (HIV-specific RNA), and immunohistochemistry (HIV p24, OPD4, CD3, CD45 UCHL, CD21, CD35, S-100, p55 (actin-bundling protein), CD68, HAM56, alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, and lysozyme) studies were performed on hyperplastic tonsil, adenoid, lymph node, and intestinal MALT specimens from HIV+ patients. Warthin-Finkeldey-type giant cells (WFTGC) and follicular dendritic cells (FDC) shared characteristic morphologic (high N: C ratio; crowded, irregular nuclei; thin filaments with dense bodies; desmosomes; and cilia) and immunophenotypic (CD21+, CD35+, S-100+, p55, and vimentin+) features. Also, transitional forms between binucleated FDC and WFTGC were identified by TEM. TEM and ISH revealed evidence of HIV expression by FDC, but not WFTGC. WFTGC in HIV- lymphoid specimens displayed identical LM and IHC characteristics. The WFTGC in HIV infection appears to represent a multinucleated form of FDC. PMID:9805354

Orenstein, J M

1998-01-01

354

Interferon Alfacon-1 Protects Hamsters from Lethal Pichinde Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Hemorrhagic fever of arenaviral origin is a frequently fatal infectious disease of considerable priority to the biodefense mission. Historically, the treatment of arenaviral infections with alpha interferons has not yielded favorable results. Here we present evidence that interferon alfacon-1, a nonnaturally occurring bioengineered alpha interferon approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, is active against Pichinde and Tacaribe arenaviruses in cell culture. In the hamster model of Pichinde virus (PCV) infection, interferon alfacon-1 treatment significantly protected animals from death, prolonged the survival of those that eventually died, reduced virus titers, and limited liver damage characteristic of PCV-induced disease. Moreover, interferon alfacon-1 also demonstrated therapeutic activity, to a lesser degree, when the initiation of treatment was delayed up to 2 days post-virus challenge. Despite the observed advantages of interferon alfacon-1 therapy, efforts to stimulate the immune system with the known interferon inducer poly(I:C12U) (Ampligen) offered only limited protection against lethal PCV challenge. Taken together, these data suggest that the increased potency of the bio-optimized interferon alfacon-1 molecule may be critical to the observed antiviral effects. These data are the first report demonstrating efficacious treatment of acute arenaviral disease with alpha interferon therapy, and further study is warranted. PMID:15917537

Gowen, Brian B.; Barnard, Dale L.; Smee, Donald F.; Wong, Min-Hui; Pace, Anne M.; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Winslow, Scott G.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Blatt, Lawrence M.; Sidwell, Robert W.

2005-01-01

355

West Nile virus infection and diplopia: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus is a neurotropic virus transmitted to humans via an infected mosquito bite. The increase in the incidences and fatalities of West Nile virus disease has made West Nile virus an important pathogen. Here we describe a case of a 65-year-old man with fever and diplopia presenting to the emergency department during a fall season and who was later diagnosed with West Nile virus infection. Diplopia is an uncommon manifestation of West Nile virus and recognition of the different modes of presentation, especially the uncommon ones like diplopia, will aid in the diagnosis of this emerging infectious disease. PMID:23723715

Dahal, Udip; Mobarakai, Neville; Sharma, Dikshya; Pathak, Bandana

2013-01-01

356

A decrease of circulating CD4? T cells in Attwater's prairie chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus.  

E-print Network

??A problem encountered by captive breeding facilities attempting to save the Attwater's prairie chicken (APC; Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) from extinction is infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus… (more)

Ferro, Pamela Joyce Bloomer

2012-01-01

357

Serum Ferritin as a Predictor of Host Response to Hepatitis B Virus Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With hemodialysis patients, a high serum ferritin before there was serological evidence of hepatitis B virus infection increased the likelihood that the infection would be persistent. This finding suggested that hepatitis B virus is likely to infect and actively replicate in liver cells with the propensity for increased ferritin synthesis. The virus itself could stimulate the synthesis of ferritin in a cyclic positive feedback mechanism that increases intracellular ferritin concentration and, eventually, intracellular iron. Transformed liver cells have low iron content, do not replicate hepatitis B virus, and require iron for growth. Infected, nonmalignant liver cells could supply iron to the transformed cells and nourish their expansion.

Lustbader, Edward D.; Hann, Hie-Won L.; Blumberg, Baruch S.

1983-04-01

358

Ascorbic acid inhibits replication and infectivity of avian RNA tumor virus  

SciTech Connect

Ascorbic acid, at nontoxic concentrations, causes a substantial reduction in the ability of avian tumor viruses to replicate in both primary avian tendon cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts. The virus-infected cultures appear to be less transformed in the presence of ascorbic acid by the criteria of morphology, reduced glucose uptake, and increased collagen synthesis. The vitamin does not act by altering the susceptibility of the cells to initial infection and transformation, but instead appears to interfere with the spread of infection through a reduction in virus replication and virus infectivity. The effect is reversible and requires the continuous presence of the vitamin in the culture medium.

BISSELL, MINA J; HATIE, CARROLL; FARSON, DEBORAH A.; SCHWARZ, RICHARD I.; SOO, WHAI-JEN

1980-04-01

359

Ascorbic Acid Inhibits Replication and Infectivity of Avian RNA Tumor Virus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ascorbic acid, at nontoxic concentrations, causes a substantial reduction in the ability of avian tumor viruses to replicate in both primary avian tendon cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts. The virus-infected cultures appear to be less transformed in the presence of ascorbic acid by the criteria of morphology, reduced glucose uptake, and increased collagen synthesis. The vitamin does not act by altering the susceptibility of the cells to initial infection and transformation, but instead appears to interfere with the spread of infection through a reduction in virus replication and virus infectivity. The effect is reversible and requires the continuous presence of the vitamin in the culture medium.

Bissell, Mina J.; Hatie, Carroll; Farson, Deborah A.; Schwarz, Richard I.; Soo, Whai-Jen

1980-05-01

360

Infection of Chicken Embryonic Fibroblasts by Measles Virus: Adaptation at the Virus Entry Level  

PubMed Central

Measles virus (MV) has a tropism restricted to humans and primates and uses the human CD46 molecule as a cellular receptor. MV has been adapted to grow in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and gave rise to an attenuated live vaccine. Hallé and Schwarz MV strains were compared in their ability to infect both simian Vero cells and CEF. Whereas both strains infected Vero cells, only the CEF-adapted Schwarz strain was able to efficiently infect CEF. Since the expression of the human MV receptor CD46 rendered the chicken embryonic cell line TCF more permissive to the infection by the Hallé MV strain, the MV entry into CEF appeared to be a limiting step in the absence of prior MV adaptation. CEF lacked reactivity with anti-CD46 antibodies but were found to express another protein allowing MV binding as an alternative receptor to CD46. PMID:10233992

Escoffier, Carine; Gerlier, Denis

1999-01-01

361

Bovine viral diarrhea virus infections: manifestations of infection and recent advances in understanding pathogenesis and control.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to be of economic significance to the livestock industry in terms of acute disease and fetal loss. Many of the lesions relating to BVDV infection have been well described previously. The virus is perpetuated in herds through the presence of calves that are persistently infected. Relationships between various species and biotypes of BVDV and host defenses are increasingly understood. Understanding of the host defense mechanisms of innate immunity and adaptive immunity continues to improve, and the effects of the virus on these immune mechanisms are being used to explain how persistent infection develops. The noncytopathic biotype of BVDV plays the major role in its effects on the host defenses by inhibiting various aspects of the innate immune system and creation of immunotolerance in the fetus during early gestation. Recent advances have allowed for development of affordable test strategies to identify and remove persistently infected animals. With these improved tests and removal strategies, the livestock industry can begin more widespread effective control programs. PMID:24476940

Brodersen, B W

2014-03-01

362

NATIONAL PRESS RELEASE I PARIS I 19 NOVEMBER 2014 In order to infect a host cell and proliferate, some viruses, such as the hepatitis C virus,  

E-print Network

, some viruses, such as the hepatitis C virus, infiltrate the ribosomes, the molecular machines of each ribosome is essential for infection by certain viruses without being necessary for normal cell for the infection of cells by certain viruses -- but not essential for normal cell functioning. The ribosome

van Tiggelen, Bart

363

Epizootic canine distemper virus infection among wild mammals.  

