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Sample records for giuliani giovanni vignale

  1. Federated Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Federated Giovanni is a NASA-funded ACCESS project to extend the scope of the GES DISC Giovanni online analysis tool to 4 other Distributed Active Archive Centers within EOSDIS: OBPG, LP-DAAC, MODAPS and PO.DAAC. As such, it represents a significant instance of sharing technology across the DAACs. We also touch on several sub-areas that are also sharable, such as Giovanni URLs, workflows and OGC-accessible services.

  2. Giovanni-4: The Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Da Silva, D.; Bryant, K.; Zhao, P.; Liu, Z.; Shen, S.; Savtchenko, A.; Teng, W.; Wei, J.; Acker, J.

    2014-01-01

    This talk discusses the new aspects of Giovanni-4. Covered in the talk are new features in Giovanni-4, including shape fileservices, seasonal analysis services, the Omnibus Portal, navigation among variables, and comparison services.

  3. Introducing Giovanni Gentile, the "Philosopher of Fascism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This essay aims to introduce Giovanni Gentile to scholars of Gramsci studies broadly and Gramsci-education studies more specifically. The largest part of the essay explores Gentile's academic life, his philosophical agenda, and his political career. Having established a basis for understanding the educational reform Gentile enacted as Mussolini's…

  4. Exploiting the Capabilities of NASA's Giovanni System for Oceanographic Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Petrucio, Emil; Leptoukh, Gregory; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Giovanni system [GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure] has significant capabilities for oceanographic education and independent research utilizing ocean color radiometry data products. Giovanni allows Web-based data discovery and basic analyses, and can be used both for guided illustration of a variety of marine processes and phenomena, and for independent research investigations. Giovanni's capabilities are particularly suited for advanced secondary school science and undergraduate (college) education. This presentation will describe a variety of ways that Giovanni can be used for oceanographic education. Auxiliary information resources that can be utilized will also be described. Several testimonies of Giovanni usage for instruction will be provided, and a recent case history of Giovanni utilization for instruction and research at the undergraduate level is highlighted.

  5. Remote Sensing Data Visualization, Fusion and Analysis via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.; Khayat, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe Giovanni, the NASA Goddard developed online visualization and analysis tool that allows users explore various phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using MODIS aerosol data as an example, we formulate an approach to the data fusion for Giovanni to further enrich online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  6. Giovanni: The Bridge between Data and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Lynnes, Christopher; Kempler, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a web-based remote sensing and model data visualization and analysis system developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). This web-based tool facilitates data discovery, exploration and analysis of large amount of global and regional data sets, covering atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, oceanographic, and land surface. Data analysis functions include Lat-Lon map, time series, scatter plot, correlation map, difference, cross-section, vertical profile, and animation etc. Visualization options enable comparisons of multiple variables and easier refinement. Recently, new features have been developed, such as interactive scatter plots and maps. The performance is also being improved, in some cases by an order of magnitude for certain analysis functions with optimized software. We are working toward merging current Giovanni portals into a single omnibus portal with all variables in one (virtual) location to help users find a variable easily and enhance the intercomparison capability

  7. Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

  8. Federated Giovanni: multi-sensor data sharing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, M.; Lynnes, C.; Acker, J. G.; Kempler, S. J.; Seiler, E.; Davis, J.; Strub, R. F.; Bryant, K.; Smit, C.; Zhao, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Laidlaw, R.; Hausman, J.; Lossing, R.; Bailey, S. W.; Kalb, V.; Hendrix, C.

    2015-12-01

    Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface) has long been a popular tool among remote sensing data users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). It supports about two dozen visualization and analysis services that enable interactive exploration of the data, which is a key early step in data analysis. Giovanni brings usability, a low learning curve, and the ability to provide informative visualizations without downloading large volumes of data to the user's location. Federated Giovanni allows each data center to configure and deploy its own Giovanni and curated data catalog, while allowing various Giovanni instances to share data from each other for data intercomparisons. Providing Giovanni's capabilities to other data providers through federation will allow a dramatically larger number of distributed datasets to be made available for interactive data exploration and inter-comparison. This capability is particularly beneficial to science researchers studying data from multiple sensors and satellites. In this presentation, we will describe the architecture as well as the process of curating and sharing Giovanni data catalogs to enable inter-comparison of data from multiple sensors.

  9. Giovanni Berlinguer: socialist, sanitarian, and humanist!

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sonia

    2015-11-01

    This article highlights important aspects of the biography of Giovanni Berlinguer that led him to become a prominent scientist and political activist. His works were marked by a strong socialist conviction and deep humanism. His contribution to health in Brazil ranged from a vast academic output in the field of public health to an active involvement in the Brazilian Health Movement. His later publications addressing everyday bioethics reveal the common thread that runs through his entire works: the use of science to demonstrate the social determinants of health; the fight against unjust inequality; the defense of life against exploitation; and the struggle to prevent the commoditization of life, the human body, and health care. PMID:26602732

  10. New data and capabilities in the NASA Goddard Giovanni system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Farley, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S. W.

    2007-12-01

    Giovanni, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure, is the underlying infrastructure for a growing family of Web interfaces that allows users to analyze gridded and swath data interactively online without having to download any data. Giovanni is a simple but powerful tool for researchers to explore and analyze data without having to deal with original data format, volume, and complexity. Since 2002, Giovanni has served many users worldwide with TRMM and MODIS data visualization and analysis. With increasing size and complexity of Earth and Space Science data holdings and growing demands for better, faster, and less costly tools for data exploration, visualization and analysis, Giovanni has been extended to serve CALIPSO, CloudSat, SeaWiFS, TOMS, AIRS, OMI, MLS-Aura, HIRDLS, and HALOE data to the Atmospheric Composition, Aerosol, Air Quality, and other research communities. To further improve Giovanni extendibility, accessibility, and performance, Giovanni version 3 (G3) has been developed and is currently in operation at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). In addition to the existing Giovanni instances, several new G3 instances have been released, including (1) A-Train Data Depot that is capable to allow access to, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmospheric measurements from A-Train instruments; (2) NEESPI, a multi-sensor multi-disciplinary instance dedicated to the studies of the environment of the Northern Eurasia; (3) Data Fusion, a prototype Giovanni instance that demonstrates the G3 capability for fusing Earth Science data from multiple sensors. Giovanni capabilities have also been extended to include direct access via WMS protocol, and to provide output in various popular formats, like KML for Google Earth. With much progress in data visualization, data analysis, and easy-to-use toolkits, G3 has simplified and strengthened its capabilities of providing closer links between

  11. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  12. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  13. Exploring NASA and ESA Atmospheric Data Using GIOVANNI, the Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the NASA Goddard online visualization and analysis tool (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users explore various atmospheric phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using NASA MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and ESA MERIS (ENVISAT) aerosol data as an example, we demonstrate Giovanni usage for online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  14. Statistical Considerations of Data Processing in Giovanni Online Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suhung, Shen; Leptoukh, G.; Acker, J.; Berrick, S.

    2005-01-01

    The GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) is a web-based interface for the rapid visualization and analysis of gridded data from a number of remote sensing instruments. The GES DISC currently employs several Giovanni instances to analyze various products, such as Ocean-Giovanni for ocean products from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua; TOMS & OM1 Giovanni for atmospheric chemical trace gases from TOMS and OMI, and MOVAS for aerosols from MODIS, etc. (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) Foremost among the Giovanni statistical functions is data averaging. Two aspects of this function are addressed here. The first deals with the accuracy of averaging gridded mapped products vs. averaging from the ungridded Level 2 data. Some mapped products contain mean values only; others contain additional statistics, such as number of pixels (NP) for each grid, standard deviation, etc. Since NP varies spatially and temporally, averaging with or without weighting by NP will be different. In this paper, we address differences of various weighting algorithms for some datasets utilized in Giovanni. The second aspect is related to different averaging methods affecting data quality and interpretation for data with non-normal distribution. The present study demonstrates results of different spatial averaging methods using gridded SeaWiFS Level 3 mapped monthly chlorophyll a data. Spatial averages were calculated using three different methods: arithmetic mean (AVG), geometric mean (GEO), and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Biogeochemical data, such as chlorophyll a, are usually considered to have a log-normal distribution. The study determined that differences between methods tend to increase with increasing size of a selected coastal area, with no significant differences in most open oceans. The GEO method consistently produces values lower than AVG and MLE. The AVG method produces values larger than MLE in some cases, but smaller in other cases. Further

  15. Statistical Considerations of Data Processing in Giovanni Online Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Acker, J.; Berrick, S.

    2005-12-01

    The GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) is a web-based interface for the rapid visualization and analysis of gridded data from a number of remote sensing instruments. The GES DISC currently employs several Giovanni instances to analyze various products, such as Ocean-Giovanni for ocean products from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua; TOMS & OMI Giovanni for atmospheric chemical trace gases from TOMS and OMI, and MOVAS for aerosols from MODIS, etc. (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) Foremost among the Giovanni statistical functions is data averaging. Two aspects of this function are addressed here. The first deals with the accuracy of averaging gridded mapped products vs. averaging from the ungridded Level 2 data. Some mapped products contain mean values only; others contain additional statistics, such as number of pixels (NP) for each grid, standard deviation, etc. Since NP varies spatially and temporally, averaging with or without weighting by NP will be different. In this paper, we address differences of various weighting algorithms for some datasets utilized in Giovanni. The second aspect is related to different averaging methods affecting data quality and interpretation for data with non-normal distribution. The present study demonstrates results of different spatial averaging methods using gridded SeaWiFS Level 3 mapped monthly chlorophyll a data. Spatial averages were calculated using three different methods: arithmetic mean (AVG), geometric mean (GEO), and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Biogeochemical data, such as chlorophyll a, are usually considered to have a log-normal distribution. The study determined that differences between methods tend to increase with increasing size of a selected coastal area, with no significant differences in most open oceans. The GEO method consistently produces values lower than AVG and MLE. The AVG method produces values larger than MLE in some cases, but smaller in other cases. Further

  16. Explore GPM IMERG and Other Global Precipitation Products with GES DISC GIOVANNI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Macritchie, K.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    New features and capabilities in the newly released GIOVANNI allow exploring GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) Early, Late and Final Run global half-hourly and monthly precipitation products as well as other precipitation products distributed by the GES DISC such as TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation Systems), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc. GIOVANNI is a web-based tool developed by the GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences and Data Information Services Center), to visualize and analyze Earth science data without having to download data and software. The new interface in GIOVANNI allows searching and filtering precipitation products from different NASA missions and projects and expands the capabilities to inter-compare different precipitation products in one interface. Knowing differences in precipitation products is important to identify issues in retrieval algorithms, biases, uncertainties, etc. Due to different formats, data structures, units and so on, it is not easy to inter-compare these precipitation products. The recently added new features and capabilities (unit conversion, regridding, etc.) in GIOVANNI make inter-comparison possible. In this presentation, we will describe these new feature and capabilities along with examples. (Related URLs: GIOVANNI URL: http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/; GES DISC: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/)

  17. Franz Xaver von Zach and Giovanni Battista Amici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschiari, Alberto

    The address explores the five-year relationship between Franz Xaver von Zach and the Italian instrument maker Giovanni Battista Amici (Modena 1786 - Florence 1863) from the time of their first meeting at Amici's workshop in Modena on 8 September 1820. Zach was particularly impressed by Amici's prismatic reflecting sector and helped him to obtain the optical glass required for its construction from Fraunhofer in Munich. With his "Correspondance astronomique", Zach was one of Amici's main publishers. In the space of four years he published seven of his scientific letters, discussing and commenting on them with extensive notes. The correspondence between Amici and Zach, kept at the Estense Library in Modena and covering a period of just under three years from July 1822 to May 1825, has been published by A. Meschiari in Nuncius, 1-2002.

  18. Use of Giovanni System in Public Health Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina; Kiang, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    The role of environment and climate in propagating infectious disease has long been recognized since the 5th century. The effect is particularly evident in vector-borne diseases such as malaria where temperature, precipitation and humidity influence the lifecycle of the pathogens and mosquitoes. Likewise, the transmission of respiratory diseases is also often associated with climatic factors. For example, a recent study showed that low humidity and temperature provides efficient condition for seasonal influenza transmission. Understanding of how environment and climate affect infectious diseases would essentially provide guides to prevent and control the spread of disease. Toward this end, our group has developed models for infectious disease risk such as for malaria, dengue and influenza that are driven by climatic and environmental inputs. Results will be presented, especially those that used TRMM data from GIOVANNI.

  19. [The method of "rational medicine" of Giovanni Battista Morgagni].

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Giovanni Battista Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. His contribution can be contextualized within the sphere of the extraordinary development of anatomy between the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the period in which this discipline became the "queen" of the natural sciences. A new pathology based upon anatomy became possible thanks to the mechanistic perspective that had characterized this science in the seventeenth century, in particular with the work of Marcello Malpighi, whom Morgagni regarded as his master. The approach of Malpighi and of the other "iatromechanists" was the subject of an ample debate in which the advocates of mechanicism and empiricism were opposed to, and intertwined with, the supporters of the "ancient," that is to say, Galenic medicine, with respect to those of the "modern," i.e., "neoteric" one. The anatomic-clinical method of Morgagni can be fully understood only when contextualized within this debate. PMID:26915233

  20. Federated Giovanni: A Distributed Web Service for Analysis and Visualization of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Acker, J. G.; Mattmann, C. A.; D'Sa, E. J.; Thompson, C. K.; Kalb, V.; Ramirez, P.; Franz, B. A.; Lossing, R.; Fang, F.; Torbert, C.; Hendrix, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface (Giovanni) is a popular tool for users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and has been in use for over a decade. It provides a wide variety of algorithms and visualizations to explore large remote sensing datasets without having to download the data and without having to write readers and visualizers for it. Giovanni is now being extended to enable its capabilities at other data centers within the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). This "Federated Giovanni" will allow four other data centers to add and maintain their data within Giovanni on behalf of their user community. Those data centers are the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), and Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). Three tiers are supported: Tier 1 (GES DISC-hosted) gives the remote data center a data management interface to add and maintain data, which are provided through the Giovanni instance at the GES DISC. Tier 2 packages Giovanni up as a virtual machine for distribution to and deployment by the other data centers. Data variables are shared among data centers by sharing documents from the Solr database that underpins Giovanni's data management capabilities. However, each data center maintains their own instance of Giovanni, exposing the variables of most interest to their user community. Tier 3 is a Shared Source model, in which the data centers cooperate to extend the infrastructure by contributing source code.

  1. Federated Giovanni: A Distributed Web Service for Analysis and Visualization of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface (Giovanni) is a popular tool for users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and has been in use for over a decade. It provides a wide variety of algorithms and visualizations to explore large remote sensing datasets without having to download the data and without having to write readers and visualizers for it. Giovanni is now being extended to enable its capabilities at other data centers within the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). This Federated Giovanni will allow four other data centers to add and maintain their data within Giovanni on behalf of their user community. Those data centers are the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), and Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). Three tiers are supported: Tier 1 (GES DISC-hosted) gives the remote data center a data management interface to add and maintain data, which are provided through the Giovanni instance at the GES DISC. Tier 2 packages Giovanni up as a virtual machine for distribution to and deployment by the other data centers. Data variables are shared among data centers by sharing documents from the Solr database that underpins Giovanni's data management capabilities. However, each data center maintains their own instance of Giovanni, exposing the variables of most interest to their user community. Tier 3 is a Shared Source model, in which the data centers cooperate to extend the infrastructure by contributing source code.

  2. Visualization and Analysis of Multi-scale Land Surface Products via Giovanni Portals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.; Gerasimov, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    Large volumes of MODIS land data products at multiple spatial resolutions have been integrated into the Giovanni online analysis system to support studies on land cover and land use changes,focused on the Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions through the LCLUC program. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data.Customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI andGiovanni-MAIRS) have been created to integrate land, atmospheric,cryospheric, and societal products, enabling researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes, and their relationships to climate, at global and regional scales. This presentation shows a sample Giovanni portal page, lists selected data products in the system, and illustrates potential analyses with imagesand time-series at global and regional scales, focusing on climatology and anomaly analysis. More information is available at the GES DISCMAIRS data support project portal: http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govmairs.

  3. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  4. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271

  5. Giovanni Battista Morgagni and his contribution to pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Zani, Augusto; Cozzi, Denis A

    2008-04-01

    Pediatric surgery is a less than a century old surgical specialty. However, early knowledge of human malformations and pediatric surgical conditions dates back to centuries before. One of the main contributors to progress in these fields was Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), who also had a substantial weight in the development of future pediatric surgery. With his masterpiece De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (On the Seats and Causes of Diseases Investigated by Anatomy) (1761), he set the basis for modern pathology. In this textbook, Morgagni was the first to describe anatomical elements like the trigonum sternocostale dextrum (the Morgagni's foramen), the appendix testis (the Morgagni's hydatid), and the vertical folds of distal rectum (the Morgagni's columns). He was also the first to describe pediatric pathological conditions like epispadia, meconium peritonitis, Crohn's disease, and coarctation of the aorta. Finally, he substantially contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology of conditions like the vesico-ureteral reflux, the anterior wall defects (gastroschisis/omphalocele), and the spina bifida. For this, it was said of him: "If all the anatomical findings made by Morgagni should bear his name, probably one third of human body would be called Morgagni's." PMID:18405723

  6. Volume, Variety and Veracity of Big Data Analytics in NASA's Giovanni Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Pan, J.; Bryant, K.; Chidambaram, C.; Zhao, P.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Observation data have posed challenges to NASA users ever since the launch of several satellites around the turn of the century, generating volumes now measured in petabytes, a volume growth further increased by models assimilating the satellite data. One important approach to bringing Big Data Analytic capabilities to bear on the Volume of data has been the provision of server-side analysis capabilities. For instance, the Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis (Giovanni) tool provides a web interface to large volumes of gridded data from several EOSDIS data centers. Giovanni's main objective is to allow the user to explore its data holdings using various forms of visualization and data summarization or aggregation algorithms, thus allowing the user to examine statistics and pictures for the overall data, while eventually acquiring only the most useful data. Thus much of the preprocessing and data reduction aspects can take place on the server, delivering manageable information quantities to the user. In addition to Volume, Giovanni uses open standards to tackle the Variety aspect of Big Data, incorporating data stored in several formats, from several data centers, and making them available in a uniform data format and structure to both the Giovanni algorithms and the end user. The Veracity aspect of Big Data, perhaps the stickiest of wickets, is enhanced through features that enable reproducibility (provenance and URL-driven workflows), and by a Help Desk staffed by scientists with expertise in the science data.

  7. Explore GPM IMERG and Other Global Precipitation Products with GES DISC GIOVANNI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Vollmer, Bruce; MacRitchie, Kyle; Kempler, Steven

    2015-01-01

    New features and capabilities in the newly released GIOVANNI allow exploring GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) Early, Late and Final Run global half-hourly and monthly precipitation products as well as other precipitation products distributed by the GES DISC such as TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation Systems), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc. GIOVANNI is a web-based tool developed by the GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences and Data Information Services Center) to visualize and analyze Earth science data without having to download data and software. The new interface in GIOVANNI allows searching and filtering precipitation products from different NASA missions and projects and expands the capabilities to inter-compare different precipitation products in one interface. Knowing differences in precipitation products is important to identify issues in retrieval algorithms, biases, uncertainties, etc. Due to different formats, data structures, units and so on, it is not easy to inter-compare precipitation products. Newly added features and capabilities (unit conversion, regridding, etc.) in GIOVANNI make inter-comparisons possible. In this presentation, we will describe these new features and capabilities along with examples.

  8. Towards Infusing Giovanni with a Semantic and Provenance Aware Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio, N.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by GES DISC that provides simple and intuitive ways to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensed data. Currently, the Giovanni visualization module is only aware of the physical links (i.e., hard-coded) between data and services and consequently cannot be easily adapted to new visualization scenarios. VisKo, a semantically enabled visualization framework, can be leveraged by Giovanni as a semantic bridge between data and visualization. VisKo relates data and visualization services at conceptual (i.e., ontological) levels and relies on reasoning systems to leverage the conceptual relationships to automatically infer physical links, facilitating an adaptable environment for new visualization scenarios. This is particularly useful for Giovanni, which has been constantly retrofitted with new visualization software packages to keep up with advancement in visualization capabilities. During our prototype integration of Giovanni with VisKo, a number of future steps were identified that if implemented could cement the integration and promote our prototype to operational status. A number of integration issues arose including the mediation of different languages used by each system to characterize datasets; VisKo relies on semantic data characterization to "match-up" data with visualization processes. It was necessary to identify mappings between Giovanni XML provenance and Proof Markup Language, which is understood by VisKo. Although a translator was implemented based on identified mappings, a more elegant solution is to develop a domain data ontology specific to Giovanni and to "align" this ontology with PML, enabling VisKo to directly ingest the semantic descriptions of Giovanni data. Additionally, the relationship between dataset components (e.g., variables and attributes) and visualization plot components (e.g., geometries, axes, titles) should also be modeled. In Giovanni, meta

  9. A Case Study of Convective Transport of Trace Gases and Air Pollutants into the Lower Stratosphere Examined in Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. P.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Johnson, J. E.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Kempler, S. J.

    2006-12-01

    Giovanni is the Web-based on-line data exploration and visualization tool that provides an easy access to the long-term datasets of atmospheric measurements from the past and current satellite missions (e.g. Aura OMI, MLS and HIRDLS, Aqua AIRS and MODIS, TOMS, UARS HALOE, TRMM) and data from assimilation models that are archived at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC). Giovanni ( http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/ ) has many built-in data analysis capabilities. Users donot need to learn data formats or retrieve large datasets and process it. One can examine and assess various geophysical phenomena interactively. In this presentation we demonstrate Giovanni data exploration capabilities by examining the convective transport of trace gases and air pollutants (water vapor, ozone, CO, NO2, etc) into the lower stratosphere, and seasonal variability of aerosols, cloud and precipitation, over the Tibetan Plateau and South Asian region.

  10. Aerosol Intercomparison Scenarios for the Giovanni Multi-sensor Data Synergy “Advisor”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Prados, A. I.; Shen, S.; Pan, J.; Rui, H.; Lynnes, C.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Zednik, S.

    2009-12-01

    The combination of remotely sensed aerosols datasets can result in synergistic products that are more useful than the sum of the individual datasets. Multi-sensor composite datasets can be constructed by data merging (taking very closely related parameters to create a single merged dataset to increase spatial and/or temporal coverage), cross-calibration (creating long-term climate data records from two very similar parameters), validation (using a parameter from one dataset to validate a closely related parameter in another), cross-comparison (comparing two datasets with different parameters), and data fusion (using two or more parameters to estimate a third parameter). However, care must be taken to note the differences in data provenance and quality when combining heterogeneous datasets. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is currently in its first year of funding for our project Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA or Giovanni Advisor) under the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems and Technology (AIST) program. The Giovanni Advisor will allow researchers to combine and compare aerosol data from multiple sensors using Giovanni, such that scientifically and statistically valid conclusions can be drawn. The Giovanni Advisor will assist the user in determining how to match up two (or more) sets of data that are related, yet significantly different in some way: in the exact phenomenon being measured, the measurement technique, or the location in space-time and/or the quality of the measurements. Failing to account for these differences in merging, validation, cross calibration, comparison or fusion is likely to yield scientifically dubious results. The Giovanni Advisor captures details of each parameter’s attributes, metadata, retrieval heritage, provenance and data quality and flags relevant differences so that the user can make appropriate “apples to apples” comparisons of

  11. Giovanni: A System for Rapid Access, Visualization and Analysis of Earth Science Data Online

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, S.; Rui, H.; Liu, Z.; Zhu, T.; Lu, L.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Teng, W.; Acker, J.; Johnson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Collecting data and understanding data structures traditionally are the first steps that a user must take, before the core investigation can begin. This is a time-consuming and challenging task, especially when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data that are usually in different formats and internal structures. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has created the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, Giovanni, to enable Web-based visualization and analysis of satellite remotely sensed meteorological, oceanographic, and hydrologic data sets, without users having to download data. The current operational Giovanni interfaces provide the capability to process a number of important satellite measurements, such as (1) ozone and other trace gases from TOMS, OMI, HALOE, and MLS; (2) air temperature, water vapor, and geopotential height from AIRS; (3) aerosols from MODIS TerrdAqua, and GOCART model; (4) precipitation from TRMM and ground measurements; (5) chlorophyll and other ocean color products from SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua; and (6) sea surface temperature from MODIS Aqua. Depending on the input data structure, the system provides simple statistical analysis and creates time-averaged area plot, area-averaged time series, animations, Hovmoller latitude vs. time and longitude vs. time plots, as well as vertical profiles. The inter-comparison interfaces allow a user to compare observations from different instruments, to conduct anomaly analysis, and to study basic relationships between physical parameters. Giovanni handles data with different temporal and spatial resolutions and, thus, enables both regional and global long-term climate research and short-term special events investigation, as well as data validations and assessments. Because of its simplicity of usage, Giovanni is powerful and versatile, able to assist a wide range of users, from the discipline scientists

  12. [Rudolf Krauss, Giovanni Noe and a flash of infectious diseases in Chile, 1930].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2015-06-01

    When there were giants on the earth, two of them, Rudolf Kraus and Giovanni Noe, met at the ancient Bacteriological Institute of Chile, and founded together a journal representing the principles of the institution. A nostalgic glance over the papers published therein for these so named giants lets us know a little about the study of infectious diseases in the thirties, when tuberculosis and malaria were two of the biggest problems for the world's public health... then and now. PMID:26230441

  13. Il sistema multiplo di Spica osservato dal Padre Giovanni Battista Audiffredi nel 1753

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2005-06-01

    The multiplicity of Spica's system has been first observed in 1753 by the dominican father Giovanni Battista Audiffredi through a lunar occultation. Audiffredi noted that the emersion's duration from the bright lunar limb was not instantaneous. Nowadays Spica has five known components, four of them have been discovered by occultation. This observation is presented along with a general introduction of lunar occultations, Watts' profiles, Cassini regions and grazes.

  14. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini.

    PubMed

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-03-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone. PMID:19209070

  15. Performance, Agility and Cost of Cloud Computing Services for NASA GES DISC Giovanni Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Chen, A.; Wharton, S.; Winter, E. L.; Lynnes, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is investigating the performance, agility and cost of Cloud computing for GES DISC applications. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure), one of the core applications at the GES DISC for online climate-related Earth science data access, subsetting, analysis, visualization, and downloading, was used to evaluate the feasibility and effort of porting an application to the Amazon Cloud Services platform. The performance and the cost of running Giovanni on the Amazon Cloud were compared to similar parameters for the GES DISC local operational system. A Giovanni Time-Series analysis of aerosol absorption optical depth (388nm) from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument)/Aura was selected for these comparisons. All required data were pre-cached in both the Cloud and local system to avoid data transfer delays. The 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month data were used for analysis on the Cloud and local system respectively, and the processing times for the analysis were used to evaluate system performance. To investigate application agility, Giovanni was installed and tested on multiple Cloud platforms. The cost of using a Cloud computing platform mainly consists of: computing, storage, data requests, and data transfer in/out. The Cloud computing cost is calculated based on the hourly rate, and the storage cost is calculated based on the rate of Gigabytes per month. Cost for incoming data transfer is free, and for data transfer out, the cost is based on the rate in Gigabytes. The costs for a local server system consist of buying hardware/software, system maintenance/updating, and operating cost. The results showed that the Cloud platform had a 38% better performance and cost 36% less than the local system. This investigation shows the potential of cloud computing to increase system performance and lower the overall cost of system management.

  16. Data Visualization and Analysis for Climate Studies using NASA Giovanni Online System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Leptoukh, Gregory; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    With many global earth observation systems and missions focused on climate systems and the associated large volumes of observational data available for exploring and explaining how climate is changing and why, there is an urgent need for climate services. Giovanni, the NASA GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd ANalysis Infrastructure, is a simple to use yet powerful tool for analysing these data for research on global warming and climate change, as well as for applications to weather. air quality, agriculture, and water resources,

  17. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  18. NASA Giovanni: A Tool for Visualizing, Analyzing, and Inter-comparing Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce; deJeu, Richard; Fang, Fan; Lei, Guang-Dih; Parinussa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There are many existing satellite soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products, but there is no simple way for a user to inter-compare the products or analyze them together with other related data. An environment that facilitates such inter-comparison and analysis would be useful for validation of satellite soil moisture retrievals against in situ data and for determining the relationships between different soil moisture products. As part of the NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) family of portals, which has provided users worldwide with a simple but powerful way to explore NASA data, a beta prototype Giovanni Inter-comparison of Soil Moisture Products portal has been developed. A number of soil moisture data products are currently included in the prototype portal. More will be added, based on user requirements and feedback and as resources become available. Two application examples for the portal are provided. The NASA Giovanni Soil Moisture portal is versatile and extensible, with many possible uses, for research and applications, as well as for the education community.

  19. Giovanni Data Portals and Resources Support Student Problem-Based Learning for Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, J. G.; Zalles, D. R.; Krumhansl, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Data-Enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE) project, funded by NASA, is providing dedicated climate data portals in the NASA Giovanni data system for the use of teachers and students. The central content of the DICCE-Giovanni data portals is a reduced set of climate-relevant data parameters drawn from the available Giovanni data sets, with accessible meanings, such as surface temperature, precipitation amount, snow cover, phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration, vegetation indices, and aerosol optical depth. Information resources explain the significance of the data to climate research, how to interpret climate data trends, and address uncertainties in both data visualizations and the interpretation of data plotting output. "How-to" videos and plotting tips facilitate the utilization of the data portals, so that teachers can create problem-based projects based on actual satellite observational data. The use of satellite data in a problem-based framework enhances the relevance and immediacy of the project content to the student, improves their understanding of Earth climate system interrelationships, and also improves pattern recognition, math skills, and interpretation of data representations.;

  20. Using NASA's Giovanni Web Portal to Access and Visualize Satellite-Based Earth Science Data in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.; Acker, J. G.; Prados, A. I.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2008-12-01

    One of the biggest obstacles for the average Earth science student today is locating and obtaining satellite- based remote sensing datasets in a format that is accessible and optimal for their data analysis needs. At the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) alone, on the order of hundreds of Terabytes of data are available for distribution to scientists, students and the general public. The single biggest and time-consuming hurdle for most students when they begin their study of the various datasets is how to slog through this mountain of data to arrive at a properly sub-setted and manageable dataset to answer their science question(s). The GES DISC provides a number of tools for data access and visualization, including the Google-like Mirador search engine and the powerful GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) web interface. Giovanni provides a simple way to visualize, analyze and access vast amounts of satellite-based Earth science data. Giovanni's features and practical examples of its use will be demonstrated, with an emphasis on how satellite remote sensing can help students understand recent events in the atmosphere and biosphere. Giovanni is actually a series of sixteen similar web-based data interfaces, each of which covers a single satellite dataset (such as TRMM, TOMS, OMI, AIRS, MLS, HALOE, etc.) or a group of related datasets (such as MODIS and MISR for aerosols, SeaWIFS and MODIS for ocean color, and the suite of A-Train observations co-located along the CloudSat orbital path). Recently, ground-based datasets have been included in Giovanni, including the Northern Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and EPA fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for air quality. Model data such as the Goddard GOCART model and MERRA meteorological reanalyses (in process) are being increasingly incorporated into Giovanni to facilitate model- data intercomparison. A full suite of data

  1. NASA Giovanni Portals for NLDAS/GLDAS Online Visualization, Analysis, and Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B. E.; Mocko, D. M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.

