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Sample records for gir crossbred cattle

  1. Hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Negrão, J A

    2008-03-01

    There are several different milking management systems in Latin America, because Gir cattle are reputed to be easily stressed and not well adapted to machine-milking. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir cows and their cross-bred offspring. Several experiments were performed to study oxytocin release during exclusive suckling or exclusive hand- and machine-milking, oxytocin, and prolactin release during a mixed suckling-milking system and oxytocin release after weaning. Cortisol concentrations and behavior were also examined. Concentration of oxytocin, released during suckling, and both types of milking were high, but the maximum concentration measured during suckling was significantly greater than that observed during exclusive milking. In the mixed suckling-milking system, the greatest oxytocin and prolactin releases were measured during suckling. Cortisol concentrations measured before, during, and after milking demonstrated that Gir x Holstein and Holstein cows were not stressed. On the other hand, although Gir had greater concentrations of cortisol, the percentage of residual milk for Gir cows was less than for dairy cows exposed to different stressful situations. In general, Gir cows and their crossbred offspring adapted to machine-milking, although these breeds can react negatively to milkers. Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows all had similar cortisol levels during and after milking. PMID:17878278

  2. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-01-01

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil. PMID:26505409

  3. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds. PMID:17305967

  4. Linkage disequilibrium in Angus, Charolais, and Crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duc; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Kelly, Matthew; Li, Changxi; Vander Voort, Gordon; Wang, Zhiquan; Plastow, Graham; Moore, Stephen; Miller, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the persistence of its phase across populations are important for genomic selection as well as fine scale mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, knowledge of LD in beef cattle, as well as the persistence of LD phase between crossbreds (C) and purebreds, is limited. The objective of this study was to understand the patterns of LD in Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), and C beef cattle based on 31,073, 32,088, and 33,286 SNP in each population, respectively. Amount of LD decreased rapidly from 0.29 to 0.23 to 0.19 in AN, 0.22 to 0.16 to 0.12 in CH, 0.21 to 0.15 to 0.11 in C, when the distance range between markers changed from 0–30 kb to 30–70 kb and then to 70–100 kb, respectively. Breeds and chromosomes had significant effects (P < 0.001) on LD decay. There was significant interaction between breeds and chromosomes (P < 0.001). Correlations of LD phase were high between C and AN (0.84), C and CH (0.81), as well as between AN and CH (0.77) for distances less than or equal to 70 kb. These dropped when the distance increased. Estimated effective population sizes for AN and CH were 207 and 285, respectively, for 10 generations ago. Given a useful LD of at least 0.3 between pairs of SNPs, the LD phase between any pair of the three breed groups was highly persistent. The current SNP density would allow the capture of approximately 49% of useful LD between SNP and marker QTL in AN, and 38% in CH. A higher density SNP panel or redesign of the current panel is needed to achieve more of useful LD for the purpose of genomic selection beef cattle. PMID:22912646

  5. Levels of taurine introgression in the current Brazilian Nelore and Gir indicine cattle populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high density panel of more than 777000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to investigate the population structure of Nelore and Gir, compared to seven other populations worldwide. Principal Component Analysis and model-based ancestry estimation clearly separate the indici...

  6. Control and therapeutic management of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit Kumar; Singh, Shanker Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis (BTT) is a disease of worldwide economic importance in cattle, caused by Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite, and transmitted cyclically by ticks. The disease is one of the serious constraints to dairy industry in endemic areas like India, leading to fatal infections in exotic cattle and significant mortality in cross-bred cattle and zebu cattle. The present report demonstrates the clinical manifestation, haematological alteration and therapeutic management of theileriosis cases in a cross-bred cattle dairy farm at district Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh. Clinical examination of affected animals revealed high rectal temperature (104-106 °F), generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, apathy and watery blood. The affected animals were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum ticks. The blood smears examination after staining with Leishman stain revealed the presence of typical Theileria organisms. Buparvaquone along with symptomatic and supportive therapy could cure all the animals. PMID:27065628

  7. The economics of Raramuri Criollo versus British crossbred cattle production in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary research indicates Raramuri Criollo cattle may range significantly further and forage in areas where traditional breeds rarely venture. They are thought to impose a lighter environmental footprint compared to their mainstream British crossbred counterparts. These small-frame animals are ...

  8. Productivity of pure- and crossbred cattle in a subtropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zyl, J. G. E.; Schoeman, S. J.; Coertze, R. J.; Groeneveld, H. T.

    1991-06-01

    The influence of different breeds of sire and dam types on cow productivity in an arid, subtropical environment was studied. Cows with calves sired by Simmentaler, Hereford and Bonsmara bulls were more ( P<0.05) productive than those with calves sired by Afrikaner bulls. Simmentaler sires were superior ( P<0.05) to Bonsmara sires. Crossbred cows of predominant (>50%) Bos taurus breeding were generally superior to crossbreds of predominant B. indicus breeding and purebreds. Crossbreeding systems to utilize breed effects to optimise cow productivity within environmental constraints are discussed.

  9. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Choothesa, A; Sribhen, C; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2008-05-01

    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving (P<0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC. PMID:18158609

  10. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonprong, S.; Choothesa, A.; Sribhen, C.; Parvizi, N.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2008-05-01

    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving ( P < 0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC.

  11. Molecular Characterization and SNP Detection of CD14 Gene of Crossbred Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Aruna; Sharma, Arjava; Bhattacharya, T. K.; Chatterjee, P. N.; Chakravarty, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    CD14 is an important molecule for innate immunity that can act against a wide range of pathogens. The present paper has characterized CD14 gene of crossbred (CB) cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus). Cloning and sequence analysis of CD14 cDNA revealed 1119 nucleotide long open reading frame encoding 373 amino acids protein and 20 amino acids signal peptide. CB cattle CD14 gene exhibited a high percentage of nucleotide identity (59.3–98.1%) with the corresponding mammalian homologs. Cattle and buffalo appear to have diverged from a common ancestor in phylogenetic analysis. 25 SNPs with 17 amino acid changes were newly reported and the site for mutational hot-spot was detected in CB cattle CD14 gene. Non-synonymous substitutions exceeding synonymous substitutions indicate the evolution of this protein through positive selection among domestic animals. Predicted protein structures obtained from deduced amino acid sequence indicated CB cattle CD14 molecule to be a receptor with horse shoe-shaped structure. The sites for LPS binding, LPS signalling, leucine-rich repeats, putative N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor, disulphide bridges, alpha helix, beta strand, leucine rich nuclear export signal, leucine zipper and domain linker were predicted. Most of leucine and cysteine residues remain conserved across the species. PMID:22132326

  12. Describing variation in carcass quality traits of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Deland, M P B; Pitchford, W S

    2009-02-01

    In order to investigate variation in carcass quality traits, during a four-year period, mature Hereford cows (637) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1144 calves. Carcass production traits (carcass weight = HCWt, fat depth = P8, eye muscle area = EMA, intramuscular fat = IMF) were obtained from these cattle that constitute the Australia's Southern Crossbreeding Project. Data were analysed using multi-variate sire model containing fixed effects of sex, sire breed, slaughter age nested within sexes. Random effects were sire, dam, management (location-year-post-weaning groups) and environmental effects. HCWt of South Devon, Belgian Blue, Limousin and unexpectedly, Angus were the heaviest on the average. Hereford calves were intermediate and Jersey and Wagyu were lighter on the average than others. Carcasses of the Belgian Blue and Limousin had low P8 and IMF, carcasses of Hereford and South Devon were intermediate and Angus, Jersey and Wagyu had high P8 and IMF. Management group effects were greatest especially for EMA and IMF. The sire variation was about 6, 6, 4 and 2% of total variation for HCWt, P8, EMA and IMF. Heritability ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 (carcass weight). The genetic correlation between the two fat depots was not as high (0.18) as expected. Results from this study suggest that strategies to increase genetic potential for HCWt would increase the genetic potential for EMA but may reduce marbling and tend to slightly increase P8. All phenotypic correlations were positive, although not large. PMID:19579950

  13. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  14. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birt...

  15. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth...

  16. Postweaning Growth and Carcass Traits in Crossbred Cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano Maternal Grandsires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais ...

  17. Molecular characterization and expression profile of partial TLR4 gene in association to mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle. PMID:24669869

  18. Genetic and environmental causes of variation in gestation length of Jersey crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anshuman; Mandal, Ajoy; Gupta, A. K.; Ratwan, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors and estimate the genetic parameter for gestation length (GL) of Jersey crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The data included the 986 parturition records on Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Eastern Regional Station of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani, West Bengal, India during 36 years (1978-2013). The data were analyzed applying mixed model least square technique considering the fixed effects of genetic group, season of calving, period of calving, parity of animal, birth weight, and sex of calf born from animal. The effect of sire was included as a random effect in the model. Results: The genetic group of animal, season of calving, parity of animal, and birth weight of calf born were found to be a significant source of variation in the GL, whereas the period of calving and sex of calf did not affect this trait. Cows with <50% and >62.5% Jersey inheritance had the shortest and longest GLs, respectively. Cows calved in summer and rainy season had shorter GL than those calved in the winter season. Older cows in 4th parity carried calves for longer days than the cows in 1st parity. The increase in calf birth weight significantly (p<0.01) contributed to a linear increase in GL value in this study. The heritability estimate of GL was 0.24±0.08. Conclusion: It can be concluded that selection for lower GL without distressing future growth of calf can be used to reduce calving difficulty, but a very small standard deviation of GL limits the benefit. Moreover, more accurate prediction of calving date will help in better management and health care of pregnant animals. PMID:27182128

  19. Short communication: Genomic selection in a crossbred cattle population using data from the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project.

    PubMed

    Brown, A; Ojango, J; Gibson, J; Coffey, M; Okeyo, M; Mrode, R

    2016-09-01

    Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is potential for implementing genomic selection for young bulls in crossbred small-holder cattle populations, and targeted genotyping and phenotyping should be pursued to facilitate this. PMID:27423951

  20. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Rempel, L A; Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L

    2012-04-01

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the association of SNP, from genes functionally related to fat metabolism and obesity, with growth, fat, and carcass traits in steers. A total of 33 informative SNP from candidate genes [cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fat mass and obesity associated (FTO)] were used to genotype crossbred steers (n = 620), and associations with growth and carcass traits were assessed. Five markers within the DNA-PK gene were associated (P < 0.05) with fat thickness. One of these SNP was also associated (P < 0.05) with percent choice, yield grade, and retail product yield. Additionally, 2 unique DNA-PK SNP were associated (P < 0.05) with marbling score. Three haplotypes were observed using these SNP and were significantly (P = 0.0014) associated with marbling score. Slaughter weight, ADG, and HCW were associated (P < 0.05) with SNP from CART, FTO, and FASN. Data from this study indicate that polymorphisms within candidate genes have an indirect relationship with lipogenesis. Replication of these results within other populations will be necessary to establish if these markers will be successful as predictors of fatness components and carcass traits in cattle. PMID:22100592

  1. Genome-wide association analyses for carcass quality in crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic improvement of beef quality will benefit both producers and consumers, and can be achieved by selecting animals that carry desired quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN), which result from intensive searches using genetic markers. This paper presents a genome-wide association approach utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to seek genomic regions that potentially harbor genes or QTN underlying variation in carcass quality of beef cattle. This study used 747 genotyped animals, mainly crossbred, with phenotypes on twelve carcass quality traits, including hot carcass weight (HCW), back fat thickness (BF), Longissimus dorsi muscle area or ribeye area (REA), marbling scores (MRB), lean yield grade by Beef Improvement Federation formulae (BIFYLD), steak tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force 7-day post-mortem (LM7D) as well as body composition as determined by partial rib (IMPS 103) dissection presented as a percentage of total rib weight including body cavity fat (BDFR), lean (LNR), bone (BNR), intermuscular fat (INFR), subcutaneous fat (SQFR), and total fat (TLFR). Results At the genome wide level false discovery rate (FDR < 10%), eight SNP were found significantly associated with HCW. Seven of these SNP were located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6. At a less stringent significance level (P < 0.001), 520 SNP were found significantly associated with mostly individual traits (473 SNP), and multiple traits (47 SNP). Of these significant SNP, 48 were located on BTA6, and 22 of them were in association with hot carcass weight. There were 53 SNP associated with percentage of rib bone, and 12 of them were on BTA20. The rest of the significant SNP were scattered over other chromosomes. They accounted for 1.90 - 5.89% of the phenotypic variance of the traits. A region of approximately 4 Mbp long on BTA6 was found to be a potential area to harbor candidate genes influencing growth. One marker on BTA25

  2. Modeling of crossbred cattle growth, comparison between cubic and piecewise random regression models.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Pitchford, W S; Verbyla, A P

    2011-01-01

    Two analyses, cubic and piecewise random regression, were conducted to model growth of crossbred cattle from birth to about two years of age, investigating the ability of a piecewise procedure to fit growth traits without the complications of the cubic model. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "Southern Crossbreeding Project", mature Hereford cows (N = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Angus, Belgian Blue, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, South Devon, and Wagyu breeds, resulting in 1141 steers and heifers born over four years. Data included 13 (for steers) and eight (for heifers) live body weight measurements, made approximately every 50 days from birth until slaughter. The mixed model included fixed effects of sex, sire breed, age (linear, quadratic and cubic), and their interactions between sex and sire breed with age. Random effects were sire, dam, management (birth location, year, post-weaning groups), and permanent environmental effects and for each of these when possible, their interactions with linear, quadratic and cubic growth. In both models, body weights of all breeds increased over pre-weaning period, held fairly steady (slightly flattening) over the dry season then increased again towards the end of the feedlot period. The number of estimated parameters for the cubic model was 22 while for the piecewise model it was 32. It was concluded that the piecewise model was very similar to the cubic model in the fit to the data; with the piecewise model being marginally better. The piecewise model seems to fit the data better at the end of the growth period. PMID:21968730

  3. Evaluation of tropically-adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Heifer age and size at first conception and characteristics of their first calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate genetic effects for age and size at estimated time of first conception, and temperament in straightbred and crossbred heifers (n = 554) produced from Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, and to evaluate first parturition performance of heifers, includi...

  4. Use of body linear measurements to estimate liveweight of crossbred dairy cattle in smallholder farms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lukuyu, M N; Gibson, J P; Savage, D B; Duncan, A J; Mujibi, F D N; Okeyo, A M

    2016-01-01

    Body linear measurements, and specifically heart girth (HG), have been shown to be useful predictors of cattle liveweight. To test the accuracy of body linear measurements for predicting liveweight, crossbred dairy cattle of different genotypes were measured and weighed. A total of 352 mature cows and 100 heifers were weighed using an electronic weighing scale and measurements of HG, body length, height at withers were taken using an ordinary measuring tape and body condition scored (BCS) using a five-point scale. The animals were grouped according to genotype and age. Genotype classification was undertaken from farmer recall and by visual appraisal as 40-60, 61-80 or 81-100 % exotic (non-indigenous). Age classification was simply as mature cows or heifers. Liveweight of the animals ranged from 102 to 433 kg. Liveweight was strongly correlated with HG (r = 0.84) and body condition scores (r = 0.70) and moderately correlated with body length (r = 0.64) and height at withers (0.61). Regressing LW on HG measurements gave statistically significant (P < 0.01) equations with R(2) ranging from of 0.53 to 0.78 and residual standard deviation ranging from 18.11 to 40.50 kg. The overall model developed (adjusted R(2) = 0.71) had a prediction error of 26 kg (or 11 % of the mean) and predicted LW of over 95 % of crossbred dairy cattle in the range of 100-450 kg, regardless of age and breed group. Including BCS in the model slightly improved the model fit but not the prediction error. It was concluded that the model can be useful in making general management decisions in smallholder farms. PMID:26839756

  5. Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; Euclides Filho, K; Cundiff, L V; Koger, M; Butts, W T; Gregory, K E

    1991-01-01

    Data on 2,744 calves produced in Clay Center, Nebraska and Brooksville, Florida were used to evaluate the importance of genotype x location interactions on the reproductive and maternal performance of eight breed groups of F1 crossbred cows. A total of 648 F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus x Bos taurus (Bt x Bt) crosses: Hereford x Angus reciprocal crossbreds (HA and AH), Pinzgauer x Angus (PA), Pinzgauer x Hereford (PH); and Bos indicus x Bos taurus (Bi x Bt) crosses: Brahman x Angus (BA), Brahman x Hereford (BH), Sahiwal x Angus (SA) and Sahiwal x Hereford (SH). The first calf crop was sired by Red Poll bulls. All remaining calf crops were sired by Simmental bulls. Although the pregnancy rate was 9% higher in Nebraska, the rate of unassisted calvings and calf survival rate were both 4.6% lower in Nebraska. Calf birth and weaning weights were 8.0 and 15.6 kg heavier in Nebraska than in Florida. Bi x Bt dams exceeded (P less than .001) Bt x Bt crossbred dams for all traits except age of calf at weaning and calf-survival rates (P greater than .10). Birth weights of calves from Bi x Bt crossbred dams were 3.4 kg lighter than those from the Bt x Bt crossbred dams. The interaction of location with the breed group comparison of Bi x Bt vs Bt x Bt crossbred dams was significant for pregnancy rate, calf age at weaning, rate of unassisted calving and all weight traits. Adjusted weaning weights of calves from HA, AH, PA, PH, BA, BH, SA and SH cows were as follows: HA, 194 and 222; AH, 202 and 230; PA, 213 and 242; PH, 217 and 245; BA, 251 and 254; BH, 252 and 254; SA, 236 and 238; and SH, 238 and 243 kg, respectively, in Florida and Nebraska. Bos indicus-sired cows (BA, BH, SA and SH) weaned essentially equal-weight calves at both locations, whereas calves from Bt x Bt crossbred cows (HA, AH, PA, PH) were about 28 kg lighter in Florida. PMID:2005003

  6. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( < 0.05) included cholesterol concentration of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue (three-fourths Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams < three-fourths Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( < 0.001) was

  7. Differential effect of thermal stress on HSP70 expression, nitric oxide production and cell proliferation among native and crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Bhusan, Bharat; Raja, T V; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Rani; Ashish Kumar; Alyethodi, R R; Kumar, Suresh; Deb, Rajib

    2016-07-01

    In a tropical country like India, thermal stress is one of the major factors which significantly affects the productivity of dairy cattle. The present study was aimed to identify the effect of heat and cold stress on cell viability, mitogen stimulation indices, nitric oxide production and HSP70 expression in Sahiwal and Holstein crossbred (Frieswal) population in India. The results indicated that the Sahiwal breed can better withstand the effect of heat and cold stress significantly (P<0.05) when compared to the crossbred cattle due to the higher survivability of the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) and Phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P) mitogen based stimulation indices. The study also revealed the significant differences (P<0.05) in the level of nitric oxide (µM) production amongst the pre and post thermal stressed samples of Sahiwal and Frieswal crossbred samples. Further, the expression of HSP70 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Sahiwal compared to Frieswal immediately after heat/cold shock to 6h of recovery as indirect ELISA analysis showed gradual rise in the Hsp70 protein concentration (ng/ml) immediately after heat and cold stress (0h) and reached the peak at 6h of recovery. Western blot and immune fluorescent assay results were also corroborated with the findings of indirect ELISA. In Sahiwal cattle the mRNA expression of HSP70 and its protein concentration were higher (P<0.05) during peak summer (44°C) and winter (10°C) as compared to Frieswal cattle. This investigation supports the earlier information on the higher adaptability of indigenous cattle breeds to hot and humid conditions compared to the crossbreds of temperate cattle breeds. PMID:27264883

  8. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    PubMed

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  9. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P < 0.01), 14 (P = 0.015), and 21 (P < 0.001) in this population, demonstrating that genetic variation important for tenderness segregates in Bos indicus cattle at or near CAPN1. Marker 4751 also was associated with shear force (P < 0.01) in the same large, multisire population of cattle of strictly Bos taurus descent that was used to develop the previously reported SNP (referred to as the Germplasm Evaluation [GPE] Cycle 7 population), indicating the possibility that one marker could have wide applicability in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. To test this hypothesis, Marker 4751 was tested in a third large, multisire cattle population of crossbred subspecies descent (including sire breeds of Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be

  10. Productivity and carcass characteristics of pure and crossbred Chinese Yellow Cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G H; Liu, L; Xiu, X L; Jian, H M; Wang, L Z; Sun, B Z; Tong, B S

    2001-08-01

    The carcass characteristics of 334 Chinese Yellow Cattle, and their Simmental and Limousin crosses, were investigated in abattoirs in Hebei and Sandong provinces of China. The overall slaughter age was 4.8±2.2 years at a mean liveweight of 527.28±77.0 kg. Mean ages and liveweights for Yellow Cattle and its crosses were, respectively, 5.29±2.03 and 2.85±1.71 years and 519.43±78.7 and 563.13±56.8 kg. Carcass weights varied considerably and, consequently, so did subcutaneous fat depths and dressing percentages. Overall, mean carcass weights, subcutaneous fat depths and, dressing percentages and eyemuscle areas were 283.9±64.1 kg, 14.0±8.0 mm, 54.0±4.0%, and 62.7 ±13.3 cm(2), respectively. Compared with pure Yellow Cattle, the crosses were slaughtered at younger age, and had larger live and carcass weights, higher dressing percentages, less subcutaneous fat depth and bigger eyemuscle areas. It is concluded that crossbreeding can significantly improve Yellow Cattle' meat productivity, however feeding systems need to be improved and an appropriate grading system developed to improve beef production and quality in China. PMID:22062425