PubMed

In the spring of 2007, seven raccoon dogs and a weasel were captured near the city of Tanabe in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The causative agent of the animals' death 1-2 days after capture was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by virus isolation, immunostaining with an anti-CDV polyclonal antibody, and a commercially available CDV antigen-detection kit. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated the isolated viruses belong to genotype Asia-1 and possess the substitution from tyrosine (Y) to histidine (H) at position 549 that is associated with the spread of CDV to non-canine hosts. A serosurvey for CDV was then conducted among wild animals in the region. The animals assayed consisted of 104 raccoons, 41 wild boars, 19 raccoon dogs, five Sika deer, two badgers, one weasel, one marten, one Siberian weasel and one fox. Virus-neutralization (VN) tests showed that, except for fox and weasel, all of the species assayed had VN antibodies to CDV. Interestingly, 11 of the 41 wild boars (27%) and two of the five Sika deer assayed possessed VN antibodies to CDV. These findings indicate that CDV infection was widespread among wild mammals during this epizootic. PMID:21840141

Kameo, Yuki; Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Une, Yumi; Sato, Hiroshi; Shimojima, Masayuki; Maeda, Ken

2012-01-27

364

Pathogenesis of Sendai virus infection in the Syrian hamster.  

PubMed

Young adult male Syrian hamsters were inoculated intranasally with Sendai virus, then killed and examined at postinoculation days (PID) 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, and 21. Evaluation included clinical assessment, histologic examination, immunohistochemistry, viral isolation, and antibody response. Inoculated and control hamsters remained asymptomatic throughout the study. There was a focal to segmental rhinitis involving respiratory tract epithelium lining the dorsal and ventral meatus and nasal septum, and segmental lesions involving all regions of the trachea. At PID 5 and 7, there was focal bronchitis and bronchioloalveolitis, respectively. In general, most lesions had resolved by PID 12, although in hamsters examined at PID 21, residual lesions were present in the nasal passages in one of three, and in the trachea in two of three animals. In immunoperoxidase-stained preparations, viral antigen was present in the respiratory tract epithelium of the nasal passages and trachea beginning at PID 3, with extension to scattered bronchi at PID 5. Sendai virus was recovered from the lungs of inoculated animals at PID 5. Antibodies to Sendai virus were first detected at PID 7, and titers remained high throughout the remainder of the 21-day study. This report provides additional evidence that Syrian hamsters are susceptible to Sendai virus infection, and that the lesions and sites of replication in the upper and lower portions of the respiratory tract are similar to those observed in susceptible strains of laboratory mice. PMID:9150490

Percy, D H; Palmer, D J

1997-04-01

365

Protection against Influenza Virus Infection of Mice Fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater

HISAKO YASUI; JUNKO KIYOSHIMA; TETUJI HORI; KAN SHIDA

1999-01-01

366

Canine distemper virus epithelial cell infection is required for clinical disease but not for immunosuppression.  

PubMed

To characterize the importance of infection of epithelial cells for morbillivirus pathogenesis, we took advantage of the severe disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) in ferrets. To obtain a CDV that was unable to enter epithelial cells but retained the ability to enter immune cells, we transferred to its attachment (H) protein two mutations shown to interfere with the interaction of measles virus H with its epithelial receptor, human nectin-4. As expected for an epithelial receptor (EpR)-blind CDV, this virus infected dog and ferret epithelial cells inefficiently and did not cause cell fusion or syncytium formation. On the other hand, the EpR-blind CDV replicated in cells expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), the morbillivirus immune cell receptor, with similar kinetics to those of wild-type CDV. While ferrets infected with wild-type CDV died within 12 days after infection, after developing severe rash and fever, animals infected with the EpR-blind virus showed no clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, both viruses spread rapidly and efficiently in immune cells, causing similar levels of leukopenia and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation activity, two indicators of morbillivirus immunosuppression. Infection was documented for airway epithelia of ferrets infected with wild-type CDV but not for those of animals infected with the EpR-blind virus, and only animals infected with wild-type CDV shed virus. Thus, epithelial cell infection is necessary for clinical disease and efficient virus shedding but not for immunosuppression. PMID:22278252

Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Hinkelmann, Sarah; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

2012-04-01

367

Persistent Rat Virus Infection in Smooth Muscle of Euthymic and Athymic Rats  

PubMed Central

Rat virus (RV) infection can cause disease or disrupt responses that rely on cell proliferation. Therefore, persistent infection has the potential to amplify RV interference with research. As a step toward determining underlying mechanisms of persistence, we compared acute and persistent RV infections in infant euthymic and athymic rats inoculated oronasally with the University of Massachusetts strain of RV. Rats were assessed by virus isolation, in situ hybridization, and serology. Selected tissues also were analyzed by Southern blotting or immunohistochemistry. Virus was widely disseminated during acute infection in rats of both phenotypes, whereas vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) were the primary targets during persistent infection. The prevalence of virus-positive cells remained moderate to high in athymic rats through 8 weeks but decreased in euthymic rats by 2 weeks, coincident with seroconversion and perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells. Virus-positive pneumocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells also were detected through 8 weeks, implying that kidney and lung excrete virus during persistent infection. Viral mRNA was detected in SMC of both phenotypes through 8 weeks, indicating that persistent infection includes virus replication. However, only half of the SMC containing viral mRNA at 4 weeks stained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a protein expressed in cycling cells. The results demonstrate that vasculotropism is a significant feature of persistent infection, that virus replication continues during persistent infection, and that host immunity reduces, but does not eliminate, infection. PMID:11090184

Jacoby, Robert O.; Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Paturzo, Frank X.; Ball-Goodrich, Lisa

2000-01-01

368

Giant DNA Virus Mimivirus Encodes Pathway for Biosynthesis of Unusual Sugar 4-Amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (Viosamine)*  

PubMed Central

Mimivirus is one the largest DNA virus identified so far, infecting several Acanthamoeba species. Analysis of its genome revealed the presence of a nine-gene cluster containing genes potentially involved in glycan formation. All of these genes are co-expressed at late stages of infection, suggesting their role in the formation of the long fibers covering the viral surface. Among them, we identified the L136 gene as a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent sugar aminotransferase. This enzyme was shown to catalyze the formation of UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (UDP-viosamine) from UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose, a key compound involved also in the biosynthesis of l-rhamnose. This finding further supports the hypothesis that Mimivirus encodes a glycosylation system that is completely independent of the amoebal host. Viosamine, together with rhamnose, (N-acetyl)glucosamine, and glucose, was found as a major component of the viral glycans. Most of the sugars were associated with the fibers, confirming a capsular-like nature of the viral surface. Phylogenetic analysis clearly indicated that L136 was not a recent acquisition from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer, but it was acquired very early during evolution. Implications for the origin of the glycosylation machinery in giant DNA virus are also discussed. PMID:22157758

Piacente, Francesco; Marin, Margherita; Molinaro, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Seltzer, Virginie; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela

2012-01-01

369

Serological survey of Prospect Hill virus infection in indigenous wild rodents in the USA.  

