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Sample records for ginsenoside rg1 promotes

  1. Chronic treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 promotes memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G; Wang, Y; Li, J; Wang, J

    2015-04-30

    Ginseng serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of aging-related memory decline or memory loss. However, the related mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we applied an intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rg1, an active compound from ginseng in middle-aged mice and detected memory improvement and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that a period of 30-day administration of ginsenoside Rg1 enhanced long-term memory in the middle-aged animals. Consistent with the memory improvement, ginsenoside Rg1 administration facilitated weak theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute hippocampal slices from middle-aged animals. Ginsenoside Rg1 administration increased the dendritic apical spine numbers and area in the CA1 region. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 administration up-regulated the expression of hippocampal p-AKT, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), but not p-ERK. Interestingly, the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor (bpV) mimicked the ginsenoside Rg1 effects, including increasing p-AKT expression, promoting hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, LTP and memory. Taken together, our data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment improves memory in middle-aged mice possibly through regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway, altering apical spines and facilitating hippocampal LTP. PMID:25724866

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 enhances lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica via VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in silicotic rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Mao, Lijun; Guan, Li; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2016-03-25

    Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted mainly from Panax ginseng, has been shown to exert strong pro-angiogenic activities in vivo. But it is unclear whether ginsenoside Rg1 could promote lung lymphangiogenesis to improve lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica in silicotic rats. Here we investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica during experimental silicosis, and found that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment significantly raised the silicon content in tracheobronchial lymph nodes and serum to reduce the silicon level in lung interstitium, meanwhile increased pulmonary lymphatic vessel density by enhancing the protein and mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). The stimulative effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica was actively correlated with its pro-lymphangiogenic identity. And VEGFR-3 inhibitor SAR131675 blocked these above effects of ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 exhibits good protective effect against lung burden of silica during experimental silicosis through improving lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica, which is potentially associated with the activation of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling pathway. PMID:26920056

  3. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs and healing of rat tibial fractures through regulation of GR-dependent BMP-2/SMAD signaling.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanqing; Zhou, Jinchun; Wang, Qin; Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Fracture healing is closely related to the number and activity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) near the fracture site. The present study was to investigate the effect of Rg1 on osteogenic differentiation of cultured BMSCs and related mechanisms and on the fracture healing in a fracture model. In vitro experiments showed that Rg1 promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Western blot analyses demonstrated that Rg1 promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, X-ray examination showed that callus growth in rats treated with Rg1 was substantially faster than that in control rats after fracture. The results of H&E and Safranin-O/Fast Green staining revealed that, compared with controls, rats in the Rg1 treatment group had a significantly higher proportion of trabecular bone but a much lower proportion of fibers and cartilage components inside the callus. Micro-CT suggested that bone mineral density (BMD), percent bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were significantly increased in the treatment group, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was significantly reduced. Thus, Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation by activating the GR/BMP-2 signaling pathway, enhances bone calcification, and ultimately accelerates the fracture healing in rats. PMID:27141994

  4. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs and healing of rat tibial fractures through regulation of GR-dependent BMP-2/SMAD signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yanqing; Zhou, Jinchun; Wang, Qin; Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Fracture healing is closely related to the number and activity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) near the fracture site. The present study was to investigate the effect of Rg1 on osteogenic differentiation of cultured BMSCs and related mechanisms and on the fracture healing in a fracture model. In vitro experiments showed that Rg1 promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Western blot analyses demonstrated that Rg1 promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, X-ray examination showed that callus growth in rats treated with Rg1 was substantially faster than that in control rats after fracture. The results of H&E and Safranin-O/Fast Green staining revealed that, compared with controls, rats in the Rg1 treatment group had a significantly higher proportion of trabecular bone but a much lower proportion of fibers and cartilage components inside the callus. Micro-CT suggested that bone mineral density (BMD), percent bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were significantly increased in the treatment group, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was significantly reduced. Thus, Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation by activating the GR/BMP-2 signaling pathway, enhances bone calcification, and ultimately accelerates the fracture healing in rats. PMID:27141994

  5. Ginsenoside Rg1 ameliorates hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xiqing; Li, Jing; Niu, Qingliang

    2016-06-01

    The complex etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has limited progression in the identification of effective therapeutic agents. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin‑1 (PS1) are always overexpressed in AD, and are considered to be the initiators of the formation of β‑amyloid plaques and the symptoms of AD. In the present study, a transgenic AD model, constructed via the overexpression of APP and PS1, was used to verify the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on memory performance and synaptic plasticity. AD mice (6‑month‑old) were treated via intraperitoneal injection of 0.1‑10 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg1. Long‑term memory, synaptic plasticity, and the levels of AD‑associated and synaptic plasticity‑associated proteins were measured following treatment. Memory was measured using a fear conditioning task and protein expression levels were investigated using western blotting. All the data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance or t‑test. Following 30 days of consecutive treatment, memory in the AD mouse model was ameliorated in the 10 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg1 treatment group. As demonstrated by biochemical experiments, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment reduced the accumulations of β‑amyloid 1‑42 and phosphorylated (p)‑Tau in the AD model. Additionally, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and p‑TrkB synaptic plasticity‑associated proteins were upregulated following ginsenoside Rg1 application. Correspondingly, long‑term potentiation (LTP) was restored following ginsenoside Rg1 application in the AD mice model. Taken together, ginsenoside Rg1 repaired hippocampal LTP and memory, likely through facilitating the clearance of AD‑associated proteins and through activation of the BDNF‑TrkB pathway. Therefore, ginsenoside Rg1 may be a candidate drug for the treatment of AD. PMID:27082952

  6. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-gao; Chen, Li-ping; Wang, Fa-wei; Xu, Cheng-yong; Geng, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The active ingredient of ginseng, ginsenosides Rg1, has been shown to scavenge free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity. This study hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 has a protective role in human neuroblastoma cells injured by H2O2. Ginsenosides Rg1 at different concentrations (50 and 100 μM) was used to treat H2O2 (150 μM)-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2, diminished the amount of leaked lactate dehydrogenase, and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 effectively suppressed caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and contributed to heat shock protein 70 gene expression, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effects on SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2 and that its mechanism of action is associated with anti-oxidation and the inhibition of apoptosis.

  7. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on astrocytes and cerebral ischemic-reperfusion mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chenghong; Lai, Xinqiang; Huang, Xiuyan; Zeng, Yaoying

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, has been known to regulate many cellular processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Rg1 on apoptosis in mouse cultured astrocytes in vitro and a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in vivo. The cell apoptosis was measured by fluorescence microplate reader and xCELLigence system and the Ca(2+) overload was recorded by confocal microscopy. The mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. BALB/c mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and randomly divided into four groups: Sham (sham-operated +0.9% saline), MCAO (MCAO+0.9% saline), Rg1-L (MCAO+Rg1 20 mg/kg) and Rg1-H (MCAO+Rg1 40 mg/kg). Neurological deficit scores, brain water content and infarct volume were evaluated at 24 h after reperfusion. The results showed that Rg1 significantly attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. Rg1 efficiently inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) overload, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and ROS production in astrocytes. In vivo study, it was also observed that Rg1 markedly reduced the neurological deficit scores, brain edema, and infarct volume in the model mice. These results suggest that Rg1 possesses significant neuroprotective effects, which might be related to the prevention of astrocytes from apoptosis. PMID:25451838

  8. The effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on chronic stress induced depression-like behaviors, BDNF expression and the phosphorylation of PKA and CREB in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Qi, Y; Cheng, Z; Zhu, X; Fan, C; Yu, S Y

    2016-05-13

    Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disorder which has been associated with a wide range of structural and functional changes within specific brain regions. Ginsenoside Rg1 has been shown to exert a number of neuroprotective effects as demonstrated in various in vivo and in vitro studies. However, little information is available regarding the site and mechanisms of ginsenoside Rg1 in promoting antidepressant effects. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective and ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on depression-like behavior as induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results showed that CUMS was effective in producing depression-like behaviors in rats as indicated by decreased responses in sucrose preference and forced swim tests which were associated with ultrastructural changes in neurons within the amygdala. Moreover, levels of PKA and CREB phosphorylation and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were decreased in the amygdala of CUMS rats. Remarkably, chronic ginsenoside Rg1 (40mg/kg, i.p., 5weeks) treatment significantly ameliorated these behavioral and biochemical alterations associated with CUMS-induced depression. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that ginsenoside Rg1 exhibits antidepressant-like effects against CUMS-induced depression. This amelioration of depression-like behaviors by ginsenoside Rg1 appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a CREB-regulated increase of BDNF expression in the amygdala of rats. Therefore, these findings reveal the therapeutic potential of ginsenoside Rg1 for use in clinical trials in the treatment of depression. PMID:26926964

  9. Vaccine adjuvant ginsenoside Rg1 enhances immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ding; Yuan, Qin; Cui, Qianqian; Liu, Chaoqi; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haixia; Dun, Yaoyan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Changcheng

    2016-06-01

    The adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in mice was investigated. Female BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with saline or HBsAg antigen with or without Rg1 on days 7 and 21. Samples were collected 2 weeks after the boosting for the detection of anti-HBsAg immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes in sera and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced in splenocytes. The innate and adaptive immune responses were measured in mice immunized as described above. The results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 had adjuvant properties in stimulating IgG, splenocyte proliferation, and mRNA expression of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4, as well as the expression of cell surface marker TLR4 in the HBsAg-immunized mice. These results indicate that Rg1 enhances both Th1 (IgG2b and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IgG1 and IL-4) responses. In addition, the TLR4 signaling pathway is involved in the adjuvant activities of ginsenoside Rg1. PMID:27095502

  10. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on aging Sca-1⁺ hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Liu, Jun; Cai, Shizhong; Liu, Dianfeng; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Yaping

    2015-09-01

    In adults, bone hematopoietic cells are responsible for the lifelong production of all blood cells. It is affected in aging, with progressive loss of physiological integrity leading to impaired function by cellular intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, intervention measures, which directly inhibit the aging of hematopoietic cells, remain to be investigated. In the present study, 10 µmol/l ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) markedly alleviated the aging phenotypes of Sca‑1+ hematopoietic cells following in vitro exposure. In addition, the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on the aging of Sca‑1+ hematopoietic cells was confirmed using a serial transplantation assay in C57BL/6 mice. The mechanistic investigations revealed that Rg1‑mediated Sca‑1+ hematopoietic cell aging alleviation was linked to a series of characteristic events, including telomere end attrition compensation, telomerase activity reconstitution and the activation of genes involved in p16‑Rb signaling pathways. Based on the above results, it was concluded that ginsenoside Rg1 is a potent agent, which acts on hematopoietic cells to protect them from aging, which has implications for therapeutic approaches in hemopoietic diseases. PMID:26045300

  11. Ginsenoside-Rg1 induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Poon, Po-Ying; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg1-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg1 could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3'-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg1 was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg1-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg1 could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg1, and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. PMID:26115870

  12. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside-Rg1 in primary nigral neurons against rotenone toxicity.

    PubMed

    Leung, K W; Yung, K K L; Mak, N K; Chan, Y S; Fan, T P; Wong, R N S

    2007-03-01

    Ginsenoside-Rg1, the pharmacologically active component isolated from ginseng, demonstrated neuroprotective effects on primary cultured rat nigral neurons against rotenone toxicity. Rotenone, a common household pesticide known for its specific and irreversible mitochondria complex I inhibition, has been suggested to be the causal agent of Parkinson's disease (PD) by inducing degeneration of cells in the substantial nigra. The present study demonstrated that co-treatment of rotenone and Rg1 could reduce rotenone-induced cell death by 58% (SEM=+/-5.60; N=3). Rotenone-induced mitochondria membrane potential (MMP, DeltaPsim) depletion was restored and elevated by at least 38% (SEM=+/-2.15; N=3) by Rg1. In addition, Rg1 prevented cytochrome c release from the mitochrondrial membrane and increased the phosphorylation inhibition of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The protective effects of Rg1 was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486, indicating that the action of Rg1 is mediated through glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In conclusion, Rg1 inhibits the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and increases the survival chance of the primary cultured nigral neurons against rotenone toxicity. Thus, Rg1 and its related compounds may be developed as protective agents against neurodegenerative diseases induced by mitochondrial toxins. PMID:17123556

  13. Stability of angiogenic agents, ginsenoside Rg1 and Re, isolated from Panax ginseng: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Chien; Chen, Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Huang, Ya-Chun; Lin, Kurt M; Lai, Po-Hong; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2007-01-10

    The study was designed to investigate the stability of ginsenoside Rg(1) (Rg(1)) and Re (Re), two natural herbal compounds isolated from Panax ginseng, based on their activity to promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. After being treated at different temperatures, pHs, and solvent species for distinct durations, the remaining activities of Rg(1) and Re on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration, and tube formation were examined in vitro. Additionally, the remaining activity of each treated test agent, mixed in a growth factor-reduced Matrigel, in stimulating angiogenesis was evaluated subcutaneously in a mouse model. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was used as a control. It was found in vitro that HUVEC proliferation, migration in a Transwell plate, and tube formation on Matrigel were all significantly enhanced in the presence of bFGF, Rg(1), or Re. However, after being treated at different temperatures, pHs, or solvent species, the remaining activity of bFGF on HUVEC behaviors reduced significantly. This observation was more significant with increasing the duration of treatment. In contrast, the activities of Rg(1) and Re remained unchanged throughout the entire course of the study. The in vivo results observed on day 7 after implantation showed that the blank control (Matrigel alone) was slightly vascularized. In contrast, the density of neo-vessels in the Matrigel plug mixed with bFGF, Rg(1), or Re was significantly enhanced. However, after being treated, the density of neo-vessels was significantly reduced in the Matrigel plug mixed with bFGF, while those of Rg(1) and Re remained unchanged. The aforementioned results suggested that Rg(1) and Re could be a novel group of nonpeptide angiogenic agents with a superior stability and may be used for the management of tissue regeneration. PMID:16962729

  14. EFFECTS OF GINSENG AND ITS FOUR PURIFED GINSENOSIDES (Rb2, Re, Rg1, Rd) ON HUMAN PANCREATIC ISLET β CELL IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Luo, John Z. Q.; Kim, Joseph W.; Luo, LuGuang

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng has attracted interest because of its potential therapeutic role in diabetes therapy. No direct evidence has shown the effects of ginseng and its components, ginsenosides, on human islet β cell. In this study, we evaluated ginseng extract and ginsenosides (Rb2, Re, Rg1, Rd) on human pancreatic β cell function. The results provide direct evidence that ginseng extract promotes human pancreatic β cell function. Ginsenoside Rb2 increased islet β cell insulin release and promoted β cell migration. Ginsenoside Re had some impact on cell migration, but had no effect on islet function by evaluating insulin release. The other ginsenosides had no effect on insulin release and islet migration. To date, this is the first study that examines the impact of ginsenosides on human pancreatic islets in vitro. PMID:27547829

  15. The Safety Evaluation of Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Combination on Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Yang, Min; Deng, Yanping; Yu, Haitao; Wang, Linlin; Teng, Fukang; Cho, Kenka; Ma, Hongmei; Wu, Peng; Li, Xue; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Xu, Feng; Jiang, Baohong; Guo, De-An

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that the combination of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the main components of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Panax notoginseng, improves myocardium structure and ventricular function in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study aimed to determine the safety of the combined SalB and Rg1 (SalB-Rg1) in mice. The safety of SalB-Rg1 was evaluated through acute toxicity and repeated-dose toxicity. In the acute toxicity study, the up and down procedure was carried out firstly, and then, the Bliss method was applied. In the toxicity study for seven-day repeated treatment of SalB-Rg1, forty Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) of the SalB-Rg1 combination was 1747 mg/kg using the Bliss method. For both the acute toxicity study and the seven-day repeated toxicity study, SalB-Rg1 did not induce significant abnormality on brain, heart, kidney, liver and lung structure at any dose based on H&E stain. There were no significant changes related to the SalB-Rg1 toxicity detected on biochemical parameters for two kinds of toxicity studies. The LD50 in mice was 1747 mg/kg, which was more than one hundred times higher than the effective dose. Both studies of acute toxicity and seven-day repeated dose toxicity indicated the safety of the SalB-Rg1 combination. PMID:26690140

  16. The Safety Evaluation of Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Combination on Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Yang, Min; Deng, Yanping; Yu, Haitao; Wang, Linlin; Teng, Fukang; Cho, Kenka; Ma, Hongmei; Wu, Peng; Li, Xue; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Xu, Feng; Jiang, Baohong; Guo, De-An

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that the combination of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the main components of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Panax notoginseng, improves myocardium structure and ventricular function in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study aimed to determine the safety of the combined SalB and Rg1 (SalB-Rg1) in mice. The safety of SalB-Rg1 was evaluated through acute toxicity and repeated-dose toxicity. In the acute toxicity study, the up and down procedure was carried out firstly, and then, the Bliss method was applied. In the toxicity study for seven-day repeated treatment of SalB-Rg1, forty Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) of the SalB-Rg1 combination was 1747 mg/kg using the Bliss method. For both the acute toxicity study and the seven-day repeated toxicity study, SalB-Rg1 did not induce significant abnormality on brain, heart, kidney, liver and lung structure at any dose based on H&E stain. There were no significant changes related to the SalB-Rg1 toxicity detected on biochemical parameters for two kinds of toxicity studies. The LD50 in mice was 1747 mg/kg, which was more than one hundred times higher than the effective dose. Both studies of acute toxicity and seven-day repeated dose toxicity indicated the safety of the SalB-Rg1 combination. PMID:26690140

  17. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Chinese patent medicine Naosaitong pill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Zhengyi; Wang, Yingping; Yao, Chunlin; Bai, Xueyuan; Bian, Shuai; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Ginsenosides in plant samples have been extensively studied because protopanaxadiol saponins are ubiquitous in Chinese patent medicines, in which they can be used in promoting human health as the main active ingredients. A method for rapid determination of two ginsenosides (Rg1 and Re) in Naosaitong (NST) samples using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is studied to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in this work. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. A total of 93 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re. The calibration models for Rg1 and Re had high values of the coefficient of determination (R2) (0.9766 and 0.9764) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0136 and 0.0104), and the values of the standard error of prediction set (SEP) are 0.00764 and 0.0103, which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. The overall results show that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of ginsenosides in Ginseng byproducts for pharmaceuticals that develop high-quality Chinese patent medicines.

  18. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Chinese patent medicine Naosaitong pill.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Zhengyi; Wang, Yingping; Yao, Chunlin; Bai, Xueyuan; Bian, Shuai; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-15

    Ginsenosides in plant samples have been extensively studied because protopanaxadiol saponins are ubiquitous in Chinese patent medicines, in which they can be used in promoting human health as the main active ingredients. A method for rapid determination of two ginsenosides (Rg1 and Re) in Naosaitong (NST) samples using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is studied to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in this work. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. A total of 93 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re. The calibration models for Rg1 and Re had high values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) (0.9766 and 0.9764) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0136 and 0.0104), and the values of the standard error of prediction set (SEP) are 0.00764 and 0.0103, which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. The overall results show that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of ginsenosides in Ginseng byproducts for pharmaceuticals that develop high-quality Chinese patent medicines. PMID:25561297

  19. Characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rg1 in plasma and urine of rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Tong, Tian-Tian; Yau, Lee-Fong; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Bai, Li-Ping; Ma, Jing; Hu, Ming; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-07-15

    This study describes the characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rg1 in rat urine and plasma. These in vivo metabolites were profiled by using UHPLC-QTOF MS-based method. On the basis of high-resolution MS/MS data, and comparison with chemically synthesized authentic compounds, nine oxygenated metabolites of Rg1 were characterized as vinaginsenosides 21 and 22 (M1 and M2), vinaginsenoside R15 (M3), 6-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-20-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl) 3β, 6α, 12β, 20(S)-tetrahydroxy-24ξ-hydroxydammar-25-ene (M4 and M5), floralginsenoside A (M7 and M8), floralginsenoside B (M9) and epoxyginsenoside Rg1 (M13), respectively. Among these metabolites, M4, M5 and M13 are new ginsenosides and others were detected as in vivo metabolites of Rg1 for the first time. In addition, a series of oxygenated metabolites of Rh1 and deglycosylated metabolite of Rg1, were observed and characterized by comparing with compounds synthesized by us, which revealed an association between C-20 configuration and the extent of oxidation metabolism. Appearance of all these metabolites in blood stream and urine after i.v. dosing and oral administration of Rg1 was further examined, which clearly showed that mono-oxygenated metabolites of Rg1 were major circulating metabolites at the early stage after dosing. Characterization of exact chemical structures of these circulating metabolites contribute greatly to our understanding of chemical exposure after consumption of ginseng products, and provide valuable information for explaining multiple bioactivities of ginseng products. PMID:26809375

  20. Ginsenoside Rg1 reduces aldosterone-induced autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR pathway in NRK-52E cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Mao, Nan; Tan, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Lian; Wen, Ji; Liu, Yu-Hang; Furhad, Md; Fan, Jun-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Aldosterone is a steroid hormone secreted from the adrenal cortex, which regulates blood pressure. Higher concentrations of aldosterone can cause several diseases, including hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and chronic kidney disease. Previous reports have demonstrated that aldosterone has a pathogenic role in renal injury via reactive oxygen species (ROS), which involves the regulation of autophagy. However, whether aldosterone can induce autophagy in renal tubular cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, elevated autophagy was observed in rat renal tubular NRK-52E cells exposed to aldosterone, which was demonstrated by the increased number of autophagosomes, conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the expression of Beclin-1. The enhanced autophagy was accompanied by increased production of intracellular ROS, which was reversed by N-acetylcysteine, a specific inhibitor of ROS signaling. Furthermore, treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 reduced the aldosterone-induced autophagy and production of ROS, possibly through reducing the phosphorylation of AMPK and preserving mTOR activity. These findings demonstrated that aldosterone promoted ROS generation and increased autophagy in the NRK-52E cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 effectively relieved aldosterone-induced oxidative stress and abnormal autophagy, suggesting that Rg1 may be used as a potential therapeutic drug to inhibit the renal injury, which is induced by aldosterone. PMID:26063203

  1. Enzymatic transglycosylation of ginsenoside Rg1 by rice seed α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Young-Hoi; Song, Geun-Sup; Suzuki, Yukio; Kim, Myung-Kon

    2016-01-01

    Six α-monoglucosyl derivatives of ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) were synthesized by transglycosylation reaction of rice seed α-glucosidase in the reaction mixture containing maltose as a glucosyl donor and G-Rg1 as an acceptor. Their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis, and the effects of reaction time, pH, and glycosyl donors on transglycosylation reaction were investigated. The results showed that rice seed α-glucosidase transfers α-glucosyl group from maltose to G-Rg1 by forming either α-1,3 (α-nigerosyl)-, α-1,4 (α-maltosyl)-, or α-1,6 (α-isomaltosyl)-glucosidic linkages in β-glucose moieties linked at the C6- and C20-position of protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type aglycone. The optimum pH range for the transglycosylation reaction was between 5.0 and 6.0. Rice seed α-glucosidase acted on maltose, soluble starch, and PNP α-D-glucopyranoside as glycosyl donors, but not on glucose, sucrose, or trehalose. These α-monoglucosyl derivatives of G-Rg1 were easily hydrolyzed to G-Rg1 by rat small intestinal and liver α-glucosidase in vitro. PMID:26372017

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. PMID:26153045

  3. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin−) Sca-1+ c-Kit+ haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit+ HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit+ HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit+/CD45+ HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. PMID:26153045

  4. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against neurodegeneration by inducing neurite outgrowth in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liang; Liu, Li-feng; Liu, Juan; Dou, Ling; Wang, Ge-ying; Liu, Xiao-qing; Yuan, Qiong-lan

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has anti-aging and anti-neurodegenerative effects. However, the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Rg1 affects hippocampal survival and neurite outgrowth in vitro after exposure to amyloid-beta peptide fragment 25–35 (Aβ25–35), and to explore whether the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt signaling pathways are involved in these biological processes. We cultured hippocampal neurons from newborn rats for 24 hours, then added Rg1 to the medium for another 24 hours, with or without pharmacological inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family or Akt signaling pathways for a further 24 hours. We then immunostained the neurons for growth associated protein-43, and measured neurite length. In a separate experiment, we exposed cultured hippocampal neurons to Aβ25–35 for 30 minutes, before adding Rg1 for 48 hours, with or without Akt or MAPK inhibitors, and assessed neuronal survival using Hoechst 33258 staining, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt by western blot analysis. Rg1 induced neurite outgrowth, and this effect was blocked by API-2 (Akt inhibitor) and PD98059 (MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor), but not by SP600125 or SB203580 (inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK, respectively). Consistent with this effect, Rg1 upregulated the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2; these effects were reversed by API-2 and PD98059, respectively. In addition, Rg1 significantly reversed Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis; this effect was blocked by API-2 and PD98059, but not by SP600125 or SB203580. Finally, Rg1 significantly reversed the Aβ25–35-induced decrease in Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but API-2 prevented this reversal. Our results indicate that Rg1 enhances neurite outgrowth and protects against Aβ25–35-induced damage, and that its mechanism may involve the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. PMID:27073387

  5. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against neurodegeneration by inducing neurite outgrowth in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Liu, Li-Feng; Liu, Juan; Dou, Ling; Wang, Ge-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Yuan, Qiong-Lan

    2016-02-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has anti-aging and anti-neurodegenerative effects. However, the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Rg1 affects hippocampal survival and neurite outgrowth in vitro after exposure to amyloid-beta peptide fragment 25-35 (Aβ25-35), and to explore whether the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt signaling pathways are involved in these biological processes. We cultured hippocampal neurons from newborn rats for 24 hours, then added Rg1 to the medium for another 24 hours, with or without pharmacological inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family or Akt signaling pathways for a further 24 hours. We then immunostained the neurons for growth associated protein-43, and measured neurite length. In a separate experiment, we exposed cultured hippocampal neurons to Aβ25-35 for 30 minutes, before adding Rg1 for 48 hours, with or without Akt or MAPK inhibitors, and assessed neuronal survival using Hoechst 33258 staining, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt by western blot analysis. Rg1 induced neurite outgrowth, and this effect was blocked by API-2 (Akt inhibitor) and PD98059 (MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor), but not by SP600125 or SB203580 (inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK, respectively). Consistent with this effect, Rg1 upregulated the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2; these effects were reversed by API-2 and PD98059, respectively. In addition, Rg1 significantly reversed Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis; this effect was blocked by API-2 and PD98059, but not by SP600125 or SB203580. Finally, Rg1 significantly reversed the Aβ25-35-induced decrease in Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but API-2 prevented this reversal. Our results indicate that Rg1 enhances neurite outgrowth and protects against Aβ25-35-induced damage, and that its mechanism may involve the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. PMID:27073387

  6. Enzymatic Formation of Novel Ginsenoside Rg1-α-Glucosides by Rat Intestinal Homogenates.

    PubMed

    Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Young-Hoi; Kim, Yeon Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Min-Ji; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-12-01

    The variation of linkage positions in ginsenosides leads to diverse pharmacological efficiencies. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation properties of glycosyl hydrolase family enzymes have a great impact on the synthesis of novel and structurally diversified compounds. In this study, six ginsenoside Rg1-α-glucosides were found to be synthesized from the reaction mixture of maltose as a donor and ginsenoside Rg1 as a sugar acceptor in the presence of rat small intestinal homogenates, which exhibit high α-glucosidase activities. The individual compounds were purified and were identified by spectroscopy (HPLC-MS, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR) as 6-O-[α-D-glcp-(1→4)-β-D-glcp]-20-O-(β-D-glcp)-20(S)-protopanaxatriol, 6-O-β-D-glcp-20-O-[α-D-glcp-(1→6)-(β-D-glcp)]-20(S)-protopanaxatriol, 6-O-β-D-glcp-20-O-[α-D-glcp-(1→4)-(β-D-glcp)]-20(S)-protopanaxatriol, 6-O-[α-D-glcp-(1→6)-β-D-glcp]-20-O-(β-glcp)-20(S)-protopanaxatriol, 6-O-[α-D-glcp-(1→3)-β-D-glcp]-20-O-(β-D-glcp)-20(S)-protopanaxatriol, and 6-O-β-D-glcp-20-O-[α-D-glcp-(1→3)-(β-D-glcp)]-20(S)-protopanaxatriol. Among these six, 6-O-β-D-glcp-20-O-α-D-glcp-(1→6)-(β-D-glcp)-20(S)-protopanaxatriol and 6-O-α-D-glcp-(1→6)-β-D-glcp-20-O-(β-D-glcp)-20(S)-protopanaxatriol are considered to be novel compounds of alpha-ginsenosidal saponins which pharmacological activities should be further characterized. This is the first report on the enzymatic elaboration of ginsenoside Rg1 derivatives using rat intestinal homogenates. To the best of our knowledge, it is also the first to reveal the sixth and 20th positions of an unusual α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl sugar chain with 20(S)-protopanaxatriol saponins in Panax ginseng Mayer. PMID:26411353

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and its metabolites ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol in mice with TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Eun, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the main constituents of Panax ginseng, exhibits anti-inflammatory effect. In a preliminary study, it was observed that ginsenoside Rg1 was metabolized to 20(S)-protopanaxtriol via ginsenosides Rh1 and F1 by gut microbiota. We further investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and its metabolites in vitro and in vivo. Ginsenosides Rg1, Rh1, and 20(S)-protopanaxtriol inhibited the activation of NF-κB activation, phosphorylation of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase, and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. They also inhibited the binding of LPS to toll-like receptor 4 on the macrophages. Orally administered ginsenoside Rg1, Rh1, or 20(S)-protopanaxtriol inhibited 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colon shortening, myeloperoxidase activity, and expression of IL-1β, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor-α in mice with TNBS-induced colitis. They did not only inhibit TNBS-induced NF-κB activation, but also restored TNBS-induced Th17/Treg imbalance. They restored IL-10 and Foxp3 expression. Moreover, they inhibited Th17 cell differentiation in vitro. Of these metabolites, in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of 20(S)-protopanaxtriol was the most potent, followed by Rh1. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 is metabolized to 20(S)-protopanaxtriol via ginsenosides Rh1 and F1 and these metabolites particularly 20(S)-protopanaxtriol, may ameliorate inflammatory disease such as colitis by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 on macrophages and restoring the Th17/Treg imbalance. PMID:26054809

  8. Synergistic neuroprotective effect of microglial‑conditioned media treated with geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 on hypoxia injured neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hou, Jincai; Lei, Hongtao; Fu, Jianhua; Pan, Yanshu; Liu, Jianxun

    2015-10-01

    The synergistic mechanism underlying the effects of multi‑component combined drug use for complex diseases remains to be fully elucidated. Microglial activation following ischemia can either affect neural survival or cause neuronal injury. The aim of the present study was to determine the synergistic effect of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1, based on microglial‑neuronal communication. N2a neuronal cells were divided into the following seven groups: Control group; normal cultured microglial cells in conditioned medium (N‑MG‑CM) group; oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD) model group; OGD‑injured MG‑CM (I‑MG‑CM) group; geniposide‑treated MG‑CM (G‑MG‑CM) group; ginsenoside Rg1‑treated MG‑CM (R‑MG‑CM) group; and combination‑treated MG‑CM (C‑MG‑CM) group. A series of assays were used to detect the effects of the different MG‑CM on neurons in terms of: (i) cell viability, determined using a Cell Counting Kit‑8; (ii) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate; (iii) expression of NMDAR1 and activated caspase‑3, detected using western blotting; (iv) mitochondrial transmembrane potential, determined by JC‑1; and (v) mitochondrial ultrastructural features, determined using electron microscopy. The experimental results demonstrated that MG‑CM including the integrated use of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 significantly protected neuronal cell viability and inhibited LDH leakage, suppressed the expression of N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate receptor subunit 1 and activated caspase‑3, increased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and improved the mitochondrial ultrastructure. MG‑CM from separately used geniposide or ginsenoside Rg1 demonstrated differential neuroprotection at different levels. These findings revealed that the synergistic drug combination of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 in the treatment of stroke is a feasible approach for use. PMID:26238400

  9. Nrf2 pathway activation contributes to anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in a rat model of alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-ping; Gao, Yan; Chu, Shi-feng; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Cong-yuan; Mou, Zheng; Song, Xiu-yun; He, Wen-bin; Guo, Xiao-feng; Chen, Nai-hong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and to explore the mechanisms of the effects. Methods: Rats were given 6% alcohol in water and injected with CCl4 (2 mL/kg, sc) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rg1 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, po) was administered in the last 2 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was determined by measuring serum biochemical parameters, HE staining, Masson's trichromic staining, and hydroxyproline and α-SMA immunohistochemical staining of liver tissues. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and Nrf2 signaling pathway-related proteins (Nrf2, Ho-1 and Nqo1) in liver tissues were analyzed. Cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of rats were prepared for in vitro studies. Results: In the alcohol- and CCl4-treated rats, Rg1 administration dose-dependently suppressed the marked increases of serum ALT, AST, LDH and ALP levels, inhibited liver inflammation and HSC activation and reduced liver fibrosis scores. Rg1 significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) and reduced MDA levels in liver tissues. Furthermore, Rg1 significantly increased the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 that regulated the expression of many antioxidant enzymes. Treatment of the cultured HSCs with Rg1 (1 μmol/L) induced Nrf2 translocation, and suppressed CCl4-induced cell proliferation, reversed CCl4- induced changes in MDA, GPX, PCIII and HA contents in the supernatant fluid and α-SMA expression in the cells. Knockdown of Nrf2 gene diminished these actions of Rg1 in CCl4-treated HSCs in vitro. Conclusion: Rg1 exerts protective effects in a rat model of alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis via promoting the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and expression of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24976156

  10. An Essential Role of cAMP Response Element Binding Protein in Ginsenoside Rg1-Mediated Inhibition of Na+/Glucose Cotransporter 1 Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Wen; Su, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shu-Fen; Huang, Yu-Chuan; Chan, Fang-Na; Kuo, Yu-Han; Hung, Mei-Whey; Lin, Hang-Chin; Chang, Wen-Liang; Chang, Tsu-Chung

    2015-12-01

    The Na(+)/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is responsible for glucose uptake in intestinal epithelial cells. It has been shown that the intestinal SGLT1 level is significantly increased in diabetic individuals and positively correlated with the pathogenesis of diabetes. The development of targeted therapeutics that can reduce the intestinal SGLT1 expression level is, therefore, important. In this study, we showed that ginsenoside Rg1 effectively decreased intestinal glucose uptake through inhibition of SGLT1 gene expression in vivo and in vitro. Transient transfection analysis of the SGLT1 promoter revealed an essential cAMP response element (CRE) that confers the Rg1-mediated inhibition of SGLT1 gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and targeted CRE-binding protein (CREB) silencing demonstrated that Rg1 reduced the promoter binding of CREB and CREB binding protein associated with an inactivated chromatin status. In addition, further studies showed that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway also plays an essential role in the inhibitory effect of Rg1; taken together, our study demonstrates the involvement of the EGFR-CREB signaling pathway in the Rg1-mediated downregulation of SGLT1 expression, which offers a potential strategy in the development of antihyperglycemic and antidiabetic treatments. PMID:26429938