    2011-12-01

    North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) are generating a series of land surface forcing (e.g., precipitation, surface meteorology, and radiation), state (e.g., soil moisture and temperature, and snow), and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by several land surface models. To date, NLDAS and GLDAS have generated more than 30 and 60 years of data, respectively. These quality-controlled, and spatially and temporally consistent, terrestrial hydrological data could play an important role in characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles and, thereby, improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. All NLDAS and GLDAS data are accessible from the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC) at the NASA GES DISC (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology). To further facilitate access and use of these data, three new and improved portals of NASA Giovanni have been made available for NLDAS and GLDAS online visualization, analysis, and intercomparison. The new and improved portals include the following: 1. Giovanni portal, http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=NLDAS0125_H, for NLDAS 0.125°x0.125° hourly data from NLDAS Phase 1 (NLDAS-1) forcing product (Aug. 1996 - Dec. 2007) and NLDAS Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) primary forcing, secondary forcing, and Mosaic model products (Jan. 1979 - present). 2. Giovanni portal, http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=GLDAS10_3H, for 1.0°x1.0° 3-hourly data from GLDAS Version 2 (GLDAS-2) NOAH model product (Jan. 1948 - Dec. 2008) and GLDAS Version 1 (GLDAS-1) CLM, Mosaic, NOAH, and VIC model products (Jan. 1979 - present). 3. Giovanni portal, http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=GLDAS10_M, for 1.0°x1.0° monthly data from GLDAS-2 NOAH model product

  2. NASA Giovanni Portals for NLDAS/GLDAS Online Visualization, Analysis, and Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David M.; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) are generating a series of land surface forcing (e.g., precipitation, surface meteorology, and radiation), state (e.g., soil moisture and temperature, and snow), and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by several land surface models. To date, NLDAS and GLDAS have generated more than 30 (1979 - present) and 60 (1948 - present) years of data, respectively. To further facilitate data accessibility and utilization, three new portals in the NASA Giovanni system have been made available for NLDAS and GLDAS online visualization, analysis, and intercomparison.

  3. The Renaissance and the universal surgeon: Giovanni Andrea Della Croce, a master of traumatology.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Anna; Tomba, Patrizia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2013-12-01

    All the medical knowledge of all time in one book, the universal and perfect manual for the Renaissance surgeon, and the man who wrote it. This paper depicts the life and works of Giovanni Andrea della Croce, a 16th Century physician and surgeon, who, endowed with true spirit of Renaissance humanism, wanted to teach and share all his medical knowledge through his opus magnum, titled "Universal Surgery Complete with All the Relevant Parts for the Optimum Surgeon". An extraordinary book which truly represents a defining moment and a founding stone for traumatology, written by a lesser known historical personality, but nonetheless the Renaissance Master of Traumatology. PMID:24173678

  4. Some remarks on preparations for Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli's journey to Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    The present paper deals with the outline of some circumstances of the visit of Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli to the Nicolai Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Russia. There are some scan-copies of official letters displayed which belong to the collection from the diplomatic correspondence between the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Russia, and the Diplomatic Service of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The correspondence had been triggered by the application of Schiaparelli for his trip to the Pulkovo Observatory with the aim of perfection in Astronomy and Geodesy. The corresponding facsimile as well as its English translation is given

  5. Real Data and Rapid Results: Ocean Color Data Analysis with Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, J. G.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.; Gregg, W.; Berrick, S.; Zhu, T.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step addressing the challenge of using archived Earth Observing System (EOS) data for regional or global studies by developing an infrastructure with a World Wide Web interface which allows online, interactive, data analysis: the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides a data analysis environment that is largely independent of underlying data file format. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project has created an initial implementation of Giovanni using monthly Standard Mapped Image (SMI) data products from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission. Giovanni users select geophysical parameters, and the geographical region and time period of interest. The system rapidly generates a graphical or ASCII numerical data output. Currently available output options are: Area plot (averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area); Time plot (time series averaged over any rectangular area); Hovmeller plots (image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections); ASCII output for all plot types; and area plot animations. Future plans include correlation plots, output formats compatible with Geographical Information Systems (GIs), and higher temporal resolution data. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project will produce sensor-independent ocean color data beginning with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) mission and extending through SeaWiFS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data sets, and will enable incorporation of Visible/lnfrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data, which will be added to Giovanni. The first phase of Giovanni will also include tutorials demonstrating the use of Giovanni and collaborative assistance in the development of research projects using the SeaWiFS and Ocean Color Time-Series Project data in the online Laboratory

  6. Use of the NASA Giovanni Data System for Geospatial Public Health Research: Example of Weather-Influenza Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Soebiyanto, Radina; Kiang, Richard; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Giovanni data analysis system has been recognized as a useful tool to access and analyze many different types of remote sensing data. The variety of environmental data types has allowed the use of Giovanni for different application areas, such as agriculture, hydrology, and air quality research. The use of Giovanni for researching connections between public health issues and Earths environment and climate, potentially exacerbated by anthropogenic influence, has been increasingly demonstrated. In this communication, the pertinence of several different data parameters to public health will be described. This communication also provides a case study of the use of remote sensing data from Giovanni in assessing the associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters. In this study, logistic regression was employed with precipitation, temperature and specific humidity as predictors. Specific humidity was found to be associated (p 0.05) with influenza activity in both temperate and tropical climate. In the two temperate locations studied, specific humidity was negatively correlated with influenza; conversely, in the three tropical locations, specific humidity was positively correlated with influenza. Influenza prediction using the regression models showed good agreement with the observed data (correlation coefficient of 0.50.83).

  7. Striking presence of Egyptian blue identified in a painting by Giovanni Battista Benvenuto from 1524.

    PubMed

    Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn; Sanyova, Jana; Rask, Vibeke; Sargent, Maria Louise; Therkildsen, Rikke Hoberg

    2011-09-01

    Egyptian blue has been identified in a painting from 1524 by the Italian artist Ortolano Ferrarese (Giovanni Battista Benvenuto). Egyptian blue is the oldest known synthetic pigment, invented by the Egyptians in the fourth dynasty (2613-2494 BC) of the Old Kingdom and extensively used throughout Antiquity. From about 1000 A.D., it disappeared from the historical record and was only reinvented in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The discovery of Egyptian blue in Ortolano Ferrarese's painting from 1524 shows that Egyptian blue was in fact available in the period from which it is normally considered not to exist. The identification of Egyptian blue is based on optical microscopy supported by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and visual light photon-induced spectroscopy, and finally confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy. PMID:21678119

  8. Drawings for an exacting author: illustrations from Giovanni Antonio Scopoli's "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae".

    PubMed

    Siviero, Monica; Violani, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1723-1788) was one of the most versatile naturalists in eighteenth-century Italy. In 1785, Scopoli conceived the ambitious publication, "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae". Appearing in installments, this included descriptions and illustrations of plants, animals and minerals found in northern Italy. Unfortunately, Scopoli's sudden death halted publication of the "Deliciae" after its third installment. Recently, a corpus of 98 paintings, in the gouache style, were discovered in the Biblioteca Universitaria of Pavia. These gouaches appear to be the basis for plates planned in future installments of the "Deliciae". Marginal notes in Scopoli's handwriting are included. Because Scopoli's plant and animal specimens have been destroyed or dispersed, these drawings are crucial for reconstructing his scientific opus. Combined with other documents, Scopoli's marginal notes also reveal his exacting standards. He criticized the way his artists had poorly rendered the scientific details of the paintings. PMID:19842293

  9. Catalog of Hymenoptera described by Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym

  10. Using the NASA Giovanni DICCE Portal to Investigate Land-Ocean Linkages with Satellite and Model Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Zalles, Daniel; Krumhansl, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE), a NASA climate change education project, employs the NASA Giovanni data system to enable teachers to create climate-related classroom projects using selected satellite and assimilated model data. The easy-to-use DICCE Giovanni portal (DICCE-G) provides data parameters relevant to oceanic, terrestrial, and atmospheric processes. Participants will explore land-ocean linkages using the available data in the DICCE-G portal, in particular focusing on temperature, ocean biology, and precipitation variability related to El Ni?o and La Ni?a events. The demonstration includes the enhanced information for educators developed for the DICCE-G portal. The prototype DICCE Learning Environment (DICCE-LE) for classroom project development will also be demonstrated.

  11. 65 Years of Reprocessed GLDAS Version 2.0 Data and Their Exploration Using the NASA GES DISC Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.; Silberstein, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) has two components: (1) GLDAS-2.0, entirely forced with the Princeton meteorological forcing data and (2) GLDAS-2.1, forced with a combination of model and observation-based data sets. GLDAS-2.0 data from the Noah model have been reprocessed in July 2015 with updated Princeton forcing data and upgraded Land Information System (LIS) software. The temporal coverage of GLDAS 2.0 is extended to 1948 ~ 2012. The reprocessed GLDAS-2.0 data are archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), in self-describing and machine-independent NetCDF format, and can be accessed via HTTP for direct download, OPeNDAP for parameter and spatial subsetting, time aggregation, and format conversion, and Giovanni - Interactive Visualization and Analysis System. The OPeNDAP subsetting is also integrated into Simple Subset Wizard (SSW) for better User Interface and better downloading capability. This presentation describes the main characteristics of GLDAS data, the major improvements of the reprocessed data, and the access to the data. To further facilitate their use, reprocessed GLDAS-2.0 data are integrated into Giovanni, where the data can be easily explored with 17 visualization types, such as Lat-Lon Map and Animation, Time Series, Scatter Plot, and Histogram. This presentation also showcases the main climatology characteristics of 65 years of GLDAS, derived with Giovanni's new capabilities in computing climatology for user-defined time range and visualizing in Lat-Lon Map and Time Series. GLDAS-2.1 is analogous to and will soon replace GLDAS Version 1 (GLDAS-1), covering the time period from 2001 (or 2000 for the 0.25 degree data) to the present, with about a one-month latency. The data are also in NetCDF format and can be accessed via HTTP, OPeNDAP, and Giovanni.

  12. Using NASA DICCE GIOVANNI to Prepare Pre-service STEM Teachers to Teach Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Horizon oil spill incident on April 20, 2010 potentially compromised the Gulf Coast's ecosystem and human health through the marine food chain. One of the mitigation strategies to impede oil migration to the Gulf Coast's shorelines was to burn off crude oil, which resulted in the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions such as, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene compounds. Noticeable high deaths of marine animals and a decline in phytoplankton productivity have been linked to PAH- and dispersant-toxicity. Phytoplankton plays a pivotal role in natural food chains, production of O2, and capture of CO2. Grambling State University's Water Quality Management students used the University of New Hampshire's Student Climate Data website and the NASA DICCE data portal in learning activities to understand impacts of spill mitigation on chlorophyll a concentrations. Students used NASA Giovanni data and spectral satellite images to examine phytoplankton productivity around coastal shorelines, including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida pan-handle. Area-averaged time series from Giovanni indicated that June was the peak month for chlorophyll a from 2007 to 2012. Spectral images showed that chlorophyll a concentrations between 2.5-30mg/m3 were widely distributed around the shorelines of Louisiana, Mississippi, and the Florida pan-handle from June 2007 to June 2008. Students then examined chlorophyll a concentrations in April 2010 and May 2010. Data obtained from spectral images by students showed phytoplankton blooms with a 2.5mg/m3 concentration dramatically decreased from that of April 2010. Next students examined phytoplankton productivity from 0.08-30mg/m3 in the month of June for 2010, 2011, and 2012. In June 2010, a pattern of movement in phytoplankton blooms was observed toward southwest Louisiana and Texas shorelines. Comparative data from June 2011 and June 2012 demonstrated a low

  13. NASA Giovanni: A Tool for Visualizing, Analyzing, and Inter-Comparing Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce; deJeu, Richard; Fang, Fan; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    There are many existing satellite soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products, but there is no simple way for a user to inter-compare the products or analyze them together with other related data (e.g., precipitation). An environment that facilitates such inter-comparison and analysis would be useful for validation of satellite soil moisture retrievals against in situ data and for determining the relationships between different soil moisture products. The latter relationships are particularly important for applications users, for whom the continuity of soil moisture data, from whatever source, is critical. A recent example was provided by the sudden demise of EOS Aqua AMSR-E and the end of its soil moisture data production, as well as the end of other soil moisture products that had used the AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The purpose of the current effort is to create an environment, as part of the NASA Giovanni family of portals, that facilitates inter-comparisons of soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products.

  14. "Some curious drawings". Mars through Giovanni Schiaparelli's eyes: between science and fiction.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2009-01-01

    From the second half of the 19th century up to the first part of the 20th century the drawings of Mars by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli became the centre of an international controversy concerning the existence of canals and the hypothetical habitability of the red planet. These images also generated a full impact on the popular culture of the time. This essays follows the scientific representations of Mars by Schiaparelli (drawings of discs and maps) from their birth in the hands of the astronomy community up to their growing old in the hands of scientific popularizers such as Camille Flammarion and science fiction writers such as Herbert George Wells. With its seas and canyons Mars turned into the ideal background for scientific and exotic romanticism, offering a suitable setting for novels and tales. The core question crossed paths with the contemporary early 20th century debate raging on about the evolutionary theory. The study of Mars moved from astronomy to extraterrestrial physiology, biology, meteorology and geography: astronomical images then became imaginary portraits of Martians and artificial Martian landscapes. PMID:20506896

  15. The European accreditation of Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II of Bari.

    PubMed

    Lacalamita, Rosanna; Quaranta, Antonio; Trisorio Liuzzi, Maria Pia; Nigro, Aldo; Simonetti, Umberto; Schirone, Massimiliano; Aloè, Ferruccio; Capochiani, Gianluca; De Francesco, Genoveffa; Gadaleta, Cosimo; Galetta, Domenico; Grammatica, Luciano; Guarini, Attilio; Mattioli, Vittorio; Milella, Piero; Moschetta, Antonio; Nardulli, Patrizia; Nigro, Vincenza; Silvestris, Nico; Paradiso, Angelo

    2015-12-31

    The National Cancer Institute of Bari (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, IRCCS) has been involved since the conception of the project of the Italian Ministry for Health aimed to validate the applicability of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) accreditation and designation (A&D) model to the Network of Italian Cancer Centers, IRCCS, of Alleanza Contro il Cancro. The self-assessment phase of the Institute started in September 2013 and ended in June 2014. All documents and tools were transferred to the OECI A&D Board in June 2014 and a 2-day peer review visit was conducted in October 2014 by an international qualified audit team. The Institute received its final designation and certification in June 2015. The OECI A&D Board, in its final report, came to the conclusion that Istituto Tumori "Giovanni Paolo II" of Bari has a strong research component with some essential elements of comprehensive cancer care still under development; the lack of a system for using outcome data for the strategic management approach to decision-making and missing a regular internal audit system eventually helping further quality improvement were reported as examples of areas with opportunities for improvement. The OECI A&D process represented a great opportunity for the cancer center to benchmark the quality of its performance according to standard parameters in comparison with other international centers and to further develop a participatory group identity. The common goal of accreditation was real and participatory with long-lasting positive effects. We agree with the OECI comments about the next areas of work in which the Institute could produce future further efforts: the use of its powerful IT system as a means for outcome analysis and empowerment projects for its cancer patients. PMID:27096266

  16. Exploring Climatology and Long-Term Variations of Aerosols from NASA Reanalysis MERRA-2 with Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana; Vollmer, Bruce; Li, Zhanqing

    2016-01-01

    Dust plays important roles in energy cycle and climate variations. The dust deposition is the major source of iron in the open ocean, which is an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton growth and therefore may influence the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. Mineral dust can also act as fertilizer for forests over long time periods. Over 35 years of simulated global aerosol products from NASA atmospheric reanalysis, second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) are available from NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The MERRA-2 covers the period 1980-present, continuing as an ongoing climate analysis. Aerosol assimilation is included throughout the period, using MODIS, MISR, AERONET, and AVHRR (in the pre-EOS period). The aerosols are assimilated by using MERRA-2 aerosol model, which interact directly with the radiation parameterization, and radiatively coupled with atmospheric model dynamics in the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5). Dust deposition data along with other major aerosol compositions (e.g. black carbon, sea salt, and sulfate, etc.) are simulated as dry and wet deposition, respectively. The hourly and monthly data are available at spatial resolution of 0.5ox0.625o (latitude x longitude). Quick data exploration of climatology and interannual variations of MERRA-2 aerosol can be done through the online visualization and analysis tool, Giovanni. This presentation, using dust deposition as an example, demonstrates a number of MERRA-2 data services at GES DISC. Global distributions of dust depositions, and their seasonal and inter-annual variations are investigated from MERRA-2 monthly aerosol products.

  17. Issues in Data Fusion for Satellite Aerosol Measurements for Applications with GIOVANNI System at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalan, Arun; Zubko, Viktor; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    We look at issues, barriers and approaches for Data Fusion of satellite aerosol data as available from the GES DISC GIOVANNI Web Service. Daily Global Maps of AOT from a single satellite sensor alone contain gaps that arise due to various sources (sun glint regions, clouds, orbital swath gaps at low latitudes, bright underlying surfaces etc.). The goal is to develop a fast, accurate and efficient method to improve the spatial coverage of the Daily AOT data to facilitate comparisons with Global Models. Data Fusion may be supplemented by Optimal Interpolation (OI) as needed.

  18. Using NASA's Giovanni System to Simulate Time-Series Stations in the Outflow Region of California's Eel River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Lee, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    Oceanographic time-series stations provide vital data for the monitoring of oceanic processes, particularly those associated with trends over time and interannual variability. There are likely numerous locations where the establishment of a time-series station would be desirable, but for reasons of funding or logistics, such establishment may not be feasible. An alternative to an operational time-series station is monitoring of sites via remote sensing. In this study, the NASA Giovanni data system is employed to simulate the establishment of two time-series stations near the outflow region of California s Eel River, which carries a high sediment load. Previous time-series analysis of this location (Acker et al. 2009) indicated that remotely-sensed chl a exhibits a statistically significant increasing trend during summer (low flow) months, but no apparent trend during winter (high flow) months. Examination of several newly-available ocean data parameters in Giovanni, including 8-day resolution data, demonstrates the differences in ocean parameter trends at the two locations compared to regionally-averaged time-series. The hypothesis that the increased summer chl a values are related to increasing SST is evaluated, and the signature of the Eel River plume is defined with ocean optical parameters.

  19. [Overcrowding in emergency departments: the case of the San Giovanni Battista (Molinette) university hospital in Turin (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Fornero, Giulio; Arione, Roberto; Fiandra, Umberto; Rapellino, Marco; Bono, Alessia; Moiraghi, Corrado; Gianino, Maria Michela

    2011-01-01

    Overcrowding in Emergency Departments (ED) is a common phenomenon worldwide, especially in metropolitan areas. The main reason for overcrowding is not inappropriate emergency department use by patients but rather a shortage of available hospital beds which results in extended ED stays for patients who need emergency admission. The aims of this study, conducted at the San Giovanni Battista (Molinette) University hospital in Turin (Italy), were a) to verify the existence of overcrowding in the hospital ED and b) to test whether, as stated in the literature, overcrowding is due to restricted access to hospital beds for patients needing emergency admission, and to identify contributing factors. Results show the existence of overcrowding and confirm the hypothesized cause. PMID:22508607

  20. Giovanni Battista Morgagni in the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo R

    2014-07-01

    The Italian physician Giovanni Battista Morgagni was the founder of the clinico-anatomical method. His masterpiece De sedibus, et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis represented a major breakthrough in the history of medicine. In the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology, Morgagni appears at the center of the fresco. With his left index finger points to the chest of a dying patient with a bulging pulsating aortic aneurysm below the left clavicle, and with his right hand, that holds a scalpel, shows the aneurysm found at the autopsy table. With this striking image the clinico-anatomical method is succinctly depicted. Professor Ignacio Chávez, the founder of the National Institute of Cardiology, gave the artist the elements to draw Morgagni, but the disposition and the importance of Morgagni in the fresco were due to the talent of Rivera. PMID:23493179

  1. Using NASA's Giovanni Web Portal to Access and Visualize Satellite-based Earth Science Data in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven; Acker, James G.; Prados, Ana I.; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles for the average Earth science student today is locating and obtaining satellite-based remote sensing data sets in a format that is accessible and optimal for their data analysis needs. At the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) alone, on the order of hundreds of Terabytes of data are available for distribution to scientists, students and the general public. The single biggest and time-consuming hurdle for most students when they begin their study of the various datasets is how to slog through this mountain of data to arrive at a properly sub-setted and manageable data set to answer their science question(s). The GES DISC provides a number of tools for data access and visualization, including the Google-like Mirador search engine and the powerful GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) web interface.

  2. Hydrology Research with the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) Datasets at the NASA GES DISC Using Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Rui, Hualan; Acker, James G.

    2013-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a collaboration project between NASA/GSFC, NOAA, Princeton Univ., and the Univ. of Washington. NLDAS has created a surface meteorology dataset using the best-available observations and reanalyses the backbone of this dataset is a gridded precipitation analysis from rain gauges. This dataset is used to drive four separate land-surface models (LSMs) to produce datasets of soil moisture, snow, runoff, and surface fluxes. NLDAS datasets are available hourly and extend from Jan 1979 to near real-time with a typical 4-day lag. The datasets are available at 1/8th-degree over CONUS and portions of Canada and Mexico from 25-53 North. The datasets have been extensively evaluated against observations, and are also used as part of a drought monitor. NLDAS datasets are available from the NASA GES DISC and can be accessed via ftp, GDS, Mirador, and Giovanni. GES DISC news articles were published showing figures from the heat wave of 2011, Hurricane Irene, Tropical Storm Lee, and the low-snow winter of 2011-2012. For this presentation, Giovanni-generated figures using NLDAS data from the derecho across the U.S. Midwest and Mid-Atlantic will be presented. Also, similar figures will be presented from the landfall of Hurricane Isaac and the before-and-after drought conditions of the path of the tropical moisture into the central states of the U.S. Updates on future products and datasets from the NLDAS project will also be introduced.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Coherence of SeaWiFS Chlorophyll Concentration Anomalies in the North Atlantic Bloom (1998-2005) Examined with Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of climatological chlorophyll-a concentration data products from the SeaWiFS mission spanning the eight-year mission period allowed the creation of a climatological anomaly analysis function in Giovanni, the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure. This study utilizes the Giovanni anomaly analysis function to examine mesoscale anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean during the springtime North Atlantic Bloom. This examination indicates that areas exhibiting positive anomalies and areas exhibiting negative anomalies are coherent over significant spatial scales, with relatively abrupt boundaries between areas with positive and negative anomalies. Year-to-year variability in anomaly "intensity" can be caused by either variability in the temporal occurrence of the bloom peak or by variability in the peak chlorophyll concentration in a particular area. The study will also discuss the feasibility of combining chlorophyll anomaly analysis with other data types.

  4. [For a socio-medical iconography of Ramazzini's De Morbis: the manuscript of Giovanni Grevembroch (1731-1807)].

    PubMed

    Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; Zampieri, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, a group of historians of medicine in Padua has been working on the creation of a iconographic database related to the professions described by Ramazzini, founder of occupational medicine, in his 1700's De morbis artificum diatriba. A specific example of iconography relevant to De morbis can be found in a 17th century manuscript written and illustrated by Giovanni Grevembroch (1731-1807), Venetian painter probably from a family of Flemish origins. This manuscript describes typical Venetian dress and costumes, accompanied by commentaries made by the artist himself. Here we can find costumes related to some of the very same professions described by Ramazzini and a comparative analysis reveals interesting elements. First of all, in his commentary Grevembroch frequently invokes concepts very similar to those of Ramazzini, related both to the dangers of the environment characteristic of a given profession and to the illnesses typical to each profession. Moreover, analysis of Grevenbroch's images and text often provides supplemental insights into to the context of and risks associated with selected occupations. Finally, the Grevembroch manuscript also supplies supplemental material pertinent to the social and cultural life of the epoch that, even if not strictly linked to questions of occupational medicine. PMID:22214103

  5. [The Barrés test and Mingazzini test -Importance of the original paper by Giovanni Mingazzini].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Genjiro

    2015-01-01

    In order to find a subtle hemiparesis of the arms and legs, so called "Barré's test" has been routinely used in clinical practice. This eponym has been questioned by several neurologists. To clarify this, I searched and found the original paper by Giovanni Mingazzini, reported in Revue Neurologique in 1913. He showed arm drift test with his original photo, as asking the patient to stretch his arms in front, hands in the same horizontal plane with the manner of swearing and the fingers spread. The eyes are closed. The examiner observes downward drift of the hand after one half to a minute. He described a similar test for the legs in this article. The patient in supine position raises the legs in a 45 degree angle from the bed. If the leg drops downward too early, an organic hemiparesis could be present. Barré described a new leg drift test in 1919 with a patient lying on the abdomen. He also presented the Mingazzini's arm and leg tests with photos as carried by his patient-models in his article of 1937. He did not quote the original article of Mingazzini as a reference. These brought us incorrect information to consider the presence of Barré's arm test. PMID:25986413

  6. Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla (1728-1800) and the Imperial Infantry Regiment #22 ("Lacy"). On occasion of the bicentennial of his death.

    PubMed

    Holubar, K; Fatović-Ferencić, S

    2000-09-15

    Giovanni Alessandro Brambilia (1728-1800) was the Chief Surgeon of the Imperial Austrian Army and the first director of the newly founded medico-surgical academy in Vienna (1785). He died in Padua in late July 1800 (29th?), en route from his estate in Lombardy to Vienna, and the chiostro della magnolia in the Santo displays a memorial plaque commemorating his demise. On account of his merits for the education of (military) surgeons and the development of surgery in Austria, this short article shall serve to briefly recall his life and related facts. PMID:11042908

  7. The island of Elba (Tuscany, Italy) at the crossroads of ancient trade routes: an archaeometric investigation of dolia defossa from the archaeological site of San Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manca, Rosarosa; Pagliantini, Laura; Pecchioni, Elena; Santo, Alba P.; Cambi, Franco; Chiarantini, Laura; Corretti, Alessandro; Costagliola, Pilario; Orlando, Andrea; Benvenuti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Dolia are large pottery containers used in Roman times for the storage and fermentation of wine. They were produced in specialized pottery workshops (figlinae) and were typically marked with specific epigraphical stamps, which represent a major tool to unravel their provenance and trade. In this work we present the preliminary results of a study of two dolia defossa, recently found at San Giovanni (Portoferraio, island of Elba, Italy) during 2012-2014 archaeological excavations in a Roman farm (late 2nd cent. BC-1st cent. AD), devoted to wine production and probably constituting the antecedent archaeological phase of the adjacent "Villa delle Grotte". Based on archaeological (epigraphic) evidence, five different production areas have been hypothesized: 1) Elba island, where the dolia have been found; 2) the municipal figlinae in the Pisa territory; 3) the middle catchment of the Tiber river (central Latium) where "urban" figlinae occurred; 4) the figlinae of Minturno (southern Latium), a locality known both for wine production and exportation and for the presence of ancient figlinae; 5) the municipal figlinae in the Volterra territory. Archaeometric analysis of tempering agents intentionally added to the clay for the manufacturing of the dolia, particularly magmatic lithic fragments and clinopyroxene crystals, allowed us to suggest that the watershed of the central Tiber Valley - including different volcanic centres belonging to both Tuscany Magmatic Province (Monti Cimini) and Roman Magmatic Province (Monti Vulsini and Vico volcano) - could have been the most likely sites of production of the dolia found at San Giovanni. Alternatively, the site of Minturno (southern Latium) could be proposed.

  8. Supporting teachers in the use of authentic, near-real time climate data from the NASA GIOVANNI data portal in the pre-college classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, R. A.; Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Authentic scientific data are increasingly becoming available online, and there is the potential for access to these data to transform how science is taught, giving students opportunities to gain skill in making meaning of complex information, and developing claims based on data and logic. However, simply making authentic data available to students is insufficient to realizing the potential of Web- accessed data for improving scientific understandings among broad student populations, particularly about critical areas such as climate change. There is a need for model programs that tailor expert data interfaces so that they are accessible to pre-college teachers and students. The Data-Enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE) project, funded by NASA, is providing a dedicated climate data portal in the NASA Giovanni data system, customized for educators, as well as ways for teachers to create and share lessons that incorporate these data. The DICCE-G website provides access to a focused set of data parameters useful for detecting and understanding climate trends, explanations of expert terminology and tutorials and other resources to support the creation and interpretation of data visualizations. These data allow students to discover and decipher complex ocean, atmosphere, biosphere interactions by displaying and comparing time-series and data maps of climate-relevant data parameters such as temperature, precipitation amount, snow cover, carbon dioxide fraction, vegetation indices, and aerosol optical depth. Pilot teachers are integrating these lessons into existing climate curricula, such as EDC Earth Science (to be published 2013), which provide a foundational understanding of Earth's energy balance and the key factors that influence regional and global climate. DICCE provides teachers with the opportunity to customize such curricula to their local area, bringing immediate relevance to their climate lessons by allowing students to compare long

  9. Educator Uses of Data-Enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE), An Online System for Accessing a Vast Portal of NASA Earth System Data Known As the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE) has made it easier and more technologically feasible for secondary and post-secondary instructors and students to study climate change and related Earth system phenomena using data products from the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI), a powerful portal of Earth observation data that provides access to numerous data products on Earth system phenomena representing the land biosphere, physical land, ocean biosphere, physical ocean, physical atmosphere, atmospheric gases, and energy and radiation system. These data products are derived from remote-sensing instruments on satellites, ground stations, and data assimilation models. Instructors and students can query the GIOVANNI data archive, then save the results as map images, time series plots, vertical profiles of the atmosphere, and data tables. Any part of the world can be selected for analysis. The project has also produced a tool for instructors to author and adapt standards-based lesson plans, student data investigation activities, and presentations around visualizations they make available to their students via DICCE-G. Supports are provided to students and teachers about how to interpret trends in data products of their choice at the regional level and a schema has been developed to help them understand how those data products fit into current scientific thinking about the certainties and uncertainties of climate change. The presentation will (1) describe the features of DICCE, (2) examples of curricula developed to make use of DICCE in classrooms, (3) how these curricula align to Next Generation Science Standards, and (4) how they align to science education research literature about how to make school science more engaging. Recently-analyzed teacher and student outcomes from DICCE use will also be reported.