  11. Comparison of the Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Methods for Discriminating among Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), Imported, and Crossbred Beef in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Jo; Park, Hyun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The identity of 45 Hanwo and 47 imported beef (non-Hanwoo) samples from USA and Australia were verified using the microsatellite (MS) marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) methods. Samples were collected from 19 supermarkets located in the city of Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea, from 2009 to 2011. As a result, we obtained a 100% concordance rate between the MS and SNP methods for identifying Hanwoo and non-Hanwoo beef. The MS method presented a 95% higher individual discriminating value for Hanwoo (97.8%) than for non-Hanwoo (61.7%) beef. For further comparison of the MS and SNP methods, blood samples were collected and tested from 54 Hanwoo × Holstein crossbred cattle (first, second, and third generations). By using the SNP and MS methods, we correctly identified all of the first-generation crossbred cattle as non-Hanwoo; in addition, among the second and third generation crossbreds, the ratio identified as Hanwoo was 20% and 10%, respectively. The MS method used in our study provides more information, but requires sophisticated techniques during each experimental process. By contrast, the SNP method is simple and has a lower error rate. Our results suggest that the MS and SNP methods are useful for discriminating Hanwoo from non-Hanwoo breeds. PMID:26761672

  12. Growth and reproduction characteristics of purebred and crossbred dairy cattle in first lactation.

    PubMed

    Ruvuna, F; McDowell, R E; Cartwright, T C; McDaniel, B T

    1986-03-01

    Breed additive, maternal, and heterozygotic effects on 11 monthly postpartum body weights, average size, weight gain, age at first calving, and days open were estimated by linear regression analyses from records of 680 purebred and crossbred animals. Calving year, age, and milk yield were significant environmental effects. Positive regressions of age on body weights indicated late calving cows were heaviest postpartum and had most days open. Negative regressions of milk yield on weight gain and postpartum weight showed greatest losses of weight associated with highest yields. There were breed differences in growth; purebreds highest to lowest were Brown Swiss, Holstein, Red Dane, Jersey, and Ayrshire and for weight gain, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, and for weight gain, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, Jersey, Holsteins, and Red Dane. Crosses were superior to purebreds in these traits. Additive effects of Holstein were greater than Ayrshire, Jersey, and Red Dane for postpartum body weights and average size. All constants for heterozygotic effect combinations were significant for postpartum weights and average size. Heterozygosity effects increased in magnitude with advancing lactation. Generally, age at first calving and postpartum interval to conception reflected little heterozygotic or maternal effects. There was some indication of breed differences in mean and additive effects for age at first calving. PMID:3711409

  13. Estimated breeding values for meat characteristics of crossbred cattle with an animal model.

    PubMed

    Van Vleck, L D; Hakim, A F; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Crouse, J D; Boldman, K G

    1992-02-01

    Longissimus muscle area, shear force measure, and sensory panel scores for flavor, juiciness, and tenderness, and marbling score were obtained from 682 steer carcasses, resulting from crosses among five Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. The single-trait model used included birth year and as covariates breed fractions, weaning age, and days on feed. The numerator relationship matrix was for 1,350 animals (682 steers, 74 pure breed and 52 F1-cross sires and 542 dams). The coefficient matrix was inverted to examine standard errors of prediction. Estimated breeding value is the sum of the estimate of genetic deviation and the weighted (fractions) sum of estimates of breed effects. Heritabilities used in estimating breeding values were .62, .06, .05, .11, .05, and .43 for longissimus muscle area, shear force, flavor, juiciness, tenderness, and marbling score. Sires within a breed or crossbred group tended to rank similarly due to large differences among breed effects (e.g., the six Sahiwal sires ranked in the highest six places for shear force). These results illustrate that for traits with large breed differences, selection of the proper breed should be done before selection within that breed. PMID:1548197

  14. Behavioral and physiological effects of freeze or hot-iron branding on crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Lay, D C; Friend, T H; Randel, R D; Bowers, C L; Grissom, K K; Jenkins, O C

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-seven crossbred calves (1/2 Simmental, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Brahman) averaging 257 +/- 11 d of age were either hot-iron-branded (H), freeze-branded (F), or sham-branded (S). Calves were blocked for temperament, weight, and sex and were randomly assigned to day and order in which treatments were applied. To reduce stress from handling at treatment time, each calf was herded through the squeeze chute daily for 5 d before the experiment. Jugular cannulas were inserted in each calf 1 d before application of treatment. Blood samples and heart rate measures were obtained at -5, -3, 0, .5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after application of the treatments. Mean concentrations of plasma epinephrine (EPI) were higher for H calves at time .5 min than for either S or F calves (P = .10). To account for individual differences, prebranding heart rates and hormone concentrations were subtracted from subsequent samples and were also used to calculate a proportion for each subsequent sample. Analyses of subtracted values found that EPI concentrations were greater for H calves than for either S or F calves (P = .007) at .5 min postbranding. No other differences were found for the subtracted analyses. Analyses of proportion data also revealed that H calves had greater EPI than did either S or F calves (P = .027) at .5 min postbranding. Only three animals vocalized during branding, one H calf and two F calves. Despite the 5-d acclimation period, handling and restraint elevated plasma cortisol concentrations and heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1548193

  15. Genetic parameters of body size in purebred and crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Robison, O W; Kelly, M G; McDaniel, B T; McDowell, R E

    1980-11-01

    Breed additive, breed maternal, and heterozygotic effects on body weight, height at withers, depth of fore-chest, girth of fore-chest, length from withers to pins, length from withers to hips, and length from hips to pins at 6, 12, 18, and 30 mo of age were estimated from linear regression analyses. Data were available on 87 purebred Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Holstein, and 213 two-way, three-way, and five-eights crosses. Birth year, birth month, and age of dam were significant environmental effects. Ayrshire additive effects were smaller than Holstein for all traits at all ages except length from hips to pins at 6 and 12 mo of age. Additive effects for Brown Swiss were smaller than for Holstein for body weight at 12 mo, height at withers at all ages, depth of fore-chest and girth of fore-chest at 6, 12, and 18 mo, length from withers to pins and length from withers to hips at 12 and 30 mo, and length from hips to pins at 18 mo. Breed maternal effects were not significant for any trait at any age. Means of crossbreds generally exceeded means of parental breeds, especially body weight. Average heterosis for body weight was 3.0% at 6 mo, 4.6% at 12 mo, 5.0% at 18 mo, and 3.5% at 30 mo of age. Heterosis for weight increased with age through 18 mo and declined by 30 mo of age. Heterosis for other traits was generally 1 to 2% with no trend with age. PMID:7440820

  16. Immune responses against rHaa86 in cross-bred cattle.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Binod; Ray, D D; Ghosh, Srikant

    2015-06-01

    Tick vaccines are important component of integrated pest management for sustainable control of tick and tick born diseases. Immune responses against rHaa86 (homologue of Bm86) recombinant Hyalomma tick antigen were determined in experimental crossbred calves. The humoral antibody responses of the calves were measured against rHaa86 in an optimized ELISA format. The expression of the interferon gamma (IFN-γ), was also evaluated in the culture supernatant of blood culture from blood samples of the experimental calves. The expression patterns were studied after stimulating the blood cells in vitro with rHaa86 antigen and subsequently optical density was measured against IFN-γ. The results were expressed as stimulation indices. All the rHaa86 immunized animal showed strong humoral antibody response just after 1st vaccination and reach to pick after 2nd booster and thereafter maintained up to days 120 from post primary immunization. The humoral antibody response was dominated by IgG1 against IgG2 throughout the period of antibody monitoring. The standard graph of bovine recombinant IFN-γ was plotted which showed a significant difference in SI and OD value up to 200 pg/ml. The lowest detectable value of IFN-γ was 20 pg/ml and SI at this level is 1.16 which is greater than maximum SI calculated from individual calf. The IFN-γ response never reached at significant level and the IgG1 response was dominated over IgG2 response throughout the period of experiment. Since IgG2 and IFN-γ are interlinked, the present study established the Th2 response as a possible mode of mechanism of conferring antibody mediated protection against challenged ticks. PMID:26064021

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for feed efficiency and performance in crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to: (1) identify new SNPs for residual feed intake (RFI) and performance traits within candidate genes identified in a genome wide association study (GWAS); (2) estimate the proportion of variation in RFI explained by the detected SNPs; (3) estimate the effects of detected SNPs on carcass traits to avoid undesirable correlated effects on these economically important traits when selecting for feed efficiency; and (4) map the genes to biological mechanisms and pathways. A total number of 339 SNPs corresponding to 180 genes were tested for association with phenotypes using a single locus regression (SLRM) and genotypic model on 726 and 990 crossbred animals for feed efficiency and carcass traits, respectively. Results Strong evidence of associations for RFI were located on chromosomes 8, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, and 28. The strongest association with RFI (P = 0.0017) was found with a newly discovered SNP located on BTA 8 within the ELP3 gene. SNPs rs41820824 and rs41821600 on BTA 16 within the gene HMCN1 were strongly associated with RFI (P = 0.0064 and P = 0.0033, respectively). A SNP located on BTA 18 within the ZNF423 gene provided strong evidence for association with RFI (P = 0.0028). Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) from 98 significant SNPs were moderately correlated (0.47) to the estimated breeding values (EBVs) from a mixed animal model. The significant (P < 0.05) SNPs (98) explained 26% of the genetic variance for RFI. In silico functional analysis for the genes suggested 35 and 39 biological processes and pathways, respectively for feed efficiency traits. Conclusions This study identified several positional and functional candidate genes involved in important biological mechanisms associated with feed efficiency and performance. Significant SNPs should be validated in other populations to establish their potential utilization in genetic improvement programs. PMID:24476087

  18. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P < 0.01). Calves with two copies of the inactive allele were more likely (P < 0.01) to die before weaning. Postweaning growth traits were evaluated in the surviving animals (n = 1,370), including birth, weaning, and live weight at slaughter, and postweaning ADG. Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses

  19. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits. Animals with Angus grandsires grew faster and had the heaviest carcasses, with the greatest percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice and the greatest marbling scores when compared with other grandsire breeds. Animals with Romosinuano and Bonsmara inheritance grew slower, had the lightest weights at slaughter, the lightest carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate

  20. Genetic variation in fatness and fatty acid composition of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, W S; Deland, M P B; Siebert, B D; Malau-Aduli, A E O; Bottema, C D K

    2002-11-01

    Mature Hereford cows (766) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1,215 calves born over 4 yr (1994 to 1997). These cattle comprised Australia's 'Southern Crossbreeding Project." Heifers were slaughtered at an average of 16 mo with hot standard carcass weight of 219 kg and 9 mm fat over the rump. Steers were slaughtered at an average of 23 mo with carcass weight of 319 kg and 13 mm fat over the rump. Meat and fat samples were taken from the carcass on the day after slaughter for subsequent laboratory analysis of i.m. fat content and fatty acid composition. Data were analyzed using uni- and bivariate animal models containing fixed effects of cohort, management group, birth month, and sire breed. March-born calves had fat with a 0.5 degrees C lower melting point, 0.6% higher total monounsaturated fatty acids, and 0.7% higher fatty acid desaturation index than calves born in April. Steers born in 1997 were the only cohort finished on pasture, and they had much more yellow fat than the other cohorts. Four heavy breed crosses (Angus, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue) averaged 284 kg carcass weight, followed by purebred Hereford (268 kg), Wagyu (244 kg) and Jersey (236 kg). Angus had the greatest fat depth (14.3 mm), ahead of Hereford and Wagyu (11.9 mm), Jersey (10.7 mm), South Devon and Limousin (9.9 mm) and Belgian Blue (8.0 mm). Jersey, Wagyu, and Angus had themost i.m. fat (4.6%), followed by Hereford and South Devon (3.8%), and Limousin and Belgian Blue (3.1%). The highly marbled Jersey and Wagyu had softer fat (6% lower fat melting point) than the other breeds. Angus were more highly marbled, similar to Jersey and Wagyu, but had harder fat similar to the leaner breeds. Heritabilities for all traits were low to moderate (16 to 36%). Genetic correlations between fatty add composition and carcass traits were not significant, indicating little evidence of antagonisms

  1. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Swedish Red and White and Friesian had the shortest gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P < 0.001), birth weight (P = 0.009), BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Hereford cows had the longest gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Male calves had a longer gestation length

  2. Effect of vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation on natural infestations of Boophilus microplus in grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J

    1995-12-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field. PMID:8701597

  3. A 31-kDa seminal plasma heparin-binding protein reduces cold shock stress during cryopreservation of cross-bred cattle bull semen.

    PubMed

    Patel, M K; Cheema, R S; Bansal, A K; Gandotra, V K

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a 31-kDa protein, purified from cattle bull seminal plasma heparin-binding proteins (SP-HBP), was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Raw semen of six cross-bred bulls was treated with 31-kDa HBP before cryopreservation to observe its effect on motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test, acrosome integrity, in vitro capacitation/acrosome reaction, and oxidative stress at pre-freeze and frozen-thawed phases of cryopreservation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 31-kDa protein eluted and purified from SP-HBP (separated on acrylamide gels) resulted in a single band of 40 kDa. In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis, 12 peptides were identified with matching significantly (P < 0.05) to interlukin-6 of bovine with a top score of 55. Addition of 25 μg/mL of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated 31-kDa protein to raw semen and incubation at 37 °C for 20 minutes before cryopreservation resulted in its binding mainly to head region. Treatment of semen with 31-kDa HBP resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) average increase of 9.2%, 6.8%, and 11.7% and 5.5%, 6.5%, and 11.0% in motile, viable, hypo-osmotic swelling-responsive spermatozoa in six bulls at pre-freeze and frozen-thawed phases of cryopreservation, respectively. Percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes nonsignificantly enhanced in the semen treated with 31-kDa HBP at both phases of cryopreservation. An average nonsignificant increase of 3.1% in in vitro capacitated and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was obtained in semen supplemented with 31-kDa HBP. Addition of 31-kDa HBP also nonsignificantly reduced Malonadialdehyde (MDA) level by 10.7 and 19.3 μM/10(9) spermatozoa in prefrozen and frozen-thawed semen, respectively. The results obtained here indicate to conclude that treatment of cross-bred cattle bull semen with 31-kDa HBP protects the spermatozoa

  4. Impacts of incorporation of follicle stimulating hormone into an estrous synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination of crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gentry, G T; Walker, R S; Gentry, L R

    2016-05-01

    One-hundred-eighty crossbred beef cows and 66 crossbred beef heifers across three locations were stratified by body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and age (within location) to evaluate administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on Day 2 using a modified 7-day CO-Synch plus CIDR(®) protocol (Day 0=CIDR insertion) with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) at 72h (cows) or 54h (heifers) following CIDR removal. Estrous response following CIDR removal was determined using an Estrotect patch and TAI and final pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography 42-45days following TAI and ≥45days following removal of clean-up bulls. Estrous response rate, TAI and final pregnancy rates for cows were not affected (P≥0.65) by treatment. Cows that exhibited estrus had greater (P<0.01) TAI pregnancy rate (66%) than cows not exhibiting estrus (38%). There was an estrous response by postpartum length interaction (P=0.02) where cows exhibiting estrus and ≥55days postpartum had greater TAI pregnancy rates (75%) compared to cows not exhibiting estrus and <55days postpartum (39%) or ≥55days postpartum (28%). For heifers, timed AI (P=0.46) and final pregnancy rates (P=0.45) were similar across treatments and estrous response had no effect (P=0.30) on TAI pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the addition of FSH to the CO-Synch plus CIDR estrous synchronization protocol did not increase TAI pregnancy rates in beef cows or heifers. However, a positive estrous response to the synchronization protocol was associated with increased TAI pregnancy rates in cows. PMID:26968244

  5. Effect of drinking water temperature on physiological variables of crossbred dairy cattle at high altitude temperate region of Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Golher, D. M.; Thirumurugan, P.; Patel, B. H. M.; Upadhyay, V. K.; Sahu, S.; Gaur, G. K.; Bhoite, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of study was to investigate the effects of drinking water on certain physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and, ruminal motility (RM). Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 18 farm bred lactating crossbred cows. The animals selected for the study were divided into three groups of six animals each on the basis of milk yield and parity and were allotted to three treatment group of six each such as ambient drinking water temperature at 10.25±0.28°C (ambient water, T1), drinking water temperature at 15-20°C (T2) and drinking water temperature at 35-40°C (T3). All the managemental practices were kept similar during experiment except drinking water temperatures physiological variables such as HR, RR, RT, and RM of the individual cow was measured and recorded twice in a day at 800 h and again at 1400 h two consecutive days in a week 15 min after providing drinking water. Result: HR and RR at morning and at evening recorded were within the normal physiological level for all the treatment groups. However, RT at morning was comparable in all the treatments whereas at evening it was significantly (p<0.01) higher for cows consuming in T2 and in T3 than cows consumed (T1). The RM during morning among the treatments were non-significant as compared to the rumen motility at evening was significantly higher for (T1) and (T2) than for cows in (T3). Conclusion: It can be concluded that offering warm drinking water at 35-40°C to crossbred lactating dairy cow is beneficial during winter at high altitude temperate region. PMID:27047019

  6. Genetic parameters and investigation of genotype × environment interactions in Nellore × Hereford crossbred for resistance to cattle ticks in different regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-02-01

    Data from 6,156 Nellore × Hereford crossbred cattle, distributed in 18 herds located in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS), were analysed in order to investigate genetic variation for resistance to the cattle tick through the estimation of variance components and genetic parameters for counting ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) in natural infestation, and also a possible genotype × environment interaction. The tick count data (CC) were transformed to log10(CC + 1) and grouped into two regions, defined by cluster analysis and analysed using the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The statistical model included the additive genetic effect as random and fixed effects of the contemporary group (CG) and genetic group (GG) as classificatory and the age of the animal at the time of counting (linear effect) and individual heterozygosity (linear effect, ranging from 0 to 1) as covariates. In the studied regions, the effect of heterosis found was inversely proportional; in other words, the count of ticks decreased with the increase of heterozygosity. The observed heritability estimation for resistance to tick infestation were 0.12 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.04 for groups A (RS and south PR) and B (MS, SP and north PR), respectively. The results of this study suggest that selection for animals resistant to ticks would be possible using the tick count to estimate the genetic value of animals, but with a slow genetic progress. The genetic correlation for tick count between the two groups (A and B) was 0.84 ± 0.27 and genotype × environment interaction for this trait was not observed in the studied population. PMID:25108748

  7. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  8. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 434 steers and 373 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais sires. Maternal grandsires represented Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British Breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, or Friesian breeds. Breed groups were slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr (2002 and 2003). Postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, percentage Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), retail product weight, fat yield (percentage), fat weight, bone yield (percentage), and bone weight were analyzed. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except dressing percentage, percentage Choice, and LM area. Marbling score for animals with Norwegian Red, Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, British Breeds, and Friesian inheritance was 550, 544, 532, 530, and 515, respectively (SEM = 8). Retail product weight for these animals was 224, 211, 227, 223, and 223 kg, respectively (SEM = 2 kg). Maternal granddam breed was not significant for any of the traits analyzed. Grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:16424257

  9. Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2012-08-01

    The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration. PMID:21862090

  10. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW

  11. Effects of Partial or Total Replacement of Maize with Alternative Feed Source on Digestibility, Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites and Economics in Limousin Crossbred Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shi, F. H.; Fang, L.; Meng, Q. X.; Wu, H.; Du, J. P.; Xie, X. X.; Ren, L. P.; Zhou, Z. M.; Zhou, B.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cost and scarcity of maize has stimulated the use of alternative feed sources (AFS) in the diets of cattle. In this study, we investigated the effects of partial or total replacement of maize on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites, and economics in Limousin crossbred feedlot cattle. Forty-five Limousin×Luxi crossbred bulls were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups, orthodox diet (OD; 45.0% maize), partial replacement diet (PRD; 15% maize, 67% AFS), total replacement diet (TRD; 0% maize, 100% AFS). The growth feeding trial lasted for 98 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded. The digestion trial was carried out after the end of the growth trial. Total faeces and feed samples were measured daily. Digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were calculated. After the feeding trial, blood metabolites were measured in 12 animals from each group. Initial and final body weights did not differ significantly among treatment groups (p>0.05). The ADG and DMI were 1.72 and 8.66, 1.60 and 9.10, and 1.40 and 9.11 kg/d for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively. The PRD and TRD exhibited lower ADG (p<0.01) and higher DMI (p<0.01) than OD. The DMI (%body weight) was comparable between groups (p>0.5). Feed efficiency of PRD and TRD were lower than OD (p<0.01). The DM digestibility decreased with reduced level of maize (p = 0.10), OM digestibility was higher in OD (p<0.05), and CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities were similar for all groups (p>0.05). Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) in PRD and TRD was higher than OD (p<0.01), while other blood parameters did not differ significantly. Feed costs ($/head/d) were 1.49, 0.98, and 0.72 for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively (p<0.01). Feed costs per kg gain ($) were significantly lower for PRD (0.63) and TRD (0.54) than OD (0.89; p<0.01). Overall profit ($/head) and daily profit

  12. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher ( P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but

  13. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabutr, N; Chanpongsang, S; Suadsong, S

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33 degrees C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28 degrees C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher (P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower (P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T(3)) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1

  14. Effects of partial or total replacement of maize with alternative feed source on digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites and economics in limousin crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Shi, F H; Fang, L; Meng, Q X; Wu, H; Du, J P; Xie, X X; Ren, L P; Zhou, Z M; Zhou, B