  11. Ginsenoside Rg1 Improves In vitro-produced Embryo Quality by Increasing Glucose Uptake in Porcine Blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hun; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Dong-Kyung; Oh, Jong-Nam; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Park, Chi-Hun; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2016-08-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural compound with various efficacies and functions. It has beneficial effects on aging, diabetes, and immunity, as well as antioxidant and proliferative functions. However, its effect on porcine embryo development remains unknown. We investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the in vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos after parthenogenetic activation in high-oxygen conditions. Ginsenoside treatment did not affect cleavage or blastocyst formation rates, but did increase the total cell number and reduced the rate of apoptosis. In addition, it had no effect on the expression of four apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, Caspase 3, and tumor protein p53) or two metabolism-related genes (mechanistic target of rapamycin, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B), but increased the expression of Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), indicating that it may increase glucose uptake. In summary, treatment with the appropriate concentration of ginsenoside Rg1 (20 μg/mL) can increase glucose uptake, thereby improving the quality of embryos grown in high-oxygen conditions. PMID:26954154

  12. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cerebral and cerebellar injury induced by obstructive jaundice in rats via inducing expression of TIPE-2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Zu, Guo; Zhou, Lu; Che, Ningwei; Guo, Jing; Liang, Zhanhua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on cerebral and cerebellar injury in experimental obstructive jaundice (OJ). OJ was done by ligature and section of extrahepatic biliary duct. Rg1 was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg kg(-1)d(-1) or 20 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Comparison of serum total bile salts (TBA), total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β among groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined, also apoptosis and mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 (TNF-α-inducible protein 8-like 2) were tested in cerebrum and cerebellum. Our results showed that Rg1 reduced MDA and apoptosis in cerebrum and cerebellum induced by OJ, also GSH and antioxidant enzyme activity were raised obviously in rats treated with Rg1. Moreover, decreased mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in OJ rats and Rg1 could improve the decreased mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in OJ rats. In conclusion, Rg1 decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis, also recovered the antioxidant status and mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in the cerebrum and cerebellum of OJ rats. PMID:26592478

  13. Ginsenoside Rg1 and 20(S)-Rg3 Induce IgA Production by Mouse B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ha-Yan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Kyu-Seon; Yoon, Hee-Kyung; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Lee, Junglim; Choi, Jae Eul; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the major components of ginseng, which is known to modulate blood pressure, metabolism, and immune function, and has been used to treat various diseases. It has been reported that ginseng and several ginsenosides have immunoregulatory effects on the innate and T cell-mediated immune response. However, their effects on the humoral immune response have not been fully explored. The present study examined the direct effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and ginsenosides on mouse B cell proliferation and on antibody production and the expression of germline transcripts (GLT) by mouse B cells in vitro. RGE slightly reduced B cell proliferation, but increased IgA production by LPS-stimulated B cells. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 and 20(S)-Rg3 selectively induced IgA production and expression of GLTα transcripts by LPS-stimulated B cells. Collectively, these results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 and 20(S)-Rg3 can drive the differentiation of B cells into IgA-producing cells through the selective induction of GLTα expression. PMID:26770188

  14. Ginsenoside Rg1 and 20(S)-Rg3 Induce IgA Production by Mouse B Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ha-Yan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Kyu-Seon; Yoon, Hee-Kyung; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Lee, Junglim; Choi, Jae Eul; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun; Park, Seok-Rae

    2015-12-01

    Ginsenosides are the major components of ginseng, which is known to modulate blood pressure, metabolism, and immune function, and has been used to treat various diseases. It has been reported that ginseng and several ginsenosides have immunoregulatory effects on the innate and T cell-mediated immune response. However, their effects on the humoral immune response have not been fully explored. The present study examined the direct effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and ginsenosides on mouse B cell proliferation and on antibody production and the expression of germline transcripts (GLT) by mouse B cells in vitro. RGE slightly reduced B cell proliferation, but increased IgA production by LPS-stimulated B cells. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 and 20(S)-Rg3 selectively induced IgA production and expression of GLTα transcripts by LPS-stimulated B cells. Collectively, these results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 and 20(S)-Rg3 can drive the differentiation of B cells into IgA-producing cells through the selective induction of GLTα expression. PMID:26770188

  15. The effects and mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 on myocardial remodeling in an animal model of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies haveshown that ginsenoside Rg1, extracted from the dry roots of Panax notoginseng as a traditional Asian medicine, plays an anti-fibrosis role in myocardial remodeling. However, the mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg1on the collagenic remodeling of myocardium in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and its potential mechanism. Methods A rat model of CTEPH was established by injecting thrombi through the jugular vein wice in2 weeks. Four weeks later, four groups (Group A: normal rats + normal saline; Group B: normal rats + Rg1; Group C: CTEPH model + normal saline; Group D: CTEPH model + Rg1) were established. Normal saline and Rg1 were administrated by intraperitoneal injection. Ineach group, we measured the hemodynamic parameters, as well as the right ventricle to left ventricle (RV/LV) thickness ratio. Myocardial tissue sections of the RV were stained by hematoxylin-eosin +gentian violet and the morphological characteristics were observed by light microscopy. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and −9 were detected by the western blot. Results Compared with Group A and Group B, the right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly increased in Group C and significantly decreased in Group D. Compared with Group A and Group B, the RV/LV thickness ratio of the rats was significantly higher in Group C and Group D. There was significant fibrosis with collagen in Group C compared with Group A and Group B, and less significant changes in Group D were observed compared with those in Group C. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 exhibited a significant decrease in Group C and was also significantly decreased in Group D compared withGroup A and Group B. Also, a negative linear relationship was shown between collagen-I and the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Conclusions Our animal study showed that ginsenoside Rg1 positively affects myocardial remodeling and

  16. Ginsenoside Rg1 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes rat model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haitao; Zhen, Juan; Yang, Yang; Gu, Jinning; Wu, Suisheng; Liu, Quan

    2016-04-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 has been demonstrated to have cardiovascular protective effects. However, whether the cardioprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 are mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis remain unclear. In this study, among 80 male Wistar rats, 15 rats were randomly selected as controls; the remaining 65 rats received a diet rich in fat and sugar content for 4 weeks, followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) to establish a diabetes model. Seven days after STZ injection, 10 rats were randomly selected as diabetic model (DM) controls, 45 eligible diabetic rats were randomized to three treatment groups and administered ginsenoside Rg1 in a dosage of 10, 15 or 20 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and serum samples obtained to determine cardiac troponin (cTn)-I. Myocardial tissues were harvested for morphological analysis to detect myocardial cell apoptosis, and to analyse protein expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and Caspase-12. Treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (10-20 mg/kg) significantly reduced serum cTnI levels compared with DM control group (all P < 0.01). Ginsenoside Rg1 (15 and 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the percentage of apoptotic myocardial cells and improved the parameters of cardiac function. Haematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 could attenuate myocardial lesions and myocardial collagen volume fraction. Additionally, ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced GRP78, CHOP, and cleaved Caspase-12 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 appeared to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis in diabetic rats. PMID:26869403

  17. Evaluation of intestinal absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 incorporated in microemulison using parallel artificial membrane permeability assay.

    PubMed

    Han, Min; Fu, Shao; Gao, Jian-Qing; Fang, Xiao-Ling

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, ginsenoside Rg(1) (Rg(1)), a naturally occurring drug which is hardly absorbed in gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to its high hydrophilicity and low membrane permeability, was incorporated in different compositions of water-in-oil microemulsions (MEs). And parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) that have been mainly utilized for the evaluation of in vitro permeability of early drug candidates was introduced in present study, as well as rat in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro permeability measurements, to investigate the effect of w/o ME on Rg(1) absorption. Correlation between various models as mentioned above was further performed to estimate the feasibility of PAMPA in the application of pharmaceutical preparation studies. After being administrated intraduodenally to rats, most of MEs can enhance the intestinal absorption of Rg(1) to various extents with relative bioavailability (F(re)) ranging from 268 to 1270% using drug solution as control. This enhanced absorption of Rg(1) may be related to its increased membrane permeability induced by ME as exhibited in the PAMPA and rat in vitro permeability measurements. Meanwhile, rat in vivo pharmacokinetics-PAMPA correlation (r(2)=0.6082) is significant (p<0.05) for ME, representing a potential prospect for the application of PAMPA in the study of pharmaceutical preparation in some conditions. PMID:19483317

  18. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting inflammatory responses and modulating infiltration of M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bao, Suhong; Zou, Yun; Wang, Bing; Li, Yinjiao; Zhu, Jiali; Luo, Yan; Li, Jinbao

    2015-09-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the major effective component of ginseng, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice was unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of Rg1 on LPS-induced ALI and explore the potential mechanisms. The mice were divided randomly into four groups: the sham group, the LPS group and the LPS+Rg1 (40 mg/kg or 200mg/kg) pretreatment groups. All mice received Rg1 or an equivalent volume of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) intraperitoneally 1h before LPS administration. Edema quantification, histology, and apoptosis were detected 6h after LPS administration. The number of inflammatory cells, the percentage of alternative activated (M2) macrophages and the exudate quantification in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated. The caspase 3 expression, and the levels of phosphorylated IκB-α and p65 were tested. The results showed that the Rg1 pretreatment group markedly improved lung damage, modulated the infiltration of neutrophils and M2 macrophages, prevented the production of protein and proinflammatory cytokines in BALF, and inhibited apoptosis in lung. We also found that Rg1 suppressed NF-κB and caspase 3 activation. These data suggest that Rg1 plays a protective role against LPS-induced ALI by ameliorating inflammatory responses, regulating the infiltration of M2 macrophages, and inhibiting pulmonary cell apoptosis. PMID:26122136

  19. Optimization of combinations of ginsenoside-Rg1, ginsenoside-Rb1, evodiamine and rutaecarpine for effective therapy of mouse migraine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanchuan; Pan, Xueqiang; Xu, Yongsong; Lu, Xuran; He, Shida; He, Rui; Gong, Muxin

    2016-04-01

    Wuzhuyu decoction (WZYD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. It has been extensively used for treating migraine for thousands of years in TCM. Four potential active ingredients from WZYD, ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1), ginsenoside-Rb1 (Rb1), evodiamine (Ev) and rutaecarpine (Ru), were found to have positive correlations with pharmacodynamic indicators involving mouse migraine in our previous study. To find a better therapeutic effect on migraine, this research was carried out to optimize the combinations of Rg1, Rb1, Ev and Ru using the uniform design method. The results showed that Rb1 and Ev played key roles in improving the therapeutic effect on mouse migraine by strongly ameliorating pharmacodynamic indicators associated with migraine. They significantly increased the contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine in brain tissues, and reduced the content of nitric oxide in brain tissues and the activities of nitric oxide synthase in both brain tissues and blood serum. The optimal concentrations of Rb1 and Ev were 1057.4 mg/L and 312.5 mg/L, respectively. Rg1 and Ru contributed less to the overall desirability, suggesting that they had reverse effects on some pharmacodynamic indicators of this type of migraine. The verification test demonstrated by the immunohistochemical method that the optimal combination inhibited the expression of c-fos and c-jun in periaqueductal gray of mice, and strongly ameliorated pharmacodynamic indicators. These results suggested that the therapeutic effect of the optimal combination of the four ingredients was strong, and the optimal results were proven to be reliable and accurate. PMID:26711833

  20. Suppression of PMA-induced tumor cell invasion and migration by ginsenoside Rg1 via the inhibition of NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Yiwen; Qi, Benquan; Yuan, Dongdong; Dong, Shuying; Guo, Daohua; Zhang, Cuiling; Yu, Meiling

    2014-11-01

    Ginseng has become one of the most commonly used alternative herbal medicines, and its active component, ginsenoside Rg1 has known pharmacological effects, including anticancer properties. However, the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on metastasis have yet to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of ginsenoside Rg1 to suppress phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced invasion and migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 and incubated with or without PMA. The protein and mRNA expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 was analyzed using Transwell and wound‑healing assays and western blotting. The results showed that suppression was associated with the reduced secretion of MMP-9, a key metastatic enzyme. MMP-9 levels were regulated transcriptionally and correlated with the suppression of NF-κB phosphorylation and DNA binding activity. Conversely, ginsenoside Rg1 did not affect MMP-2 mRNA and TIMP-1 mRNA levels, or the activation of AP-1, suggesting a specificity of pathway inhibition. Inhibition of NF‑κB activation by p65 small‑interfering RNA (siRNA) was shown to suppress PMA-induced cell invasion and migration. The siRNA studies also showed that PMA-induced MMP-9 expression is NF-κB-dependent. The results suggested that the anticancer properties of ginsenoside Rg1 may derive from its ability to inhibit invasion and migration, and that these processes are regulated in breast cancer cells through the NF-κB‑mediated regulation of MMP-9 expression. PMID:25174454

  1. Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates hypoxia and hypercapnia-induced vasoconstriction in isolated rat pulmonary arterial rings by reducing the expression of p38

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mengxiao; Zhao, Meiping; Tang, Lanlan; Zhang, Congcong; Song, Longsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease characterized by increased pulmonary arteriolar resistance. Pulmonary vasoconstriction has been proved to play a significant role in PAH. We previously reported that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) might attenuate hypoxia and hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction (HHPV). Methods In the present study, our specific objective was to investigate the role of ginsenoside Rg1, a major component of PNS, in this process and the possible underlying mechanism. The second order pulmonary rings isolated from the Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with different dosage of ginsenoside Rg1 at 8, 40, or 100 mg/L respectively, both before and during the conditions of hypoxia and hypercapnia. Contractile force changes of the rings were detected. Furthermore, SB203580, the selective inhibitor for p38 activation was applied to the rings. Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were cultured under hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions, and ginsenoside Rg1 was administered to detect the changes induced by p38. Results Under the hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions, we observed a biphasic pulmonary artery contractile response to the second pulmonary artery rings. It is hypothesized that the observed attenuation of vasoconstriction and the production of vasodilation could have been induced by ginsenoside Rg1. This effect was significantly reinforced by SB203580 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expression of p38 in the PASMCs under hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions was significantly activated (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and the observed activation was attenuated by ginsenoside Rg1 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions Our findings strongly support the significant role of ginsenoside Rg1 in the inhibition of hypoxia and hypercapnia-induced vasoconstriction by the p38 pathway. PMID:27499938

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor is involved in the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 against inflammation-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Chang; Ren, Xiao-Fan; Chen, Lei; Gao, Xian-Qi; Xie, Jun-Xia; Chen, Wen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating clinical and experimental evidence suggests that chronic neuroinflammation is associated with dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Ginsenoside Rg1, the most active components of ginseng, possesses a variety of biological effects on the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia activation and dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in rat substantia nigra (SN) and its potential mechanisms. Treatment with Rg1 could ameliorate the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in LPS-lesioned rats. GR antagonist RU486 partly abolished the protective effect of Rg1. Rg1 treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced loss of tyrosin hydroxlase (TH) positive neurons in substantial nigra par compacta (SNpc) and decreased content of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in striatum of the lesioned side. Meanwhile, Rg1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced microglial activation and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO). These effects were abolished by co-treatment with RU486. In addition, Rg1 treatment significantly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the lesioned side of substantial nigra. These effect could be also partly blocked by RU486. Taken together, these data indicate that Rg1 has protective effects on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced microglia inflammation. GR signaling pathway might be involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of Rg1. PMID:26455404

  3. Protective Effect of Ginsenosides Rg1 and Re on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis by Competitive Binding to Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xue, Yin; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wangxue

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re enhanced the immune response in C3H/HeB mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a mutation in the Tlr4 gene. The results of the present study showed that both Rg1 and Re inhibited mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory mediators that included tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Rg1 was found to be distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly but Re was located only extracellularly to compete with LPS for binding to Toll-like receptor 4. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into rats suppressed LPS-induced increases in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and levels of serum proinflammatory mediators. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into mice prevented the LPS-induced decreases in total white blood cell counts and neutrophil counts, inhibited excessive expression of multiple proinflammatory mediators, and successfully rescued 100% of the mice from sepsis-associated death. More significantly, when administered after lethal LPS inoculation, Rg1, but not Re, still showed a potent antisepsis effect and protected 90% of the mice from death. The better protection efficacy of Rg1 could result from its intracellular distribution, suggesting that Rg1 may be an ideal antisepsis agent. PMID:26149990

  4. Immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in the MPTP(1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) -induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting-ting; Zu, Guo; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Xiao-gang; Li, Shao; Liang, Zhan-hua; Zhao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the biologically active ingredients of ginseng, has been considered to be a candidate neuroprotective drug. The objective of the study was to study the protective effects of Rg1 through the peripheral and central inflammation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model. Rg1 treatment protected TH-positive cells in the SNpc region from MPTP toxicity measured with immunofluoresence. The protein expression levels of TH in the SNpc region of MPTP-induced mice following treatment with Rg1 were higher than MPTP-induced mice which were tested with Western blot. The ratio of CD3(+)CD4(+) to CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the blood increased in MPTP-induced mice following treatment with Rg1 which were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, Rg1 reduced the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6 which were tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, Rg1 inhibited the activation of microglia and reduced the infiltration of CD3(+) T cells into the SNpc region which were measured by immunofluorescence. Our results indicated that Rg1 may represent a promising drug for the treatment of PD via the regulation of the peripheral and central inflammation. PMID:26548343

  5. Protective effect of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re on lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis by competitive binding to Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xue, Yin; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wangxue; Hu, Songhua

    2015-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re enhanced the immune response in C3H/HeB mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a mutation in the Tlr4 gene. The results of the present study showed that both Rg1 and Re inhibited mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory mediators that included tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Rg1 was found to be distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly but Re was located only extracellularly to compete with LPS for binding to Toll-like receptor 4. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into rats suppressed LPS-induced increases in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and levels of serum proinflammatory mediators. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into mice prevented the LPS-induced decreases in total white blood cell counts and neutrophil counts, inhibited excessive expression of multiple proinflammatory mediators, and successfully rescued 100% of the mice from sepsis-associated death. More significantly, when administered after lethal LPS inoculation, Rg1, but not Re, still showed a potent antisepsis effect and protected 90% of the mice from death. The better protection efficacy of Rg1 could result from its intracellular distribution, suggesting that Rg1 may be an ideal antisepsis agent. PMID:26149990

  6. A UPLC/MS-based metabolomics investigation of the protective effect of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rg2 in mice with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Naijing; Liu, Ying; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ling; Li, Qing; Wang, Xueqing; He, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease, for which there is no effective drug therapy at present. Ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) and G-Rg2 have been reported to alleviate memory deterioration. However, the mechanism of their anti-AD effect has not yet been clearly elucidated. Methods Ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem MS (UPLC/MS)-based metabolomics was used to identify metabolites that are differentially expressed in the brains of AD mice with or without ginsenoside treatment. The cognitive function of mice and pathological changes in the brain were also assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results The impaired cognitive function and increased hippocampal Aβ deposition in AD mice were ameliorated by G-Rg1 and G-Rg2. In addition, a total of 11 potential biomarkers that are associated with the metabolism of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), hypoxanthine, and sphingolipids were identified in the brains of AD mice and their levels were partly restored after treatment with G-Rg1 and G-Rg2. G-Rg1 and G-Rg2 treatment influenced the levels of hypoxanthine, dihydrosphingosine, hexadecasphinganine, LPC C 16:0, and LPC C 18:0 in AD mice. Additionally, G-Rg1 treatment also influenced the levels of phytosphingosine, LPC C 13:0, LPC C 15:0, LPC C 18:1, and LPC C 18:3 in AD mice. Conclusion These results indicate that the improvements in cognitive function and morphological changes produced by G-Rg1 and G-Rg2 treatment are caused by regulation of related brain metabolic pathways. This will extend our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the effects of G-Rg1 and G-Rg2 on AD. PMID:26843817

  7. Neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia in aged rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yini; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Haitang; Cai, Nan; Zhou, Shuang; Zhao, Yaoping; Chen, Xue; Zheng, Shaoqiang; Si, Qi; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is the primary active substance in ginseng, and it has multiple pharmacological actions. Investigations on the pharmacologic action of ginsenoside Rg1 have developed, with a particular focus on the regulation of metabolism. The present study hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 prevent cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic effects, mediated by the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase‑3β (GSK‑3β) pathway in aged rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into isoflurane and ginsenoside Rg1 groups and were treated with 20 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg1 for 7 days. Morris water maze was performed to analyze the cognitive function of the rats. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays were used to analyze the levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and caspase 3. The protein expression levels of AKT, GSK 3β, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 were measured using western blot analysis. Ginsenoside Rg1 significantly improved cognitive function, and exhibited antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory effects, demonstrating the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against the effect of isoflurane anesthesia in the rats. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced caspase‑3 activity, upregulated the expression of PI3K/AKT/GSK‑3β and downregulated the mRNA expression levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 in the aged rats exposed to isoflurane anesthesia. The data obtained in the present study provided evidence that the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 prevented the cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic effects, mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK‑3β pathway. PMID:27485139

  8. Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates motor impairment and neuroinflammation in the MPTP-probenecid-induced parkinsonism mouse model by targeting α-synuclein abnormalities in the substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Heng, Yang; Zhang, Qiu-Shuang; Mu, Zheng; Hu, Jin-Feng; Yuan, Yu-He; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-01-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is pathologically characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein in specific central nervous system (CNS) regions. Disease development is attributed to α-synuclein abnormalities, particularly aggregation and phosphorylation. The ginsenoside Rg1, an active component of ginseng, possesses neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate these activities of Rg1 in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)/probenecid (MPTP/p)-induced PD mouse model for the first time and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Oral treatment with Rg1 significantly attenuated the high MPTP-induced mortality, behavior defects, loss of dopamine neurons and abnormal ultrastructure changes in the SNpc. Other assays indicated that the protective effect of Rg1 may be mediated by its anti-neuroinflammatory properties. Rg1 regulated MPTP-induced reactive astrocytes and microglia and decreased the release of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the SNpc. Rg1 also alleviated the unusual MPTP-induced increase in oligomeric, phosphorylated and disease-related α-synuclein in the SNpc. In conclusion, Rg1 protects dopaminergic neurons, most likely by reducing aberrant α-synuclein-mediated neuroinflammation, and holds promise for PD therapeutics. PMID:26723869

  9. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in both in vivo and in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Zu, Guo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wang, Xi; Li, Shao; Gong, Xiaoyang; Liang, Zhanhua; Zhao, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is a major bioactive ingredient in Panax ginseng that has low toxicity and has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. The objectives of the present study were to explore the potential of the application of Rg1 for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to determine whether its neuroprotective effects are exerted through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by using in vivo and in vitro models of PD. In the in vivo study, Rg1 treatment ameliorated the behavioral deficits of "Pole test", and reduced dopaminergic cell loss that were induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP) in a dose-dependent manner in an in vivo model of PD. In the in vitro study, cell viability was increased and cell apoptosis induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(MPP+) was decreased by Rg1 pretreatment. Rg1 induced protective effects on the protein and mRNA expression levels of markers of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in both the in vivo and the in vitro studies, and these neuroprotective effects were blocked by DKK1 in the in vitro study. Our results provide evidence that Rg1 has neuroprotective effects in both in vivo and in vitro PD models, and these effects act through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that Rg1 may exert therapeutic effects on PD via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and may therefore provide a novel approach for the treatment of PD. PMID:26525190

  10. Synergistic Use of Geniposide and Ginsenoside Rg1 Balance Microglial TNF-α and TGF-β1 following Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation In Vitro: A Genome-Wide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Hou, Jincai; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Jianxun

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-activated microglia are like a double-edged sword, characterized by both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to reveal the synergistic effect of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 based on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β1 balance of microglia. BV2 microglial cells were divided into 5 groups: control, model (oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)), geniposide-treated, ginsenoside-Rg1-treated, and combination-treated. A series of assays were used to detect on (i) cell viability; (ii) NO content; (iii) expression (content) of TNF-α and TGF-β1; and (iv) gene expression profiles. The results showed that integrated use of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 significantly inhibited NO level and protected cell viability, improved the content and expression of TGF-β1, and reduced the content and expression of TNF-α. Separated use of geniposide or ginsenoside Rg1 showed different effects at different emphases. Next-generation sequencing showed that Fcγ-receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway played a key regulatory role in the balance of TNF-α and TGF-β1 when cotreated with geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that synergistic drug combination of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 in the treatment of stroke is a feasible avenue for the application. PMID:26693244

  11. Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats: Involvement of Caveolin-1 and TGF-β1 Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Heqin; Huang, Feng; Ma, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Zhenghang; Zhang, Haifang; Zhang, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS), extracted from Panax Notoginseng as a traditional Asian medicine, displayed a significant anti-fibrosis effect in liver and lung. However, whether Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), an important and active ingredient of PNS, exerts anti-fibrotic activity on IPF still remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Rg1 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Bleomycin (5 mg/kg body weight) was intratracheally administrated to male rats. Rg1 (18, 36 and 72 mg/kg) was orally administered on the next day after bleomycin. Lungs were harvested at day 7 and 28 for the further experiments. Histological analysis revealed that bleomycin successfully induced pulmonary fibrosis, and that Rg1 restored the histological alteration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF), significantly decreased lung coefficient, scores of alveolitis, scores of PF as well as contents of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in a dose-dependent manner in PF rats. Moreover, Rg1 increased the expression levels of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) mRNA and protein, lowered the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA and protein in the lung tissues of PF rats. These data suggest that Rg1 exhibits protective effect against bleomycin-induced PF in rats, which is potentially associated with the down-regulation of TGF-β1 and up-regulation of Cav-1. PMID:27476938

  12. Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model of d-Galactose-induced Aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Cai, Dachuan; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Linbo; Jing, Pengwei; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell senescence is an important and current hypothesis accounting for organismal aging, especially the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Ginsenoside Rg1 is the main active pharmaceutical ingredient of ginseng, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. This study explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on Sca-1+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPCs) in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging. The mimetic aging mouse model was induced by continuous injection of d-gal for 42 days, and the C57BL/6 mice were respectively treated with ginsenoside Rg1, Vitamin E or normal saline after 7 days of d-gal injection. Compared with those in the d-gal administration alone group, ginsenoside Rg1 protected Sca-1+ HSC/HPCs by decreasing SA-β-Gal and enhancing the colony forming unit-mixture (CFU-Mix), and adjusting oxidative stress indices like reactive oxygen species (ROS), total anti-oxidant (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 decreased β-catenin and c-Myc mRNA expression and enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg1 down-regulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), phospho-histone H2A.X (r-H2A.X), 8-OHdG, p16Ink4a, Rb, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p53 in senescent Sca-1+ HSC/HPCs. Our findings indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve the resistance of Sca-1+ HSC/HPCs in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging through the suppression of oxidative stress and excessive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and reduction of DNA damage response, p16Ink4a-Rb and p53-p21Cip1/Waf1 signaling. PMID:27294914

  13. Pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rg1 in rat medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and lateral ventricle after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei; Liu, Yang; Qi, Wen-Yuan; Gao, Yan; Li, Min; Shi, Ai-Xin; Li, Ke-Xin

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate pharmacokinetics of Rg1 in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus (HIP), and lateral ventricle (LV) after subcutaneous injection. For the first time, intracerebral pharmacokinetics of Rg1 was studied in freely moving rats by microdialysis technique. Rg1 concentrations in dialysates were detected by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and were revised using in vivo probe-recovery in HIP and LV. The pharmacokinetic parameters were then determined using non-compartmental models. Since the in vivo recoveries remained stable in HIP and LV during 9 h dialysis, average recoveries were used to revise dialysate concentrations. After dosing, Rg1 was soon detected in brain extracellular fluid (bECF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elimination of Rg1 was significantly slower in mPFC than in HIP and LV, and significantly greater AUC was obtained in mPFC than in HIP. Rg1 kinetics in bECF and CSF indicate that Rg1 can go across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), and then immediately distribute to learning and memory-related regions in brain, which may lead to rapid pharmacological onset. There may be active transport and target-mediated disposition of Rg1 in the CNS, which need to be further clarified. PMID:27324597

  14. Six week swimming followed by acute uptakes of ginsenoside Rg1 may affect aerobic capacity of SD rats

    PubMed Central

    Haam, Saebom; Park, Hyon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of six-weeks of endurance swim training and short-term intake of Rg1 on the expression of related proteins as well as improvement of aerobic exercise capacity in 8-week-old male SD rats. [Methods] The groups were divided into placebo (NP, n=6), Rg1 (NRG, n=6), exercise+placebo (EP, n=7), and exercise+Rg1 (ERG, n=7). On completion of the 6-week swimming exercise, Rg1-intake groups were treated with acute uptakes (3 times within 24hrs) of Rg1. After the treatment, all groups were subjected to a swim to exhaustion test, and then the mass of muscle tissue, mRNA expression level and activity of citrate synthase (CS) were analyzed on plantaris. [Results] There were no differences in the effect of 6-week swimming exercise and short-term intake of Rg1 on body weight and muscle mass between groups. Although the CS mRNA expression was elevated in the exercise group and combined treatment group, there was no significant difference in CS activity. Acute uptakes of Rg1 did not affect swimming time to exhaustion, but it was increased by 235% and 314% by the 6-weeks of exercise and combined treatment of exercise and Rg1, respectively, which suggests that the combined treatment increased the effect on the capacity of aerobic exercise. [Conclusion] Based on these results, it was confirmed that even a short-term treatment of Rg1 can give an additive effect for improvement of exercise function, and additional studies are needed for the mechanisms and modes of its working. PMID:27274464

  15. Simultaneous determination of safflor yellow A, puerarin, daidzein, ginsenosides (Rg(1), Rb(1), Rd), and notoginsenoside R(1) in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiguo; Gao, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Hongxia; Liu, Tao; Ma, Mingyan; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2007-10-18

    A liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of seven compounds (safflor yellow A, puerarin, daidzein, ginsenosides (Rg(1), Rb(1), Rd), and notoginsenoside R(1)) in rat plasma samples with sufficient sensitivity to facilitate analysis of samples collected after an intravenous injection of Naodesheng. The plasma samples were subjected to protein precipitation with acetone, and analyzed using negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with baicalin as an internal standard. Good linearity for all the seven compounds was observed. The intra- and inter-day precision of analysis was <15.0% for each compound, and the accuracy ranged from 90.0% to 109.0%. This quantitation method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of following intravenous injection of rats with Naodesheng. PMID:17590558

  16. Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model of d-Galactose-induced Aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Cai, Dachuan; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Linbo; Jing, Pengwei; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell senescence is an important and current hypothesis accounting for organismal aging, especially the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Ginsenoside Rg1 is the main active pharmaceutical ingredient of ginseng, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. This study explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on Sca-1⁺ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPCs) in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging. The mimetic aging mouse model was induced by continuous injection of d-gal for 42 days, and the C57BL/6 mice were respectively treated with ginsenoside Rg1, Vitamin E or normal saline after 7 days of d-gal injection. Compared with those in the d-gal administration alone group, ginsenoside Rg1 protected Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs by decreasing SA-β-Gal and enhancing the colony forming unit-mixture (CFU-Mix), and adjusting oxidative stress indices like reactive oxygen species (ROS), total anti-oxidant (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 decreased β-catenin and c-Myc mRNA expression and enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg1 down-regulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), phospho-histone H2A.X (r-H2A.X), 8-OHdG, p16(Ink4a), Rb, p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p53 in senescent Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs. Our findings indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve the resistance of Sca-1⁺ HSC/HPCs in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging through the suppression of oxidative stress and excessive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and reduction of DNA damage response, p16(Ink4a)-Rb and p53-p21(Cip1/Waf1) signaling. PMID:27294914

  17. Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts a protective effect against Aβ₂₅₋₃₅-induced toxicity in primary cultured rat cortical neurons through the NF-κB/NO pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaying; Yang, Hongyu; Zhao, Qingwei; Zhang, Xingguo; Lou, Yijia

    2016-03-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is a multipotent triterpene saponin extracted from ginseng, and has been proven to act as a nootropic agent against various types of neurological damage. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of Rg1 on apoptosis induced by β-amyloid peptide 25-35 (Aβ25-35) in primary cultured cortical neurons. The primary neurons were preincubated with 20 µM Rg1 for 24 h and exposed to 10 µM Aβ25-35 for 72 h. In the present study, we found that Rg1 prevented nuclear factor κ-light-chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and IκB-α phosphorylation in primary cultured cortical neurons after Aβ25-35 exposure by scavenging excess reactive oxygen species (ROS); ROS was measured using DCFDA and examined using a fluorescence microscope. In addition, Rg1 successfully suppressed Aβ25‑35-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in a NF-κB-dependent manner; the suppression of NO was clearly illustrated by the NO production assay. Pretreatment of the cells with Rg1 elevated the proportion of Bcl-2/Bax, lessened the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm and then blocked mitochondrial apoptotic cascades after Aβ25-35 insult by lowering NO generation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Rg1 rescues primary cultured cortical neurons from Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through the downregulation of the NF-κB/NO signaling pathway. PMID:26865401

  18. Korean Red Ginseng and Ginsenoside-Rb1/-Rg1 Alleviate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Suppressing Th1 and Th17 Cells and Upregulating Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jung; Jang, Minhee; Choi, Jonghee; Chang, Byung Soo; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Oh, Seikwan; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Chang, Byung-Joon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The effects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) on autoimmune disorders of the nervous system are not clear. We investigated whether KRGE has a beneficial effect on acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Pretreatment (daily from 10 days before immunization with myelin basic protein peptide) with KRGE significantly attenuated clinical signs and loss of body weight and was associated with the suppression of spinal demyelination and glial activation in acute EAE rats, while onset treatment (daily after the appearance of clinical symptoms) did not. The suppressive effect of KRGE corresponded to the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin [IL]-1β), chemokines (RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α]), adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule [PECAM-1]), and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the spinal cord after immunization. Interestingly, in acute EAE rats, pretreatment with KRGE significantly reduced the population of CD4(+), CD4(+)/IFN-γ(+), and CD4(+)/IL-17(+) T cells in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, corresponding to the downregulation of mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 in the spinal cord. On the other hand, KRGE pretreatment increased the population of CD4(+)/Foxp3(+) T cells in the spinal cord and lymph nodes of these rats, corresponding to the upregulation of mRNA expression of Foxp3 in the spinal cord. Interestingly, intrathecal pretreatment of rats with ginsenosides (Rg1 and Rb1) significantly decreased behavioral impairment. These results strongly indicate that KRGE has a beneficial effect on the development and progression of EAE by suppressing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 T cells and upregulating regulatory T cells. Additionally, pre- and onset treatment with KRGE

  19. Preventive effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behavior in male C57/B6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongli; Zhu, Kexuan; Chen, Lin; Ou Yang, Liufeng; Huang, Yufang; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-09-25

    We investigated the preventive effects of Rg1 on a model of mouse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) induced by electric shock combined with situation reminder and explored the underlying mechanism. In the experiment, before the PTSD animal model was developed, Rg1 (10, 5, and 2.5mg/kg) was orally administered for one week. After the animal model was established, PTSD-like behavior was observed using elevated plus maze, black and light box, and open field tests. One hour after the behavior test, all mice were sacrificed, and then serum corticosterone (CORT) and hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) assays were performed. Results showed that Rg1 (5mg/kg) treatments relieved PTSD-like behavior by altering elevated serum corticosterone and hypothalamus CRH levels. By contrast, fluoxetine (3mg/kg) treatment reversed the behavior changes and had no effect on increased CORT and CRH levels. These findings confirmed the preventive effect of Rg1 in PTSD model. Decreasing CORT and CRH levels may be one of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26277823

  20. Brain distribution pharmacokinetics and integrated pharmacokinetics of Panax Notoginsenoside R1, Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re and Rd in rats after intranasal administration of Panax Notoginseng Saponins assessed by UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingli; Li, Pengyue; Wang, Zhen; Cheng, Yanke; Wu, Huichao; Yang, Bing; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang

    2014-10-15

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) constitute the main active components of a traditional Chinese medicine, Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi). To investigate brain distribution of Panax Notoginsenoside R1, Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re, and Rd, and the integrated PNS in rats, their contents in cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, hippocampus and olfactory bulb were simultaneously measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal Digoxin standard. The method described here was highly efficient, with short run time, excellent specificity and sensitivity, and successfully applied for pharmacokinetics studies. NGR1, GRg1, GRb1, GRe and GRd from PNS have been detected in all six brain regions studied and quantified accurately. These findings provide more insight for further understanding of the main ways from the nasal cavity to brain as well as the migration of nasally applied drugs into the CNS parenchyma. PMID:25203723

  1. The effects of ginsenosides to amyloid fibril formation by RCMκ-casein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihua; Chen, Fanbo; Yin, Jianyuan; Bu, Fengquan; Zheng, Baohua; Yang, Miao; Wang, Yunhua; Sun, Dandan; Meng, Qin

    2015-08-01

    When not incorporated into the casein micelle, isolated κ-casein spontaneously forms amyloid fibrils under physiological conditions, and is a convenient model for researching generic aspects of fibril formation. Ginsenosides have recently attracted much research interest because of the effects on aging diseases, which are always associated with amyloid fibril formation, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In addition, the mechanism remains unclear that ginsenosides exert the effects against aging diseases. To address these aspects, we have investigated the ability of ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, Rg1, and Re influencing fibril formation by RCMκ-casein (reduced and carboxymethylated κ-casein), with the methods of Thioflavin T fluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 inhibited obviously RCMκ-CN fibrillation in both the initial rate and final level of ThT fluorescence. On the contrary, ginsenoside Re had a few effect on promoting RCMκ-CN fibril formation, proved by thick and larger fibrils observed frequently in TEM. While Rc did not influence RCMκ-CN fibrillation. It is demonstrated that Rg1 prevent RCMκ-CN fibril formation by stabilising RCMκ-CN in its native like state. Additional chemical structure difference of ginsenosides and the effects on fibril formation are also implicated. PMID:25934110

  2. Metabonomics Approach to Assessing the Metabolism Variation and Endoexogenous Metabolic Interaction of Ginsenosides in Cold Stress Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jingcheng; Jia, Zhiying; Liu, Yumin; Xie, Xie; Wang, Chongchong; Jia, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic profiling technology, a massive information provider, has promoted the understanding of the metabolism of multicomponent medicines and its interactions with endogenous metabolites, which was previously a challenge in clarification. In this study, an untargeted GC/MS-based approach was employed to investigate the urinary metabolite profile in rats with oral administration of ginsenosides and the control group. Significant changes of urinary metabolites contents were observed in the total ginsenosides group, revealing the impact of ginsenosides as indicated by the up- or down-regulation of several pathways involving neurotransmitter-related metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acids β-oxidation, and intestinal microflora metabolites. Meanwhile, a targeted UPLC-QQQ/MS-based metabonomic approach was developed to investigate the changes of urinary ginsenoside metabolites during the process of acute cold stress. Metabolic analysis indicated that upstream ginsenosides (rg1, re, and rf) increased significantly, whereas downstream ginsenosides (ck, ppd, and ppt) decreased correspondingly after cold exposure. Finally, the relationships between ginsenosides and significantly changed metabolites were investigated by correlation analysis. PMID:27150950

  3. Ginsenoside compound K promotes β-amyloid peptide clearance in primary astrocytes via autophagy enhancement.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinhui; Chang, Li; Zhang, Xin; Pei, Sujuan; Yu, Meishuang; Gao, Jianlian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside compound K on β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide clearance in primary astrocytes. Aβ degradation in primary astrocytes was determined using an intracellular Aβ clearance assay. Aggregated LC3 in astrocyte cells, which is a marker for the level of autophagy, was detected using laser scanning confocal microscope. The effect of compound K on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy pathway was determined using western blot analysis, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for Aβ detection. The results demonstrated that compound K promoted the clearance of Aβ and enhanced autophagy in primary astrocytes. In addition, it was found that phosphorylation of mTOR was inhibited by compound K, which may have contributed to the enhanced autophagy. In conclusion, compound K promotes Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy via the mTOR signaling pathway in primary astrocytes. PMID:25187838

  4. Ginsenoside Rb1 promotes adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by enhancing PPARgamma2 and C/EBPalpha gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wenbin; Yang, Ying; Jiang, Boren; Jin, Hua; Zhou, Libin; Liu, Shangquan; Chen, Mingdao

    2007-01-23

    Evidence has accumulated that ginseng and its main active constituents, ginsenosides, possess anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitizing properties which may be partly realized by regulating adipocyte development and functions. In the present study, we explored the effect of ginsenoside Rb(1), the most abundant ginsenoside in ginseng root, on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. We found that with standard differentiation inducers, ginsenoside Rb(1) facilitated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner; 10 microM Rb(1) increased lipid accumulation by about 56%. Treatment of differentiating adipocytes with 10 microM Rb(1) increased the expression of mRNA and protein of PPARgamma(2) and C/EBPalpha, as well as mRNA of ap2, one of their target genes. After the treatment of differentiating adipocytes with Rb(1), basal and insulin-mediated glucose uptake was significantly augmented, accompanied by the up-regulation of mRNA and protein level of GLUT4, but not of GLUT1. In addition, ginsenoside Rb(1) also inhibited the proliferation of preconfluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Our data indicate that anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitizing activities of ginsenosides, at least in part, are involved in the enhancing effect on PPARgamma2 and C/EBPalpha expression, hence promoting adipogenesis. PMID:17129589

  5. RPS23RG1 reduces Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic and cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li; Chen, Yaomin; Li, Wubo; Huang, Xiumei; Badie, Hedieh; Jian, Fan; Huang, Timothy; Zhao, Yingjun; Cohen, Stanley N.; Li, Limin; Zhang, Yun-wu; Luo, Huanmin; Tu, Shichun; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. It is generally believed that β-amyloidogenesis, tau-hyperphosphorylation, and synaptic loss underlie cognitive decline in AD. Rps23rg1, a functional retroposed mouse gene, has been shown to reduce Alzheimer’s β-amyloid (Aβ) production and tau phosphorylation. In this study, we have identified its human homolog, and demonstrated that RPS23RG1 regulates synaptic plasticity, thus counteracting Aβ oligomer (oAβ)-induced cognitive deficits in mice. The level of RPS23RG1 mRNA is significantly lower in the brains of AD compared to non-AD patients, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Similar to its mouse counterpart, human RPS23RG1 interacts with adenylate cyclase, activating PKA/CREB, and inhibiting GSK-3. Furthermore, we show that human RPS23RG1 promotes synaptic plasticity and offsets oAβ-induced synaptic loss in a PKA-dependent manner in cultured primary neurons. Overexpression of Rps23rg1 in transgenic mice consistently prevented oAβ-induced PKA inactivation, synaptic deficits, suppression of long-term potentiation, and cognitive impairment as compared to wild type littermates. Our study demonstrates that RPS23RG1 may reduce the occurrence of key elements of AD pathology and enhance synaptic functions to counteract oAβ-induced synaptic and cognitive deficits in AD. PMID:26733416

  6. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades. PMID:26820528

  7. Variation of Ginsenosides in Ginseng of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Luo, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Mu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Panax ginseng has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, the major chemical components of the roots, are considered to be responsible for the medicinal properties of ginseng. Ginsenosides increase with the age of ginseng root in general knowledge, and in this study the content of ginsenosides in ginseng of different ages was quantified. Separation and determination of eight main ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg2, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd, was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 203 nm. The content of Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg2 and Rd increased from 5 to 16-year-old ginseng and then decreased, while Rb2 and Rb3 increased in the range of 5-12 years, but then slowly decreased. However, the total eight ginsenosides in 16 year old ginseng had a higher content than that in any other from 5-18 years old. As a result, the content of ginsenosides and total ginsenosides was not positively related to age from 5-18 years, which is not in full agreement with the general knowledge of ginseng. Thus, this study suggests that the older wild ginseng may not result in better medicinal ginseng for herbal medicines. PMID:27534105

  8. The retention behavior of ginsenosides in HPLC and its application to quality assessment of Radix Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Luo, Guo-An; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2008-10-01

    This study systematically investigated the retention behavior of seven neutral ginsenosides Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rd, and an acidic ginsenoside R(0), the major pharmacologically active components of Radix Ginseng with RP-HPLC. The effects of solvent, pH value, ionic strength of the mobile phase, and column temperature were investigated using an octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica gel column. Based on the ginsenosides' retention characteristics, the concentration of acetonitrile and the gradient of the mobile phase needed to maintain the baseline separation of the major neutral ginsenosides in Radix Ginseng were theoretically predicted. Furthermore, the ionic strength of mobile-phase necessary to achieve good resolution of the neutral ginsenosides and acidic ginsenosides was carefully investigated. According to the results of the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in eight batches of ginseng samples from different sources, the developed HPLC technique may be a valuable tool for the quality assessment of Radix Ginseng. PMID:18958416

  9. The retention behavior of ginsenosides in HPLC and its application to quality assessment of Radix Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Luo, Guo-An; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2009-05-01

    This study systematically investigated the retention behavior of seven neutral ginsenosides Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rd, and an acidic ginsenoside R(0), the major pharmacologically active components of Radix Ginseng with RP-HPLC. The effects of solvent, pH value, ionic strength of the mobile phase, and column temperature were investigated using an octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica gel column. Based on the ginsenosides' retention characteristics, the concentration of acetonitrile and the gradient of the mobile phase needed to maintain the baseline separation of the major neutral ginsenosides in Radix Ginseng were theoretically predicted. Furthermore, the ionic strength of mobile-phase necessary to achieve good resolution of the neutral ginsenosides and acidic ginsenosides was carefully investigated. According to the results of the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in eight batches of ginseng samples from different sources, the developed HPLC technique may be a valuable tool for the quality assessment of Radix Ginseng. PMID:19471880

  10. Remarkable Impact of Acidic Ginsenosides and Organic Acids on Ginsenoside Transformation from Fresh Ginseng to Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Xia, Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Qiu; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Sun, Guang-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-07-01

    Panax ginseng contains many chemical components, including acidic ginsenosides and organic acids. However, whether these acidic substances play a role in ginsenoside transformation during steaming treatment has not yet been explored. In this paper, the content of neutral ginsenosides, acidic ginsenosides, and their degradation products in unsteamed and steamed P. ginseng were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that neutral ginsenosides were converted to rare ginsenosides during the root steaming but not during the individual ginsenoside steaming. In contrast, acidic malonyl ginsenosides released malonic acid and acetic acid through demalonylation, decarboxylation, deacetylation reactions during the steaming at 120 °C. These malonyl ginsenosides not only were converted to rare ginsenosides but also promoted the degradation of neutral ginsenosides. Further studies indicated that a low concentration of organic acid was the determining factor for the ginsenoside conversion. The related mechanisms were deduced to be mainly acidic hydrolysis and dehydration. In summary, acidic ginsenosides and organic acids remarkably affected ginsenoside transformation during the steaming process. Our results provide useful information for precisely understanding the ginsenoside conversion pathways and mechanisms underlying the steaming process. PMID:27295137

  11. Chinese herbs and their active ingredients for activating xue (blood) promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Some Chinese herbs are anti-thrombolysis, and anti-inflammatory, improves brain RNA content, promotes brain protein synthesis, enhances dopamine function, regulates brain hormones, and improves microcirculation in central nervous system that might improve, repair and rehabilitation from the stroke and brain injury. Specific Chinese herbs and their components, such as Acanthopanax, Angelica, could maintain the survival of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Ganoderma spore Polygala, Tetramethylpyrazine, Gardenia, Astragaloside and Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted proliferation of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Astragaloside promoted differentiation of neural stem cell into neuron and glia in vivo. Astragalus, Safflower, Musk, Baicalin, Geniposide, Ginkgolide B, Cili polysaccharide, Salidroside, Astragaloside, Antler polypeptides, Ginsenoside Rg1, Panax notoginseng saponins promoted proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro. Salvia, Astragalus, Ginsenoside Rg1, P. notoginseng saponins, Musk polypeptide, Muscone and Ginkgolide B promoted neural-directed differentiation of MSCs into nerve cells. These findings are encouraging further research into the Chinese herbs for developing drugs in treating patients of stroke and brain injury. PMID:24716802

  12. Autotoxic Ginsenosides in the Rhizosphere Contribute to the Replant Failure of Panax notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Xiaodan; Xu, Yanguo; Mei, Xinyue; Jiang, Bingbing; Liao, Jingjing; Yin, Zhaobo; Zheng, Jianfen; Zhao, Zhi; Fan, Liming; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Youyong; Zhu, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Sanqi ginseng (Panax notoginseng) growth is often hampered by replant failure. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of autotoxicity in Sanqi replant failures and assess the role of ginsenosides in autotoxicity. Methods The autotoxicities were measured using seedling emergence bioassays and root cell vigor staining. The ginsenosides in the roots, soils, and root exudates were identified with HPLC-MS. Results The seedling emergence and survival rate decreased significantly with the continuous number of planting years from one to three years. The root exudates, root extracts, and extracts from consecutively cultivated soils also showed significant autotoxicity against seedling emergence and growth. Ginsenosides, including R1, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb3, Rg2, and Rd, were identified in the roots and consecutively cultivated soil. The ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rd, were identified in the root exudates. Furthermore, the ginsenosides, R1, Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rd, caused autotoxicity against seedling emergence and growth and root cell vigor at a concentration of 1.0 µg/mL. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that autotoxicity results in replant failure of Sanqi ginseng. While Sanqi ginseng consecutively cultivated, some ginsenosides can accumulate in rhizosphere soils through root exudates or root decomposition, which impedes seedling emergence and growth. PMID:25695831

  13. Rg1 Attenuates alcoholic hepatic damage through regulating AMP-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shi-Feng; Xia, Cong-Yuan; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Rg1 has shown multiple pharmacological activities and been considered to be evaluated for hepatic protective activity, as Rg1 could modulate different pathways in various diseases. Herein we assessed its effect and potential mechanism in a newly modified ethanol model. C57BL/6 mice were fed with Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin as control diet with or without Rg1. Meanwhile, bicyclol was treated as positive drug to compare the efficacy of Rg1 against alcoholic hepatotoxicity. According to our data, Rg1 indeed improved the survival rate and lowered the abnormal high levels of serum parameters. H&E and Oil Red O staining indicated that the condition of liver damage was mitigated by Rg1 administration. Furthermore, AMPK and Nrf2 pathways were all modulated at both RNA and protein levels. In accordance with these findings, Rg1 effectively protected against alcoholic liver injury, possibly by modulating metabolism, suppressing oxidative stress, and enhancing oxidant defense systems of Nrf2 pathway. In vitro, Rg1 has no cell toxicity and promotes Nrf2 translocate into nuclear. In summary, we demonstrate that Rg1 is a potent activator of Nrf2 pathway, and could therefore be applied for prevention of hepatic damage. PMID:27229011

  14. Ginsenoside-free molecules from steam-dried ginseng berry promote ethanol metabolism: an alternative choice for an alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Ik; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Dong Hoon; Yu, Jung Min; Jang, Su Kil; Joo, Seong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Ethanol metabolism produces harmful compounds that contribute to liver damage and cause an alcohol hangover. The intermediate metabolite acetaldehyde is responsible for alcohol hangover and CYP2E1-induced reactive oxygen species damage liver tissues. In this study, we examined whether ginsenoside-free molecules (GFMs) from steam-dried ginseng berries promote ethanol metabolism and scavenge free radicals by stimulating primary enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CYP2E1, and catalase) and antioxidant effects using in vitro and in vivo models. The results revealed that GFM effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Notably, GFM significantly enhanced the expression of primary enzymes within 2 h in HepG2 cells. GFM clearly removed the consumed ethanol and significantly reduced the level of acetaldehyde as well as enhancement of primary gene expression in BALB/c mice. Moreover, GFM successfully protected HepG2 cells from ethanol attack. Of the major components identified in GFM, it was believed that linoleic acid was the most active ingredient. Based on these findings, we conclude that GFM holds promise for use as a new candidate for ethanol metabolism and as an antihangover agent. PMID:24962619

  15. An FK5 analysis from RG1 Astrolabe Catalogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, R.; Nievas, E.; Hormaechea, J. L.

    1990-11-01

    RG1 Danjon Astrolabe Catalogue was elaborated from Rio Grande Station observations. It includes about 130 FK4 and FK4 Sup. stars in the B1950 system (Mondinalli et al., 1985). These coordinates can be transformed to the J2000 system. In this way, RG1 positions may be compared with those from FK5 simply transforming those from the latter to the mean epoch of RG1 (1981.5). Typical rms differences between RG1 and FK5, are 0.014 sec. in right ascension and 0.12 arc sec. in declination. However, individual differences in both coordinates up to 0.4 arc sec., presumably due to FK5 positions, are still present.

  16. The effect of extrusion conditions on the acidic polysaccharide, ginsenoside contents and antioxidant properties of extruded Korean red ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Ying; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of extrusion conditions (moisture content 20% and 30%, screw speed 200 and 250 rpm, barrel temperature 115℃ and 130℃) on the acidic polysaccharide, ginsenoside contents and antioxidant properties of extruded Korean red ginseng (KRG). Extruded KRGs showed relatively higher amounts of acidic polysaccharide (6.80% to 9.34%) than nonextruded KRG (4.34%). Increased barrel temperature and screw speed significantly increased the content of acidic polysaccharide. The major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2s, Rg3s, Rh1, and Rg3r) of KRG increased through extrusion, while the ginsenoside (Rg1) decreased. The EX8 (moisture 30%, screw speed 250 rpm, and temperature 130℃) had more total phenolics and had a better scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals than those of extruded KRG samples. The extrusion cooking showed a significant increase (6.8% to 20.9%) in reducing power. Increased barrel temperature significantly increased the values of reducing power, the highest value was 1.152 obtained from EX4 (feed moisture 20%, screw speed 250 rpm, and temperature 130℃). These results suggest that extrusion conditions can be optimized to retain the health promoting compounds in KRG products. PMID:23717175

  17. Specific activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by ginsenoside Rg5 promotes angiogenesis and vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Lai; Hur, Sung-Mo; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Choe, Jongeon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Jeoung, Dooil; Han, Sanghwa; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Hansoo; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE(-/-) mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca(2+)/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature. PMID:25391655

  18. Specific Activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor by Ginsenoside Rg5 Promotes Angiogenesis and Vasorelaxation*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Lai; Hur, Sung-Mo; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Choe, Jongeon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Jeoung, Dooil; Han, Sanghwa; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Hansoo; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE−/− mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca2+/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways. In silico docking analysis showed that Rg5 bound with high affinity to IGF-1R at the same binding site of IGF. Rg5 blocked binding of IGF-1 to its receptor with an IC50 of ∼90 nmol/liter. However, Rg5 did not induce vascular inflammation and permeability. These data suggest that Rg5 plays a novel role as an IGF-1R agonist, promoting therapeutic angiogenesis and improving hypertension without adverse effects in the vasculature. PMID:25391655

  19. Differential effects of ginsenosides on NO and TNF-alpha production by LPS-activated N9 microglia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun Fu; Bi, Xiu Li; Yang, Jing Yu; Zhan, Jia Yang; Dong, Ying Xu; Wang, Jin Hui; Wang, Ji Ming; Zhang, Ruiwen; Li, Xian

    2007-03-01

    Ginsenosides, the main active components of ginseng, have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system. In this report, the effects of ginsenoside-Rd and -Rb2, two protopanaxadiols, and ginsenoside-Rg1 and -Re, two protopanaxatriols, on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-alpha (TNF-alpha) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated N9 microglial cells were studied. All ginsenosides studied potently suppressed TNF-alpha production in LPS-activated N9 cells. Ginsenoside-Rg1 and -Re, but not ginsenoside-Rb2 and -Rd, inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated N9 cells. Ginsenosides inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), c-Jun and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), The findings herein show that the inhibition of LPS-induced ERK1/2 and JNK activation may be a contributing factor to the main mechanisms by which ginsenosides inhibits RAW264.7. To clarify the mechanistic basis for its ability to inhibit TNF-alpha and NO induction, the effect of ginsenosides on transcription factor NF-kappaB protein level was also examined. These activities were associated with the down-regulation of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB). These findings suggest that the inhibition of LPS-induced NO formation and TNF-alpha production in microglia by ginsenosides is due to its inhibition of NF-kappaB, which may be the mechanistic basis for the anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenosides. The significant suppressive effects of ginsenosides on proinflammatory responses of microglia implicate their therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation. PMID:17276889

  20. Steamed American ginseng berry: ginsenoside analyses and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Bin; Song, Wen-Xin; Wang, Anbao; Ni, Ming; Luo, Xiaoji; Aung, Han H; Xie, Jing-Tian; Tong, Robin; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2006-12-27

    This study was designed to determine the changes in saponin content in American ginseng berries after treatment by heating and to assess the anticancer effects of the extracts. After steaming treatment (100-120 degrees C for 1 h, and 120 degrees C for 0.5-4 h), the content of seven ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, and Rd, decreased; the content of five ginsenosides, Rh1, Rg2, 20R-Rg2, Rg3, and Rh2, increased. Rg3, a previously identified anticancer ginsenoside, increased significantly. Two hours of steaming at 120 degrees C increased the content of ginsenoside Rg3 to a greater degree than other tested ginsenosides. When human colorectal cancer cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL steamed berry extract (120 degrees C 2 h), the antiproliferation effects were 97.8% for HCT-116 and 99.6% for SW-480 cells. At the same treatment concentration, the effects of unsteamed berry extract were 34.1% for HCT-116 and 4.9% for SW-480 cells. After staining with Hoechst 33258, apoptotic cells increased significantly by treatment with steamed berry extract compared with unheated extracts. Induction of apoptosis activity was confirmed by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V/PI. The steaming of American ginseng berries augments ginsenoside Rg3 content and increases the antiproliferative effects on two human colorectal cancer cell lines. PMID:17177524

  1. Differentiation of Isomeric Ginsenosides by Using Electron-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y-L Elaine; Chen, Xiangfeng; Li, Wan; Wang, Ze; Hung, Y-L Winnie; Wu, Ri; Chan, T-W Dominic

    2016-06-01

    Current phytochemical research on ginsengs focuses on the structural characterization and isomer differentiation of ginsenosides. In this Letter, electron-induced dissociation (EID) was initially investigated by analyzing isomeric ginsenosides. EID provided more structural information on their differentiation than collision-induced dissociation (CID) did. Glycosyl group migration previously observed in the CID of oligosaccharide ions could also be found in the EID of protonated Rg1. This rearrangement reaction would show substantial ambiguities in differentiating Rg1 from Rf. Although other charge carriers could alleviate this problem, the use of EID in dissociating deprotonated ginsenoside ions was superior to other techniques in terms of eliminating glycosyl group migration and generating diagnostic fragment ions for the differentiation of structural isomers. This study demonstrates a potential method to analyze natural products and thus help discover and evaluate novel compounds. PMID:27181402

  2. Ginsenoside-Rd Promotes Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells through MAPK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-Dependent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song-Di; Xia, Feng; Lin, Xue-Mei; Duan, Kang-Li; Wang, Fang; Lu, Qing-Li; Cao, Huan; Qian, Yi-Hua; Shi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is a famous herbal medicine widely used in Asia. Ginsenosides have been identified as the principle active ingredients for Panax ginseng's biological activity, among which ginsenoside Rd (Rd) attracts extensive attention for its obvious neuroprotective activities. Here we investigated the effect of Rd on neurite outgrowth, a crucial process associated with neuronal repair. PC12 cells, which respond to nerve growth factor (NGF) and serve as a model for neuronal cells, were treated with different concentrations of Rd, and then their neurite outgrowth was evaluated. Our results showed that 10 μM Rd significantly increased the percentages of long neurite- and branching neurite-bearing cells, compared with respective controls. The length of the longest neurites and the total length of neurites in Rd-treated PC12 cells were much longer than that of respective controls. We also showed that Rd activated ERK1/2 and AKT but not PKC signalings, and inhibition of ERK1/2 by PD98059 or/and AKT by LY294002 effectively attenuated Rd-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, Rd upregulated the expression of GAP-43, a neuron-specific protein involved in neurite outgrowth, while PD98059 or/and LY294002 decreased Rd-induced increased GAP-43 expression. Taken together, our results provided the first evidence that Rd may promote the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells by upregulating GAP-43 expression via ERK- and ARK-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26840295

  3. Ginsenoside-Rd Promotes Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells through MAPK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song-Di; Xia, Feng; Lin, Xue-Mei; Duan, Kang-Li; Wang, Fang; Lu, Qing-Li; Cao, Huan; Qian, Yi-Hua; Shi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng is a famous herbal medicine widely used in Asia. Ginsenosides have been identified as the principle active ingredients for Panax ginseng’s biological activity, among which ginsenoside Rd (Rd) attracts extensive attention for its obvious neuroprotective activities. Here we investigated the effect of Rd on neurite outgrowth, a crucial process associated with neuronal repair. PC12 cells, which respond to nerve growth factor (NGF) and serve as a model for neuronal cells, were treated with different concentrations of Rd, and then their neurite outgrowth was evaluated. Our results showed that 10 μM Rd significantly increased the percentages of long neurite- and branching neurite-bearing cells, compared with respective controls. The length of the longest neurites and the total length of neurites in Rd-treated PC12 cells were much longer than that of respective controls. We also showed that Rd activated ERK1/2 and AKT but not PKC signalings, and inhibition of ERK1/2 by PD98059 or/and AKT by LY294002 effectively attenuated Rd-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, Rd upregulated the expression of GAP-43, a neuron-specific protein involved in neurite outgrowth, while PD98059 or/and LY294002 decreased Rd-induced increased GAP-43 expression. Taken together, our results provided the first evidence that Rd may promote the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells by upregulating GAP-43 expression via ERK- and ARK-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26840295

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of less polar ginsenosides produced from polar ginsenosides by heat-transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Yang, Xiushi; Yu, Xiaona; Yao, Yang; Ren, Guixing

    2013-12-18

    Ginsenosides are the major active constituents in both white and red American ginseng (AG), and their pharmacological effects on central nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems have been well elucidated. However, the anti-Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) activity of them is still unknown. In this study, 5 ginsenosides enriched fractions were obtained from the total ginsenosides extract of AG roots (TAG) by resin adsorption and heat-transformation. Resin purification decreased the total polyphenol (TP) content in the fractions. However, heat treatment increased the TP content and induced extensive conversion of the polar ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Gyp XVII) to less polar compounds (Rg2, Rg3, Rg6/F4, Rs3, and Rg5/Rk1). Only the heat-treated fraction from 65% methanol elution of the HP-20 column (HPHF) showed antibacterial activity against P. acnes (ATCC11827, MIC, 128 μg/mL; ATCC6919 MIC, 64 μg/mL), S. epidermidis (MIC, 4100 μg/mL) and S. aureus (MIC, 15000 μg/mL). In the anti-inflammatory activity assay, 10 μg/mL of HPHF significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that less polar ginsenosides enriched fraction HPHF obtained from AG might be useful to develop new types of antibacterial substances and new skin care cosmetics for acne prevention and therapy. PMID:24289140

  5. Molecular mechanisms governing different pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides and potential for ginsenoside-perpetrated herb–drug interactions on OATP1B3

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rongrong; Dong, Jiajia; Li, Xiuxue; Du, Feifei; Jia, Weiwei; Xu, Fang; Wang, Fengqing; Yang, Junling; Niu, Wei; Li, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ginsenosides are bioactive saponins derived from Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi) and ginseng. Here, the molecular mechanisms governing differential pharmacokinetics of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and notoginsenoside R1 and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides Rb1, Rc and Rd were elucidated. Experimental Approach Interactions of ginsenosides with human and rat hepatobiliary transporters were characterized at the cellular and vesicular levels. A rifampin-based inhibition study in rats evaluated the in vivo role of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)1b2. Plasma protein binding was assessed by equilibrium dialysis. Drug–drug interaction indices were calculated to estimate potential for clinically relevant ginsenoside-mediated interactions due to inhibition of human OATP1Bs. Key Results All the ginsenosides were bound to human OATP1B3 and rat Oatp1b2 but only the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides were transported. Human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/bile salt export pump (BSEP)/multidrug resistance protein-1 and rat Mrp2/Bcrp/Bsep also mediated the transport of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides. Glomerular-filtration-based renal excretion of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides was greater than that of the 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type counterparts due to differences in plasma protein binding. Rifampin-impaired hepatobiliary excretion of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides was effectively compensated by the renal excretion in rats. The 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides were potent inhibitors of OATP1B3. Conclusion and Implications Differences in hepatobiliary and in renal excretory clearances caused markedly different systemic exposure and different elimination kinetics between the two types of ginsenosides. Caution should be exercised with the long-circulating 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides as they

  6. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides on neural progenitor cells against oxidative injury

    PubMed Central

    YE, JUN; YAO, JIAN-PING; WANG, XU; ZHENG, MINYING; LI, PENG; HE, CHENGWEI; WAN, JIAN-BO; YAO, XIAOLI; SU, HUANXING

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides exhibit various neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. However, which ginsenoside provides optimal effects for the treatment of neurological disorders as a potent antioxidant remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the neuroprotective effects of the Rb1, Rd, Rg1 and Re ginsenosides on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) following tert-Butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury. Primary rat embryonic cortical NPCs were prepared from E14.5 embryos of Sprague-Dawley rats. The oxidative injury model was established with t-BHP. A lactate dehydrogenase assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling staining were used to measure the viability of the NPCs pre-treated with ginsenosides under oxidative stress. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the activation of intracellular signaling pathways triggered by the pretreatment of ginsenosides. Among the four ginsenosides, only Rb1 attenuated t-BHP toxicity in the NPCs, and the nuclear factor (erythroizd-derived 2)-like 2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway was found to be key in the intracellular defense against oxidative stress. The present study demonstrated the anti-oxidative effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on NPCs, and suggested that Rb1 may offer potential as a potent antioxidant for the treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:26935530

  7. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides on neural progenitor cells against oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Yao, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Minying; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Wan, Jian-Bo; Yao, Xiaoli; Su, Huanxing

    2016-04-01

    Ginsenosides exhibit various neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. However, which ginsenoside provides optimal effects for the treatment of neurological disorders as a potent antioxidant remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the neuroprotective effects of the Rb1, Rd, Rg1 and Re ginsenosides on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) following tert-Butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury. Primary rat embryonic cortical NPCs were prepared from E14.5 embryos of Sprague-Dawley rats. The oxidative injury model was established with t‑BHP. A lactate dehydrogenase assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling staining were used to measure the viability of the NPCs pre‑treated with ginsenosides under oxidative stress. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the activation of intracellular signaling pathways triggered by the pretreatment of ginsenosides. Among the four ginsenosides, only Rb1 attenuated t‑BHP toxicity in the NPCs, and the nuclear factor (erythroizd‑derived 2)‑like 2/heme oxygenase‑1 pathway was found to be key in the intracellular defense against oxidative stress. The present study demonstrated the anti-oxidative effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on NPCs, and suggested that Rb1 may offer potential as a potent antioxidant for the treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:26935530

  8. State-of-the-art separation of ginsenosides from Korean white and red ginseng by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-05-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) has been one of the most popular herbs used for nutritional and medicinal purposes by the people of eastern Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, the mostly widely studied chemical components of ginseng, are quite different depending on the processing method used. A number of studies demonstrate the countercurrent chromatography (CCC) separation of ginsenosides from several sources; however, there is no single report demonstrating a one-step separation of all of these ginsenosides from different sources. In the present study, we have successfully developed an efficient CCC separation methodology in which the flow-rate gradient technique was coupled with a new solvent gradient dilution strategy for the isolation of ginsenosides from Korean white (peeled off dried P. ginseng) and red ginseng (steam-treated P. ginseng). The crude samples were initially prepared by extraction with butanol and were further purified with CCC using solvent gradients composed of methylene chloride-methanol-isopropanol-water (different ratios, v/v). Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector was used to analyze the components of the two-phase solvent mixture. Each phase solvent mixture was prepared without presaturation, which saves time and reduces the solvent consumption. Finally, 13 ginsenosides have been purified from red ginseng with the new technique, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, Rg6, and F4. Meanwhile, eight ginsenosides have been purified from white ginseng, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd by using a single-solvent system. Thus, the present technique could be used for the purification of ginsenosides from all types' ginseng sources. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving the separation of ginsenoside Rg2 and Rg6 and the one-step separation of thirteen ginsenosides from red ginseng by CCC. PMID:23263512

  9. [Establishment of the model for online monitoring of the column separation and purification process by near-infrared spectroscopy and determination of total ginsenosides in Folium Ginseng].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Zhao, Xin; Qi, Tian; Qi, Yun-Peng; Fan, Guo-Rong

    2013-12-01

    A method was developed for online monitoring of the constituents of ginsenoside of Folium Ginseng in the column separation and purification process using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology. Determination method of ginsenoside Rg1, Re and Rb1 was developed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After collecting 40%-ethanol eluant, their NIR spectra were detected and the contents of Rg1, Re and Rb1 were determined by the above HPLC method. The quantitative analysis models of the above three compounds and the total ginsenosides were established using partial least squares (PLS). During modeling, coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) were regarded as the indexes to select optimal wave numbers and preprocessing methods. The optimal wave numbers of ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1 and total ginsenosides were all in the range of 12 000. 8 approximately 7499.8 cm-1; R2 were 0.9887, 0. 9603, 0.9905 and 0.9701, respectively; RMSECV were 0.0597, 0.0722, 0.00488 and 0.0755, respectively. A lot of samples, collected during the column separation and purification process of Folium Ginseng extract, were used to validate the predicttion effect of quantitative analysis model of total ginsenosides. As a result, the correlation coefficient of NIR predicted value and HPLC value of total ginsenosides was 0.9928 and the mean prediction recovery was 100.52%, which indicated that the prediction effect of the developed model was satisfactory. This method was proved to be fast, convenient and precise. It can be used for assaying and quality control of total ginsenosides in manufacture. PMID:24611375

  10. Preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive enteric-coating ginsenoside-loaded microparticles.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Yeon, Won-Gi; Lee, Cho-A; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Park, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Dong-Chool; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside saponins are phytochemically extracted from red ginseng and have been regarded as the principal components manifesting the pharmacologic activities. Saponins are very soluble in water but poorly absorbed when orally administrated. Moreover, they have some disadvantages including the decomposition in acid medium. The aim of this study was to develop oral formulation of ginsenosides composed of enteric-coating polymer and mucoadhesive polymer considering the low stability in acid medium and the low permeability of saponins. Ginsenoside-loaded microparticles were prepared by spray dryer. The influences of various parameters such as the ratio of saponin to polymer, feed concentration, feed rate, inlet/outlet temperature and additional excipients during spray-drying were investigated. In vitro release profile of ginsenoside-loaded microparticles using additional excipients, ginsenoside saponin Rg1 or Rb1 showed an 18 or 13% release in pH 1.2 when ethyl cellulose was added. Also, ginsenoside-loaded microparticles exhibited mucoadhesive properties in the presence of chitosan. The application of these polymers is being considered as the potential strategy for improvement of bioavailability in saponin delivery, orally. PMID:24821486

  11. Fungal sensitivity to and enzymatic deglycosylation of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuesong; Gao, Juan; Song, Chengcheng; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Tianjiao; Liu, Dongbo; Zhou, Yifa