  10. Riccioli, Giambattista [Giovanni Battista] (1598-1671)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Italian astronomer, born in Ferrara, became a Jesuit and came into conflict with the Copernican system, like OSIANDER refuting it while acknowledging its use as a mathematical hypothesis. Mapped the Moon and introduced some of the names still used, in a chart published in the New Almagest in 1651. As a follower of the Ptolemaic system, he named major lunar craters after HIPPARCHUS, PTOLEMY and BR...

  11. Donati, Giambattista [Giovanni Battista] (1826-73)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Pisa, Italy. Director of the observatory at Florence, he discovered the brilliant comet (Donati's Comet) of 1858. He was the first to observe a comet's spectrum (Tempel's Comet of 1864). Inspired the foundation of Acretri Observatory....

  12. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), the First Pediatric Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Abramowsky, Carlos R; Berkowitz, Frank E

    2015-01-01

    During the age of enlightenment in the 18th century, radical changes were occurring in the Western world in science, medicine, philosophy, religion, and socio-economic concepts. In medicine, major advances had already been underway since the days of Vesalius. PMID:26699086

  13. 75 FR 1680 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition: Determinations: “Giovanni Boldini in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Act of October 19, 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat. 2681, et seq.; 22 U.S.C. 6501 note, et seq.), Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999, Delegation of Authority No. 236......

  14. Developing GIOVANNI-based Online Prototypes to Intercompare TRMM-Related Global Gridded-Precipitation Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Teng, William; Kempler, Steven; Milich, Lenard

    2014-01-01

    New online prototypes have been developed to extend and enhance the previous effort by facilitating investigation of product characteristics and intercomparison of precipitation products in different algorithms as well as in different versions at different spatial scales ranging from local to global without downloading data and software. Several popular Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products and the TRMM Composite Climatology are included. In addition, users can download customized data in several popular formats for further analysis. Examples show product quality problems and differences in several monthly precipitation products. It is seen that differences in daily and monthly precipitation products are distributed unevenly in space and it is necessary to have tools such as those presented here for customized and detailed investigations. A simple time series and two area maps allow the discovery of abnormal values of 3A25 in one of the months. An example shows a V-shaped valley issue in the Version 6 3B43 time series and another example shows a sudden drop in 3A25 monthly rain rate, all of which provide important information when the products are used for long-term trend studies. Future plans include adding more products and statistical functionality in the prototypes.

  15. Cassini, Gian Domenico [Giovanni Domenico; Jean Dominique; known as Cassini I] (1625-1712)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Italian-born French astronomer, born in Perinaldo, near Naples. Attracted to astrology in his youth, became Professor at Bologna, during which time he conducted hydrological studies for the Pope to mitigate flooding of the River Po. In 1669 Cassini moved to France and set up the Paris Observatory, remaining director for the rest of his career. He pushed continually for the observatory to acquire ...

  16. 65 Years of Reprocessed GLDAS Version 2.0 Data and Their Exploration Using the NASA GES DISC Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Beaudoing, H.; Rodell, M.; Silberstein, D.

    2015-01-01

    GLDAS-2.0 data have been reprocessed with updated Princeton meteorological forcing data within the Land Information System (LIS) Version 7, and temporal coverage have been extended to 1948-2012.Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) has two components: GLDAS-2.0: entirely forced with the Princeton meteorological forcing data GLDAS-2.1: forced with atmospheric analysis and observation-based data after 2001In order to create more climatologically consistent data sets, NASA GSFC's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) has recently reprocessed the GLDAS-2.0, by using updated Princeton meteorological forcing data within the LIS Version 7.GLDAS-2.0 data and data services are provided at NASA GES DISC Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), in collaboration with HSL.

  17. From Euclid as Textbook to the Giovanni Gentile Reform (1867-1923): Problems, Methods and Debates in Mathematics Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacardi, Livia

    2006-01-01

    The earliest legislation aimed to give comprehensive organization to the Italian education system was the Casati law, from the name of the then Minister for Education Gabrio Casati who drafted it. Promulgated by King Vittorio Emanuele II on 13 November 1859, the new law was designed to reorganize the school system in Piedmont and Lombardy, and was…

  18. 76 FR 47123 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... and threats were not available to support proposed rules (59 FR 58982; November 15, 1994). In the February 28, 1996, Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR) (61 FR 7595), we adopted a single category of... proposed to list Giuliani's dune scarab as endangered or threatened in 1978 (43 FR 35636; August 10,...

  19. Black Feminist Thought: Implications for a Transformative Women's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shawn D.

    1996-01-01

    The history of black women's social reform work remains unrecognized in the academy and the general culture. The contributions of courageous black feminist authors such as bell hooks, Nikki Giovanni, and Audre Lorde are important for all students. Hooks works with educators to denounce sexist and racist stereotypes, Giovanni stresses the concept…

  20. The Impact of School Vouchers on College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    In 1996, Cardinal John J. O'Connor, archbishop of New York, proposed to Rudy Crew, chancellor of the New York City public school system, that the city's most troubled public-school students be sent to Catholic schools, where he would see that they were given an education. New York City's mayor at that time, Rudolph Giuliani, a…

  1. Viscosity contribution to the impurity resistivity of metals by means of the current-density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Vladimir U.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2008-03-01

    Within the time-dependent density functional theory formalism we relate the impurity resistivity ρ of a metal to the friction coefficient Q of the metal for the same impurity moving with the infinitesimally small velocity, i.e., ρ=niQ / ne^2 ,1), where ni and ne are the concentrations of the randomly distributed impurities and the valence electrons, respectively. While Eq.(1) occurs trivial within the single-particle theory with the scattering at the statically screened impurities, its general validity within the many-body theory with the dynamical exchange and correlation included presents a progress. We utilize results [1,2] on Q of the electron liquid to put the electron-electron scattering contribution into the terms of the viscosity coefficients [3]. Calculations of the residual resistivity of aluminum as a function of the atomic number of the impurity are performed, improving the agreement with experiment compared to the single- particle theory [4]. [1].V. U. Nazarov, J. M. Pitarke, C. S. Kim, and Y. Takada, Phys. Rev. B 71, 121106(R) (2005). [2].V. U. Nazarov, J. M. Pitarke, Y. Takada, G. Vignale, and Y.-C. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 76, 205103 (2007). [3].G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4878 (1997). [4].M. J. Puska and R. M. Nieminen, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6121 (1983).

  2. Online Analysis Enhances Use of NASA Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure, has provided researchers with advanced capabilities to perform data exploration and analysis with observational data from NASA Earth observation satellites. In the past 5-10 years, examining geophysical events and processes with remote-sensing data required a multistep process of data discovery, data acquisition, data management, and ultimately data analysis. Giovanni accelerates this process by enabling basic visualization and analysis directly on the World Wide Web. In the last two years, Giovanni has added new data acquisition functions and expanded analysis options to increase its usefulness to the Earth science research community.

  3. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ocular Diseases Thursday, November 7, 1996 Location: NIH Campus, Bethesda, MD Contact: Dr. Maria Giovanni(301) 496- ... Support for Patients and Families Help with Travel Costs How to Get Involved in Research FAQs About ...

  4. Metrologia: uno sguardo alle grandezze fisiche fondamentali; il Pendolo, il Piano Inclinato e g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-07-01

    Metrology studies the standards utilized in physics, we focus on MKS introduced by Giovanni Giorgi at the turn of XIX-XX century. Galileo, the pendulum and the inclined plane are reviewed to obtain the universal g.

  5. Finding faults with the data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Rudolph Giuliani and Hillary Rodham Clinton are crisscrossing upstate New York looking for votes in the U.S. Senate race. Also cutting back and forth across upstate New York are hundreds of faults of a kind characterized by very sporadic seismic activity according to Robert Jacobi, professor of geology at the University of Buffalo (UB), who conducted research with fellow UB geology professor John Fountain."We have proof that upstate New York is crisscrossed by faults," Jacobi said. "In the past, the Appalachian Plateau—which stretches from Albany to Buffalo—was considered a pretty boring place structurally without many faults or folds of any significance."

  6. The case of the Doppler effect for photons revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redžić, Dragan V.

    2013-11-01

    A detailed account is presented of the Doppler effect as a photon phenomenon, complementing a recent paper by Giuliani (2013 Eur. J. Phys. 34 1035-47). The essence of Schrödinger's pioneering derivation (1922 Phys. Z. 23 301-3) of a Doppler formula in terms of the corpuscular theory of light, using energy-momentum conservation, is related. Some neglected references that put the whole scene around the Ives-Stilwell experiment into a more precise perspective are highlighted. Atoms as clocks and particle-wave complementarity are also discussed briefly.

  7. Comment on «Tidal notches in the Mediterranean Sea: A comprehensive analysis» by Fabrizio Antonioli, Valeria Lo Presti, Alessio Rovere, Luigi Ferranti, Marco Anzidei, Stefano Furlani, Giuseppe Mastronuzzi, Paolo E. Orru, Giovanni Scicchitano, Gianmaria Sannino, Cecilia R. Spampinato, Rossella Pagliarulo, Giacomo Deiana, Eleonora de Sabata, Paolo Sansò, Matteo Vacchi and Antonio Vecchio. Quaternary Science Reviews 119 (2015) 66-84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evelpidou, Niki; Pirazzoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The paper of Antonioli et al. (2015) presents observations of 73 sites with erosion notches, which are called tidal notches, which in fact appear to be of various genetic origins, because a combination of several physical chemical and biological processes of formation is considered including, in addition to intertidal bioerosion, also carbonate rock solution, wetting and drying and wave abrasion that would produce different types of notches. Among the erosion notches, some «roof notches», in which the notch lacks a floor, are distinguished. For these isolated roofs, we would tend to ascribe erosion to dissolution by a freshwater spring undercutting a limestone cliff at sea level. Accompanying a rise in sea level, dissolution by freshwater will tend to continuously displace the roof of the notch upwards, while the base of the notch, dissolved, will tend to be missing. For such isolated roof of a solution notch, protruding above the waterline, the term «visor» has been proposed by Evelpidou et al. (2011).

  8. Testimonies to the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) and to the L'Aquila process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenda, Pavel; Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    Lot of confusions, misinformation, false solidarity, efforts to misuse geoethics and other unethical activities in favour of the top Italian seismologists responsible for a bad and superficial evaluation of the situation 6 days prior to the earthquake - that is a general characteristics for the whole period of 5 years separating us from the horrible morning of April 6, 2009 in L'Aquila with 309 human victims. The first author of this presentation as a seismologist had unusual opportunity to visit the unfortunate city in April 2009. He got all "first-hand" information that a real scientifically based prediction did exist already for some shocks in the area on March 29 and 30, 2009. The author of the prediction Gianpaolo Giuliani was obliged to stop any public information diffused by means of internet. A new prediction was known to him on March 31 - in the day when the "Commission of Great Risks" offered a public assurance that any immediate earthquake can be practically excluded. In reality the members of the commission completely ignored such a prediction declaring it as a false alarm of "somebody" (even without using the name of Giuliani). The observations by Giuliani were of high quality from the scientific point of view. G. Giuliani predicted L'Aquila earthquake in the professional way - for the first time during many years of observations. The anomalies, which preceded L'Aquila earthquake were detected on many places in Europe in the same time. The question is, what locality would be signed as potential focal area, if G. Giuliani would know the other observations in Europe. The deformation (and other) anomalies are observable before almost all of global M8 earthquakes. Earthquakes are preceded by deformation and are predictable. The testimony of the second author is based on many unfortunate personal experiences with representatives of the INGV Rome and their supporters from India and even Australia. In July 2010, prosecutor Fabio Picuti charged the Commission

  9. Use of Satellite Remote Sensing to Improve Coastal Hypoxia Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe the use of Giovanni satellite remote sensing products in the development and testing of a new modeling system that represents the processes leading to hypoxia (defined as water O2 concentration < 63 mmol m-3) on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS). The modeling ...

  10. Functional Assesment of Symptomatic Snapping Scapula after Scapulothoracic Arthroscopy: A Prospective Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Cerciello, Simone; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Principal investigator and promoter: Giovanni Merolla Co-investigator: Giuseppe Porcellini Investigation performed at Biomechanics Laboratory “Marco Simoncelli”, D. Cervesi Hospital, Cattolica - Italy Plan of clinical investigation (PCI): Version 1.0 of December 10, 2012 Approved by AV/IRST Ethical Committee (Comitato Etico Area Vasta Romagna) Reg. Sperimentazioni 914 Prot. N°: 1785/2013/I.5/46 PMID:24809032

  11. E-Learning--Long-Distance and Lifelong Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontes, Elvis, Ed.; Silva, Anderson, Ed.; Guelfi, Adilson, Ed.; Kofuji, Sergio Takeo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Chapters in this book include: (1) Adaptive Model for E-Learning in Secondary School (Todorka Glushkova); (2) Electronic- and Mobile-Learning in Electronics Courses Focused on FPGA (Giovanni Vito Persiano and Sergio Rapuano); (3) Promoting E-Learning in Distance Education Programs in an African Country (Kenneth Addah, Desmond Kpebu and Olivia A.…

  12. Wit and Irony in Militant Black Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffey, Ruthe

    1973-01-01

    Explores the thesis that the terror of militant poetry is mitigated by one step taken backward from the abyss of despair, a retreat into the saving grace of laughter, analyzing poetry by Mari Evans, Dudley Randall, Don L. Lee, Mikki Giovanni, and other young militant black poets. (Author/JM)

  13. Marcello Malpighi and his academic opponents in Bologna.

    PubMed

    Campieri, Claudio; Persici, Elisa; Stefoni, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Marcello Malpighi was born in Crevalcore on March 10, 1628 and died in Rome on July 25, 1694. In Bologna he had among his opponents Giovanni Gerolamo Sbaraglia and Paoli Mini who prevented him being appointed to the chair of anatomy. This paper describes the reasons for this long term debate. PMID:15372430

  14. Soft interfaces: complex, dynamic, reacting and evolving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Todd

    2015-03-01

    ``Dirac'' plasmons are self-sustained carrier density oscillations that occur in a doped graphene sheet. These collective modes have recently attracted enormous experimental and theoretical interest for their potential use in plasmonics. In this talk I will discuss the two most important figures of merit of ``graphene plasmonics,'' namely the ratio between the Dirac plasmon wavelength and the illumination wavelength, and the Dirac plasmon damping rate. I will emphasize the subtle difference between plasmon lifetime and Drude transport scattering time. I will then present a theoretical framework that enables fully microscopic calculations of Dirac plasmon damping rates due to electron-electron, electron-impurity, and electron-phonon collisions. Finally, I will conclude by discussing how our theoretical predictions compare with recent accurate measurements in high-quality graphene sheets encapsulated in boron nitride. Work done in collaboration with A. Principi, M. Carrega, G. Vignale, A. Woessner, M.B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, P. Alonso-González, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F.H.L. Koppens. ``Dirac'' plasmons are self-sustained carrier density oscillations that occur in a doped graphene sheet. These collective modes have recently attracted enormous experimental and theoretical interest for their potential use in plasmonics. In this talk I will discuss the two most important figures of merit of ``graphene plasmonics,'' namely the ratio between the Dirac plasmon wavelength and the illumination wavelength, and the Dirac plasmon damping rate. I will emphasize the subtle difference between plasmon lifetime and Drude transport scattering time. I will then present a theoretical framework that enables fully microscopic calculations of Dirac plasmon damping rates due to electron-electron, electron-impurity, and electron-phonon collisions. Finally, I will conclude by discussing how our theoretical predictions compare with recent accurate measurements in

  15. Classification and correction of the radar bright band with polarimetric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel; Kramer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The annular region of enhanced radar reflectivity, known as the Bright Band (BB), occurs when the radar beam intersects a layer of melting hydrometeors. Radar reflectivity is related to rainfall through a power law equation and so this enhanced region can lead to overestimations of rainfall by a factor of up to 5, so it is important to correct for this. The BB region can be identified by using several techniques including hydrometeor classification and freezing level forecasts from mesoscale meteorological models. Advances in dual-polarisation radar measurements and continued research in the field has led to increased accuracy in the ability to identify the melting snow region. A method proposed by Kitchen et al (1994), a form of which is currently used operationally in the UK, utilises idealised Vertical Profiles of Reflectivity (VPR) to correct for the BB enhancement. A simpler and more computationally efficient method involves the formation of an average VPR from multiple elevations for correction that can still cause a significant decrease in error (Vignal 2000). The purpose of this research is to evaluate a method that relies only on analysis of measurements from an operational C-band polarimetric radar without the need for computationally expensive models. Initial results show that LDR is a strong classifier of melting snow with a high Critical Success Index of 97% when compared to the other variables. An algorithm based on idealised VPRs resulted in the largest decrease in error when BB corrected scans are compared to rain gauges and to lower level scans with a reduction in RMSE of 61% for rain-rate measurements. References Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231-1254. Vignal, B. et al, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct

  16. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  17. NASA GES DISC Aerosol analysis and visualization services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. C.; Ichoku, C. M.; Petrenko, M.; Yang, W.; Albayrak, A.; Zhao, P.; Johnson, J. E.; Kempler, S.

    2015-12-01

    Among the known atmospheric constituents, aerosols represent the greatest uncertainty in climate research. Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite-borne sensors routinely measure aerosols. There is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. Such misunderstanding may be avoided by providing satellite data with accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, including pixel coverage area delineation and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) have developed multiple MAPSS applications as a part of Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface) data visualization and analysis tool - Giovanni-MAPSS and Giovanni-MAPSS_Explorer since 2007. The MAPSS database provides spatio-temporal statistics for multiple spatial spaceborne Level 2 aerosol products (MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, MISR, POLDER, OMI, CALIOP, SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and VIIRS) sampled over AERONET ground stations. In this presentation, I will demonstrate the improved features from Giovanni-MAPSS and introduce a new visualization service (Giovanni VizMAP) supporting various visualization and data accessing capabilities from satellite Level 2 data (non-aggregated and un-gridded) at high spatial resolution. Functionality will include selecting data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents

  18. Integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing for archaeological investigations: a case study of the Etruscan site of San Giovenale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.; Holmgren, R.; Backe Forsberg, Y.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this research is to detect and extract traces of past human activities on the Etruscan site of San Giovenale (Blera) in Northern Lazio, Italy. Investigations have been conducted by integrating high-resolution satellite data with digital models derived from LiDAR survey and multisensory aerial prospection (traditional, thermal and near infrared pictures). The use of different sensor technologies is requested to cope with (i) different types of surface covers, i.e. vegetated and non-vegetated areas (trees, bushes, agricultural uses, etc), (ii) variety of archaeological marks (micro-relief, crop marks, etc) and (iii) different types of expected spatial/spectral feature patterns linked to past human activities (urban necropoleis, palaeorivers, etc). Field surveys enabled us to confirm remotely sensed features which were detected in both densely and sparsely vegetated areas, thus revealing a large variety of cultural transformations, ritual and infrastructural remains such as roads, tombs and water installations. Our findings clearly point out a connection between the Vignale plateau and the main acropolis (San Giovenale) as well as with the surrounding burial grounds. Our results suggest that the synergic use of multisensory/multisource data sets, including ancillary information, provides a comprehensive overview of new findings. This facilitates the interpretation of various results obtained from different sensors when studied in a larger prospective.

  19. Spin torque and domain wall velocity in ferromagnetic semiconductor π and 2π N'eel walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatski, E. A.; Flatté, M. E.

    2010-03-01

    The motion of a domain wall under an applied spin-polarized current[1] has interesting device applications for the development of spintronic devices. We model 2π N'eel walls (energetically favorable in thin films) in ferromagnetic semiconductors, and compare the results to those for the more-frequently studied π walls. Under coherent transport conditions, analytic solutions for spin-dependent reflection and transmission coefficients are possible[2,3]. We calculate charge resistance, spin torque, and domain wall velocity. We find the peak spin torque is more than twice as large for a 2π wall than for a π wall. We also find that the peak velocity of a 2π wall is larger than that of a π wall, but the peak velocities of 3π and 4π walls are smaller than those of both π and 2π walls. This work was supported by an ARO MURI.[4pt] [1] M. Yamanouchi, D. Chiba, F. Matsukura, and H. Ohno, Nature 428, 539 (2004).[0pt] [2] G. Vignale and M. Flatt'e, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002).[0pt] [3] D. Ralph and M. Stiles, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 320, 1190 (2008).

  20. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Following publication of the Research Article by Orazio Caffo, Giovanni Lo Re, Teodoro Sava, Sebastiano Buti, Cosimo Sacco, Umberto Basso, Fable Zustovich, Michele Lodde, Alessandra Perin, Gaetano Facchini, Antonello Veccia, Francesca Maines, Carmen Barile, Lucia Fratino, Angela Gernone, Rocco De Vivo, Giovanni L Pappagallo & Enzo Galligioni titled ‘Intermittent docetaxel chemotherapy as first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients’, which appeared in the January 2015 issue of Future Oncology (11[6], 965–973 [2015]; www.futuremedicine.com/doi/full/10.2217/fon.14.284), it has come to our attention that the affiliation number 6 was incorrectly presented as: Medical Oncology Department, Istituto Oncologico Veneto, Padova, Italy. This should have been presented as: Medical Oncology Unit 1; Department of Clinical & Experimental Oncology, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV IRCCS, Padova Italy. The authors and editors of Future Oncology would like to sincerely apologize for any inconvenience or confusion this may have caused. PMID:26075450

  1. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to "harmonize" the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  2. Processing NASA Earth Science Data on Nebula Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Aijun; Pham, Long; Kempler, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three applications were successfully migrated to Nebula, including S4PM, AIRS L1/L2 algorithms, and Giovanni MAPSS. Nebula has some advantages compared with local machines (e.g. performance, cost, scalability, bundling, etc.). Nebula still faces some challenges (e.g. stability, object storage, networking, etc.). Migrating applications to Nebula is feasible but time consuming. Lessons learned from our Nebula experience will benefit future Cloud Computing efforts at GES DISC.

  3. Covariant quantum mechanics applied to noncommutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    We here report a result obtained in collaboration with Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, first shown in the paper [1]. Applying the manifestly covariant formalism of quantum mechanics to the much studied Snyder spacetime [2] we show how it is trivial in every physical observables, this meaning that every measure in this spacetime gives the same results that would be obtained in the flat Minkowski spacetime.

  4. Comet Donati (C/1858 L1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A long-period comet discovered by Giovanni Donati in June 1858. It reached its greatest magnitude of -1 shortly before perihelion (0.58 AU) on 20 September, and was closest to Earth (0.5 AU) on 9 October. Its appearance was impressive, with a prominent curved dust tail stretching an estimated 60°, and two thin gas tails. Concentric, sharply defined shells of material ahead of the nucleus suggest...

  5. Scientists condemn space-chief sacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-09-01

    The removal of Italian Space Agency (ASI) president Giovanni Bignami has left astronomers in Italy angry and dismayed. Bignami, himself an astronomer, was dismissed by the recently elected government of Silvio Berlusconi following the mass resignation of the agency's administrative council. He has been replaced by Enrico Saggese of aerospace company Finmeccanica. Critics of the change believe that it will weaken Italy's space-science community and damage its international reputation.

  6. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to harmonize the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  7. Exploring NASA GES DISC Data with Interoperable Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Yang, W.; Hegde, M.; Wei, J. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Pham, L.; Teng, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed and operated Earth science data and information services to a number of science and applications user communities for decades. Earth science data are often varied with different provenance in terms of source platforms and instruments, spatial and temporal resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications. To facilitate users to discover, retrieve and visualize these Earth science data with open and interoperable services is one of our primary goals. This presentation will cover the challenges of and solutions to the development of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) and related rich Internet applications for a wide range of near-real time, level 2, and level 3 data products. GES DISC's Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface (Giovanni) enables users to explore a wide variety of satellite datasets through interactive mapping together with various algorithms including spatiotemporal average and correlation. We are developing a Giovanni WMS to provide a machine-to-machine interface to support Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) and Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). We will discuss how to implement the various style sheets support for data of different science contents, the timely on-demand generation of precise maps, and configuration of very different data products (types, spatiotemporal resolutions) in Giovanni WMS.

  8. The NASA NEESPI Data Portal to Support Studies of Climate and Environmental Changes in Non-Boreal Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory; Loboda, Tatiana; Csiszar, Ivan; Romanov, Peter; Gerasimov, Irina

    2008-01-01

    NASA NEESPI (Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative) data portal is a NASA funded project that focuses on collecting satellite remote sensing data, providing tools, information, and services in support of NEESPI scientific objectives (Leptoukh, et al., 2007). The data can be accessed online through anonymous ftp, through an advanced data searching and ordering system Mirador that uses keywords to find data quickly in a Google-like interface, and through the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni). The portal provides preprocessed data from different satellite sensors and numerical models to the same spatial and temporal resolution and the same projection so that the data can be used easily to perform inter-comparison or relationship studies. In addition, it provides parameter and spatially subsetted data for regional studies. Studies of regional carbon, hydrology, aerosols in non-boreal Europe and their interactions with global climate are very challenging research topics. The NASA NEESPI data portal makes many satellite data available for such studies, including information on land cover types, fire, vegetation index, aerosols, land surface temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, snow/ice, and other parameters. This paper will introduce the features and products available in the system, focusing on the online data 1 tool, Giovanni NEESPI. An example that explores different data through Giovanni NEESPI in temperate region of non-boreal Europe will be presented.

  9. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Escartín, J. M.; Vincendon, M.; Dinh, P. M.; Suraud, E.; Romaniello, P.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2015-02-28

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na{sub 2}. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.

  10. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartín, J. M.; Vincendon, M.; Romaniello, P.; Dinh, P. M.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2015-02-01

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.

  11. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime.

    PubMed

    Escartín, J M; Vincendon, M; Romaniello, P; Dinh, P M; Reinhard, P-G; Suraud, E

    2015-02-28

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations. PMID:25725723

  12. A new limit on the observed amplitude of Jovian global oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, P. F.; Cacciani, A.; Dolci, M.; Giuliani, C.

    1999-09-01

    Doppler observations of Jupiter carried out in 1996 are reported [1]. A magneto-optical filter has been used providing the signals on the opposite wings of the Sodium D-lines (B, R) and the continuum reference signal. The two computed quantities cal R=(B-R)/(B+R) and cal S=(B+R)/conti\\-nuum have permitted to discriminate between oscillation and albedo "modes" and to compare the results with the previous ones obtained in 1991 [3] and 1993 [2]. A new upper limit on the modes amplitude has been setted at ~ 2 m s(-1) . The features of the intensity fluctuations in the power spectrum are due probably to albedo variations on Jupiter's surface and to instrumental effects. The authors thank the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione and the Osservatorio Astronomico "V.Cerulli" di Teramo for financial support. References [1] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., D'Alessio F., Giuliani C., Micolucci E., Di Cianno A., 1999: Search for global oscillations on Jupiter with a double-cell Sodium Magneto-Optical Filter, submitted to Astron. Astrophys. [2] Mosser B., Mekarnia D., Maillard J. P., Gay J., Gautier D., Delache Ph., 1993: Seismological observations with a Fourier transform spectrometer: detection of Jovian oscillations, Astron. Astrophys., 267, 604 [3] Schmider F. X., Mosser B., Fossat E., 1991: Possible detection of Jovian global oscillations, Astron. Astrophys., 248, 281}

  13. Cyclotron-resonance transmission through potassium in a perpendicular magnetic field: Effects of the charge-density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Overhauser, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave transmission through potassium by Dunifer, Sambles, and Mace [J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 875 (1989)] in a perpendicular magnetic field shows five signals. They are Gantmakher-Kaner (GK) oscillations, conduction-electron-spin resonance, high-frequency oscillations, cyclotron resonance, and cyclotron-resonance subharmonics. Only the spin resonance has been successfully explained using a free-electron model. However, such a model predicts GK oscillations which are too large by several orders of magnitude. Lacueva and Overhauser [Phys. Rev. B 48, 16t935 (1993)] have shown that charge-density-wave (CDW) energy gaps which cut through the Fermi surface reduce the GK signal. CDW gaps also create a small Fermi-surface cylinder. The high-frequency oscillations were shown to result from Landau-level quantization in the cylinder. Recently we found that the anomalous microwave surface resistance, observed by Grimes and Kip [Phys. Rev. 132, 1991 (1963)], can be explained only if the cylinder axis is tilted ~45° with respect to the [110] crystal direction perpendicular to the surface. (Such a tilt was predicted by Giuliani and Overhauser [Phys. Rev. B 20, 1328 (1979)].) In this study we show that oscillatory motions, parallel to the field, of electrons in the tilted cylinder cause the cyclotron-resonance transmission. This signal and its subharmonics would be completely absent without the tilt. Consequently, four of the five transmission signals require a CDW broken symmetry.

  14. Microwave surface resistance of potassium in a perpendicular magnetic field: Effects of the charge-density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Overhauser, A. W.

    1996-07-01

    The microwave surface resistance of potassium in a perpendicular magnetic field, measured by Baraff, Grimes, and Platzman in 1969, has never been completely explained until now. The sharp cyclotron resonance peak (at a magnetic field Hc) is caused by the small cylindrical section of Fermi surface created by the charge-density-wave (CDW) minigaps, having periodicities K-->n=(n+1)Q-->-nG-->110. The shape of the observed resonance requires a tilt of the CDW vector Q--> away from [110], predicted by Giuliani and Overhauser in 1979. An abrupt drop of the surface resistance for \\|H\\|>~\\|Hc\\| is caused by the heterodyne gaps, which have periodicities K-->n=n(G-->110-Q-->). These very small gaps, which begin to undergo magnetic breakdown for fields H>~1 T, interrupt the cyclotron motion of equatorial orbits. The abrupt drop in surface resistance for \\|H\\|>~\\|Hc\\| is caused by the resulting partial loss of carrier effectiveness for electrons having velocities nearly parallel to the surface.