    2014-10-01

    Increasing cost and scarcity of maize has stimulated the use of alternative feed sources (AFS) in the diets of cattle. In this study, we investigated the effects of partial or total replacement of maize on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites, and economics in Limousin crossbred feedlot cattle. Forty-five Limousin×Luxi crossbred bulls were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups, orthodox diet (OD; 45.0% maize), partial replacement diet (PRD; 15% maize, 67% AFS), total replacement diet (TRD; 0% maize, 100% AFS). The growth feeding trial lasted for 98 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded. The digestion trial was carried out after the end of the growth trial. Total faeces and feed samples were measured daily. Digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were calculated. After the feeding trial, blood metabolites were measured in 12 animals from each group. Initial and final body weights did not differ significantly among treatment groups (p>0.05). The ADG and DMI were 1.72 and 8.66, 1.60 and 9.10, and 1.40 and 9.11 kg/d for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively. The PRD and TRD exhibited lower ADG (p<0.01) and higher DMI (p<0.01) than OD. The DMI (%body weight) was comparable between groups (p>0.5). Feed efficiency of PRD and TRD were lower than OD (p<0.01). The DM digestibility decreased with reduced level of maize (p = 0.10), OM digestibility was higher in OD (p<0.05), and CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities were similar for all groups (p>0.05). Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) in PRD and TRD was higher than OD (p<0.01), while other blood parameters did not differ significantly. Feed costs ($/head/d) were 1.49, 0.98, and 0.72 for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively (p<0.01). Feed costs per kg gain ($) were significantly lower for PRD (0.63) and TRD (0.54) than OD (0.89; p<0.01). Overall profit ($/head) and daily profit

  15. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  16. Lactation traits associated with short- and long-term once-daily milking performance in New Zealand crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Davis, S R; Turner, S-A; Obolonkin, V; Tiplady, K; Spelman, R J; Phyn, C V C

    2015-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to establish the relative value of milk yields under twice-daily milking (TDM) as a predictor of yield and yield loss under once-daily milking (ODM), and to understand the role of residual milk and udder storage capacity-related traits in regulating yield and yield loss during ODM. A Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbred herd was established over 2 seasons (years), as 2 individual cohorts on the same farm, managed on a pasture-based system over 4 lactations. Short-term (1-wk) ODM studies, with a starting total of 690 cows, were undertaken in mid- and late-lactation in lactation 2 and in mid-lactation in lactation 3 for each cohort. A 10-wk study of ODM performance began in mid-lactation in lactation 3, whereas lactation 4 was a full-lactation assessment of ODM. In the short-term studies, milk yield under ODM was well predicted (R(2)=0.7 to 0.8 in 5 of 6 studies) by the daily yield under TDM in the week before ODM. Yield loss (kg/d) increased with increasing milk yield and with increasing somatic cell count (SCC), although predictions were relatively poor (R(2)=0.09 to 0.30). Yield loss (%) decreased with increasing TDM yield in 3 of the 6 studies and was positively correlated with SCC during ODM. Nevertheless, ODM yield loss, in absolute or percentage terms, was a poorly repeatable trait in grazing cows. Part of the variation in yield loss percentage (30%) was positively associated with residual milk (%), measured pretrial, during measurement of functional udder capacity in lactation 3. Total production (kg of milk) over the full-lactation ODM study in lactation 4 was correlated with total production in the 10-wk trial in lactation 3 (r=0.72 and 0.63 for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively). Identifying the highest- and lowest-producing 10% of animals during the full lactation of ODM indicated that poor production was associated with high yields of residual milk (measured in lactation 3) and, conversely, high production was

  17. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  18. Effect of alfaprostol, lasalocid, and once-daily suckling on postpartum interval in Brahman and Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, R P; Randel, R D; Neuendorff, D A; Peterson, L A

    1988-10-01

    Brahman cows (n = 49) and primiparous heifers (n = 11), Brahman x Hereford primiparous F1 heifers (n = 86) and Simmental x Brahman primiparous F1 heifers (n = 13) were randomly allotted by breed, age and date of calving to one of eight treatment groups: 1) control; 2) once-daily suckling; 3) lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d); 4) alfaprostol (5 mg intermuscular injections on Days 21 and 32 post partum); 5) lasalocid + once-daily suckling; 6) alfaprostol + once daily suckling; 7) alfaprostol + lasalocid; 8) alfaprostol + lasalocid + once daily suckling. All animals received 2.3 kg/hd/d of a concentrate (6 corn : 1 cottonseed meal) and lasalocid was mixed and fed in the concentrate. Body weights and condition scores were taken on Day 1 post partum and every 28 d thereafter. All animals were maintained with sterile marker bulls with Brahman and Simmental x Brahman cattle artificially inseminated at first estrus. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting on Day 21 post partum until estrus and at nine to twelve days post estrus when the ovaries were palpated for corpora lutea. After the first postpartum estrus with a corpora lutea, cows were placed with fertile bulls. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were below 0.5 ng/ml prior to treatment. Calf weight gains to 90 d were not affected by age (P > 0.10) but were lower in the once-daily suckling group (P < 0.05). Treatment did not affect cow weight or condition score (P > 0.10). Cows had a shorter postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) than heifers. Once-daily suckling shortened postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) and positively influenced the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 40 d post partum (P < 0.02). Alfaprostol did not affect postpartum interval (P > 0.10) but did increase the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 90 d post partum (P < 0.03). Lasalocid did not affect postpartum interval or cumulative frequency of return to estrus (P > 0.10). Both once-daily suckling and alfaprostol were effective in

  19. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    with those with only 50%. Heterosis was numerically greater for most traits for An × Br (11 to 64%) compared with An × Ro and Br × Ro (3 to 42%), which were similar. In a subset of the steers (n = 261), G:F was not influenced by level of tropical breeding, but tropically adapted steers were more efficient (P < 0.05) by residual feed intake. No heterosis was evident. These data show that in temperate zones, winter is the period when productivity of tropically adapted cattle is compromised. PMID:22247114

  20. Suspected panosteitis in a crossbred calf

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Reiichiro; Ito, Tetsuo; Suganuma, Tsunenori; Une, Yumi; Kudo, Tomoo; Kayanuma, Hideki; Kanai, Eiichi; Suzuki, Takehito; Ochiai, Hideharu; Enomoto, Nahoko; Itoh, Seigo; Onda, Ken; Wada, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    A male crossbred calf developed a limp and pain upon deep pressure on the right hind limb and the right forelimb. The radiographic findings of affected limbs and pathological findings of bone biopsy were similar to those observed in canine panosteitis. This is the first case of suspected panosteitis reported in cattle. PMID:25969576

  1. Effects of misty-fan cooling and supplemental rbST on rumen function and milk production of crossbred Holstein cattle during early, mid and late lactation in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Chanchai, Wilaiporn; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2010-04-01

    Two groups of five crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle were housed in normal shade only (NS) as non-cooled cows and in shaded housing with misty-fan cooling (MF) as cooled cows. The cows were treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in early, mid and late lactation with three consecutive injections of rbST in every 14 days. Ambient temperatures and the temperature humidity index in the NS barn were significantly higher than those of the MF barn, whereas relative humidity in MF was higher than that of NS barn. The DMI of cooled cows were higher than those of non-cooled cows, and cooled cows exhibited more response to rbST treatment. Exogenous rbST significantly increased milk yield throughout lactation. The rbST-treated cows had higher total ruminal fermentation products as volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen than the non-rbST treated cows and associated changes were greater in cooled animals in all stages of lactation. Exogenous rbST increased the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen in both groups. These results suggest that the changes in ruminal fermentation with greater production of total VFA and NH(3)N in response to rbST in crossbred cows whether under misty-fan cooling or not, is in part through an increase in feed intake, thereby making more substrate available to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. PMID:20438505

  2. Multivariate analysis to evaluate genetic groups and production traits of crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Angelina Bossi; de Lima Silva, Fabiane; Hongyu, Kuang; Da Silva Santos, Darlim; Murphy, Thomas Wayne; Lopes, Fernando Brito

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to try to unveil the relationship between production traits and genotypic proportions of crossbred dairy cattle using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The herd consists of crossbred animals of Holstein (H) and Zebu (Z) (Gir and Guzerat) in different genotypic proportions; the composition of which varies from 12.5 to 100.0 % of the genetic group H. For this study, 834 milk production records from 257 cows from the years 1997 to 2014 were analyzed. The animals were all managed at a farm located in northeastern Brazil. The variables in the PCA were total milk yield per lactation (MY), milk yield adjusted to 305 days (MY305), lactation length (LL), and proportion of H and Z breeding. This analysis reduced the size of the sample space from the original five variables to two principal components (PCs) that together explained 89.4 % of the total variation. MY, MY305, LL, and genotypic proportion of H all contributed positively to PC1. The genotypic proportion of Z contributed negatively, which established a contrast between H and Z. Further cluster analysis identified two distinct groups when considering production performance and genotype of the animals. The high-performance group was predominantly Holstein breeding, while the lower performing group consisted mostly of Zebu. Under the environmental and management conditions in which this research was conducted, the best performances for the traits considered were achieved from cows whose genotypic proportion was between 38.0 and 94.0 % Holstein breeding. PMID:26719296

  3. Influence of tropical adaptation on plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and residual feed intake in purebred and crossbred beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) differed among heifers and steers produced from three-breed diallel matings using temperate and tropically adapted breeds of cattle in Brooksville, FL. Additionally, for steers only, body w...

  4. Genetic Evaluations Using Combined Data from All Breeds and Crossbred Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An all-breed animal model was developed for routine genetic evaluations of US dairy cattle. Data sets from individual breeds were combined, and records from crossbred cows were included. About 1% of recent cows were first generation crossbreds. Numbers of cows with records since 1960 ranged from 10 ...

  5. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    PubMed

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P < .05). Among the Zebu-sired calves, the Red and Gray Brahman crosses were faster gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P < .05). The Nellore and Indu-Brazil were similar in initial weight, but Indu-Brazil calves were similar to Red and Gray Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P < .05) in marbling score and quality grade although the Nellore crosses had the most desirable score and grade of the Zebu crosses. Gir crosses had higher skeletal maturity scores (P < .05) than Nellore, Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7601767

  6. Release of β-casomorphin-7/5 during simulated gastrointestinal digestion of milk β-casein variants from Indian crossbred cattle (Karan Fries).

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Mohammad Raies; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapila, Suman

    2015-02-01

    Crossbred Karan Fries (KF) cows, among the best yielders of milk in India are carriers of A1 and A2 alleles. These genetic variants have been established as the source of β-casomorphins (BCMs) bioactive peptides that are implicated with various physiological and health issues. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the release of BCM-7/5 from β-casein variants of KF by simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) performed with proteolytic enzymes, in vitro. β-Casein variants (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) were isolated from milk samples of genotyped Karan Fries animals and subjected to hydrolysis by SGID using proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and pancreatin), in vitro. Detection of BCMs were carried out in two peptide fractions (A and B) of RP-HPLC collected at retention time (RT) 24 and 28min respectively corresponding to standard BCM-5 and BCM-7 by MS-MS and competitive ELISA. One of the RP-HPLC fractions (B) showed the presence of 14 amino acid peptide (VYPFPGPIHNSLPQ) having encrypted internal BCMs sequence while no such peptide or precursor was observed in fraction A by MS-MS analysis. Further hydrolysis of fraction B of A1A1 and A1A2 variants of β-casein with elastase and leucine aminopeptidase revealed the release of BCM-7 by competitive ELISA. The yield of BCM-7 (0.20±0.02mg/g β-casein) from A1A1 variant was observed to be almost 3.2 times more than A1A2 variant of β-casein. However, release of BCM-7/5 could not be detected from A2A2 variant of β-casein. The biological activity of released peptides on rat ileum by isolated organ bath from A1A1 (IC50=0.534-0.595μM) and A1A2 (IC50=0.410-0.420μM) hydrolysates further confirmed the presence of opioid peptide BCM-7. PMID:25172685

  7. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Selvan, A. Sakthivel; Gupta, I. D.; Verma, A.; Chaudhari, M. V.; Magotra, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF) cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenol-chloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1) were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I) (contig 2) and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI) (contig 4) restriction enzyme (RE). Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ2) test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci) number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Results: Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt) position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1), revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs). Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I

  8. A tremendous expansion of copy number in crossbred bulls ( × ).

    PubMed

    Zhang, G W; Guan, J Q; Luo, Z G; Zhang, W X; Wang, L; Luo, X L; Zuo, F Y

    2016-04-01

    Crossbreeding between cattle () and yak () exhibits significant hybrid advantages in milk yield and meat production. By contrast, cattle-yak F hybrid bulls are sterile. Copy number variations (CNV) of multicopy gene families in male-specific regions of the mammalian Y chromosome (MSY) affect human and animal fertility. The present study investigated CNV of (), (), (), and () in 5 yak breed bulls ( = 63), cattle-yak F ( = 22) and F ( = 2) hybrid bulls, and Chinese Yellow (CY) cattle bulls ( = 10) by quantitative real-time PCR. showed restricted amplification in yak bulls in that the average geometric mean copy number (CN) was estimated to be 4 copies. The most compelling finding is that there is a tremendous expansion of CN in F hybrids (385 copies; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 351-421) and F hybrids (356 copies) compared with the male parent breed CY cattle (142 copies; 95% CI = 95-211). Copy numbers of and were also extensively expanded on the Y chromosome in yak and CY cattle bulls. The geometric mean CN of and were estimated to be 123 (95% CI = 114-132) and 250 copies (95% CI = 233-268) in yak bulls and 71 (95% CI = 61-82) and 133 (95% CI = 107-164) copies in CY cattle, respectively. Yak and CY cattle have 2 copies of the gene on the Y chromosome. Similarly to gene, the F and F hybrid bulls have higher CN of , , and than CY cattle ( < 0.01). These results indicated that the MSY of yak and cattle-yak crossbred hybrids was fundamentally different from cattle MSY in the context of genomic organization. Based on the model of cattle-yak F and F hybrid bull sterility, the CNV of may serve as a potential risk factor for crossbred bull ( × ) infertility. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine differences in multicopy genes in MSY between yak and cattle-yak bulls. PMID:27135999

  9. Living with Lions: The Economics of Coexistence in the Gir Forests, India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Chauhan, Kartikeya S.; Dave, Chittranjan V.

    2013-01-01

    Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predation and other causes. Lion density, estimated by mark recapture, was 15±0.1 SE/100 km2. Livestock density, estimated by total counts, ranged between 25/km2–31/km2 with buffaloes being most abundant. Average livestock holding of Maldhari families was 33±3 SE. Lions predated mostly on unproductive cattle (30%). Scat analysis (n = 165), predation events (n = 180) and seven continuous monitoring sessions of 1,798 hours on four radio-collared lions estimated livestock to contribute between 25 to 42% of lions’ biomass consumptions, of which only 16% was predated; rest scavenged. With free grazing rights within Gir forests, Maldharis offset 58±0.2 SE% of annual livestock rearing cost in comparison to non-forest dwelling pastoralists. With government compensation scheme for livestock predation, this profit margin augmented to 76±0.05 SE%. Lion density was higher in areas with Maldhari livestock in comparison to areas without livestock. Thus, the current lifestyles and livestock holdings of Maldharis seem to be beneficial to both lions and local pastoralists. We conclude that a combination of strict protection regime for lions, Maldharis’ traditional reverence towards lions and the livelihood economics permit the delicate balance of lion-Maldhari coexistence. Indefinite increase in human and livestock population within Gir might upset this equilibrium undermining the conservation objectives. We see no end to compensation programs worldwide as they constitute a

  10. Tomboys and Girly-Girls: Embodied Femininities in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how 9-11-year-old children, particularly girls, co-construct tomboy and girly-girl identities as oppositional positions. The paper sits within a theoretical framework in which I understand individual and collective masculinities and femininities as ways of "doing man/woman" or "doing boy/girl" that are constructed within local…

  11. Biophysical characterization of Gir2, a highly acidic protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with anomalous electrophoretic behavior.

    PubMed

    Alves, Viviane S; Pimenta, Daniel C; Sattlegger, Evelyn; Castilho, Beatriz A

    2004-01-30

    Gir2 is an uncharacterized protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, containing a RWD/GI domain. In this work, we report the biophysical characterization of Gir2. His-tagged Gir2, expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, showed an abnormally slow migration on SDS-PAGE. The yeast expressed protein behaves similarly. Using mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprinting we demonstrated that the protein has the expected molecular mass (34kDa). EDC modification of carboxylate groups reverted the anomalous migration on SDS-PAGE. Size exclusion chromatography showed that Gir2 has a Stokes radius larger than expected. Gir2 is thermostable and lacks extensive structure, as determined by CD analysis. Based on these findings, we suggest that Gir2 is a representative of the growing group of "natively unfolded" proteins. PMID:14715270

  12. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  13. Whole-genome sequencing reveals the diversity of cattle copy number variations and multicopy genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural and functional impacts of copy number variations (CNVs) on livestock genomes are not yet well understood. We identified 1853 CNV regions using population-scale sequencing data generated from 75 cattle representing 8 breeds (Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, Romagnol...

  14. Attenuated stress-evoked anxiety, increased sucrose preference and delayed spatial learning in glucocorticoid-induced receptor (GIR) deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Lauren E.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Rush, Jennifer A.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Herman, James P.; Weinert, Mychal; Sah, Renu

    2012-01-01

    The glucocorticoid induced receptor (GIR) is a stress-responsive gene that is abundantly expressed in forebrain limbic regions. GIR has been classified as a NPY-like receptor, however, physiological attributes have not been investigated. In the current study mice lacking GIR (−/−) were screened in various paradigms related to stress, anxiety, activity, memory, fear and reward. GIR −/− mice elicited behavioral insensitivity to the anxiogenic effects of restraint stress. However, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress was not impacted by GIR deficiency. Increased preference for sucrose was observed in GIR −/− mice suggestive of modulation of reward-associated behaviors by the receptor. A delayed acquisition of spatial learning was also observed in GIR −/− mice. There were no effects of genotype on the modulation of anxiety-like behavior, activity, and fear conditioning-extinction. Our data extend previous studies on GIR regulation by glucocorticoids and provides novel evidence for a role of GIR in reward, learning and the behavioral outcomes of stress. PMID:23088626

  15. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Umar Nazir; Randhawa, Swaran Singh; Hussain, Syed Ashaq; Randhawa, Sarnarinder Singh; Dua, Kirti

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF) crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3) and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle. PMID:25133012

  16. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  17. Estimates of genetic parameters for stayability and their associations with traits of economic interest in Gir dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M O; Boligon, A A; Fernandes, A R; Vercesi Filho, A E; El Faro, L; Tonhati, H; Albuquerque, L G; Fraga, A B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for stayability at 60 months of age (STAY60) and its association with first lactation cumulative milk yield (P305), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI), in order to adopt these traits as selection criteria for longevity in Gir dairy cattle. Records for 2770 cows born between 1982 and 2008 from six herds in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Paraíba were analyzed. The (co)variance components were estimated by a Bayesian approach using bivariate animal models. The heritability estimates were 0.37 ± 0.09, 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.06, and 0.07 ± 0.03 for STAY60, P305, AFC, and FCI, respectively. The genetic correlations of STAY60 with P305, AFC, and FCI were moderate to high, with values of 0.61 (0.17), -0.44 (0.23), and 0.88 (0.13), respectively. STAY60, P305, and AFC exhibited additive genetic variability, and these traits should be considered in selection indices. The indirect selection for longevity through the correlated responses of early-expression traits, such as milk production at first lactation, could be used to improve the ability of animals to remain in the herd. PMID:26909978

  18. Invited review: genomic selection in multi-breed dairy cattle populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection has been a valuable tool for increasing the rate of genetic improvement in purebred dairy cattle populations. However, there also are many large populations of crossbred dairy cattle in the world, and multi-breed genomic evaluations may be a valuable tool for improving rates of gen...