    2012-06-01

    A ginseng pathogen, Cylindrocarpon destructans, and five nonpathogens were tested for their sensitivity to a total ginsenoside fraction (T-GF), a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside fraction (PPD-GF) and a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside fraction (PPT-GF) from the roots of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. The results showed that T-GF inhibited growth of the five ginseng nonpathogens, while it promoted growth of the ginseng pathogen C. destructans. PPT-GF and PPD-GF both inhibited the growth of the five ginseng nonpathogens, although the activity of PPT-GF was higher than that of PPD-GF. PPT-GF and PPD-GF exhibited different activities on C. destructans: PPT-GF inhibited its growth, whereas PPD-GF significantly enhanced its growth. The subsequent analysis of enzymatic degradation of ginsenosides by the test fungi showed that C. destructans can consecutively hydrolyze the terminal monosaccharide units from the sugar chains attached at C3 and C20 in PPD-type ginsenosides by extracellular glycosidase activity to yield four major products, gypenoside XVII (G-XVII), compound O, compound Mb and the ginsenoside F(2). By contrast, the ginseng nonpathogens Aspergillus nidulans and Cladosporium fulvum have no extracellular glycosidase activity toward sugar chains attached to C3 in PPD-type ginsenosides. These results indicated that ginsenosides might act as host chemical defenses, while the ginseng root pathogenic fungi might counter their toxicity by converting PPD-type ginsenosides into growth or host recognition factors. The ability of ginseng root pathogens to deglycosylate PPD-type ginsenosides may be a pathogenicity factor. PMID:22449289

  12. Substrate specificity of β-glucosidase from Gordonia terrae for ginsenosides and its application in the production of ginsenosides Rg₃, Rg₂, and Rh₁ from ginseng root extract.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Hye-Ji; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-05-01

    A β-glucosidase from Gordonia terrae was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme with a specific activity of 16.4 U/mg for ginsenoside Rb1 was purified using His-trap chromatography. The purified enzyme specifically hydrolyzed the glucopyranosides at the C-20 position in protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides and hydrolyzed the glucopyranoside at the C-6 or C-20 position in protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides. The reaction conditions for the high-level production of Rg3 from Rb1 by the enzyme were pH 6.5, 30°C, 20 mg/ml enzyme, and 4 mg/ml Rb1. Under these conditions, G. terrae β-glucosidase completely converted Rb1 and Re to Rg3 and Rg2, respectively, after 2.5 and 8 h, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme converted Rg1 to Rh1 at 1 h with a molar conversion yield of 82%. The enzyme at 10 mg/ml produced 1.16 mg/ml Rg3, 1.47 mg/ml Rg2, and 1.17 mg/ml Rh1 from Rb1, Re, and Rg1, respectively, in 10% (w/v) ginseng root extract at pH 6.5 and 30°C after 33 h with molar conversion yields of 100%, 100%, and 77%, respectively. The combined molar conversion yield of Rg2, Rg3, and Rh1 from total ginsenosides in 10% (w/v) ginseng root extract was 68%. These above results suggest that this enzyme is useful for the production of ginsenosides Rg3, Rg2, and Rh1. PMID:25457989

  13. Effects of ginsenosides and their metabolites on voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Jeong, Sang Min; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Yoon, In-Soo; Lee, Joon-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Sang-Mok; Park, Yong-Sun; Lee, Jung-Ha; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2006-02-28

    In previous reports we demonstrated that ginsenosides, active ingredients of Panax ginseng, affect some subsets of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in neuronal cells expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. However, the major component(s) of ginseng that affect cloned Ca(2+) channel subtypes such as alpha(1C) (L)-, alpha(1B) (N)-, alpha(1A) (P/Q)-, a1E (R)- and a1G (T) have not been identified. Here, we used the two-microelectrode volt-age clamp technique to characterize the effects of ginsenosides and ginsenoside metabolites on Ba(2+) currents (IBa) in Xenopus oocytes expressing five different Ca(2+) channel subtypes. Exposure to ginseng total saponins (GTS) induced voltage-dependent, dose-dependent and reversible inhibition of the five channel subtypes, with particularly strong inhibition of the a1G-type. Of the various ginsenosides, Rb(1), Rc, Re, Rf, Rg(1), Rg(3), and Rh(2), ginsenoside Rg(3) also inhibited all five channel subtypes and ginsenoside Rh(2) had most effect on the a1C- and a1E-type Ca(2+) channels. Compound K (CK), a protopanaxadiol ginsenoside metabolite, strongly inhibited only the a(1G)-type of Ca(2+) channel, whereas M4, a protopanaxatriol ginsenoside metabolite, had almost no effect on any of the channels. Rg(3), Rh(2), and CK shifted the steady-state activation curves but not the inactivation curves in the depolarizing direction in the alpha(1B)- and alpha(1A)-types. These results reveal that Rg(3), Rh(2) and CK are the major inhibitors of Ca(2+) channels in Panax ginseng, and that they show some Ca(2+) channel selectivity. PMID:16511347

  14. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-Glycosyltransferases Catalyzing Protopanaxatriol and Biosyntheses of Bioactive Ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in Metabolically Engineered Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Pingping; Wei, Yongjun; Liu, Qunfang; Yang, Chengshuai; Zhao, Guoping; Yue, Jianmin; Yan, Xing; Zhou, Zhihua

    2015-09-01

    Ginsenosides, the main pharmacologically active natural compounds in ginseng (Panax ginseng), are mostly the glycosylated products of protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT). No uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT), which catalyzes PPT to produce PPT-type ginsenosides, has yet been reported. Here, we show that UGTPg1, which has been demonstrated to regio-specifically glycosylate the C20-OH of PPD, also specifically glycosylates the C20-OH of PPT to produce bioactive ginsenoside F1. We report the characterization of four novel UGT genes isolated from P. ginseng, sharing high deduced amino acid identity (>84%) with UGTPg1. We demonstrate that UGTPg100 specifically glycosylates the C6-OH of PPT to produce bioactive ginsenoside Rh1, and UGTPg101 catalyzes PPT to produce F1, followed by the generation of ginsenoside Rg1 from F1. However, UGTPg102 and UGTPg103 were found to have no detectable activity on PPT. Through structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified several key amino acids of these UGTs that may play important roles in determining their activities and substrate regio-specificities. Moreover, we constructed yeast recombinants to biosynthesize F1 and Rh1 by introducing the genetically engineered PPT-producing pathway and UGTPg1 or UGTPg100. Our study reveals the possible biosynthetic pathways of PPT-type ginsenosides in Panax plants, and provides a sound manufacturing approach for bioactive PPT-type ginsenosides in yeast via synthetic biology strategies. PMID:26032089

  15. Reductions in levels of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide after oral administration of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Eckman, Elizabeth A; Eckman, Christopher B

    2006-06-01

    For millennia, ginseng and some of its components have been used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, including age-related memory impairment. Because of its purported effects and apparently low rate of side effects, ginseng remains one of the top selling natural product remedies in the United States. Given its potential role for improving age-related memory impairments and its common use in China for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms, we analyzed the effects of commercially available preparations of ginseng on the accumulation of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) in a cell-based model system. In this model system, ginseng treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of Abeta in the conditioned medium. We next examined the effects of several compounds isolated from ginseng and found that certain ginsenosides lowered Abeta concentration in a dose-dependent manner with ginsenoside Rg3 having an approximate IC50 of under 25 microM against Abeta42. Furthermore, we found that three of these isolated components, ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, and RE, resulted in significant reductions in the amount of Abeta detected in the brains of animals after single oral doses of these agents. The results indicate that ginseng itself, or purified ginsenosides, may have similarly useful effects in human disease. PMID:16636099

  16. Ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd regulate proliferation of mature keratinocytes through induction of p63 expression in hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Li, Jing-Jie; Gu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Dong-Liang; Wang, Yun-Bo; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2013-07-01

    Ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd are the two main types of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng and have been used as an additive to against alopecia. However, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. To determine how ginsenosides prevent hair loss, we topically applied protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd over the shaved skin of B57CL/6 mice, and monitored and assessed them for 35 days. We then investigated the effects of ginsenosides on cell genesis in different phases of adult hair follicles (HFs), using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine as a marker for dividing cells. Moreover, p63, a specific marker and a major regulator of keratinocyte progenitor cells of the multi-layered epithelia, was detected in epidermis. Results indicated that treatment with ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd increased cell proliferation in both anagen and telogen of HFs. However, it had no significant effect on the survival of cells in the bulge and upper follicle region. Investigation of p63 demonstrated that up-regulation of p63 expression in the matrix and outer root sheath might be one of the mechanisms by which ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd promote cell proliferation in HFs. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which ginsenoside promotes hair growth through p63 induction in follicular keratinocytes and indicates that ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd might be developed as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of hair loss. PMID:23007914

  17. Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits fibrillation and toxicity of alpha-synuclein and disaggregates preformed fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ardah, Mustafa T; Paleologou, Katerina E; Lv, Guohua; Menon, Sindhu A; Abul Khair, Salema B; Lu, Jia-Hong; Safieh-Garabedian, Bared; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem A; Eliezer, David; Li, Min; El-Agnaf, Omar M A

    2015-02-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. Identification of compounds that inhibit or reverse the aggregation process may thus represent a viable therapeutic strategy against PD and related disorders. Ginseng is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used in East Asia for more than two thousand years to treat several conditions. It is now understood that the pharmacological properties of ginseng can be attributed to its biologically active components, the ginsenosides, which in turn have been shown to have neuroprotective properties. We therefore sought to determine for the first time, the potential of the most frequently used and studied ginsenosides, namely Rg1, Rg3 and Rb1, as anti-amyloidogenic agents. The effect of Rg1, Rg3 and Rb1 on α-syn aggregation and toxicity was determined by an array of biophysical, biochemical and cell-culture-based techniques. Among the screened ginsenosides, only Rb1 was shown to be a potent inhibitor of α-syn fibrillation and toxicity. Additionally, Rb1 exhibited a strong ability to disaggregate preformed fibrils and to inhibit the seeded polymerization of α-syn. Interestingly, Rb1 was found to stabilize soluble non-toxic oligomers with no β-sheet content, that were susceptible to proteinase K digestion, and the binding of Rb1 to those oligomers may represent a potential mechanism of action. Thus, Rb1 could represent the starting point for designing new molecules that could be utilized as drugs for the treatment of PD and related disorders. PMID:25449909

  18. Simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R₁, ginsenoside Rg₁, ginsenoside Re and 20(S) protopanaxatriol in beagle dog plasma by ultra high performance liquid mass spectrometry after oral administration of a Panax notoginseng saponin preparation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huichao; Liu, Huimin; Bai, Jie; Lu, Yang; Du, Shouying

    2015-01-01

    20(S) protopanaxatriol is the main metabolite of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re in Panax notoginseng and has significant activities. A ultra high performance liquid mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R₁ (R1), ginsenoside Rg₁ (Rg₁), ginsenoside Re (Re) and 20(S) protopanaxatriol (PPT) in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of a Panax notoginseng saponin preparation. After the addition of the internal standard (digoxin), plasma samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with acetone and methanol and separated on a 100 × 2.1 mm ACQUITY 1.7 μm C₁₈ column (Waters, USA), with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase, within a runtime of 7.0 min. The analytes were detected without interference in Selected Reaction Monitoring mode with a change in the electrospray ionization from positive to negative. The detection limits were 0.01 to 0.04 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the four ingredients were linear over four orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9957. The intra-day and inter-day precision values (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) were within 10.25% and 13.51%, respectively, and the accuracy (relative error, RE, %) was less than 7.81%. The validated method was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of four saponins in beagle dogs after oral administration of a Panax Notoginseng Saponins preparation. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS 3.20. The Tmax and Cmax values indicate a dose-dose relationship between the saponins (R1, Rg1, and Re) and their sapogenin (PPT). PMID:25463196

  19. Simultaneous quantification of 19 ginsenosides in black ginseng developed from Panax ginseng by HPLC-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Shen; Gu, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhe-Ming; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, Zhen; Lee, Mi-Ra; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing-Jie; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2009-08-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed to identify and quantify 19 ginsenosides (Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rc, Rb(2), Rd, F(4), Rg(6), Rk(3), Rh(4), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rg(3), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rs(3), Rk(1), Rg(5), Rs(4), and Rs(5)) in black ginseng (BG, Korean white ginseng that was subjected to nine cycles of steam treatment). Ultrasonication is employed for sample preparation, and the analysis is achieved on a Discovery C(18) column using gradient elution of CH(3)CN-H(2)O-CH(3)COOH without buffer in 40min. The method was validated by linearity (r(2)> or =0.9994), precision (92.0-107.5%), intra- and inter-day accuracy (R.S.D.<3.21%), and limit of detection (LOD< or =93ng). The quantification method was applied to analyze the composition of ginsenosides in Korean white, red, and black ginsengs. During the preparatory process of BG, ginsenosides transform into constituents of low polarity by hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration at C-20, and hydrolysis also occurs at C-3 or C-6. The validated HPLC method is expected to provide the basis for the quality assessment of ginseng products. PMID:19394786

  20. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB. PMID:27582326

  1. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Ginsenoside Rg3 and Ginsenoside Rh2 after Oral Administration of Ginsenoside Rg3 in Normal and Walker 256 Tumor-bearing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, He; Xiao-ling, Sun; Yaliu, Su; Ming-ming, Lu; Xue, Feng; Xian-sheng, Meng; Li, Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ginseng is Chinese traditional herbal medicine, and the ginsenoside Rg3 is the main bioactive ingredient for the anti-tumor effect. However, there is no study on pharmacokinetics (PKs) of ginsenoside Rg3 and its main metabolite after oral ginsenoside Rg3 in tumor-bearing plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the PK profiles of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 after oral administration of pure ginsenoside Rg3 were administered, and compare the difference of the PK profiles between normal and Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Materials and Methods: The concentrations of two ginsenosides in plasma were determined by using a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography. All the rats were divided randomly into two groups (Walker 256 tumor-bearing and normal groups). Each group received oral administration of 50 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg3. Results: The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2, possibly as a glycosylation hydrolysis product of ginsenoside Rg3, were found in plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3 to rats. Ginsenoside Rg3 had shown better absorption than ginsenoside Rh2, whether the oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3, normal rats showed better absorption than tumor-bearing rats. Discussion and Conclusion: The PKs properties of the ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 differed between tumor-bearing rats and normal rats, including area under the plasma level/time curve and concentration maximum (P < 0.05). SUMMARY Ginsenoside Rh2 was found in plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3 to ratsHPLC could be used to determine simultaneously, the concentration of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 in rat plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3Normal rats showed better absorption than tumor-bearing rats after oral administration of ginsenoside Rg3.0. PMID:27019557

  2. COL Application Content Guide for HTGRs: Revision to RG 1.206, Part 1 - Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Moe

    2012-08-01

    A combined license (COL) application is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for all proposed nuclear plants. The information requirements for a COL application are set forth in 10 CFR 52.79, “Contents of Applications; Technical Information in Final Safety Analysis Report.” An applicant for a modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) must develop and submit for NRC review and approval a COL application which conforms to these requirements. The technical information necessary to allow NRC staff to evaluate a COL application and resolve all safety issues related to a proposed nuclear plant is detailed and comprehensive. To this, Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, “Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants” (LWR Edition), was developed to assist light water reactor (LWR) applicants in incorporating and effectively formatting required information for COL application review (Ref. 1). However, the guidance prescribed in RG 1.206 presumes a LWR design proposal consistent with the systems and functions associated with large LWR power plants currently operating under NRC license.

  3. Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L.; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge. PMID:25617625

  4. Interaction of the ginsenosides with κ-casein and their effects on amyloid fibril formation by the protein: Multi-spectroscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanbo; Wang, Yunhua; Yang, Miao; Yin, Jianyuan; Meng, Qin; Bu, Fengquan; Sun, Dandan; Liu, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of the ginsenosides (GS) including ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1 and Re with κ-casein and the effects of GS inhibiting amyloid fibril formation by κ-casein have been investigated in vitro by fluorescence and ultraviolet spectra. Results showed that Rg1 and Rb1 had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on reduced and carboxymethylated κ-casein (RCMκ-CN) fibril formation, while Re resulted in an increase in the rate of fibril formation. The enhancement in RLS intensity was attributed to the formation of new complex between GS and RCMκ-CN, and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) were assayed. The steady-state ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra had also been tested to observe if the ground-state complex formed, and it showed the same result as RLS spectra. The binding constants and the number of binding sites between GS and RCMκ-CN at different temperatures had been evaluated from relevant fluorescence data. According to the Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between RCMκ-CN and GS was calculated. The fluorescence lifetime of RCMκ-CN was longer in the presence of GS than in absence of GS, which was evident that the hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in the binding of GS to RCMκ-CN. From the results of synchronous fluorescence, it could be deduced that the polarity around RCMκ-CN Trp97 residue decreased and the hydrophobicity increased after addition of Rg1 or Rb1. Based on all the above results, it is explained that Rg1 and Rb1 inhibited amyloid fibril formation by κ-casein because the molecular spatial conformation and physical property of κ-casein changed causing by the complex formation between GS and κ-casein. PMID:27163725

  5. [Determination of Ginsenosides Amount and Geographical Origins of Ginseng by NIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-jing; Yan, Shu-mo; Yang, Bin

    2015-07-01

    In the study, 74 samples of ginseng were harvested from three provinces located in the northeast of China. Method for the quantification of total amount of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, and Re in samples with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was developed with the application of partial least squares regression (PLSR). The reference analysis was performed using a UPLC method. Different pretreatments like multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), Norris-Derivative were applied on the spectra to optimize the calibration and the spectral regions from 6001 to 4007 cm(-1) and from 10,000 to 8786 cm(-1) were selected for the calculation of the PLSR model. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.115 and 0.167, respectively, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9477 and 0.9153, respectively. At the same time, the spectral region from 8531 to 7559 cm(-1) was chosen to establish a model for identification the geographical origins of ginseng samples. MSC and Savitzky-Golay smoothing were utilized on the spectral preprocessing. According to the result, 74 samples were separated into three clusters, corresponding to the three geographical origins, i.e., Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang Province. The cross-validation ability and the prediction ability were 96% and 90%, respectively. In Chinese Pharmacopeia, the total amount of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, and Re is used as one of the indexes to evaluate the quality of ginseng, the established quantification method herein is rapid and accurate, it can be applied as an alternative method for quality control of ginseng sample. PMID:26717745

  6. Simultaneous quantification of 14 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean red ginseng) by HPLC-ELSD and its application to quality control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Na; Ha, Young Wan; Shin, Heungsop; Son, Sung Ho; Wu, Song Ji; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2007-09-21

    A new method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 14 major ginsenosides, which are the marker compounds of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean red ginseng). Various types of ginseng samples were extracted, and the amounts of the 14 ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd, Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, and Rh2) were determined by reverse-phase HPLC-ELSD using digoxin as an internal standard. The mobile phase consisted of a programmed gradient of aqueous acetonitrile. Calibration curves for each ginsenoside were determined for the quantification. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. This quantification method was applied to several finished ginseng products including white ginseng, red ginseng powder, and red ginseng concentrate. The amounts of the 14 ginsenosides in the various ginseng samples could be analyzed simultaneously. This validated HPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality assessment of ginseng products. PMID:17560064

  7. Development of a secondary antibody thio-functionalized microcantilever immunosensor and an ELISA for measuring ginsenoside Re content in the herb ginseng.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tiegui; Wu, Shangquan; Zhao, Hongwei; Tan, Weiming; Li, Zhaohu; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wang, Baomin

    2012-05-15

    Ginsenoside Re (GRe) is a major active component of the Chinese medicinal herb ginseng, Panax ginseng . A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as mAb3D6, was generated with a GRe-bovine serum albumin conjugate as an immunogen. Microcantilever immunosensors (MCS), one modified with thiolated anti-GRe antibody and one modified with thiolated goat antimouse immunoglobulin G (IgG), were developed to detect the content of ginsenoside. The MCS immobilized with thiolated goat antimouse IgG had a better sensitivity than the MCS modified with thiolated anti-GRe antibody. The advantage of a secondary antibody thio-functionalized MCS was verified with the anti-paclitaxel mAb. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was also established with mAb3D6. The concentration of analyte producing 50% inhibition and the working range of icELISA were 1.20 and 0.15-16.1 ng/mL, respectively. The icELISA had a cross-reactivity of 89% with ginsenoside Rg1 and less than 3% with other ginsenosides. The icELISA and MCS with thiolated secondary antibody were applied for the determination of GRe in ginseng samples, and the results agreed well with those determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:22494059

  8. Pharmacokinetic Compatibility of Ginsenosides and Schisandra Lignans in Shengmai-san: From the Perspective of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingwei; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Xing, Rong; Wang, Qian; Fu, Hanxu; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytochemical-mediated alterations in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity may result in herb-drug interactions by altering drug pharmacokinetics. Shengmai-san, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine composed by Panax Ginseng, Ophiopogon Japonicus, and Schisandra Chinensis, is routinely being used for treating various coronary heart diseases. In our previous studies, Schisandra Lignans Extract (SLE) was proved as a strong P-gp inhibitor, and herein, the compatibility of Shengmai-san was studied by investigating the influence of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides from the perspective of P-gp. Methodology Pharmacokinetic experiments were firstly performed based on in vitro uptake, efflux and transport experiments in Caco-2, LLC-PK1 wild-type and MDR1-overexpressing L-MDR1 cells. During the whole experiment, digoxin, a classical P-gp substrate, was used as a positive control drug to verify the cells used are the valid models. Meanwhile, the effects of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides were further investigated in rats after single-dose and multi-dose of SLE. Results and Conclusions The efflux ratios of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 were found more than 3.5 in L-MDR1 cells and can be decreased significantly by verapamil (a classical P-gp inhibitor). Contrarily, the efflux ratios of other ginsenosides (Rh1, F1, Re, and Rg1) were lower than 2.0 and not affected by verapamil. Then, the effects of SLE on the uptake and transport of ginsenosides were investigated, and SLE was found can significantly enhance the uptake and inhibit the efflux ratio of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 in Caco-2 and L-MDR1 cells. Besides, In vivo experiments showed that single-dose and multi-dose of SLE at 500 mg/kg could increase the area under the plasma concentration time curve of Rb2, Rc and Rd significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. In conclusion, SLE could enhance the exposure of ginsenosides Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and

  9. [Research of chemotaxis response of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria panax on total ginsenosides].

    PubMed

    Chi, Kun; Xu, Yong-hua; Lei, Feng-jie; Yin, Min-jing; Wang, Zhuang; Zhang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Lian-xue

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, three kinds of chemotactic parameters (concentration, temperature and pH) were determined by plate assay and spore germination method to research the chemotactic response of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria panax, and their spores on total ginsenosides. The results showed that Botrytis cinerea had strong chemotactic response at the mid-concentration of total ginsenosides (cultivation temperature was 20 degrees C and pH value was 6), and the data of chemotactic migration index (CMI) was 1.293 0, chemotactic growth rate (CGR) was 0.476 0, spore germination rate (SGR) was 53%, and dry weight of mycelial (DWM) was 0.452 6 g x L(-1); however, Alternaria panax had strong chemotactic response at the low-concentration of total ginsenosides (cultivation temperature was 25 degrees C and pH value was 6), and the data of chemotactic migration index (CMI) was 1.235 4, chemotactic growth rate (CGR) was 0.537 0, spore germination rate (SGR) was 67%, and dry weight of mycelial (DWM) was 0.494 8 g x L(-1). The results indicated that the low and middle concentration (2, 20 mg x L(-1)) of total ginsenosides had significant promoting effect on chemotactic response of these two pathogens, and the spore germination, mycelial growth rate, dry weight of mycelial of them were also significantly improved by this chemotactic response, whereas it decreased as the increase of total ginsenosides concentration. PMID:26975095

  10. Ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re offer neuroprotection in a novel model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinmu; Wang, Yingzi; Ma, Cheng; Yan, Yan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Xin; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the main active constituents of Panax ginseng. Ginsenoside Re is one of the major ginsenosides; whereas hydrolysis products such as Rd appear to have higher biological activity though are present in smaller amounts. Ginsenosides, from their early use in folk medicine to modern studies, appear to exert beneficial actions against aging and even neurodegenerative disorders. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a profound loss of midbrain dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) exerts neurotoxic effects when present as an environmental pollutant. As a model compound it was used here to study the impact on primary nigrostriatal dopaminergic nerve cells and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of ginsenosides Rd and Re against this organic solvent. CCl4 (2.5 mM on day 12 in vitro for 48 h) significantly decreased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+) cells by 51% compared with untreated control cultures, reduced their neuritic lengths, and led to truncated degenerations of cell morphology. Ginsenosides Rd and Re (10 µM) strongly reduced cell loss and degeneration and significantly protected process lengths and numbers of neurites of TH+ cells. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of the cellular supernatant was lowered by CCl4 exposure. Inclusion of ginsenosides inhibited both oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore the neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides at least partially depend on lowering oxidative stress and anti-inflammation. PMID:27073742

  11. Ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re offer neuroprotection in a novel model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinmu; Wang, Yingzi; Ma, Cheng; Yan, Yan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Xin; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the main active constituents of Panax ginseng. Ginsenoside Re is one of the major ginsenosides; whereas hydrolysis products such as Rd appear to have higher biological activity though are present in smaller amounts. Ginsenosides, from their early use in folk medicine to modern studies, appear to exert beneficial actions against aging and even neurodegenerative disorders. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a profound loss of midbrain dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) exerts neurotoxic effects when present as an environmental pollutant. As a model compound it was used here to study the impact on primary nigrostriatal dopaminergic nerve cells and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of ginsenosides Rd and Re against this organic solvent. CCl4 (2.5 mM on day 12 in vitro for 48 h) significantly decreased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+) cells by 51% compared with untreated control cultures, reduced their neuritic lengths, and led to truncated degenerations of cell morphology. Ginsenosides Rd and Re (10 µM) strongly reduced cell loss and degeneration and significantly protected process lengths and numbers of neurites of TH+ cells. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of the cellular supernatant was lowered by CCl4 exposure. Inclusion of ginsenosides inhibited both oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore the neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides at least partially depend on lowering oxidative stress and anti-inflammation. PMID:27073742

  12. Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal plants are essential for improving human health, and around 75% of the population in developing countries relies mainly on herb-based medicines for health care. As the king of herb plants, ginseng has been used for nearly 5,000 years in the oriental and recently in western medicines. Among the compounds studied in ginseng plants, ginsenosides have been shown to have multiple medical effects such as anti-oxidative, anti-aging, anti-cancer, adaptogenic and other health-improving activities. Ginsenosides belong to a group of triterpene saponins (also called ginseng saponins) that are found almost exclusively in Panax species and accumulated especially in the plant roots. In this review, we update the conserved and diversified pathway/enzyme biosynthesizing ginsenosides which have been presented. Particularly, we highlight recent milestone works on functional characterization of key genes dedicated to the production of ginsenosides, and their application in engineering plants and yeast cells for large-scale production of ginsenosides. PMID:25747290

  13. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in bakers' yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhubo; Wang, Beibei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Tao; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and oleanolic acid are three basic aglycons of ginsenosides. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was realized in this work and provides an alternative route compared to traditional extraction methods. Synthetic pathways of these three aglycons were constructed in S. cerevisiae by introducing β-amyrin synthase, oleanolic acid synthase, dammarenediol-II synthase, protopanaxadiol synthase, protopanaxatriol synthase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from different plants. In addition, a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes were overexpressed to increase the precursor supply for improving aglycon production. Strain GY-1 was obtained, which produced 17.2 mg/L protopanaxadiol, 15.9 mg/L protopanaxatriol and 21.4 mg/L oleanolic acid. The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for producing ginsenosides in place of extractions from plant sources. PMID:24424342

  14. A Boronic Acid Porphyrin Receptor for Ginsenoside Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, Amanda E.; Reyes, Ryan N.; Riddington, Ian; Anslyn, Eric V.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    Ginsenoside detection was pursued through the design of a porphyrin receptor containing two boronic acid units. This receptor was found to undergo different degrees of fluorescence quenching with five ginsenoside guests and an acylated derivative. The trends in the 1:1 binding constants, as well as ESI-HRMS analysis, support a binding mode in which the ginsenoside sugar units are bound to the boronic acid groups while the steroid core and porphyrin ring participate in hydrophobic interactions. PMID:20860384

  15. Identification and Characterization of a Mucilaginibacter sp. Strain QM49 β-Glucosidase and Its Use in the Production of the Pharmaceutically Active Minor Ginsenosides (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Hao; Liu, Qing-Mei; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Sung, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Song-Gun

    2013-01-01

    Here, we isolated and characterized a new ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase (BglQM) from Mucilaginibacter sp. strain QM49 that shows biotransformation activity for various major ginsenosides. The gene responsible for this activity, bglQM, consists of 2,346 bp and is predicted to encode 781 amino acid residues. This enzyme has a molecular mass of 85.6 kDa. Sequence analysis of BglQM revealed that it could be classified into glycoside hydrolase family 3. The enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a maltose binding protein (MBP)-fused pMAL-c2x vector system containing the tobacco etch virus (TEV) proteolytic cleavage site. Overexpressed recombinant BglQM could efficiently transform the protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides Re and Rg1 into (S)-Rg2 and (S)-Rh1, respectively, by hydrolyzing one glucose moiety attached to the C-20 position at pH 8.0 and 30°C. The Km values for p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, Re, and Rg1 were 37.0 ± 0.4 μM and 3.22 ± 0.15 and 1.48 ± 0.09 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 33.4 ± 0.6 μmol min−1 mg−1 of protein and 19.2 ± 0.2 and 28.8 ± 0.27 nmol min−1 mg−1 of protein, respectively. A crude protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside mixture (PPTGM) was treated with BglQM, followed by silica column purification, to produce (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2 at chromatographic purities of 98% ± 0.5% and 97% ± 1.2%, respectively. This is the first report of gram-scale production of (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2 from PPTGM using a novel ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 3. PMID:23811513

  16. Identification and characterization of a Mucilaginibacter sp. strain QM49 β-glucosidase and its use in the production of the pharmaceutically active minor ginsenosides (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Hao; Liu, Qing-Mei; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Sung, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Song-Gun; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2013-10-01

    Here, we isolated and characterized a new ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase (BglQM) from Mucilaginibacter sp. strain QM49 that shows biotransformation activity for various major ginsenosides. The gene responsible for this activity, bglQM, consists of 2,346 bp and is predicted to encode 781 amino acid residues. This enzyme has a molecular mass of 85.6 kDa. Sequence analysis of BglQM revealed that it could be classified into glycoside hydrolase family 3. The enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a maltose binding protein (MBP)-fused pMAL-c2x vector system containing the tobacco etch virus (TEV) proteolytic cleavage site. Overexpressed recombinant BglQM could efficiently transform the protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides Re and Rg1 into (S)-Rg2 and (S)-Rh1, respectively, by hydrolyzing one glucose moiety attached to the C-20 position at pH 8.0 and 30°C. The Km values for p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, Re, and Rg1 were 37.0 ± 0.4 μM and 3.22 ± 0.15 and 1.48 ± 0.09 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 33.4 ± 0.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein and 19.2 ± 0.2 and 28.8 ± 0.27 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein, respectively. A crude protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside mixture (PPTGM) was treated with BglQM, followed by silica column purification, to produce (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2 at chromatographic purities of 98% ± 0.5% and 97% ± 1.2%, respectively. This is the first report of gram-scale production of (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2 from PPTGM using a novel ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 3. PMID:23811513

  17. Role of epidermal γδ T-cell-derived interleukin 13 in the skin-whitening effect of Ginsenoside F1.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiyeon; Lee, Eunkyung; Kim, EunJoo; Yeom, Myung Hun; Kwon, Ohsang; Yoon, Tae Hong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Kwangmi

    2014-11-01

    Ginsenoside F1 (GF1) is a metabolite of ginsenoside Rg1. Although GF1 has several benefits for skin physiology, the effect of GF1 on skin pigmentation has not been reported. We found that a cream containing 0.1% GF1 showed a significant whitening effect on artificially tanned human skin after 8 weeks of application. However, GF1 did not inhibit mRNA expression of tyrosinase or dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) in normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) or cocultured NHEMs/normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Interestingly, GF1 enhanced production of interleukin 13 (IL-13) from human epidermal γδ T cells. IL-13 significantly reduced the mRNA expression and protein amount of both tyrosinase and DCT and reduced melanin synthesis activities in NHEMs, resulting in visible brightening of NHEM pellet. These results suggest that enhancement of IL-13 production by GF1 from epidermal γδ T cells might play a role in the skin-whitening effect of GF1 via the suppression of tyrosinase and DCT. PMID:25091975

  18. Metabolism of ginsenoside Rb1 by human intestinal microflora and cloning of its metabolizing β-D-glucosidase from Bifidobacterium longum H-1.