  15. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-Line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Berrick, Steve; Leptuokh, Gregory; Liu, Zhong; Rui, Hualan; Pham, Long; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM On-line Visualization and Analysis System precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be ,integrated into existing operational decision support system for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that ,allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical ,parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output ,on screen in a matter of seconds.

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Kempler, S.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is also home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 17 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available: -Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products, DPR products -Level-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products, DPR products -Level-3 daily and monthly products, DPR products -Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data version control and provenance; documentation; science support for proper data usage, FAQ, help desk; monitoring services (e.g. Current Conditions) for applications. The United User Interface (UUI) is the next step in the evolution of the GES DISC web site. It attempts to provide seamless access to data, information and services through a single interface without sending the user to different applications or URLs (e.g., search, access

  17. Advanced Science/Event-based Data Service Framework at GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has provided numerous Earth science data, information, and services to various research communities and general publics for decades. To maintain an overall fine service including improving serving our users with advanced data services has been our primary goal. We are developing an advanced science/event-based data service framework. The framework aims to effectively provide users with a sophisticatedly integrated data package via user-friendly discovering and selecting a system-preset science/event topic (e.g., hurricane, volcano, etc.) from an in-developing knowledge database of the framework. A data recipe page related to the Hurricane topic has been developed to demo the concept. More showcases of various subjects such as Volcano, Dust Storm, and Forest Fire are also under development. This framework is in developing on top of existing data services at GES DISC, such as Mirador (data search engine), Giovanni (visualization), OPeNDAP, and data recipes. It also involves other data tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, IDL, etc. The Hurricane Sandy (Oct 22-31 2012) event is used here for a sample description. As Hurricane Sandy being selected as a user case, a table containing nine system-preset data variables (i.e., precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, aerosols, soil moisture and surface runoff, and trace gases) linked to the respective data products with fine temporal and spatial resolutions from various in-house sources is provided. The "bundled" variable data can thus be readily downloaded through Mirador. The in-house Giovanni is accessible for users to acquire quick views of Level 3 (gridded) variables. For Level 2 (swath) or the Giovanni-unavailable Level 3 data, the system provides a link to data recipes that give a how-to guide to read and visualize the data using offline tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, or IDL.

  18. Monteggia fracture-dislocations: A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Rehim, Shady A.; Maynard, Mallory A.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The eponym Monteggia fracture-dislocation originally referred to a fracture of the shaft of the ulna accompanied by anterior dislocation of the radial head that was described by Giovanni Battista Monteggia of Italy in 1814. Subsequently, a further classification system based on the direction of the radial head dislocation and associated fractures of the radius and ulna was proposed by Jose Luis Bado of Uruguay in 1958. This article investigates the evolution of treatment, classification, and outcomes of the Monteggia injury and sheds light on the lives and contributions of Monteggia and Bado. PMID:24792923

  19. Integrated Web-Based Access to and use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Improved Decision Making in Hydrologic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Chiu, L.; Kempler, S.; Liu, Z.; Nadeau, D.; Rui, H.

    2006-12-01

    Using NASA satellite remote sensing data from multiple sources for hydrologic applications can be a daunting task and requires a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. Gaining this understanding and applying it to data reduction is a time-consuming task that must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin. In order to facilitate such investigations, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," which supports a family of Web interfaces (instances) that allow users to perform interactive visualization and analysis online without downloading any data. Two such Giovanni instances are particularly relevant to hydrologic applications: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) and the Agricultural Online Visualization and Analysis System (AOVAS), both highly popular and widely used for a variety of applications, including those related to several NASA Applications of National Priority, such as Agricultural Efficiency, Disaster Management, Ecological Forecasting, Homeland Security, and Public Health. Dynamic, context- sensitive Web services provided by TOVAS and AOVAS enable users to seamlessly access NASA data from within, and deeply integrate the data into, their local client environments. One example is between TOVAS and Florida International University's TerraFly, a Web-enabled system that serves a broad segment of the research and applications community, by facilitating access to various textual, remotely sensed, and vector data. Another example is between AOVAS and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS)'s Crop Explorer, the primary decision support tool used by FAS to monitor the production, supply, and demand of agricultural commodities worldwide. AOVAS is also part of GES DISC

  20. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS - altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products - were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/"target="_blank" >http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/"target="_blank" >http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the

  1. A Case of Sudden Death in Decameron IV.6: Aortic Dissection or Atrial Myxoma?

    PubMed

    Toscano, Fabrizio; Spani, Giovanni; Papio, Michael; Rühli, Frank J; Galassi, Francesco M

    2016-07-01

    Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron contains a novella that details the sudden death of a young man called Gabriotto, including a portrayal of the discomfort that the protagonist experienced and a rudimentary autopsy performed by local physicians. The intriguing description of symptoms and pathologies has made it possible to read a 7-century-old case through the modern clinical lens. Thanks to the medical and philological analysis of the text-despite the vast difference between modern and medieval medicine-2 hypothetical diagnoses have emerged: either an aortic dissection or an atrial myxoma. PMID:27390329

  2. Proto-Examples of Data Access and Visualization Components of a Potential Cloud-Based GEOSS-AI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Once a research or application problem has been identified, one logical next step is to search for available relevant data products. Thus, an early component of a potential GEOSS-AI system, in the continuum between observations and end point research, applications, and decision making, would be one that enables transparent data discovery and access by users. Such a component might be effected via the systems data agents. Presumably, some kind of data cataloging has already been implemented, e.g., in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). Both the agents and cataloging could also leverage existing resources external to the system. The system would have some means to accept and integrate user-contributed agents. The need or desirability for some data format internal to the system should be evaluated. Another early component would be one that facilitates browsing visualization of the data, as well as some basic analyses.Three ongoing projects at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provide possible proto-examples of potential data access and visualization components of a cloud-based GEOSS-AI system. 1. Reorganizing data archived as time-step arrays to point-time series (data rods), as well as leveraging the NASA Simple Subset Wizard (SSW), to significantly increase the number of data products available, at multiple NASA data centers, for production as on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. SSWs data discovery is based on OpenSearch. Both pre-generated and virtual data rods are accessible via Web services. 2. Developing Web Feature Services to publish the metadata, and expose the locations, of pre-generated and virtual data rods in the GEOSS Portal and enable direct access of the data via Web services. SSW is also leveraged to increase the availability of both NASA and non-NASA data.3.Federating NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface), for multi-sensor data exploration, that would allow each

  3. [The matter of human. Jervis, De Martino, Callieri].

    PubMed

    Leoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    In this text we will examine the theoretical relationships between Ernesto De Martino's anthropological concept of "end of the world", and the experience of "end of the world" which has been investigated in some schizophrenic experiences by two Italian psychiatrists and collaborators of De Martino: Giovanni Jervis, who studied this experience in a clinical e biological perspective, and Bruno Callieri, who studied it in a psychopathological and phenomenological perspective. These complex relationships between De Martino, Jervis and Callieri are, on the other hand, an occasion for a more comprehensive meditation on the paradigms, and the underlying tasks, of today's human sciences. PMID:25807694

  4. Utilizing Higher Resolution Land Surface Remote Sensing Data for Assessing Recent Trends over Asia Monsoon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The slide presentation discusses the integration of 1-kilometer spatial resolution land temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with 8-day temporal resolution, into the NASA Monsoon-Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) Data Center. The data will be available for analysis and visualization in the Giovanni data system. It discusses the NASA MAIRS Data Center, presents an introduction to the data access tools, and an introduction of Products available from the service, discusses the higher resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) and presents preliminary results of LST Trends over China.

  5. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  6. Infraspinatus Strength Assessment and Ultrasound Evaluation of Posterior Capsulotenodesis after Arthroscopic Hill-Sachs Remplissage in Traumatic Anterior Glenohumeral Instability: A Retrospective Controlled Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Principal investigator and promoter: Giovanni Merolla Co-investigator: Giuseppe Porcellini Investigation performed at the Biomechanics Laboratory “Marco Simoncelli”, D. Cervesi Hospital, Cattolica - Italy Plan of clinical investigation (PCI): Version 1.0 of June 12, 2012 Approved by AV/IRST Ethical Committee (Comitato Etico Area Vasta Romagna) and authorized by AUSL RN (“Determina AUSL Rimini numero 326 del 29/03/2013: Remplissage U.O Chirurgia della Spalla – Valutazione clinica ed ultrasonografica dell’infraspinato dopo capsulo-tenodesi artroscopica (remplissage) nell’instabilità anteriore traumatica di spalla con lesione di Bankart e difetto omerale di Hill-Sachs”) PMID:24809031

  7. A-Train Data Depot: Integrating and Exploring Data Along the A-Train Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.; Smith, P.; Savtchenko, A.; Kummerer, R.; Gopalan, A.; Farley, J.; Chen, A.

    2007-01-01

    The immense potential for new science findings as a result of inter-instrument data analysis has led to the development of a new data portal at GSFC: the A-train Data Depot. The power and utility of this new service to the general public is amplified immensely when the archived data are used in conjunction with online data analysis services like Giovanni. This presentation details some of the challenges of data usage from multiple distinct missions and how the tool sets we have developed can help to overcome these challenges, considerably cut down on analysis overhead and promote science exploration in an otherwise very challenging arena.

  8. Bright Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 March 2005 In honor of Giovanni V. Schiaparelli's 170th birthday, we present this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image showing light-toned dust devil streaks on the southern floor of Schiaparelli Crater.

    Location near: 5.3oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  9. Proto-Examples of Data Access and Visualization Components of a Potential Cloud-Based GEOSS-AI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Lynnes, C.

    2014-12-01

    Once a research or application problem has been identified, one logical next step is to search for available relevant data products. Thus, an early component of a potential GEOSS-AI system, in the continuum between observations and end point research, applications, and decision making, would be one that enables transparent data discovery and access by users. Such a component might be effected via the system's "data agents." Presumably, some kind of data cataloging has already been implemented, e.g., in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). Both the agents and cataloging could also leverage existing resources external to the system. The system would have some means to accept and integrate user-contributed agents. The need or desirability for some data format internal to the system should be evaluated. Another early component would be one that facilitates browsing/visualization of the data, as well as some basic analyses. Three ongoing projects at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provide possible proto-examples of potential data access and visualization components of a cloud-based GEOSS-AI system. Reorganizing data archived as time-step arrays to point-time series ("data rods"), as well as leveraging the NASA Simple Subset Wizard (SSW), to significantly increase the number of data products available, at multiple NASA data centers, for production as on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. SSW's data discovery is based on OpenSearch. Both pre-generated and virtual data rods are accessible via Web services. Developing Web Feature Services to publish the metadata, and expose the locations, of pre-generated and virtual data rods in the GEOSS Portal and enable direct access of the data via Web services. SSW is also leveraged to increase the availability of both NASA and non-NASA data. Federating NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface), for multi-sensor data exploration, that would allow each

  10. Europe's education experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Written on the seal of the University of Bologna - founded in 1088 and regarded as the oldest degree-granting university in the western world - are the words Alma mater studiorum. Translated into English, they mean, literally, "Nourishing mother of studies", which is apt given that the university's almuni include the astronomers Nicolas Copernicus and Giovanni Domenico Cassini - the first to observe Saturn's four moons. But Bologna has a much more recent claim to fame in the world of education: it was at the university that plans to create a common European higher-education system were set in motion exactly 10 years ago this month.

  11. [Hermeneutics and relativism].

    PubMed

    Miegge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis left us. There is only one way to cope with the irremediable separation: to give voice to what he said and wrote, by keeping open among us questions he asked, because they are also ours. In this dialogue with Giacomo Marramao let me begin with certain passages of the essay Psychoanalysis as a Critical Exercise that Jervis published in 1989. In the second part of the intervention I will try to explain why, in my opinion, hermeneutics cannot be equated with "relativism". PMID:25807695

  12. Analyzing a 35-Year Hourly Data Record: Why So Difficult?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    At the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, we have recently added a 35-Year record of output data from the North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) to the Giovanni web-based analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) offers a variety of data summarization and visualization to users that operate at the data center, obviating the need for users to download and read the data themselves for exploratory data analysis. However, the NLDAS data has proven surprisingly resistant to application of the summarization algorithms. Algorithms that were perfectly happy analyzing 15 years of daily satellite data encountered limitations both at the algorithm and system level for 35 years of hourly data. Failures arose, sometimes unexpectedly, from command line overflows, memory overflows, internal buffer overflows, and time-outs, among others. These serve as an early warning sign for the problems likely to be encountered by the general user community as they try to scale up to Big Data analytics. Indeed, it is likely that more users will seek to perform remote web-based analysis precisely to avoid the issues, or the need to reprogram around them. We will discuss approaches to mitigating the limitations and the implications for data systems serving the user communities that try to scale up their current techniques to analyze Big Data.

  13. Global Magnetospheric Simulations: coupling with ionospheric and solar wind models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Amaya, Jorge; Deca, Jan; Markidis, Stefano; Vapirev, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We present results on the global fully kinetic model of the magnetosphere of the Earth. The simulations are based on the iPic3D code [1] that treats kinetically all plasma species solving implicitly the equations of motion for electrons and ions, coupled with the Maxwell equations. We present results of our simulations and discuss the coupling at the inner boundary near the Earth with models of the ionosphere and at the outer boundary with models of the arriving solar wind. The results are part of the activities of the Swiff FP7 project: www.swiff.eu [1] Stefano Markidis, Giovanni Lapenta, Rizwan-uddin, Multi-scale simulations of plasma with iPIC3D, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Volume 80, Issue 7, March 2010, Pages 1509-1519, ISSN 0378-4754, 10.1016/j.matcom.2009.08.038 [2] Giovanni Lapenta, Particle simulations of space weather, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 231, Issue 3, 1 February 2012, Pages 795-821, ISSN 0021-9991, 10.1016/j.jcp.2011.03.035.

  14. Analysis of Vegetation Index Variations and the Asian Monsoon Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Sunhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation growth depends on local climate. Significant anthropogenic land cover and land use change activities over Asia have changed vegetation distribution as well. On the other hand, vegetation is one of the important land surface variables that influence the Asian Monsoon variability through controlling atmospheric energy and water vapor conditions. In this presentation, the mean and variations of vegetation index of last decade at regional scale resolution (5km and higher) from MODIS have been analyzed. Results indicate that the vegetation index has been reduced significantly during last decade over fast urbanization areas in east China, such as Yangtze River Delta, where local surface temperatures were increased significantly in term of urban heat Island. The relationship between vegetation Index and climate (surface temperature, precipitation) over a grassland in northern Asia and over a woody savannas in southeast Asia are studied. In supporting Monsoon Asian Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, the data in this study have been integrated into Giovanni, the online visualization and analysis system at NASA GES DISC. Most images in this presentation are generated from Giovanni system.

  15. Multi-Sensor Data from A-Train Instruments Brought Together for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter M.; Kempler, Steven J.; Leptoukh, Greg; Savtchenko, Andrey; Stephens, Graeme; Winker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The A-Train is comprised of a series of instruments, developed independently, that measure highly related atmospheric components along the same flight path. In order to intercompare data from this multitude of sensors, researchers must access, subset, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from the various A-Train instruments. The A-Train Data Depot (ATDD) has been operational for over a year, successfully performing the aforementioned functions on behalf of researchers, thus providing co-registered data from the Cloudsat, CALIOP, AIRS, and MODIS instruments for further intercomparisons. Of late, significant data from OM1 and POLDER are now included in the 'depot'. By specifying the desired spatial and temporal range, the researcher can subset, visualize, co-register, and access multi-sensor A-Train data related to: Cloud, aerosol, atmospheric temperature, and water vapor parameters (vertical profile visualizations); Cloud Pressure, cloud top temperature, water vapor, cloud optical thickness, and aerosol products (horizontal strips subsetted +/- 100km from the profile visualizations), and; Cloud pressure parameters (2-D line plots overlayed on the vertical profiles). All data is plotted using the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. A new feature of GIOVANNI is its ability to have collocated and subsetted data sets as well as PNG image files downloaded to the researcher's computing facility. By providing a convenient way to visualize and acquire multi-sensor data, ATDD affords users more time and effort to further their research.

  16. Satellite Observations of Fires, Aerosols, and Precipitation and their Relationships in Monsoon Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Teng, W.; Chiu, L.; Rui, H.

    2006-05-01

    Monsoon regions are home of more than 50% of the world's population, with an annual growth rate of 2-4 percent. Understanding of regional environment is important in improving people's lives and reducing poverty. However, there are a number of issues that researchers are facing. First, there are sparse environmental data in those regions consisting mostly of developing countries. The lack of financial support makes difficult to deploy and conduct ground-based observations. Secondly, monsoon regions consist of large numbers of remote and unpopulated areas (e.g., forests), making observations difficult and expensive. In recent years, with the launches of NASA satellites (e.g., TRMM, Terra, etc.), large volumes of environmental data (e.g., fires, aerosols, and precipitation) have been collected over monsoon and other regions for research and applications. At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), a number of tools have been developed to facilitate data access and research. Among them, the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS, URL: http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/) and MODIS Online Visualization and Analysis System (MOVAS, URL: http://g0dup05u.ecs.nasa.gov/Giovanni/) are two user-friendly online tools allowing users to explore satellite data in both spatial and temporal dimensions and investigate their relationships. In this presentation, we will present recent results, including spatial and temporal distributions of fires, aerosols and precipitation in monsoon regions and their relationships.

  17. Analyzing a 35-Year Hourly Data Record: Why So Difficult?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2014-12-01

    At the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, we have recently added a 35-Year record of output data from the North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) to the Giovanni web-based analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) offers a variety of data summarization and visualization to users that operate at the data center, obviating the need for users to download and read the data themselves for exploratory data analysis. However, the NLDAS data has proven surprisingly resistant to application of the summarization algorithms. Algorithms that were perfectly happy analyzing 15 years of daily satellite data encountered limitations both at the algorithm and system level for 35 years of hourly data. Failures arose, sometimes unexpectedly, from command line overflows, memory overflows, internal buffer overflows, and time-outs, among others. These serve as an early warning sign for the problems likely to be encountered by the general user community as they try to scale up to "Big Data" analytics. Indeed, it is likely that more users will seek to perform remote web-based analysis precisely to avoid the issues, or the need to reprogram around them. We will discuss approaches to mitigating the limitations and the implications for data systems serving the user communities that try to scale up their current techniques to analyze Big Data.

  18. Constructing clinical science.

    PubMed

    Gaspare de Santo, Natale; Bisaccia, Carmela; Cirillo, Massimo; Salvatore de Santo, Luca; Richet, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Clinical practice became clinical science in the years 1720-1820. There were many reasons for this transformation. The discoveries by Santorio Santorio, William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Lorenzo Bellini, Thomas Sydenham, Giovanni Maria Lancisi, were perceived by students who asked for changes in the medical curriculum. In 1761 Morgagni centered the study of diseases on morbid anatomy, a way to control at autopsy the validity of diagnosis. J.P. Frank who worked on public health and John Locke who supported a method of scientific reasoning based on asking questions were also instrumental for changes. Hospitals, formerly hospices for the poor, became places for curing and healing. Military hospitals represented models to be followed. In Vienna Marie Therese inaugurated the Allegemein Krankenhaus in 1785. In revolutionary France Fourcroy with the law Frimaire An III, 1794 gave a new rationale. Medicine and surgery were unified in the curriculum. Basic sciences were introduced. Dissection became compulsory, practical teaching became the rule. But it was with John Hunter, Domenico Cotugno and P. Joseph Desault that the great advancement was achieved. They were anatomists and therefore they made the knowledge of human body the core of medical curriculum. However experimentation on animals, as well as practical bedside teaching at the hospital also became important. Through their work hospitals and universities were associated in a common goal. PMID:16285082

  19. Radar rainfall estimation in the context of post-event analysis of flash-flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delrieu, G.; Bouilloud, L.; Boudevillain, B.; Kirstetter, P.-E.; Borga, M.

    2009-09-01

    Meteorology and Climatology, in press. Dinku, T., E.N. Anagnostou, and M. Borga, 2002: Improving Radar-Based Estimation of Rainfall over Complex Terrain. J. Appl. Meteor., 41, 1163-1178. Pellarin, T., G. Delrieu, G. M. Saulnier, H. Andrieu, B. Vignal, and J. D. Creutin, 2002: Hydrologic visibility of weather radar systems operating in mountainous regions: Case study for the Ardeche Catchment (France). Journal of Hydrometeorology, 3, 539-555.

  20. Geogenic Enrichment of PTEs and the " Serpentine Syndrome"(H. Jenny, 1980). A proxy for soil remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Serpentine soils have relatively high concentrations of PTEs (e.g., Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni) but generally low amounts of major nutrients. They often bear a distinctive vegetation, and a frequently-used approach to understanding serpentine ecology and environmental hazard has been the chemical analysis of soils and plants. Long-term studies on aspects of serpentine soils and their vegetation provide results on total concentrations, or on plant-available fractions, of soil elements which counteract ecological conditions. For example, there is evidence of Ni toxicity at Ni-concentration >0.3 mg/L in the soil solution (Johnston and Proctor, 1981). The serpentine vegetation differs from the conterminous non-serpentine areas, being often endemic, and showing macroscopic physionomical characters such as dwarfism, prostrate outcome, glaucescence and glabrescence, leaves stenosis, root shortening (what Jenny, 1980, called "the serpentine syndrome"). Similarly, at microscopic level cytomorphological characteristics of the roots and variations in biochemical parameters such as LPO and phenols have been recorded in serpentine native vegetation (Giuliani et al., 2008). Light microscopy observations showed depressed mitotic activity in the meristematic zone, and consequent reduced root growth (Gabbrielli et al., 1990) The metal content of plants growing on serpentine soils at sites with different microclimatic conditions has been examined by several authors (e.g. Bini et al., 1993; Dinelli and Lombini, 1996) . A preferential Ni distribution in epidermis and sclerenchima has been observed in the stem of Alyssum bertoloni, a well known Ni-accumulator plant (Vergnano Gambi, 1975). The different tolerance mechanisms responsible for plant adaption to high concentrations of PTEs in serpentine soils can be related to the capacity of plants either to limit metal uptake and translocation or to accumulate metals in non toxic forms. The majority of serpentine species (e.g. Silene italica) tend

  1. Preparing Precipitation Data Access, Value-added Services and Scientific Exploration Tools for the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google: NASA PDISC), located at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC), is home of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. For over 15 years, the GES DISC has served not only TRMM, but also other space-based, airborne-based, field campaign and ground-based precipitation data products to the precipitation community and other disciplinary communities as well. The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products are the most popular products in the TRMM product family in terms of data download and access through Mirador, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) and other services. The next generation of TMPA, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) to be released in 2014 after the launch of GPM, will be significantly improved in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. To better serve the user community, we are preparing data services and samples are listed below. To enable scientific exploration of Earth science data products without going through complicated and often time consuming processes, such as data downloading, data processing, etc., the GES DISC has developed Giovanni in consultation with members of the user community, requesting quick search, subset, analysis and display capabilities for their specific data of interest. For example, the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS, http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/) has proven extremely popular, especially as additional datasets have been added upon request. Giovanni will continue to evolve to accommodate GPM data and the multi-sensor data inter-comparisons that will be sure to follow. Additional PDISC tool and service capabilities being adapted for GPM data include: An on-line PDISC Portal (includes user guide, etc

  2. Protease susceptibility and toxicity of heat-labile enterotoxins with a mutation in the active site or in the protease-sensitive loop.

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, V; Fontana, M R; Giuliani, M M; Guangcai, D; Rappuoli, R; Pizza, M

    1997-01-01

    To generate nontoxic derivatives of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), site-directed mutagenesis has been used to change either the amino acid residues located in the catalytic site (M. Pizza, M. Domenighini, W. Hol, V. Giannelli, M. R. Fontana, M. M. Giuliani, C. Magagnoli, S. Peppoloni, R. Manetti, and R. Rappuoli, Mol. Microbiol. 14:51-60, 1994) or those located in the proteolytically sensitive loop that joins the A1 and A2 moieties of the A subunit (C. C. R. Grant, R. J. Messer, and W. J. Cieplack, Infect. Immun. 62:4270-4278, 1994; B. L. Dickinson and J. D. Clements, Infect. Immun. 63:1617-1623, 1995). In this work, we compared the in vitro and in vivo toxic properties and the resistance to protease digestion of the prototype molecules obtained by both approaches (LT-K63 and LT-R192G, respectively). As expected, LT-K63 was normally processed by proteases, while LT-R192G showed increased resistance to trypsin in vitro and was digested by trypsin only under denaturing conditions (3.5 M urea) or by intestinal proteases. No toxicity was detected with the LT-K63 mutant, even when 40 micrograms and 1 mg were used in the in vitro and in vivo assays, respectively. In marked contrast, LT-R192G showed only a modest (10-fold) reduction in toxicity in Y1 cells with a delay in the appearance of the toxic activity and had toxicity comparable to that of wild-type LT in the rabbit ileal loop assay. We conclude that mutagenesis of the active site generates molecules that are fully devoid of toxicity, while mutagenesis of the A1-A2 loop generates molecules that are resistant to trypsin in vitro but still susceptible to proteolytic activation by proteases other than trypsin, and therefore they may still be toxic in tissue culture and in vivo. PMID:8975934

  3. Project for a world-wide network devoted to the seismology of the giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciani, A.; Moretti, P. F.; Dolci, M.; Giuliani, C.; Patriarchi, P.

    1999-09-01

    An increasing interest has been devoted in recent years to the seismology of Jupiter and Saturn, as it is an intermediate case between the Sun and the stars. Besides the theoretical modelling, few observations have been carried out so far. An instrument, currently used in Helioseismology, has been adapted to deal with the low photon flux from the stars. It is based on the Magneto-Optical Filter (MOF), which provides two narrow (40 m Angstroms) bandpasses centered on the Sodium D-lines, 80 m Angstroms/ apart from the central wavelenght. A continuum broad-band channel is simultaneously available. The MOF stability and reference wavelenght permit to reach an high sensitivity in the power spectrum of the oscillations, despite the very low spectral-limited transmitted light. The most recent version of the instrument has characteristics of portability (60x10x10 cm x 10 Kg, PMT not included), fast mounting and low cost. Preliminary results obtained during the impact of Comet SL-9 on Jupiter in 1994 and in 3 consecutive nights in 1996 are presented [1,2]. The importance of continuous observations for an unambigous detection and identification of the oscillation frequencies requires a network of at least 1m--class telescopes all around the world. The authors thank the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione and the Osservatorio Astronomico "V.Cerulli" di Teramo for financial support. References [1] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., Brocato E., Smith E. J., 1995: Doppler Observations of the Impact of Comet P/Shoemaker-Levy/9, Fragment A, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2437 [2] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., D'Alessio F., Giuliani C., Micolucci E., Di Cianno A., 1999: Search for global oscillations on Jupiter with a double-cell Sodium Magneto-Optical Filter, submitted to Astron. Astrophys.

  4. The detectability of global oscillations on Jupiter and Saturn with the Magneto-Optical Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolci, M.; Cacciani, A.

    1999-09-01

    The Magneto-Optical Filter (MOF) transmits the light in two very narrow (40 m Angstroms) bandpasses (B and R) located on the opposite wings of a spectral line. With a suitable elaboration of the transmitted channels (cal R=(B-R)/(B+R) or cal S=(B+R)/continuum) it is possible to get direct information about the velocity fields present on the surface of the observed object. Jovian sesimological observations, carried out in the past with this technique, found "global oscillations" with amplitudes around 8 m s(-1) [3]; these "modes", however, could also be due to albedo fluctuations on Jupiter's surface [2]. Recent observations have detected no oscillations and given strong support to the albedo hypothesis [1]. The various experimental results can be reconciled if the sensitivities of cal R and cal S to the different oscillation or albedo "modes" is carefully computed. These sensitivities change with the mode degree (l,m) and with the observation date tobs. When applied to the two above-mentioned experiments, they agree very well with the observed results. The authors thank the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione and the Osservatorio Astronomico "V.Cerulli" di Teramo for financial support. References [1] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., D'Alessio F., Giuliani C., Micolucci E., Di Cianno A., 1999: Search for global oscillations on Jupiter with a double-cell Sodium Magneto-Optical Filter, submitted to Astron. Astrophys. [2] Lederer S. M., Marley M. S., Mosser B., Maillard J. P., Chanover N. J., Beebe R. F., 1995: Albedo Features and Jovian Seismology, Icarus, 114, 269 [3] Schmider F. X., Mosser B., Fossat E., 1991: Possible detection of Jovian global oscillations, Astron. Astrophys., 248, 281

  5. Online Visualization and Analysis of Merged Global Geostationary Satellite Infrared Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    presentation software, such as, Microsoft PowerPoint. The prototype will be integrated into GIOVANNI and existing GIOVANNI capabilities, such as, data download, Google Earth KMZ, etc will be available. Users will also be able to access other data products in the GIOVANNI family.

  6. NASA GES DISC Hurricane Web Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Leptoukh, G.; Ostrenga, D.; Rui, H.; Hulka, J.; Carlaw, L.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent activities at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) to support hurricane monitoring, research and outreach activities. A newly developed web portal (URL: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hurricane/) is designed for viewing and studying hurricanes by utilizing various measurements by NASA remote-sensing instruments. The portal consists of five main components: - Current conditions (in pre-selected regions and updated daily): the latest maps, animation and profiles from NASA satellites. At present, images or plots created using data from TRMM, AIRS, MODIS, MLS and CloudSat are available. Later, data from OMI and other instruments will be added. A new feature will be added to allow users to easily download/subset data associated with these images. - Past hurricane archive: maps, animation and profiles of past hurricanes were created using data from TRMM, AIRS, MODIS, MLS and CloudSat, allowing users to explore past hurricanes and download/subset data if necessary. - Science focus: examples/stories describing data usage in hurricane monitoring and research - Tools: descriptions and links of a number of in-house developed tools for hurricane exploration and event-based data ordering. For example, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni, URL: http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov), a series of online visualization and analysis systems, allows users to access data ranging from near-real-time to historical archives and generate customized analysis maps, plots and data on the fly over the Internet. A hurricane instance of Giovanni is under development. Mirador (URL: http://g0dup05u.ecs.nasa.gov/OPS/mirador/) is another in-house developed tool that offers a simplified interface for searching, browsing, and ordering Earth science data at NASA GES DICS. Users can do event based (e.g., entering a hurricane name) search and order data. - Hurricane viewer: provides

  7. Integrating NASA Satellite-Derived Precipitation and Soil Moisture Data Into the Digital-NGP Decision Support System for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Zhang, X.; Soriano, M.