PubMed

We found serological evidence of infection with Prospect Hill virus, a Hantaan-like virus isolated from meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), in microtine and cricetid rodents trapped in Maryland, West Virginia, Minnesota and California, USA. Fluorescent antibodies were detected in sera from M. pennsylvanicus (74/277), M. californicus (39/185), Clethrionomys gapperi (5/51), Peromyscus maniculatus (4/22) and P. truei (1/11). Sera from seropositive P. maniculatus contained neutralizing antibodies against Prospect Hill virus, confirming that infection with Prospect Hill virus or antigenically related viruses is not restricted to microtine rodents in the USA. Despite the widespread distribution of Prospect Hill virus in indigenous rodents, the recent demonstration that American mammalogists are only rarely infected supports the view that the overall risk of Prospect Hill virus infection in man is low. PMID:2895510

Yanagihara, R; Daum, C A; Lee, P W; Baek, L J; Amyx, H L; Gajdusek, D C; Gibbs, C J

1987-01-01

370

Interleukin 28B genetic polymorphism and hepatitis B virus infection  

PubMed Central

Interleukin (IL) 28B genetic polymorphism is significantly associated with the sustained virological response rate in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon-? (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin and with spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance. However, a consensus on the relationship between IL28B genetic polymorphism and the favorable outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus infection defined by hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and/or hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in patients treated with interferon or PEG-IFN has not been reached. Several reports failed to show a positive association, while some studies demonstrated a positive association in certain subject settings. More prospective studies including large cohorts are needed to determine the possible association between IL28B genetic polymorphism and the outcome of interferon or PEG-IFN treatment for chronic hepatitis B. PMID:25232239

Takahashi, Toru

2014-01-01

371

Behavioral characterization of acute phase of Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis virus infection  

E-print Network

Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection induces a bi-phasic disease with distinct acute and chronic infection patterns. This study characterizes the behavioral markers of disease during the acute phase utilizing behavioral tests...

Harrison, Jessica Mary

2013-02-22

372

Spatiotemporal quantification of cell dynamics in the lung following influenza virus infection  

E-print Network

Lung injury caused by influenza virus infection is widespread. Understanding lung damage and repair progression post infection requires quantitative spatiotemporal information on various cell types mapping into the tissue ...

Yin, Lu

373

Early physiological abnormalities after simian immunodeficiency virus infection  

PubMed Central

Central nervous system (CNS) damage and dysfunction are devastating consequences of HIV infection. Although the CNS is one of the initial targets for HIV infection, little is known about early viral-induced abnormalities that can affect CNS function. Here we report the detection of early physiological abnormalities in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. The acute infection caused a disruption of the circadian rhythm manifested by rises in body temperature, observed in all five individuals between 1 and 2 weeks postinoculation (p.i.), accompanied by a reduction in daily motor activity to 50% of control levels. Animals remained hyperthermic at 1 and 2 months p.i. and returned to preinoculation temperatures at 3 months after viral inoculation. Although motor activity recovered to baseline values at 1 month p.i., activity levels then decreased to approximately 50% of preinoculation values over the next 2 months. Analysis of sensory-evoked responses 1 month p.i. revealed distinct infection-induced changes in auditory-evoked potential peak latencies that persisted at 3 months after viral inoculation. These early physiological abnormalities may precede the development of observable cognitive or motor deficiencies and can provide an assay to evaluate agents to prevent or alleviate neuronal dysfunction. PMID:9844017

Horn, Thomas F. W.; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Weed, Michael R.; Henriksen, Steven J.; Fox, Howard S.

1998-01-01

374

Control of acute dengue virus infection by natural killer cells.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide, affecting 50-100 million individuals annually. The clinical picture associated with acute dengue virus (DENV) infections ranges from classical febrile illness to life-threatening disease. The innate immunity is the first line of defense in the control of viral replication. This review will examine the particular role of natural killer (NK) cells in DENV infection. Over recent years, our understanding of the interplay between NK cells and viral pathogenesis has improved significantly. NK cells express an array of inhibitory and activating receptors that enable them to detect infected targets while sparing normal cells, and to recruit adaptive immune cells. To date, the exact mechanism by which NK cells may contribute to the control of DENV infection remains elusive. Importantly, DENV has acquired mechanisms to evade NK cell responses, further underlining the relevance of these cells in pathophysiology. Hence, understanding how NK cells affect the outcome of DENV infection could benefit the management of this acute disease. PMID:24860571

Petitdemange, Caroline; Wauquier, Nadia; Rey, Juliana; Hervier, Baptiste; Leroy, Eric; Vieillard, Vincent

2014-01-01

375

Mouse macrophage innate immune response to chikungunya virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with Chikungunya alphavirus (CHIKV) can cause severe arthralgia and chronic arthritis in humans with persistence of the virus in perivascular macrophages of the synovial membrane by mechanisms largely ill-characterized. Findings We herein analysed the innate immune response (cytokine and programmed cell death) of RAW264.7 mouse macrophages following CHIKV infection. We found that the infection was restrained to a small percentage of cells and was not associated with a robust type I IFN innate immune response (IFN-?4 and ISG56). TNF-?, IL-6 and GM-CSF expression were upregulated while IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 or IL-17 expression could not be evidenced prior to and after CHIKV exposure. Although CHIKV is known to drive apoptosis in many cell types, we found no canonical signs of programmed cell death (cleaved caspase-3, -9) in infected RAW264.7 cells. Conclusion These data argue for the capacity of CHIKV to infect and drive a specific innate immune response in RAW264.7 macrophage cell which seems to be polarized to assist viral persistence through the control of apoptosis and IFN signalling. PMID:23253140

2012-01-01

376

Respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants affected by primary immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population. PMID:25089282

Lanari, Marcello; Vandini, Silvia; Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

2014-01-01

377

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population. PMID:25089282

Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

2014-01-01

378

Innate immune recognition of respiratory syncytial virus infection  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory infection in infants and young children. Severe clinical manifestation of RSV infection is a bronchiolitis, which is common in infants under six months of age. Recently, RSV has been recognized as an important cause of respiratory infection in older populations with cardiovascular morbidity or immunocompromised patients. However, neither a vaccine nor an effective antiviral therapy is currently available. Moreover, the interaction between the host immune system and the RSV pathogen during an infection is not well understood. The innate immune system recognizes RSV through multiple mechanisms. The first innate immune RSV detectors are the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), and nucleotide-biding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). The following is a review of studies associated with various PRRs that are responsible for RSV virion recognition and subsequent induction of the antiviral immune response during RSV infection. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(4): 184-191] PMID:24568879

Lee, Heung Kyu

2014-01-01

379

Management of Hepatitis B virus infection during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects over 2 billion people worldwide, with approximately 360 million chronically infected. It results in substantial morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 600,000 deaths per year. In endemic areas, mother to child transmission (MTCT) is the most important source of new infections, but even in areas with low endemicity, over 1/3 of infections can still be attributed to this route. Although very effective active-passive immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and HBV vaccine is available, even with full compliance, failure can be seen in highly viremic mothers who are positive for hepatitis B e antigen. Potential means of reducing the risk of MTCT include nucleotide/nucleoside antiviral agents, interferon in very select cases, and mode of delivery. Determining the optimal therapy and its timing, and preventing both obstetric and liver related complications remains a challenge, but is also an important opportunity to reduce chronic hepatitis B infection. In this review, we provide an overview of issues associated with hepatitis B and its treatment during pregnancy, and suggest an algorithm for management. PMID:25275811

Vodkin, I; Patton, H

2014-12-01

380

Repurposing of prochlorperazine for use against dengue virus infection.  