  19. Accuracy of Predicted Genomic Breeding Values in Purebred and Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, André M.; Bastiaansen, John W. M.; Lopes, Marcos S.; Harlizius, Barbara; Groenen, Martien A. M.; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection has been widely implemented in dairy cattle breeding when the aim is to improve performance of purebred animals. In pigs, however, the final product is a crossbred animal. This may affect the efficiency of methods that are currently implemented for dairy cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of predicted breeding values in crossbred pigs using purebred genomic and phenotypic data. A second objective was to compare the predictive ability of SNPs when training is done in either single or multiple populations for four traits: age at first insemination (AFI); total number of piglets born (TNB); litter birth weight (LBW); and litter variation (LVR). We performed marker-based and pedigree-based predictions. Within-population predictions for the four traits ranged from 0.21 to 0.72. Multi-population prediction yielded accuracies ranging from 0.18 to 0.67. Predictions across purebred populations as well as predicting genetic merit of crossbreds from their purebred parental lines for AFI performed poorly (not significantly different from zero). In contrast, accuracies of across-population predictions and accuracies of purebred to crossbred predictions for LBW and LVR ranged from 0.08 to 0.31 and 0.11 to 0.31, respectively. Accuracy for TNB was zero for across-population prediction, whereas for purebred to crossbred prediction it ranged from 0.08 to 0.22. In general, marker-based outperformed pedigree-based prediction across populations and traits. However, in some cases pedigree-based prediction performed similarly or outperformed marker-based prediction. There was predictive ability when purebred populations were used to predict crossbred genetic merit using an additive model in the populations studied. AFI was the only exception, indicating that predictive ability depends largely on the genetic correlation between PB and CB performance, which was 0.31 for AFI. Multi-population prediction was no better than within

  20. Accuracy of Predicted Genomic Breeding Values in Purebred and Crossbred Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, André M; Bastiaansen, John W M; Lopes, Marcos S; Harlizius, Barbara; Groenen, Martien A M; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2015-08-01

    Genomic selection has been widely implemented in dairy cattle breeding when the aim is to improve performance of purebred animals. In pigs, however, the final product is a crossbred animal. This may affect the efficiency of methods that are currently implemented for dairy cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of predicted breeding values in crossbred pigs using purebred genomic and phenotypic data. A second objective was to compare the predictive ability of SNPs when training is done in either single or multiple populations for four traits: age at first insemination (AFI); total number of piglets born (TNB); litter birth weight (LBW); and litter variation (LVR). We performed marker-based and pedigree-based predictions. Within-population predictions for the four traits ranged from 0.21 to 0.72. Multi-population prediction yielded accuracies ranging from 0.18 to 0.67. Predictions across purebred populations as well as predicting genetic merit of crossbreds from their purebred parental lines for AFI performed poorly (not significantly different from zero). In contrast, accuracies of across-population predictions and accuracies of purebred to crossbred predictions for LBW and LVR ranged from 0.08 to 0.31 and 0.11 to 0.31, respectively. Accuracy for TNB was zero for across-population prediction, whereas for purebred to crossbred prediction it ranged from 0.08 to 0.22. In general, marker-based outperformed pedigree-based prediction across populations and traits. However, in some cases pedigree-based prediction performed similarly or outperformed marker-based prediction. There was predictive ability when purebred populations were used to predict crossbred genetic merit using an additive model in the populations studied. AFI was the only exception, indicating that predictive ability depends largely on the genetic correlation between PB and CB performance, which was 0.31 for AFI. Multi-population prediction was no better than within

  1. Low incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh K; Singh, Krishna M; Soni, Kalpesh J; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli R S

    2007-01-01

    BLAD is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle worldwide. It is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils. The disease is caused by a mutation that replaces adenine at 383 with guanine, which causes an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glycine. Blood samples and a few semen samples were collected from 1250 phenotypically normal individuals, including HF (N=377), HF crossbred (N=334), Jersey (105), other breeds of cattle (N=160) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (N=274) belonging to various artificial insemination stations, bull mother farms (BMFs) and embryo transfer (ET) centres across the country. PCR-RFLP was performed to detect a point mutation in CD18, surface molecules of neutrophils. The results indicate that out of 1250 cattle and buffaloes tested for BLAD, 13 HF purebreds out of 377 and 10 HF crossbreds out of 334 appear to be BLAD carriers. In the HF and HF crossbred population, the percentage of BLAD carriers was estimated as 3.23%. The condition is alarming as the mutant gene has already entered the HF crossbred cattle population and therefore, the population of HF and its crossbreds needs regular screening to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population of India. PMID:17495349

  2. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  3. Evaluation of methods of temperament scoring for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates and carcass weight. The objective of this research study was to evaluate temperament scoring methods in beef cattle. Crossbred (n = 228) calves were evaluated for temperament at weaning by ...

  4. Phospohorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated the effect of three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatmen...

  5. Molecular modelling of the GIR1 branching ribozyme gives new insight into evolution of structurally related ribozymes

    PubMed Central

    Beckert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Henrik; Einvik, Christer; Johansen, Steinar D; Westhof, Eric; Masquida, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Twin-ribozyme introns contain a branching ribozyme (GIR1) followed by a homing endonuclease (HE) encoding sequence embedded in a peripheral domain of a group I splicing ribozyme (GIR2). GIR1 catalyses the formation of a lariat with 3 nt in the loop, which caps the HE mRNA. GIR1 is structurally related to group I ribozymes raising the question about how two closely related ribozymes can carry out very different reactions. Modelling of GIR1 based on new biochemical and mutational data shows an extended substrate domain containing a GoU pair distinct from the nucleophilic residue that dock onto a catalytic core showing a different topology from that of group I ribozymes. The differences include a core J8/7 region that has been reduced and is complemented by residues from the pre-lariat fold. These findings provide the basis for an evolutionary mechanism that accounts for the change from group I splicing ribozyme to the branching GIR1 architecture. Such an evolutionary mechanism can be applied to other large RNAs such as the ribonuclease P. PMID:18219270

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rbg1 Protein and Its Binding Partner Gir2 Interact on Polyribosomes with Gcn1▿

    PubMed Central

    Wout, P. K.; Sattlegger, E.; Sullivan, S. M.; Maddock, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Rbg1 is a previously uncharacterized protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belonging to the Obg/CgtA subfamily of GTP-binding proteins whose members are involved in ribosome function in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We show here that Rbg1 specifically associates with translating ribosomes. In addition, in this study proteins were identified that interact with Rbg1 by yeast two-hybrid screening and include Tma46, Ygr250c, Yap1, and Gir2. Gir2 contains a GI (Gcn2 and Impact) domain similar to that of Gcn2, an essential factor of the general amino acid control pathway required for overcoming amino acid shortage. Interestingly, we found that Gir2, like Gcn2, interacts with Gcn1 through its GI domain, and overexpression of Gir2, under conditions mimicking amino acid starvation, resulted in inhibition of growth that could be reversed by Gcn2 co-overexpression. Moreover, we found that Gir2 also cofractionated with polyribosomes, and this fractionation pattern was partially dependent on the presence of Gcn1. Based on these findings, we conclude that Rbg1 and its interacting partner Gir2 associate with ribosomes, and their possible biological roles are discussed. PMID:19448108

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rbg1 protein and its binding partner Gir2 interact on Polyribosomes with Gcn1.

    PubMed

    Wout, P K; Sattlegger, E; Sullivan, S M; Maddock, J R

    2009-07-01

    Rbg1 is a previously uncharacterized protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belonging to the Obg/CgtA subfamily of GTP-binding proteins whose members are involved in ribosome function in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We show here that Rbg1 specifically associates with translating ribosomes. In addition, in this study proteins were identified that interact with Rbg1 by yeast two-hybrid screening and include Tma46, Ygr250c, Yap1, and Gir2. Gir2 contains a GI (Gcn2 and Impact) domain similar to that of Gcn2, an essential factor of the general amino acid control pathway required for overcoming amino acid shortage. Interestingly, we found that Gir2, like Gcn2, interacts with Gcn1 through its GI domain, and overexpression of Gir2, under conditions mimicking amino acid starvation, resulted in inhibition of growth that could be reversed by Gcn2 co-overexpression. Moreover, we found that Gir2 also cofractionated with polyribosomes, and this fractionation pattern was partially dependent on the presence of Gcn1. Based on these findings, we conclude that Rbg1 and its interacting partner Gir2 associate with ribosomes, and their possible biological roles are discussed. PMID:19448108

  8. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons. PMID:10735086

  9. Ultrasonographic Imaging of Normal and Impacted Omasum in Indian Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Sheikh; Tyagi, S. P.; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Shivali

    2011-01-01

    Omasal impaction is a serious disease problem in cattle in India, but it is difficult to diagnose clinically. Ultrasonography has been proposed for the noninvasive evaluation of omasal disease. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro and in vivo ultrasonographic appearance of the omasum and to compare omasal appearance, limits, and size in clinically healthy cows with those in cows having confirmed omasal impaction. A 3.5 MHz curvilinear transducer was used to image and record the appearance of the omasum in vitro in a water bath, and its appearance, dorsal and ventral limits, and size in 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred cows. The results were compared with the ultrasonographic data collected from 5 cows with omasal impaction, as confirmed at necropsy. On moving the transducer dorsoventrally in each intercostal space and below the costal arch, the wall of omasum could be seen as an echogenic arc-like structure. The difference between mean dorsoventral extents of the normal and impacted omasums was statistically insignificant. These results suggest that ultrasonographic imaging may not be useful in the diagnosis of omasal impaction in Indian crossbred cows, however, additional studies may be warranted. PMID:21647337

  10. Comparison of Bayesian models to estimate direct genomic values in multi-breed commercial beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Several studies have examined the accuracy of genomic selection both within and across purebred beef or dairy populations. However, the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values (DGVs) has been less well studied in crossbred or admixed cattle populations. We used a population of 3,240 cr...

  11. Effects of Grain By-Products as Supplements for Stocker Cattle Grazing Bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to compare corn, dried distillers' grains (DDG), and pelleted soybean hulls (SH) as supplements for cattle grazing bermudagrass. In Exp. 1, 66 crossbred steers (675 ± 7.1 lb) were stratified by weight and allotted randomly to six 6-acre bermudagrass pastures for a 107-...

  12. Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters and Genetic Markers for Association with Meat Tenderness in South African Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a ...

  13. Effect of method and timing of castration on newly arrived stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of castration method and timing on the performance and health of newly received stocker cattle. Two hundred and seventy-one crossbred male calves (184 bulls, 87 steers; 210 ± 14.7 kg) were purchased at auction barns and shipped in three groups. ...

  14. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  15. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non-bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  16. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non- bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  17. Effect of forage species during finishing on growth rate, final weight and carcass parameters from pasture finished cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005 and 2006, angus-crossbred steers (n = 72) were used to compare growth rate, final weight and carcass parameters from pasture-finished cattle grazing cool-season mixed (MP), alfalfa (AL), or pearl millet (PM) pastures during the final 44 d of finishing. Steers were harvested on the same dates...

  18. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941

  19. The use of simple physiological and environmental measures to estimate the latent heat transfer in crossbred Holstein cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Severino Guilherme Caetano Gonçalves dos; Saraiva, Edilson Paes; Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti; Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Fonsêca, Vinicus França Carvalho; Pinheiro, Antônio da Costa; Almeida, Maria Elivania Vieira; de Amorim, Mikael Leal Cabral Menezes

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the heat transfer through cutaneous and respiratory evaporation of dairy cows raised in tropical ambient conditions using simple environmental and physiological measures. Twenty-six lactating crossbred cows (7/8 Holstein-Gir) were used, 8 predominantly white and 18 predominantly black. The environmental variables air temperature, relative humidity, black globe temperature, and wind speed were measured. Respiratory rate and coat surface temperature were measured at 0700, 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 h. The environmental and physiological data were used to estimate heat loss by respiratory (ER) and cutaneous evaporation (EC). Results showed that there was variation (P < 0.01) for respiratory rate depending on the times of the day. The highest values were recorded at 1100, 1300, and 1500 h, corresponding to 66.85 ± 10.20, 66.98 ± 7.80, and 65.65 ± 6.50 breaths/min, respectively. Thus, the amount of heat transferred via respiration ranged from 19.21 to 29.42 W/m2. There was a variation from 31.6 to 38.8 °C for coat surface temperature; these values reflected a range of 55.52 to 566.83 W/m2 for heat transfer via cutaneous evaporation. However, throughout the day, the dissipation of thermal energy through the coat surface accounted for 87.9 % total loss of latent heat, and the remainder (12.1 %) was via the respiratory tract. In conclusion, the predictive models based on respiratory rate and coat surface temperature may be used to estimate the latent heat loss in dairy cows kept confined in tropical ambient conditions.

  20. Natural influence of season on follicular, luteal, and endocrinological turnover in Indian crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, S; Brindha, K; Roy, A; Devanathan, T G; Kathiresan, D; Kumanan, K

    2015-07-01

    during hot period of the year. Thus, it could be concluded that increased incidence of two follicular waves associated with a prolonged growth phase of the ovulatory follicle, and altered luteal endocrine activity during the hot season might be associated with decreased fertility in crossbred cattle. PMID:25840841

  1. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  2. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  3. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality between Duroc and Crossbred Pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and meat quality characteristics of Duroc breed and crossbred pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, LYD). Duroc and crossbred pigs did not show differences in carcass characteristics. Crossbred pigs had higher moisture and protein content than Duroc breeds. However, Duroc breeds had a higher fat content than the crossbred pigs. In meat quality characteristics, crossbred pigs showed higher values of drip loss and cooking loss over Duroc breeds, while Duroc breeds showed higher ultimate pH value compared to that of crossbred pigs. However, there were no differences in water holding capacity and shear force value. In myoglobin content, crossbred pigs had higher content compared to that in the Duroc population. In subjective evaluation and sensory characteristics, Duroc breeds showed significantly higher scores in all categories except for tenderness over the crossbred pigs. However, in storage characteristics, Duroc breeds showed reduced tendency relative to crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs had higher unsaturated fatty acid content than Duroc breeds did. In these results, Duroc breeds showed excellent meat quality characteristics with its higher intramuscular fat content and pH value, lower drip loss and cooking loss and higher juiciness and flavor, compared to the crossbred pigs. PMID:26760944

  4. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality between Duroc and Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Il

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and meat quality characteristics of Duroc breed and crossbred pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, LYD). Duroc and crossbred pigs did not show differences in carcass characteristics. Crossbred pigs had higher moisture and protein content than Duroc breeds. However, Duroc breeds had a higher fat content than the crossbred pigs. In meat quality characteristics, crossbred pigs showed higher values of drip loss and cooking loss over Duroc breeds, while Duroc breeds showed higher ultimate pH value compared to that of crossbred pigs. However, there were no differences in water holding capacity and shear force value. In myoglobin content, crossbred pigs had higher content compared to that in the Duroc population. In subjective evaluation and sensory characteristics, Duroc breeds showed significantly higher scores in all categories except for tenderness over the crossbred pigs. However, in storage characteristics, Duroc breeds showed reduced tendency relative to crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs had higher unsaturated fatty acid content than Duroc breeds did. In these results, Duroc breeds showed excellent meat quality characteristics with its higher intramuscular fat content and pH value, lower drip loss and cooking loss and higher juiciness and flavor, compared to the crossbred pigs. PMID:26760944

  5. Odorant production and persistence of generic E. coli in manure slurries from cattle fed 0, 20, 40, and 60% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from corn removes starch and concentrates the remaining nutrients including CP and minerals. When WDGS are fed to cattle in place of corn, CP and minerals exceed dietary needs. This may increase N emission, P run-off, and odor production. Crossbred steers (n = 160; 434 kg) were...

  6. Influence of wet distiller's grains on prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in feedlot cattle and antimicrobial susceptibility of generic E. coli isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current research examined the inclusion of 20% wet distiller’s grains (WDG) fed with steam-flaked (SFC) or dry-rolled (DRC) corn in diets fed to feedlot cattle on fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Crossbred beef heifers (n = 272; average initial body weight (BW) = 354 kg) were...

  7. Effects of dietary source and intake of energy on immune competence and the response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...

  8. Chromium supplementation alters the performance and health of feedlot cattle during the receiving period and enhances their metabolic response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbred steers (n = 180; 230 +/- 6 kg) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumPropionate0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly-received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens; ...

  9. Effects of source and level of energy on the immune competence and response to an Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy level and source affect immune competence and response to a viral challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by BW within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (8 steers/treatment within period). Treatments we...

  10. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    PubMed Central

    Saravanajayam, M.; Kumanan, K.; Balasubramaniam, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64%) and reproductive form (70.89%) (p≥0.05). A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60%) and in crossbred animals (71.26%) than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92%) than in male (33.33%). Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and sero-monitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR. PMID:27047054

  11. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  12. Post-treatment sequential ultrasound imaging of follicular cyst in a crossbred dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Khan, Muqtaza Manzoor; Prasad, Shiv

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in dairy cattle have investigated the final outcome of different treatment regimens in follicular cyst condition. However, sequential monitoring of the response of follicular cysts to these treatments is rather scanty. In this paper, we present the response of a large follicular cyst in a pluriparous crossbred dairy cow with prolonged conception failure to human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG (3,000 IU; day 0) and cloprostenol (500 μg; day 9) treatment. Using transrectal ultrasonography (USG), reproductive tract was imaged daily beginning day 0 until day 11. The follicular cyst showed a consistent regression to a very small anechoic area on day 7 and was undetectable thereafter. Concurrently, there was development of a new dominant follicle that was first detected on day 4 and showed progressive growth to preovulatory stage. The cow was inseminated and ovulation occurred, as diagnosed by the presence of a corpus luteum (CL) 7 days later, but conception did not occur. The animal was re-inseminated after estrus detection in the estrous cycle that immediately followed. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on 30 and 60 days post-insemination (DPI) and the cow was confirmed to be pregnant. This paper underscores the importance of diagnostic ultrasound in veterinary medicine, especially in the management of reproductive problems. PMID:25767638

  13. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in pure Jersey as compare to crossbred Jersey bulls. Live sperm percentage and acrosome integrity was significantly (p<0.01) higher in pure Jersey bulls as compared to crossbred Jersey bulls. However, no statistical difference (p>0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA

  14. Application of single-step genomic evaluation for crossbred performance in pig.

    PubMed

    Xiang, T; Nielsen, B; Su, G; Legarra, A; Christensen, O F

    2016-03-01

    Crossbreding is predominant and intensively used in commercial meat production systems, especially in poultry and swine. Genomic evaluation has been successfully applied for breeding within purebreds but also offers opportunities of selecting purebreds for crossbred performance by combining information from purebreds with information from crossbreds. However, it generally requires that all relevant animals are genotyped, which is costly and presently does not seem to be feasible in practice. Recently, a novel single-step BLUP method for genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performance has been developed that can incorporate marker genotypes into a traditional animal model. This new method has not been validated in real data sets. In this study, we applied this single-step method to analyze data for the maternal trait of total number of piglets born in Danish Landrace, Yorkshire, and two-way crossbred pigs in different scenarios. The genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performances was investigated first, and then the impact of (crossbred) genomic information on prediction reliability for crossbred performance was explored. The results confirm the existence of a moderate genetic correlation, and it was seen that the standard errors on the estimates were reduced when including genomic information. Models with marker information, especially crossbred genomic information, improved model-based reliabilities for crossbred performance of purebred boars and also improved the predictive ability for crossbred animals and, to some extent, reduced the bias of prediction. We conclude that the new single-step BLUP method is a good tool in the genetic evaluation for crossbred performance in purebred animals. PMID:27065256

  15. Nurse capacity, fertility, and litter size in crossbred sows and genetic correlation to purebred sow information.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B; Christensen, O F; Velander, I

    2016-05-01

    In pigs litter size has increased during the last decades and number of weaned piglets is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop a new trait of nurse capacity (NC) of crossbred sows viewed as crossbred performances in the two purebred parent lines, and estimate the genetic correlation to fertility and litter size five days after birth. An experiment recording phenotypes of crossbred sows was conducted in three large production herds with 11,247 first litter Danish Landrace x Yorkshire sows. All terminal sires used were Duroc AI boars. The experiment was running from 2010 to 2013. At farrowing, the total number born (TNB) was recorded. Five days after farrowing the litter size of the biological mother (LS5) was recorded. During the first three days after farrowing the number of piglets at each nurse sow was equalized to 14 piglets and after three weeks the NC was recorded and defined as the number of piglets nursed. Additional records on TNB and LS5 from related sows in nucleus and multiplier herds were added to obtain a data set with both purebred and crossbred information. A reduced animal model including both purebred and crossbred records was used and parameters were estimated. The results show that NC recorded on crossbred first litter sows had heritabilities of 0.05 and 0.07 for crossbred performance in the purebred populations of Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations between TNB in purebreds and crossbreds show that nearly 50% of genetic gain in the purebred populations was transferred to crossbreds. Unfavorable genetic correlations between TNB in purebreds and NC in crossbreds were observed. For LS5 the genetic (co)variances show that 61% of the genetic gain in the two purebred lines was transferred to the commercial pig production of crossbred first litter sows, but no statistically significant genetic correlation to NC was obtained. PMID:27285680

  16. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the...

  17. Describing variation in rump P8 fat depth of crossbred cattle from birth to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Deland, M P B; Pitchford, W S

    2009-03-15

    A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted on the matrix of correlations among P8 fat measures at seven different ages for steers and heifers. The P8 fat measures were collected from 1143 steers and heifer calves that were born to Hereford (h) dams inseminated with semen from seven different sire breeds: Angus, Belgian Blue, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, South Devon and Wagyu, over a 4-year period (1994 to 1997). The first two principal components explained 61 and 57% of the total phenotypic variation in fatness for steers and heifers, respectively. The first component was positively correlated to all measures and was interpreted as a measure of overall fatness. The second component was positively correlated to fatness approximately pre-weaning and negatively correlated thereafter and thus was interpreted as maturity type but could be a function of milk supply. When estimated from a sire model, the heritability estimates were high for the first component (0.59 and 0.67 for steers and heifers, respectively) but low for the second component (0.05 and 0.19). The results demonstrate the value of combining information across multiple measurements to build accuracy, even when relatively crude methods are used. PMID:19580009

  18. Partial-genome evaluation of postweaning feed intake and efficiency of crossbred beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and variation explained by sets of SNP associated with dry matter intake (DMI), metabolic mid-test weight (MBW), BW gain (GN) and feed efficiency expressed as phenotypic and genetic residual feed intake (RFIp; RFIg) were estimated from wei...

  19. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.01) for all traits. Maternal granddam breed (Hereford, Angus, or MARC III)was significant (P < 0.05) only for fat depth, USDA yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for live weight, hot carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:12723078

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Growth in Crossbred Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip (50K) were obtained on progeny (F1; 590 steers) and 2-, 3-, and 4-breed cross grandprogeny (F12 = F1 x F1; 1306 steers and 707 females) of 150 AI sires representing seven breeds (22 sires per breed; Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, an...