    2007-12-01

    The usefulness of NASA satellite-derived data for agricultural decision support systems (DSS) depends on the specific applications and their spatial and temporal resolution requirements. For globally oriented DSS, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Crop Explorer, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has demonstrated the operational usefulness of NASA precipitation data, by providing seamless, dynamic, context-sensitive Web services via the Agricultural Online Visualization and Analysis System (AOVAS). The latter is a component of the GES DISC's Agricultural Information System (AIS), which enables the remote, interoperable, operational access to distributed data (e.g., near-real-time satellite- derived rainfall), by using the GrADS-Data Server (GDS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compliant MapServer. The latter allows the access of AIS data from any OGC-compliant client, such as the Earth-Sun System Gateway (ESG) or Google Earth. AOVAS is one of a family of "Giovanni" (GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) instances, which enable users to perform interactive visualization and analysis online without downloading any data. For more regionally or locally oriented DSS, such as the Digital- NGP (Northern Great Plains), an online GIS database system for archiving and distributing remote sensing images developed by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium, the usefulness of NASA data is less clear. For agricultural users from the regional down to the local (including precision farming) levels, answers to two key questions are needed: when and how. The "how" is addressed with spatial distribution (e.g., an image), particularly at the sub-field resolution. An example is the new capability of the Digital-NGP to deliver maps of management zones, using remote sensing images and field data provided by users. "When" is basically a time series question, the answer to which is primarily

  8. [For a history of medical teaching in the 'Marche". Libraries and universities: Lancisi and the University Library of Urbino].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Stefania; Moranti, Maria; Patti, Maria

    2004-01-01

    During the Modern Age, in the Marche, in the Pontifical State, it was possible to study medicine and to obtain a degree in medicine in Macerata, Fermo, Urbino, Camerino and Fano. In these cities, from the end of the XVII century to the beginning of the XIX century, public libraries were founded also to support academic teaching. Private collections of medical books, generally formed in Rome, arrived in the Marche to increase the newborn public libraries. In 1720 Pope Clemens XI founded a public library in the monastery of Saint Francis in Urbino. In this library the medical books were bequeathed by the famous Roman physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi. The present article provides the first results of a research, which aims at identifying Lancisi's medical books. PMID:16240533

  9. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  10. Fast Geometric Method for Calculating Accurate Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiźniowski, T.; Rickman, H.

    2013-06-01

    We present a new method to compute Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs) for arbitrary pairs of heliocentric orbits and compare it with Giovanni Gronchi's algebraic method. Our procedure is numerical and iterative, and the MOID configuration is found by geometric scanning and tuning. A basic element is the meridional plane, used for initial scanning, which contains one of the objects and is perpendicular to the orbital plane of the other. Our method also relies on an efficient tuning technique in order to zoom in on the MOID configuration, starting from the first approximation found by scanning. We work with high accuracy and take special care to avoid the risk of missing the MOID, which is inherent to our type of approach. We demonstrate that our method is both fast, reliable and flexible. It is freely available and its source Fortran code downloadable via our web page.

  11. [The "myologie dynamique" by Girolamo Fabrizi da Aquapendente in the scientific language in the Renaissance age (XVI-XVII)].

    PubMed

    Stroppiana, L

    1989-01-01

    Beginning from the XV century, mechanical materialism underwent an evolution in "biological mechanics" within the scientific doctrine. Among the greatest exponents of this new current there were two Italian men, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Girolamo da Acquapendente (1533-1619). By the trend given by Leonardo, the myology, instead of being a static science, took a dynamic meaning and valence. Later, Fabrizi resumed and investigated the subject above all in its less known expression, elaborating an original theory. With Acquapendente, the anatomy lost its merely descriptive pecularity and evolved in analysis of the structure in connection with the function. Moreover, he opposed the syllogism against the mechanic language and the mathematical formulation. A new scientific way will be afterwards characterized by Galileo Galilei in the field of the physics and by Giovanni Alfonso Borrelli in the biology. PMID:11640090

  12. A pale orange dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, Agustin

    2009-03-01

    The first planetary satellites (other than our own Moon) were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. These were the four largest moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Christiaan Huygens followed suit in 1655 by discovering Titan, Saturn's largest satellite; a few years later, Giovanni Cassini was the first to observe several of Saturn's smaller moons, as well as the main gap in its rings. It is Titan that stands out, however. Called at first "Luna saturni" and only given its modern name by John Herschel in 1848, Titan is the most massive satellite in the solar system. With a diameter of 5151 km, it dwarfs the other 60-odd moons of Saturn, and is even larger than the planet Mercury.

  13. [Some historical considerations on the inflammatory theory of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Marson, P; Zanchin, G; Stefanutti, C

    2004-01-01

    In the past 20 years several clinical and experimental observations have led to the hypothesis that an inflammatory response can trigger some key processes during the development of atherosclerosis. Here we briefly review, from the historical viewpoint, the inflammatory theory of atherosclerosis, as proposed by the Berliner pathologist Rudolf Virchow in the XIX century. Contrary to this hypothesis, in the same period the Viennese Karl von Rokitansky recognized blood dyscrasia (particularly fibrin-induced alterations) as the promoting factor in the process of atherogenesis. Moreover, we outline the relationship between atherosclerosis and arthritis, by reporting some passages from two scientific works published in the late XIX century, the former by the Italian Achille De Giovanni ("Sull'arterite. Sue forme cliniche e sua patogenesi", 1882) and the latter by the French Theophile Guyot ("L'arthritis. Maladie Constitutionnelle", 1890). PMID:15470528

  14. Combenefit: an interactive platform for the analysis and visualization of drug combinations

    PubMed Central

    Di Veroli, Giovanni Y.; Fornari, Chiara; Wang, Dennis; Mollard, Séverine; Bramhall, Jo L.; Richards, Frances M.; Jodrell, Duncan I.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Many drug combinations are routinely assessed to identify synergistic interactions in the attempt to develop novel treatment strategies. Appropriate software is required to analyze the results of these studies. Results: We present Combenefit, new free software tool that enables the visualization, analysis and quantification of drug combination effects in terms of synergy and/or antagonism. Data from combinations assays can be processed using classical Synergy models (Loewe, Bliss, HSA), as single experiments or in batch for High Throughput Screens. This user-friendly tool provides laboratory scientists with an easy and systematic way to analyze their data. The companion package provides bioinformaticians with critical implementations of routines enabling the processing of combination data. Availability and Implementation: Combenefit is provided as a Matlab package but also as standalone software for Windows (http://sourceforge.net/projects/combenefit/). Contact: Giovanni.DiVeroli@cruk.cam.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153664

  15. Exploring and Visualizing A-Train Instrument Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Stephens, G.; Winker, D.; Reinke, D.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of US and international satellites that follow each other in close succession, known as the A-Train, affords an opportunity to atmospheric researchers that no single platform could provide: Increasing the number of observations at any given geographic location.. . a more complete "virtual science platform". However, vertically and horizontally, co-registering and regridding datasets from independently developed missions, Aqua, Calipso, Cloudsat, Parasol, and Aura, so that they can be inter-compared can be daunting to some, and may be repeated by many. Scientists will individually spend much of their time and resources acquiring A-Train datasets of interest residing at various locations, developing algorithms to match up and graph datasets along the A-Train track, and search through large amounts of data for areas and/or phenomena of interest. The aggregate amount of effort that can be expended on repeating pre-science tasks could climb into the tens of millions of dollars. The goal of the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD) is to enable free movement of remotely located A-Train data so that they are combined to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. The innovative approach of analyzing and visualizing atmospheric profiles along the platforms track (i.e., time) is accomplished by through the ATDDs Giovanni data analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni brings together data from Aqua (MODIS, AIRS, AMSR-E), Cloudsat (cloud profiling radar) and Calipso (CALIOP, IIR), as well as the Aura (OMI, MLS, HIRDLS, TES) to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. This easy to learn and use exploration tool will allow users to create vertical profiles of any desired A-Train dataset, for any given time of choice. This presentation shows the power of Giovanni by describing and illustrating how this tool facilitates and aids A-Train science and research. A web based display system

  16. Molecular target-based treatment of human cancer: summary of the 10th international conference on differentiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zelent, Arthur; Petrie, Kevin; Chen, Zhu; Lotan, Reuben; Lübbert, Michael; Tallman, Martin S; Ohno, Ryuzo; Degos, Laurent; Waxman, Samuel

    2005-02-15

    The 10th International Conference on Differentiation Therapy was held between April 29 and May 3, 2004, in Shanghai, China. In the tradition of previous conferences from this series, which have been held biannually since the first meeting organized 20 years ago by Samuel Waxman and Giovanni Rossi in Sardinia, the organizers of the 10th International Conference on Differentiation Therapy aimed to gather basic and clinical cancer investigators in a setting of plenary sessions, workshops, and poster presentations to maximize the effective exchange of information and foster the establishment of collaborative interactions. Approximately 300 scientists attended the meeting with a mission to discuss targeted approaches to cancer treatment, which stem from our understanding of basic biological processes and the mechanisms of their deregulation during tumorigenesis. PMID:15734991

  17. Community mental health care in Trieste and beyond: an "open door-no restraint" system of care for recovery and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Mezzina, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Since Franco Basaglia's appointment in 1971 as director of the former San Giovanni mental hospital, Trieste has played an international benchmark role in community mental health care. Moving from deinstitutionalization, the Department of Mental Health (DMH) has become a laboratory for innovation on social psychiatry, developing a model that can be defined as the "whole system, whole community" approach. The DMH provides care through a network of community services but also places great emphasis on working with the wider community with a view to promoting mental health and taking care of the social fabric. The network of services is based on 24/7 Community Mental Health Services, whose organization and activities are here described in detail. Data are provided on activity and outcome. The performance of DMH as a World Health Organization collaborating center disseminating best community mental health practices is also reviewed. PMID:24840089

  18. The representation of insects in the seventeenth century: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Meli, Domenico Bertoloni

    2010-07-01

    The investigation and representation of insects in the seventeenth century posed huge problems: on the one hand, their size and texture required optical tools and fixation techniques to disentangle and identify their tiny parts; on the other, the esoteric nature of those parts required readers to make sense of images alien to their daily experiences. Naturalists and anatomists developed sophisticated techniques of investigation and representation, involving tacit and unusual conventions that even twentieth-century readers found at times baffling. This essay develops a comparative approach based on seven pairs of investigations involving Francesco Stelluti, Francesco Redi, Giovanni Battista Hodierna, Robert Hooke, Marcello Malpighi, and Jan Swammerdam. Seen together, they document an extraordinary time in the study of insects and reconstruct a number of iconographic dialogues shedding light on the conventions and styles adopted. PMID:20853817

  19. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology. PMID:25807782

  20. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Jasinski, Michael; Mocko, David; Kempler, Steven

    2016-01-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and indicator data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. The NCA-LDAS data will be archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp, THREDDS, Mirador search and download, and Giovanni visualization and analysis system.

  1. [The spread of the plague: A sciento-historiographic review].

    PubMed

    Cuadrada, Coral

    2015-01-01

    There is still uncertainty about the diagnosis and nature of the plague; some scholars have been forced to abandon certainties and be filled with doubts: from believing that the mediaeval Black Plague was, in reality, the bubonic plague (although with unusual characteristics) to stating that there is very little evidence to support a retro-diagnosis. This article looks at this in depth, not only reviewing the historiography but also giving new interpretations which question previous hypotheses through research on images of the time, comparing them to the most recent investigative data. Two primary sources are analysed: Renaissance treaties written by four Italian doctors: Michele Savonarola, Marsilio Ficino, Leonardo Fioravanti and Gioseffo Daciano; and iconography: an illustrated manuscript of the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio and a Hebrew Haggadah from the XIVth century. The results are compared to the most recent research on DNA and in micropaleontology. PMID:26399143

  2. Red, White and Black: Colors of Beauty, Tints of Health and Cosmetic Materials in Early Modern English Art Writing.

    PubMed

    Sammern, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Alongside Richard Haydocke's translation of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo's treatise on painting (1598), the article examines concepts of color concerning cosmetics, painting and complexion as they relate to aesthetics, artistic and medical practice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Beginning with white and red as ideal colors of beauty in Agnolo Firenzuola's Discourse on the beauty of women (1541), the essay places color in relation to major issues in art, medicine and empiricism by discussing beauty as a quality of humoral theory and its colors as visual results of physiological processes. Challenging the relation of art and nature, gender and production, Lomazzo's account of complexion and Haydocke's additions on cosmetic practices and face-painting provide key passages that shed light on the relation of cosmetics colors, art writing and artistic practices at the convergence of the body, art and medicine in the context of the emerging English virtuosi around 1600. PMID:26856049

  3. Emisacrectomy, experience in 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Solini, Antonio; Gargiulo, Giosuè; Fronda, Gianruggero; De Paolis, Paolo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Garino, Mauro

    2009-06-01

    Emisacrectomy is a challenging surgery in the treatment of tumours that affect the sacrum. Authors report their experience in 11 cases affected by tumours of the sacrum (9 chordomas, 1 ependymoma, 1 monostotic bladder metastasis) operated on at the Orthopaedic Department of A.S.O S. Giovanni Battista Molinette in Turin, Italy, from 1998 through 2005 discussing planning surgery, level of osteotomy, functional and oncological results and complications of the treatment at a median follow-up of 5 years (range 2-9), describing the surgical and medical teaching learned from the treatment of these patients. Despite the potential complications, emisacrectomy can be performed successfully and is an important procedure in the treatment of sacral tumours. PMID:19468760

  4. Emisacrectomy, experience in 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    Solini, Antonio; Fronda, Gianruggero; De Paolis, Paolo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Garino, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Emisacrectomy is a challenging surgery in the treatment of tumours that affect the sacrum. Authors report their experience in 11 cases affected by tumours of the sacrum (9 chordomas, 1 ependymoma, 1 monostotic bladder metastasis) operated on at the Orthopaedic Department of A.S.O S. Giovanni Battista Molinette in Turin, Italy, from 1998 through 2005 discussing planning surgery, level of osteotomy, functional and oncological results and complications of the treatment at a median follow-up of 5 years (range 2–9), describing the surgical and medical teaching learned from the treatment of these patients. Despite the potential complications, emisacrectomy can be performed successfully and is an important procedure in the treatment of sacral tumours. PMID:19468760

  5. Medical semiotics; its influence on art, psychoanalysis and Sherlock Holmes.

    PubMed

    Moore-McCann, Brenda

    2014-07-01

    Semiotics is the analysis and interpretation of signs and the basis of medicine since antiquity. It is suggested that the growth of technology has led to the virtual eclipse of the clinical examination with consequent loss of skill, empathy and patient trust. This paper views the value of medical semiotics through the method of the 19th century Italian doctor, Giovanni Morelli, which has had a significant but little recognised impact on the early development of psychoanalysis, the detective novel and art connoisseurship. Semiotics and, specifically, the linguistic semiotics of Ferdinand Saussure have been influential in the fields of the visual arts, literature and the social sciences since the 20th century. With its roots in the medical treatises of antiquity, medical semiotics should again be brought to the forefront of medical practice. PMID:24986397

  6. The Maunder Minimum is Not as Grand as it Seemed to be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2015-02-01

    The Maunder Minimum (MM), which occurred between 1645 and 1715, is mainly known as an almost spotless period on the Sun. We analyze the nominal number of sunspot groups for each observer individually. Comparing the sunspot drawings and textual reports, we conclude that the latter underestimate the number of sunspots. We also argue that the different points of view of observers in the seventeenth century on the origin of sunspots resulted in the underestimation of sunspot groups or even gaps in observational reports. We demonstrate that Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini of the Paris Observatory did not report any sunspots, while other observers reported on the occurrence of spots. Moreover, compared with other observers, La Hire underestimated the solar activity. The MM looks like an ordinary secular minimum with a depressed 11 yr solar cyclicity.

  7. The Maunder minimum: a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, Nadezhda; Ponyavin, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history in the past was the Maunder minimum (1645-1715). We estimated the daily nominal sunspot counts of each observer individually from 1610 to 1720. Simultaneous comparison of textual reports, tables, and sunspot drawings reveals a significant difference between them. Some observers (among whom were Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini, both from the Royal Observatory in Paris) systematically made gaps in reports when others noticed sunspots. Philippe de La Hire announced only fewer sunspot groups compared with the other observers. We argue that different points of view of observers of the seventeenth-century on the origin of sunspots resulted in strong underestimation of sunspot groups. Our findings suggest that the Maunder minimum was an ordinary secular minimum with reduced but non-stopped solar cyclicity.

  8. THE MAUNDER MINIMUM IS NOT AS GRAND AS IT SEEMED TO BE

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I. E-mail: d.ponyavin@spbu.ru

    2015-02-10

    The Maunder Minimum (MM), which occurred between 1645 and 1715, is mainly known as an almost spotless period on the Sun. We analyze the nominal number of sunspot groups for each observer individually. Comparing the sunspot drawings and textual reports, we conclude that the latter underestimate the number of sunspots. We also argue that the different points of view of observers in the seventeenth century on the origin of sunspots resulted in the underestimation of sunspot groups or even gaps in observational reports. We demonstrate that Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini of the Paris Observatory did not report any sunspots, while other observers reported on the occurrence of spots. Moreover, compared with other observers, La Hire underestimated the solar activity. The MM looks like an ordinary secular minimum with a depressed 11 yr solar cyclicity.

  9. [Fermentation as the origin of life: discussions on blood in Italy in the late 17th century].

    PubMed

    Conforti, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the correspondence (1701) between the Neapolitan mathematician Giacinto De Cristofaro and Domennico Guglielmini, professor of theoretical medicine at Padua, on the role of blood and on the fermentative process in the 'origin' of life. The discussion is set against the background of the lively Italian medical debates and experimentations on the function and composition of the blood. Works by Marcello Malpighi, Giacomo Sandri, Giovanni Maria Lancisi, Giorgio Baglivi, Giovanbattista Morgagni and Nicola Cirillo - all of them taking into account Robert Boyle's Natural History of the Blood (1683-4) - show that blood composition and heart motion were described in different ways, ranging from the adoption of chemical theories and experimentation to that of strictly mechanical explanations. Different positions about the role of the blood and of its fermentative motion reflect different views about the relationship between matter and life. PMID:15311440

  10. Division B Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Green, D. W. E.; Samus, N. N.; Aksnes, K.; Gilmore, A. C.; Nakano, S.; Sphar, T.; Tichá, J.; Williams, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).

  11. The Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote-Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, J.; Riebeek, H.; Ledley, T. S.; Herring, D.; Lloyd, S.

    2008-12-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observational research and data collection conducted by non- professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local and regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote-sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museums and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  12. Eight Years of TRMM Precipitation Data and TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Teng, W. L.; Liu, Z.; Chiu, L.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S. W.

    2006-05-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Since its launch in November 1997, TRMM has to date continuously acquired more than eight years of data. All TRMM standard products are archived and distributed to the general users by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC). To facilitate the use of TRMM data by diverse user communities, the GES DISC DAAC has developed the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS, http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/). Since its first release in early 2002, TOVAS has benefited numerous users in diverse communities, ranging from research to operational applications. As a part of GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) efforts, TOVAS has recently been further extended with more global precipitation data products. In addition to the existing TRMM level 3 precipitation data products, Monthly GPCC Accumulated Rainfall, and Monthly Willmott and Matsuura Global Precipitation, the additional global precipitation data include (1) GPCP Version 2 Combined Precipitation, (2) 3B40RT, a merger of all available SSM/I and TMI microwave precipitation estimates into a "high-quality" (HQ) precipitation estimate, (3) 3B41RT, precipitation estimates from geostationary infrared (IR) observations using spatially and temporally varying calibration by the HQ, and (4) TRMM V6 Rainfall climatology and anomaly analysis. The TOVAS has also been enhanced with new capabilities, such as options in rainfall unit, nonlinear color scales, and pixel links in resultant image page for providing more information. In this presentation, TRMM V6 data, including eight-year rainfall climatology and anomalies, and TRMM views of several hurricanes, will be presented as results

  13. The Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Riebeek, Holli; Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Herring, David; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observatoinal research and data collection conducted by non-professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local nad regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museuma and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  14. Accessing and Utilizing Remote Sensing Data for Vectorborne Infectious Diseases Surveillance and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Kempler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Background: The transmission of vectorborne infectious diseases is often influenced by environmental, meteorological and climatic parameters, because the vector life cycle depends on these factors. For example, the geophysical parameters relevant to malaria transmission include precipitation, surface temperature, humidity, elevation, and vegetation type. Because these parameters are routinely measured by satellites, remote sensing is an important technological tool for predicting, preventing, and containing a number of vectorborne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, etc. Methods: A variety of NASA remote sensing data can be used for modeling vectorborne infectious disease transmission. We will discuss both the well known and less known remote sensing data, including Landsat, AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), EO-1 (Earth Observing One) ALI (Advanced Land Imager), and SIESIP (Seasonal to Interannual Earth Science Information Partner) dataset. Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. It provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data. After remote sensing data is obtained, a variety of techniques, including generalized linear models and artificial intelligence oriented methods, t 3 can be used to model the dependency of disease transmission on these parameters. Results: The processes of accessing, visualizing and utilizing precipitation data using Giovanni, and acquiring other data at additional websites are illustrated. Malaria incidence time series for some parts of Thailand and Indonesia are used to demonstrate that malaria incidences are reasonably well modeled with generalized linear models and artificial

  15. A simple procedure for estimating soil porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Holden, Nick

    2016-04-01

    , indicating the impacts of soil management. Reference Piwowarczyk, A., Giuliani, G. & Holden, N.M. 2011. Can soil moisture deficit be used to forecast when soils are at high risk of damage owing to grazing animals? Soil Use and Management, 27, 255-263.

  16. Study of Fractal Features of Geomagnetic Activity Through an MHD Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, M.; Nigro, G.; Munoz, V.; Carbone, V.

    2013-12-01

    . Boffetta, V. Carbone, P. Giuliani, P. Veltri, and A. Vulpiani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4662 (1999). [7] P. S. Addison, Fractals and Chaos, an Illustrated Course, vol. 1 (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia, 1997), second ed. [8] M. Domínguez, V. Muñoz, and J. A. Valdivia, Temporal evolution of fractality in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar photosphere, in preparation.

  17. Numerical study of the steady state fluctuation relations far from equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen R; Searles, Debra J; Evans, Denis J

    2006-05-21

    A thermostatted dynamical model with five degrees of freedom is used to test the fluctuation relation of Evans and Searles (Omega-FR) and that of Gallavotti and Cohen (Lambda-FR). In the absence of an external driving field, the model generates a time-independent ergodic equilibrium state with two conjugate pairs of Lyapunov exponents. Each conjugate pair sums to zero. The fluctuation relations are tested numerically both near and far from equilibrium. As expected from previous work, near equilibrium the Omega-FR is verified by the simulation data while the Lambda-FR is not confirmed by the data. Far from equilibrium where a positive exponent in one of these conjugate pairs becomes negative, we test a conjecture regarding the Lambda-FR [Bonetto et al., Physica D 105, 226 (1997); Giuliani et al., J. Stat. Phys. 119, 909 (2005)]. It was conjectured that when the number of nontrivial Lyapunov exponents that are positive becomes less than the number of such negative exponents, then the form of the Lambda-FR needs to be corrected. We show that there is no evidence for this conjecture in the empirical data. In fact, when the correction factor differs from unity, the corrected form of Lambda-FR is less accurate than the uncorrected Lambda-FR. Also as the field increases the uncorrected Lambda-FR appears to be satisfied with increasing accuracy. The reason for this observation is likely to be that as the field increases, the argument of the Lambda-FR more and more accurately approximates the argument of the Omega-FR. Since the Omega-FR works for arbitrary field strengths, the uncorrected Lambda-FR appears to become ever more accurate as the field increases. The final piece of evidence against the conjecture is that when the smallest positive exponent changes sign, the conjecture predicts a discontinuous change in the "correction factor" for Lambda-FR. We see no evidence for a discontinuity at this field strength. PMID:16729798

  18. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    could be possible to infer the genesis of the scarps as due to complex tectono-karstic phenomena. As for case (ii), our ongoing analyses are aimed to analyze the tectonic "significance" of some closed depressions, up to 4 km long and to 0,5-1 km large, that occur along the south-western slope of the Gran Sasso Range. All these small depression are NW-SE trending. As already described by Bosi et al. (1989), Galadini and Giuliani (1993), D'Agostino et al. (1998), Falcucci et al. (2015), these closed depressions are bounded by scarps carved onto the carbonate bedrock and, subordinately, onto early Quaternary slope deposits, reaching height of up to 5 m. These scarps are preferentially NE dipping, even if in few cases some SW dipping scarp are also present . The field work has permitted to attest that these scarps are related to shear planes that that displaced two subsequent of Early Pleistocene breccias formations (the Valle Valiano Fm. and Fonte Vedice Fm.; Bosi e Bertini, 1993; D'agostino et al., 1997). A paleoseismological trench was also performed across one of these scarps, attesting the activity of these shear planes also in recent times, providing indications result about the deformation style. Reference Bertini, T., & Bosi, C. (1993). La tettonica quaternaria della conca di Fossa (L'Aquila). Il Quaternario, 6(2), 293-314. Bertini, T., Bosi, C., & Galadini, F. (1989). La conca di Fossa-S. Demetrio dei Vestini. CNR, Centro di Studio per la Geologia Tecnica, ENEA, PAS in Elementi di tettonica pliocenicoquaternaria ed indizi di sismicita olocenica nell'Appennino laziale-abruzzese, Societa Geologica Italiana, L'Aquila, 26-58. Bosi, C., & Bertini, T. (1970). Geologia della media valle dell'Aterno. Memorie Società Geologica Italiana, 9(4), 719-777. D'Agostino, N., F. Speranza, & R. Funiciello., (1997) "Le Brecce Mortadella dell'Appennino Centrale: primi risultati di stratigrafia magnetica." Il Quaternario10.2: 385-388. D'Agostino, N., Chamot-Rooke, N., Funiciello, R

  19. Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly

  20. New data and capabilities in the NASA Goddard Hurricane Data Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Leptoukh, G.; Ostrenga, D.; Savtchenko, C.; Kempler, S.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation describes new additions to the NASA Goddard Hurricane Data Portal, a dedicated web portal (URL: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hurricane/) has been designed for viewing and studying Atlantic hurricanes by utilizing various measurements by NASA remote-sensing instruments. The portal consists of the following main components: · Current conditions (in pre-selected regions and updated 3-hourly or daily): the latest maps, animation and profiles from NASA satellites. At present, images or plots created using data from TRMM, AIRS, MODIS, MLS and CloudSat are available. Later, data from OMI and other instruments will be added. A new feature will be added to allow users to easily download/subset data associated with these images. · Current and past hurricane archive: maps, animation and profiles of past hurricanes were created using data from TRMM, AIRS, MODIS, MLS and CloudSat, allowing users to explore past hurricanes and download/subset data if necessary. A new feature has just been released to allow searching past hurricanes. Also users can view imagery via Google Earth. · Science focus: examples/stories describing data usage in hurricane monitoring and research. · Tools: descriptions and links of a number of in-house developed tools for hurricane exploration and event- based data ordering. For example, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni, URL: http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov), a series of online visualization and analysis systems, allows users to access data ranging from near-real-time to historical archives and generate customized analysis maps, plots and data on the fly over the Internet. A hurricane instance of Giovanni is under development. However, a prototype that allows investigating Quikscat ocean surface wind, TRMM precipitation and TRMM microwave sea surface temperature is available now (URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/hurricane/trmm_quikscat_analysis.shtml). Mirador (URL: http://g0dup05u

  1. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  2. Data Reorganization for Optimal Time Series Data Access, Analysis, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Teng, W. L.; Strub, R.; Vollmer, B.

    2012-12-01

    The way data are archived is often not optimal for their access by many user communities (e.g., hydrological), particularly if the data volumes and/or number of data files are large. The number of data records of a non-static data set generally increases with time. Therefore, most data sets are commonly archived by time steps, one step per file, often containing multiple variables. However, many research and application efforts need time series data for a given geographical location or area, i.e., a data organization that is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. The retrieval of a time series of the entire temporal coverage of a data set for a single variable at a single data point, in an optimal way, is an important and longstanding challenge, especially for large science data sets (i.e., with volumes greater than 100 GB). Two examples of such large data sets are the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC; Hydrology Data Holdings Portal, http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/data-holdings). To date, the NLDAS data set, hourly 0.125x0.125° from Jan. 1, 1979 to present, has a total volume greater than 3 TB (compressed). The GLDAS data set, 3-hourly and monthly 0.25x0.25° and 1.0x1.0° Jan. 1948 to present, has a total volume greater than 1 TB (compressed). Both data sets are accessible, in the archived time step format, via several convenient methods, including Mirador search and download (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/), GrADS Data Server (GDS; http://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/dods/), direct FTP (ftp://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/s4pa/), and Giovanni Online Visualization and Analysis (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni). However, users who need long time series currently have no efficient way to retrieve them. Continuing a longstanding tradition of facilitating data access, analysis, and

  3. Badlands and the Carbon cycle: a significant source of petrogenic organic carbon in rivers and marine environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copard, Yoann; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique; Radakovitch, Olivier; Poirel, Alain; Raimbault, Patrick; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Di-Giovanni, Christian

    2016-04-01

    , which represent less than 0.25 % of the Rhône surface, may yield 15 % of the POC annually delivered to the sea. In other words, 50% of the petrogenic OC would have a badlands origin. At a global scale, we assume that badlands could significantly contribute to the delivery of petrogenic OC to the marine environments. references: Copard Y, Amiotte-Suchet P, Di-Giovanni C, 2007. Earth Planet. Sci. Let., 258, 345-357. Galy V, Peuker-Ehrenbrinck B, Eglinton T, 2015. Nature, 501, 204-208. Graz Y, Di Giovanni C, Copard Y, Mathys N, et al. 2012. Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 37, 1263-1271. Ronov AB, Yaroshevsky AA, 1976. Geochem. Intern. 13, 1761-1795.