PubMed

The increasing prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) infection presents serious disease and economic burdens in countries where dengue epidemics are occurring. Despite the clinical importance, no DENV vaccine or anti-DENV drug is available. In this study, we found that prochlorperazine (PCZ), a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist approved to treat nausea, vomiting, and headache in humans has potent in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity against DENV infection. PCZ can block DENV infection by targeting viral binding and viral entry through D2R- and clathrin-associated mechanisms, respectively. Administration of PCZ immediately or 6 hours after DENV infection in a Stat1-deficient mouse model completely protected against or delayed lethality. Overall, PCZ showed a previously unknown antiviral effect against DENV infection, and D2R may play a role in the DENV life cycle. Prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment with PCZ might reduce viral replication and relieve the clinical symptoms of patients with dengue. PMID:25028694

Simanjuntak, Yogy; Liang, Jian-Jong; Lee, Yi-Ling; Lin, Yi-Ling

2015-02-01

381

Remarkable sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus  

PubMed Central

Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus (HcDNAV; previously designated as HcV) is a giant virus (girus) with a ~356-kbp double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. HcDNAV lytically infects the bivalve-killing marine dinoflagellate H. circularisquama, and currently represents the sole DNA virus isolated from dinoflagellates, one of the most abundant protists in marine ecosystems. Its morphological features, genome type, and host range previously suggested that HcDNAV might be a member of the family Phycodnaviridae of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDVs), though no supporting sequence data was available. NCLDVs currently include two families found in aquatic environments (Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae), one mostly infecting terrestrial animals (Poxviridae), another isolated from fish, amphibians and insects (Iridoviridae), and the last one (Asfarviridae) exclusively represented by the animal pathogen African swine fever virus (ASFV), the agent of a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine. In this study, we determined the complete sequence of the type B DNA polymerase (PolB) gene of HcDNAV. The viral PolB was transcribed at least from 6 h post inoculation (hpi), suggesting its crucial function for viral replication. Most unexpectedly, the HcDNAV PolB sequence was found to be closely related to the PolB sequence of ASFV. In addition, the amino acid sequence of HcDNAV PolB showed a rare amino acid substitution within a motif containing highly conserved motif: YSDTDS was found in HcDNAV PolB instead of YGDTDS in most dsDNA viruses. Together with the previous observation of ASFV-like sequences in the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic datasets, our results further reinforce the ideas that the terrestrial ASFV has its evolutionary origin in marine environments. PMID:19860921

Ogata, Hiroyuki; Toyoda, Kensuke; Tomaru, Yuji; Nakayama, Natsuko; Shirai, Yoko; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Nagasaki, Keizo

2009-01-01

382

Measles Virus Infection Induces Terminal Differentiation of Human Thymic Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Measles virus infection induces a profound immunosuppression that may lead to serious secondary infections and mortality. In this report, we show that the human cortical thymic epithelial cell line is highly susceptible to measles virus infection in vitro, resulting in infectious viral particle production and syncytium formation. Measles virus inhibits thymic epithelial cell growth and induces an arrest in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle. Moreover, we show that measles virus induces a progressive thymic epithelial cell differentiation process: attached measles virus-infected epithelial cells correspond to an intermediate state of differentiation while floating cells, recovered from cell culture supernatants, are fully differentiated. Measles virus-induced thymic epithelial cell differentiation is characterized by morphological and phenotypic changes. Measles virus-infected attached cells present fusiform and stellate shapes followed by a loss of cell-cell contacts and a shift from low- to high-molecular-weight keratin expression. Measles virus infection induces thymic epithelial cell apoptosis in terminally differentiated cells, revealed by the condensation and degradation of DNA in measles virus-infected floating thymic epithelial cells. Because thymic epithelial cells are required for the generation of immunocompetent T lymphocytes, our results suggest that measles virus-induced terminal differentiation of thymic epithelial cells may contribute to immunosuppression, particularly in children, in whom the thymic microenvironment is of critical importance for the development and maturation of a functional immune system. PMID:9971804

Valentin, Hélène; Azocar, Olga; Horvat, Branka; Williems, Rejane; Garrone, Robert; Evlashev, Alexei; Toribio, Maria L.; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal

1999-01-01

383

Induction of Partial Specific Heterotypic Immunity in Mice by a Single Infection with Influenza A Virus  

PubMed Central

Schulman, Jerome L. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.), and Edwin D. Kilbourne. Induction of partial specific heterotypic immunity in mice by a single infection with influenza A virus. J. Bacteriol. 89:170–174. 1965.—Mice infected 4 weeks previously with influenza A virus were found to be partially immune when challenged with influenza A2 virus. This partial immunity was demonstrated by reduced titers of pulmonary virus, decreased mortality, and less extensive lung lesions. A specific immunological basis for this protection was suggested by the absence of any protection in animals previously infected with influenza B virus when challenged with A2 virus, or in animals previously infected with influenza A virus when challenged with influenza B virus. Parenteral inoculation with inactivated influenza A virus did not induce partial immunity to A2 virus challenge. An accelerated rise of hemagglutinating-inhibiting antibody after A2 virus challenge was demonstrated in animals previously infected with influenza A virus. PMID:14255658

Schulman, Jerome L.; Kilbourne, Edwin D.

1965-01-01

384

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus): Vertical transmission, seed infection and cryptic infections  

PubMed Central

The role played by seed transmission in the evolution and epidemiology of viral crop pathogens remains unclear. We determined the seed infection and vertical transmission rates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), in addition to undertaking Illumina sequencing of nine vertically transmitted ZYMV populations. We previously determined the seed-to-seedling transmission rate of ZYMV in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (a wild gourd) to be 1.6%, and herein observed a similar rate (1.8%) in the subsequent generation. We also observed that the seed infection rate is substantially higher (21.9%) than the seed-to-seedling transmission rate, suggesting that a major population bottleneck occurs during seed germination and seedling growth. In contrast, that two thirds of the variants present in the horizontally transmitted inoculant population were also present in the vertically transmitted populations implies that the bottleneck at vertical transmission may not be particularly severe. Strikingly, all of the vertically infected plants were symptomless in contrast to those infected horizontally, suggesting that vertical infection may be cryptic. Although no known virulence determining mutations were observed in the vertically infected samples, the 5’ untranslated region was highly variable, with at least 26 different major haplotypes in this region compared to the two major haplotypes observed in the horizontally transmitted population. That the regions necessary for vector transmission are retained in the vertically infected populations, combined with the cryptic nature of vertical infection, suggests that seed transmission may be a significant contributor to the spread of ZYMV. PMID:23845301

Simmons, H.E.; Dunham, J.P.; Zinn, K. E.; Munkvold, G.P.; Holmes, E.C.; Stephenson, A.G.

2013-01-01

385

BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS PERSISTENTLY INFECTED AND ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES: ASSAYS FOR VIRAL INFECTIVITY, POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ANALYSIS, AND ANTIGEN DETECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are numerous assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detecting infectious virus, nucleic material, and antigen. Persistently infected (PI) and acutely/transiently infected calves with BVDV represent two different manifestations. Diagnostic test results impact on differentiation of PI o...

386

Short-Lived Infected Cells Support Virus Replication in Sooty Mangabeys Naturally Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis?  

PubMed Central

Sooty mangabeys (SMs) naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop AIDS despite high levels of virus replication. At present, the mechanisms underlying this disease resistance are poorly understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIV-infected SMs avoid immunodeficiency as a result of virus replication occurring in infected cells that live significantly longer than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected human cells. To this end, we treated six SIV-infected SMs with potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) and longitudinally measured the decline in plasma viremia. We applied the same mathematical models used in HIV-infected individuals and observed that SMs naturally infected with SIV also present a two-phase decay of viremia following ART, with the bulk (92 to 99%) of virus replication sustained by short-lived cells (average life span, 1.06 days), and only 1 to 8% occurring in longer-lived cells. In addition, we observed that ART had a limited impact on CD4+ T cells and the prevailing level of T-cell activation and proliferation in SIV-infected SMs. Collectively, these results suggest that in SIV-infected SMs, similar to HIV type 1-infected humans, short-lived activated CD4+ T cells, rather than macrophages, are the main source of virus production. These findings indicate that a short in vivo life span of infected cells is a common feature of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic primate lentivirus infections and support a model for AIDS pathogenesis whereby the direct killing of infected cells by HIV is not the main determinant of disease progression. PMID:18216113