    PubMed

    Jung, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of intestinal microflora in expressing the pharmacological effect of ginsenoside Rb1, the metabolic activity of ginsenoside Rb1 by 148 fecal specimens was measured and its metabolizing β-glucosidase was cloned. The average activities for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and ginsenoside Rb1 were 0.097±0.059 μmol/min/mg and 0.311±0.118 pmol/min/mg, respectively. These enzyme activities were not different between male and female, or between ages. A gene encoding β-D-glucosidase (BglX) was cloned from Bifidobacterium longum H-1, which transformed ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K. The probe for cloning was synthesized from the genes encoding a β-D-glucosidase of previously reported B. longum DJO10A. The sequences of the cloned gene revealed 2364 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein containing 787 amino acids (molecular weight of 95 kDa). The gene exhibited 99% homology (identities) to that of B. longum. The cloned gene was expressed under T7 promoter of the expression vector, pET-39b(+), in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and the expressed enzyme was purified by using HiTrap immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) HP. The enzyme potently biotransformed ginsenoside Rb1, loganin, arctiin and arbutin to ginsenoside Rd, loganetin, arctigenin and hydroquinone, respectively, but was not active in the case of hesperidin, and kakkalide. This is the first report on cloning and expression of β-D-glucosidase from B. longum. Based on these findings, ginsenoside Rb1 may be metabolized to bioactive compound(s) by exo-β-D-glucosidase(s) produced from the intestinal bacteria and its pharmacological effects may be dependent on intestinal bacterial exo-β-D-glucosidase(s) activity. PMID:22466563

  19. Antiallergic activity of ginseng and its ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Eun-Kyung; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    In this study, we measured the antiallergic activities of ginsenosides isolated from the root of Panax ginseng ( Araliaceae), and of their metabolites, as produced by human intestinal bacteria. Compound K, which was identified as a main metabolite, had the most potent inhibitory activity on beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells and on the PCA reaction. The inhibitory activity of compound K was more potent than that of disodium cromoglycate, one of the commercial anti-allergic drugs. This compound demonstrated a membrane stabilizing action on differential scanning calorimetry. However, compound K did not inhibit the activation of hyaluronidase and did not scavenge active oxygen. These results suggest that the antiallergic action of compound K originates from its cell membrane stabilizing activity and that the ginsenosides of ginseng are prodrugs with extensive antiallergic properties. Abbreviations. compound K:20- O-beta- D-glucopyranosyl-20( S)-protopanaxadiol DNP:dinitrophenol DSCG:disodium cromoglycate DPPC:dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine DPPH:1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl HSA:human serum albumin IC 50 :50% inhibitory concentration EC 50 :50% effective concentration XOD:xanthine oxidase ICR:Institute of Cancer Research PBS:phosphate buffered saline PCA:passive cutaneous anaphylaxis RAW264.7:mouse monocyte leukemiaRBL-2H3: rat basophil leukemia SD:Sprague-Dawley PMID:12865969

  20. Evaluation of glucosidases of Aspergillus niger strain comparing with other glucosidases in transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenosides Rg3

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung Hoon; Jo, Mi Na; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into a specific minor ginsenoside using Aspergillus niger KCCM 11239, as well as the identification of the transformed products and the pathway via thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated to develop a new biologically active material. The conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 generated Rd, Rg3, Rh2, and compound K although the reaction rates were low due to the low concentration. In enzymatic conversion, all of the ginsenoside Rb1 was converted to ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3 after 24 h of incubation. The crude enzyme (β-glucosidase) from A. niger KCCM 11239 hydrolyzed the β-(1→6)-glucosidic linkage at the C-20 of ginsenoside Rb1 to generate ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3. Our experimental demonstration showing that A. niger KCCM 11239 produces the ginsenoside-hydrolyzing β-glucosidase reflects the feasibility of developing a specific bioconversion process to obtain active minor ginsenosides. PMID:24558310

  1. [Simultaneous analysis of ginsenosides of various ginseng radix by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Samukawa, K; Yamashita, H; Matsuda, H; Kubo, M

    1995-03-01

    A simultaneous analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng by high performance liquid chromatography recently established by us was applied to the analysis of various Ginseng Radix. The contents of ginsenosides in P. ginseng were examined according to the differences of the growth year, the used part of the plant, the method of processing and the cultivated location. In the case of P. ginseng cultivated in Nagano, Japan, the ratio (total ginsenosides content/total dry root weight) increases annually for three years. And it decreased at the fourth year and increases again at the fifth and the sixth years. Concerning the distribution of ginsenosides in the parts of the plant, they were contained at the highest level in a lateral root and in succession, in a rhizome > in a root hair > in a main root. They were also distributed much richer at periderm than at phloem or at xylem of a main root. The contents of panaxadiol- and panaxatriol-saponins gradually increase with the growth year, whereas an oleananesaponin, ginsenoside-Ro, drastically increases at the sixth year and goes to 15-fold, which suggests that the content of ginsenoside-Ro needs to be estimated much more when Ginseng Radix is evaluated. The fact that the processing for preparation of Red Ginseng increases the total content of saponins was clearly revealed by the present study. The highest contents of saponins among Red Ginsengs (all 6-year-old) were observed in ones prepared in Korea, and in Japan > in China, successively. PMID:7738782

  2. Ginsenoside Rd and ischemic stroke; a short review of literatures☆

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Habtemariam, Solomon; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng is a well-known economic medical plant that is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine. This species contains a unique class of natural products—ginsenosides. Recent clinical and experimental studies have presented numerous lines of evidence on the promising role of ginsenosides on different diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer. Nowadays, most of the attention has focused on ginsenoside Rd as a neuroprotective agent to attenuate ischemic stroke damages. Some of the evidence showed that ginsenoside Rd ameliorates ischemic stroke-induced damages through the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation. Ginsenoside Rd can prolong neural cells' survival through the upregulation of the endogenous antioxidant system, phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 pathways, preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential, suppression of the nuclear factor-kappa B, transient receptor potential melastatin, acid sensing ion channels 1a, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, protein tyrosine kinase activation, as well as reduction of cytochrome c-releasing and apoptosis-inducing factor. In the current work, we review the available reports on the promising role of ginsenoside Rd on ischemic stroke. We also discuss its chemistry, source, and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. PMID:26869821

  3. Simultaneous determination of three alkaloids, four ginsenosides and limonin in the plasma of normal and headache rats after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction by a novel ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: application to a comparative pharmacokinetics and ethological study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huarong; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Lv, Chunxiao; Sun, Wanyang; He, Bosai; Liu, Ran; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2013-04-01

    A novel, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of eight main active ingredients (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1) in rat plasma after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu (WZY) decoction, which is a celebrated and widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine formula for the treatment of headache. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were separated on a SHIM-PACK XR-ODS II column, and the detection was performed on a UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source. The lower limits of quantification were 1.5, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.2 ng ml(-1) for evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, gensenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1, respectively. Linearity, accuracy, precision and absolute recoveries of the eight analytes were all within satisfaction. The IS-normalized matrix factor was adopted for assessing the matrix effect and accompanied with a satisfactory result. The validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the eight active ingredients in rat plasma between normal and headache rats after administration. Exact pharmaceutical effect of WZY decoction on headache was demonstrated by the ethological response of headache rats induced by nitric oxide donor after administration. The results indicated that the absorption of evodiamine, rutaecarpine, gensenoside Rb1, Re and Rg1 in headache group were significantly higher than those in normal group with similar concentration-time curves while no significant differences existed in limonin and ginsenoside Rd between the two groups. PMID:23584945

  4. A Chimeric 18L1-45RG1 Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Cross-Protects against Oncogenic Alpha-7 Human Papillomavirus Types

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Jindra, Christoph; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) types causes all cervical and a subset of other anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Four high-risk (hr) mucosal types HPV16, 18, 45, or 59 cause almost all cervical adenocarcinomas (AC), a subset of cervical cancer (CxC). Although the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has dramatically decreased following introduction of Papanicolaou (PAP) screening, the proportion of AC has relatively increased. Cervical SCC arise mainly from the ectocervix, whereas AC originate primarily from the endocervical canal, which is less accessible to obtain viable PAP smears. Licensed (bivalent and quadrivalent) HPV vaccines comprise virus-like particles (VLP) of the most important hr HPV16 and 18, self-assembled from the major capsid protein L1. Due to mainly type-restricted efficacy, both vaccines do not target 13 additional hr mucosal types causing 30% of CxC. The papillomavirus genus alpha species 7 (α7) includes a group of hr types of which HPV18, 45, 59 are proportionally overrepresented in cervical AC and only partially (HPV18) targeted by current vaccines. To target these types, we generated a chimeric vaccine antigen that consists of a cross-neutralizing epitope (homologue of HPV16 RG1) of the L2 minor capsid protein of HPV45 genetically inserted into a surface loop of HPV18 L1 VLP (18L1-45RG1). Vaccination of NZW rabbits with 18L1-45RG1 VLP plus alum-MPL adjuvant induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies against homologous HPV18, that cross-neutralized non-cognate hr α7 types HPV39, 45, 68, but not HPV59, and low risk HPV70 in vitro, and induced a robust L1-specific cellular immune response. Passive immunization protected mice against experimental vaginal challenge with pseudovirions of HPV18, 39, 45 and 68, but not HPV59 or the distantly related α9 type HPV16. 18L1-45RG1 VLP might be combined with our previously described 16L1-16RG1 VLP to develop a second generation bivalent vaccine

  5. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care. PMID:26932472

  6. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  7. Silver (Ι)-assisted enantiomeric analysis of ginsenosides using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Yu, Binbin; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Xue; Liu, Shuying

    2012-10-01

    For identification of ginsenoside enantiomers, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to generate silver complexes of the type [ginsenoside + Ag](+). Collision induced dissociation of the silver-ginsenoside complexes produced fragment ions by dehydration, allowing differentiation of ginsenoside enantiomers by the intensity of [M + Ag - H(2)O](+) ion. In the meanwhile, an approach based on the distinct profiles of enantiomer-selective fragment ion intensity varied with collision energy was introduced to refine the identification and quantitation of ginsenoside enantiomers. Five pairs of enantiomeric ginsenosides were distinguished and quantified on the basis of the distribution of fragment ion [M + Ag - H(2)O](+). This method was also extended to the identification of other type of ginsenoside isomers such as ginsenoside Rb2 and Rb3. For demonstrating the practicability of this novel approach, it was utilized to analyze the molar ratio of 20-(S) and 20-(R) type enantiomeric ginsenosides in enantiomer mixture in red ginseng extract. The generation of characteristic fragment ion [M + Ag - H(2)O](+) likely results from the reduction of potential energy barrier of dehydration because of the catalysis of silver ion. The mechanism of enantiomer identification of ginsenosides was discussed from the aspects of computational modeling and internal energy. PMID:23019162

  8. Optimization of medium composition for keratinase production on feather by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 using statistical methods involving response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Priya; Gupta, Rani

    2004-10-01

    A 3.5-fold increase in keratinase production by Bacillus licheniformis RG1 was achieved by using statistical methods involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Eight variables were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Of these, glucose, peptone and glutathione were found to affect the response signal positively, whereas CaCl(2) had a negative effect. Further interaction of these factors, along with phosphate and incubation time, was studied using response surface methodology. An optimum keratinase production of 1295 units/mg dry weight was obtained with the following medium composition: 1% glucose, 1% peptone, 1% phosphate, 0.05% glutathione, 0.5% feather and 2% inoculum under shaking at 250 rev./min with an incubation period of 72 h at 37 degrees C. Keratinase production was found to be a function of biomass and maximum production occurred during the stationary phase. PMID:14871173

  9. Identification of ginsenosides in roots of Panax ginseng by HPLC-APCI/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Qiong; Liang, Xin-Miao; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2005-01-01

    A new HPLC-APCI/MS method for the identification of ginsenosides has been developed. The analyses were performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using a binary eluent (acetonitrile and water) under gradient conditions. Although APCI is a high-temperature evaporative process, HPLC-APCI/MS could effectively identify thermo-labile ginsenosides. The [M-H]- ions and the thermal degradation ions of ginsenosides could be clearly observed under negative and positive ion conditions, respectively, and these were used to identify the molecular masses, the aglycone structures and the sugar groups of ginsenosides. APCI/MS can provide more explicit information than ESI/MS for identifying and distinguishing ginsenosides. Using the HPLC-APCI/MS method, 35 ginsenosides were identified in Panax ginseng. PMID:15997851

  10. Finding and Producing Probiotic Glycosylases for the Biocatalysis of Ginsenosides: A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Ku, Seockmo

    2016-01-01

    Various microorganisms have been widely applied in nutraceutical industries for the processing of phytochemical conversion. Specifically, in the Asian food industry and academia, notable attention is paid to the biocatalytic process of ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) using probiotic bacteria that produce high levels of glycosyl-hydrolases. Multiple groups have conducted experiments in order to determine the best conditions to produce more active and stable enzymes, which can be applicable to produce diverse types of ginsenosides for commercial applications. In this sense, there are various reviews that cover the biofunctional effects of multiple types of ginsenosides and the pathways of ginsenoside deglycosylation. However, little work has been published on the production methods of probiotic enzymes, which is a critical component of ginsenoside processing. This review aims to investigate current preparation methods, results on the discovery of new glycosylases, the application potential of probiotic enzymes and their use for biocatalysis of ginsenosides in the nutraceutical industry. PMID:27196878

  11. Membrane associated antitumor effects of crocine-, ginsenoside- and cannabinoid derivates.

    PubMed

    Molnár, J; Szabó, D; Pusztai, R; Mucsi, I; Berek, L; Ocsovszki, I; Kawata, E; Shoyama, Y

    2000-01-01

    In the present work a systematic study was initiated with crocine, ginsenoside and cannabinoid derivatives on multidrug resistant mouse lymphoma cells, viral tumor antigen expression and some human leukocyte functions. Among saffron derivatives, crocin and picrocrocin, triglucosyl and diglucosyl crocetin were ineffective on the reversal of multidrug resistance of lymphoma cells. Ginsenoside increased drug accumulation and tumor antigen expression at 2.0-20.0 micrograms/mL. Some cannabinoid derivatives such as cannabinol, cannabispirol and cannabidiol increased drug accumulation, while cannabidiolic acid, delta-9-THC and tetrahydro-cannabidiolic acid reduced drug accumulation of the human mdr1-gene transfected mouse lymphoma cells. The reversal of multidrug resistance is the result of the inhibition of the efflux pump function in the tumor cells. Crocetin esters were less potent than crocin itself in the inhibition of EBV early antigen expression. However crocin and diglucosylcrocetin inhibited early tumor antigen expression of adenovirus infected cells, but triglucosylcrocetin was less effective at 0.01-1.0 microgram/mL. The crocin had no antiviral effect [on HSV-2 infected vero cells] up to 25 micrograms/mL concentration. Ginsenosides had a moderate inhibitory effect except ginsenoside Rb1 (was the less effective) on the drug efflux pump. Among the cannabinoid derivatives the cannabinol and cannabispirol increased drug accumulation, while cannabidiolic acid and delta-8-THC, delta-9-THC and tetrahydro-cannabinol reduced drug accumulation in multidrug resistant mouse lymphoma cells. It is interesting that ginsenosides had a chemical structure-dependent immunomodulating effect by enhancing the activity of NK-cells and ADCC activities. PMID:10810367

  12. Investigation of ginsenosides in different tissues after elicitor treatment in Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Joo, Sung Chul; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Kim, Se-Yeong; Jung, Seok-Kyu; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on ginsenoside production in different organs of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) was evaluated after the whole plant was dipped in an MJ-containing solution. MJ can induce the production of antioxidant defense genes and secondary metabolites in plants. In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis. Although a previous study focused on the application of MJ to affect ginsenoside production in adventitious roots, we conducted our research on entire plants by evaluating the effect of exogenous MJ on ginsenoside production with the aim of obtaining new approaches to study ginsenoside biosynthesis response to MJ in vivo. Methods Different parts of MJ-treated ginseng plants were analyzed for ginsenoside contents (fine root, root body, epidermis, rhizome, stem, and leaf) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after 2 d of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ. Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis. Application of MJ enhanced protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, whereas chilling treatment induced protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides. Conclusion These findings indicate that the production of PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides is differently affected by abiotic and biotic stresses in the ginseng plant, and they might play different defense mechanism roles. PMID:25379007

  13. Ginsenosides Regulate PXR/NF-κB Signaling and Attenuate Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Lijuan; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Xuefang; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Lin; Yan, Tingting; Xie, Yang; Wu, Yuzheng; Zhao, Min; Ma, Sijing; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2015-08-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation exhibits anti-inflammatory effects via repressing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB); however, its overactivation may disrupt homeostasis of various enzymes and transporters. Here we found that ginsenosides restore PXR/NF-κB signaling in inflamed conditions without disrupting PXR function in normal conditions. The effects and mechanisms of ginsenosides in regulating PXR/NF-κB signals were determined both in vitro and in vivo. Ginsenosides significantly inhibited NF-κB activation and restored the expression of PXR target genes in tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated LS174T cells. Despite not being PXR agonists, ginsenosides repressed NF-κB activation in a PXR-dependent manner. Ginsenosides significantly increased the physical association between PXR and the NF-κB p65 subunit and thereby decreased the nuclear translocation of p65. Ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K (CK) were major bioactive compounds in the regulating PXR/NF-κB signaling. Consistently, ginsenosides significantly attenuated dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis, which was associated with restored PXR/NF-κB signaling. This study indicates that ginsenosides may elicit anti-inflammatory effects via targeting PXR/NF-κB interaction without disrupting PXR function in healthy conditions. Ginsenoside Rb1 and CK may serve as leading compounds in the discovery of new drugs that target PXR/NF-κB interaction in therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25986850

  14. Study on the noncovalent complexes of ginsenoside and cytochrome c by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huarong; Ding, Lan; Qu, Chenling; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2007-10-01

    The noncovalent complexes of cytochrome c and ginsenoside were studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Ginsenoside Rb2 and Re were bound to cytochrome c to form several complexes with different stoichiometric relation. The 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of cytochrome c to ginsenoside were considered and the dissociation constants were obtained according to the intensities of cytochrome c and complexes when the concentrations of cytochrome c and ginsenoside have been known. Competition experiment was performed to validate the result. The K(D) values obtained with different reactive systems were consistent with each other. PMID:17324614

  15. Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Choi, Kwangman; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Lee, Yong-Pyo; Cho, Sungchan; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3). Methods Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Results The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection. PMID:25378991

  16. Transgenic modification of gai or rg/1 causes dwarfing and alters gibberellins, root growth, and metabolite profiles in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Busov, V.; Meilan, R; Pearce, D; Rood, s; Ma, C; Strauss, S

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and other plants, gibberellin (GA)-regulated responses are mediated by proteins including GAI, RGA and RGL1-3 that contain a functional DELLA domain. Through transgenic modification, we found that DELLA-less versions of GAI (gai) and RGL1 (rgl1) in a Populus tree have profound, dominant effects on phenotype, producing pleiotropic changes in morphology and metabolic profiles. Shoots were dwarfed, likely via constitutive repression of GA-induced elongation, whereas root growth was promoted two- to threefold in vitro. Applied GA{sub 3} inhibited adventitious root production in wild-type poplar, but gai/rgl1 poplars were unaffected by the inhibition. The concentrations of bioactive GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 4} in leaves of gai- and rgl1-expressing plants increased 12- to 64-fold, while the C{sub 19} precursors of GA{sub 1} (GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19}) decreased three- to ninefold, consistent with feedback regulation of GA 20-oxidase in the transgenic plants. The transgenic modifications elicited significant metabolic changes. In roots, metabolic profiling suggested increased respiration as a possible mechanism of the increased root growth. In leaves, we found metabolite changes suggesting reduced carbon flux through the lignin biosynthetic pathway and a shift towards allocation of secondary storage and defense metabolites, including various phenols, phenolic glucosides, and phenolic acid conjugates.

  17. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Poon, Po-Ying; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  18. Yin and Yang of ginseng pharmacology: ginsenosides vs gintonin

    PubMed Central

    Im, Dong-soon; Nah, Seung-yeol

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic herb that provides many beneficial effects. Pharmacologic studies in the last decades have shown that ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) are primarily responsible for the actions of ginseng. However, the effects of ginseng are not fully explained by ginsenosides. Recently, another class of active ingredients called gintonin was identified. Gintonin is a complex of glycosylated ginseng proteins containing lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) that are the intracellular lipid mitogenic mediator. Gintonin specifically and potently activates the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for LPA. Thus, the actions of ginseng are now also linked to LPA and its GPCRs. This linkage opens new dimensions for ginseng pharmacology and LPA therapeutics. In the present review, we evaluate the pharmacology of ginseng with the traditional viewpoint of Yin and Yang components. Furthermore, we will compare ginsenoside and gintonin based on the modern view of molecular pharmacology in terms of ion channels and GPCRs. PMID:24122014

  19. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  20. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  1. Selection of high ginsenoside producing ginseng hairy root lines using targeted metabolic analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sung-Sick; Song, Ji-Sook; Lee, Ju-Yeon; In, Dong Su; Chung, Hwa-Jee; Liu, Jang Ryol; Choi, Dong-Woog

    2004-10-01

    To develop an experimental system for studying ginsenoside biosynthesis, we generated thousands of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) hairy roots, genetically transformed roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and analyzed the ginsenosides in the samples. 27 putative ginsenosides were detected in ginseng hairy roots. Quantitative and qualitative variations in the seven major ginsenosides were profiled in 993 ginseng hairy root lines using LC/MS and HPLC-UV. Cluster analysis of metabolic profiling data enabled us to select hairy root lines, which varied significantly in ginsenoside production. We selected hairy root lines producing total ginsenoside contents 4-5 times higher than that of a common hairy root population, as well as lines that varied in the ratio of the protopanaxadiol to protopanaxatriol type ginsenoside. Some of the hairy root lines produce only a single ginsenoside in relatively high amounts. These metabolites represent the end product of gene expression, thus metabolic profiling can give a broad view of the biochemical status or biochemical phenotype of a hairy root line that can be directly linked to gene function. PMID:15474561

  2. Anti-breast cancer activity of Fine Black ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) and ginsenoside Rg5

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Jung; Kim, An Keun

    2014-01-01

    Background Black ginseng (Ginseng Radix nigra, BG) refers to the ginseng steamed for nine times and fine roots (hairy roots) of that is called fine black ginseng (FBG). It is known that the content of saponin of FBG is higher than that of BG. Therefore, in this study, we examined antitumor effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells to target the FBG extract and its main component, ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5). Methods Action mechanism was determined by MTT assay, cell cycle assay and western blot analysis. Results The results from MTT assay showed that MCF-7 cell proliferation was inhibited by Rg5 treatment for 24, 48 and 72 h in a dose-dependent manner. Rg5 at different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 μM), induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase through regulation of cell cycle-related proteins in MCF-7 cells. As shown in the results from western blot analysis, Rg5 increased expression of p53, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p15INK4B and decreased expression of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E2 and CDK4. Expression of apoptosis–related proteins including Bax, PARP and Cytochrome c was also regulated by Rg5. These results indicate that Rg5 stimulated cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via regulation of cell cycle-associated proteins in MCF-7 cells. Conclusion Rg5 promotes breast cancer cell apoptosis in a multi-path manner with higher potency compared to 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) in MCF-7 (HER2−/ER+) and MDA-MB-453 (HER2+/ER−) human breast cancer cell lines, and this suggests that Rg5 might be an effective natural new material in improving breast cancer. PMID:26045685

  3. [Autotoxic effect of ginsenoside extrats on growth of American ginseng in different medium].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiao-lin; Bi, Xiao-bao; Zhang, Xue-song; Gao, Wei-wei

    2015-04-01

    Ginsenosides are the abundant secondary metabolites in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium), it could be released into soil through root exudation and decomposition during plant growth. This study determined ginsenoside contents in American ginseng cultivated soil by HPLC. Three ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb2 and Rd, were detected in the rhizosphere soil of 3-4 years old American ginseng cultivated in Huairou District, Beijing, and their contents were 0.80-3.19 mg x kg(-1). Correspondingly, the contents of the three ginsenosides in soil solution were 4-16 mg x L(-1) at field water-holding capacity of 20%. According to the field soil test data, we designed the concentration of ginsenosides for bioassays (0.2-125 mg x L(-1) in solution or 0.2-125 mg x kg(-1) in soil). The results showed that radicle lengths of American ginseng were reduced by 6%-23% in solution containing 0.2-125 mg x L(-1) ginsenoside extract, and a significant difference was observed at concentration of 125 mg x L(-1) (P < 0.05). The shoot lengths of American ginseng were not significantly inhibited by 0.2-125 mg x L(-1) ginsenosides extractions. After 20 days of growth in nutrient solution amended with 25 mg x L(-1) ginsenosides extraction, plant height of 3-year-old American ginseng seedling was decreased by 28% compared to the control, and the biomass of aerial parts was also reduced by 50% (P < 0.05). However, the growth of newly-grown fibrous root was not significantly inhibited. Comparatively, when American ginseng embryos were cultivated into sterile or non-sterile soil, neither radicle lengths nor shoot lengths were significantly affected by 0.2-125 mg x kg(-1) ginsenoside extracts. In conclusion, ginsenosides showed autotoxic effect on growth of American ginseng radicle and adult seedling, however, this effect was weakened in field soil. PMID:26281575

  4. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  5. Inhibitory effect of ginsenosides from steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers on the LPS-stimulated IL-12 production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Nguyen Huu; Quang, Tran Hong; Son, Jeong-Hyun; Koo, Jung-Eun; Hong, Hye-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Song, Gyu Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-04-01

    Interleukin-12, a heterodimeric cytokine comprising p40 and p35 subunits, plays an essential role in the regulating the differentiation of Th cells, which establish and maximize the capabilities of the immune system. The aim of present study is to screen the effect of 21 ginsenosides from steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers on IL-12 production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced by lipopolysaccharide. Noticeably, ginsenoside Rg(6) (12) and ginsenoside F(4) (13) exhibited particularly inhibitory effect on LPS-induced IL-12 production with the inhibition values of 80 and 82%; and ginsenoside ST(1) (4), ginsenoside SL(2) (8), ginsenoside SL(3) (9), ginsenoside Rh(3) (14), ginsenoside Rk(2) (15), and ginsenoside Rs(4) (18) showed moderate effects with inhibition rates of 63, 65, 67, 68, 71, 73, and 67%, respectively. These results warrant further studies concerning potential of saponin extracts of steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers for medicinal uses. PMID:21544734

  6. Protective Effect of Ginsenoside R0 on Anoxic and Oxidative Damage In vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Peng, Tao; Li, Yanqing; Zhang, Yi

    2012-11-01

    To examine the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside R0, we investigated the effects of ginsenoside R0 in PC12 cells under an anoxic or oxidative environment with Edaravone as a control. PC12 neuroendocrine cells were used as a model target. Anoxic damage or oxidative damage in PC12 cells were induced by adding sodium dithionite or hydrogen peroxide respectively in cultured medium. Survival ratios of different groups were detected by an AlamarBlue assay. At the same time, the apoptosis of PC12 cells were determined with flow cytometry. The putative neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside R0 is thought to be exerted through enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutases (SOD). The activity of SOD and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), were measured to evaluate the protective and therapeutic effects of ginsenoside R0. Ginsenoside R0 treated cells had a higher SOD activity, lower MDA level and lower ROS, and their survival ratio was higher with a lower apoptosis rate. It is suggested that ginsenoside R0 has a protective effect in the cultured PC12 cells, and the protection efficiency is higher than Edaravone. The protective mechanisms of these two are different. The prevent ability of ginsenoside R0 is higher than its repair ability in neuroprotection in vitro. PMID:24009848

  7. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on hippocampal neuronal injury and neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; He, Jing; Huang, Liang; Dou, Ling; Wu, Shuang; Yuan, Qionglan

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 has been reported to exert anti-aging and anti-neurodegenerative effects. In the present study, we investigate whether ginsenoside Rb1 is involved in neurite outgrowth and neuroprotection against damage induced by amyloid beta (25–35) in cultured hippocampal neurons, and explore the underlying mechanisms. Ginsenoside Rb1 significantly increased neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons, and increased the expression of phosphorylated-Akt and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. These effects were abrogated by API-2 and PD98059, inhibitors of the signaling proteins Akt and MEK. Additionally, cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to amyloid beta (25–35) for 30 minutes; ginsenoside Rb1 prevented apoptosis induced by amyloid beta (25–35), and this effect was blocked by API-2 and PD98059. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rb1 significantly reversed the reduction in phosphorylated-Akt and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 levels induced by amyloid beta (25–35), and API-2 neutralized the effect of ginsenoside Rb1. The present results indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 enhances neurite outgrowth and protects against neurotoxicity induced by amyloid beta (25–35) via a mechanism involving Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling. PMID:25206916

  8. Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuated omethoate-induced lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yu, X F; Zhao, J J; Shi, S M; Fu, L; Sui, D Y

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus exposure affects different organs such as the lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and brain. The present experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on lung injury induced by acute omethoate poisoning. Rats were administered with omethoate subcutaneously at a single dose of 60 mg/kg, followed by ginsenoside Rg3 (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) treatment. Histopathological examination of the lung was performed at 24 h after the omethoate exposure. The antioxidative parameters in the lung were also assayed. Moreover, the activities of acetylcholinesterase, myeloperoxidase, and the content of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the lung were determined. The results showed that ginsenoside Rg3 attenuated omethoate-induced lung injury. Ginsenoside Rg3 increased the level of glutathione in the lung (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). The altered activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the lung were also ameliorated by ginsenoside Rg3 treatment (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Ginsenoside Rg3 caused significant reductions in the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-α, and the activity of myeloperoxidase (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). The present study demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 had a protective effect against omethoate-induced lung injury in rats, and the mechanisms were related to its antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:26240163

  9. Analgesic Effect of Intrathecal Ginsenosides in a Murine Bone Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyung Gon; Choi, Jeong Il; Kim, Yeo Ok; Song, Ji A

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone cancer pain has a disruptive effect on the cancer patient's quality of life. Although ginsenosides have been used as traditional medicine in Eastern Medicine, the effect on bone cancer pain has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether ginsenosides may alter the bone cancer pain at the spinal level. Methods NCTC 2472 tumor cells (2.5 × 105) were injected into the femur of adult male C3H/HeJ mice to evoke bone tumor and bone cancer pain. To develop bone tumor, radiologic pictures were obtained. To assess pain, the withdrawal threshold was measured by applying a von Frey filament to the tumor cells inoculation site. The effect of intrathecal ginsenosides was investigated. Effect of ginsenosides (150, 500, 1,000 µg) was examined at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 min after intrathecal delivery. Results The intrafemoral injection of NCTC 2472 tumor cells induced a radiological bone tumor. The withdrawal threshold with tumor development was significantly decreased compared to the sham animals. Intrathecal ginsenosides effectively increased the withdrawal threshold in the bone cancer site. Conclusions NCTC 2472 tumor cells injection into the mice femur caused bone tumor and bone cancer pain. Intrathecal ginsenosides attenuated the bone cancer-related pain behavior. Therefore, spinal ginsenosides may be an alternative analgesic for treating bone cancer pain. PMID:21217885

  10. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits apoptosis following spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baogang; Zhu, Qingsan; Man, Xiaxia; Guo, Li; Hao, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd has a clear neuroprotective effect against ischemic stroke. We aimed to verify the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rd in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury and explore its anti-apoptotic mechanisms. We established a spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury model in rats through the occlusion of the abdominal aorta below the level of the renal artery for 1 hour. Successfully established models were injected intraperitoneally with 6.25, 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg per day ginsenoside Rd. Spinal cord morphology was observed at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rd in ischemia/reperfusion injury rats not only improved hindlimb motor function and the morphology of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, but it also reduced neuronal apoptosis. The optimal dose of ginsenoside Rd was 25 mg/kg per day and the optimal time point was 5 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed ginsenoside Rd dose-dependently inhibited expression of pro-apoptotic Caspase 3 and down-regulated the expression of the apoptotic proteins ASK1 and JNK in the spinal cord of rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. These findings indicate that ginsenoside Rd exerts neuroprotective effects against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms are achieved through the inhibition of ASK1-JNK pathway and the down-regulation of Caspase 3 expression. PMID:25374589

  11. Ginsenoside-Rg5 induces apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, LI-DAN; HE, TAO; DU, TING-WEI; FAN, YONG-GANG; CHEN, DIAN-SEN; WANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng is traditionally used as a remedy for cancer, inflammation, stress and aging, and ginsenoside-Rg5 is a major bioactive constituent of steamed ginseng. The present study aimed to evaluate whether ginsenoside-Rg5 had any marked cytotoxic, apoptotic or DNA-damaging effects in human cervical cancer cells. Five human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, MS751, C33A, Me180 and HT-3) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside-Rg5 using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Additionally, the effects of ginsenoside-Rg5 on the apoptosis of HeLa and MS751 cells were detected using DNA ladder assays and flow cytometry. DNA damage was assessed in the HeLa and MS751 cells using alkaline comet assays and by detection of γH2AX focus formation. The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside-Rg5 treatment compared with the C-33A, HT-3 and Me180 cells. As expected, ginsenoside-Rg5 induced significant concentration- and time-dependent increases in apoptosis. In addition, ginsenoside-Rg5 induced significant concentration-dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control. Consistent with the comet assay data, the percentage of γH2AX-positive HeLa and MS751 cells also revealed that ginsenoside-Rg5 caused DNA double-strands to break in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside-Rg5 had marked genotoxic effects in the HeLa and MS751 cells and, thus, demonstrates potential as a genotoxic or cytotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25355274

  12. Bioactivity and Bioavailability of Ginsenosides Are Dependent on the Glycosidase Activities of the A/J Mouse Intestinal Microbiome Defined by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Tao; Smith, Diane; Yang, Zhen; Gao, Song; Yin, Taijun; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; You, Ming; Gibbs, Richard A.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Hu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The ability of bacteria in the intestinal microbiome to convert naturally occurring primary ginsenosides in red ginseng extract or RGE to active secondary ginsenosides was investigated. Methods The anti-proliferative activity of ginsenosides was tested using the mouse lung cancer LM1 cells. Their permeabilities were evaluated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Systemic exposure of secondary ginsenosides was determined in A/J mice. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to determine membership and abundance of bacteria in the intestinal microbiome. Results Secondary ginsenoside C-K exhibited higher anti-proliferative activity and permeability than primary ginsenosides, and significant amounts of secondary ginsenosides (F2 and C-K) were found in the blood of A/J mice following oral administration of the primary ginsenoside Rb1. Because mammalian cells did not hydrolyze ginsenoside, we determined the ability of bacteria to hydrolyze ginsenosides and found that the primary ginsenoside Rb1 underwent stepwise hydrolysis to Rd, F2, and then C-K. Formation of F2 from Rd was the rate-limiting step in the biotransformation of Rb1 to C-K. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the A/J mouse intestinal microbiome and reveal the presence of certain bacterial families capable of efficiently converting inactive primary ginsenosides to active secondary ginsenosides in vivo. PMID:23254888

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Eight Ginsenosides in Rat Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Application to Their Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Yuan; Zhang, You-Bo; Zhou, Qi-Le; Yang, Yan-Fang; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was successfully developed and validated for the identification and determination of eight ginsenosides: ginsenoside Rg₁ (1); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh₁ (2); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg₂ (3); 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh₁ (4); 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg₂ (5); ginsenoside Rd (6); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg₃ (7); and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg₃ (8) in rat plasma. The established rapid method had high linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The method has been used successfully to study the pharmacokinetics of abovementioned eight ginsenosides for the first time. After an oral administration of total saponins in the stems-leaves of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (GTSSL) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, the ginsenosides 6, 7, and 8, belonging to protopanaxadiol-type saponins, exhibited relatively long tmax values, suggesting that they were slowly absorbed, while the ginsenosides 1-5, belonging to protopanaxatriol-type saponins, had different tmax values, which should be due to their differences in the substituted groups. Compounds 2 and 4, 3 and 5, 7 and 8 were three pairs of R/S epimerics at C-20, which was interesting that the t1/2 of 20(S)-epimers were always longer than those of 20(R)-epimers. This pharmacokinetic identification of multiple ginsenosides of GTSSL in rat plasma provides a significant basis for better understanding the clinical application of GTSSL. PMID:26633350

  14. The potential of minor ginsenosides isolated from the leaves of Panax ginseng as inhibitors of melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Young; Cha, Byeong-Ju; Lee, Young-Seob; Kim, Geum-Soog; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-01-01

    Three minor ginsenosides, namely, ginsenoside Rh6 (1), vina-ginsenoside R4 (2) and vina-ginsenoside R13 (3), were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS), 1D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 2D-NMR, and, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The melanogenic inhibitory activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was 23.9%, 27.8% and 35.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 80 µM. Likewise, the three compounds showed inhibitory activity on body pigmentation on a zebrafish model, which is commonly used as a model for biomedical or cosmetic research. These results from in vitro and in vivo systems suggest that the three aforementioned compounds isolated from Panax ginseng may have potential as new skin whitening compounds. PMID:25590297

  15. The Potential of Minor Ginsenosides Isolated from the Leaves of Panax ginseng as Inhibitors of Melanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Young; Cha, Byeong-Ju; Lee, Young-Seob; Kim, Geum-Soog; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Seung-Yu; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-01-01

    Three minor ginsenosides, namely, ginsenoside Rh6 (1), vina-ginsenoside R4 (2) and vina-ginsenoside R13 (3), were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS), 1D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 2D-NMR, and, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The melanogenic inhibitory activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was 23.9%, 27.8% and 35.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 80 µM. Likewise, the three compounds showed inhibitory activity on body pigmentation on a zebrafish model, which is commonly used as a model for biomedical or cosmetic research. These results from in vitro and in vivo systems suggest that the three aforementioned compounds isolated from Panax ginseng may have potential as new skin whitening compounds. PMID:25590297

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Sharma, Arun K.; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides, the most important secondary metabolites in ginseng, have various biological activities. Many studies have focused on the conversion of one of the major ginsenosides, Rb1, to the more active minor ginsenoside, Rg3. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of Rb1 to Rg3. Rb1 solutions were gamma-irradiated at doses of 10 and 30 kGy and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC chromatograms showed a decreased content of Rb1 with increasing irradiation dose, but the content of Rg3 was increased. The highest content of Rg3 was present in the 30 kGy-irradiated Rb1 sample. The cytotoxic effects tested in cancer cell lines were increased in the gamma-irradiated group. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation can be an effective method for the conversion of the ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3.