  4. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: 1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products. 2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products. 3. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products. (early, late, and final)A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data

  5. Community-Based Services that Facilitate Interoperability and Intercomparison of Precipitation Datasets from Multiple Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Kempler, Steven; Teng, William; Leptoukh, Gregory; Ostrenga, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 12 years, large volumes of precipitation data have been generated from space-based observatories (e.g., TRMM), merging of data products (e.g., gridded 3B42), models (e.g., GMAO), climatologies (e.g., Chang SSM/I derived rain indices), field campaigns, and ground-based measuring stations. The science research, applications, and education communities have greatly benefited from the unrestricted availability of these data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and, in particular, the services tailored toward precipitation data access and usability. In addition, tools and services that are responsive to the expressed evolving needs of the precipitation data user communities have been developed at the Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google NASA PDISC), located at the GES DISC, to provide users with quick data exploration and access capabilities. In recent years, data management and access services have become increasingly sophisticated, such that they now afford researchers, particularly those interested in multi-data set science analysis and/or data validation, the ability to homogenize data sets, in order to apply multi-variant, comparison, and evaluation functions. Included in these services is the ability to capture data quality and data provenance. These interoperability services can be directly applied to future data sets, such as those from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. This presentation describes the data sets and services at the PDISC that are currently used by precipitation science and applications researchers, and which will be enhanced in preparation for GPM and associated multi-sensor data research. Specifically, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) will be illustrated. Giovanni enables scientific exploration of Earth science data without researchers having to

  6. Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

    2008-01-01

    keywords, location names or latitude/longitude box, and date/time, with responses within a few seconds. (2) Giovanni is a GES DISC developed Web application that provides data visualization and analysis online. Giovanni features popular visualizations such as latitude-longitude maps, animations, cross sections, profiles, time series, etc. and some basic statistical analysis functions such as scatter plots and correlation coefficient maps. Users are able to download results in several different formats, including Google Earth. (3) On-the-fly parameter subsetting of data within a spatial/temporal window is provided through a simple select and click Web page. (4) MERRA data are also available via OPeNDAP, GrADS Data Server (GDS) and can be converted to netCDF on the fly.

  7. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2014-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following:Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer productsLevel-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner productsLevel-3 daily and monthly productsIntegrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time

  8. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  9. Normal modes of oscillation of the Asinelli and Garisenda towers in Bologna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Azzara, R. M.; Cavaliere, A.; Zaccarelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Asinelli and Garisenda medieval towers represent the best-know city landmark in Bologna. Asinelli is also known to physics historians for early experiments on free fall of bodies for the first measurements of g (Giovanni Battista Riccioli, ca. 1650) and proof of Earth rotation (Giovanni Battista Guglielmini, 1791). The Two Towers (as they are commonly known) are essentially tall, square cross-section hollow masonry cuboids. Taller Asinelli, built between 1109 and 1119, is 97 m high, with an overhang of 2.2 m, while more seriously leaning Garisenda has an overhang of 3.2 m with a heigth of 48 m. During the summer of 2012 -- in the aftermath of two M≈6 earthquakes occurred in the proximity of the city -- the permanent engineering monitoring system of the towers has been temporarily supplemented by 6 seismometric stations installed at different levels inside the masonry buildings, to study their dynamical response to induced vibrations. We have thus been able to observe and measure the oscillation of the two towers excited by ambient noise, mostly due to city traffic. The two towers show similar behaviour, more clear in taller Asinelli. The first three flexural normal modes of oscillation, and the first torsional mode, can easily be detected. Their frequencies are split because of the asymmetry due to leaning of the tower. This asymmetry produces slightly different frequencies of oscillation in two orthogonal directions, quite consistent with preliminary dynamical modeling. Horizontal particle-motion polarization plots clearly show the cyclic energy transfer between these two degrees of freedom of the system. Oscillations of taller Asinelli influence its close sister, such that the Asinelli spectral signature can also be easily recognized in the motion recorded at the base of Garisenda, overimposed over Garisenda own free oscillations. Horizontal component polarization analysis done simultaneously at the two ground-level stations often point to a nearby common

  10. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http://pmm.nasa.gov/GPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM "Core Observatory" satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding

  11. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    Armani Paolo (Università di Trento) Benhar Omar (INFN Roma) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonanno Luca (Università di Ferrara) Catara Francesco (Università di Catania) Cò Giampaolo (Università di Lecce) Colonna Maria (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN Catania) Colonna Nicola (INFN Bari) Conti Francesco (Università di Pavia) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Cristoforetti Marco (Technische Universität München, Germania) Cuofano Carmine (Università di Ferrara) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) Drago Alessandro (Università di Ferrara) Faccioli Pietro (Università di Trento) Farina Nicola (INFN Roma) Finelli Paolo (Università di Bologna) Fiorentini Giovanni (Università di Ferrara) Fortunato Lorenzo (Università di Padova) Gambacurta Danilo (Università di Catania) Gandolfi Stefano (Università di Trento) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (INFN Pisa) Giusti Carlotta (INFN Pavia) Illarionov Alexei (SISSA Trieste) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Leidemann Winfried (Università di Trento) Lenzi Silvia (Università di Padova) Lipparini Enrico (Università di Trento) Lissia Marcello (Università di Cagliari) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Maieron Chiara (Università di Lecce) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Millo Raffaele (Università di Trento) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pastore Alessandro (Univeristy of Jyväskylä, Finlandia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pisent Gualtiero (Università di Padova) Prete Gianfranco (INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) Quarati Piero (Politecnico di Torino) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Salmè Giovanni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Traini Marco (Università di Trento) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Vitturi Andrea (Universit

  12. Supporting Hydrometeorological Research and Applications with Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Products and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; MacRitchie, K.; Greene, M.; Kempler, S.

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation is an important dataset in hydrometeorological research and applications such as flood modeling, drought monitoring, etc. On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data. The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). GPM products currently available include the following:1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products (Level-2 and Level-3)3. GPM dual-frequency precipitation radar and their combined products (Level-2 and Level-3)4. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final run)GPM data can be accessed through a number of data services (e.g., Simple Subset Wizard, OPeNDAP, WMS, WCS, ftp, etc.). A newly released Unified User Interface or UUI is a single interface to provide users seamless access to data, information and services. For example, a search for precipitation products will not only return TRMM and GPM products, but also other global precipitation products such as MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc.New features and capabilities have been recently added in GIOVANNI to allow exploring and inter-comparing GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) half-hourly and monthly precipitation

  13. North American Land Data Assimiliation (NLDAS) Data: 30 Years of Hourly Gridded Precipitation, Surface Meteorology and Fluxes, Soil Moisture, Runoff, and Snow Cover Available at the NASA Goddard GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocko, D. M.; Cosgrove, B.; Xia, Y.; Ek, M. B.; Mitchell, K.; Fang, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Lei, G.; Wood, E. F.; Luo, L.; Sheffield, J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Livneh, B.; Alonge, C. J.; Meng, C. J.; Wei, H.; Koren, V.; Schaake, J. C.; Mo, K. C.; Robock, A.

    2009-12-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) has produced 30-years (1979 to present in near real-time) of hourly 1/8th-degree surface meteorology and hydrology datasets over CONUS and parts of Canada and Mexico. The NLDAS project has many government and university partners involved in producing and using these datasets, many funded under the Climate Prediction Program of the Americas (CPPA). NLDAS combines observations from many different sources (rain gauges, radar, satellite, model reanalysis) to generate a surface forcing dataset, which is used to drive several different land-surface models. Hourly datasets of gridded precipitation, surface meteorology and surface fluxes, soil moisture at multiple depths, surface runoff and baseflow, and snow cover are produced and available to users. This presentation will describe NLDAS forcing and land-surface model output datasets, and provide an example or two of the many applications of NLDAS data already in use. One such application is the NLDAS Drought Monitor, which updates in near real-time using several different drought indices. All 30-plus years of hourly data are now available at the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Users can access the data by searching and downloading via anonymous ftp or Mirador. Mirador, a Spanish word for a window offering an extensive view, uses keywords to find data quickly in a Google-like interface. The NLDAS data are also provided via a GrADS Data Server (GDS). GDS users can access the data and perform subsetting and analysis operations online. More advanced tools will be provided in later releases, such as spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and an online visualization and analysis tool (Giovanni). Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by the GES DISC that provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download

  14. Community-based Services that Facilitate Interoperability and Inter-comparison Between Precipitation Data Sets from Multiple Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Teng, W. L.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ostrenga, D.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 12 years, large volumes of precipitation data have been generated from space-based observatories (e.g., TRMM), merging of data products (e.g., gridded 3B42), models (e.g., GMAO), climatologies (e.g., Chang SSM/I derived rain indices), field campaigns, and ground-based measuring stations. The science research, applications, and education communities have greatly benefited from the unrestricted availability of these data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and, in particular, the services tailored toward precipitation data access and usability. In addition, tools and services that are responsive to the expressed evolving needs of the precipitation data user communities have been developed at the Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google NASA PDISC), located at the GES DISC, to provide users with quick data exploration and access capabilities. In recent years, data management and access services have become increasingly sophisticated, such that they now afford researchers, particularly those interested in multi-data set science analysis and/or data validation, the ability to homogenize data sets, in order to apply multi-variant, comparison, and evaluation functions. Included in these services is the ability to capture data quality and data provenance. These interoperability services can be directly applied to future data sets, such as those from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. This presentation describes the data sets and services at the PDISC that are currently used by precipitation science and applications researchers, and which will be enhanced in preparation for GPM and associated multi-sensor data research. Specifically, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) will be illustrated. Giovanni enables scientific exploration of Earth science data without researchers having to

  15. Visualization of A-Train vertical profiles using Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aijun; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Lynnes, Christopher; Savtchenko, Andery; Nadeau, Denis; Farley, John

    2009-02-01

    Online tools, such as those pioneered by Google Earth (GE), are changing the way in which scientists and the general public interact with three-dimensional geospatial data in a virtual environment. However, while GE provides a number of features to facilitate geospatial data visualization, there is currently no readily available method for rendering vertical geospatial data derived from Earth—viewing remote sensing satellites as an orbit curtain seen from above. Here, a solution (one of many possible) is demonstrated to render vertical profiles of atmospheric data from the A-Train satellite formation in GE, using as a proof-of-concept data from one of the instruments—the NASA CloudSat satellite. CloudSat carries a nadir-viewing Cloud Profiling Radar that produces data revealing the vertical distribution of cloud characteristics along the satellite track. These data are first rendered into a long vertical image for a user-selected spatial range through the NASA Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (G IOVANNI) system ( http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/). The vertical image is then chopped into small slices representing 15 s of satellite time (˜103 km long ground distance). Each small piece, as a texture, is fed into a generalized COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA) three-dimensional (3-D) model. Using the satellite orbit coordinates, the repeated 15 s "3-D model slices" are spliced together to form a vertical "curtain" image in Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Each model slice is geolocated along the CloudSat orbit path based on its size, scale and angle with the longitude line that are precisely calculated on the fly. The resulting vertical cloud data can be viewed in GE, either transparently or opaquely, superimposed above the Earth's surface with an exaggerated vertical scale. Since CloudSat is just a part of the A-Train formation, the full utility of this tool can be explored within the context of the A-Train Data Depot

  16. Quantifying precipitation characteristics of the severe cyclone Thane along the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Abhishek; Trivedi, Utkal; Ghosh, Sat

    2013-04-01

    Hurricane "Thane" devastated the eastern coast of peninsular India during Dec 2011-the associated storm surges were high and the updraughts strong. In this paper, we first calculate the associated Cloud Cover, using MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)retrievals. A preliminary analysis indicates a substantially larger cloud cover than those associated with normal north east monsoon activity. The precipitable water amounts are analysed using THOR (Tool for High-resolution Observation Review) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) retrievals. An analysis of Thane's morphology indicated that warm rain microphysics was the main triggering mechanism for the onset of precipitation. In this paper, we first quantify precipitable water amounts using the UK Meteorological Office Large Eddy Simulation Model, and then compare these amounts with those retrieved from the Giovanni NASA Project MODIS TERRA and AQUA Level 3 data. Finally, we grow a cloud droplet spectrum from aerosol distributions over the region, using a microphysical parcel model, and then feed the resulting cloud spectrum into a stochastic collection model to obtain the rain masses mediated by warm rain microphysics.

  17. Michelangelo's eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

  18. Infuence of Averaging Method on the Evaluation of a Coastal Ocean Color Event on the U.S. Northeast Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Uz, Stephanie Schollaert; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2010-01-01

    Application of appropriate spatial averaging techniques is crucial to correct evaluation of ocean color radiometric data, due to the common log-normal or mixed log-normal distribution of these data. Averaging method is particularly crucial for data acquired in coastal regions. The effect of averaging method was markedly demonstrated for a precipitation-driven event on the U.S. Northeast coast in October-November 2005, which resulted in export of high concentrations of riverine colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to New York and New Jersey coastal waters over a period of several days. Use of the arithmetic mean averaging method created an inaccurate representation of the magnitude of this event in SeaWiFS global mapped chl a data, causing it to be visualized as a very large chl a anomaly. The apparent chl a anomaly was enhanced by the known incomplete discrimination of CDOM and phytoplankton chlorophyll in SeaWiFS data; other data sources enable an improved characterization. Analysis using the geometric mean averaging method did not indicate this event to be statistically anomalous. Our results predicate the necessity of providing the geometric mean averaging method for ocean color radiometric data in the Goddard Earth Sciences DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni).

  19. Numerical Studies of Magnetohydrodynamic Activity Resulting from Inductive Transients Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sovinec, Carl R.

    2005-08-29

    This report describes results from numerical studies of transients in magnetically confined plasmas. The work has been performed by University of Wisconsin graduate students James Reynolds and Giovanni Cone and by the Principal Investigator through support from contract DE-FG02-02ER54687, a Junior Faculty in Plasma Science award from the DOE Office of Science. Results from the computations have added significantly to our knowledge of magnetized plasma relaxation in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) and spheromak. In particular, they have distinguished relaxation activity expected in sustained configurations from transient effects that can persist over a significant fraction of the plasma discharge. We have also developed the numerical capability for studying electrostatic current injection in the spherical torus (ST). These configurations are being investigated as plasma confinement schemes in the international effort to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for environmentally benign energy production. Our numerical computations have been performed with the NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) using local computing resources and massively parallel computing hardware at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. Direct comparisons of simulation results for the spheromak with laboratory measurements verify the effectiveness of our numerical approach. The comparisons have been published in refereed journal articles by this group and by collaborators at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (see Section 4). In addition to the technical products, this grant has supported the graduate education of the two participating students for three years.

  20. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola". PMID:21287970

  1. Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Romanov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Land surface temperature (Ts) is an important element to measure the state of terrestrial ecosystems and to study surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change-related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected global monthly Ts measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS Ts time series have approximately 11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and approximately 9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend. In this study, monthly climatology from two platforms are calculated and compared with that from AIRS. The spatial patterns of Ts trends are accessed, focusing on the Eurasia region. Furthermore, MODIS Ts trends are compared with those from AIRS and NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications). The preliminary results indicate that the recent 8-year Ts trend shows an oscillation-type spatial variation over Eurasia. The pattern is consistent for data from MODIS, AIRS, and MERRA, with the positive center over Eastern Europe, and the negative center over Central Siberia. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS Ts will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy use by scientists and general public.

  2. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed Central

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-01-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  3. Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Romanov, P.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important element to measure the state of the terrestrial ecosystems and to study the surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected the global monthly LST measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS LST time series have ~11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and ~9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend and variability. In this study, monthly climatology from two satellite platforms are calculated and compared. The spatial patterns of LST trends are accessed, focusing on the Asian Monsoon region. Furthermore, the MODIS LST trends are compared with the skin temperature trend from the NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (MODERN ERA RETROSPECTIVE-ANALYSIS FOR RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS), which has longer data record since 1979. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS LST will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy access and use by scientists and general public.

  4. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  5. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  6. Cervicoscopy and Microcolposcopy in the Evaluation of Squamo Columnar Junction and Cervical Canal in LSIL Patients with Inadequate or Negative Colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Valli, Edoardo; Fabbri, Guido; Centonze, Chiara; Bompiani, Alessandro; Baiocco, Federico; Larciprete, Giovanni; Ghinassi, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated indications’ validity of cervicoscopic and microcolposcopic examination in LSIL patients with unsatisfactory or negative colposcopy. Matherial and methods: In the cervico-vaginal pathology unit of the “San Giovanni Calibita Fatebenefratelli” University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 119 patients with a positive cervical cytology (LSIL), were submitted to the exam for the following two indications: 1) unsatisfactory colposcopy 37 (31.1%); 2) negative colposcopy 82 (68.9%). Results: Cervicoscopy allowed the SCJ visualization in 115 (9.6%) patients. In 4 patients 3.4%, the SCJ visualization was not possible due to cervical stenosis. Cervicoscopy without staining, revealed endocervical squamous columnar junction in 33 (28.7%) patients. The blue dye in panoramic view detected endocervical SCJ in 41 (35.7%), out of 115 patients (>5 mm in 34 (29.6%) patients and >10 mm in 7 (6.1%)). Conclusions: Cervicoscopic examination revealed 7.8% of CIN2-3 in LSIL patients with inadequate or negative colposcopy. In patients with negative colposcopy the percentage of undiagnosed lesions inside the cervical canal was very low. The blue dye added sensitivity to the exam. PMID:24170989

  7. History of the discovery of the malaria parasites and their vectors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium transmitted by female Anopheles species mosquitoes. Our understanding of the malaria parasites begins in 1880 with the discovery of the parasites in the blood of malaria patients by Alphonse Laveran. The sexual stages in the blood were discovered by William MacCallum in birds infected with a related haematozoan, Haemoproteus columbae, in 1897 and the whole of the transmission cycle in culicine mosquitoes and birds infected with Plasmodium relictum was elucidated by Ronald Ross in 1897. In 1898 the Italian malariologists, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli, Angelo Celli, Camillo Golgi and Ettore Marchiafava demonstrated conclusively that human malaria was also transmitted by mosquitoes, in this case anophelines. The discovery that malaria parasites developed in the liver before entering the blood stream was made by Henry Shortt and Cyril Garnham in 1948 and the final stage in the life cycle, the presence of dormant stages in the liver, was conclusively demonstrated in 1982 by Wojciech Krotoski. This article traces the main events and stresses the importance of comparative studies in that, apart from the initial discovery of parasites in the blood, every subsequent discovery has been based on studies on non-human malaria parasites and related organisms. PMID:20205846

  8. Reusing Information Management Services for Recommended Decadal Study Missions to Facilitate Aerosol and Cloud Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steve; Alcott, Gary; Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Vollmer, Bruce; Berrick, Steve

    2008-01-01

    NASA Earth Sciences Division (ESD) has made great investments in the development and maintenance of data management systems and information technologies, to maximize the use of NASA generated Earth science data. With information management system infrastructure in place, mature and operational, very small delta costs are required to fully support data archival, processing, and data support services required by the recommended Decadal Study missions. This presentation describes the services and capabilities of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and the reusability for these future missions. The GES DISC has developed a series of modular, reusable data management components currently in use. They include data archive and distribution (Simple, Scalable, Script-based, Science [S4] Product Archive aka S4PA), data processing (S4 Processor for Measurements aka S4PM), data search (Mirador), data browse, visualization, and analysis (Giovanni), and data mining services. Information management system components are based on atmospheric scientist inputs. Large development and maintenance cost savings can be realized through their reuse in future missions.

  9. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  10. Reusable Social Networking Capabilities for an Earth Science Collaboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Da Silva, D.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ramachandran, R.

    2011-12-01

    A vast untapped resource of data, tools, information and knowledge lies within the Earth science community. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to share the full spectrum of these entities, particularly their full context. As a result, most knowledge exchange is through person-to-person contact at meetings, email and journal articles, each of which can support only a limited level of detail. We propose the creation of an Earth Science Collaboratory (ESC): a framework that would enable sharing of data, tools, workflows, results and the contextual knowledge about these information entities. The Drupal platform is well positioned to provide the key social networking capabilities to the ESC. As a proof of concept of a rich collaboration mechanism, we have developed a Drupal-based mechanism for graphically annotating and commenting on results images from analysis workflows in the online Giovanni analysis system for remote sensing data. The annotations can be tagged and shared with others in the community. These capabilities are further supplemented by a Research Notebook capability reused from another online analysis system named Talkoot. The goal is a reusable set of modules that can integrate with variety of other applications either within Drupal web frameworks or at a machine level.

  11. The Sky on Earth project: a synergy between formal and informal astronomy education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sabrina; Giordano, Enrica; Lanciano, Nicoletta

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present the Sky on Earth project funded in 2008 by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, Research and University, inside its annual public outreach education program. The project’s goal was to realise a stable and open-access astronomical garden, where children, teachers and citizens could be engaged in investigations about day and night sky phenomena. The project was designed taking into account our prior researches in formal and informal astronomy education. It was realised in the garden of GiocheriaLaboratori, an out-of-school K-6 educational structure of Sesto San Giovanni municipality (near Milan, Italy). Setting and tools were designed with the help of some students of the ‘Altiero Spinelli’ vocational school and their science and technology teachers. Since its installation, the astronomical garden has been used in workshops and open-days, teachers’ preparation courses and research experiences. We might conclude that the Sky on Earth project represents an example of a positive and constructive collaboration between researchers, educators, high school students and teachers. It may also be considered as a potential attempt to face on the well-known gap between research in science education and school practices.

  12. Guglielmo Riva (1627-1677) and the end of hepatocentrism: a 17th-century painting.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Benedetti, Marta; Vaglienti, Francesca; Torre, Chiara; Baggieri, Gaspare; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    During the seventeenth century, the description of the lymphatic system provided a decisive contribution to resolving the misconceptions of Galenic physiology concerning the production of blood in the liver. The transition from a liver-centered (hepatocentrism) to a heart-centered model (cardiocentrism) was fundamental in the history of medicine, since it allowed the role of the liver and of the heart in the bodily processes to be more correctly identified. The modification of the medical knowledge on the liver and its functions during that period is well represented in a 17th-century painting,"ll Fegato" ("The Liver"), probably belonging to the "anatomical museum" of the Roman surgeon Giovanni Guglielmo Riva (1627-1677). In particular, this Italian physician significantly contributed to the discovery of the lymphatic system and to the study of the hematopoiesis. Thus, this painting as well as the figure of Guglielmo Riva would deserve a major consideration in the history of medicine and of hepatology in particular. PMID:25739148

  13. Engaging Minority University STEM Education Professors in the Science of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Froburg, E.; Martin, M.; Moore, T.; Wicklein, H. F.

    2012-12-01

    Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) and the University of New Hampshire (UNH) partnered to develop a program to enhance climate education for faculty from participating Minority Serving Institutions (MSI). This effort leverages the ongoing partnership between ECSU and UNH to increase the quality of climate education offered to under-represented pre-service teachers within STEM subjects. The program included a one-week workshop for STEM MSI faculty who teach STEM pre-service teachers. The workshop components focused on terrestrial and ocean climate education and relied on NASA datasets and web-based tools. Specifically, participants were introduced to methods for estimating carbon storage in forests and estimating primary production using ocean color remote sensing. The online data visualization tool GIOVANNI was utilized by participants so they can retrieve and utilize data within their own geographic contexts at their home institutions. After the workshop, participants revised their courses to include workshop components appropriate for pre-service teachers at their college or university. Two ECSU graduate students continue to provide technical Help Desk support for troubleshooting challenges for faculty to fully utilize the datasets and online tools. The ECSU and UNH faculty also continue to provide another layer of support for the MSI as they adapted their syllabi and lesson plans to include workshop materials and activities. Sixteen faculty drawn from 11 MSI in 7 states participated in the 2012-13 program.

  14. The NASA NEESPI Data Portal: Products, Information, and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory; Loboda, Tatiana; Csiszar, Ivan; Romanov, Peter; Gerasimov, Irina

    2008-01-01

    Studies have indicated that land cover and use changes in Northern Eurasia influence global climate system. However, the procedures are not fully understood and it is challenging to understand the interactions between the land changes in this region and the global climate. Having integrated data collections form multiple disciplines are important for studies of climate and environmental changes. Remote sensed and model data are particularly important die to sparse in situ measurements in many Eurasia regions especially in Siberia. The NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) NEESPI data portal has generated infrastructure to provide satellite remote sensing and numerical model data for atmospheric, land surface, and cryosphere. Data searching, subsetting, and downloading functions are available. ONe useful tool is the Web-based online data analysis and visualization system, Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure), which allows scientists to assess easily the state and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in Northern Eurasia and their interactions with global climate system. Recently, we have created a metadata database prototype to expand the NASA NEESPI data portal for providing a venue for NEESPI scientists fo find the desired data easily and leveraging data sharing within NEESPI projects. The database provides product level information. The desired data can be found through navigation and free text search and narrowed down by filtering with a number of constraints. In addition, we have developed a Web Map Service (WMS) prototype to allow access data and images from difference data resources.

  15. A Third Note: Helmholtz, Palestrina, and the Early History of Musicology.

    PubMed

    Kursell, Julia

    2015-06-01

    This contribution focuses on Hermann von Helmholtz's work on Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Helmholtz used his scientific concept of distortion to analyze this music and, reversely, to find corroboration for the concept in his musical analyses. In this, his work interlocked with nineteenth-century aesthetic and scholarly ideals. His eagerness to use the latest products of historical scholarship in early music reveals a specific view of music history. Historical documents of music provide the opportunity for the discovery of new experimental research topics and thereby also reveal insights into hearing under different conditions. The essay argues that this work occupies a peculiar position in the history of musicology; it falls under the header of "systematic musicology," which eventually emerged as a discipline of musicology at the end of the nineteenth century. That this discipline has a history at all is easily overlooked, as many of its contributors were scientists with an interest in music. A history of musicology therefore must consider at least the following two caveats: parts of it take place outside the institutionalized field of musicology, and any history of musicology must, in the last instance, be embedded in a history of music. PMID:26353440

  16. First data on trace elements in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Italy: Safety issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the concentrations of 10 metals in wild specimens of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) (Linnaeus, 1758) from three sites along the southern Italian coast: Gulf of Catania (CT), the Northern Coast of Messina (ME) and the harbor of Villa San Giovanni (VSG). The species is commonly found in the area and has significant commercial value. Additionally, it is long lived, thus suitable as bioindicator of the environmental monitoring. The potential human health risks due to consumption of Ht have been assessed by estimated average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals, respectively. In particular arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were quantified in the edible tissue of specimens by acid digestion of the samples and ICP-MS determination. The highest concentrations were found in CT sample area for most metals analyzed. Mean values for Pb, Cd and Hg were lower than the maximum levels (MLs) set for bivalve mollusks by Regulation (CE) no. 1881/2006 in all sites, and average intake values below the risk levels for human consumption. PMID:25912965

  17. A gyro-kinetic model for trapped electron and ion modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouot, Thomas; Gravier, Etienne; Reveille, Thierry; Ghizzo, Alain; Bertrand, Pierre; Garbet, Xavier; Sarazin, Yanick; Cartier-Michaud, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    In tokamak plasmas, it is recognized that ITG (ion temperature gradient instability) and trapped electron modes (TEM) are held responsible for turbulence giving rise to anomalous transport. The present work focuses on the building of a model including trapped kinetic ions and trapped kinetic electrons. For this purpose, the dimensionality is reduced by averaging the motion over the cyclotron motion and the "banana" orbits, according to the fact that the instabilities are characterized by frequencies of the order of the low trapped particle precession frequency. Moreover, a set of action-angle variables is used. The final model is 4D (two-dimensional phase space parametrized by the two first adiabatic invariants namely the particle energy and the trapping parameter). In this paper, the trapped ion and electron modes (TIM and TEM) are studied by using a linear analysis of the model. This work is currently performed in order to include trapped electrons in an existing semi lagrangian code for which TIM modes are already taken into account. This study can be considered as a first step in order to include kinetic trapped electrons in the 5D gyrokinetic code GYSELA [J. Abiteboul et al., ESAIM Proc. 32, 103 (2011)]. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  18. [Jan Stephan Van Calcar, a valuable and unrecognized collaborator of Vesalius].

    PubMed

    Hazard, J

    1996-01-01

    Numerous and legitimate homages have been paid to Andreas Vesalius, eminent personality of the medical Renaissance. At that time scientific anatomy was inseparable from artistic one. As soon as 1535, Vesalius then 21 years old taught in Padova and at the University of Venice, a town harbouring many artists. It has been suggested that he had obtained the collaboration of Titian himself, but this hypothesis has not been confirmed. In fact "Lives of the best painters, sculptors and architects" G. Vasari expresses his admiration for the prints drawn by Calcar: "the illustrations conceived by Vesalius for his Fabrica and drawn by the outstanding flemish painter Jan Stephan Calcar are of an excellent style". For Carel van Mander nicknamed the "Vasari of the ancient Netherlands", it is to Calcar we owe Vesalius' anatomical plates. The reasons which have led this Flemish born around 1510 in Kalkar, a small town of the Cleves dukedom, to settle in Venice are both general and personal. Pupil of Titian, Calcar was an excellent portrait-painter who assimilated so well his master's style that he was adopted by the Italians calling him Giovanni Calcar. This valuable collaborator of Vesalius and brilliant pupil of Titian went to Naples for unknown reasons and stayed there until his premature death around 1546. PMID:11625048

  19. Inferior alveolar nerve injuries associated with mandibular fractures at risk: a two-center retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury in mandibular fractures. This study is based on two databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two departments-Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy. Demographic, anatomic, and etiology variables were considered for each patient and statistically assessed in relation to the neurosensory IAN impairment. Statistically significant associations were found between IAN injury and fracture displacement (p = 0.03), isolated mandibular fractures (p = 0.01), and angle fractures (p = 0.004). A statistically significant association was also found between IAN injury and assaults (p = 0.03). Displaced isolated mandibular angle fractures could be considered at risk for increased incidence of IAN injury. Assaults seem to be the most important etiological factor that is responsible for IAN lesions. PMID:25383147

  20. [Steri's graffiti of Palermo and medical knowledges].

    PubMed

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The graffiti left by prisoners in the Inquisition gaols of Palermo's represent a testimony of the historical period between 1600 to 1793. In that period, by order of the viceroy Caracciolo, all the testimonies were removed at the same time in which the Inquisition court was suppressed. In this work the historical subdivision between sacred and profane themes is analyzed with the purpose to study human body in an anthropological key as a language in condition of limited freedom and under torture. Many of the profane graffiti are devoted to medical knowledge suggesting that doctors were involved in the activities of this religious court likewise happened in civil courts. Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, the well-known proto-medical physician of the kingdom, in his treatise, wrote in 1578 and entitled Methodus dandi relationes ... reports many examples of the role of medical doctors in attesting fitness to torture of inquired people or the necessity of graduating torture when they were hill or in a morbid conditions. PMID:18450037

  1. [The "doctrine of signatures" and graphical technologies at the dawn of modernity].