  1. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bickhart, Derek M; Xu, Lingyang; Hutchison, Jana L; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Lewin, Harris A; Liu, George E

    2016-06-01

    The diversity and population genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analysed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, and Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold coverage to identify 1,853 non-redundant CNV regions. Supported by high validation rates in array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and qPCR experiments, these CNV regions accounted for 3.1% (87.5 Mb) of the cattle reference genome, representing a significant increase over previous estimates of the area of the genome that is copy number variable (∼2%). Further population genetics and evolutionary genomics analyses based on these CNVs revealed the population structures of the cattle taurine and indicine breeds and uncovered potential diversely selected CNVs near important functional genes, including AOX1, ASZ1, GAT, GLYAT, and KRTAP9-1 Additionally, 121 CNV gene regions were found to be either breed specific or differentially variable across breeds, such as RICTOR in dairy breeds and PNPLA3 in beef breeds. In contrast, clusters of the PRP and PAG genes were found to be duplicated in all sequenced animals, suggesting that subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or overdominance play roles in diversifying those fertility-related genes. These CNV results provide a new glimpse into the diverse selection histories of cattle breeds and a basis for correlating structural variation with complex traits in the future. PMID:27085184

  2. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bickhart, Derek M.; Xu, Lingyang; Hutchison, Jana L.; Cole, John B.; Null, Daniel J.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Song, Jiuzhou; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Lewin, Harris A.; Liu, George E.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and population genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analysed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, and Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold coverage to identify 1,853 non-redundant CNV regions. Supported by high validation rates in array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and qPCR experiments, these CNV regions accounted for 3.1% (87.5 Mb) of the cattle reference genome, representing a significant increase over previous estimates of the area of the genome that is copy number variable (∼2%). Further population genetics and evolutionary genomics analyses based on these CNVs revealed the population structures of the cattle taurine and indicine breeds and uncovered potential diversely selected CNVs near important functional genes, including AOX1, ASZ1, GAT, GLYAT, and KRTAP9-1. Additionally, 121 CNV gene regions were found to be either breed specific or differentially variable across breeds, such as RICTOR in dairy breeds and PNPLA3 in beef breeds. In contrast, clusters of the PRP and PAG genes were found to be duplicated in all sequenced animals, suggesting that subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or overdominance play roles in diversifying those fertility-related genes. These CNV results provide a new glimpse into the diverse selection histories of cattle breeds and a basis for correlating structural variation with complex traits in the future. PMID:27085184

  3. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair. PMID:9330257

  4. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; Lucena, C; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence was found that supports the existence of a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat. Cattle with slick hair were observed to maintain lower rectal temperatures (RT). The gene is found in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America. This gene is also found in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed. Two sets of backcross matings of normal-haired sire breeds to Senepol crossbred dams assumed to be heterozygous for the slick hair gene resulted in ratios of slick to normal-haired progeny that did not significantly differ from 1:1. Data from Carora x Holstein crossbred cows in Venezuela also support the concept of a major gene that is responsible for the slick hair coat of the Carora breed. Cows that were 75% Holstein: 25% Carora in breed composition segregated with a ratio that did not differ from 1:1, as would be expected from a backcross matinginvolving a dominant gene. The effect of the slick hair gene on RT depended on the degree of heat stress and appeared to be affected by age and/or lactation status. The decreased RT observed for slick-haired crossbred calves compared to normal-haired contemporaries ranged from 0.18 to 0.4 degrees C. An even larger decrease in RT (0.61 degrees C; P < 0.01) was observed in lactating Carora x Holstein F1 crossbred cows, even though it did not appear that these cows were under severe heat stress. The improved thermotolerance of crossbred calves due to their slick hair coats did not result in increased weaning weights, possibly because both the slick and normal-haired calves were being nursed by slick-haired dams. There were indications that the slick-haired calves grew faster immediately following weaning and that their growth during the cooler months of the year was not compromised significantly by their reduced quantity of

  5. The Effect of Slaughter Season on the Fatty Acid Profile in Four Types of Fat Deposits in Crossbred Beef Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Wroński, Marek; Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia; Mochol, Magdalena; Rzemieniewski, Arkadiusz; Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Purwin, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of slaughter season on the fatty acid profile in four types of fat deposits in crossbred (Polish Holstein Friesian Black-and-White×Limousine) beef bulls. The percentage share of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography and were divided into the following categories of fatty acids: saturated (SFAs), unsaturated (UFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), polyunsaturated (PUFAs), desirable hypocholesterolemic (DFAs) and undesirable hypercholesterolemic (OFAs), n-3 and n-6. Perinephric fat was characterized by the highest SFA concentrations (59.89%), and subcutaneous fat had the highest MUFA content (50.63%). Intramuscular fat was marked by a high percentage share of PUFAs and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. The slaughter season had a significant effect on the levels of C18:3, C20:4 (p≤0.01) and conjugated linoleic acid (p≤0.05). There was an interaction between the slaughter season and fat type for the content of C20:4 (p≤0.01) and C20:5 (p≤0.05). The results of this study show that beef from cattle slaughtered in the summer season has a higher nutritional value and more health-promoting properties. PMID:25049787

  6. Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, T. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Johnson, L. J.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Angus crossbred yearling steers ( n = 168) were used to evaluate effects on performance and tympanic temperature (TT) of feeding additional potassium and sodium to steers exposed to excessive heat load (maximum daily ambient temperature exceeded 32°C for three consecutive days) during seasonal summer conditions. Steers were assigned one of four treatments: (1) control; (2) potassium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3); (3) sodium supplemented (diet containing 1.10% NaCl); or (4) potassium and sodium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3 and 1.10% NaCl). Overall, additional KHCO3 at the 2% level or NaCl at the 1% level did not improve performance or heat stress tolerance with these diet formulations. However, the addition of KHCO3 did enhance water intake. Independent of treatment effects, TT of cattle displaying high, moderate, or low levels of stress suggest that cattle that do not adequately cool down at night are prone to achieving greater body temperatures during a subsequent hot day. Cattle that are prone to get hot but can cool at night can keep average tympanic temperatures at or near those of cattle that tend to consistently maintain lower peak and mean body temperatures. In addition, during cooler and moderately hot periods, cattle change TT in a stair-step or incremental pattern, while under hot conditions, average TT of group-fed cattle moves in conjunction with ambient conditions, indicating that thermoregulatory mechanisms are at or near maximum physiological capacity.

  7. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG<25°C = 10.66 + 0.28 × rh + 1.30 × BG - WS; and, HLI BG> 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI < 70) to extreme (HLI > 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P < 0.001) of pure bred Bos taurus and crosses of Bos taurus cattle had a panting score ≥ 2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  8. Assessing signatures of selection through variation in linkage disequilibrium between taurine and indicine cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Signatures of selection are regions in the genome that have been preferentially increased in frequency and fixed in a population because of their functional importance in specific processes. These regions can be detected because of their lower genetic variability and specific regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns. Methods By comparing the differences in regional LD variation between dairy and beef cattle types, and between indicine and taurine subspecies, we aim at finding signatures of selection for production and adaptation in cattle breeds. The VarLD method was applied to compare the LD variation in the autosomal genome between breeds, including Angus and Brown Swiss, representing taurine breeds, and Nelore and Gir, representing indicine breeds. Genomic regions containing the top 0.01 and 0.1 percentile of signals were characterized using the UMD3.1 Bos taurus genome assembly to identify genes in those regions and compared with previously reported selection signatures and regions with copy number variation. Results For all comparisons, the top 0.01 and 0.1 percentile included 26 and 165 signals and 17 and 125 genes, respectively, including TECRL, BT.23182 or FPPS, CAST, MYOM1, UVRAG and DNAJA1. Conclusions The VarLD method is a powerful tool to identify differences in linkage disequilibrium between cattle populations and putative signatures of selection with potential adaptive and productive importance. PMID:24592996

  9. Accuracy of genomic prediction using deregressed breeding values estimated from purebred and crossbred offspring phenotypes in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A M; Bastiaansen, J W M; Lopes, M S; Veroneze, R; Groenen, M A M; de Koning, D-J

    2015-07-01

    Genomic selection is applied to dairy cattle breeding to improve the genetic progress of purebred (PB) animals, whereas in pigs and poultry the target is a crossbred (CB) animal for which a different strategy appears to be needed. The source of information used to estimate the breeding values, i.e., using phenotypes of CB or PB animals, may affect the accuracy of prediction. The objective of our study was to assess the direct genomic value (DGV) accuracy of CB and PB pigs using different sources of phenotypic information. Data used were from 3 populations: 2,078 Dutch Landrace-based, 2,301 Large White-based, and 497 crossbreds from an F1 cross between the 2 lines. Two female reproduction traits were analyzed: gestation length (GLE) and total number of piglets born (TNB). Phenotypes used in the analyses originated from offspring of genotyped individuals. Phenotypes collected on CB and PB animals were analyzed as separate traits using a single-trait model. Breeding values were estimated separately for each trait in a pedigree BLUP analysis and subsequently deregressed. Deregressed EBV for each trait originating from different sources (CB or PB offspring) were used to study the accuracy of genomic prediction. Accuracy of prediction was computed as the correlation between DGV and the DEBV of the validation population. Accuracy of prediction within PB populations ranged from 0.43 to 0.62 across GLE and TNB. Accuracies to predict genetic merit of CB animals with one PB population in the training set ranged from 0.12 to 0.28, with the exception of using the CB offspring phenotype of the Dutch Landrace that resulted in an accuracy estimate around 0 for both traits. Accuracies to predict genetic merit of CB animals with both parental PB populations in the training set ranged from 0.17 to 0.30. We conclude that prediction within population and trait had good predictive ability regardless of the trait being the PB or CB performance, whereas using PB population(s) to predict

  10. Performance of crossbred calves with dietary supplementation of garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Mehla, R K; Sirohi, S K; Tomar, S K

    2011-08-01

    Twelve crossbred calves (Holstein cross) in their pre-ruminant stage were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance and they were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups in equal number. Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake [dry matter (DM); total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)], feed conversion efficiency (DM, TDN and CP), fecal score and fecal coliform count. Diets were same for both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW/day/calf. BW measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, fecal scores monitored daily and fecal coliform count done weekly. There was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in mean BW gain and feed intake and a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in severity of scours as measured by fecal score in the treatment group compared to the control group. The results suggest that garlic extract can be supplemented to the calves for better performance. PMID:21039933

  11. Alteration in clinico-biochemical profile and oxidative stress indices associated with hyperglycaemia with special reference to diabetes in cattle--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Padinjare Melepat; Dimri, Umesh; Jhambh, Ricky; Yatoo, Mohd Iqbal; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess hyperglycaemia with special reference to diabetes mellitus in cattle by clinico-biochemical estimation and evaluation of oxidative stress indices. A total of 256 cattle exhibiting weakness, poor body condition and reduced milk yield in lactating cattle were included in the study. These animals were screened with blood glucose level, urine glucose and ketone bodies. Out of these, 32 (12.5%) cattle showed hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, of which 25% exhibited ketonuria. Diabetes was confirmed in five cattle by estimation of fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum fructosamine, intravenous glucose tolerance test and insulin level. This reports first confirmation of diabetes in cattle in India. All these five animals revealed low level of serum insulin suggestive of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in cattle. The level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was found to be increased in diabetic cattle. Oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed in hyperglycaemic cattle and five age-matched Holstein Friesian (HF) cross-bred healthy control animals. Diabetic cattle revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of erythrocytic lipid peroxides in comparison with other hyperglycaemic cattle and healthy controls whereas the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was found to be significantly lower in diabetes-affected animals in comparison to healthy controls. Reduced glutathione did not show a significant difference between hyperglycaemic and control groups. It is concluded from the present study that oxidative stress associated with diabetes in cattle is obvious compared with other hyperglycaemic cattle. PMID:25433646

  12. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreya M.; Koringa, Prakash G.; Nathani, Neelam M.; Patel, Namrata V.; Shah, Tejash M.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  13. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  14. Field trial on comparative efficacy of four fasciolicides against natural liver fluke infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Elitok, Bülent; Elitok, Ozgül Mukaddes; Kabu, Mustafa

    2006-02-18

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), rafoxanide (RFX), triclabendazole (TRC) or clorsulon (CLS) against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. This trial was conducted in Turkey during the spring, the time of year when liver fluke infection is endemic. Fifty crossbred cattle were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of F. hepatica in the feces. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into five groups of 10 cattle and treatments were as follows: Group 1 served as non-treated control (CONT), Group 2 was treated orally with ABZ at 12 mg/kg, Group 3 was treated orally with RFX at 10 mg/kg, Group 4 received TRC orally at 12 mg/kg and Group 5 received CLS administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 2 mg/kg. On day 0 (inclusion day), individual fecal samples were collected on days 0 (inclusion day), 7, 14, 28 and 56, after treatment. The drug efficacy was assessed as a percentage of the egg or fluke reduction and body weight gain relative to the untreated control. The results in the study showed a mean reduction of egg counts by 66.7%, 68.2%, 78% and 84.2% in Groups 2-5, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that CLS is a highly effective compound for the treatment of F. hepatica in cattle under these field conditions. PMID:16289862

  15. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anja Stojsin-; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77±0.09 and 0.33±0.24ng/ml respectively (p=0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3±568.5 and 2977.9±214.1ng/ml respectively (p<0.05). This is the first published report of FF and GC AMH in Zebu cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p=0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. PMID:26898391

  16. Breed variation and genetic parameters for growth and body development in diverse beef cattle genotypes.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, R A; Pitchford, W S; Deland, M P B; McKiernan, W A

    2007-02-01

    Conformation scores can account for more than 20% of cattle price variation at Australian livestock sales. However, there are limited available references which define genetic factors relating objective live developmental traits to carcass composition. Weaning and post-weaning weight, height, length, girth, muscle (ratio of stifle to hip width) and fat depth of 1202 progeny from mature Hereford cows (637) mated to seven sire breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue) were examined for growth and development across ages. Crossbred Wagyu and Jersey were both lighter in weight and smaller in size (height, length and girth) than purebred Hereford and crossbred Angus, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue. Within the five larger crossbreds, there were significant changes in relative weight from weaning to 600 days. Sire breeds differed in fat depth, with Angus being the fattest (9% on average fatter than Hereford and Wagyu), and Jersey 5% less fat than Hereford, followed by South Devon and Limousin (19% lower than Hereford) and Belgian Blue (39% lower than Hereford). Direct heritability ranged from 19 to 42% and was higher than the proportion of total phenotypic variance accounted for by maternal effects (which ranged from 0 to 17%) for most body measurement traits except for weight (38 v. 18%) and girth (36 v. 9%) traits at weaning, an indication of maternal effect on some body conformation traits at early ages. Muscularity (19 to 44%) and fat depth (26 to 43%) were moderately to highly heritable across ages. There were large differences for growth and the objective measures of body development between crossbreds with a degree of overlap among the progeny of the seven sire breeds. The variation between genetic (positive) and environmental (negative) correlations for dry versus wet season average daily gains in weight and fat, suggested the potential use of live-animal conformation traits for within breed selection of genetically

  17. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A S; Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Raadsma, Herman W

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed "selection signatures". This article reviews 64 recent (2009-2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  18. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed “selection signatures”. This article reviews 64 recent (2009–2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  19. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  20. Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn and other types of cattle.

    PubMed

    Adams, N J; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L

    1982-07-01

    Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn steers were compared with those of cattle currently popular in the United States-Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Holstein, two-breed crossbred (British beef breed crosses) and three-breed crossbred (1 4 dairy , 1 4 British beef and 1 2 European beef ) steers. Steers were fed roughage, then a growing diet (42 days), then a high energy (89% concentrate) diet (153 to 179 days by breed group) and slaughtered, individually, at USDA Choice finish or, failing that, after 186 days on the finishing diet. Data suggest that Longhorns, compared with types of cattle currently used: (1) are less desirable in physical appearance; (2) gain weight less rapidly, reaching the desired finish and slaughter weight as older animals; (3) convert feed to liveweight less efficiently; (4) deposit less subcutaneous fat, more internal fat, but essentially the same amount of intramuscular fat; (5) are as muscular (longissimus muscle area, estimated percentage of carcass muscle, muscle to bone ratio, muscle to fat ratio); (6) are as desirable in USDA quality grade and yield grade and (7) produce beef that is a palatable. PMID:22055071

  1. Muscle protein turnover in cattle of differing genetic backgrounds as measured by urinary N tau-methylhistidine excretion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, F.D.; Bergen, W.G.; Hawkins, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    N tau-methylhistidine (N tau MH) was used as an index for muscle protein degradation and this index was utilized to evaluate degradation rates in young growing cattle. Initially, two Charolais crossbred heifers, 12 months of age, were used to measure the recovery of radioactivity in the urine for a 120-hour period after intravenous injection of (/sup 14/C)N tau MH. Of the radioactivity injected into the animals, 89.7% was recovered after 120 hours. With rate and amount of clearance as the criteria, the excretion of N tau MH in urine appears to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in cattle. Eight steers of two genetic types were used to evaluate the effect of frame size on turnover rates of muscle proteins with N tau MH as an index. Large frame cattle (LG) excreted more N tau MH per day throughout the trial. Total daily creatinine excretion was less for small frame (SM) cattle showing an increase with time in LG and SM cattle. N tau MH-to-creatinine ratios showed a decline with time. Fractional breakdown rates (FBR) and fractional synthesis rates (FSR) appeared to parallel each other with rates tending to decrease with age. No differences were observed between LG and SM cattle for FBR, FSR or fractional growth rate (FGR).

  2. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  3. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5% probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5% probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds. PMID:25702060

  4. Grain feeding coordinately alters expression patterns of transcription factor and metabolic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Key, C N; Perkins, S D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to improve meat quality and production efficiency in cattle is limited by an inability to enhance marbling and simultaneously limit undesirable adipose tissue accretion. The objective of this study was to examine expression of regulatory genes in subcutaneous (SCF) adipose tissue of heifers in response to increasing days on feed (DOF) and finishing strategy. Crossbred heifers (n = 24) were allotted as follows: Group 1 = 0 d, Group 2 = 99 d on winter annual ryegrass (grass; Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Group 3 = 218 g on grass, Group 4 = 99 d on grass followed by 119 d on grain. Adipose tissue samples were collected at time of harvest and frozen. Carcass characteristics were measured 24 h postharvest. As expected, HCW (P < 0.0001), ribeye area (REA; P < 0.0002), backfat (BF; P < 0.0001), KPH (P < 0.0001), and marbling score (P < 0.0009) increased with DOF though frame score was not different (P < 0.95). Average daily gain decreased with DOF (P < 0.0001). Yield grade increased (P < 0.0014) but cook loss percentage decreased (P < 0.001) with DOF without changes in 24-h pH (P < 0.31). Interestingly, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) was decreased with DOF (P < 0.0089). Meanwhile, BF (P < 0.01) and KPH (P < 0.05) were greater, whereas marbling values trended greater in grain versus grass-finished heifers. Neither ADG (P < 0.89), HCW (P < 0.26), frame score (P < 0.85), nor REA (P < 0.38) were different between these groups. Grain finishing increased yield grade (P < 0.001) but did not affect 24-h pH (P < 0.88), cook loss percentage (P < 0.98), or WBS (P < 0.44) compared with grass-finished heifers. The expression of PPARγ, bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), and SMAD family member 1 (SMAD1) mRNA was upregulated in response to DOF and grain finishing, whereas sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), sonic hedgehog (SHH), chicken ovalbumin protein transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1), chicken ovalbumin protein transcription factor 2 (COUP-TF2), and

  5. Current status and its epidemiological consideration of Fasciola and Eurytrema infections in beef cattle of Japan

    PubMed Central

    OKAJIMA, Jungo; SHIBATA, Kazuhiko; TAKAHASHI, Eiichi; NAGAFUCHI, Tsuneyuki; OKAJIMA, Kazue; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one’s own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence. PMID:26822002

  6. Current status and its epidemiological consideration of Fasciola and Eurytrema infections in beef cattle of Japan.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Jungo; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Eiichi; Nagafuchi, Tsuneyuki; Okajima, Kazue; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one's own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence. PMID:26822002

  7. Accuracy of genomic predictions for feed efficiency traits of beef cattle using 50K and imputed HD genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Akanno, E C; Crowley, J J; Schenkel, F; Li, H; De Pauw, M; Moore, S S; Wang, Z; Li, C; Stothard, P; Plastow, G; Miller, S P; Basarab, J A

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of genomic predictions can be used to assess the utility of dense marker genotypes for genetic improvement of beef efficiency traits. This study was designed to test the impact of genomic distance between training and validation populations, training population size, statistical methods, and density of genetic markers on prediction accuracy for feed efficiency traits in multibreed and crossbred beef cattle. A total of 6,794 beef cattle data collated from various projects and research herds across Canada were used. Illumina BovineSNP50 (50K) and imputed Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (HD) genotypes were available for all animals. The traits studied were DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Four validation groups of 150 animals each, including Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), Angus-Hereford crosses (ANHH), and a Charolais-based composite (TX) were created by considering the genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the validation groups. Each validation group had 7 corresponding training groups of increasing sizes ( = 1,000, 1,999, 2,999, 3,999, 4,999, 5,998, and 6,644), which also represent increasing average genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the training and validations groups. Prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) was performed using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian method C (BayesC). The accuracy of genomic predictions was defined as the Pearson's correlation between adjusted phenotype and GEBV (), unless otherwise stated. Using 50K genotypes, the highest average achieved in purebreds (AN, CH) was 0.41 for DMI, 0.34 for ADG, and 0.35 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.21 for ADG, and 0.25 for RFI. Similarly, when imputed HD genotypes were applied in purebreds (AN, CH), the highest average was 0.14 for DMI, 0.15 for ADG, and 0.14 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.22 for ADG, and 0.24 for RFI. The of GBLUP predictions were

  8. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  9. Finishing Growth and Carcass Characteristics Following Reciprocal Embryo Transfer between Meishan and White Crossbred Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and contemporary White crossbred (WC) pigs have shown that increased lean, finishing growth of WC pigs is affected by the direct genotype of the piglet. The objective of the current study was to determine the contributions of the piglet and maternal genoty...