Gordon, Shari N.; Dunham, Richard M.; Engram, Jessica C.; Estes, Jacob; Wang, Zichun; Klatt, Nichole R.; Paiardini, Mirko; Pandrea, Ivona V.; Apetrei, Cristian; Sodora, Donald L.; Lee, Ha Youn; Haase, Ashley T.; Miller, Michael D.; Kaur, Amitinder; Staprans, Silvija I.; Perelson, Alan S.; Feinberg, Mark B.; Silvestri, Guido

2008-01-01

387

Noninvasive and label-free determination of virus infected cells by Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The present study demonstrates that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the detection of virus-infected cells. Adenovirus infection of human embryonic kidney 293 cells was successfully detected at 12, 24, and 48 h after initiating the infection. The score plot of principal component analysis discriminated the spectra of the infected cells from those of the control cells. The viral infection was confirmed by the conventional immunostaining method performed 24 h after the infection. The newly developed method provides a fast and label-free means for the detection of virus-infected cells. PMID:24898605

Moor, Kamila; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Myrzakozha, Diyas; Zhanserkenova, Orik; Andriana, Bibin B; Sato, Hidetoshi

2014-06-01

388

Noninvasive and label-free determination of virus infected cells by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study demonstrates that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the detection of virus-infected cells. Adenovirus infection of human embryonic kidney 293 cells was successfully detected at 12, 24, and 48 h after initiating the infection. The score plot of principal component analysis discriminated the spectra of the infected cells from those of the control cells. The viral infection was confirmed by the conventional immunostaining method performed 24 h after the infection. The newly developed method provides a fast and label-free means for the detection of virus-infected cells.

Moor, Kamila; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Myrzakozha, Diyas; Zhanserkenova, Orik; Andriana, Bibin. B.; Sato, Hidetoshi

2014-06-01

389

Characterization of Pichinde virus infection of cells of the monocytic lineage.  

PubMed Central

To establish a model of viral infection of monocytes, we examined infection of human cells and cell lines of the monocytic series with the arenavirus Pichinde virus. We demonstrate for the first time that human peripheral blood monocytes are susceptible to Pichinde virus infection, as shown by immunoprecipatation of virus-specific polypeptides from infected cells, immunofluorescence analyses, and quantitation of virus production from infected cells. The human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60 did not support Pichinde virus replication, even if cells were induced with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to differentiate to monocytes. However, the human promonocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 did support Pichinde virus replication. Replication depended on exposure of the cells to PMA. We examined the nature of the effect of PMA in the induction of THP-1 cells to support Pichinde virus replication. We found that 5 min of exposure of THP-1 cells to PMA is sufficient to support virus growth and that PMA-treated THP-1 cells remain susceptible to infection up to 4 days after the initial PMA treatment. We also showed that infection of PMA-treated THP-1 cells is mediated through protein kinase C (PKC). H7, a PKC inhibitor, was able to block both PMA-induced differentiation and Pichinde virus infection of THP-1 cells. The synthetic diacylglycerol and PKC agonist, diC8, was able to stimulate THP-1 cells to support virus growth, albeit to lower levels than PMA. Dactinomycin abrogated the ability of virus to replicate and suggested a requirement for host cell transcription. The PMA effect did not appear to relate to receptor modulation. These results suggest that PMA-induced susceptibility to Pichinde virus infection occurs at a point later than the initial binding and penetration stages and that infection depends on the activation or differentiation state of the cell. Images PMID:2041083

Polyak, S J; Rawls, W E; Harnish, D G

1991-01-01

390

Psychosocial implications of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Fifty seven patients experiencing first attacks of genital herpes simplex virus infection (HSVI) were compared with 50 patients who were concerned about frequently recurring attacks despite routine counselling and reassurance. Using the general health questionnaire this latter group was found to be more psychologically distressed and more socially naive than the first attack group, as measured by socioeconomic class and the lie score of the Eysenck personality questionnaire; otherwise the two groups were similar. Patients presenting to clinics with frequently recurring genital HSVI may therefore be especially psychologically distressed, socially naive, and disadvantaged. Managing these patients needs to include understanding these problems as well as giving advice and using antiviral agents. PMID:3203933

Goldmeier, D; Johnson, A; Byrne, M; Barton, S

1988-01-01

391

Complement-fixing reactivity of Varicella-Zoster virus subunit antigens with sera from homotypic infections and heterotypic Herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed Central

Various subunit antigens of varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus were examined for complement-fixing (CF) activity with sera from homotypic infections and from herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in which a CF antibody titer rise was demonstrated with crude V-Z antigen. The subunit antigens included nucleocapsids, envelopes, a soluble antigen produced from infected culture fluids by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, a soluble antigen produced by reducing the volume of clarified infected culture fluids, a soluble antigen derived from infected cell lysates, a "viral" antigen consisting largely of enveloped particles with a few nucleocapsids, and a cell membrane-associated antigen. None was more suitable than crude V-Z antigen for serodifferentiation of V-Z virus and HSV infections. The envelope antigen, cell membrane antigen, and the soluble antigen prepared by density gradient centrifugation showed little reactivity with sera from varicella and HSV infections, but gave high antibody titers with sera from zoster infections, suggesting that a secondary V-Z virus infection is required to produce an antibody response to these subunit antigens. Patients with varicella and zoster infections and the selected patients with HSV infections all showed significant CF antibody responses to the other V-Z subunit antigens. PMID:192677

Schmidt, N J; Dennis, J; Lennette, E H

1977-01-01

392

Giant magnetoimpedance-based microchannel system for quick and parallel genotyping of human papilloma virus type 16/18  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quick and parallel genotyping of human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16/18 is carried out by a specially designed giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) based microchannel system. Micropatterned soft magnetic ribbon exhibiting large GMI ratio serves as the biosensor element. HPV genotyping can be determined by the changes in GMI ratio in corresponding detection region after hybridization. The result shows that this system has great potential in future clinical diagnostics and can be easily extended to other biomedical applications based on molecular recognition.

Yang, Hao; Chen, Lei; Lei, Chong; Zhang, Ju; Li, Ding; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Bao, Chen-Chen; Hu, Heng-Yao; Chen, Xiang; Cui, Feng; Zhang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Yong; Cui, Da-Xiang

2010-07-01

393

Dendritic Cells in Dengue Virus Infection: Targets of Virus Replication and Mediators of Immunity  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system and detect pathogens at sites of entry, such as the skin. In addition to the ability of DCs to control infections directly via their innate immune functions, DCs help to prime adaptive B- and T-cell responses by processing and presenting antigen in lymphoid tissues. Infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes transmit the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes to humans while probing for small blood vessels in the skin. DENV causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans, yet no vaccine or specific therapeutic is currently licensed. Although primary DENV infection confers life-long protective immunity against re-infection with the same DENV serotype, secondary infection with a different DENV serotype can lead to increased disease severity via cross-reactive T-cells or enhancing antibodies. This review summarizes recent findings in humans and animal models about DENV infection of DCs, monocytes, and macrophages. We discuss the dual role of DCs as both targets of DENV replication and mediators of innate and adaptive immunity, and summarize immune evasion strategies whereby DENV impairs the function of infected DCs. We suggest that DCs play a key role in priming DENV-specific neutralizing or potentially harmful memory B- and T-cell responses, and that future DC-directed therapies may help induce protective memory responses and reduce dengue pathogenesis. PMID:25566258