    PubMed

    Panese, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The "Doctrine of signatures" occupies an important position in the scientific and medical thinking from the 16th century onwards. In a universe conceived as a vast system of correspondences, in particular between our world and God's will, the signatures are the visible marks of the purpose of divine creation. In therapeutic practices they indicate the virtues of plants by their resemblance to specific organs they are supposed to be able to cure. This Doctrine, like the medical practices it served, is often relegated to a pre-modern knowledge. Shifting the perspective from its doctrinal content to its practical applications in medical treatises, this article suggests that the graphical and scriptural treatment of signatures by Oswald Crollius (ca 1560-1609), Giovanni Battista Della Porta (1534-1615) and Wolfgang Ambrosius Fabricius (1653) allowed the invention of an instrument which, by formalising and systematising the correspondences between plants and organs, made possible a practical use in which metaphysical and religious justifications were not explicitly involved any more, precisely these justifications which resulted in confining this doctrine outside of modernity. PMID:12918296

  2. MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Bias Adjustment Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, A.; Wei, J. C.; Petrenko, M.; Lary, D. J.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, global aerosol observations have been conducted by space-borne sensors, airborne instruments, and ground-base network measurements. Unfortunately, quite often we encounter the differences of aerosol measurements by different well-calibrated instruments, even with a careful collocation in time and space. The differences might be rather substantial, and need to be better understood and accounted for when merging data from many sensors. The possible causes for these differences come from instrumental bias, different satellite viewing geometries, calibration issues, dynamically changing atmospheric and the surface conditions, and other "regressors", resulting in random and systematic errors in the final aerosol products. In this study, we will concentrate on the subject of removing biases and the systematic errors from MODIS (both Terra and Aqua) aerosol product, using Machine Learning algorithms. While we are assessing our regressors in our system when comparing global aerosol products, the Aerosol Robotic Network of sun-photometers (AERONET) will be used as a baseline for evaluating the MODIS aerosol products (Dark Target for land and ocean, and Deep Blue retrieval algorithms). The results of bias adjustment for MODIS Terra and Aqua are planned to be incorporated into the AeroStat Giovanni as part of the NASA ACCESS funded AeroStat project.

  3. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Ramapriyan, H.; Leon, A.; Tsontos, V. M.; Liu, Z.; Shie, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use.Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Science themes can be: Specific applications (uses) of the data, e.g., landslide prediction Geophysical events (e.g., Hurricane Sandy) A specific science research problem Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer. Eligible resources include anything accessible via URL: data files: data file URLs data subsets: OPeNDAP, webification or Web Coverage Service URLs data visualizations: Web Map Service data search results: OpenSearch Atom response custom analysis workflows: e.g., Giovanni analysis URL

  4. A strategy to suppress recurrence in grid-based Vlasov solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we propose a strategy to suppress the recurrence effect present in grid-based Vlasov solvers. This method is formulated by introducing a cutoff frequency in Fourier space. Since this cutoff only has to be performed after a number of time steps, the scheme can be implemented efficiently and can relatively easily be incorporated into existing Vlasov solvers. Furthermore, the scheme proposed retains the advantage of grid-based methods in that high accuracy can be achieved. This is due to the fact that in contrast to the scheme proposed by Abbasi et al. no statistical noise is introduced into the simulation. We will illustrate the utility of the method proposed by performing a number of numerical simulations, including the plasma echo phenomenon, using a discontinuous Galerkin approximation in space and a Strang splitting based time integration. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  5. Antonino D'Antona (1842-1913) was the first in describing the crush syndrome with renal failure following the Messina earthquake of December 28, 1908.

    PubMed

    Bisaccia, Carmela; De Santo, Natale Gaspare; De Santo, Luca S

    2016-02-01

    There is confusion about the first description of the association between crush syndrome and renal failure. It has been traditionally attributed to Bywaters and Beall. The present study aims to analyze the problem by analyzing medical reports on the Messina-Reggio Calabria earth-quake of December 28, 1908 by using documents heretofore unknown. It demonstrates that first description of rabdomyolysis with renal failure is attributed to Antonino DAntona (1842- 1913). DAntona, professor of surgery at the University of Naples, coordinated the health net organized in Naples to assist persons wounded during the quake. Many of them in shock were transferred to Naples by ships. Franz von Colmers (1875-1960) was the chief surgeon of the German Mission of the Red Cross after the quake. Because his late arrival, he did not treat patients with shock. He described rabdomyolysis. The third medical report is that of Rocco Caminiti (1868-1946), collaborator of DAntona at the University of Naples, and chief of surgery at the Loreto Hospital. He directed a rescue group in Villa San Giovanni and Reggio Calabria. In 1910, he reported on rabdomyolysis in patients treated in the place of the disaster. Therefore the present study indicates that Antonino DAntona holds the priority for description of rabdomyolysis and kidney injury. There is no longer a place for the eponym Bywaters syndrome. PMID:26913878

  6. Spatial Aspects of Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) investigated the applicability and limitations of combining multi-sensor data through data fusion, to increase the usefulness of the multitude of NASA remote sensing data sets, and as part of a larger effort to integrate this capability in the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni). This initial study focused on merging daily mean Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), as measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, to increase spatial coverage and produce complete fields to facilitate comparison with models and station data. The fusion algorithm used the maximum likelihood technique to merge the pixel values where available. The algorithm was applied to two regional AOT subsets (with mostly regular and irregular gaps, respectively) and a set of AOT fields that differed only in the size and location of artificially created gaps. The Cumulative Semivariogram (CSV) was found to be sensitive to the spatial distribution of gap areas and, thus, useful for assessing the sensitivity of the fused data to spatial gaps.

  7. Short History of Malaria and Its Eradication in Italy With Short Notes on the Fight Against the Infection in the Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Majori, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    In Italy at the end of 19th Century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million with 15,000–20,000 deaths per year. Malignant tertian malaria was present in Central-Southern areas and in the islands. Early in the 20th Century, the most important act of the Italian Parliament was the approval of laws regulating the production and free distribution of quinine and the promotion of measures aiming at the reduction of the larval breeding places of Anopheline vectors. The contribution from the Italian School of Malariology (Camillo Golgi, Ettore Marchiafava, Angelo Celli, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli) to the discovery of the transmission’s mechanism of malaria was fundamental in fostering the initiatives of the Parliament of the Italian Kingdom. A program of cooperation for malaria control in Italy, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation started in 1924, with the establishment of the Experimental Station in Rome, transformed in 1934 into the National Institute of Public Health. Alberto Missiroli, Director of the Laboratory of Malariology, conducted laboratory and field research, that with the advent of DDT brought to Italy by the Allies at the end of the World War II, allowed him to plan a national campaign victorious against the secular scourge. PMID:22550561

  8. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  9. Density-functional theory: time to move up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    Materials' simulations based on density-functional theory (DFT) have become an extremely powerful and widely used tool for scientific discovery and technological advancement. Still, in the current approximations, they remain an imperfect tool for predicting materials' properties, with open and urgent challenges in the quest towards qualitative and quantitative accuracy. Several of these challenges stem from the remnants of self-interaction in the electronic-structure framework, leading to qualitative failures in describing some of the fundamental processes involved e.g. in energy applications - from charge-transfer excitations to photoemission spectra to the structure and reactivity of transition-metal complexes. I'll discuss these challenges in realistic case studies, and present a brief overview of some of our suggestions for possible solutions - including constrained DFT, DFT + onsite and intersite Hubbard terms, and Koopmans' compliant energy functionals. In particular, I'll highlight how Koopmans' compliant functionals point to a beyond-DFT formulation where both total energies and spectroscopic properties can be accounted for. Such framework will be illustrated with applications to real systems and with simplified models that can be solved exactly. Work done in collaboration with Patrick H-L Sit, Heather Kulik, Damian Scherlis, Matteo Cococcioni, Ismaila Dabo, Andrea Ferretti, Nicolas Poilvert, Cheol-Hwan Park, Giovanni Borghi, and Linh Nguyen.

  10. The Beginnings of Pancreatology as a Field of Experimental and Clinical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans's 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26180777

  11. The Beginnings of Pancreatology as a Field of Experimental and Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans's 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26180777

  12. Using Selection Pressure as an Asset to Develop Reusable, Adaptable Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrick, Stephen; Lynnes, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) at NASA has over the years developed and honed several reusable architectural components for supporting large-scale data centers with a large customer base. These include a processing system (S4PM) and an archive system (S4PA) based upon a workflow engine called the Simple Scalable Script based Science Processor (S4P) and an online data visualization and analysis system (Giovanni). These subsystems are currently reused internally in a variety of combinations to implement customized data management on behalf of instrument science teams and other science investigators. Some of these subsystems (S4P and S4PM) have also been reused by other data centers for operational science processing. Our experience has been that development and utilization of robust interoperable and reusable software systems can actually flourish in environments defined by heterogeneous commodity hardware systems the emphasis on value-added customer service and the continual goal for achieving higher cost efficiencies. The repeated internal reuse that is fostered by such an environment encourages and even forces changes to the software that make it more reusable and adaptable. Allowing and even encouraging such selective pressures to software development has been a key factor In the success of S4P and S4PM which are now available to the open source community under the NASA Open source Agreement

  13. Recent progress in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlar, Donald

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing work involves several areas of density functional theory: new methods for computing electronic excitation energies, including a new way to remove spin contamination in the spin-flip Tamm-Dancoff approximation and a configuration-interaction-corrected Tamm-Dancoff Approximation for treating conical intersections; new ways to treat open-shell states, including a reinterpreted broken-symmetry method and multi-configuration Kohn-Sham theory; a new exchange-correlation functional; new tests of density functional theory against databases for electronic transition energies and molecules and solids containing metal atoms; and applications. A selection of results will be presented. I am grateful to the following collaborators for contributions to the ongoing work: Boris Averkiev, Rebecca Carlson, Laura Fernandez, Laura Gagliardi, Chad Hoyer, Francesc Illas, Miho Isegawa, Shaohong Li, Giovanni Li Manni, Sijie Luo, Dongxia Ma, Remi Maurice, Rubén Means-Pañeda, Roberto Peverati, Nora Planas, Prasenjit Seal, Pragya Verma, Bo Wang, Xuefei Xu, Ke R. Yang, Haoyu Yu, Wenjing Zhang, and Jingjing Zheng. Supported in part by the AFOSR and U.S. DOE.

  14. Mining Tacitus: secrets of empire, nature and art in the reason of state.

    PubMed

    Keller, Vera

    2012-06-01

    A new political practice, the 'reason of state', informed the ends and practices of natural study in the late sixteenth century. Informed by the study of the Roman historian Tacitus, political writers gathered 'secrets of empire' from both history and travel. Following the economic reorientation of 'reason of state' by Giovanni Botero (1544-1617), such secrets came to include bodies of useful particulars concerning nature and art collected by an expanding personnel of intelligencers. A comparison between various writers describing wide-scale collections, such as Botero, Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Jakob Bornitz (1560-1625) and Matthias Bernegger (1582-1640), reveals that seventeenth-century natural intelligencers across Europe not only were analogous to political intelligencers, but also were sometimes one and the same. Those seeking political prudence cast themselves as miners, prying precious particulars from the recesses of history, experience and disparate disciplines, including mathematics, alchemy and natural philosophy. The seventeenth-century practice of combining searches for secrets of empire, nature and art contests a frequent historiographical divide between empirical science and Tacitism or reason of state. It also points to the ways political cunning shaped the management of information for both politics and the study of nature and art. PMID:23050367

  15. The Diary of Schiaparelli in Berlin (26 October 1857-10 May 1859): a guide for his future scientific activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, P.

    In February 1857, three years after his degree in Turin, Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli moved to Berlin with a scholarship from the Sardinian government. There he lived for over two years and from October he attended the University. Berlin was an important astronomical center at the time and the young Schiaparelli had the opportunity to study with some of the most distinguished astronomers of his epoch and to be in one of the best equipped observatory in the world. During his staying in Berlin Schiaparelli regularly wrote a diary which runs from Monday, October 26, 1857 to Tuesday, May 10, 1859. The Diary is very important for the reconstruction of Schiaparelli's training as an astronomer. In this communication I'll give some information about the sections of the Diary which deal more strictly with astronomy. In the Diary all astronomical trainings of the mature Schiaparelli are outlined. But there is an exception: Mars and the inhabitability of other worlds. This rises an intere-sting historiographical problem which pushes historians to find elsewhere the origins of a research which is inextricably linked to Schiaparelli and that allowed him to found the planetology as a new astronomical discipline.

  16. A Semantic Provenance-aware Expert Advisory System in a Web-based Science Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, S.; Lynnes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Pan, J.

    2010-12-01

    Web-based science analysis and processing tools allow users to access, analyze, and generate visualizations of data while alleviating users from having to directly manage complex data processing operations. These tools provide value by streamlining the data analysis process, but usually shield users from details of the data processing steps, algorithm assumptions, caveats, etc. Correct interpretation of the final analysis requires user understanding of how data has been generated and processed and what potential biases, anomalies, or errors may have been introduced. By providing services that leverage data lineage provenance and domain-expertise, expert systems can be built to aid the user in understanding data sources, processing, and the suitability for use of products generated by the tools. As an example of such a system, we describe a semantic, provenance-aware, expert-knowledge advisory system applied to an existing web-based Earth science data analysis tool (e.g. Giovanni from NASA/GSFC). First we introduce our integrated semantic data model, which is comprised of provenance, data processing, and science domain ontologies. Then we describe how we developed an initial set of expert rules, to reason over our data model and discover conditions in the processing provenance that could lead to anomalies or errors in the processing results. Finally we will highlight how knowledge from the semantic data model and inferences of the advisory expert ruleset may be presented to the user to assist in user understanding of the suitability of products generated by the analysis tool.

  17. Bridging the Gap between NASA Hydrological Data and the Geospatial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David M.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph; Gary, Mark; Maidment, David; Hooper, Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is a vast and ever increasing amount of data on the Earth interconnected energy and hydrological systems, available from NASA remote sensing and modeling systems, and yet, one challenge persists: increasing the usefulness of these data for, and thus their use by, the geospatial communities. The Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), part of the Goddard Earth Sciences DISC, has continually worked to better understand the hydrological data needs of the geospatial end users, to thus better able to bridge the gap between NASA data and the geospatial communities. This paper will cover some of the hydrological data sets available from HDISC, and the various tools and services developed for data searching, data subletting ; format conversion. online visualization and analysis; interoperable access; etc.; to facilitate the integration of NASA hydrological data by end users. The NASA Goddard data analysis and visualization system, Giovanni, is described. Two case examples of user-customized data services are given, involving the EPA BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating point & Non-point Sources) project and the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System, with the common requirement of on-the-fly retrieval of long duration time series for a geographical point

  18. Gravitational waves: Perspectives of detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdonio, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    With Giovanni Losurdo, the PI of Advanced Virgo, we recently dwelled on this subject in an invited review paper [#!ncc10890bib1!#]. Here I first give a short introduction by answering in brief to a few basic and relevant questions, which I was often asked by colleagues not specifically working on gravitation. Then I highlight the main considerations discussed in [#!ncc10890bib1!#], in a sort of guide for the reader, where more details and an extensive reference list can be found. For more complete info, I call the attention to a number of beautiful pictures, kindly provided by my colleagues, which I put on the IFAE website, but are not given here nor in [#!ncc10890bib1!#]. After publication of [#!ncc10890bib1!#], a few relevant developments occurred, especially in the long-term planning of experiments, on which I report here. To update the references would have resulted in adding some sort of ten percent more than those in [#!ncc10890bib1!#], so I have added only a few, which I rate most recent and particularly relevant to the relative issue.

  19. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at the hospital of Venice in 1863.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olio, G; Dorizzi, R M

    2000-07-01

    In 1674 Thomas Willis reported that the presence of urine 'as sweet as honey' was the pathognomonic sign of diabetes mellitus. In the 19th Century several reactions for the detection of glucose in urine were proposed and glucose measurement became common in the laboratories that were being set up in Europe. A case of diabetes mellitus, diagnosed by Namias, the head of the Women's Section of the Medicine Department of Venice Hospital, was reported in 1863 in the 'Giornale Veneto di Scienze Mediche' which contains clinical and laboratory information. A 34-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for polydypsia, polyuria, bulimia and fatigue. Urine was weighed for 2 months (2-10 kgday(-1)) and the relative density ranged from 1.045 to 1.038. Glucose was measured in the urine using Moore, Trommer and Fehling reagents. A few days after admission a urine sample showed 7.69 parts/100 parts of urine and a blood sample showed 547 mg of glucose/100 g of serum. The assays were carried out in the Clinical Laboratory of Venice Hospital, founded in 1863, directed by Giovanni Bizio, one of the first chemists who graduated at Padua University. In 1863 chemical analyses were commonly carried out in Venice as in the other parts of Habsburg empire. PMID:10841905

  20. Volumic visual perception: principally novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    The general concept of volumic view (VV) as a universal property of space is introduced. VV exists in every point of the universe where electromagnetic (EM) waves can reach and a point or a quasi-point receiver (detector) of EM waves can be placed. Classification of receivers is given for the first time. They are classified into three main categories: biological, man-made non-biological, and mathematically specified hypothetical receivers. The principally novel concept of volumic perception is introduced. It differs chiefly from the traditional concept which traces back to Euclid and pre-Euclidean times and much later to Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Battista della Porta's discoveries and practical stereoscopy as introduced by C. Wheatstone. The basic idea of novel concept is that humans and animals acquire volumic visual data flows in series rather than in parallel. In this case the brain is free from extremely sophisticated real time parallel processing of two volumic visual data flows in order to combine them. Such procedure seems hardly probable even for humans who are unable to combine two primitive static stereoscopic images in one quicker than in a few seconds. Some people are unable to perform this procedure at all.

  1. Supporting Coral Reef Ecosystem Management Decisions Appropriate to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, J. C.; Fletcher, P.; Shein, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    There has been a perception that the myriad of environmental information products derived from satellite and other instrumental sources means ipso facto that there is a direct use for them by environmental managers. Trouble is, as information providers, for the most part we don't really know what decisions managers face daily, nor is it a trivial matter to ascertain the effect of management decisions on the environment, at least in a time frame that facilitates timely maintenance and enhancement of decision support software. To bridge this gap in understanding, we conducted a Needs Assessment (using methodology from the NOAA/Coastal Services Center's Product Design and Evaluation training program) from December, 2011 through May, 2012, in which we queried 15 resource managers in southeast Florida to identify the types of climate data and information products they needed to understand the effects of climate change in their region of purview, and how best these products should be delivered and subsequently enhanced or corrected. Our intent has been to develop a suite of software and information products customized specifically for environmental managers. This report summarizes our success to date, including a report on the development of software for gathering and presenting specific types of climate data, and a narrative about how some U.S. government sponsored efforts, such as Giovanni and TerraVis, as well as non-governmental sponsored efforts such as Marxan, Zonation, SimCLIM, and other off-the-shelf software might be customized for use in specific regions.

  2. A new fully two-dimensional conservative semi-Lagrangian method: applications on polar grids, from diocotron instability to ITG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouseilles, Nicolas; Glanc, Pierre; Hirstoaga, Sever A.; Madaule, Eric; Mehrenberger, Michel; Pétri, Jérôme

    2014-09-01

    While developing a new semi-Lagrangian solver, the gap between a linear Landau run in 1D × 1D and a 5D gyrokinetic simulation in toroidal geometry is quite huge. Intermediate test cases are welcome for testing the code. A new fully two-dimensional conservative semi-Lagrangian (CSL) method is presented here and is validated on 2D polar geometries. We consider here as building block, a 2D guiding-center type equation on an annulus and apply it on two test cases. First, we revisit a 2D test case previously done with a PIC approach [J. Pétri, A&A 503, 1 (2009)] and detail the boundary conditions. Second, we consider a 4D drift-kinetic slab simulation (see [V. Grandgirard, M. Brunetti, P. Bertrand, N. Besse, X. Garbet, P. Ghendrih, G. Manfredi, Y. Sarazin, O. Sauter, E. Sonnendrücker, J. Vaclavik, L. Villard, J. Comput. Phys. 217, 395 (2006)]). In both cases, the new method appears to be a good alternative to deal with this type of models since it improves the lack of mass conservation of the standard semi-Lagrangian (BSL) method. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  3. Diego Rivera's fresco and the case taken from Morgagni's De sedibus.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fabio; Zanatta, Alberto; Scattolin, Giuliano; Stramare, Roberto; Thiene, Gaetano

    2013-09-01

    The fresco by Diego Rivera (1886 to 1957) on the history of cardiology was displayed at the "Instituto Nacional de Cardiología" of Mexico City at the time of inauguration on April 14, 1944. Some of the most important masters of the Padua Medical School were depicted, namely Vesalius, Harvey, and Morgagni. There is a vivid description of the anatomoclinical method introduced by Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682 to 1771), when he was professor of Theoretical Medicine first and then of Anatomy at the University of Padua (1711 to 1771). By reading Morgagni's De sedibus, we found the case of aortic syphilitic aneurysm that corresponds perfectly with the one represented in Diego Rivera's mural. In the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of the Padua University, an anatomical specimen that displays the same lesion is preserved, and we have performed a computed tomography scan to analyze the state of the heart and aneurysm, thus finding diffuse calcific deposits of aorta and pericardium. In conclusion, in Diego Rivera's fresco the clinicopathologic method of Morgagni is well represented and the case of syphilitic aneurysm, reported by Morgagni in his De sedibus, depicted. PMID:24137639

  4. A Hanged From the Past: Medical Consideration on the Judas Iscariot Fresco-Chapelle Notre-Dame-des-Fontaines, La Brigue (15th Century).

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy. In particular, the realism of the hanged man's posture, neck bent in an unnatural way, allows us to hypothesize that it probably comes from direct observation of the executions of capital punishment, not infrequently imposed by the public authorities in low medieval Italy. PMID:27367576

  5. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  6. Magnetic Reconnection as studied in Space and Astrophysical Plasmas by using PIC Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Masahiro

    Magnetic reconnection is widely believed to be a key process of magnetic energy dissipation and particle acceleration in plasma universe, including space and astrophysical plasmas. After the basic theory of reconnection was established by Parker, Sweet, and Petschek in the middle sixties, following earlier ideas were proposed by Giovanni and Dungey, great progresses have been achieved by means of modern satellite observations, laboratory experiments and theoret-ical/computational investigations. However, the understanding of reconnection processes such as energy dissipation rate and particle acceleration efficiency are not yet fully comprehended. In this presentation, based on our understanding of reconnection in non-relativistic regime, we investigate the particle acceleration process and magnetic energy dissipation process in rela-tivistic regime by using a particle-in-cell simulation, and discuss not only tearing mode but also drift-kink mode plays an important role on plasma dynamics. We also discuss that the relativistic reconnection with radiation effect under strong magnetic fields as expected in pul-sar magnetosphere and magnetar shows quite unique dynamical evolution that has not seen in non-relativistic reconnection.

  7. The opportunity of the 2016 transit of Mercury for measuring the solar diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Castiglioni, Francesco; Cicogna, Domenico; Cardoso, Felipe

    2016-05-01

    The transit of Mercury occurred two times in this century: 2003, May 7 and 2006, November 8. In 2016 there is another opportunity to observe this phenomenon and measure the solar diameter with the method of comparing the ephemerides with the observations. This method has been presented by I. I. Shapiro in 1980, the data of the observed transits (since 1631) have been re-analyzed by Sveshnikov (2002) and an improvement on the observed data, to avoid the confusion given by the black-drop effect, has been presented by C. Sigismondi and collaborators since 2005 by exploiting the idea of measuring the chord drawn by the solar limb with the disk of the transiting planet presented by G. Di Giovanni (2005) on the transit of Venus: the improvement is obtained by extrapolating to zero the analytic chord fitting the observations without the black drop, but in the ingress/egress phases. For the transit of 2006 K. Reardon with IBIS (California) and J. Pasachoff with Mauna Kea (Hawaij) telescopes were ready to get useful data but the weather's conditions were not good, and only the SOHO data (M. Emilio, 2012) contributed to the solar diameter monitoring. A network of European observers (IOTA/ES) and observatories (coronograph of Bialkow, PL 56 cm; IRSOL, Locarno CH - 45 cm Gregorian telescope; carte du ciel, Paris, FR 30 cm, Torre Solare di Monte Mario, Rome 26 cm) are active for the 2016 transit.

  8. Neutron dosimetry in linear electron accelerator during radiotherapy treatment: simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredotti, Claudio; Nastasi, U.; Ongaro, C.; Stasi, E.; Zanini, Alessandro

    1995-03-01

    In the electron linear accelerators used for radiotherapy by high energy electrons or gamma rays, there is a non negligible production of neutrons by photodisintegration or electrodisintegration reactions on the high Z components of the head machine (target, flattening filter, collimators). At the Experimental Physics Department of Torino University, Torino, Italy an experimental and theoretical evaluation has been performed on the undesired neutron production in the MD Class Mevatron Siemens accelerator used at the Radiotherapy Department of S. Giovanni Battista A.S. Hospital for cancer therapy by a 15 MV gamma ray beam. A simulation of the total process has been carried out, using EGS4 MonteCarlo computer code for the evaluation of photoneutron spectra and MCNP code for the neutron transport in the patient's body. The geometrical description both of the accelerator head in EGS4 and of the anthropomorphous phantom in MCNP have been highly optimized. Experimental measurements have been carried out by bubble detectors BD 100R appropriately allocated inside a new phantom in polyetylene and plexiglass, especially designed for this purpose.

  9. Rawls and research on cognitively impaired patients: a reply to Maio.

    PubMed

    Bell, Derek R

    2003-01-01

    In his paper, "The Relevance of Rawls' Principle of Justice for Research on Cognitively Impaired Patients" (Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (2002): 45-53), Giovanni Maio has developed a thought-provoking argument for the permissibility of non-therapeutic research on cognitively impaired patients. Maio argues that his conclusion follows from the acceptance of John Rawls's principles of justice, specifically, Rawls's "liberty principle". Maio has misinterpreted Rawls's "liberty principle"--correctly interpreted it does not support non-therapeutic research on cognitively impaired patients. Three other 'Rawlsian' arguments are suggested by Maio's discussion--two "self-respect" arguments and a "presumed consent" argument--but none of them are convincing. However, an alternative argument developed from Rawls's discussion of "justice in health care" in his most recent book, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, may justify certain kinds of non-therapeutic research on some cognitively impaired patients in special circumstances. We should not expect anything more permissive from a liberal theory of justice. PMID:14760867

  10. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The presentation describes the recently awarded ACCESS project to provide data management of NASA remote sensing data for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The project targets integration of remote sensing data from MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US-satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEP/NCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  11. Traces of medieval migrations in a socially stratified population from Northern Italy. Evidence from uniparental markers and deep-rooted pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Boattini, A; Sarno, S; Pedrini, P; Medoro, C; Carta, M; Tucci, S; Ferri, G; Alù, M; Luiselli, D; Pettener, D

    2015-01-01

    Social and cultural factors had a critical role in determining the genetic structure of Europe. Therefore, socially stratified populations may help to focus on specific episodes of European demographic history. In this study, we use uniparental markers to analyse the genetic structure of Partecipanza in San Giovanni in Persiceto (Northern Italy), a peculiar institution whose origins date back to the Middle Ages and whose members form the patrilineal descent of a group of founder families. From a maternal point of view (mtDNA), Partecipanza is genetically homogeneous with the rest of the population. However, we observed a significant differentiation for Y-chromosomes. In addition, by comparing 17 Y-STR profiles with deep-rooted paternal pedigrees, we estimated a Y-STR mutation rate equal to 3.90 * 10−3 mutations per STR per generation and an average generation duration time of 33.38 years. When we used these values for tentative dating, we estimated 1300-600 years ago for the origins of the Partecipanza. These results, together with a peculiar Y-chromosomal composition and historical evidence, suggest that Germanic populations (Lombards in particular) settled in the area during the Migration Period (400–800 AD, approximately) and may have had an important role in the foundation of this community. PMID:25204305

  12. Contrasting strike-slip motions on thrust and normal faults: Implications for space-geodetic monitoring of surface deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Andrea; Li, Tao; Maniatis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    emphasizes that understanding fault-parallel slip components and associated surface displacements is essential for inferring regional deformation patterns from space-geodetic and fault-slip data. References: Cheloni, D., N. D'Agostino, E. D'Anastasio, A. Avallone, S. Mantenuto, R. Giuliani, M. Mattone, S. Calcaterra, P. Gambino, D. Dominici, F. Radicioni, G. Fastellini (2010) Coseismic and initial post-seismic slip of the 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, Italy, from GPS measurements: Geophysical Journal International, 181, 1539-1546. Hampel, A., T. Li, G. Maniatis (in press) Contrasting strike-slip motions on thrust and normal faults: Implications for space-geodetic monitoring of surface deformation: Geology. Hsu, Y.-J., S.-B Yu, H.-Y. Chen (2009) Coseismic and postseismic deformation associated with the 2003 Chengkung, Taiwan, earthquake: Geophysical Journal International, 176, 420-430. Jackson, J.A., J. Gagnepain, G. Houseman, G.C.P. King, P. Papadimitriou, C. Soufleris, J. Virieux (1982) Seismicity, normal faulting, and the geomorphological development of the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): The Corinth earthquakes of February and March 1981: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 57, 377-397. Roberts, G.P., I. Koukouvelas (1996) Structural and seismological segmentation of the Gulf of Corinth fault system: Implications for models of fault growth: Annali di Geofisica, 39, 619-646. Serpelloni, E., L. Anderlini, M.E. Belardinelli (2012) Fault geometry, coseismic-slip distribution and Coulomb stress change associated with the 2009 April 6, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila earthquake from inversion of GPS displacements: Geophysical Journal International, 188, 473-489.

  13. Hydrological Scenario Using Tools and Applications Available in enviroGRIDS Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacu, V.; Mihon, D.; Stefanut, T.; Rodila, D.; Cau, P.; Manca, S.; Soru, C.; Gorgan, D.