  10. Pasture-raised Katahdin and Katahdin crossbred lambs: growth and parasite resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin ewes were mated to Dorper, Texel, Suffolk or Katahdin rams (3 rams/breed; 8-10 ewes each) to compare growth performance and parasite resistance of the crossbred lambs. Lamb BW was measured at birth (=d0), and then every 30d to d210 (adjusted). Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined at d60 ...

  11. Effect of increased systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

  12. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mend...

  13. Quality Comparison of Pork Loin and Belly from Three-way Crossbred Pigs during Postmortem Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Gyun; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the meat quality characteristics of pork loin and belly from 3 different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc (YLD), Yorkshire × Chester White × Yorkshire (YCY), and Yorkshire × Berkshire × Duroc (YBD). Each of the twenty crossed pigs were randomly selected with their live weights at the range of 110-120 kg. After being slaughtered and cooled at 0℃ for 24 h in a chilling room, the parts of loin and belly on the left side of the cooled carcasses were cut and prepared for analysis. The intramuscular fat contents of the loins from YLD were higher than those of the other crossbreds (p<0.05), and the YCY bellies had the highest moisture contents (p<0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) of the loins from YCY were higher than the other crossbreds (p<0.05). Shear force values of the YBD loins were higher than the others (p<0.05). The TBARS values of YCY loins were significantly lower than the others at 0 d, but the difference disappeared after 14 d of storage. Sensory scores of YLD were ranked higher than the YCY or YBD in both the loins and bellies (p<0.05). The relatively high sensory values of YLD crossbred pork could be explained by the better WHC, the low shear forces, and the higher fat contents. The results indicated that the meat qualities could be altered by three-way crossbreeding. PMID:26760937

  14. Genetic analyses of beef traits of crossbred and purebred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective herein was to estimate heterosis and breed effects for beef traits of steers produced by purebred and crossbred matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus. Steers (n = 469) were spring-born from 2002 to 2004 and weaned at an average of 7 mo of age. They were transported to Oklahoma and...

  15. Dose dependent effect of GnRH analogue on pregnancy rate of repeat breeder crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Kharche, S D; Srivastava, S K

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treating repeat breeder dairy crossbred cows with different doses of GnRH analogue through i.m. at the time of artificial insemination, on pregnancy rates from their first service after treatment and overall pregnancy rates. One hundred and thirty seven crossbred dairy cows with a history of repeat breeding and eligible after 6-8 infertile services but clinically free of diseases were selected for the study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 55) cows were treated intramuscularly with each 20 microg Buserelin-acetate (Receptal, Hoechst Roussel Vet GmbH) at the time of artificial insemination. Group 2 (n = 40) cows were treated intramuscularly with each 10 microg Buserelin-acetate at the time of artificial insemination. Group 3 (n = 42) cows were treated intramuscularly with saline as control at the time of artificial insemination. The first service pregnancy rates in Groups 1-3 were 45, 25 and 17%, respectively. Similarly, the overall conception rates in Groups 1-3 were 87, 58 and 48%, respectively. The results indicated that the pregnancy rate in crossbred cows could be improved by the GnRH treatment. The higher dose of GnRH significantly increased (P < 0.05) the first service as well as overall pregnancy rate in a dose dependent manner in repeat breeder crossbred cow bred previously 6-8 times unsuccessfully. PMID:16787717

  16. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    PubMed

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  17. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P < 0.01) existed between serum leptin and marbling score (r = 0.35 and 0.50), fat depth measured between the 12th and 13th rib (r = 0.34 and 0.46), kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) (r = 0.42 and 0.46), and quality grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P < 0.01). Longissimus area was not correlated with serum leptin in CGC steers (r = 0.12; P > 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P < 0.01). Serum concentrations of leptin were significantly associated with carcass composition (marbling, back fat depth, and KPH fat) and quality grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  18. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of variation for temperament traits in this herd, or that calves became accustomed to the level of handling pre- and postweaning, thus decreasing behavioral differences among them. PMID:19684277

  19. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  20. Growth performance and carcass quality of crossbreds pigs from two Pietrain sire lines fed isoproteic diets varying in energy concentration.

    PubMed

    Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Coma, J; López-Bote, C J; Mateos, G G

    2016-04-01

    The effects of net energy (NE) content of isoproteic diets on growth performance and carcass and meat quality traits were studied in crossbreds from Landrace×Large White females and two Pietrain sire lines (PIC L62 vs. German Pietrain). Feed intake (FI) decreased (Lineal, P<0.001) and feed efficiency improved (Lineal, P<0.001) as the NE content of the diet increased. Crossbreds from PIC L62 had greater (P<0.001) FI and average daily gain (ADG) but were less efficient (P<0.01) than crossbreds from German Pietrain. German Pietrain crossbreds were leaner (P<0.001) and had higher shoulder yield (P<0.01) and less fat at m. Gluteus medius (P<0.001) than carcasses from PIC L62 crossbreds. In summary, an increase in the NE concentration of the diet improved feed efficiency but did not affect ADG. Crossbreeds from PIC L62 sires grew faster and had fatter carcasses than crossbreds from German Pietrain. PMID:26741851

  1. Anthelmintics for cattle.

    PubMed

    Prichard, R K

    1986-07-01

    A number of anthelmintics are available for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In North America, O. ostertagi, Cooperia spp., lung worm, and F. hepatica probably cause the greatest losses in production. The older anthelmintics are often deficient in their action against some of these parasites. Recently, the Paratect morantel tartrate slow-release bolus has provided a mechanism for the prevention of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and lung worm, to some extent, and this has been shown to produce considerable economic benefits. Fenbendazole removes arrested O. ostertagi larvae; thus, its availability is an important step in the prevention of type-2 ostertagiasis. It also has a very broad spectrum of activity that includes most other nematodes and tapeworms and is a very safe anthelmintic. Ivermectin is highly effective against almost all cattle nematodes and also has great value for the control of arthropod ectoparasites. In addition, it and levamisole are the only anti-nematode drugs that can be administered to cattle by injection. Clorsulon is a new, safe anthelmintic that provides good control of liver fluke and, thus, fills a gap in the control of helminths of cattle in North America. The efficient use of anthelmintics in association with management based on a knowledge of parasite epidemiology can ensure that cattle do not rapidly become re-infected. In this way, the benefits from the use of anthelmintics can be very considerable and far greater than the costs of control. PMID:3488116

  2. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: I. Estimation of model parameters.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Breed parameters for a computer model that simulated differences in the composition of empty-body gain of beef cattle, resulting from differences in postweaning level of nutrition that are not associated with empty BW, were estimated for 17 biological types of cattle (steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds [Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise] mated to Hereford and Angus dams). One value for the maximum fractional growth rate of fat-free matter (KMAX) was estimated and used across all breed types. Mature fat-free matter (FFMmat) was estimated from data on mature cows for each of the 17 breed types. Breed type values for a fattening parameter (THETA) were estimated from growth and composition data at slaughter on steers of the 17 breed types, using the previously estimated constant KMAX and breed values for FFMmat. For each breed type, THETA values were unique for given values of KMAX, FFMmat, and composition at slaughter. The results showed that THETA was most sensitive to KMAX and had similar sensitivity to FFMmat and composition at slaughter. Values for THETA were most sensitive for breed types with large THETA values (Chianina, Charolais, and Limousin crossbred steers) and least sensitive for breed types with small THETA values (purebred Angus, crossbred Jersey, and Red Poll steers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7607999

  3. Meat Quality of Crossbred Porkers without the Gene RYR1 (T) Depending on Slaughter Weight.

    PubMed

    Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wojtczak, Janusz; Łyczyński, Andrzej; Wójtowski, Jacek; Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Stanisławski, Daniel; Babicz, Marek

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of the study was to compare selected meat quality parameters in porkers without the gene RYR1 (T) (ryanodine receptor gene). These were porkers slaughtered at 100 to 115 kg and 116 to 130 kg live weight. The second aim of the study was to determine the occurrence frequency of standard-quality meat (red, firm, nonexudative [RFN]) and the occurence frequency of defective meat (pale, soft, exudative [PSE] and acid, soft, exudative [ASE]). The analysis was conducted on the longissimus lumborum muscle in 114 crossbred porkers. The porkers were a cross of Camborough 22 sows and boars from lines 337PIC (Pig Improvement Company), Norsvin Landrace and Pietrain. All of the animals were provided with identical environmental and nutritional conditions. The average weight of the slaughtered animals in the light and heavy groups was 110 kg and 122 kg, respectively. Both groups had the same average post-slaughter meatiness (56.5%). A statistical analysis of selected meat-quality parameters did not show any significant differences between the weight groups. On the other hand, the classification based on carcass quality showed an occurence frequency of defective meat in heavier crossbred porkers (116 to 130 kg) that was three times higher than in those crossbred animals which weighed 100 to 115 kg when slaughtered. In porkers without the gene RYR1 (T) , the defective meat types PSE and ASE occurred with a frequency of 17.54%. PMID:25656204

  4. Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-11-01

    Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and β2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (P<0.05) ADG, final BW, and HCW. Cattle on BAA had greater HCW and LM area (P<0.05) and had lower (P<0.05) CH4, methanol, and NH3 emissions per kilogram HCW than cattle on the remaining treatments

  5. Seedstock beef cattle: SPA.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J M; Leachman, L

    1995-07-01

    The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for seedstock beef cattle (SPA-SB) is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the seedstock cow-calf, replacement heifer, and the sale bull enterprises. These guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA) and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordinating Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Seedstock SPA Guidelines. PMID:7584819

  6. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although

  7. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  8. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  9. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the requirements for cattle in this subpart and in 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  10. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katrina M.; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. PMID:24620003

  11. Effect of fat type and forage level on performance of finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Huffman, R P; Stock, R A; Sindt, M H; Shain, D H

    1992-12-01

    Four trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding various levels and types of fat to dry-rolled corn (DRC) finishing diets containing 0 or 7.5% forage. In Trial 1, 88 yearling steers (mean BW = 352 +/- 38 kg) and 176 heifers (mean BW 316 +/- 15 kg) were blocked by sex and weight into four replications. Treatments were 0, 2, 4, or 6% (DM basis) bleachable fancy tallow (BT) fed with 0 or 7.5% (DM basis) forage. Addition of BT to the 7.5% forage diet had no effect on ADG or gain/feed (G/F). However, adding BT to the all-concentrate diet decreased ADG (linear, P < .01) and G/F (linear, P = .08). In Trial 2, 184 yearling steers (mean BW = 347 +/- 21 kg) and 144 heifers (mean BW 322 +/- 8 kg) were blocked by sex and weight into six replications. Fat treatments were 0% fat, 4% BT, or 4% animal-vegetable oil blend (A-V); each fat treatment was fed with 0 or 7.5% forage. Across forage levels, the addition of fat increased (P < .01) ADG and G/F for cattle fed DRC. In Trial 3, 18 crossbred wether lambs (mean BW = 44.4 +/- 2.5 kg) were fed DRC and 7.5% forage and allotted randomly to the same fat treatments fed in Trial 2. Apparent total tract fat digestibility increased (P < .01) with the addition of BT or A-V. In Trial 4, 40 crossbred wethers (mean BW = 25 +/- 4.1 kg) and 16 ewes (mean BW = 23 +/- 2.7 kg) were individually fed 7.5% forage diets containing 0, 1, 2, or 4% BT. Addition of BT increased (linear, P = .10) G/F. In summary, fat addition to DRC finishing diets fed to yearling cattle did not consistently affect gain/feed, feed intake, and ADG. PMID:1474026

  12. Plasma mineral profiles and hormonal activities of normal cycling and repeat breeding crossbred cows: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Barui, Abhijit; Batabyal, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sarbaswarup; Saha, Debjani; Chattopadhyay, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to compare the associated role of micro minerals and hormones in repeat breeding animals with the normal crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 10 normal cycling and 10 repeat breeding crossbred cows of Ramakrishna Mission Ashram, Narendrapur to study the plasma mineral profile and hormonal activities. Results: Zn was found to be highly significant (p<0.01) between the two groups. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone showed significant (p<0.05) difference in repeat breeding animal from the normal cyclic animal, whereas no significant differences were observed in Ca, P, Cu, Se, Co, luteinizing hormone and estradiol level. Conclusion: It may conclude that repeat breeding condition of crossbred cows in farm condition is mainly due to the low level of progesterone, FSH and zinc. PMID:27046994

  13. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves.

    PubMed

    Dillon, J A; Riley, D G; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    2015-02-01

    Brahman-cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mendelian genetic effects that may influence differences in Brahman × Simmental crossbred calves. Crossbred calves were produced by embryo transfer ( = 2,862) and natural service or artificial insemination ( = 2,125) from 1983 to 1991 by a private seedstock producer. Brahman-sired F embryos out of Simmental donors weighed 9.4 ± 1.1 ( < 0.001) kg more at birth than Simmental-sired F embryos out of Brahman donor cows when transferred to comparable recipients. This reciprocal difference was accompanied by sexual dimorphism: within Brahman-sired F calves, males were 5.0 ± 1.4 kg heavier than females, whereas within Simmental-sired F calves, females were 0.7 ± 0.5 kg heavier than males. Covariates were constructed from the pedigree to represent genetic effects: proportion Brahman in calves and dams (direct and maternal breed effects), direct and maternal breed heterozygosity, probability of Brahman mitochondrial origin, probability of Brahman Y chromosome, probability of Brahman X chromosome, genomic imprinting (the difference between the probabilities of Brahman in the genetic dam and in the sire), nonrandom X inactivation by breed of origin (the probability of breed heterozygosity of the X chromosomes of a female), and nonrandom X inactivation by parent of origin (the difference between probabilities of a female inheriting a paternal or maternal Brahman X chromosome). The maternal breed heterozygosity, genomic imprinting, probability of Brahman X chromosome, and genomic imprinting × sex effect covariates from the full model were significant with regression coefficients of 1.1 ± 0.5 ( < 0.05), ‒8.3 ± 2.3 ( < 0.01), ‒3.5 ± 1.3 ( < 0.01), and ‒5.3 ± 2.0 ( < 0.01), respectively

  14. Accuracy of genome-enabled prediction exploring purebred and crossbred pig populations.

    PubMed

    Veroneze, R; Lopes, M S; Hidalgo, A M; Guimarães, S E F; Silva, F F; Harlizius, B; Lopes, P S; Knol, E F; M van Arendonk, J A; Bastiaansen, J W M

    2015-10-01

    Pig breeding companies keep relatively small populations of pure sire and dam lines that are selected to improve the performance of crossbred animals. This design of the pig breeding industry presents challenges to the implementation of genomic selection, which requires large data sets to obtain highly accurate genomic breeding values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different reference sets (across population and multipopulation) on the accuracy of genomic breeding values in 3 purebred pig populations and to assess the potential of using crossbreed performance in genomic prediction. Data consisted of phenotypes and genotypes on animals from 3 purebred populations (sire line [SL] 1, = 1,146; SL2, = 682; and SL3, = 1,264) and 3 crossbred pig populations (Terminal cross [TER] 1, = 183; TER2, = 106; and TER3, = 177). Animals were genotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 Beadchip. For each purebred population, within-, across-, and multipopulation predictions were considered. In addition, data from the paternal purebred populations were used as a reference set to predict the performance of crossbred animals. Backfat thickness phenotypes were precorrected for fixed effects and subsequently included in the genomic BLUP model. A genomic relationship matrix that accounted for the differences in allele frequencies between lines was implemented. Accuracies of genomic EBV obtained within the 3 different sire lines varied considerably. For within-population prediction, SL1 showed higher values (0.80) than SL2 (0.61) and SL3 (0.67). Multipopulation predictions had accuracies similar to within-population accuracies for the validation in SL1. For SL2 and SL3, the accuracies of multipopulation prediction were similar to the within-population prediction when the reference set was composed by 900 animals (600 of the target line plus 300 of another line). For across-population predictions, the accuracy was mostly close to zero. The accuracies of predicting

  15. Source and level of energy supplementation for yearling cattle fed ammoniated hay.

    PubMed

    Royes, J B; Brown, W F; Martin, F G; Bates, D B

    2001-05-01

    Brahman x British crossbred steers were used in growth and digestion trials to evaluate the response of source (corn, sugar cane molasses, or soybean hulls) and feeding rate (0, 1.4, or 2.8 kg DM per steer daily in the growth trials; 0, 15, or 30% of the ration DM in the digestion trial) of energy supplementation in cattle fed ammoniated (4% of forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Cattle on all treatments were fed 0.5 kg cottonseed meal daily. In the growth trials, steers grazed dormant bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture. Increasing the levels of supplementation decreased hay intake but increased total dietary intake for all diets (P < 0.07). Daily gain and feed efficiency of steers were improved (P < 0.03) with supplementation. Steers supplemented with corn or soybean hulls at 2.8 kg DM/d had a higher ADG (0.92 kg) and gain/feed (0.103) than steers supplemented with molasses (0.78 kg, 0.08, respectively) at the same level. Seven crossbred steers (200 kg) were used in a five-period digestion trial to evaluate apparent OM, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility. Apparent OM digestibility of all diets increased linearly (P = 0.02) as the level of supplementation increased. Apparent NDF and ADF digestibility decreased (P < 0.03) as the level of supplementation with corn or molasses increased, whereas increasing the level of soybean hulls in the diet increased (P < 0.06) apparent NDF and ADF digestibility. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred steers (472 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 latin square design to investigate ruminal characteristics with energy supplementation at 30% of ration DM. Ruminal pH in steers supplemented with soybean hulls or corn declined after feeding. Ruminal pH decreased more rapidly with corn supplementation and remained below 6.2 for a longer period of time than with the other diets. Ruminal pH did not change within 24 h after feeding for steers fed the control or molasses diets. No change in total VFA

  16. Quality Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham Made from Two Different Three-way Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Hong, Doo-Il; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical traits of dry-cured hams made from two different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc (YLD) and Yorkshire×Berkshire×Duroc (YBD). Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 110 to 120 kg and cooled at 0°C for 24 h in a chilling room, the ham portion of the carcasses were cut and processed by dry-curing for physico-chemical analyses. While the moisture and crude protein contents of dry-cured ham were higher in YLD than in YBD, crude fat and ash content were higher in YBD (p<0.05). The salt contents of ham from YBD were higher than those from YLD (p<0.05). YBD ham samples showed a higher L* and b* values than those from YLD, while YBD ham showed lower a* value (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of YLD hams were lower than those of YBD samples (p<0.05). Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and shear force values of YBD ham were higher than those of YLD sample (p<0.05). Saltiness was significantly higher in YBD ham than in YLD samples (p<0.05). YLD ham displayed a superior quality than YBD. Considering the meat quality parameters of two-way crossbred ham, YLD hams could be more suitable for the production of dry-cured products. PMID:26333670

  17. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randhir; Randhawa, S. N. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS) and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT) in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD), close up dry (CUD) and fresh (F). BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument. Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively. Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of ≥3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period. PMID:27047087

  18. Predictive potential of microsatellite markers on heterosis of fecundity in crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Di, R; Chu, M X; Li, Y L; Zhang, L; Fang, L; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Chen, H Q; Li, X W

    2012-03-01

    Small Tail Han (STH) sheep is a famous Chinese local breed and has perfect prolificacy performance, but it is inferior to imported mutton sheep breeds on meat production. In this study, six imported male sheep populations (White Suffolk, Black Suffolk, Texel, Dorper, South African Mutton Merino and East Friesian) were crossbred with STH female sheep respectively. The heterosis values of litter size, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of crossbred sheep were analyzed for seeking the optimal cross. Meanwhile 28 microsatellite markers were used to measure the genetic distance between imported populations and STH population. Regression between the genetic distance and heterosis was analyzed for evaluating potential of microsatellite on predicting heterosis. Results showed a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.892, P < 0.05) between heterosis of litter size and genetic distance D (A) of six crosses. This implied that these microsatellite markers had moderate potential to forecast heterosis of litter size in sheep. Results of this study also indicated that South African Mutton Merino and East Friesian sheep would be the optimal sire breeds for the litter size and might bring the greatest economic benefit in six imported populations; Suffolk sheep could be prior consideration as sire breeds when breeding objective focused on ADG. Finally these results provided valuable information for Chinese sheep industry. PMID:21674186

  19. Association of ATP1A1 gene polymorphism with thermotolerance in Tharparkar and Vrindavani cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Neeraj; Kumar, Pushpendra; Deshmukh, Bharti; Bhat, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Chauhan, Anuj; Bhushan, Bharat; Singh, Gyanendra; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: One of the major biochemical aspects of thermoregulation is equilibrium of ion gradient across biological membranes. Na+/K+-ATPase, a member of P type-ATPase family, is a major contributor to the mechanism that actively controls cross-membrane ion gradient. Thus, we examined ATP1A1 gene that encodes alpha-1 chain of Na+/K+-ATPase, for genetic polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 Vrindavani (composite cross strain of Hariana x Holstein-Friesian/Brown Swiss/Jersey) and 64 Tharparkar (indigenous) cattle were screened for genetic polymorphism in ATP1A1 gene, using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. For association studies, rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) of all animals were recorded twice daily for 3 seasons. Results: A SNP (C2789A) was identified in exon 17 of ATP1A1 gene. Three genotypes namely CC, CA, and AA were observed in both, Vrindavani and Tharparkar cattle. The gene frequencies in Tharparkar and Vrindavani for allele A were 0.51 and 0.48, and for allele C were 0.49 and 0.52, respectively, which remained at intermediate range. Association study of genotypes with RT and RR in both cattle population revealed that the animals with genotype CC exhibited significantly lower RT and higher heat tolerance coefficient than CA and AA genotypes. Conclusion: Differential thermoregulation between different genotypes of ATP1A1 gene indicate that the ATP1A1 gene could be potentially contributing to thermotolerance in both, Tharparkar, an indigenous breed and Vrindavani, a composite crossbred cattle. PMID:27047171

  20. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of atmospheric emissions of fugitive dusts and volatile products from beef cattle feedlots. Total particulate emissions are affected by feedlot area, cattle density in pens, wind speed, and the regional precipitation-evaporation index. The predominant...