  17. Fast determination of total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan; Lu, Yong-jun; Cao, Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast determination method for total ginsenosides in Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) powder. The spectra were analyzed with multiplicative signal correction (MSC) correlation method. The best correlative spectra region with the total ginsenosides content was 1660 nm~1880 nm and 2230nm~2380 nm. The NIR calibration models of ginsenosides were built with multiple linear regression (MLR), principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression respectively. The results showed that the calibration model built with PLS combined with MSC and the optimal spectrum region was the best one. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of correction validation (RMSEC) of the best calibration model were 0.98 and 0.15% respectively. The optimal spectrum region for calibration was 1204nm~2014nm. The result suggested that using NIR to rapidly determinate the total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder were feasible.

  18. Rg1 exhibits neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase apoptotic pathway in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jun-Shan; Lin, Hang; Ye, Jian-Xin; Lin, Min; Cui, Xiao-Ping

    2015-09-01

    The neuroprotective agents currently used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) often only target one aspect of the disease process. Therefore, identifying effective drug targets associated with the pathogenesis of AD is critical for the production of novel AD therapeutic strategies. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of Rg1 on a rat model of AD. A double transgenic β‑amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein/PS1 rat model was established, which co‑expressed mutations associated with AD. Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The detection of the protein expression levels of caspase‑3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl‑transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were used to determine the level of apoptosis in the brain tissue. The expression levels of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress biomarker, glucose‑regulated protein 78 (Grp78), and the mitochondrial apoptosis biomarkers, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax), were analyzed by western blotting. Furthermore, the expression of the proteins associated with the ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR) was determined, in order to examine the levels of ER stress. The mRNA expression of downstream genes of UPR were also detected by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression levels of the apoptosis‑associated phosphorylated‑c‑Jun N‑terminal protein kinase (p‑JNK), caspase‑12 and cAMP response element‑binding transcription factor homologous protein were determined by western blotting. The results of the present study indicated that the accumulation of NFTs and Aβ plaques was significantly decreased in the Rg1‑treated AD rats, compared with untreated AD rats. The expression of caspase‑3 and the number of TUNEL‑positive cells were also significantly decreased in the Rg1‑treated rats, as compared with the AD rats

  19. Antioxidative properties of ginsenoside Ro against UV-B-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Ji; Oh, Yuri; Lee, Sihyeong; Ryu, In Wang; Kim, Kyunghoon; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Ro (Ro), an oleanolic acid-type ginsenoside, exhibited suppressive activities on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) elevation in UV-B-irradiated fibroblasts. Ro could overcome the reduction of the total glutathione (GSH) contents in UV-B-irradiated fibroblasts. Ro could not interfere with cell viabilities in UV-B-irradiated fibroblasts. Collectively, Ro possesses a potential skin anti-photoaging property against UV-B radiation in fibroblasts. PMID:26214051

  20. Red American Ginseng: Ginsenoside Constituents and Antiproliferative Activities of Heat-Processed Panax quinquefolius Roots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Ni, Ming; Wu, Ji-An; Tong, Robin; Wicks, Sheila; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    Red Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is used in many Oriental countries. In this study, the saponin constituents and anticancer activities of steamed American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots were evaluated. The contents of 12 ginsenosides in the roots were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the steaming treatment (100 – 120 °C for 1 h and 120 °C for 0.5 – 4 h), the quantity of 7 ginsenosides decreased and that of 5 others increased. The content of ginsenoside Rg3, a previously recognized anticancer compound, increased significantly when the root was steamed at 120 °C for 0.5 – 3 h. The antiproliferative effects of unsteamed and steamed (120 °C for 1 h and 2 h) American ginseng root extracts were assayed by the modified trichrome stain (MTS) method using three cancer cell lines (SW-480, HT-29, NSCLC). Heat-processing increased the antiproliferative effect of American ginseng significantly, and the activity of the extract from roots steamed for 2 h was greater than that of roots steamed for 1 h. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative activities of white and red Asian ginseng have also been evaluated. Five representative ginsenosides, Rb1, Rd, Re, Rg2 and Rg3, were studied. Ginsenoside Rg3 had the most potent effect. The antiproliferative activities of red American ginseng are augmented when ginsenoside Rg3 is increased. PMID:17538869

  1. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds. PMID:26270079

  2. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg2 against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Liu, Bin; Dluzen, Dean E; Jin, Yi

    2007-05-22

    We investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg2 on neurotoxic activities induced by glutamate in PC12 cells. The cells were incubated with glutamate (1 mmol/L), glutamate and ginsenoside Rg2 (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mmol/L) or nimodipine (5 micromol/L) for 24 h. The cellular viability was assessed by MTT assay. The lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured by a spectrophotometric method. Fura-2/AM, as a cell permeable fluorescent probe for Ca2+, was used to detect intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) using a monespectrofluorometer. Immunocytochemical techniques were employed to check the protein expression levels of calpain II, caspase-3 and beta-amyloid (Abeta)1-40 in PC12 cells. The results showed that glutamate decreased the cell viability, increased [Ca2+]i, lipid peroxidation (the excessive production of MDA, NO) and the protein expression levels of calpain II, caspase-3 and Abeta1-40 in PC12 cells. Ginsenoside Rg2 significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxic effects upon these parameters at all doses tested. Our study suggests that ginsenoside Rg2 has a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity through mechanisms related to anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis. In addition, the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg2 against the formation of Abeta1-40 suggests that ginsenoside Rg2 may also represent a potential treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17257792

  3. Four new ginsenosides from red ginseng with inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-Le; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2015-08-15

    During a search for novel melanogenesis inhibitors originating from nature sources, four new ginsenosides, including three dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rf-1a (1), 20Z-ginsenoside-Rs4 (2), 23-O-methylginsenoside-Rg11 (3), and one oleanane-type saponin, ginsenoside-Ro-6'-O-butyl ester (4) were isolated from red ginseng (the steamed ginseng) to evaluate their protective effects against melanogenesis. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, and were more potent than the positive control arbutin, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. The results indicated that just the two carbon-20(22) double-bond-type ginsenosides showed strong inhibiting activity on melanogenesis through reducing tyrosinase activity. Thus, ginsenosides with such similar chemical structure in red ginseng may be potential natural products as tyrosinase inhibitors against malignant melanoma. PMID:26087936

  4. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of malonyl-ginsenosides in the authentication of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Leon, Christine J; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2003-01-01

    Different negative ion electrospray (ES) source conditions are required to concentrate the ion current in [M-H](-) for malonylated and non-malonylated ginsenosides. However, both can be ionised optimally in a single liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis by employing switchable voltages in the post-source ion optics of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Coupled with automatic MS/MS scanning and post-acquisition neutral loss data analysis, this method provides a means of profiling the malonylated and acetylated ginsenosides in ginseng extracts. Analyses revealed numerous malonylated ginsenosides that could be partially characterised by serial MS/MS experiments. The ratio of mRb(1) to other isomeric forms present and to mRb(2) and mRc appears to show consistent differences among Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng) and P. notoginseng (Sanchi ginseng). The ratio of malonylated to non-malonylated ginsenosides is reduced in the red form of Asian ginseng compared with the white form and there is a concomitant increase in the levels of the corresponding acetylated ginsenosides. The ability to analyse malonylated ginsenosides is an important contribution to the range of chemical characteristics that can be used to authenticate the different species of ginseng and will assist in quality control and standardisation. PMID:12539190

  5. Ethosomes and Transfersomes for Topical Delivery of Ginsenoside Rhl from Red Ginseng: Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sun-Hang; Yun, Je-Jung; Yu, Young-Beob; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    Red ginseng (the steamed root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer), which contains ginsenosides as its main constituents, is frequently used to treat tumor, inflammation, diabetes, stress and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Asian countries. Ginsenoside Rhl, a bacterial metabolite of ginsenoside Rgl, is a protopanaxatriol type of ginsenosides. Liposomes do not deeply penetrate the skin and remain confined to the stratum corneum.Thus, new vesicular colloidal carriers such as ethosomes and transfersomes have been developed as an enhanced type of liposomes, recently. The aim of this study was to improve the topical delivery of ginsenoside Rhl isolated from red ginseng employing new vesicular system of ethosomes and transfersomes compared to conventional liposome. Characterization of ginsenoside Rhl-loaded vesicles were prepared and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. In addition, skin permeation profile was obtained using frantz diffusion cells and rat dorsal skin treated with ethosome and transfersome compared with conventional iposome. The size of vesicles range from 108.5 to 322.9 nm, and negatively charged from -20.95 to -31.37 mV. The % EE of ginsenoside Rh1 was obtained between 45.0 to 65.0%. Transfersomes provided a significantly higher skin permeation of ginsenoside Rhl compared to ethosome and conventional liposome. Therefore, based on the current study, ginsenoside Rhl-loaded transfersomes can act as a topical therapeutic effects potential. PMID:26369134

  6. [Analysis of ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry(LC/MS/MS)].

    PubMed

    Xü, Z X; Xiao, H B; Wang, J N; Liang, X M

    2000-11-01

    Ginseng, one of the most popular medicinal herbs used in traditional Chinese medicines, has been studied to have biological effects attributing to its main constituents such as ginsenosides. There are more than 30 kinds of ginsenosides and some of them have similar polarity and structure. Thus, it is difficult to separate those ginsenosides with isocratic mobile phase owing to their similar polarity. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with gradient elution has been developed in this work. Nine ginsenosides can be separated by this method. Among them, five ginsenosides with different molecular weights can be determined by means of their molecular weight gained through LC/MS with an ESI interface. Re and Rd have the same Mw but belonging to two different kinds of ginsenosides. They can be differentiated from each other through their MS/MS gained by CID(collision induced decomposition) at the second stage quadrapole. Rc and Rb3 having the same molecular weight and belonging to the same kind of ginsenoside can be distinguished through their negative ion spectra gotten from LC/MS. So 9 ginsenosides can be determined by LC/MS/MS. This method can also be used to determine the ginsenosides contained in commercially available samples. PMID:12541739

  7. Ginsenoside Rd Protects SH-SY5Y Cells against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ren-Yu; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Zheng; Feng, Dong-Yun; Wu, Rui; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), one of the main active monomer compounds from the medical plant Panax ginseng, has been shown to promote neuronal survival in models of ischemic cerebral damage. As an extending study, here we examined whether GSRd could exert a beneficial effect in an experimental Parkinson disease (PD) model in vitro, in which SH-SY5Y cells were injured by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an active metabolic product of the classical Parkinsonian toxin1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our results, from the addition of different concentrations of GSRd (1, 10 and 50 μM), showed that GSRd at 1 and 10 μM could significantly attenuate MPP+-induced cell death. This protective effect may be ascribed to its ability to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, enhance antioxidant enzymatic activities, preserve the activity of respiratory complex I, stabilize the mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular ATP levels. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt survival-signaling pathway was also involved in the protective effect of GSRd. Finally, using a mouse PD model in vivo, we also found that GSRd obviously reversed the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in substanitia nigra induced by MPTP. Thus, our findings demonstrated that GSRd showed a significant neuro-protective effect against experimental PD models, which may involve its antioxidant effects and mitochondrial function preservation. PMID:26114390

  8. Ginsenoside Rd Protects SH-SY5Y Cells against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Ren-Yu; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Zheng; Feng, Dong-Yun; Wu, Rui; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), one of the main active monomer compounds from the medical plant Panax ginseng, has been shown to promote neuronal survival in models of ischemic cerebral damage. As an extending study, here we examined whether GSRd could exert a beneficial effect in an experimental Parkinson disease (PD) model in vitro, in which SH-SY5Y cells were injured by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an active metabolic product of the classical Parkinsonian toxin1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our results, from the addition of different concentrations of GSRd (1, 10 and 50 μM), showed that GSRd at 1 and 10 μM could significantly attenuate MPP+-induced cell death. This protective effect may be ascribed to its ability to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, enhance antioxidant enzymatic activities, preserve the activity of respiratory complex I, stabilize the mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular ATP levels. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt survival-signaling pathway was also involved in the protective effect of GSRd. Finally, using a mouse PD model in vivo, we also found that GSRd obviously reversed the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in substanitia nigra induced by MPTP. Thus, our findings demonstrated that GSRd showed a significant neuro-protective effect against experimental PD models, which may involve its antioxidant effects and mitochondrial function preservation. PMID:26114390

  9. Antitumoral Activity of (20R)- and (20S)-Ginsenoside Rh2 on Transplanted Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qun; Rong, Na; Liu, Li-Jia; Xu, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Jian-Ting; Jin, Feng-Xie; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy-related death in China. Its therapy in clinics is a big challenge. Ginsenoside Rh2 is one of the most notable cancer-preventing components from red ginseng and it has been reported that ginsenoside Rh2 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cells. Rh2 exists as two different stereoisomeric forms, (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 and (20R)-ginsenoside Rh2. Previous reports showed that the Rh2 epimers demonstrated different pharmacological activities and only (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 showed potent proliferation inhibition on cancer cells in vitro. However, the in vivo anti-hepatoma activity of (20R)-ginsenoside Rh2 and (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 has not been reported yet. This work assessed and compared the anti-hepatoma activities of (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 and (20R)-ginsenoside Rh2 using H22 a hepatoma-bearing mouse model in vivo. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and the semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method were used to further study the apoptosis of the tumors. The results showed that both (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 and (20R)-ginsenoside Rh2 suppressed the growth of H22 transplanted tumors in vivo, and the highest inhibition rate could be up to 42.2 and 46.8 %, respectively (p < 0.05). Further, hematoxylin/eosin staining and the deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay indicated that both (20R)-ginsenoside Rh2 and (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 could induce H22 hepatoma tumor cell apoptosis, with apoptosis indexes of 3.87 %, and 3.80 %, respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, this effect was accompanied by downregulating the level of Bcl-2 mRNA. In conclusion, both (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 and (20R)-ginsenoside Rh2 can suppress the growth of H22 hepatomas without causing severe side effects, and this effect is associated with the induction of apoptosis. PMID:27163230

  10. Integrated evaluation of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in fresh and processed ginseng.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Fan, Yong; Yu, Qing-Tao; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Yan, Chen-Pu; Alolga, Raphael N; Li, Ping; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-03-25

    Many analytical methods have been developed to characterize ginsenosides in ginseng. Relatively less attention has been paid to the malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in various processing ginsengs. In this study, malonyl ginsenosides were characterized by LC-Q-TOF/MS. In positive mode, the most abundant ions at m/z 425.38 were observed corresponding to the protopanoxadiol-type ginsenosides. A rich diagnostic ion at 835.48 was shown representing the malonyl ginsenosides with at least two glucosides. Twelve malonyl ginsenosides were rapidly screened using 835.48-835.49 to restructure ion chromatograms. In negative mode, besides the high deprotonated ion, a neutral loss of 44 Da (CO2) was found. High-energy collision-induced dissociation at 50 V produced the most abundant product ion [M-H-malonyl](-) by a neutral loss of 86 Da. Determination of 17 common amino acids was performed on an automatic amino acid analyzer. Arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were abundant. The contents of amino acids were 9.1% in fresh ginseng and 3.1% in black ginseng. Phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to analysis of polysaccharides. The contents of polysaccharides were 29.1% in fresh ginseng and 11.1% in black ginseng. The optimal growth age for the accumulation of constituents was supposed to be 5-6 years. In conclusion, the contents of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids, and polysaccharides, based on decreasing order, ranked as follows: fresh ginseng>frozen ginseng>white ginseng>stoved ginseng>red ginseng>black ginseng. Processing should be paid more attention for the quality control of ginseng products. PMID:25575174

  11. Effect of sugar positions in ginsenosides and their inhibitory potency on Na+/K+-ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ronald JY; Chung, Tse-yu; Li, Feng-yin; Lin, Nan-hei; Tzen, Jason TC

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether ginsenosides with various sugar attachments may act as active components responsible for the cardiac therapeutic effects of ginseng and sanqi (the roots of Panax ginseng and Panax notoginseng) via the same molecular mechanism triggered by cardiac glycosides, such as ouabain and digoxin. Methods: The structural similarity between ginsenosides and ouabain was analyzed. The inhibitory potency of ginsenosides and ouabain on Na+/K+-ATPase activity was examined and compared. Molecular modeling was exhibited for the docking of ginsenosides to Na+/K+-ATPase. Results: Ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides, and possessed inhibitory potency on Na+/K+-ATPase activity. However, their inhibitory potency was significantly reduced or completely abolished when a monosaccharide was linked to the C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid-like structure; replacement of the monosaccharide with a disaccharide molecule at either of these positions caused the disappearance of the inhibitory potency. Molecular modeling and docking confirmed that the difference in Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitory potency among ginsenosides was due to the steric hindrance of sugar attachment at the C-6 and C-20 positions of the steroid-like structure. Conclusion: The cardiac therapeutic effects of ginseng and sanqi should be at least partly attributed to the effective inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase by their metabolized ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure. PMID:19060914

  12. Identification and Characterization of a Ginsenoside-Transforming β-Glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. Gsoil 1536 and Its Application for Enhanced Production of Minor Ginsenoside Rg2(S)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Chul; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Yu, Hong-Shan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Sun, Changkai; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2014-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rg2(S), which is one of the pharmaceutical components of ginseng, is known to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammation, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside Rg2(S) is restricted owing to the small amounts found in white and red ginseng. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rg2(S) as a 100 gram unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the recombinant glycoside hydrolase (BglPC28), which is a ginsenoside-transforming recombinant β-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. strain Gsoil 1536. The gene, termed bglPC28, encoding β-glucosidase (BglPC28) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 was cloned. bglPC28 consists of 2,232 bp (743 amino acid residues) with a predicted molecular mass of 78,975 Da. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The optimum conditions of the recombinant BglPC28 were pH 7.0 and 37°C. BglPC28 can effectively transform the ginsenoside Re to Rg2(S); the Km values of PNPG and Re were 6.36±1.10 and 1.42±0.13 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 40.0±2.55 and 5.62±0.21 µmol min−1 mg−1 of protein, respectively. A scaled-up biotransformation reaction was performed in a 10 L jar fermenter at pH 7.0 and 30°C for 12 hours with a concentration of 20 mg/ml of ginsenoside Re from American ginseng roots. Finally, 113 g of Rg2(S) was produced from 150 g of Re with 84.0±1.1% chromatographic purity. These results suggest that this enzymatic method could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rg2(S) in the cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24911166

  13. Structure–inhibition relationship of ginsenosides towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Cao, Yun-Feng; Hu, Cui-Min; Hong, Mo; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Guang-Bo; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Yang, Ling; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2013-03-01

    The wide utilization of ginseng provides the high risk of herb–drug interaction (HDI) with many clinical drugs. The inhibition of ginsenosides towards drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as an important reason for herb–drug interaction (HDI). Compared with the deep studies on the ginsenosides' inhibition towards cytochrome P450 (CYP), the inhibition of ginsenosides towards the important phase II enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) remains to be unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the inhibition behavior of ginsenosides towards important UGT isoforms located in the liver and intestine using in vitro methods. The recombinant UGT isoform-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction was employed as in vitro probe reaction. The results showed that structure-dependent inhibition existed for the inhibition of ginsenosides towards UGT isoforms. To clarify the possibility of in vivo herb–drug interaction induced by this kind of inhibition, the ginsenoside Rg{sub 3} was selected as an example, and the inhibition kinetic type and parameters (K{sub i}) were determined. Rg{sub 3} competitively inhibited UGT1A7, 2B7 and 2B15-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation reaction, and exerted noncompetitive inhibition towards UGT1A8-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation. The inhibition parameters (K{sub i} values) were calculated to be 22.6, 7.9, 1.9, and 2.0 μM for UGT1A7, 1A8, 2B7 and 2B15. Using human maximum plasma concentration of Rg{sub 3} (400 ng/ml (0.5 μM)) after intramuscular injection of 60 mg Rg{sub 3}, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was extrapolated to increase by 2.2%, 6.3%, 26.3%, and 25% for the co-administered drugs completely undergoing the metabolism catalyzed by UGT1A7, 1A8, 2B7 and 2B15, respectively. All these results indicated that the ginsenosides' inhibition towards UGT isoforms might be an important reason for ginseng–drug interaction. - Highlights: ► Structure-dependent inhibition of

  14. Enhancing Biosynthesis of a Ginsenoside Precursor by Self-Assembly of Two Key Enzymes in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengcheng; Gao, Xin; Liu, Xinbin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Shengli; Wang, Fengqing; Ren, Yuhong

    2016-05-01

    Ginsenosides from the edible and medicinal plant ginseng have demonstrated various pharmacological activities. However, producing ginsenoside efficiently remains a challenge. Engineering metabolic pathways through protein assembly in yeast is a promising way for ginsenoside production. In the biosynthetic pathway of ginsenosides, dammarenediol-II synthase and squalene epoxidase are two key enzymes that determine the production rate of the dammarane-type ginsenoside precursor dammarenediol-II. In this work, a strategy to enhance the biosynthesis of dammarenediol-II in Pichia pastoris was developed by the self-assembly of the two key enzymes via protein-protein interaction. After being modified by interacting proteins, the two enzymes were successfully co-localized, resulting in a 2.1-fold enhancement in dammarenediol-II yields. PMID:27074597

  15. Quality Characteristics and Ginsenosides Composition of Ginseng-Yakju According to the Particle Size of Ginseng Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Kang Hyun; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop rice wine (Yakju) containing various amounts and particle sizes of ginseng powder and to analyze the physicochemical characteristics and content of ginsenosides in ginseng-Yakju. Soluble solid content, pH, ethanol concentration, acidity, amino acid content, and evaluation of preference showed no difference between four kinds of Yakju groups, regardless of ginseng supplementation and particle size of the ginseng powder. During fermentation of Yakju containing ginseng, the contents of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, and Rc were decreased. Otherwise, the content of ginsenoside Rh1 was increased highly by brewing microorganisms in Yakju. Recovery ratios of ginsenosides in ginseng-Yakju were approximately 25.4% (coarse ginseng power) and 23.8% (fine ginseng powder), which were superior to the recovery ratio of ginsenosides in Yakju containing ginseng slices (5%). PMID:24551824

  16. Biochemical basis of cancer chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy with ginsenosides (Review).

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kundu, Juthika; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Cancer still imposes a global threat to public health. After decades of research on cancer biology and enormous efforts in developing anticancer therapies, we now understand that the majority of cancers can be prevented. Bioactive phytochemicals present in edible plants have been shown to reduce the risk of various types of cancer. Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), which contains a wide variety of saponins, known as ginsenosides, is an age-old remedy for human ailments, including cancer. Numerous laboratory-based studies have revealed the anticancer properties of ginsenosides, which compel tumor cells to commit suicide, arrest the proliferation of cancer cells in culture and inhibit experimentally-induced tumor formation in laboratory animals. Ginsenosides have been reported to inhibit tumor angiogenesis, as well as the invasion and metastasis of various types of cancer cells. Moreover, ginsenosides as combination therapy enhance the sensitivity of chemoresistant tumors to clinically used chemotherapeutic agents. This review sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the cancer chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic activity of ginsenosides and their intestinal metabolites with particular focus on the modulation of cell signaling pathways associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and the metastasis of cancer cells. PMID:24126942

  17. The melanogenesis-inhibitory effect and the percutaneous formulation of ginsenoside Rb1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Lu, Ai-Ping; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Wong, Ricky N S; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Zhou, Li-Min; Chen, HuBiao; Xu, Min; Yang, Zhijun

    2014-10-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is the most predominant ginsenoside isolated from the roots of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). This compound is active in various human biological pathways that are involved in human collagen synthesis and inhibition of cell apoptosis. In this study, the skin-whitening effects of Rb1 were investigated in B16 melanoma cells. Our results showed that Rb1 inhibited melanogenesis in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16 cells in a dose-dependent manner, which collectively indicated that Rb1 may have skin-whitening effects and may be formulated into skin-whitening products for skin care. Accordingly, a ginsenoside collagen transdermal patch was developed as a vehicle to topically deliver Rb1 into pig skin. The percutaneous permeation, retention within skin, and release in vitro of Rb1 from seven transdermal patch formulas were studied. It was determined that the best formula for ginsenoside collagen transdermal patch is made of protein collagen hydrolysate powder (PCHP) 2.0% (w/w), methyl cellulose (MC) 0.5% (w/w), polyethyleneglycol 6000 (PEG6000) 0.5% (w/w), ginsenoside 0.036% (w/w), azone 0.4% (v/w), menthol 0.20% (w/w), and water. PMID:24895076

  18. Enzymatic formation of compound-K from ginsenoside Rb1 by enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of Armillaria mellea

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Jitendra; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Young-Hoi; Ko, Sung-Ryong; Park, Hee-Won; Kim, Myung-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Background Minor saponins or human intestinal bacterial metabolites, such as ginsenosides Rg3, F2, Rh2, and compound K, are more pharmacologically active than major saponins, such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc. In this work, enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1 was studied using enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of mushrooms. Methods Mycelia of Armillaria mellea, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus, Elfvingia applanata, and Pleurotus ostreatus were cultivated in liquid media at 25°C for 2 wk. Enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of five mushrooms were obtained by mycelia separation from cultured broth, enzyme extraction, ammonium sulfate (30–80%) precipitation, dialysis, and freeze drying, respectively. The enzyme preparations were used for enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1. Results Among the mushrooms used in this study, the enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of A. mellea (AMMEP) was found to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into compound K with a high yield, while those from G. lucidum, P. linteus, E. applanata, and P. ostreatus produced remarkable amounts of ginsenoside Rd from ginsenoside Rb1. The enzymatic hydrolysis pathway of ginsenoside Rb1 by AMMEP was Rb1 → Rd → F2 → compound K. The optimum reaction conditions for compound K formation from ginsenoside Rb1 were as follows: reaction time 72–96 h, pH 4.0–4.5, and temperature 45–55°C. Conclusion AMMEP can be used to produce the human intestinal bacterial metabolite, compound K, from ginsenoside Rb1 with a high yield and without food safety issues. PMID:27158230

  19. The effects of dynamic changes of malonyl ginsenosides on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Yu; Li, Xiang; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Wang, Li-Juan; Sun, Guang-Zhi

    2012-05-01

    To clarify the effects of malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) on evaluation and quality control of Panax ginseng, the contents of neutral and malonyl ginsenosides from P. ginseng were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV-VIS detector (HPLC-UV) during extraction, processing and storage. Several solvents, including water, ethanol, methanol, and n-butanol were used in the cold-soaked extraction (CSE). Among the four extraction solvents, methanol was found to be the most efficient. CSE was compared with other extraction methods such as Soxhlet extraction (SE), heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The content of MGR showed significant differences, higher in CSE and UAE; lower in MAE and HRE; no MGR could be detected after SE. However, the total contents of neutral and malonyl ginsenosides were not different. Meanwhile, white ginseng, stored at 25°C in air of low humidity, showed a marked decrease in the concentration of MGR from 1.19% to 0.63% but with an increase in the neutral ginsenosides from 1.12% to 1.53% after 0-9-month storage. The results indicated that MGR changed dynamically in P. ginseng with different extraction solvents, extraction methods and increasing storage time. The total ginsenosides was not only underestimated but also determined imprecisely by ignoring malonyl ginsenosides. On the basis of our results, we suggest that malonyl ginsenosides should be transformed into the corresponding neutral ginsenosides during sample preparation for quality control and evaluation of P. ginseng. Then the content of six neutral ginsenosides in samples was used as the true level of total ginsenosides. The results reported here might provide useful information for accurate evaluation and quality control of P. ginseng. PMID:22387101

  20. Isolation and determination of ginsenosides in American ginseng leaves and root extracts by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ligor, T; Ludwiczuk, A; Wolski, T; Buszewski, B

    2005-12-01

    Ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) were extracted from the root and leaves of locally cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.). For the isolation of compounds from plant samples three different extraction methods were utilized: accelerated solvent extraction, the ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and mechanical shaking assisted solvent extraction. The separation of compounds was achieved with a water-acetonitrile gradient system using a C18 reversed-phase column. Target compounds were identified in MS(2) and MS(3) experiments. The relative distribution of these ginsenosides in each root and leaf extract was established. The limit of detection of the method was less than 30 ng/ml. Recovery of ginseng saponins in spiked samples exceeded 80%, while the relative standard deviation ranged from 7.1 to 9.1%. The total concentrations of ginsenosides were 41 and 13 mg/g in root and leaves. PMID:16283269

  1. Ginsenoside extraction from Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng) root by using ultrahigh pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouqin; Chen, Ruizhan; Wu, Hua; Wang, Changzheng

    2006-04-11

    A new method of ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) was used to extract the ginsenosides from Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng) root at room temperature. Several solvents, including water, ethanol, methanol, and n-butanol were used in the UPE. The ginsenosides were quantified by a HPLC equipped with UV-vis detector. The results showed that ethanol is the most efficient solvent among the used ones. Compared with other methods, i.e., Soxhlet extraction, heat reflux extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and supercritical CO2 extraction, the UPE has the highest extraction yield in the shortest time. The extraction yield of 0.861% ginsenoside-Rc in 2 min was achieved by the UPE, while the yields of 0.284% and 0.661% were obtained in several hours by supercritical CO2 extraction and the heat reflux extraction, respectively. PMID:16332422

  2. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by ginsenoside Rd via activation of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins and cyclic AMP response binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hye Gwang; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Han, Eun Hee; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-07-20

    Panax ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in East Asia and is reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Here we show a unique effect of ginsenoside Rd (Rd) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Rd (100 {mu}g/ml), but not other ginsenosides induced COX-2 and increased prostaglandin E{sub 2} production. Gel shift and Western blot analyses using nuclear fractions revealed that Rd increased both the DNA binding of and the nuclear levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP){alpha}/{beta} and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), but not of p65, in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Rd increased the luciferase reporter gene activity in cells transfected with a 574-bp mouse COX-2 promoter construct. Site-specific mutation analyses confirmed that Rd-mediated transcriptional activation of COX-2 gene was regulated by C/EBP and CREB. These results provide evidence that Rd activated C/EBP and CREB, and that the activation of C/EBP and CREB appears to be essential for induction of COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells.

  3. Morphological and Ginsenoside Differences among North American Ginseng Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, John T. A.; Sullivan, Alan J.; Rupasinghe, Vasantha P. V.; Jackson, Chung-Ja C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaf characteristics of mature 2, 3 and 4-year-old North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) leaves on fruiting and non-fruiting (NF) plants were studied. Leaflets of the 2-year-old plants had the lowest fresh and dry weight, area, volume and internal gas volume. Inflorescence removal in 3-year-old plants did not affect leaf characteristics or ginsenoside concentration but in 4-yearold plants it increased leaf fresh (38.6%) and dry (43.9%) weight, leaf area (29.1%), specific leaf mass (11.4%), leaf volume (43.1%), and leaf thickness (12.1%), and decreased leaf water content (6.2%). Cultivated ginseng, although an understorey plant, had the specific leaf mass, 35.6 g m-2 (range, 36 to 39 g m-2) and a chlorophyll a/b ratio of 2.40 to 2.61, both suggesting the ability to perform like a sunny habitat plant. Also, specific leaf mass of 35.6 g m-2 is similar to that reported for perennial plants, 36.8 g m-2, rather than that for annuals, 30.9 g m-2. PMID:23717057

  4. Ginsenoside Rd elicits Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhigang; Chen, Aqin; Sun, Hongxiang; Ye, Yiping; Fang, Weihuan

    2007-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (Rd), a saponin isolated from the roots of panax notoginseng, was evaluated for inducing Th1 or Th2 immune responses in mice against ovalbumin (OVA). ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100 microg alone or with OVA 100 microg dissolved in saline containing alum (200 microg), or Rd (10, 25 or 50 microg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (day 28), concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation was determined using MTT assay, and OVA-specific antibody titers and levels of cytokines in serum were measured by ELISA and microparticle-based flow cytometric immunoassay, as well as peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets analyzed using flow cytometer. Rd significantly enhanced the Con A-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice. OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody titers in serum were significantly enhanced by Rd compared with OVA control group. Meanwhile, Rd also significantly promoted the production of the Th1 and Th2 cytokines in OVA-immunized mice. Further, the effects of Rd on expression of cytokine mRNA in Con A-stimulated mice splenocytes were evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Rd significantly enhanced the interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA expression in mice splenocyte induced by Con A. These results suggested that Rd had immunological adjuvant activity, and elicited a Th1 and Th2 immune response by regulating production and gene expression of Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines. PMID:16950547

  5. Effects of Total Ginsenosides on the Feeding Behavior and Two Enzymes Activities of Mythimna separata (Walker) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Hua; Tan, Shi-Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Lei, Feng-Jie; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the main effective components of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L., are important allelochemicals of ginseng. Although many studies have targeted the pharmacological, chemical, and clinical properties of ginsenosides, little is known about their ecological role in ginseng population adaptation and evolution. Pests rarely feed on ginseng, and it is not known why. This study investigated the effects of total ginsenosides on feeding behavior and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) in Mythimna separata (Walker) larvae. The results showed that the total ginsenosides had significant antifeeding activity against M. separata larvae, determined by nonselective and selective antifeeding bioassays. In addition, the total ginsenosides had inhibitory effects on the activities of GST and AChE. The antifeeding ratio was the highest at 8 h, then decreased, and was the lowest at 16 h. Both GST and AChE activities decreased from 0 h to 48 h in all total ginsenosides treatments but increased at 72 h. Total ginsenosides had antifeeding activity against M. separata larvae and inhibitory effects on the activities of GST and AChE. PMID:26074991

  6. Induction of apoptosis and reversal of permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM by ginsenoside Rh2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Huilai; Kong, Di

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a phenomenon that cancer cells develop a cross-resistant phenotype against several unrelated drugs, and permeability glycoprotein derived from the overexpression of multidrug resistance gene 1 has been taken as the most significant cause of multidrug resistance. In the present study, ginsenoside Rh2 was used to reverse permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM cell line. Effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on the apoptotic process and caspase-3 activity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cell lines were determined using flow cytometry and microplate reader. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test was conducted to assess the IC50 values of ginsenoside Rh2 and adriamycin on MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cultures; Rhodamin 123 assay was used to assess the retention of permeability glycoprotein after ginsenoside Rh2 treatment; flow cytometry and real time polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1 in drug-resistant cells and their parental cells after exposure to ginsenoside Rh2. The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2, except for inducing apoptosis, had the ability to reverse multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADM cell line without changing the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1. Our findings provided some valuable information for the application of ginsenoside Rh2 in cancer therapy, especially for multidrug resistance reversal in clinic. PMID:26191135

  7. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  8. Ginsenosides may enhance the functionality of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Ku, Jun Beom; Liu, Hung Ching; Ku, Seung-Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min

    2014-10-01

    Various chemicals have been reported to induce the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into cardiomyocytes (CMs), however, their contributions to the functionality of hESC-derived CMs are still limited. In this study, we evaluated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE), ginsenoside-Rb1 (gRb1, panaxadiol), and ginsenoside-Re (gRe, panaxatriol) on the differentiation of hESCs and the functionality of derived CMs. Undifferentiated hESCs were treated with 0.25 mg/mL RGE, 10 μmol/L gRb1, or 10 μmol/L gRe for 48 hours at the differentiation induction (early stage) or maturation (late stage) period. The expression of mesodermal and cardiac transcription factor genes was upregulated in the ginsenoside-treated groups from early stage. The expression of cardiac sarcomeric genes was significantly upregulated at the late stage. The gRb1- and gRe-treated groups upregulated the expression of potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 1 (KCNE1) and the gRe-treated group showed a longer beating duration compared to the control. Taken together, ginsenosides may enhance the functionality of hESC-derived CMs in vitro. PMID:24615935

  9. Ginsenoside Re Attenuates Neuroinflammation in a Symptomatic ALS Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mudan; Yang, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons, which cause paralysis and respiratory dysfunction. There is currently no permanently effective drug for patients with ALS. Ginsenoside Re (G-Re), one of the most active ingredients of ginseng, has pharmacological activities that affect a number of targets. To investigate the effects of G-Re on neuroinflammation, we used G-Re (2.5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/g) at the Joksamni acupressure point (ST36) once every other day for one week. To evaluate G-Re function in symptomatic human-superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1[Formula: see text] transgenic mice, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed with the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. Here, we report that G-Re exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against neuroinflammation in a murine model of ALS. G-Re treatment reduced the loss of motor neurons and active-microglia-related expression of Iba-1 in the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. In addition, compared with age-matched hSOD1(G93A) mice, G-Re-treated hSOD1(G93A) mice showed a significant reduction in expression of pro-inflammatory proteins such as CD14 and TNF-[Formula: see text] protein related to TLR4 signaling pathway. G-Re administration also led to a decrease in cell death-related phospho-p38 protein levels, and had an antioxidative effect by reducing HO1 expression. Together, our data suggest that G-Re could have potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects on ALS by inhibiting the TLR4 pathway. PMID:27080948

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginsenoside Rd in Spinal Cord Injury Rats.