Schmid, Michael A.; Diamond, Michael S.; Harris, Eva

2014-01-01

394

Invariant NKT Cell Response to Dengue Virus Infection in Human  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue viral infection is a global health threat without vaccine or specific treatment. The clinical outcome varies from asymptomatic, mild dengue fever (DF) to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). While adaptive immune responses were found to be detrimental in the dengue pathogenesis, the roles of earlier innate events remain largely uninvestigated. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells represent innate-like T cells that could dictate subsequent adaptive response but their role in human dengue virus infection is not known. We hypothesized that iNKT cells play a role in human dengue infection. Methods Blood samples from a well-characterized cohort of children with DF, DHF, in comparison to non-dengue febrile illness (OFI) and healthy controls at various time points were studied. iNKT cells activation were analyzed by the expression of CD69 by flow cytometry. Their cytokine production was then analyzed after ?-GalCer stimulation. Further, the CD1d expression on monocytes, and CD69 expression on conventional T cells were measured. Results iNKT cells were activated during acute dengue infection. The level of iNKT cell activation associates with the disease severity. Furthermore, these iNKT cells had altered functional response to subsequent ex vivo stimulation with ?-GalCer. Moreover, during acute dengue infection, monocytic CD1d expression was also upregulated and conventional T cells also became activated. Conclusion iNKT cells might play an early and critical role in the pathogenesis of severe dengue viral infection in human. Targeting iNKT cells and CD1d serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for severe dengue infection in the future. PMID:24945350

Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Chan-in, Wilawan; Opasawaschai, Anunya; Pongchaikul, Pisut; Tangthawornchaikul, Nattaya; Vasanawathana, Sirijitt; Limpitikul, Wannee; Malasit, Prida; Duangchinda, Thaneeya; Screaton, Gavin; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip

2014-01-01

395

Rabbitpox virus and vaccinia virus infection of rabbits as a model for human smallpox.  

PubMed

The threat of smallpox release and use as a bioweapon has encouraged the search for new vaccines and antiviral drugs, as well as development of new small-animal models in which their efficacy can be determined. Here, we reinvestigate a rabbit model in which the intradermal infection of rabbits with very low doses of either rabbitpox virus (RPV) or vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VV-WR) recapitulates many of the clinical features of human smallpox. Following intradermal inoculation with RPV, rabbits develop systemic disease characterized by extensive viremia, numerous secondary lesions on the skin and mucocutaneous tissues, severe respiratory disease, death by 9 days postinfection, and, importantly, natural aerosol transmission between animals. Contrary to previous reports, intradermal infection with VV-WR also resulted in a very similar lethal systemic disease in rabbits, again with natural aerosol transmission between animals. When sentinel and index animals were cohoused, transmission rates approached 100% with either virus, with sentinel animals exhibiting a similar, severe disease. Lower rates of transmission were observed when index and sentinel animals were housed in separate cages. Sentinel animals infected with RPV with one exception succumbed to the disease. However, the majority of VV-WR-infected sentinel animals, while becoming seriously ill, survived. Finally, we tested the efficacy of the drug 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir in the RPV/rabbit model and found that an oral dose of 5 mg/kg twice a day for 5 days beginning 1 day before infection was able to completely protect rabbits from lethal disease. PMID:17686856

Adams, Mathew M; Rice, Amanda D; Moyer, R W

2007-10-01

396

Diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a three-year period, 54 episodes of pneumonia were diagnosed in 45 adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These episodes were reviewed in order to assess the distribution of pathogens and their clinical presentation. Thirty-six episodes were due to an opportunistic pathogen (Pneumocystis carinii in 31,Mycobacterium avium complex in 3,Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2), and 18 were caused by

J. P. Chave; J. Bille; M. P. Glauser; P. Francioli

1989-01-01

397

Overview of Substance Abuse and Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Co-infections in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can have devastating long-term sequelae. It is very common in injecting drug users (IDU)\\u000a worldwide. India has a huge number of substance abusers, with an estimated 1.1 million IDU. Research on HCV prevalence in\\u000a IDU and especially other substance use is sparse. This review identified 15 such studies. Some of these also studied prevalence\\u000a of

Debasish Basu

2010-01-01

398

Modulation of HLA-G and HLA-E expression in human neuronal cells after rabies virus or herpes virus simplex type -1 infections  

E-print Network

1 Modulation of HLA-G and HLA-E expression in human neuronal cells after rabies virus or herpes@pasteur.fr Key words : HLA-G, HLA-E, rabies virus, HSV-1, neurons, Ntera-2-D/1 Abbreviations : RABV (rabies virus), a neurotropic virus inducing chronic infection and neuron latency, and rabies virus (RABV), a neuronotropic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Subgroup characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus strains recovered from children with two consecutive infections.  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus strains from 13 children who had repeat infections at least 1 year apart were identified as either subgroup A or subgroup B according to reaction patterns with several monoclonal antibodies directed against the large surface glycoprotein (G), fusion protein (F), nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix protein (M). The virus strains were characterized by enzyme immunoassay, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescence procedures. During the first infection, 10 children had subgroup A strains and 3 had subgroup B strains. Of the 10 children with subgroup A strains during their first infection, 6 had subgroup B and 4 had subgroup A strains during the second infection. Of the three children with subgroup B strains during their first infection, one had subgroup A and two had subgroup B strains during their second infection. No child experienced unusually severe respiratory tract illnesses during second infections with respiratory syncytial virus. Fourfold or greater rises in serum antibody as determined by enzyme immunoassay were as common after the first infection as after the second infection among the seven children tested. Thus, second infections with strains of either subgroup of respiratory syncytial virus did not potentiate respiratory illness, and infection with subgroup A strains of respiratory syncytial virus provided some protection from a second infection with the homologous, but not the heterologous, subgroup of the virus. PMID:3305568

Mufson, M A; Belshe, R B; Orvell, C; Norrby, E

1987-01-01

400

The green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate inhibits chikungunya virus infection.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions, including Europe and the United States of America and might cause new, large outbreaks there. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, has, among other beneficial properties, antiviral activities. Therefore, we examined if EGCG has antiviral activity against CHIKV. EGCG inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro, blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV attachment to target cells. Thus EGCG might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs. PMID:25446334

Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; von Rhein, Christine; Kümmerer, Beate M; Schnierle, Barbara S

2015-01-01

401

Hepatitis B virus transcription in the infected liver.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription was studied in the liver of an infected chimpanzee and compared with HBV transcription in heterologous systems. Besides the well characterized 2.3-kb surface antigen mRNA produced in most systems, a second major transcript was identified in the liver. This 3.8-kb transcript (+/- 300 bases) is slightly larger than the HBV genome and is probably involved both in core/e antigen synthesis and in HBV replication via reverse transcription. In addition, minor variants of the 2.3-kb surface antigen mRNA were characterized as probably being involved in the expression of HBsAg-related minor proteins. Finally, several potential transcription signals, identified on the HBV genome using heterologous expression systems, were found to be poorly active if at all in the infected liver, thereby stressing the importance of HBV transcription studies performed with liver material. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6092066

Cattaneo, R; Will, H; Schaller, H

1984-01-01

402

[Factors involved in resistance to human immunodeficiency virus infection].  

PubMed

Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not always associated with infection and a subset of individuals remains persistently as HIV-seronegative despite multiple episodes of HIV exposure. These individuals are called HIV-exposed seronegatives (ESN). Several genetic and immunological factors have been involved in this resistance to HIV acquisition. Genetic factors have been linked to genes encoding chemokine receptors and their natural ligands as well as genes of the major histocompatibility complex. Immunological factors include both innate and adaptive immunity. The study of ESN provides a unique opportunity to unveil the mechanisms of natural protection against viral infection. Their better understanding may lead to novel preventive and immune-therapeutic approaches, including vaccines. PMID:21382628

Restrepo, Clara; Rallón, Norma Ibón; Benito, José Miguel

2011-11-19

403

La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

Robinson, JL

2011-01-01

404

Clinicopathological observations in experimental peste des petit ruminants virus and Mannheimia haemolytica A:2 co-infection in goats.  