  1. Heat stress in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle is a common summer time occurrence in cattle-producing parts of the world (United States, Australia, Brazil, etc.). The impact of heat stress on feedlot animals is quite varied--from little to no effect in a brief exposure, to causing reductions in feed intake, growth,...

  2. Finishing performance of feedlot cattle fed condensed distillers solubles.

    PubMed

    Pesta, A C; Nuttelman, B L; Shreck, A L; Griffin, W A; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 250 crossbred steers (initial BW = 355 ± 18 kg) were fed 0, 9, 18, 27, or 36% CDS (DM basis) which replaced a portion of urea and a 1:1 ratio of dry-rolled corn (DRC) and high-moisture corn (HMC). Steers were divided into 3 BW blocks and were assigned randomly to 25 pens. Dietary fat increased from 3.7 to 9.4% as CDS inclusion increased from 0 to 36%. Intake decreased linearly ( < 0.01) as CDS increased. A quadratic response was observed for ADG ( = 0.01) and G:F ( < 0.01) with maximum gain calculated at 20.8% CDS and maximum G:F at 32.5% CDS inclusion, which was 12% more efficient than those fed 0% CDS. Experiment 2 was designed as a 2 × 4 factorial using 400 crossbred steers (initial BW = 339 ± 15 kg) evaluating 0, 7, 14, or 21% CDS (DM basis) in 2 base byproduct diets containing either 20% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) or 20% Synergy (a blend of wet corn gluten feed and MDGS). Steers were divided into 2 BW blocks and were assigned randomly to 40 pens. A tendency for a base diet × CDS inclusion interaction was observed for ADG, HCW, and final BW ( < 0.10). Gain increased linearly ( = 0.01) and tended to increase quadratically ( = 0.09) in MDGS diets, with maximum calculated ADG at 16% CDS inclusion. Inclusion of CDS had no effect on ADG in Synergy-based diets. Increasing CDS resulted in a linear increase in G:F ( < 0.01) regardless of basal diet. Condensed distillers solubles may be included in the diet at greater than 30% (DM basis) without other byproducts and improve animal performance. Likewise, CDS can be fed in combination with other byproduct feeds but with less improvement in performance. PMID:26440335

  3. Comparison of peripartum metabolic status and postpartum health of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, L G D; Abade, C C; da Silva, E M; Litherland, N B; Hansen, L B; Hansen, W P; Chebel, R C

    2014-02-01

    Objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate plasma concentrations of metabolites and haptoglobin peripartum, uterine health and involution, and follicle growth and resumption of cyclicity of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred cows. Cows (52 HO and 52 crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45 d before expected calving date. Cows had body weight and body condition score recorded on d -45, -14, 0, 1, 28, and 56 relative to calving. Dry matter intake was calculated for a subgroup of cows (25 HO and 38 crossbred) from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving. Blood was sampled weekly from d -14 to 56 relative to calving for determination of glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; from d -7 to 21 relative to calving for determination of haptoglobin concentration; and from d 14 to 56 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Cows were examined at calving and on d 4, 7, 10, and 14 postpartum for diagnosis of postparturient diseases, on d 24 postpartum for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge, and on d 42 postpartum for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis. Uteri and ovaries were examined by ultrasonography every 3 d from d 14 to 41 postpartum. Milk yield and composition were measured monthly and yield of milk, fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk were recorded for the first 90 d postpartum. Body weight was not different between Holstein and crossbred cows, but HO cows had reduced body condition score compared with crossbred cows. Even though DMI from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving tended to be greater for HO cows (16.8 ± 0.7 vs. 15.3 ± 0.5 kg/d), HO cows tended to have more pronounced decline in dry matter intake, expressed in percentage of body weight from d -15 to 0 relative to calving. Energy-corrected milk and nonesterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not different between breeds. No differences were observed in incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, and

  4. Hemochromatosis in Salers cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; Smith, B P; Maas, J; Lane, V M; Anderson, B C; Graham, T W; Pino, M V

    1994-01-01

    Two 2-year-old Salers cattle from different herds raised on pasture were evaluated for retarded growth and diarrhea. Increase of liver enzyme activities and prolonged sulfobromophothalein (BSP) half life (T1/2) indicated liver disease with impaired liver function. Histopathologic examination of liver biopsies revealed a micronodular cirrhosis with marked deposition of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and arterioles. Transferrin saturation (TS) and liver iron content were markedly increased, consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Both animals were euthanatized due to deterioration in their condition. Necropsy findings included hepatomegaly and hemosiderin accumulation in the liver, lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain and other glandular tissue. Continued surveillance of the second herd (serum iron, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron binding capacity [UIBC], and TS), identified a heifer as a hemochromatosis suspect in a subsequent generation. Liver biopsies from that animal revealed the same histopathologic changes as the previous 2 animals, and similar increases in liver iron content (8,700 ppm, normal range 45 to 300 ppm). The 3 affected cattle were all products of line breeding programs and shared a common ancestor. The absence of dietary iron loading in conjunction with the histopathologic and metabolic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis. The reported disease is similar to idiopathic hemochromatosis in human beings in which there is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism. PMID:8046672

  5. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  6. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  7. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. PMID:20416642

  8. Substitution of Wheat for Corn in Beef Cattle Diets: Digestibility, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Serum Metabolite Contents and Ruminal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Wan, F C; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L; Zhang, X L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different amounts of wheat, as a partial or whole substitute for corn, on digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, serum metabolite contents and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle. Four Limousin×LuXi crossbred cattle with a body weight (400±10 kg), fitted with permanent ruminal, proximal duodenal and terminal ileal cannulas, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four treatments: Control (100% corn), 33% wheat (33% substitution for corn), 67% wheat (67% substitution for corn), and 100% wheat (100% substitution for corn) on a dry matter basis. The results showed that replacing corn with increasing amounts of wheat increased the apparent digestibility values of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (p<0.05). While the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were lower with increasing amounts of wheat. Digestive enzyme activities of lipase, protease and amylase in the duodenum were higher with increasing wheat amounts (p<0.05), and showed similar results to those for the enzymes in the ileum except for amylase. Increased substitution of wheat for corn increased the serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not different between those given only corn and those given 33% wheat. Increasing the substitution of wheat for corn increased the molar proportion of acetate and tended to increase the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Cattle fed 100% wheat tended to have the lowest ruminal NH3-N concentration compared with control (p<0.05), whereas no differences were observed among the cattle fed 33% and 67% wheat. These findings indicate that wheat can be effectively used to replace corn in moderate amounts to meet the energy and fiber requirements of beef cattle. PMID:26954111

  9. Carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in horse tissues: a comparison with cattle.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Meléndez-Martínez, A J; Vicario, I M; Alcalde, M J

    2015-07-01

    Carotenoids are important for human health because of their provitamin A function among other biological actions. Their implication on consumer point of view of cattle products have been widely studied, but very little information is available for horse products. The aim of this study was to study the accumulation of carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherol by HPLC and HPLC-MS analysis in different horse tissues (plasma, milk, adipose tissue and liver) and compare it with that of cattle. Fat color was also studied. Four groups of animals were studied (15 animals within each group): lactating mares (709.82±23.09 kg) and cows (576.93±31.94 kg) reared outdoors; and foals (556.8±25.9 kg, 14 months old) and calves (474.7±36.2 kg, 14 months old) reared indoors. Both mares and foals were from the Hispano-Breton breed, whereas both cows and calves belonged to the commercial crossbred Limousine-Retinta. Differences in plasma and milk carotenoids (P0.05). Both species showed different levels of accumulation of retinoids in the liver, with the foal having better accumulation (P<0.01, P<0.001). These results indicate that there are species-specific differences in the accumulation of carotenoids, retinol and tocopherol, but further studies are required to establish the mechanism of these differences. PMID:25777775

  10. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  11. Efficacy and safety of clorsulon used concurrently with ivermectin for control of Fasciola hepatica in Florida beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Courtney, C H; Shearer, J K; Plue, R E

    1985-06-01

    The safety and anthelmintic efficacy of clorsulon (7 mg/kg of body weight, orally) given concurrently with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for control of Fasciola hepatica were evaluated in 75 crossbred beef cattle. Twenty-three control animals were given only ivermectin. Fluke egg counts were significantly lower (P less than 0.0001) in clorsulon-treated animals by day 14 after treatment than before treatment (base line) and were significantly lower (P less than 0.005) after treatment in clorsulon-treated animals than in controls. There was no significant change in fluke egg counts of controls after treatment. The efficacy of clorsulon in reducing F hepatica egg counts was 99%. Clorsulon showed poor efficacy against paramphistomes. Adverse reactions were not observed. PMID:3839640

  12. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested (P < 0.05) higher production performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  13. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats.

    PubMed

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-09-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., (1)/2 Aardi (1)/2 Damascus (½A½D) and (1)/4 Aardi (3)/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., (1)/2A(1)/2D and (1)/4A(3)/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested (P < 0.05) higher production performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system. PMID:26810081

  14. Breed Composition of the United States Dairy Cattle Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed composition of the gene pool of all cows (purebred and crossbred) with pedigree data in the USDA national dairy database was summarized by birth year of cow. Partial breed contributions were assigned for individual cows. For cows born in 2005, 1.1% of all genes and 35.1% of genes in crossbreds...

  15. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Lungs in four cases contained multiple spicules of metaplastic bone within alveolar walls. This disease was associated with high doses of vitamin D3 in three cows and one heifer. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4. PMID:17422885

  16. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  17. Comparative digestibility by cattle versus sheep: effect of forage quality.

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Lopez, R; Sankey, C; Capitan, B M; Holland, B P; Balstad, L A; Krehbiel, C R

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of forage quality on apparent total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in cattle versus sheep. Five yearling English crossbred (Hereford × Angus) steers (440.4 ± 35.6 kg of initial BW) and 5 yearling whiteface (Rambouillet × Columbia × Debouillet) wethers (44.4 ± 4.6 kg of initial BW), each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 forage sources within ruminant specie, and the study was conducted over 3 periods. For forage source, both animal and period served as the blocking factor with all forage sources represented once within each animal and all forage sources represented at least once within each period. The treatment structure was arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with ruminant species (2) and forage source (3) as the factors. Forage sources were 1) alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa; 17.5% CP and 34.1% NDF, DM basis), 2) warm-season grass hay mix (Bothriochloa ischaemum and Cynodon dactylon; 7.3% CP and 74.7% NDF, DM basis), and 3) lovegrass hay (Eragrostis curvula; 2.5% CP and 81.9% NDF, DM basis). As a percent of BW, steers and wethers consumed similar (P ≤ 0.06) amounts of forage, and intake was more influenced by forage quality (P < 0.001) than ruminant species (P = 0.35). When expressed per unit of metabolic BW, cattle consumed more (P < 0.001) DM, NDF, and N than sheep. Apparent total tract digestibility was similar among steers and wethers when alfalfa or grass hay was fed, but decreased to a greater extent in wethers when low-quality lovegrass hay was fed (ruminant species × diet interaction, P ≤ 0.01). Rate (%/h) of ruminal NDF disappearance was greater (P = 0.02) for alfalfa and grass hay than lovegrass, but was not influenced (P = 0.12) by ruminant species. In addition, ruminal DM fill was influenced more (P < 0.01) by forage than by ruminant species (P = 0.07). Steers and wethers had greater (P < 0.01) DM fill from grass hay and lovegrass hay than alfalfa before and 5 h

  18. Effects of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based diets fed to growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Bondurant, R G; Luebbe, M K; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-08-01

    Crude glycerin is a by-product of biodiesel production and has recently become more available as a livestock feed with the growth of the biofuel industry. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin (GLY) as a feed ingredient in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based growing diets fed to beef cattle. In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 50; initial BW = 282 ± 2 kg) were used to determine the effects of GLY when included at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% of DM in a growing diet on cattle performance. In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (n = 54; initial BW = 283 ± 1 kg) were used to determine the effects of replacing SFC (REPSFC) or alfalfa hay (REPAH) with 7.5% GLY or a control diet without GLY (CON) on growing steer performance. In Exp. 1, final BW tended to respond in a quadratic manner (P = 0.09) in which it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Dry matter intake did not differ (P > 0.23), yet ADG responded quadratically (P = 0.04), where it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Feed efficiency (G:F) decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing GLY concentration. In Exp. 2, final BW was greater for steers fed REPAH than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). Steers fed REPAH had a greater ADG than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). When GLY replaced SFC, ADG increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY where it was maximized before decreasing from 7.5 to 10% GLY inclusion. Replacing 7.5% of alfalfa hay (AH) in a growing diet with GLY can be beneficial to animal performance, which is likely the result of GLY being greater in energy than AH. PMID:23658347

  19. Designing of an artificial neural network model to evaluate the association of three combined Y-specific microsatellite loci on the actual and predicted postthaw motility in crossbred bull semen.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Singh, Umesh; Raja, Thirvvothur Venkatesan; Kumar, Sushil; Tyagi, Shrikant; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Alex, Rani; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal

    2015-06-01

    The freezing of bull semen significantly hamper the motility of sperm which reduces the conception rate in dairy cattle. The prediction of postthaw motility (PTM) before freezing will be useful to take the decision on discarding or freezing of the germplasm. The artificial neural network (ANN) methodology found to be useful in prediction and classification problems related to animal science, and hence, the present study was undertaken to compare the efficiency of ANN in prediction of PTM on the basis of the number of ejaculates, volume, and concentration of sperms. The combined effect of Y-specific microsatellite alleles on the actual and predicted PTM was also studied. The results revealed that the prediction accuracy of PTM based on the semen quality parameters was comparatively lower because of higher variability in the data set. The ANN gave better prediction accuracy (34.88%) than the multiple regression analysis models (32.04%). The root mean square error was lower for ANN (8.4353) than that in the multiple regression analysis (8.6168). The haplotype or combined effect of microsatellite alleles on actual and predicted PTM was found to be highly significant (P < 0.01). On the basis of results, it was concluded that the ANN methodology can be used for prediction of PTM in crossbred bulls. PMID:25744822

  20. Hematobiochemical alterations and direct blood polymerase chain reaction detection of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Anita; Bhanot, Vandna; Bisla, R. S.; Ganguly, Indrajit; Singh, Harpreet; Chaudhri, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical changes and rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from lactating crossbred cows (n=40) between 3 and 7 years of age and showing clinical signs of tropical theileriosis were collected, with or without anticoagulant, and analyzed for tropical theileriosis by direct smear, direct blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen (Tams1) gene specific amplicon, estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Healthy crossbred cows (n=6), examined free from hemoprotozoan infections were included as control. Results: The infected crossbred cows revealed significantly (p<0.001) lower values of total erythrocytic counts (4.46±0.2 × 106/µL), hemoglobin (Hb 6.025±0.39 g%), packed cell volume (17.05±1.1%), mean corpuscular volume (37.94±1.70 fL) and mean corpuscular Hb (13.5±0.48 pg; p<0.002) compared with healthy control. The serum samples of infected cows revealed profound (p<0.05) hyponatremia (Na 133.21±2.36 mEq/l) and hypocalcemia (Ca 8.39±0.34 mg%). Infected crossbred cows showed a significant increase (p<0.05) of mean serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (61.45±13.36 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (146.1±20.97 U/L), blood urea nitrogen (28.26±3.90 mg%), creatinine (1.55±0.13 mg%), direct bilirubin (0.33±0.04 mg%; p<0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (3001.32±167.0 U/L; p<001). Blood direct PCR revealed a 721-bp fragment amplified from the target gene encoding 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata using specific primer pairs. This assay was positive for all the infected animals. Conclusion: The assessments of hemato-biochemical parameters in T. annulata infected crossbred cows may be useful in understanding disease pathogenesis, prognosis and corrective measures for supportive therapy. Moreover, blood direct PCR can reliably be used for rapid detection of T. annulata

  1. [Gene differential expression of liver tissues in crossbred versus purebred chicken and their relationship with heterosis of meat trait].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Ying; Xu, Gui-Yun; Li, Jun-Ying

    2004-03-01

    ,000 temperature control system. After electrophoresis, the gel was stained by AgNO3 according to the stain method described by Echt et al. The differential display bands in the polyacrylamide gel were counted. The band displayed is counted as 1 whereas no band is counted as 0 and only expression bands reproducible in two repeats were statistically analyzed. The correlation analysis between heterosis percentage and gene expression patterns was done with statistic analysis software (SAS) package. The statistic results indicated that among 690 total numbers of bands, the percentage of differential expression bands reproducible (457) is 66.23%. Eight kinds of gene differential expression patterns were found and listed as follow: 1): Band presents only in one purebred (P1);2): Band in one crossbred and its corresponding paternal purebred; or Band in one crossbred and its corresponding maternal purebred (P2);3): Band in purebreds and one crossbred (P3); 4): Band only in one crossbred (P4);5): Bands in both crossbreds and one purebred (P5);6): Bands only in both crossbreds (P6);7): Bands only in purebreds (P7);8): Bands both in purebreds and crossbreds P8. The differential expression of gene between purebred and crossbred chicken was detected for the first time. The proportion of each pattern in each kind of purebred combination is different. The percentage of P8 (75.34%) is the highest. The total percentage of differential expression patterns (24.66%) showed that the gene differential expression exists as a matter of fact. Among all the gene differential expression patterns, the percentage of P3 is the highest whereas the percentage of P7, P6 and P4 is very low, it indicated that different genes may have different expression patterns in purebreds and crossbreds. The results are similar to the study results on plants, which indicates that the gene differential expression between purebred and crossbred exists universally in biology. The correlation between gene expression patterns and

  2. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Parikshit; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra; Ray, Debdatta; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Sharma, Rajeev Kumar; Barkalita, Luit Moni; Sarma, Dipak Kumar; Baishya, Bhaben Chandra; Borah, Pranjal; Stanley, Bobitha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%), T. orientalis (21.05%) and A. marginale (14.03%), respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B).microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M) was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  3. Genetic evaluation of retail product percentage in Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Enns, R M; Rumph, J M; Pollak, E J

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters required for genetic evaluation of retail product percentage (RPP) in Simmental cattle. Carcass weight (HCW), subcutaneous fat thickness (FAT), longissimus muscle area (REA) and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) records were available to compute RPP on steers (n = 5171) and heifers (n = 1400) from the American Simmental Association database; animals were sired by 561 Simmental bulls and out of 5886 crossbred dams. Genetic parameters were estimated using residual maximal likelihood and a four trait animal model for the components of RPP including fixed harvest contemporary group effects, random animal genetic effects, and a linear covariate for age at harvest. Heritability estimates were 0.51 +/- 0.05, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.18 +/- 0.05 for HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Non-zero genetic correlations were estimated between HCW and REA (rg = 0.51 +/- 0.06) and between REA and FAT (rg = -0.43 +/- 0.08), but other genetic correlation estimates among the component traits were low. As a linear function of its components, heritability and genetic correlations involving RPP were estimated using index methods. The heritability estimate for RPP was 0.41, and genetic correlations were -0.17, -0.83, 0.67, and 0.01 with HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Therefore, RPP was strongly associated with muscle and fat deposition, but essentially independent of carcass weight and internal body cavity fat. Genetic evaluation of RPP would be straightforward using multiple trait index methods and genetic regression, although the inclusion of KPH would be of marginal value. PMID:18254821

  4. Genetic parameters of the piglet mortality traits stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Strange, T; Ask, B; Nielsen, B

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for the mortality causes stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred piglets produced by crossbred dams. Data were collected in a single Danish commercial herd from October 2006 to July 2008 and consisted of 34,194 piglets (2,152 litters), which originated from 195 Danish Duroc sires and 955 crossbreds between Danish Landrace and Danish Yorkshire dams. Of the 34,194 piglets born, 11.5% were stillborn, 4.2% were crushed by the sow, 2.7% died due to starvation, 2.3% were weak at birth, and 2.2% died of miscellaneous causes before weaning. The first 4 mentioned causes were analyzed multivariately using a generalized linear mixed model with a probit link function, including the genetic effect of both sire and dam. Heritabilities based on the sire component ranged between 0.08 for stillborn and 0.21 for starvation whereas heritabilities based on the dam component ranged between 0.01 for miscellaneous and 0.24 for stillborn, indicating that reducing piglet mortality through genetic selection is possible. The expected observed responses to selection would, however, be low. The genetic correlations between mortality traits based on the sire component ranged from -0.05 between stillborn and starvation to 0.35 between stillborn and weak at birth whereas genetic correlations based on the dam component ranged from -0.11 between weak at birth and starvation to 0.76 between crushing and starvation. There seemed to be a favorable relationship between the 2 traits stillborn and weak at birth and between crushing and starvation, implying that care should be taken with correct recordings of mortality causes. The genetic correlation precision was rather low, and if nonadditive effects are not accounted for, there may be unexpected correlated responses among the different mortality causes in the crossbred mortalities. PMID:23408809

  5. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... age; (iii) Steers and spayed heifers; (iv) Cattle exported directly to slaughter in a country that...