    PubMed

    Cong, Lin; Chen, Wenting

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rd (GS Rd) were evaluated in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats in SCI groups received a T8 laminectomy and a spinal contusion injury. GS Rd 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally 1 hr before the surgery and once daily for 14 days. Dexamethasone 1 mg/kg was administered as a positive control. Locomotor function was evaluated using the BBB score system. H&E staining and Nissl staining were performed to observe the histological changes in the spinal cord. The levels of MDA and GSH and the activity of SOD were assessed to reflect the oxidative stress state. The production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-1 was assessed using ELISA kits to examine the inflammatory responses in the spinal cord. TUNEL staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis in the spinal cord. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and MAPK proteins. The results demonstrated that GS Rd 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly improved the locomotor function of rats after SCI, reduced tissue injury and increased neuron survival in the spinal cord. Mechanically, GS Rd decreased MDA level, increased GSH level and SOD activity, reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prevented cell apoptosis. The effects were equivalent to those of dexamethasone. In addition, GS Rd effectively inhibited the activation of MAPK signalling pathway induced by SCI, which might be involved in the protective effects of GS Rd against SCI. In conclusion, GS Rd attenuates SCI-induced secondary injury through reversing the redox-state imbalance, inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue. PMID:26833867

  11. The antitumor activity study of ginsenosides and metabolites in lung cancer cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng-Yuan; Shang, Wen-Qing; Yu, Jia-Jun; Sun, Qian; Li, Ming-Qing; Sun, Jian-Song

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng and its components exert various biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, and antitumor activity. Ginsenosides are the main biological components of ginseng. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) are two metabolites of ginsenosides. However, the difference between these compounds in anti-lung cancer is unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of PPD, PPT, Ginsenosides-Rg3 (G-Rg3) and Ginsenosides-Rh2 (G-Rh2) in lung cancer cell. After treatment with cisplatin, PPD, PPT, G-Rg3 or G-Rh2, the viability, apoptosis level and invasiveness of lung cell lines (A549 cell, a lung adenocarcinoma cell line and SK-MES-1 cell, a lung squamous cell line) in vitro were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), Annexin V/PI apoptosis and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. Here we found that all these compounds led to significant decreases of viability and invasiveness and an obvious increase of apoptosis of A549 and SK-MES-1 cells. Among these, the viability of SK-MES-1 cell treated with PPT was decreased to 66.8%, and this effect was closest to Cisplatin. G-Rg3 had the highest stimulatory effect on apoptosis, and PTT had the highest inhibitory effect on cell invasiveness in A549 and SK-MES-1 cells. These results indicate that both ginsenosides and two metabolites have antitumor activity on lung cancer cell in vitro. However, PPT is more powerful for inhibiting the viability and invasiveness of lung cancer cell, especially lung squamous cell. G-Rg3 has the best pro-apoptosis effects. This study provides a scientific basis for potential therapeutic strategies targeted to lung cancer by further structure modification. PMID:27186294

  12. Simultaneous determination of ginsenoside Rb1, naringin, ginsenoside Rb2 and oridonin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Weifuchun tablet.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiran; Tian, Tingting; Ma, Yinghua; Xu, Huijun; Du, Yingfeng

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of ginsenoside Rb1, naringin, ginsenoside Rb2 and oridonin in rat plasma using sulfamethoxazole as an internal standard (IS). Separation was conducted out on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C18 column with liner gradient elution using acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% aqueous acetic acid (B). A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. A novel multi-determination-periods program was executed to achieve a higher sensitivity by setting three scanning periods. All analytes exhibited good linearity within the concentration range (r>0.9973). The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) of ginsenoside Rb1, naringin, ginsenoside Rb2 and oridonin were 2.64, 4.32, 2.32 and 1.56ng/mL, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precisions of the investigated components exhibited an RSD within 8.3%, and the accuracy (RE) ranged from -8.6% to 6.0% at all quality control levels. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ginsenoside Rb1, naringin, ginsenoside Rb2 and oridonin in rats after oral administration of a Weifuchun tablet. PMID:26222904

  13. Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wang-Kyun; Song, Seung-Yong; Oh, Won Keun; Kaewsuwan, Sireewan; Tran, Tien Lam; Kim, Won-Serk; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2013-02-28

    Panax ginseng is considered as one of the most valuable medicinal herbs in traditional medicine, and ginsenoside Rd is one of the main active ingredients in P. ginseng leaf. Although there is significant number of evidences implicated on the beneficial effects of the ginsenosides with diverse associated mechanisms, reports on the skin regeneration by the ginsenoside Rd are not sufficient. Therefore, we examined the mitogenic and protective effects of the ginsenoside Rd in the keratinocyte progenitor cells (KPCs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Furthermore, the signaling pathways involved in the activation of KPCs and HDFs were investigated, and wound-healing effect is evaluated in vivo through animal wound models. We found that the ginsenoside Rd significantly increased the proliferation and migration level of KPCs and HDFs in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the cell survival was significantly increased in H2O2 treated KPCs. Moreover, the ginsenoside Rd effectively induced collagen type 1 and down-regulated matrix metalloprotinase-1 (MMP-1) in a dose-dependent manner. All of these beneficial effects are associated with an induction of intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein expression in nucleus, which both attenuated by adenine 9-β-d-arabinofuranoside, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Application of the ginsenoside Rd to an excision wound in mice showed an effective healing process. As skin regeneration is mainly associated with the activation of HDFs and KPCs, P. ginseng leaf, an alternative source of the ginsenoside Rd, can be used as a natural source for skin regeneration. PMID:23399764

  14. Enzymatic transformation of ginsenosides in Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) extract prepared by Spezyme and Optidex

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Yooheon; Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined the effects of various enzymes on chemical conversions of ginsenosides in ginseng extract prepared by amylases. Methods Rapidase, Econase CE, Viscozyme, Ultraflo L, and Cytolase PCL5 were used for secondary enzymatic hydrolysis after amylase treatment of ginseng extract, and ginsenoside contents, skin permeability, and chemical compositions including total sugar, acidic polysaccharide, and polyphenols were determined on the hydrolyzed ginseng extract. Results Rapidase treatment significantly elevated total ginsenoside contents compared with the control (p < 0.05). In particular, deglycosylated ginsenosides including Rg3, which are known as bioactive compounds, were significantly increased after Rapidase treatment (p < 0.05). The Rapidase-treated group also increased the skin permeability of polyphenols compared with the control, showing the highest level of total sugar content among the enzyme treatment groups. Conclusion This result showed that Rapidase induced the conversion of ginsenoside glycosides to aglycones. Meanwhile, Cytolase PCL5 and Econase treatments led to a significant increase of uronic acid (acidic polysaccharide) level. Taken together, our data showed that the treatments of enzymes including Rapidase are useful for the conversion and increase of ginsenosides in ginseng extracts or products. PMID:25379006

  15. Skin anti-photoaging properties of ginsenoside Rh2 epimers in UV-B-irradiated human keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Joo; Lee, Sihyeong; Choi, Woo-Yong; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2014-09-01

    Ginseng, one of the most widely used herbal medicines, has a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive ingredients of ginseng, which are responsible for various pharmacological activities of ginseng. Ginsenoside Rh2, known as an antitumour ginsenoside, exists as two different stereoisomeric forms, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 [20(S)-Rh2] and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 [20(R)-Rh2]. This work aimed to assess and compare skin anti-photoaging activities of 20(S)-Rh2 and 20(R)-Rh2 in UV-B-irradiated HaCat cells. 20(S)-Rh2, but not 20(R)-Rh2, was able to suppress UV-B-induced ROS production in HaCat cells. Both stereoisomeric forms could not modulate cellular survival and NO level in UV-B-irradiated HaCat cells. Both 20(S)-Rh2 and 20(R)-Rh2 exhibited suppressive effects on UV-B-induced MMP-2 activity and expression in HaCat cells. In brief, the two stereoisomers of ginsenoside Rh2, 20(S)-Rh2 and 20(R)-Rh2, possess skin anti-photoaging effects but possibly in different fashions. PMID:25116621

  16. Ginsenoside rb1 modulates level of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice frontal cortex and cerebellum in response to immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hee; Hur, Jinyoung; Lee, Eunjoo H; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2012-09-01

    Cerebral monoamines play important roles as neurotransmitters that are associated with various stressful stimuli. Some components such as ginsenosides (triterpenoidal glycosides derived from the Ginseng Radix) may interact with monoamine systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether ginsenoside Rb1 can modulate levels of the monoamines such as dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EP), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 5-hydorxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in mice frontal cortex and cerebellum in response to immobilization stress. Mice were treated with ginsenoside Rb1 (10 mg/kg, oral) before a single 30 min immobilization stress. Acute immobilization stress resulted in elevation of monoamine levels in frontal cortex and cerebellum. Pretreatment with ginsenoside Rb1 attenuated the stress-induced changes in the levels of monoamines in each region. The present findings showed the anti-stress potential of ginsenoside Rb1 in relation to regulation effects on the cerebral monoaminergic systems. Therefore, the ginsenoside Rb1 may be a useful candidate for treating several brain symptoms related with stress. PMID:24009838

  17. Microbial conversion of ginsenoside Rd from Rb1 by the fungus mutant Aspergillus niger strain TH-10a.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Xu, Chunchun; Li, Zhuo; Li, Jing; Dai, Yulin; Han, Hongxiang; Yu, Shanshan; Liu, Shuying

    2016-05-18

    Ginsenoside Rd, one of the ginsenosides with significant pharmaceutical activities, is getting more and more attractions on its biotransformation. In this study, a novel fungus mutant, the Aspergillus niger strain TH-10a, which can efficiently convert ginsenoside Rd from Rb1, was obtained through screening survival library of LiCl and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The transformation product ginsenoside Rd, generated by removing the outer glucose residue from the position C20 of ginsenoside Rb1, was identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Factors for the microbial culture and biotransformation were investigated in terms of the carbon sources, the nitrogen sources, pH values, and temperatures. This showed that maximum mycelia growth could be obtained at 28°C and pH 6.0 with cellobiose and tryptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source, respectively. The highest transformation rate (∼86%) has been achieved at 32°C and pH 5.0 with the feeding time of substrate 48 hr. Also, Aspergillus niger strain TH-10a could tolerate even 40 mg/mL ginseng root extract as substrate with 60% bioconversion rate after 72 hr of treatment at the optimal condition. Our results highlight a novel ginsenoside Rd transformation fungus and illuminate its potentially practical application in the pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25831478

  18. Genomic expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis on diabetic nephrology with ginsenoside Rg3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Cui, Chunli; Fu, Li; Xiao, Zili; Xie, Nanzi; Liu, Yang; Yu, Lu; Wang, Haifeng; Luo, Bangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a common diabetes-related complication, is the leading cause of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. Despite the rapid development in the treatment of DN, currently available therapies used in early DN cannot prevent progressive CKD. The exact pathogenic mechanisms and the molecular events underlying DN development remain unclear. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a herbal medicine with numerous pharmacological effects. To gain a greater understanding of the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway underlying the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 in DN therapy, an RNA sequencing approach was performed to screen differential gene expression in a rat model of DN treated with ginsenoside Rg3. A combined bioinformatics analysis was then conducted to obtain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disease development, in order to identify potential novel targets for the treatment of DN. Six Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Normal control group, DN group and ginsenoside-Rg3 treatment group, with two rats in each group. RNA sequencing was adopted for transcriptome profiling of cells from the renal cortex of DN rat model. Differentially expressed genes were screened out. Cluster analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were used to analyze the differentially expressed genes. In total, 78 differentially expressed genes in the DN control group were identified when compared with the normal control group, of which 52 genes were upregulated and 26 genes were downregulated. Differential expression of 43 genes was observed in the ginsenoside-Rg3 treatment group when compared with the DN control group, consisting of 10 upregulated genes and 33 downregulated genes. Notably, 21 that were downregulated in the DN control group compared with the control were then shown to be upregulated in the ginsenoside-Rg3 treatment group compared with the DN

  19. Simultaneous enantiomer determination of 20 (R)- and 20 (S)-ginsenoside-Rg2 in rat plasma after intravenous administration using HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Gui, Fang-Jin; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Li, Long-Yun; Tian, Jian-Ming

    2007-05-01

    20 (R,S)-Ginsenoside-Rg2, an anti-shock agent, is prescribed as a racemate. To analyze simultaneously the enantiomers of 20 (R)-ginsenoside-Rg2 and 20 (S)-ginsenoside-Rg2 in plasma, a simple and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed. The enantiomeric separation and determination were successfully achieved using a Diamonsil ODS C18 reversed-phase column (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm) with an RP18 (5 microm) guard column and a mobile phase of MeOH-aq. 4% H3PO4 (65:35, v/v, pH 5.1) with UV detection at 203 nm. Both enantiomers, 20 (R)-ginsenoside-Rg2 and 20 (S)-ginsenoside-Rg2, were well separated at 14.5 min and 13.6 min, respectively. The linear ranges of the standard curves were 2.0-250 microg/ml. The intra- and inter-day precision (R.S.D.) were ginsenoside-Rg2 and 20 (S)-ginsenoside-Rg2 in rat plasma, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 2.0 microg/ml and 7.8 microg/ml (S/N=3:1) for 20 (R)-ginsenoside-Rg2, and 2.0 microg/ml and 3.9 microg/ml (S/N=3:1) for 20 (S)-ginsenoside-Rg2, respectively. This validated method was applicable to pharmacokinetic studies in rat plasma after intravenous administration of 20 (R,S)-ginsenoside-Rg2. A pharmacokinetic study in rat plasma indicated that the enantiomers were rapidly absorbed and eliminated. These assay results are necessary for the evaluation of the metabolism of ginsenoside-Rg2 in vivo. PMID:17113840

  20. Ginsenoside Rg3 regulates S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via suppression of iNOS

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Choi, Song; Lee, Jin-Bong; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Tae-Don; Yoon, Suk Ran; Choi, Inpyo; Shim, Sungbo; Park, Young-Jun

    2015-08-07

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a specific biological effector, is well-known as a major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng. However, its role in the inflammasome activation process remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 are capable of suppressing both lethal endotoxic shock and the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the reducing effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on nitric oxide led to an increase in the survival time of mice after lethal endotoxin-induced shock, and excess levels of NO inhibited IL-1β production via the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 had suppressive effects on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in macrophage and HaCaT cells and thereby prevented apoptosis of spleen cells in mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ginsenoside 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, a naturally occurring compound, might act as a dual therapeutic regulator for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases. - Highlights: • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits NO production through the regulation of iNOS expression. • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. • Ginsenosides Rg3 suppress on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced ROS levels in cells.

  1. Production of bioactive ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3 by metabolically engineered yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingping; Wei, Yongjun; Fan, Yun; Liu, Qunfang; Wei, Wei; Yang, Chengshuai; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Guoping; Yue, Jianmin; Yan, Xing; Zhou, Zhihua

    2015-05-01

    Ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3 represent promising candidates for cancer prevention and therapy and have low toxicity. However, the concentrations of Rh2 and Rg3 are extremely low in the bioactive constituents (triterpene saponins) of ginseng. Despite the available heterologous biosynthesis of their aglycone (protopanaxadiol, PPD) in yeast, production of Rh2 and Rg3 by a synthetic biology approach was hindered by the absence of bioparts to glucosylate the C3 hydroxyl of PPD. In this study, two UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were cloned and identified from Panax ginseng. UGTPg45 selectively transfers a glucose moiety to the C3 hydroxyl of PPD and its ginsenosides. UGTPg29 selectively transfers a glucose moiety to the C3 glucose of Rh2 to form a 1-2-glycosidic bond. Based on the two UGTs and a yeast chassis to produce PPD, yeast cell factories were built to produce Rh2 and/or Rg3 from glucose. The turnover number (kcat) of UGTPg29 was more than 2500-fold that of UGTPg45, which might explain the higher Rg3 yield than that of Rh2 in the yeast cell factories. Building yeast cell factories to produce Rh2 or Rg3 from simple sugars by microbial fermentation provides an alternative approach to replace the traditional method of extracting ginsenosides from Panax plants. PMID:25769286

  2. Improved production of ginsenosides in suspension cultures of ginseng by medium replenishment strategy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Seung; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the accumulation of ginsenosides by the adventitious root cultures of ginseng, which are important secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. The adventitious roots were cultured in bioreactors for 50 d using 1.5-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 10 mg/l indole acetic acid and 75 g/l sucrose. Kinetic studies of the nutrient composition of the spent medium revealed the gradual depletion of various inorganic nutrients and sugars. Cultures were supplied with fresh nutrient medium (medium exchange or replenishment with 0.75- and 1.0-strength MS medium) after 10 and 20 d of culture initiation to fulfill the nutritional requirements of adventitious roots. Medium replenishment strategy (with 1.0-strength MS medium after 20 d of culture) significantly improved the growth of adventitious roots and the biosynthesis of ginsenosides by the adventitious roots. This work is useful for the large-scale cultivation of adventitious roots for the production of ginsenosides. PMID:18397781

  3. Stereoselective skin anti-photoaging properties of ginsenoside Rg3 in UV-B-irradiated keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chang-Jin; Choi, Woo-Yong; Jung, Hyun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides are major bioactive constituents that are responsible for the diverse pharmacological activities of ginseng. This work aimed to assess the skin anti-photoaging activities of the two stereoisomeric forms of ginsenoside Rg3, 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3. When the two Rg3 stereoisomers were added to cultured human keratinocyte HaCaT cells prior to irradiation with 70 mJ/cm(2) UV-B, 20(S)-Rg3, but not 20(R)-Rg3, decreased the UV-B-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in a concentration-dependent manner, as detected by both fluorometric and confocal microscopic analyses. Likewise, 20(S)-Rg3, but not 20(R)-Rg3, decreased the UV-B-induced ROS levels in human dermal fibroblast cells. Both stereoisomers were unable to modulate the nitric oxide levels in HaCaT cells under UV-B irradiation, and induced no cytotoxicity in cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts. 20(S)-Rg3 suppressed the UV-B-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activities in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results indicate that 20(S)-Rg3 possesses both ROS-scavenging and MMP-2 inhibitory activities, while 20(R)-Rg3 possesses neither activity. These findings imply that ginsenoside Rg3 stereoselectively demonstrates skin anti-photoaging activities. PMID:25056231

  4. Whole-Cell Biocatalysis for Producing Ginsenoside Rd from Rb1 Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    Ku, Seockmo; You, Hyun Ju; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-07-28

    Ginsenosides are the major active ingredients in ginseng used for human therapeutic plant medicines. One of the most well-known probiotic bacteria among the various strains on the functional food market is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Biocatalytic methods using probiotic enzymes for producing deglycosylated ginsenosides such as Rd have a growing significance in the functional food industry. The addition of 2% cellobiose (w/v) to glucose-free de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broths notably induced β-glucosidase production from L. rhamnosus GG. Enzyme production and activity were optimized at a pH, temperature, and cellobiose concentration of 6.0, 40°C, and 2% (w/v), respectively. Under these controlled conditions, β-glucosidase production in L. rhamnosus GG was enhanced by 25-fold. Additionally, whole-cell homogenates showed the highest β-glucosidase activity when compared with disrupted cell suspensions; the cell disruption step significantly decreased the β-glucosidase activity. Based on the optimized enzyme conditions, whole-cell L. rhamnosus GG was successfully used to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into Rd. PMID:27012233

  5. Involvement of Connexin40 in the Protective Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 Against Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Guo, Yijun; Yang, Wenjin; Zheng, Ping; Zeng, Jinsong; Tong, Wusong

    2016-10-01

    Ginsenosides are the major active components of ginseng, which have been proven to be effective in therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GS-Rb1) is the most abundant among all the identified ginsenosides and has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions, which are important for diffusion of cytosolic factors such as ions and second messenger signaling molecules. Previous studies have shown that a subset of connexin proteins is involved in neuroprotection. We investigated the protective effects of GS-Rb1 against traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the potential mechanism using TBI mouse model. We discovered that TBI-induced brain injury and up-regulation of connexin40 (Cx40) protein expression as early as 6 h post-TBI, which was reversed by administration of GS-Rb1. In addition, we found that the protective effects of GS-Rb1 are dose and time dependent and are partially mediated through phosphorylation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway, as evidenced by the abolishment of GS-Rb1-mediated elevation of p-ERK1/2 expression and inhibition of Cx40 expressions when ERK inhibitor U0126 was used. Our study provides evidence that Cx40 is implicated in TBI-induced brain injuries, and GS-Rb1 exerts neuroprotective activity against TBI involving down-regulation of Cx40 expression. PMID:26645822

  6. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung . E-mail: yoon60@mokwon.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.

  7. Effect of white, red and black ginseng on physicochemical properties and ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Jeon, Ji-Na; Wang, Chao; Min, Jin-Woo; Noh, Hae-Yong; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-06-01

    A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), red ginseng (RG) and black ginseng (BG) was performed. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties by steaming process. During the steaming process, ginsenosides transform into specific ginsenosides by hydrolysis, dehydration and isomerization at C-3, C-6 or C-20. Steaming ginseng led to a significant increase in reducing sugar, acidic polysaccharide and phenolic compounds content. Antioxidative properties were investigated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, compared with BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole). RG and BG exhibited higher antioxidant activity than WG. The maximum residue level for Benzo(a)pyrene was established to 5 μg/kg in food products. The levels of benzo(a)pyrene in WG and RG were not detected. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in the BG, the content was 0.17 μg/kg. The scientific achievements of the present study could help consumers to choose different type of ginseng products available on the market. PMID:25778283

  8. Based on SERS conformational studies of ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites before and after combined with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yingping; Bai, Xueyuan; Zhao, Bing

    2015-02-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to probe the interaction of the pharmaceutical and natural product molecules, ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Rg3 and compound K (CK), with human serum albumin (HSA). Normal Raman spectra of these four ginsenosides were obtained from solid powder on glass slide. Based on the unsplit peak at 1445 cm-1, the stacking modes of ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Rg3 and CK were quite similar, when the deconvolution of alkyl chain was not occurred. SERS spectra of ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Rg3 and CK were obtained from a colloidal silver surface on a self-assembled SERS substrate, the most enhanced modes were those with certain motions perpendicular to the metal surface, such as C24dbnd C25 stretch and Csbnd H out-of-plane bending from alkyl chain. The SERS spectra were used to predict similar perpendicular orientation of flexible alkyl chain and parallel orientation of carbocyclic rings on Ag colloid particles. Therefore, when combined with HSA, the transformations of four ginsenosides still exhibit similar, although in different binding cavities in subdomain IIA and IIIA by making the methyls at C26 and C27 perpendicular plugging into the hydrophobic site of HSA, while the aglycone and glucose nearby are perpendicularly exposed outside to fit other suitable active targeting sites.

  9. Isolation, Purification and Quantification of Ginsenoside F₅ and F₃ Isomeric Compounds from Crude Extracts of Flower Buds of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke-Ke; Xu, Fei; Gong, Xiao-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the isolation, purification and quantification of ginsenoside F₅ and F₃ isomeric compounds from crude extracts of flower buds of Panax ginseng (CEFBPG) was investigated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for the first time. The satisfied separation at analytical scale was achieved using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C-18 column with a ternary mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-phosphoric acid (28:71:1) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min within 40 min. UV detection was set at 203 nm. Ginsenoside F₅ and F₃ was 4.21 mg and 5.13 mg in 1 g flower buds of P. ginseng (FBPG), respectively. The preparation of ginsenoside F₅ and F₃ at semi-preparative scale was performed by using a Daisogel C-18 column and gradient elution system of acetonitrile-water (32:68 → 28:72) at a flow rate of 10 mL/min with a sample load of 20-30 mg, and yielded ginsenosides in purity of more than 96%. Their structures were characterized by NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). All the method validations showed acceptable limits. The results indicate a new source to obtain ginsenoside F₅ and F₃, and show that the method developed here appears to be reliable for simultaneously preparing them from CEFBPG. PMID:27005606

  10. Suppression of Hepatic Cyp1a2 by Total Ginsenosides in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice and Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Yan, Yijing; Xu, Chenshu; Wan, Hongxia; Liu, Dong

    2016-03-23

    The roots of Panax ginseng (ginseng) have been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, herb-drug interactions between ginseng and other co-administered drugs are not fully understood concerning the effect of ginseng on drug metabolism and clearance. The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of total ginsenosides, a typical ginseng extract, on the regulation of Cyp1a2, a key enzyme to regulate drug metabolism under the normal and inflammatory conditions in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice treated with vehicle and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were intragastrically administered ginseng extract for 7 days before hepatic P450 expression was analyzed. Primary mouse hepatocytes were also employed to further explore the effects of total ginsenosides on Cyp1a2 expression. The results showed that total ginsenosides in P. ginseng extract exhibited a concentration-dependent suppression on Cyp1a2 mRNA and protein level in both mice and primary mouse hepatocytes. Notably, the inhibitory effects of total ginsenosides on Cyp1a2 mRNA and protein expression were further enhanced following LPS treatment. Therefore, future research is warranted to investigate the role of ginsenosides in the regulation of hepatic CYP450s. Moreover, consumption of ginseng as food or supplement should be monitored for patients on combinational therapy, especially those with inflammatory diseases. PMID:26923348

  11. Simultaneous analysis method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng by reversed-phase HPLC-PAD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sa-Im; Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2012-02-23

    The paper describes the development of a simultaneous determination method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection method. This method could be applied directly without any pretreatment steps and enabled the performance of highly sensitive analysis within 1h. The detection (S/N=3) and quantification (S/N=10) limits for the ginsenosides ranged 0.02-0.10 ng and 0.1-0.3 ng, respectively. The linear regression coefficients ranged 0.9975-0.9998. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <9.91%. The mean recoveries ranged 98.08-103.06%. The total amount of ginsenosides in the hairy root of red ginseng was higher than that in the main root. PMID:22119615

  12. Systematic development of a group quantification method using evaporative light scattering detector for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gwang Jin; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Ahn, Jongsung; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-09-01

    The determination for the contents of multi-components in ginseng products has come to the fore by demands of in-depth information, but the associated industries confront the high cost of securing pure standards for the continuous quality evaluation of the products. This study aimed to develop a prospective high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method for relative quantification of ginsenosides in ginseng products without a considerable change from the conventional gradient analysis. We investigated the effects of mobile phase composition and elution bandwidth, which are potential variables affecting the ELSD response in the gradient analysis. Similar ELSD response curves of nine major ginsenosides were obtained under the identical flow injection conditions, and the response increased as the percentage of organic solvent increased. The nine ginsenosides were divided into three groups to confirm the effect of elution bandwidth. The ELSD response significantly decreased in case of the late eluted ginsenoside in the individual groups under the isocratic conditions. With the consideration of the two important effects, stepwise changes of the gradient condition were carried out to reach a group quantification method. The inconsistent responses of the nine ginsenosides were reconstituted to three normalized responses by the stepwise changes of the gradient condition, and this result actualized relative quantification in the individual groups. The availability was confirmed by comparing the ginsenoside contents in a base material of ginseng products determined by the direct and group quantification method. The largest difference in the determination results from the two methods was 8.26%, and the difference of total contents was only 0.91%. PMID:27262109

  13. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine on angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin extracted from ginseng, inhibits angiogenesis. The combination of low-dose chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic inhibitors suppresses growth of experimental tumors more effectively than conventional therapy or anti-angiogenic agent alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose gemcitabine combined with ginsenoside Rg3 on angiogenesis and growth of established Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Methods C57L/6 mice implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma were randomized into the control, ginsenoside Rg3, gemcitabine and combination group. The quality of life and survival of mice were recorded. Tumor volume, inhibitive rate and necrosis rate were estimated. Necrosis of tumor and signals of blood flow as well as dynamic parameters of arterial blood flow in tumors such as peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) were detected by color Doppler ultrasound. In addition, expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were observed by immunohistochemstry, and microvessel density (MVD) of the tumor tissues was assessed by CD31 immunohistochemical analysis. Results Quality of life of mice in the ginsenoside Rg3 and combination group were better than in the control and gemcitabine group. Combined therapy with ginsenoside Rg3 and gemcitabine not only enhanced efficacy on suppression of tumor growth and prolongation of the survival, but also increased necrosis rate of tumor significantly. In addition, the combination treatment could obviously decrease VEGF expression and MVD as well as signals of blood flow and PSV in tumors. Conclusion Ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine may significantly inhibit angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer and improve survival and quality of life of tumor-bearing mice. The combination of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs may be an innovative and promising therapeutic strategy in the experimental treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:19624862

  14. Determination of 10 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng of different harvest times based on HPLC fingerprints and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengqin; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2013-01-01

    A combinative method of HPLC fingerprinting and quantitative determination was successfully applied to monitor dynamic accumulation of ginsenosides in five-year-old Panax ginseng roots from different harvest times. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 1 mmol · L(-1) KH2PO4 buffer solution at 203 nm. The result indicated that the contents of total ginsenosides showed significant variations, and a decrease tendency appeared in the growth period of the fifth year. PMID:22871218

  15. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Son, Keum-joo; Choi, Ki ryung; Lee, Seog Jae

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT+ CD11c+ cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy. PMID:26937234

  16. Ginsenoside-Rb2 displays anti-osteoporosis effects through reducing oxidative damage and bone-resorbing cytokines during osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Jie, Qiang; Wei, Bo-Yuan; Fan, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Zhang, Jin-Kang; Li, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Jun; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Yang, Liu; Liu, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a significant pathogenic factor of osteoporosis. Ginsenoside-Rb2 (Rb2), a 20(S)-protopanaxadiol glycoside extracted from ginseng, is a potent antioxidant that generates interest regarding the bone metabolism area. We tested the potential anti-osteoporosis effects of Rb2 and its underlying mechanism in this study. We produced an oxidative damage model induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells to test the essential anti-osteoporosis effects of Rb2in vitro. The results indicated that treatment of 0.1 to 10μM Rb2 promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, improved alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression, elevated calcium mineralization and mRNA expressions of Alp, Col1a1, osteocalcin (Ocn) and osteopontin (Opn) against oxidative damage induced by H2O2. Importantly, Rb2 reduced the expression levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and IL-6 and inhibited the H2O2-induced production of ROS. The in vivo study indicated that the Rb2 administered for 12weeks partially decreased blood malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and elevated the activity of reduced glutathione (GSH) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Moreover, Rb2 improved the micro-architecture of trabecular bones and increased bone mineral density (BMD) of the 4th lumbar vertebrae (L4) and the distal femur. Altogether, these results demonstrated that the potential anti-osteoporosis effects of Rb2 were linked to a reduction of oxidative damage and bone-resorbing cytokines, which suggests that Rb2 might be effective in preventing and alleviating osteoporosis. PMID:24933344

  17. Ginsenoside Rp1 Exerts Anti-inflammatory Effects via Activation of Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jingyu; Koo, Jihye; Kim, Soochan; Park, Tae-Yoon; Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2012-10-01

    Ginsenoside Rp1 (G-Rp1) is a saponin derivate that provides anti-metastatic activities through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In this study, we examined the effects of G-Rp1 on regulatory T cell (Treg) activation. After treatment of splenocytes with G-Rp1, Tregs exhibited upregulation of IL-10 expression, and along with dendritic cells (DCs), these Tregs showed increased cell number compared to other cell populations. The effect of G-Rp1 on Treg number was augmented in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics pathological changes that occur during inflammation. However, depletion of DCs prevented the increase in Treg number in the presence of G-Rp1 and/or LPS. In addition, G-Rp1 promoted the differentiation of the memory types of CD4(+)Foxp3(+)CD62L(low) Tregs rather than the generation of new Tregs. In vivo experiments also demonstrated that Tregs and DCs from mice that were fed G-Rp1 for 7 d and then injected with LPS exhibited increased activation compared with those from mice that were injected with LPS alone. Expression of TGF-β and CTLA4 in Tregs was increased, and upregulation of IL-2 and CD80/ CD86 expression by DCs affected the suppressive function of Tregs through IL-2 receptors and CTLA4. These data demonstrate that G-Rp1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by activating Tregs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23717139

  18. Ginsenosides Rg3 attenuates glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis through regulating BMP-2/BMPR1A/Runx2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaonan; Chen, Kang; Wei, Bo; Liu, Xingwang; Lei, Zeming; Bai, Xizhuang

    2016-08-25

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the primary cause of secondary osteoporosis and the existing therapeutic strategies are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ginsenosides (GS) Rg3 on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced osteoporosis in vivo and in vitro. GIOP rat was established by DEX injection for 5 weeks and treated by GS Rg3 10 or 20 mg/kg. Body weight and bone mineral density (BMD) of rats were measured at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Histological changes of femurs were observed using HE staining. The in vitro model was established on primary osteoblasts induced by DEX. CCK-8 assay was used to test the cell viability. Bone metabolism markers in serum or primary osteoblasts were detected using biochemical kits. Real time PCR and western blot were used to measure nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), BMP receptor 1A (BMPR1A) and Runx2 expression. The results demonstrated that GS Rg3 prevented DEX-induced body weight and BMD reduction, enhanced secretion of bone formation markers and decreased bone resorption markers. In addition, GS Rg3 was found to prevent the suppression of BMP-2/BMPR1A/Runx2 signals induced by DEX both in GIOP rats and primary osteoblasts. Inhibition of BMP-2 by noggin completely blocked the bone-alkaline phosphatase-secretion-promoted effect of GS Rg3 in vitro. These data suggest that GS Rg3 attenuates GIOP through regulating BMP-2 signaling pathway. This study provides a potential drug candidate for GIOP therapy. PMID:27387537

  19. Suppression of MAPKs/NF-κB Activation Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Action of Ginsenoside Rf in HT-29 and RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungeun; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Aceituno, Veronica Castro; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the intestinal anti-inflammatory action of ginsenoside Rf in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the intestinal tract. It is associated with elevated levels of various inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ginsenosides, the main active constituents of ginseng, have been reported to exert potent therapeutic effects against diverse diseases. However, ginsenoside Rf treatment for inflammation has not yet been examined. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rf on the inflammatory mediators downstream of p38/NF-kB activation on TNF-α-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) and mouse macrophage cells (RAW264.7). Our results showed that ginsenoside Rf significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, and ROS, which are most highly activated in IBD. In addition, ginsenoside Rf significantly suppressed TNF-α/LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rf contains a compound that has potent intestinal anti-inflammatory effects that could be used to treat diseases such as IBD. PMID:27224660