PubMed

The experiment describes for the first time the clinicopathological features of the co-infection of Peste des petit Ruminants (PPR) virus and Mannheimia haemolytica,in goats. Twenty clinically healthy goats, six months of age were used. 15 goats were infected by intratracheal inoculation of 1ml of pure cultured 106.5 TCID50 PPR virus grown in Baby hamster kidney cell lines, and a week later,1 ml of pure culture (109 CFU) of Mannheimia haemolytica (MH)A2 to study its clinico-pathological features and five goats served as controls. The clinical signs were observed and two goats were euthanized at predetermined intervals for gross examinations, bacteriological, virological and histopathological investigations on tissues collected using standard techniques. The clinical signs were severe and the order of manifestation was anorexia, pyrexia, dyspnea, oculo-nasal discharge, recumbency and death. The lesions observed were severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia and pleurisy with thickened alveolar septa, edema and neutrophilic infiltrations of the interstitium with giant cells. There was also marked erosive stomatitis and acute enteritis. The average percentage lung consolidation for the infection was 7.01% and the right lung was more affected (p<0.05) while the overall mortality was 33.3%. MHA:2 and PPR virus were re-isolated from the lungs. The clinicopathological features observed showed that goats were susceptible to co- infection of PPR and Mannheimiosis which was severe and fatal. The data should help veterinarians and other medical experts to recognize cases of bacterial complicated viral infection and be informed of the approach to the treatment of such conditions. PMID:23652226

Emikpe, B O; Akpavie, S O

2012-01-01

405

Hepatitis B and C infection and liver disease trends among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine trends in and correlates of liver disease and viral hepatitis in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cohort. METHODS: The multi-site adult/adolescent spectrum of HIV-related diseases (ASD) followed 29?490 HIV-infected individuals receiving medical care in 11 U.S. metropolitan areas for an average of 2.4 years, and a total of 69?487 person-years, between 1998 and 2004. ASD collected data on the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of HIV, including liver disease, hepatitis screening, and hepatitis diagnoses. RESULTS: Incident liver disease, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were diagnosed in 0.9, 1.8, and 4.7 per 100 person-years. HBV and HCV screening increased from fewer than 20% to over 60% during this period of observation (P < 0.001). Deaths occurred in 57% of those diagnosed with liver disease relative to 15% overall (P < 0.001). Overall 10% of deaths occurred among individuals with a diagnosis of liver disease. Despite care guidelines promoting screening and vaccination for HBV and screening for HCV, screening and vaccination were not universally conducted or, if conducted, not documented. CONCLUSION: Due to high rates of incident liver disease, viral hepatitis screening, vaccination, and treatment among HIV-infected individuals should be a priority. PMID:21528052

Buskin, Susan E; Barash, Elizabeth A; Scott, John D; Aboulafia, David M; Wood, Robert W

2011-01-01

406

Monitoring of West Nile virus infections in Germany.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between ornithophilic mosquitoes, mainly of the Culex genus, and certain wild bird species. Other bird species like ravens, jays and raptors are highly susceptible to the infection and may develop deadly encephalitis, while further species of birds are only going through subclinical infection. The objective of this study was to continue in years 2009-2011 the serological and molecular surveillance in wild birds in Germany (see Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 10, 639) and to expand these investigations for the first time also to sera from domestic poultry and horses collected between 2005 and 2009. All three cohorts function as indicators for the endemic circulation of WNV. The presence of WNV-specific antibodies was detected in all samples by virus neutralization test (VNT), indirect immunofluorescence test (IFT) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of WNV genomes was monitored in relevant sera using two qRT-PCRs that amplify lineage 1 and 2 strains. A total of 364 migratory and resident wild bird serum samples (with emphasis on Passeriformes and Falconiformes) as well as 1119 serum samples from domestic poultry and 1282 sera from horses were analysed. With the exception of one hooded crow, antibody carriers were exclusively found in migratory birds, but not in resident birds/domestic poultry or in local horses. Crows are facultative, short-distance winter migrants in Germany. WNV-specific nucleic acids could not be demonstrated in any of the samples. According to these data, there is no convincing evidence for indigenous WNV infections in equines and in wild/domestic birds in Germany. However, since a few years, WNV infections are endemic in other European countries such as Austria, Hungary, Greece and Italy, a state-of-the-art surveillance system for the detection of incursions of WNV into Germany deems mandatory. PMID:22958253

Ziegler, U; Seidowski, D; Angenvoort, J; Eiden, M; Müller, K; Nowotny, N; Groschup, M H

2012-09-01

407

Human West Nile virus infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

Aim To describe the first two cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive infections in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods At the Clinic for Infectious Diseases of the University Clinical Centre Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), specific screening for WNV infection was performed on patients with neuroinvasive diseases from 1 August to 31 October 2013. Serum samples were tested for the presence of WNV IgM and IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); positive serum samples were further analyzed by detection of WNV nucleic acid of two distinct lineages (lineage 1 and lineage 2) in sera by RT-PCR. Results Three (out of nine) patients met clinical criteria, and two of them had high serum titre of WNV specific IgM antibodies (3.5 and 5.2). Serum RT-PCR testing was negative. Conformation by neutralization testing was not performed. Both cases represented with encephalitis. None of these cases had recent travel history in WNW endemic areas, or history of blood transfusion and organ transplantation, so they represented autochthonous cases. Conclusion Although there were no previous reports of flavivirus infections in BiH, described cases had high titre of WNV specific antibodies in serum, and negative flavivirus-vaccination history, they were defined as probable cases because recommended testing for case confirmation was not performed. The West Nile virus should be considered a possible causative pathogen in this area, probably in patients with mild influenza-like disease of unknown origin and those with neuroinvasive disease during late summer and early autumn. Key words: neuroinvasive infections, encephalitis, flaviviruses. PMID:25669336

Ahmetagi?, Sead; Petkovi?, Jovan; Huki?, Mirsada; Smriko-Nuhanovi?, Arnela; Pilji?, Dilista

2015-02-01

408

Evidence for Endemic Chikungunya Virus Infections in Bandung, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2%) dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1%) CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March). Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia. PMID:24205417

Kosasih, Herman; de Mast, Quirijn; Widjaja, Susana; Sudjana, Primal; Antonjaya, Ungke; Ma'roef, Chairin; Riswari, Silvita Fitri; Porter, Kevin R.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van der Ven, Andre; Williams, Maya

2013-01-01

409

Synergistic pathogenic effects of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

To study interactions between avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the effects of co-infection on pathogenicity of these viruses, 1-day-old broiler chicks were infected with ALV-J, REV or both ALV-J and REV. The results indicated that co-infection of ALV-J and REV induced more growth retardation and higher mortality rate than ALV-J or REV single infection (P < 0.05). Chickens co-infected with ALV-J and REV also showed more severe immunosuppression than those with a single infection. This was manifested by significantly lower bursa of Fabricius and thymus to body weight ratios and lower antibody responses to Newcastle disease virus and H9-avian influenza virus (P < 0.05). Perihepatitis and pericarditis related to severe infection with Escherichia coli were found in many of the dead birds. E. coli was isolated from each case of perihepatitis and pericarditis. The mortality associated with E. coli infection in the co-infection groups was significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Among 516 tested E. coli isolates from 58 dead birds, 12 serotypes of the O-antigen were identified in two experiments. Different serotypes of E. coli strains were even isolated from the same organ of the same bird. Diversification of O-serotypes suggested that perihepatitis and pericarditis associated with E. coli infection was the most frequent secondary infection following the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J and REV co-infection. These results suggested that the co-infection of ALV-J and REV caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects, growth retardation, immunosuppression, and secondary E. coli infection in broiler chickens. PMID:25484188

Dong, Xuan; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang; Ju, Sidi; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

2015-02-01

410

WEST NILE VIRUS AND GREATER SAGE-GROUSE: ESTIMATING INFECTION RATE IN A WILD BIRD POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Understanding impacts of disease on wild bird populations requires knowing not only susceptibility to mortality following infection, but also the proportion of the population that is infected. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus )i n western North America are known to be extremely susceptible to mortality following infection with West Nile virus (WNv), but actual infection rates in wild populations remain

BRETT L. WALKER; DAVID E. NAUGLE; A Kevin; E. Doherty

2007-01-01

411

Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys.  