  6. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M.; Eigenberg, Roger A.; Nienaber, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the increase in body temperature, it was beneficial to the

  7. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due

  8. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P < 0.01) ADG compared with control heifers (0.50 vs. 0.58 kg/d, respectively). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy, however, was hastened (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) in acclimated heifers compared with control. Acclimated heifers had reduced chute score (P < 0.01) and concentrations of cortisol (P < 0.01) and P4 (P = 0.03; prepubertal heifers only) compared with control heifers after the acclimation period (1.37 vs. 1.84 for chute score; 37.8 vs. 50.5 ng/mL of cortisol; 0.52 vs

  9. Feed intake, milk production and composition of crossbred cows fed with insect-protected Bollgard II® cottonseed containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins.

    PubMed

    Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F

    2011-09-01

    Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition. PMID:22440417

  10. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  11. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  15. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  16. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  17. Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. PMID:24881483

  18. Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

    1981-05-01

    Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

  19. Cattle: disease risks at turnout.

    PubMed

    2016-04-30

    This article is prepared by the Cattle Expert Group and is intended to highlight seasonal issues related to turnout. The Cattle Expert Group is a virtual network of veterinary surveillance expertise in Great Britain, led by APHA. It is one of six Species Expert Groups that form part of the APHA Surveillance Intelligence Unit, which identifies and characterises potential New and Re-emerging Threats (NRTs) and other risks to livestock and wildlife in Great Britain. These are then considered by the Veterinary Risk Group for appropriate mitigation. PMID:27127093

  20. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths. PMID:9464913

  1. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used. PMID:26065699

  2. [Congenital and lethal semi-hairlessness in an Angler-Holstein crossbred calf].

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Schwittlick, Ulrike; Seehusen, Frauke; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    A male Angler-Red Holstein crossbred calf was almost completely hairless since its birth. Hair growth was not observed within the course of its life, but with increasing age the hair structure changed from a thin and soft hair to a wiry to coarse hair fibre. Growth rate of the animal was reduced, body condition was poor but appetite was good. In addition, accompanying malformations were found including brachygnathia superior and a reduction or a particularly pronounced fine countenance skull ("shrew head"). The calf died unexpectedly at the age of five months. In the subsequent gross pathological and histopathological examination, a pronounced hyperkeratosis, degeneration of follicular epithelial cells, a reduced number of hair follicles, an increased number of telogen hair follicles, sclerosis of the corium, dilated apocrine glands and inflammatory changes of the gastrointestinal tract were seen. Based on the course of the disease, the phenotypic appearance of hypotrichosis and hair fibre as well as the histopathological changes the present case resembles a lethal semi-hairless form of hypotrichosis. This congenital anomaly in the present case is likely genetically determined. PMID:27169157

  3. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties.

    PubMed

    Se, Chee-Hee; Chuah, Khun-Aik; Mishra, Ankitta; Wickneswari, Ratnam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden. PMID:27213446

  4. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P<0.01) rib-eye-area and 100-kg-adjusted rib-eye-area among groups. Longissimus lumborum length did not differ (P>0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls. PMID:26546913

  5. Performance of indigenous, Khaki Campbell and their reciprocal crossbred layer ducks under different management systems.

    PubMed

    Nageswara, A R; Ramasubba Reddy, V; Ravindra Reddy, V

    2005-08-01

    1. The performance of indigenous ducks (ID), Khaki Campbell (KC) and their reciprocal crossbred layers was studied from 19 to 58 weeks of age. For each genotype, 4 x 18 ducks (3 males + 15 females) were reared under a semi-intensive system (SIS) and an intensive system (IS) with standard management, and 4 x 50 ducks (8 males + 42 females) were reared in an extensive system (ES) with traditional management. 2. In comparison to KC, ID were superior in terms of age at first egg, age at 50% egg production, egg weight, hatchability, eggshell thickness with higher egg shape index. KC ducks were superior to ID in body weight, egg production and feed/kg eggs. Egg quality was similar among the genotypes. Crosses were superior to their parent breeds in age at first egg, egg production and feed/kg eggs. They were also superior to KC in egg weight and egg-shell thickness with a higher egg shape index. 3. The performance of genotypes in the SIS and the IS was similar and superior to the ES except for fertility and yolk colour. 4. Significant heterotic effects were recorded for age at first egg, age at 50% egg production, egg production per duck-day, feed efficiency and egg weight in crosses. Performance was similar in the reciprocal crosses, but superior to their parent breeds. PMID:16268099

  6. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Se, Chee-Hee; Chuah, Khun-Aik; Mishra, Ankitta; Wickneswari, Ratnam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden. PMID:27213446

  7. Evaluation of crossbred calf and cow types for the coastal plain of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Pala, A; Robison, O W; McCraw, R L

    2000-09-01

    Data in this experiment consisted of 418 lactation records, and weaning and birth weight records from 600 crossbred calves. The traits evaluated included birth weight, weaning weight, weaning weight per cow exposed, weaning weight per weight of cow, weaning weight per weight of cow exposed, and predicted milk yield. Angus, Brangus, and Gelbvieh sires were mated to purebred Hereford cows. Yearling and 2-yr-old Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters then were bred to Polled Hereford bulls (Data Set 2). Later-parity Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters were mated to Salers or Simmental sires (Data Set 3). Differences between Gelbvieh- and Brangus-sired calves or Gelbvieh-Hereford and Brangus-Hereford daughters were never significant for weaning weight, birth weight, or milk yield. Angus crosses had the lowest weaning weight, birth weight, and milk yield, but the highest kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed in all data sets. Angus-Hereford and Brangus-Hereford dams had higher weaning weight per weight of cow exposed than Gelbvieh-Hereford dams (P < .01) in Data Set 3. There were no other significant differences related to cow weight. PMID:10985395

  8. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    PubMed

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker. PMID:22404348

  9. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations. PMID:25384155

  10. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small intestine mass and cellularity have previously been associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and sugars and contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study ...

  11. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  12. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  13. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  14. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat. PMID:26292792

  15. Performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle managed in a bedded hoop-barn system.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, M S; Busby, W D; Lonergan, S M; Johnson, A K; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Shouse, S C

    2010-08-01

    The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers were allotted to 3 pens in the hoop-barn system and to 3 pens in the open-lot system (approximately 40 steers per pen in both facility systems). Stocking densities for the steers were 4.65 m(2) per steer in the hoop-barn system and 14.7 m(2) per steer in the open-lot system. The steers were begun on trial weighing 410 and 411 kg (SD = 21), were fed for 102.3 and 103.0 d (SD = 3.8), and were weighed off test at 595 and 602 kg (SD = 21) for the hoop-barn and open-lot systems, respectively. Steer performance measures consisted of ADG, DMI, and G:F. Carcass characteristics were HCW, fat thickness, LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. No year, season, or pen (management system) main effects, or season x management system and year x management system interactions were observed for any of the items measured related to cattle performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). Final mud scores (a subjective evaluation of the amount of soil and manure adhering to the hair coat of the animals) were greater for the steers from the open-lot system compared with those from the hoop-barn system (P < 0.02), suggesting steers in the hoop-barn system carried less mud than steers from the open-lot system. Average daily cornstalk bedding use in the hoop-barn system was 2.3 kg/steer during summer-fall and 2

  16. Effect of ultimate pH on postmortem myofibrillar protein degradation and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Tiantian; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the complex effects of postmortem ultimate pH (pHu) on Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle quality during postmortem ageing and provides an explanation of how pHu affects beef tenderness. High pHu beef had the highest initial tenderness (P < 0.05) compared with other groups at 1 day postmortem. Intermediate and low pHu beef had similar initial WBSF at 1 day postmortem, but intermediate pHu beef had slower tenderization rate than low pHu beef (P < 0.05). Purge loss, cooking loss, L*, a*, and b* values decreased with increasing pHu during ageing (P < 0.05). Myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was higher in high pHu beef than intermediate and low pHu beef throughout ageing (P < 0.05). Protein degradation studies found that desmin and troponin-T appeared degraded within 0.5 h postmortem for high and low pHu beef, compared to >2 days for intermediate pHu beef. Overall, Chinese Yellow crossbred cattle tenderness is related to pHu, which may be affected by proteolytic enzymatic activity. Therefore, pHu may be used to predict beef tenderness and other quality characteristics during postmortem ageing. To achieve consistent tenderness, different ageing times should be used, depending on pHu. PMID:25197695

  17. Effect of Ultimate pH on Postmortem Myofibrillar Protein Degradation and Meat Quality Characteristics of Chinese Yellow Crossbreed Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiantian; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the complex effects of postmortem ultimate pH (pHu) on Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle quality during postmortem ageing and provides an explanation of how pHu affects beef tenderness. High pHu beef had the highest initial tenderness (P < 0.05) compared with other groups at 1 day postmortem. Intermediate and low pHu beef had similar initial WBSF at 1 day postmortem, but intermediate pHu beef had slower tenderization rate than low pHu beef (P < 0.05). Purge loss, cooking loss, L*, a*, and b* values decreased with increasing pHu during ageing (P < 0.05). Myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was higher in high pHu beef than intermediate and low pHu beef throughout ageing (P < 0.05). Protein degradation studies found that desmin and troponin-T appeared degraded within 0.5 h postmortem for high and low pHu beef, compared to >2 days for intermediate pHu beef. Overall, Chinese Yellow crossbred cattle tenderness is related to pHu, which may be affected by proteolytic enzymatic activity. Therefore, pHu may be used to predict beef tenderness and other quality characteristics during postmortem ageing. To achieve consistent tenderness, different ageing times should be used, depending on pHu. PMID:25197695

  18. White side test: A simple and rapid test for evaluation of nonspecific bacterial genital infections of repeat breeding cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Fayaz Ahmad; Bhattacharyya, Hiranya Kumar; Hussain, Syed Akram

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the grades of nonspecific bacterial infection of genitalia of repeat breeding cattle by a simple and rapid test under field condition. For this purpose, a total of 100 crossbred Jersey cows comprising of 80 repeat breeding animals presented for treatment and 20 normal cyclic (control group) animals presented for artificial insemination at their first service were selected. Estrual cervical mucus from all the animals was collected at 8 to 12 hr after the onset of behavioral estrus and subjected to white side test (WST) and bacteriological examination. The results of WST showed only 15% of control group had infection but the remaining 85% were free of it. In contrast, the majority of repeat breeding animals (57/80) showed infection (71.25%) and only 28.75% animals were free of infection. In bacterial culture, 60 (75.00%) from the 80 repeat breeding animals were found positive, and 20 (25.00%) were free of bacteria. All the three samples of control group that showed no color reaction in WST had also no growth in bacterial culture. The WST results showed a positive (p < 0.01) correlation of 0.48 with bacterial culture. It is thus concluded that under field condition WST can be used as a prime modality for ascertaining nonspecific bacterial infection of repeat breeding cattle before subjecting them to any antibiotic therapy thereby reducing the cost of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25568715

  19. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589

  20. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m2/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m2/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m2/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m2/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In conclusion

  1. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m(2)/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m(2)/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m(2)/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m(2)/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In

  2. Effect of age on spermiogram of Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Mandal, D K; Kumar, M; Tyagi, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted on 94 Frieswal (5/8 Holstein Friesian 3/8 Sahiwal) crossbred bulls of three different grades, categorized based on their semen freezability visualising Group 1 (consistently freezable semen producer bulls, N = 11), Group 2 (inconsistent freezable, N = 16) and Group 3 (Non freezable, N = 67). Each group was further divided into two classes that is young (up to 30 months) and adult (31 to 70 months) bulls depending upon their age. Sperm morphology was studied by using the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. Bulls age significantly (P < 0.01) affected semen quality and sperm morphology. In adult bulls, semen volume, mass activity and sperm concentration were 36%, 17.56% and 19.6%, respectively, higher than young. Initial progressive motility (%) and livability showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement with the advancement of age (43.37 ± 1.21 and 67.71 ± 1.11, respectively, in young; 53.02 ± 1.11 and 74.17 ± 1.03, respectively, in adult). In young bulls, sperm head, mid piece, tail abnormality and total abnormal sperm percent (12.38 ± 0.92, 4.87 ± 0.24, 11.01 ± 0.60 and 28.26 ± 1.34, respectively) were 1.85, 1.27, 1.20 and 1.44 folds higher than that of their mature stage (6.69 ± 0.64, 3.82 ± 0.32, 9.14 ± 0.64 and 19.66 ± 1.31, respectively). Significant reduction (P < 0.01) in micro cephalic sperm, free heads, bent mid piece, looped mid piece and proximal protoplasmic droplets were observed at mature age as compared with their younger stage. In bulls of consistent freezing category, abnormal sperm heads significantly decreased from 4.40 ± 0.31% to 3.28 ± 0.02% on maturity. Similarly, in inconsistent freezing grade bulls sperm head abnormality (9.28 ± 0.75% to 5.13 ± 1.20%) and total abnormal sperm percent (24.89 ± 1.43 to 18.73 ± 3.40) was decreased over the age. On the contrary, in non-freezing category bulls' sperm morphology did not show significant (P > 0.05) improvement with age advancement, rather some abnormalities

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence

  4. Growth performance of crossbred naked neck and normal feathered laying hens kept in tropical villages.

    PubMed

    Adomako, K; Olympio, O S; Hagan, J K; Hamidu, J A

    2014-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to develop naked neck (Na/na) and normal feathered (na/na) crossbreds and compare their growth performance, linear body measurements and carcass characteristics in the first and second filial generations. 2. In the first experiment, 4 indigenous naked neck males (Na/na) were mated to 36 Lohmann commercial females (na/na) in a ratio of 1:9. The two genotypes (Na/na, na/na) were allocated randomly according to batches of hatch, sire lines and sex to three different villages. 3. In the second experiment, 10 males and 100 females of F1 Na/na birds were selected and mated inter se in a ratio of 1:10. The three genotypes (Na/Na, Na/na and na/na) were compared in a randomised complete block design experiment, with the three villages, hatch and sex as blocks and the three genotypes as treatments. F1 Na/na birds had significantly higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio, body weight, body weight gain, linear body measurements, survivability and carcass yield than their na/na counterparts. 4. In the F2 generation, Na/Na and Na/na birds had significantly higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio, body weight, body weight gain, linear body measurements, survivability and carcass yield compared to their na/na counterparts. 5. The birds showing the naked neck phenotype appeared to show superior performance compared to normal feathered birds and could be exploited for potential utilisation in local poultry production. PMID:25192492

  5. Relationship of udder and teat conformation with intra-mammary infection in crossbred cows under hot-humid climate

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Pranay; Bhakat, Champak; Pankaj, Prabhat K.; Bhat, Showkat A.; Prakash, M. Arul; Thul, Mayur R.; Japheth, K. Puhle

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship of udder shape, teat-end shape, teat length, and teat diameter with intra-mammary infection in Jersey crossbred cows under hot-humid climate. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 lactating Jersey crossbred cows were evaluated for udder shape (pendulous/regular) and teat-end shape (flat/inverted/pointed) by visual examination, while teat length and teat diameter were measured using vernier caliper. Monthly milk sampling was done for 4 months of duration. Few quarters were found as blind or non-functional and so, a total of 366 quarter wise milk samples were collected at the monthly interval and subjected to somatic cell count (SCC) microscopically. The data on SCC were transformed into log scale and analyzed. Results: There was a significant (p<0.01) effect of udder shape and teat-end shape on SCC level. The mean SCC level for pendulous udder was significantly (p<0.05) higher as compared to the regular shaped udder. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) a higher level of mean SCC was found in flat teat-end shape. A significant (p<0.01) correlation was found between SCC and teat length as well as teat diameter. Conclusion: In conclusion, pendulous udder, flat and inverted teat-end, very long and thick teat were more susceptible to intra-mammary infection in Jersey crossbred cows and these traits must be considered accordingly while selecting dairy animals for future milk production. PMID:27047172

  6. Follicular and endocrinological turnover associated with GnRH induced follicular wave synchronization in Indian crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, S; Subramanian, A; Devanathan, T G; Kathiresan, D; Veerapandian, C; Palanisamy, A

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to record the hormonal and follicular turnover in Jersey crossbred cows when subjected for follicular wave synchronization using GnRH. Six healthy, non-lactating and regularly cycling Jersey crossbred cows (5-6 y) were used for the study. In the control group, the follicular wave pattern was ultrasonographically investigated in 18 cycles (3 cycles/cow). In the treatment group, GnRH analogue (buserelin acetate 10 μg im) was administered on Day 6 of the cycle and follicular wave pattern was studied in 12 cycles (2 cycles/animal). Follicular population was categorized based on their diameter Class I, ≤5 mm; Class II, >5-<9 mm; Class III, ≥9 mm) and the number of follicles in each category was determined on Day 6, Day 8 and Day 10. Plasma FSH and progesterone concentrations were estimated in both control and treatment groups. Out of 18 estrous cycles studied, 14 cycles (77.8%), three cycles (16.7%) and one cycle (5.6%) exhibited three-, two- and four-follicular waves per cycle, respectively. It was evident that the DF of Wave I established its dominance and was in the growing phase by Day 6 of the estrous cycle in all the normally cycling crossbred cows. The DF ovulated in all the animals (100%) in the mean interval of 27.7 ± 0.2 h after GnRH administration. A synchronized homogenous group of follicles emerged two days after GnRH injection (Day of 8.0 ± 0.0) in all the animals (100%). The combination of LH surge induced ovulation of DF (abrupt termination of Wave I) and FSH surge stimulated homogenous recruitment of Class I follicles, led to a synchronized emergence of follicular wave. All the GnRH treated cows had three follicular waves because of early emergence and short period of dominance of Wave II DF. PMID:22192396

  7. Body weights at weaning and 18 months of Zebu, Brown Swiss, Charolais and crossbred heifers in south-east Mexico.

    PubMed

    Magaña, J G; Segura-Correa, J C

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the body weights up to 18 months of age of 12 breed groups of Zebu (Z), Brown Swiss (BS) and Charolais heifers (CH), and their crosses under tropical conditions. A total of 1434 data on weaning weights adjusted to 240 days (WW8), average daily gain to 240 days (ADG8) and 1025 body weights adjusted to 550 days (BW18) and average postweaning daily gain (ADG18) of heifers born from 1981 to 1995 were used. Cows and calves remained together from birth to weaning and grazed on Guinea grass (Panicum maximum). Years of birth were grouped in three periods, because of the small numbers of observations per year (1981-85, 1986-90 and 1991-95). Similarly, months of birth were grouped in three seasons: dry (February to May), rainy (June to September) and windy and rainy (October to January). Ages of dams were classified in six groups (or=8 years). Breed groups were animals with 12.5%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 62.5%, 75.0% and 100% BS genes and 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% and 100% CH genes and also Z and undefined crossbred animals. Data were analysed using a fixed model that included effects of period, and season of birth, age of dam and breed group of heifer. Analyses of variance showed significant (p < 0.05) effects of period, season and breed group for all traits. However, parity was significant (p < 0.05) only for WW8 and ADG8. Interactions among main factors were not significant (p > 0.05). Z heifers gained the least weight to weaning but were similar to BS at 18 months of age. CH were heavier at 18 months of age than BS heifers, but not at weaning. Body weights at 18 months of age of 1/8 and 1/4 BS crossbred heifers were similar (p > 0.05) and lower than F1 (BS x Z) (p < 0.05); however, the later and higher grades of BS had the highest body weights at 18 months of age and were similar to CH and 1/4 CH x 3/4 Z heifers. Undefined crossbred heifers had better performance than the Z breed group. Environmental factors were

  8. Theileriasis in crossbred cows and its therapeutic management: first report from Lushai hill district of Mizoram.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Kalyan; Prasad, H; Das, Gunjan; Behera, P; Behera, S K; Rajesh, J B; Borthakur, S K

    2016-09-01

    To know the prevalence of theileriosis infection, haemato-biochemical alteration and efficacy of Oxytetracycline in combination with Diaminazene aceturate injection against theileriosis in Lushai hill district of Mizoram; fifty five cross bred cattle were screened during July, 2013 to November, 2013. The prevalence of tropical theileriosis was 9.09 % based on blood smear examination. Clinical features of the disease were manifested by high rise of body temperature 104.8 ± 1.2 °F, lymphadenopathy, inability to walk, anorexia, listlessness, moderate anaemia, nasal discharge, edema of eye and corneal opacity. There were marked decline (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin 5.28 ± 1.81 gm/dl, total erythrocytic count 2.14 ± 0.7 × 10(6)/ul, packed cell volume 18.10 ± 0.8 % and total leukocyte count 6.95 ± 1.05 × 10(3)/ul, respectively. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly increased (P < 0.01) up to 104.5 ± 12.4 mm/1st hour. The percentage of neutrophils increased 62.75 ± 2.77 and lymphocytes decreased drastically 28.69 ± 1.45 as compared with un-infected cross bred cattle. Clinically infected cattle with Theileria annulata had significantly low levels of total proteins and albumin, (P < 0.05) but AST, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, BUN, creatinine levels and Ck-MB activity were significantly high (P < 0.05). Oxytetracycline in combination with Diaminazene aceturate was found effective against T. annulata and could control fever and temperature returns to normalcy by 7th day post treatment along with some haemato-biochemical profiles. In brief, the study revealed that tropical theileriosis was prevalent in Lushai hill district of Mizoram especially among cross breed cattle and had effect on hepatic, renal and cardiac function which can be effectively controlled by Oxytetracycline and Diaminazene aceturate injection. PMID:27605754

  9. The influence of tropical adaptation on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in purebred and crossbred beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine whether tropical adaptation influences circulating concentrations of the growth-related hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), 3-breed diallel matings were conducted using temperate Bos taurus (A; Angus), tropical Bos indicus (B; Brahman), and tropical Bos taurus (R...

  10. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...