  20. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg2 against H2O2-induced injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wenwen; Sui, Dayun; Yu, Xiaofeng; Gou, Dongxia; Zhou, Yifa; Xu, Huali

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg2 is one of the major active components of ginseng and has many biological activities. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg2 against H2O2-induced injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. The results showed that pretreatment with ginsenoside Rg2 not only increased cell viability, but also decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibited the decrease of SOD, GSH-PX activities and the increase of MDA content induced by H2O2. Meanwhile, the levels of ROS generation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in ginsenoside Rg2 group significantly reduced when compared with the model group. Western blot analyses demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg2 up-regulate level of Bcl-2 expression and down-regulate levels of Bax, Caspase-3, -9 expression. These findings indicated that ginsenoside Rg2 could protect H9c2 cells against H2O2-induced injury through its actions of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis. PMID:26884906

  1. Influence of sulphur-fumigation on the quality of white ginseng: a quantitative evaluation of major ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang; Yan, Ru

    2012-12-01

    White ginseng was reported to be sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling. In the present study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on the quality of white ginseng and its decoction were quantitatively evaluated through simultaneous quantification of 14 major ginsenosides by a validated high performance liquid chromatography. Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (100mm×3.0mm, 2.7μm) column was chosen for the separation of the major ginsenosides, which were eluted with gradient water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The analytes were monitored by UV at 203nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability. The sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated white ginseng samples, as well as their respective decoctions, were comparatively analysed with the newly-validated method. It was found that the contents of nine ginsenosides detected in raw materials decreased by about 3-85%, respectively, and the total content of the nine ginsenosides detected in raw materials, decreased by almost 54% after sulphur-fumigation. On the other hand, the contents of 10 ginsenosides detected in decoctions of sulphur-fumigated white ginseng were decreased by about 33-83%, respectively, and the total content of ginsenosides was decreased by up to 64% when compared with that of non-fumigated white ginseng. In addition, ginsenoside Rh(2) and Rg(5) could be detected in the decoctions of sulphur-fumigated white ginseng but not in that of non-fumigated white ginseng. It is suggested that sulphur-fumigation can significantly influence not only the contents of original ginsenosides, but also the decocting-induced chemical transformation of ginsenosides in white ginseng. PMID:22953836

  2. Homolog-focused profiling of ginsenosides based on the integration of step-wise formate anion-to-deprotonated ion transition screening and scheduled multiple reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuelin; Zhang, Na; Shi, Shepo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Yunfang; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-08-01

    Homolog-focused profiling is a favored option to bridge targeted metabolomics toward non-targeted metabolomics. In current study, an attempt was made for the large-scale ginsenoside-specific analysis in ginseng (G) and American ginseng (AG). When formic acid (0.1%, v/v) was introduced as the mobile phase additive, formate anion-to-deprotonated ion transitions ([M+HCOO](-)>[M-H](-)) with an optimal collision energy (-32eV) could result in satisfactory responses for ginsenosides. Therefore, a step-wise multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based method employing [M+HCOO](-)>[M-H](-) ion pairs was constructed to screen ginsenosides among 501-1250u (for Q1) with a step-size of 2u, and MRM also served as a survey experiment to trigger enhanced product ion scans for MS(2) spectrum acquisition on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer; then, the identification of those observed ginsenosides was achieved on the basis of the well-defined mass cracking patterns for ginsenosides; afterwards, scheduled MRM was introduced for large-scale relatively quantitative analysis of all detected ginsenosides. Finally, comparative metabolomics were performed to differentiate G, AG, and their processed products. Method validation was carried out using thirteen authentic compounds. A total of 221 ginsenosides, among which 185 ones were annotated, were observed and relatively quantitated. All crude materials were obviously classified into groups I-III. Above all, the MRM-based homolog-focused profiling of ginsenosides could be used as a reliable tool to gain an in-depth view for ginsenoside-enriched herbal products. PMID:26105782

  3. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. PMID:24853104

  4. In Vivo Biodistribution, PET Imaging, and Tumor Accumulation of 86Y- and 111In-Antimindin/RG-1, Engineered Antibody Fragments in LNCaP Tumor–Bearing Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Douglas W.; Heitner, Tara; Alicke, Bruno; Light, David R.; McLean, Kirk; Satozawa, Noboru; Parry, Gordon; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Lewis, Jason S.; Parry, Renate

    2016-01-01

    To optimize in vivo tissue uptake kinetics and clearance of engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragments for radiotherapeutic and radiodiagnostic applications, we compared the biodistribution and tumor localization of four 111In- and 86Y-labeled antibody formats, derived from a single antimindin/RG-1 mAb, in a prostate tumor model. The IgG, diabody, single-chain variable domain (scFv), and novel miniantibody formats, composed of the human IgE-CH4 and a modified IgG1 hinge linked to scFv domains, were compared. Methods Antibodies were first derivatized with the bifunctional chelator CHX-A″-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and then bound to the radiometal to create radiolabeled immunoconjugates. Human LNCaP xenografts were grown in nude mice, and 111In- or 86Y-labeled antibodies were administered intravenously. Tissues were harvested at different times, and the level of antibody deposition was determined by measuring radioactivity. Whole-body small-animal PET of mice receiving 86Y-labeled antibodies was performed at 6 time points and colocalized with simultaneous micro-CT imaging. Results The biodistributions of 111In and 86Y antibodies were quite similar. The blood, tumor, kidney, and liver tissues contained varying levels of radioactivity. The antibody accumulation in the tumor correlated with molecular size. The IgG steadily increased with time to 24.1 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 48 h. The miniantibody accumulated at a similar rate to reach a lower level (14.2 %ID/g) at 48 h but with a higher tumor-to-blood ratio than the IgG. Tumor accumulation of the diabody peaked at 3 h, reaching a much lower level (3.7 %ID/g). A combination of rapid clearance and lower relative affinity of the scFv precluded deposition in the tumor. Small-animal PET results correlated well with the biodistribution results, with similar tumor localization patterns. Conclusion The larger antibody formats (IgG and miniantibody) gave higher tumor uptake levels than did the

  5. Metabolomic investigation of the anti-platelet aggregation activity of ginsenoside Rk₁ reveals attenuated 12-HETE production.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Lee, Jin Gyun; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, So-Jung; Lee, Chang Hoon; Park, Jeong Hill; Kwon, Sung Won

    2012-10-01

    Comprehensive metabolomics analysis is an effective method of measuring metabolite levels in the body following administration of a pharmaceutical compound and can allow for monitoring of the effects of the compound or assessment of appropriate treatment options for individual patients. In the present metabolomics study, samples pretreated with antiplatelet compounds were extracted and subjected to ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The acquired data were processed using peak clustering and evaluated by partial least-squares (PLS) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses (OPLS-DA). As a result, meaningful endogenous metabolites, namely eicosanoids and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), were identified. TXB(2), a key element in platelet aggregation, was decreased upon ginsenoside Rk(1) treatment via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. One of the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), was decreased significantly in the ginsenoside Rk(1)-treated platelets compared to the AA-induced group. In the mechanism study of ginsenoside Rk(1), a strong linkage to intracellular calcium levels, which induce platelet activation, was found. Additionally, the translocation of 12-LOX from cytosol to membrane, which is related with the intracellular calcium levels, was determined. Therefore, a decreased 12-HETE level induced by ginsenoside Rk(1) on antiplatelet aggregation is related to 12-LOX translocation resulting from decreased Ca(2+) levels. This study shows that global metabolomic analysis has potential for use in understanding the biological behavior of antiplatelet drugs. PMID:22873173

  6. Ginsenoside Rg3 regulates S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via suppression of iNOS.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Choi, Song; Lee, Jin-Bong; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Tae-Don; Yoon, Suk Ran; Choi, Inpyo; Shim, Sungbo; Park, Young-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a specific biological effector, is well-known as a major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng. However, its role in the inflammasome activation process remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 are capable of suppressing both lethal endotoxic shock and the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the reducing effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on nitric oxide led to an increase in the survival time of mice after lethal endotoxin-induced shock, and excess levels of NO inhibited IL-1β production via the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 had suppressive effects on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in macrophage and HaCaT cells and thereby prevented apoptosis of spleen cells in mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ginsenoside 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, a naturally occurring compound, might act as a dual therapeutic regulator for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26086107

  7. Effects of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are saponins derived from sterols. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model for biochemical and genetic studies in animals. Although cholesterol is an essential requirement for the growth and development of C. ...

  8. [Study on the Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on DPPC Bilayers by Using Thermo-Raman Spectrum and DSC].

    PubMed

    Hui, Ge; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jing-zhou; Zhou, Tie-li; Wang, Si-ming; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bing

    2015-08-01

    The research on the interactions between Ginsenosides and biomembranes plays a crucial role in thorough understanding the pharmacological activity and biologyical effect of Chinese medicine Panax ginseng. With the bilayer structure, DPPC often serves as an simulation model of the cell membrane to study the role of drug molecules and cell membranes. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most important components of Panaxginseng, playing the significant roles of pharmacological effects and biological properties. Raman and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are respectively a powerful tool for discussing the molecular interaction, and a kind of general technology by which researching the bilayer monomer structures and its interactions with drug molecules. However, rarely research reports on the interactions between drug molecules and biomembranes by means of both technologies above. In this paper, the influence of ginsenoside monomer Rb1 on DPPC membrane bilayers was investigated by thermo-Raman and DSC. In Raman spectra, the changes of DPPC molecule have been observed before and after interacted with ginsenoside Rb1, the data analysis indicates three aspects: the O-C-C-N+ polar head group skeleton, C-C stretching vibration area, and the C-H bond stretching vibrarion in terminated methyl group of alkyl chains. The results showed that ginsenoside Rb1 molecule with certain concentration has not changed the gauche conformation of the polar head backbone group in DPPC bilayers, the order of the internal molecular chain and the lateral chain-chain packing have been decreased as the temperature increased, the lateral disposed disorder has been increased. The changes of some thermodynamic constants obtained by DSC experiment such as phase transition temperature (Tm), the temperature at which the transition is half completed (ΔT1/2), and the transition enthalpy normalized per mol of DPPC (AH) have been showed further results of the thermo Raman experiments, with increasing the

  9. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 esters using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Lee, Jeung-Hee; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shin, Jung-Ah; Adhikari, Prakash; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2008-11-26

    In the lipase (Novozyme 435)-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 esters, different acyl donors were found to affect not only the degree of conversion but also the regioselectivity. The reaction of acyl donors with short carbon chain was more effective, showing higher conversion than those with long carbon chain. Among the three solvent systems, the reaction in tert-amyl alcohol showed the highest conversion rate, while the reaction in the mixed solvent of t-BuOH and pyridine (1:1) had the lowest conversion rate. To allow the increase of GRb1 lipophilicity, we decided to further study the optimal condition of synthesis of GRb1 with vinyl decanoate with 10 carbon chain fatty acids in tert-amyl alcohol. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the synthesis condition. From the ridge analysis with maximum responses, the maximum GRb1 conversion was predicted to be 61.51% in a combination of factors (40.2 h, 52.95 degrees C, substrate mole ratio 275.57, and enzyme amount 39.81 mg/mL). Further, the adequacy of the predicted model was examined by additional independent experiments at the predicted maximum synthesis conditions. Results showed that the RSM was effective to optimize a combination of factors for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 with vinyl decanoate. PMID:18983161

  10. Ginsenoside Rb1: the anti-ulcer constituent from the head of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Choon Sik; Hyun, Jin Ee; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2003-11-01

    We previously reported that the butanol (BuOH) fraction of the head of Panax ginseng exhibited gastroprotective activity in peptic and chronic ulcer models. In order to identify the active constituent, an activity-guided isolation of the BuOH faction was conducted with a HCl x ethanol-induced gastric lesion model. The BuOH fraction was passed through a silica-gel column using a chloroform-methanol gradient solvent system, and six fractions (frs. 1-6) were obtained. The active fr. 5 was further separated by silica-gel column, to yield 6 subfractions (subfrs. a-f). Subfr. d was composed of ginsenosides Re, Rc and Rb1. The most active constituent was ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a protopanaxadiol glycoside, which was investigated for its anti-ulcer effect. Gastric injury induced by HCl x ethanol, indomethacin and pyloric ligation (Shay ulcer) was apparently reduced with oral GRb1 doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg. GRb1 at these dosage significantly increased the amount of mucus secretion in an ethanol-induced model. The anti-ulcer effects were consistent with the result of histological examination. These results suggest that the major active constituent in the head of Panax ginseng is GRb1, and that anti-ulcer effect is produced through an increase in mucus secretion. PMID:14661855

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rg5 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Young; Park, Jin-Sun; Jung, Ji-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system. They play a role in normal brain development and neuronal recovery. However, overactivation of microglia causes neuronal death, which is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, controlling microglial activation has been suggested as an important target for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rg5 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells and rat primary microglia. The data showed that Rg5 suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory TNF-α secretion. In addition, Rg5 inhibited the mRNA expressions of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1b, COX-2 and MMP-9 induced by LPS. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Rg5 inhibited the phophorylations of PI3K/Akt and MAPKs and the DNA binding activities of NF-kB and AP-1, which are upstream molecules controlling inflammatory reactions. Moreover, Rg5 suppressed ROS production with upregulation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Overall, microglial inactivation by ginsenoside Rg5 may provide a therapeutic potential for various neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:23698769

  12. The Octyl Ester of Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization via Bax Translocation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Bing; Sun, Yong; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Peng, Han; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential pharmacologically active metabolite of ginseng. Previously, we have reported that an octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O), has been confirmed to possess higher bioavailability and anticancer effect than Rh2 in vitro. In order to better assess the possibility that Rh2-O could be used as an anticancer compound, the underlying mechanism was investigated in this study. The present results revealed that lysosomal destabilization was involved in the early stage of cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by Rh2-O. Rh2-O could induce an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization with the release of lysosomal protease cathepsins to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. The Cat B inhibitor (leu) and Cat D inhibitor (pepA) inhibited Rh2-O-induced HepG2 apoptosis as well as tBid production and Δφm depolarization, indicating that lysosomal permeabilization occurred upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Rh2-O induced a significant increase in the protein levels of DRAM1 and Bax (p < 0.05) in lysosomes of HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Bax partially inhibited Rh2-O-induced Cat D release from lysosomes. Thus it was concluded that Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through activation of the lysosomal-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving the translocation of Bax to the lysosome. PMID:27120618

  13. Anticancer Activities of Protopanaxadiol- and Protopanaxatriol-Type Ginsenosides and Their Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Shui, Yan-Mei; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, most anticancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial, and botanical sources, but the low success rates of chemotherapies and the development of multidrug resistance emphasize the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against cancer. Ginseng types, including Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and notoginseng, have been used traditionally to treat various diseases, due to their immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and antitumor activities. Accumulating reports have shown that ginsenosides, the major active component of ginseng, were helpful for tumor treatment. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PDS) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol saponins (PTS) are two characteristic types of triterpenoid saponins in ginsenosides. PTS holds capacity to interfere with crucial metabolism, while PDS could affect cell cycle distribution and prodeath signaling. This review aims at providing an overview of PTS and PDS, as well as their metabolites, regarding their different anticancer effects with the proposal that these compounds might be potent additions to the current chemotherapeutic strategy against cancer. PMID:27446225

  14. Effects of ginsenosides-Rb1 on exercise-induced oxidative stress in forced swimming mice

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Bo; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Ouyang, Jiangqiong; Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fleshy root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (ginseng) is one of the most well-known and valued herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginsenosides are considered mainly responsible for the pharmacological activities of ginseng. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ginsenoside-Rb1 (G-Rb1) on swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in male mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 animals were randomly divided into four groups, with twelve mice in each group. The first, second and third groups were designed as G-Rb1 treatment groups, got 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg bodyweight of G-Rb1, respectively. The fourth group was designed as the control group, got physiologic saline. The mice were intragastrically administered once daily for 4 weeks. The weight-loaded forced swimming test was conducted on the final day of experimentation. Then the exhaustive swimming time, blood lactate, serum creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes in liver of mice were measured. Results: The results showed that G-Rb1 could prolong the exhaustive swimming time and improve exercise endurance capacity of mice, as well as accelerate the clearance of blood lactate and decrease serum CK activities. Meanwhile, G-Rb1 could decrease MDA contents and increase superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities in liver of mice. Conclusions: The study suggested that G-Rb1 possessed protective effects on swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice. PMID:25422546

  15. The Octyl Ester of Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization via Bax Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Bing; Sun, Yong; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Peng, Han; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential pharmacologically active metabolite of ginseng. Previously, we have reported that an octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O), has been confirmed to possess higher bioavailability and anticancer effect than Rh2 in vitro. In order to better assess the possibility that Rh2-O could be used as an anticancer compound, the underlying mechanism was investigated in this study. The present results revealed that lysosomal destabilization was involved in the early stage of cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by Rh2-O. Rh2-O could induce an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization with the release of lysosomal protease cathepsins to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. The Cat B inhibitor (leu) and Cat D inhibitor (pepA) inhibited Rh2-O-induced HepG2 apoptosis as well as tBid production and Δφm depolarization, indicating that lysosomal permeabilization occurred upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Rh2-O induced a significant increase in the protein levels of DRAM1 and Bax (p < 0.05) in lysosomes of HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Bax partially inhibited Rh2-O-induced Cat D release from lysosomes. Thus it was concluded that Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through activation of the lysosomal-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving the translocation of Bax to the lysosome. PMID:27120618

  16. Rk1, a ginsenoside, is a new blocker of vascular leakage acting through actin structure remodeling.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jeong-Hill; Suk Yu, Young; Kim, Young-Myoung; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial barrier integrity is essential for vascular homeostasis and increased vascular permeability and has been implicated in many pathological processes, including diabetic retinopathy. Here, we investigated the effect of Rk1, a ginsenoside extracted from sun ginseng, on regulation of endothelial barrier function. In human retinal endothelial cells, Rk1 strongly inhibited permeability induced by VEGF, advanced glycation end-product, thrombin, or histamine. Furthermore, Rk1 significantly reduced the vessel leakiness of retina in a diabetic mouse model. This anti-permeability activity of Rk1 is correlated with enhanced stability and positioning of tight junction proteins at the boundary between cells. Signaling experiments revealed that Rk1 induces phosphorylation of myosin light chain and cortactin, which are critical regulators for the formation of the cortical actin ring structure and endothelial barrier. These findings raise the possibility that ginsenoside Rk1 could be exploited as a novel prototype compound for the prevention of human diseases that are characterized by vascular leakage. PMID:23894330

  17. Anticancer Activities of Protopanaxadiol- and Protopanaxatriol-Type Ginsenosides and Their Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Shui, Yan-Mei; Wan, Jian-Bo; Gao, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Recently, most anticancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial, and botanical sources, but the low success rates of chemotherapies and the development of multidrug resistance emphasize the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against cancer. Ginseng types, including Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and notoginseng, have been used traditionally to treat various diseases, due to their immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and antitumor activities. Accumulating reports have shown that ginsenosides, the major active component of ginseng, were helpful for tumor treatment. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PDS) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol saponins (PTS) are two characteristic types of triterpenoid saponins in ginsenosides. PTS holds capacity to interfere with crucial metabolism, while PDS could affect cell cycle distribution and prodeath signaling. This review aims at providing an overview of PTS and PDS, as well as their metabolites, regarding their different anticancer effects with the proposal that these compounds might be potent additions to the current chemotherapeutic strategy against cancer. PMID:27446225

  18. Localization of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng with different age by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hangrui; Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Jianjun; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-07-15

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. (P. ginseng) is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines, with ginsenosides as its main bioactive components. Because different ginsenosides have varied pharmacological effects, extraction and separation of ginsenosides are usually required for the investigation of pharmacological effects of different ginsenosides. However, the contents of ginsenosides vary with the ages and tissues of P. ginseng root. In this research, an efficient method to explore the distribution of ginsenosides and differentiate P. ginseng roots with different ages was developed based on matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-TOF-MSI). After a simple sample preparation, there were 18 peaks corresponding to 31 ginsenosides with distinct localization in the mass range of m/z 700-1400 identified by MALDI-TOF-MSI and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. All the three types of ginsenosides were successfully detected and visualized in images, which could be correlated with anatomical features. The P. ginseng at the ages of 2, 4 and 6 could be differentiated finely through the principal component analysis of data collected from the cork based on the ion images but not data from the whole tissue. The experimental result implies that the established method for the direct analysis of metabolites in plant tissues has high potential for the rapid identification of metabolites and analysis of their localizations in medicinal herbs. Furthermore, this technique also provides valuable information for the component-specific extraction and pharmacological research of herbs. PMID:26520809

  19. Identification of ginsenoside markers from dry purified extract of Panax ginseng by a dereplication approach and UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heejung; Lee, Dong Young; Kang, Kyo Bin; Kim, Jeom Yong; Kim, Sun Ok; Yoo, Young Hyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-05-10

    A dry purified extract of Panax ginseng (PEG) was prepared using a manufacturing process that includes column chromatography, acid hydrolysis, and an enzyme reaction. During the manufacturing process, the more polar ginsenosides were altered into less polar forms via cleavage of their sugar chains and structural modifications of the aglycones, such as hydroxylation and dehydroxylation. The structural changes of ginsenosides during the intermediate steps from dried ginseng extract (DGE) to PEG were monitored by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (UPLC-QTOF/MS). 22 ginsenosides isolated from PEG were used as the reference standards for determining of unknown ginsenosides and further suggesting of the metabolic markers. The elution order of 22 ginsenosides based on the type of aglycones, and the location and number of sugar chains can be used for the structural elucidation of unknown ginsenosides. This information could be used in a dereplication process for quick and efficient identification of ginsenoside derivatives in ginseng preparations. A dereplication approach helped the identification of the metabolic markers in the UPLC-QTOF/MS chromatograms during the conversion process with multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) plots. These metabolic markers were identified by comparing with the dereplication information of the reference standards of 22 ginsenosides, or they were assigned using the pattern of the MS/MS fragmented ions. Consequently, the developed metabolic profiling approach using UPLC-QTOF/MS and multivariate analysis represents a new method for providing quality control as well as useful criteria for a similarity evaluation of the manufacturing process of ginseng preparations. PMID:25767906

  20. Metabolism of ginsenosides Rk₃ and Rh₄ from steamed notoginseng in zebrafish by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Wei, Yingjie; Wang, Dandan; Jia, Xiaobin

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the metabolite profiles of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 from steamed notoginseng in zebrafish were qualitatively investigated, and their possible metabolic pathways were subsequently proposed. Metabolites of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 after exposing to zebrafish for 24 h were identified by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole -Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS). The separation was performed with a UPLC BEH C18 column using a binary gradient elution of 0.1 % formic acetonitrile -0.1 % formic acid water. The quasi-molecular ions of compounds were detected in negative mode. According to the quasi-molecular ions and MS2 spectra, after comparison with reference standards, molecular mass information and the potential structures about metabolites of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 were obtained. In all, 5 and 6 metabolites of ginsenoside Rk3 and Rh4 including M1(M6), M2(M7), M3-M5 and N1, N2(N7), N3-N6 were identified in zebrafish respectively, which were to our knowledge reported for the first time. The results indicated that ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 were metabolized via desugarization, glucuronidation, sulfation, dehydroxylation, and loss of C-17 and C-23 residue pathways in zebrafish. Loss of glucose at position C-6 and glucuronidation at position C-3 or C-6 in zebrafish were considered as the main physiologic processes of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4. PMID:25547981

  1. Changes of ginsenoside content by mushroom mycelial fermentation in red ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-06-01

    To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 μg/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 μg/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 μg/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 μg/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 μg/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 μg/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 μg/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 μg/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 μg/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 μg/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

  2. Ginsenoside Rb3 protects cardiomyocytes against ischemia-reperfusion injury via the inhibition of JNK-mediated NF-κB pathway: a mouse cardiomyocyte model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijia; Liu, Huimin; Xie, Zulong; Yang, Shuang; Xu, Wei; Hou, Jingbo; Yu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb3 is extracted from the plant Panax ginseng and plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in I/R injury. However, the underlying mechanism of ginsenoside Rb3 in myocardial I/R injury remains poorly understood. In the current study, a model of myocardial I/R injury was induced via oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reperfusion (OGD-Rep) in mouse cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells. Our data demonstrate that ginsenoside Rb3 suppresses OGD-Rep-induced cell apoptosis by the suppression of ROS generation. By detecting the NF-κB signaling pathway, we discover that the protective effect of ginsenoside Rb3 on the OGD-Rep injury is closely related to the inhibition of NF-κB activity. Ginsenoside Rb3 inhibits the upregulation of phospho-IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunit p65 which are induced by ORD-Rep injury. In addition, the extract also inhibits the OGD-Rep-induced increase in the expression of inflammation-related factors, such as IL-6, TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, LPS treatment alleviates the protective roles of ginsenoside Rb3 and activates the NF-κB pathway. Finally, the upstream factors of NF-κB were analyzed, including the Akt/Foxo3a and MAPK signaling pathways. We find that ginsenoside Rb3 pretreatment only decreases the phosphorylation of JNK induced by OGD-Rep injury, an indicator of the MAPK pathway. Importantly, an inhibitor of phospho-JNK, SP600125, protects against OGD-Rep induced apoptosis and inhibited NF-κB signaling pathway, similar to the roles of ginsenoside Rb3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the protective effect of ginsenoside Rb3 on the OGD-Rep injury is attributed to the inhibition of JNK-mediated NF-κB activation, suggesting that ginsenoside Rb3 has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID

  3. Ginsenoside Rb3 Protects Cardiomyocytes against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via the Inhibition of JNK-Mediated NF-κB Pathway: A Mouse Cardiomyocyte Model

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zulong; Yang, Shuang; Xu, Wei; Hou, Jingbo; Yu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb3 is extracted from the plant Panax ginseng and plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in I/R injury. However, the underlying mechanism of ginsenoside Rb3 in myocardial I/R injury remains poorly understood. In the current study, a model of myocardial I/R injury was induced via oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reperfusion (OGD-Rep) in mouse cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells. Our data demonstrate that ginsenoside Rb3 suppresses OGD-Rep-induced cell apoptosis by the suppression of ROS generation. By detecting the NF-κB signaling pathway, we discover that the protective effect of ginsenoside Rb3 on the OGD-Rep injury is closely related to the inhibition of NF-κB activity. Ginsenoside Rb3 inhibits the upregulation of phospho-IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunit p65 which are induced by ORD-Rep injury. In addition, the extract also inhibits the OGD-Rep-induced increase in the expression of inflammation-related factors, such as IL-6, TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, LPS treatment alleviates the protective roles of ginsenoside Rb3 and activates the NF-κB pathway. Finally, the upstream factors of NF-κB were analyzed, including the Akt/Foxo3a and MAPK signaling pathways. We find that ginsenoside Rb3 pretreatment only decreases the phosphorylation of JNK induced by OGD-Rep injury, an indicator of the MAPK pathway. Importantly, an inhibitor of phospho-JNK, SP600125, protects against OGD-Rep induced apoptosis and inhibited NF-κB signaling pathway, similar to the roles of ginsenoside Rb3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the protective effect of ginsenoside Rb3 on the OGD-Rep injury is attributed to the inhibition of JNK-mediated NF-κB activation, suggesting that ginsenoside Rb3 has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID

  4. Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibition Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 Isolated from Panax ginseng Berry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Young; Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Min, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Sup; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-12-28

    Ginsenoside Rb2 (Gin-Rb2) was purified from the fruit extract of Panax ginseng. Its chemical structure was measured by spectroscopic analysis, including HR-FAB-MS, (1)H-NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Gin-Rb2 decreased potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells, with 23.4% at 80 μM without cytotoxicity. Gin-Rb2 also decreased tyrosinase and MITF protein expression in melan-a cells. Furthermore, Gin-Rb2 presented inhibition of the body pigmentation in the zebrafish in vivo system and reduced melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. These results show that Gin-Rb2 isolated from P. ginseng may be an effective skin-whitening agent via the in vitro and in vivo systems. PMID:26437949

  5. Single-run HPLC/ESI-LITMS profiling of ginsenosides in plant extracts and ginseng based products.

    PubMed

    Stavrianidi, Andrey; Rodin, Igor; Braun, Arkady; Stekolshchikova, Elena; Shpigun, Oleg

    2015-06-01

    A rapid single-run analytical approach suitable to achieve a comprehensive characterization of ginsenosides - the main bioactive compounds present in plant materials from Panax species and ginseng-based products - was developed. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LITMS). The main ions in the ESI-LITMS spectra were attributed to molecular adducts with sodium and potassium and fragments corresponding to cleavage of the glycosidic bonds. The simplicity of the approach allows laborious sample preparation and sophisticated spectral information-dependent acquisition to be avoided, and provides an opportunity for rapid screening. The method may replace existing HPLC-DAD profiling approaches. The results of this study indicate that HPLC/ESI-LITMS is applicable for quality control purposes on processed products and allows the rapid and direct identification of ginsenosides in crude plant extracts. PMID:25355704

  6. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography. PMID:27108314

  7. Ginsenoside Rg3 Enhances Large Conductance Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channel Currents: A Role of Tyr360 Residue

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Shin, Tae-Joon; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Mok; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Park, Cheol-Seung; Ha, Tal Soo; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Ginsenosides, active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are known to exhibit neuroprotective effects. Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels are key modulators of cellular excitability of neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of ginsenosides on rat brain BKCa (rSlo) channel activity heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms how ginsenoside regulates the BKCa channel activity. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) enhanced outward BKCa channel currents. The Rg3-enhancement of outward BKCa channel currents was concentration-dependent, voltage-dependent, and reversible. The EC50 was 15.1 ± 3.1 μM. Rg3 actions were not desensitized by repeated treatment. Tetraetylammonium (TEA), a K+ channel blocker, inhibited BKCa channel currents. We examined whether extracellular TEA treatment could alter the Rg3 action and vice versa. TEA caused a rightward shift of the Rg3 concentration-response curve (i.e., much higher concentration of Rg3 is required for the activation of BKCa channel compared to the absence of TEA), while Rg3 caused a rightward shift of the TEA concentration-response curve in wild-type channels. Mutation of the extracellular TEA binding site Y360 to Y360I caused a rightward shift of the TEA concentration-response curve and almost abolished both the Rg3 action and Rg3-induced rightward shift of TEA concentration-response curve. These results indicate that Tyr360 residue of BKCa channel plays an important role in the Rg3-enhancement of BKCa channel currents. PMID:21191818

  8. A UHPLC-TOF/MS method based metabonomic study of total ginsenosides effects on Alzheimer disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yingge; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Ling; Di, Xin; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-11-10

    A metabonomic method was established to find potential biomarkers and study the metabolism disturbance in Alzheimer disease animal model. Total ginsenosides, as potential agent in neuroprotection and anti-inflammation, was also studied to learn the regulation mechanism to plasma metabolites in model animals. In experiment, amyloid beta 1-42 was occupied to form Alzheimer disease animal model. After drug administration, animals were evaluated by Morris water maze behavior test and sacrificed. Plasma samples were then analyzed using UHPLC-TOF/MS method to determine the endogenous metabolites. Behavior test results revealed that the spatial learning and memory abilities were deficit in model mice, and total ginsenosides could improve cognition abilities in dose-dependent manners. Principal component analysis showed that model and sham were divided into two groups, which means the metabolic network of mice was disturbed after modeling. Accordingly, 19 biomarkers were found and identified. In model group, the levels of proline, valine, tryptophan, LPC (14:0), LPC (15:0), LPC (15:1), LPC (17:0), LPC (18:2), LPC (18:3) and LPC (20:4) were up-regulated, while the levels of acetylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, vaccenylcarnitine, phytosphingosine, N-eicosanoylethanolamine, hexadecenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and octadecadienoic acid were down-regulated. The levels of these metabolites were recovered in different degrees after total ginsenosides administration. Combining with behavior study results, total ginsenosides could ameliorate both cognition symptoms and metabolic changes in model animals. This metabonomic approach provided a feasible way to understand the endogenous alterations of AD and to study the pharmacodynamic activity of novel agents. PMID:26210744

  9. Effects of acupuncturing Pishu combined with Ginsenoside Rg3 on the immune function of rats with chronic fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Yue; Ma, Xiande; Chen, Yiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of acupuncturing Pishu combined with Ginsenoside Rg3 on the immune function of rats with chronic fatigue. Methods: Forty male SD rats were equally randomized into control group, chronic fatigue system group (CFS), Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) group, acupuncture group and acupuncture combined with Ginsenoside Rg3 (A+Rg3) group. Rats with chronic fatigue were established by bounding and forced swimming in cold water once daily for 21 days except control group, then the rats in the acupuncture and A+Rg3 group were treated by manual acupuncture stimulation of bilateral “Pishu” once daily for 7 days. Ginsenoside Rg3 was administered by intravenous to the rats of the A+Rg3 and Rg3 group for 7 days in dosages of 2 mg/kg body weight, and two markers of physical fatigue were evaluated: body weight and blood lactic acid (LA). The percentages of CD3+ lymphocytes, CD4+ lymphocytes, and CD8+ lymphocytes in the spleens of the rats were evaluated using flow cytometric analysis. Serum IFN-gamma (IFN-γ) and IL-4 contents were detected by ELISA. Results: Increased body weight and reduced blood LA concentrations were found in the rat of Rg3 group and A+Rg3 group than that in CFS group. The rat of Rg3 group and A+Rg3 group also showed a significant increase in the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes and correct CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Compared with the CFS group, the level of IFN-γ in the Rg3, acupuncture and A+Rg3 groups was reduced and IL-4 was increased. Conclusions: Acupuncture and Rg3 can improve the immune system activity of CFS rats and acupuncturing Pishu combined with Rg3 was significantly superior compared with Rg3 and acupuncture, respectively. PMID:26770528

  10. Proteomic Analyses Provide Novel Insights into Plant Growth and Ginsenoside Biosynthesis in Forest Cultivated Panax ginseng (F. Ginseng)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Chen, Xuenan; Mei, Bing; Chang, Guijuan; Wang, Manying; Zhao, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    F. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is planted in the forest to enhance the natural ginseng resources, which have an immense medicinal and economic value. The morphology of the cultivated plants becomes similar to that of wild growing ginseng (W. Ginseng) over the years. So far, there have been no studies highlighting the physiological or functional changes in F. Ginseng and its wild counterparts. In the present study, we used proteomic technologies (2DE and iTRAQ) coupled to mass spectrometry to compare W. Ginseng and F. Ginseng at various growth stages. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on protein abundance revealed that the protein expression profile of 25-year-old F. Ginseng was more like W. Ginseng than less 20-year-old F. Ginseng. We identified 192 differentially expressed protein spots in F. Ginseng. These protein spots increased with increase in growth years of F. Ginseng and were associated with proteins involved in energy metabolism, ginsenosides biosynthesis, and stress response. The mRNA, physiological, and metabolic analysis showed that the external morphology, protein expression profile, and ginsenoside synthesis ability of the F. Ginseng increased just like that of W. Ginseng with the increase in age. Our study represents the first characterization of the proteome of F. Ginseng during development and provides new insights into the metabolism and accumulation of ginsenosides. PMID:26858731