PubMed

Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time. PMID:24393488

Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

2014-01-01

412

Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys  

PubMed Central

Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time. PMID:24393488

2014-01-01

413

Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Injection Drug Users with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in southern Taiwan. For 562 IDUs (265 anti-HIV negative, 297 anti-HIV positive), we analyzed liver function, anti-HIV antibody, anti-HCV antibody, HCV viral loads, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HIV RNA viral loads and CD4 cell count for anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs and the HCV genotype for HCV RNA-seropositive IDUs were measured. The seroprevalence rates of anti-HIV, anti-HCV, and HBsAg were 52.8%, 91.3%, and 15.3%, respectively. All the anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs were positive for HIV RNA. Anti-HCV seropositivity was the most important factor associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR], 25.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 8.97–74.9), followed by male gender (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 4.05–9.39) and HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11–3.34). Among IDUs positive for anti-HCV, 80.7% had detectable HCV RNA. HCV viremia after HCV exposure was strongly related to HIV infection (OR, 6.262; 95% CI, 1.515–18.28), but negatively correlated to HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 0.161; 95% CI, 0.082–0.317). HCV genotype 6 was the most prevalent genotype among all IDUs (41.0%), followed by genotypes 1 (32.3%), 3 (12.8%), and 2 (5.6%). In conclusion, about half IDUs were infected with HIV and >90% with HCV infection. Male and seropositivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV were factors related to HIV infection among our IDUs. HIV was positively correlated, whereas hepatitis B co-infection was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among IDUs with HCV exposure. Different HCV molecular epidemiology was noted among IDUs. PMID:24722534

Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Huang, Chung-Feng; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ko; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Huang, Jee-Fu; Dai, Chia-Yen; Yu, Ming-Lung; Chuang, Wan-Long

2014-01-01

414

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus protects cotton rats against human respiratory syncytial virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most frequent cause of severe respiratory infections in infancy. No vaccine against this virus has yet been protective, and antiviral drugs have been of limited utility. Using the cotton rat model of HRSV infection, we examined bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), a cause of acute respiratory disease in young cattle, as a possible vaccine candidate to protect children against HRSV infection. Cotton rats were primed intranasally with graded doses of BRSV/375 or HRSV/Long or were left unprimed. Three weeks later, they were challenged intranasally with either BRSV/375, HRSV/Long (subgroup A), or HRSV/18537 (subgroup B). At intervals postchallenge, animals were sacrificed for virus titration and histologic evaluation. Serum neutralizing antibody titers were determined at the time of viral challenge. BRSV/375 replicated to low titers in nasal tissues and lungs. Priming with 10(5) PFU of BRSV/375 effected a 500- to 1,000-fold reduction in peak nasal HRSV titer and a greater than 1,000-fold reduction in peak pulmonary HRSV titer upon challenge with HRSV/Long or HRSV/18537. In contrast to priming with HRSV, priming with BRSV did not induce substantial levels of neutralizing antibody against HRSV and was associated with a delayed onset of clearance of HRSV upon challenge. Priming with BRSV/375 caused mild nasal and pulmonary pathology and did not cause exacerbation of disease upon challenge with HRSV/Long. Our findings suggest that BRSV may be a potential vaccine against HRSV and a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of immunity to HRSV. PMID:8437227

Piazza, F M; Johnson, S A; Darnell, M E; Porter, D D; Hemming, V G; Prince, G A

1993-01-01

415

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.  

PubMed Central

Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

1993-01-01

416

The Mannose Receptor Mediates Dengue Virus Infection of Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Macrophages (MØ) and mononuclear phagocytes are major targets of infection by dengue virus (DV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause haemorrhagic fever in humans. To our knowledge, we show for the first time that the MØ mannose receptor (MR) binds to all four serotypes of DV and specifically to the envelope glycoprotein. Glycan analysis, ELISA, and blot overlay assays demonstrate that MR binds via its carbohydrate recognition domains to mosquito and human cell–produced DV antigen. This binding is abrogated by deglycosylation of the DV envelope glycoprotein. Surface expression of recombinant MR on NIH3T3 cells confers DV binding. Furthermore, DV infection of primary human MØ can be blocked by anti-MR antibodies. MR is a prototypic marker of alternatively activated MØ, and pre-treatment of human monocytes or MØ with type 2 cytokines (IL-4 or IL-13) enhances their susceptibility to productive DV infection. Our findings indicate a new functional role for the MR in DV infection. PMID:18266465

Miller, Joanna L; deWet, Barend J. M; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Radcliffe, Catherine M; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M; Gordon, Siamon

2008-01-01

417

Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

Staitieh, Bashar

2014-01-01

418

Cutaneous and diphtheritic avian poxvirus infection in a nestling Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) is declining over much of its range and currently is listed as vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Island-specific breeding colonies near Palmer Station, Antarctica, have been monitored for over 30 years, and because this population continues to increase, it is critically important to conservation. In austral summer 2004, six diseased giant petrel chicks were observed in four of these colonies. Diseased chicks were 6a??9 weeks old and had multiple proliferative nodules on their bills and skin. One severely affected chick was found dead on the nest and was salvaged for necropsy. Histopathological examination of nodules from the dead chick revealed epithelial cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy with numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (B??llinger bodies). A poxvirus was isolated from multiple nodules. Poxviral infection has not been reported in this species, and the reason for its emergence and its potential impact on the population are not yet known.

Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Green, David Earl; Converse, K.A.; Docherty, D.E.; Thiel, T.; Geisz, H.N.; Fraser, W.R.; Patterson-Fraser, D. L.

2008-01-01

419

Detection of BK virus and JC virus DNA in urine samples from immunocompromised (HIV-infected) and immunocompetent (HIV-non-infected) patients using polymerase chain reaction and microplate hybridisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The majority of the human population is infected with two human polyomaviruses BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) during childhood. After initial infection both viruses persist within renal system. Reactivation of both viruses may be linked with immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive therapy. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between immunodeficiency and viruria, prevalence of BK and JC viruria over time

A. Behzad-Behbahani; P. E. Klapper; P. J. Vallely; G. M. Cleator; S. H. Khoo

2004-01-01

420

Respiratory syncytial virus infections in children with cancer.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children, especially those with cancer. Data on RSV infections in this vulnerable population is limited. We conducted a retrospective study of all RSV infections in children with cancer from 1998 to 2009 to determine characteristics and outcomes of these infections, identify risk factors for LRTI and mortality, and the effect of antiviral therapy on these outcomes. We identified 59 patients with a median age of 5 years; 53% had hematologic malignancy, 32% were hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, 39% had received corticosteroids, and 76% cytotoxic chemotherapy within 1 month before RSV infection. LRTI developed in 22 (37%) patients with a trend of higher rate in males (odds ratio=2.57 [0.86-7.62], P=0.09) and children with lymphocytopenia (odds ratio=2.95 [0.86-10.12], P=0.085). No significant differences were observed in the rates of progression to LRTI (3/10 [30%] vs. 19/49 [39%], P=0.729) and RSV-associated mortality (0/10 [0%] vs. 3/49 [6%], P=0.422) for patients receiving antiviral therapy at upper respiratory tract infection stage compared with those who did not. However, patients with LRTI had significantly better outcomes when treated with aerosolized ribavirin plus immunomodulators (mainly palivizumab) when compared with aerosolized ribavirin alone (mortality rates: 0/6 [0%] vs. 3/4 [75%], P=0.03). Ribavirin did not show any benefit in reducing LRTI or mortality; however, addition of palivizumab to the treatment regimen may be potentially beneficial, especially for children with LRTI. PMID:24327130

Chemaly, Roy F; Ghantoji, Shashank S; Shah, Dimpy P; Shah, Jharna N; El Taoum, Katia K; Champlin, Richard E; Nunez, Cesar A; Mulanovich, Victor; Ariza-Heredia, Ella

2014-08-01