    2012-04-01

    the other hand, the applications can collaborate at the same architectural levels, which represent the horizontal interoperability. Both the horizontal and vertical interoperability is accomplished by services and by exchanging data. The calibration procedure requires huge computational resources, which are provided by the Grid infrastructure. On the other hand the scenario development through BASHYT requires a flexible way of interaction with the SWAT model in order to easily change the input model. The large user community of SWAT from the enviroGRIDS consortium or outside may greatly benefit from tools and applications related with the calibration process, scenario development and execution from the enviroGRIDS portal. [1]. enviroGRIDS project, http://envirogrids.net/ [2]. Gorgan D., Abbaspour K., Cau P., Bacu V., Mihon D., Giuliani G., Ray N., Lehmann A., Grid Based Data Processing Tools and Applications for Black Sea Catchment Basin. IDAACS 2011 - The 6th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications 15-17 September 2011, Prague. IEEE Computer Press, pp. 223 - 228 (2011). [3]. Soil and Water Assessment Tool, http://www.brc.tamus.edu/swat/index.html [4]. Bacu V., Mihon D., Rodila D., Stefanut T., Gorgan D., Grid Based Architectural Components for SWAT Model Calibration. HPCS 2011 - International Conference on High Performance Computing and Simulation, 4-8 July, Istanbul, Turkey, ISBN 978-1-61284-381-0, doi: 10.1109/HPCSim.2011.5999824, pp. 193-198 (2011). [5]. Manca S., Soru C., Cau P., Meloni G., Fiori M., A multi model and multiscale, GIS oriented Web framework based on the SWAT model to face issues of water and soil resource vulnerability. Presentation at the 5th International SWAT Conference, August 3-7, 2009, http://www.brc.tamus.edu/swat/4thswatconf/docs/rooma/session5/Cau-Bashyt.pdf [6]. Bacu V., Mihon D., Stefanut T., Rodila D., Gorgan D., Cau P., Manca S., Grid Based Services and

  14. Enhancing Access to and Use of NASA Earth Sciences Data via CUAHSI-HIS (Hydrologic Information System) and Other Hydrologic Community Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Strub, R.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B.; Mocko, D. M.; Maidment, D. R.; Whiteaker, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    respective communities. Specifically, the GES DISC worked closely with the University of Texas (also part of the NASA ACCESS project) to seamlessly integrate these hydrology-related variables into CUAHSI-HIS. With NLDAS, GLDAS, and MERRA data integrated into CUAHSI-HIS, the data can be accessed via HydroDesktop (a windows-based GIS application) along with other existing HIS data, and analyzed with the built-in functions for water-cycle-related applications, research, and data validation. Case studies will be presented on the access to and use of NLDAS, GLDAS, and MERRA data for drought monitoring, Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP), hurricane rainfall effects on soil moisture and runoff, as well as data inter-comparison. An example of GLDAS in ArcGIS Online, World Soil Moisture, will also be given. Featured with the long time series of GLDAS soil moisture data and powered by Esri-ArcGIS, the World Soil Moisture server allows users to click on any location in the world to view its soil moisture in ASCII or as a time series plot. Full records of the NLDAS, GLDAS, and MERRA data are accessible from NASA GES DISC via Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/), SSW (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/SSW/), Giovanni (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/overview), OPeNDAP/GDS (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/services), as well as direct FTP.

  15. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  16. Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization and Analysis System for Gridded Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Liu, Z.; Pham, L.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.; Teng, W.; Zhu, T.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to use data stored in the current Earth Observing System (EOS) archives for studying regional or global phenomena is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. Gaining this understanding and applying it to data reduction is a time- consuming task that must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin. This is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets that are usually of different formats, structures, and resolutions, for example, when preparing data for input into modeling systems. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by developing an infrastructure with a Web interface that allows users to perform interactive analysis online without downloading any data, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides interactive, online, analysis tools for data users to facilitate their research. There have been several instances of this interface created to serve TRMM users, Aerosol scientists, Ocean Color and Agriculture applications users. The first generation of these tools support gridded data only. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are: Area plot averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; Time plot time series averaged over any rectangular area; Time plots image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections; ASCII output for all plot types; Image animation for area plot. In the future, we will add correlation plots, GIS-compatible outputs, etc. This allow user to focus on data content (i.e. science parameters) and eliminate the need for expensive learning

  17. NASA GES DISC On-line Visualization and Analysis System for Gridded Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Berrick, S.; Rui, H.; Liu, Z.; Zhu, T.; Teng, W.; Shen, S.; Qin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to use data stored in the current NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) archives for studying regional or global phenomena is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. Gaining this understanding and applying it to data reduction is a time-consuming task that must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin. This is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets that are usually of different formats, structures, and resolutions. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by developing an infrastructure with a Web interface that allows users to perform interactive analysis online without downloading any data, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides interactive, online, analysis tools for data users to facilitate their research. There have been several instances of this interface created to serve TRMM users, Aerosol scientists, Ocean Color and Agriculture applications users. The first generation of these tools support gridded data only. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are: Area plot averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; Time plot time series averaged over any rectangular area; Hovmoller plots image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections; ASCII output for all plot types; Image animation for area plot. Another analysis suite deals with parameter intercomparison: scatter plots, temporal correlation maps, GIs-compatible outputs, etc. This allow user to focus on data content (i.e. science parameters) and eliminate the need for expensive learning

  18. Lessons Learned from a Decade of Serving Data to Students and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Martin, A. M.; Riebeek, H.; Jackson, R.

    2015-12-01

    NASA holds petabytes of Earth science data from a fleet of satellites going back decades. While these data can be invaluable for use in STEM education and communication (E/C), the simple fact that the archive is public is not enough. The key to successful use is to provide technological tools in strategic combination with best practices to meet the needs of various audiences. Students and teachers need access points that are specifically tailored to meet the technology resources in the classroom; citizen scientists need to feel a connection to NASA, easy-to-use technological interfaces, and are motivated by contributing to real research activities; the general public needs short, focused, easily digested tidbits. NASA's Earth science E/C teams have developed strategies combining audience knowledge with new technical capabilities through programs like MY NASA DATA, S'COOL, Earth Observatory, Giovanni, climate.gov, etc. The capability to offer a range of resources targeted to specific audience needs has advanced along several fronts over the last decade through use of the following key strategies: Regularly publishing articles, fact sheets and image captions written with greater detail than media releases to connect basic science concepts with current NASA research. Providing for differing levels of engagement, with basic, intermediate and advanced data access tools as well as lesson plans for grades K-2 through high school. Facilitating the important scientific process of asking questions once students are actively engaged though exploration and manipulation of current Earth data delivered through desktop and mobile apps.. Providing curated data sets that students can more easily interpret. Assessing users' needs through ongoing formative evaluation. Using Analytics to make data-driven decisions about technologies and approaches. We will survey the range of approaches to enabling data use for STEM E/C and will share some of the key lessons learned.

  19. Remotely-sensed chlorophyll a observations of the northern Red Sea indicate seasonal variability and influence of coastal reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong; Kempler, Steven

    The biological dynamics of the open northern Red Sea (21.5°-27.5° N, 33.5°-40° E) have not been studied extensively, due in part to both the inaccessibility of this desert region and political considerations. Remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data therefore provide a framework to investigate the primary patterns of biological activity in this oceanic basin. Monthly chlorophyll a data from the 8-year Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, and data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), were analyzed with the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) online data analysis system "Giovanni". The data indicate that despite the normal low chlorophyll a concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg m - 3 ) in these oligotrophic waters, there is a characteristic seasonal bloom in March-April in the northernmost open Red Sea (24° to 27.5° N) concurrent with minimum sea surface temperature. The location of the highest chlorophyll concentrations is consistent with a linear box model [Eshel, G., and Naik, N.H., 1997. Climatological coastal jet collision, intermediate water formation, and the general circulation of the Red Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27(7), 1233-1257.] of Red Sea circulation. Two years in the data set exhibited a different seasonal cycle consisting of a relatively weak northern spring bloom and elevated chlorophyll concentrations to the south (21.5° to 24° N). The data also indicate that large coral reef complexes may be sources of either nutrients or chlorophyll-rich detritus and sediment, enhancing chlorophyll a concentration in waters adjacent to the reefs.

  20. Data Access Services that Make Remote Sensing Data Easier to Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the processes that NASA uses to make the remote sensing data easy to use over the World Wide Web. This work involves much research into data formats, geolocation structures and quality indicators, often to be followed by coding a preprocessing program. Only then are the data usable within the analysis tool of choice. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center is deploying a variety of data access services that are designed to dramatically shorten the time consumed in the data preparation step. On-the-fly conversion to the standard network Common Data Form (netCDF) format with Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions imposes a standard coordinate system framework that makes data instantly readable through several tools, such as the Integrated Data Viewer, Gridded Analysis and Display System, Panoply and Ferret. A similar benefit is achieved by serving data through the Open Source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), which also provides subsetting. The Data Quality Screening Service goes a step further in filtering out data points based on quality control flags, based on science team recommendations or user-specified criteria. Further still is the Giovanni online analysis system which goes beyond handling formatting and quality to provide visualization and basic statistics of the data. This general approach of automating the preparation steps has the important added benefit of enabling use of the data by non-human users (i.e., computer programs), which often make sub-optimal use of the available data due to the need to hard-code data preparation on the client side.

  1. Performance comparison of GES DISC data as a service between server-based system and cloud system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Chen, A.; Winter, E.; Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC), in cooperation with the Goddard Information Technology & Communications Directorate, demonstrates and evaluates provision of "Data-as-a-Service" in a cloud environment using the OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) protocols. The demonstration requires porting the OPeNDAP software to the cloud platform along with a representative set of data and then exercising the server using several clients. The evaluation examines two aspects of using open source software in the cloud to serve large volumes of satellite data for public access and simple subsetting: a) Ease of porting and operating OPeNDAP in the Goddard Cloud and Amazon Elastic Cloud Computing (EC2) and Simple Storage Service (S3) environments, including evaluation of the time needed to setup one instance; b) Access performance, e.g. data access stability and speed of the cloud environments as compared to existing GES DISC capabilities. Four kinds of satellite data products with different data formats (HDF4, HDF5) were selected as the test data: Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Aqua satellite, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). For each product, 25 granules were used to test access stability and speed. The Giovanni (GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) and GrADS (Grid and Analysis System) data services were also deployed to the cloud platforms to compare the data analysis performance between existing systems and cloud systems. We also evaluated the challenges to migrating these services to the cloud architectures examined.

  2. Diachronic 3d Reconstruction for Lost Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.; Russo, M.

    2011-09-01

    Cultural Heritage artifacts can often be underestimated for their hidden presence in the landscape. Such problem is particularly large in countries like Italy, where the massive amount of "famous" artifacts tends to neglect other presences unless properly exposed, or when the remains are dramatically damaged leaving very few interpretation clues to the visitor. In such cases a virtual presentation of the Cultural Heritage site can be of great help, specially for explaining the evolution of its status, giving sometimes sense to few spare stones. The definition of these digital representations deal with two crucial aspects: on the one hand the possibility of 3D surveying the relics in order to have an accurate geometrical image of the current status of the artifact; on the other hand the presence of historical sources both in form of written text or images, that once properly matched with the current geometrical data, may help to recreate digitally a set of 3D models representing visually the various historical phases (diachronic model), up to the current one. The core of this article is the definition of an integrated methodology that starts from an high-resolution digital survey of the remains of an ancient building and develops a coherent virtual reconstruction from different historical sources, suggesting a scalable method suitable to be re-used for generating a 4D (geometry + time) model of the artifact. This approach has been experimented on the "Basilica di San Giovanni in Conca" in Milan, a very significant example for its complex historic evolution that combines evident historic values with an invisible presence inside the city.

  3. Observation of phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton groups from space using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy on SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracher, Astrid; Dinter, Tilman; Burrows, John P.; Vountas, Marco; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Peeken, Ilka

    In order to understand the marine phytoplankton's role in the global marine ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles it is necessary to derive global information on the distribution of major functional phytoplankton types (PFT) in the world oceans. In our study we use instead of the common ocean color sensors such as CZCS, SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS, with rather low spectral resolution, the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to study the retrieval of phytoplankton distribution and absorption with the satellite sensor Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). SCIAMACHY measures back scattered solar radiation in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral region with a high spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm). We used in-situ measured phytoplankton absorption spectra from two different RV Polarstern expeditions where different phytoplankton groups were representing or dominating the phytoplankton composition in order to identify these characteristic absorption spectra in SCIAMACHY data in the range of 430 to 500 nm and also to identify absorption from cyanobacterial photosynthetic pigment phycoerythrin. Our results show clearly these absorptions in the SCIAMACHY data. The conversion of these differential absorptions by including the information of the light penetration depth (according to Vountas et al., Ocean Science, 2007) globally distributed pigment concentrations for these characteristic phytoplankton groups for two monthly periods (Feb-March 2004, Oct-Nov 2005 and Oct-Nov 2007) are derived. The satellite retrieved information on cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp. and Prochlorococcus sp.) and diatoms distribution matches well with the concentration measured from collocated water samples with HPLC technique and also to global model analysis with the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM from http://reason.gsfc.nasa.gov/OPS/Giovanni/) according to Gregg and Casey 2006 and Gregg 2006. Results are of great importance for global modelling of

  4. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  5. European team gauges a gamma-ray star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    Italian astrophysicists have pushed the Hubble Space Telescope to the limit of its powers in finding the distance of Geminga, a pointlike object 500 light-years from the Earth. It is the prototype of a novel kind of star, a radio-silent neutron star, which may be much more common in the Universe than previously supposed. Geminga is so weak in visible light that Hubble had to stare at the spot for more than an hour to register it adequately. The object is nevertheless one of the brightest sources of gamma-rays in the sky, and its output of this very energetic form of radiation can now be accurately ganged. Neutron stars, first discovered as radio pulsars in 1967, are fantastic creations of exploding stars, just one step short of a black hole. They are heavier than the Sun yet only about twenty kilometres wide. Made of compressed nuclear matter, they have gravity and magnetic fields many billions of times stronger than on the Earth. With the first direct measurement of the distance of a radio-silent neutron star, astrophysicists can assess Geminga's power and speed of motion. The astronomical task was like judging the width of a one- franc piece in Paris, seen from the distance of Sicily. Geminga's low brightness greatly aggravated the difficulties. Patrizia Caraveo and her colleagues at the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan arranged for Hubble's wide-field camera (WFPC2) to make its prolonged observations of Geminga three times. Their findings will be published in Astrophysical Journal Letters on 20 April 1996. Caraveo's co-authors are Giovanni Bignami and Roberto Mignani of Milan, and Laurence Taff of Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. The Italians took advantage of the European Space Agency's collaboration with NASA in the Hubble mission, which gives European astronomers privileged access to the Space Telescope. Shifts of millionths of a degree The three sightings of Geminga, made at intervals of six months, revealed small shifts in the position of the faint

  6. The Florence Baptistery: 3-D Survey as a Knowledge Tool for Historical and Structural Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Fiorini, L.; Conti, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Baptistery of San Giovanni is one of the most important pieces of architecture in Florence. It is an octagonal building, encrusted with marble both internally and externally (including the pyramidal roof) and covered inside by a magnificent dome with sparkling gold mosaics. During Dante's time, it appeared much older than the other monuments, so its origins were considered as hailing straight from Florence's most remote and mythical history. Even though we have much more data now, scholars still disagree over the interpretations on the origin and construction sequence of the monument. Survey has always been considered a main instrument for understanding historical architecture, mostly from constructional and structural points of view. During the last century, the Baptistery was surveyed using both traditional techniques and the most up-to-date instruments available at the time, such as topography, close-range photogrammetry and laser scanning. So, a review of those early applications, even if partial or isolated, can significantly attest to the state of the art and evolution of survey techniques. During recent years, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore promoted new research and a wide range of diagnostic investigations aimed at acquiring greater knowledge of the monument in anticipation of the cleaning and restoration of the outer wall surfaces during 2015. Among this research, GeCo Lab carried out a new systematic and complete laser scanner survey of the whole Baptistery, acquiring data for the more inaccessible parts that were given little attention during other survey campaigns. First of all, the paper analyses recent contributions given by instrumental surveys in advancing knowledge of the building, with references to the cutting-edge techniques and measurement tools used at the time. Then, it describes the new survey campaign, illustrating the approach followed in the planning, data acquisition and data elaboration phases; finally, it gives examples of some

  7. Data Access Services that Make Remote Sensing Data Easier to Use (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2010-12-01

    The tall pole for exploiting remote sensing data is often preparing data for use. Typically, this involves much research into data formats, geolocation structures and quality indicators, often to be followed by coding a preprocessing program. Only then are the data usable within the analysis tool of choice. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center is deploying a variety of data access services that are designed to dramatically shorten the time consumed in the data preparation step. On-the-fly conversion to the standard network Common Data Form (netCDF) format with Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions imposes a standard coordinate system framework that makes data instantly readable through several tools, such as the Integrated Data Viewer, Gridded Analysis and Display System, Panoply and Ferret. A similar benefit is achieved by serving data through the Open Source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), which also provides subsetting. The Data Quality Screening Service goes a step further in filtering out data points based on quality control flags, based on science team recommendations or user-specified criteria. Further still is the Giovanni online analysis system which goes beyond handling formatting and quality to provide visualization and basic statistics of the data. This general approach of automating the preparation steps has the important added benefit of enabling use of the data by non-human users (i.e., computer programs), which often make sub-optimal use of the available data due to the need to hard-code data preparation on the client side.

  8. Some historical crossroads between astronomy and visual neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlucchi, G.

    The histories of astronomy and visual neuroscience share some important events. Observation of the sky provided early basic information about visual acuity and sensitivity to light and their variations at different retinal locations. Some of the early tests of visual functions were inspired by astronomical knowledge existing since antiquity and possibly since human prehistory. After science became a hallmark of human civilization, astronomy played a crucial part in the discovery of the laws of nature. At the turn of the 19th century, astronomers discovered interindividual variability in detecting the time of stellar transit and tried to measure the so-called personal equation, a supposedly inherent individual bias in making observations, judgements and measurements. Convinced that the reliability of scientific observations depended on the reliability of the observer, they were the first scientists to realize that studying man and human psychophysiology was essential for achieving accuracy and objectivity in astronomy and other sciences alike. There is general consensus that the science of experimental psychology grew out of astronomy and physiology in connection with the development of the reaction time method and the so-called mental chronometry. The crucial role of the observer in astronomical observations appears to have been neglected by astronomers in the second half of the 19th century after Giovanni Schiaparelli described ``canals" on the surface of the planet Mars. Percival Lowell and others thought that these canals had been constructed by a Martian intelligent population in order to distribute water from the polar regions to the equatorial deserts on the planet. Since it has been ascertained that the Mars canals seen by Schiaparelli do not exist, some speculations are offered from a neuroscientific viewpoint as to why he and others were mistaken in their observations of Mars.

  9. Tools and Data Services from the GSFC Earth Sciences DAAC for Aura Science Data Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Ahmad, S.; Pham, L.; Eng, E.; Berrick, S.; Teng, W.; Vollmer, B.

    2004-01-01

    In these times of rapidly increasing amounts of archived data, tools and data services that manipulate data and uncover nuggets of information that potentially lead to scientific discovery are becoming more and more essential. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has made great strides in facilitating science and applications research by, in consultation with its users, developing innovative tools and data services. That is, as data users become more sophisticated in their research and more savvy with information extraction methodologies, the GES DAAC has been responsive to this evolution. This presentation addresses the tools and data services available and under study at the GES DAAC, applied to the Earth sciences atmospheric data. Now, with the data from NASA's latest Atmospheric Chemistry mission, Aura, being readied for public release, GES DAAC tools, proven successful for past atmospheric science missions such as MODIS, AIRS, TRMM, TOMS, and UARS, provide an excellent basis for similar tools updated for the data from the Aura instruments. GES DAAC resident Aura data sets are from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). Data obtained by these instruments afford researchers the opportunity to acquire accurate and continuous visualization and analysis, customized for Aura data, will facilitate the use and increase the usefulness of the new data. The Aura data, together with other heritage data at the GES DAAC, can potentially provide a long time series of data. GES DAAC tools will be discussed, as well as the GES DAAC Near Archive Data Mining (NADM) environment, the GIOVANNI on-line analysis tool, and rich data search and order services. Information can be found at: http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/upperatm/aura/. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Boccioni's coin.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Sergio; Teja, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The Ardito was a fighter as well as a competitor whose status as a 'warrior' was based on courage and superior physical performance: a superior man. In addition, his exuberant conduct, both on and off the battlefield, introduced a significant new sub-culture into post-war Italian society, contributing to the attachment of notable value to virility and Mussolini's cult of the 'strong man'. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of this 'arditismo' (spirit of daring) on the early post-war period in particular, including the different 'male image' of the Italian citizen, and to study the sense of virility in the transition from the liberal, easy-going 'Little Italy' of Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928) to a manly, combative, and ambitious nation. Together with some of the vitalistic tendencies in the Futurist movement, the main characteristics and mentality of the ex-Ardito (former Special Forces) would thus be significantly influential in the ideology of nascent Fascism. Indeed, the 'arditismo' influence, together with the article and social movement known as Futurism would constitute the two most highly structured foundations of early Fascist culture, bringing a political and social revolution necessary to create a 'new man'. It was as if the Arditi and the new method of military training had transferred their experience from the military into civilian life, contributing to a renewal of the image of the Italian male in the collective imagination. Indirectly, the image of women would also begin to absorb and adapt to new sports models imported from abroad, which would create for the Italian Ardito, a grudgingly tolerated rival. The main sources for this paper are the archives of the Historical Office of the Army, advertising and manuals from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century, placards and graphic publicity from books and journals or private collections, and exhibition catalogues. PMID:21714203

  11. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

    2012-08-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

  12. The history of spinal biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sanan, A; Rengachary, S S

    1996-10-01

    The history of spinal biomechanics has its origins in antiquity. The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus, an Egyptian document written in the 17th century BC, described the difference between cervical sprain, fracture, and fracture-dislocation. By the time of Hippocrates (4th century BC), physical means such as traction or local pressure were being used to correct spinal deformities but the treatments were based on only a rudimentary knowledge of spinal biomechanics. The Renaissance produced the first serious attempts at understanding spinal biomechanics. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) accurately described the anatomy of the spine and was perhaps the first to investigate spinal stability. The first comprehensive treatise on biomechanics, De Motu Animalium, was published by Giovanni Borelli in 1680, and it contained the first analysis of weight bearing by the spine. In this regard, Borelli can be considered the "Father of Spinal Biomechanics." By the end of the 19th century, the basic biomechanical concepts of spinal alignment and immobilization were well entrenched as therapies for spinal cord injury. Further anatomic delineation of spinal stability was sparked by the anatomic analyses of judicial hangings by Wood-Jones in 1913. By the 1960s, a two-column model of the spine was proposed by Holdsworth. The modern concept of Denis' three-column model of the spine is supported by more sophisticated testing of cadaver spines in modern biomechanical laboratories. The modern explosion of spinal instrumentation stems from a deeper understanding of the load-bearing structures of the spinal column. PMID:8880756

  13. INTEGRAL high-energy monitoring of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, G.; Bazzano, A.; Martínez Núñez, S.; Stratta, G.; Tarana, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.

    2007-09-01

    KS 1741-293, discovered in 1989 by the X-ray camera TTM on the Kvant module of the Mir space station and identified as an X-ray burster, had not been detected in the hard X-ray band until the advent of the INTEGRAL observatory. Moreover, this source has recently been the object of scientific discussion, being also associated with a nearby extended radio source that in principle could be the supernova remnant produced by the accretion-induced collapse in the binary system. Our long-term monitoring with INTEGRAL, covering the period from 2003 February to 2005 May, confirms that KS 1741-293 is transient in the soft and hard X-ray bands. When the source is active, from a simultaneous JEM-X and IBIS data analysis, we provide a wide-band spectrum from 5 to 100 keV, which can be fitted by a two-component model: a multiple blackbody for the soft emission and a Comptonized or a cut-off power-law model for the hard component. Finally, by the detection of two X-ray bursters with JEM-X, we confirm the bursting nature of KS 1741-293, including this source in the class of hard-tailed X-ray bursters. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA. E-mail: giovanni.decesare@iasf-roma.inaf.it ‡ INAF personnel resident at ASDC.

  14. UUI: Unified User Interface to Support Effective and Intuitive Data Discovery, Dissemination, and Analysis at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, M.; Petrenko, M.; Bryant, K.; Johnson, J. E.; Ritrivi, A. J.; Shen, S.; Vollmer, B.; Pham, L.

    2015-12-01

    Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been providing access to scientific data sets since 1990s. Beginning as one of the first Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) archive centers, GES DISC has evolved to offer a wide range of science-enabling services. With a growing understanding of needs and goals of its science users, GES DISC continues to improve and expand on its broad set of data discovery and access tools, subsetting services, and visualization tools. Nonetheless, the multitude of the available tools, a partial overlap of functionality, and independent and uncoupled interfaces employed by these tools often leave the end users confused as of what tools or services are the most appropriate for a task at hand. As a result, some the services remain underutilized or largely unknown to the users, significantly reducing the availability of the data and leading to a great loss of scientific productivity. In order to improve the accessibility of GES DISC tools and services, we have designed and implemented UUI, the Unified User Interface. UUI seeks to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key services available at GES DISC, including subsetting (Simple Subset Wizard), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other services. In this poster, we will discuss the main lessons, obstacles, and insights encountered while designing the UUI experience. We will also present the architecture and technology behind UUI, including NodeJS, Angular, and Mongo DB, as well as speculate on the future of the tool at GES DISC as well as in a broader context of the Space Science Informatics.

  15. Approach to Managing MeaSURES Data at the GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steven J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2009-01-01

    A major need stated by the NASA Earth science research strategy is to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. (NASA Solicitation for Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) 2006-2010) Selected projects create long term records of a given parameter, called Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), based on mature algorithms that bring together continuous multi-sensor data. ESDRs, associated algorithms, vetted by the appropriate community, are archived at a NASA affiliated data center for archive, stewardship, and distribution. See http://measures-projects.gsfc.nasa.gov/ for more details. This presentation describes the NASA GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) approach to managing the MEaSUREs ESDR datasets assigned to GES DISC. (Energy/water cycle related and atmospheric composition ESDRs) GES DISC will utilize its experience to integrate existing and proven reusable data management components to accommodate the new ESDRs. Components include a data archive system (S4PA), a data discovery and access system (Mirador), and various web services for data access. In addition, if determined to be useful to the user community, the Giovanni data exploration tool will be made available to ESDRs. The GES DISC data integration methodology to be used for the MEaSUREs datasets is presented. The goals of this presentation are to share an approach to ESDR integration, and initiate discussions amongst the data centers, data managers and data providers for the purpose of gaining efficiencies in data management for MEaSUREs projects.

  16. Integrating NASA Satellite Data Into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment To Improve Agricultural Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; deJeu, Richard; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. The goal of the current project is to improve WAOB estimates by integrating NASA satellite precipitation and soil moisture observations into WAOB's decision making environment. Precipitation (Level 3 gridded) is from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). Soil moisture (Level 2 swath and Level 3 gridded) is generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) and operationally produced by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GBS DISC). A root zone soil moisture (RZSM) product is also generated, via assimilation of the Level 3 LPRM data by a land surface model (part of a related project). Data services to be available for these products include GeoTIFF, GDS (GrADS Data Server), WMS (Web Map Service), WCS (Web Coverage Service), and NASA Giovanni. Project benchmarking is based on retrospective analyses of WAOB analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns and estimated crop yields. An analog index (AI) was developed to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. Results thus far show that crop yield estimates derived from TMPA precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface-based precipitation measurements. Work is continuing to include LPRM surface soil moisture data and model-assimilated RZSM.

  17. The anatomical school of Padua.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2012-06-01

    The University of Padua is one of the most ancient in the world, being founded in 1222, and the most important anatomists of the XVI, XVII, and XVIII centuries studied and taught here. Probably, the first professor of anatomy and surgery was Bruno da Longobucco (c. 1200-c. 1286), who had previously studied at the Salerno School of Medicine. While professor in Padua, Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) published De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), which is considered as the birth of the modern anatomy. Following professors were Realdo Colombo (c. 1516-1559), Gabriel Fallopius (1523-1562), Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1533-1619), Iulius Casserius (1552-1616), Johann Wesling (1598-1649), and Johann Georg Wirsung (1589-1643). Many other foreign scholars studied in the University of Padua, such as Thomas Linacre (c. 1460-1524), the founder of the Royal College of Physicians, Werner Rolfinck (1599-1673), and Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702), who created anatomical theatres in Germany and Sweden, respectively, on the basis of the Paduan model. The anatomy of the XVII century characteristically widened the scope of its enquiry to function, as in the Exercitatio Anatomica De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (1628) by William Harvey (1578-1657). Further evolution was then given by the anatomy in the XVIII century, which tried to correlate alterations of structure with clinical symptoms. The most important anatomist of this century is Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), whose masterpiece De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (1761) is a landmark contribution that is viewed as the beginning of modern pathologic anatomy. This year falls the 300th anniversary of Morgagni's inaugural lecture on medical education, Nova Institutionum Medicarum Idea (1712), which is still relevant in its effort to stress the importance of a deep knowledge of all the preclinical and clinical aspects of medical science. PMID:22581496

  18. Annals of morphology. Atavisms: phylogenetic Lazarus?

    PubMed

    Zanni, Ginevra; Opitz, John M

    2013-11-01

    Dedication: with highest respect and affection to Prof. Giovanni Neri on the eve of his official administrative retirement as Chair of the Institute of Medical Genetics of the Università Cattolica of Rome for leadership in medical genetics and medical science and friendship for decades. The concept "atavism," reversion, throwback, Rückschlag remains an epistemological challenge in biology; unwise or implausible over-interpretation of a given structure as such has led some to almost total skepticism as to its existence. Originating in botany in the 18th century it became applied to zoology (and humans) with increasing frequency over the last two centuries such that the very concept became widely discredited. Presently, atavisms have acquired a new life and reconsideration given certain reasonable criteria, including: Homology of structure of the postulated atavism to that of ancestral fossils or collateral species with plausible soft tissue reconstructions taking into account relationships of parts, obvious sites of origin and insertion of muscles, vascular channels, etc. Most parsimonious, plausible phylogenetic assumptions. Evident rudimentary or vestigial anatomical state in prior generations or in morphogenesis of a given organism. Developmental instability in prior generations, that is, some closely related species facultatively with or without the trait. Genetic identity or phylogenomic similarity inferred in ancestors and corroborated in more or less closely related species. Fluctuating asymmetry may be the basis for the striking evolutionary diversification and common atavisms in limbs; however, strong selection and developmental constraints would make atavisms in, for example, cardiac or CNS development less likely. Thus, purported atavisms must be examined critically in light of the above criteria. PMID:24166815

  19. "Bundle Data" Approach at GES DISC Targeting Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Severe natural phenomena such as hurricane, volcano, blizzard, flood and drought have the potential to cause immeasurable property damages, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic loss of human life. From searching to assessing the "Big", i.e., massive and heterogeneous scientific data (particularly, satellite and model products) in order to investigate those natural hazards, it has, however, become a daunting task for Earth scientists and applications researchers, especially during recent decades. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has served "Big" Earth science data, and the pertinent valuable information and services to the aforementioned users of diverse communities for years. In order to help and guide our users to online readily (i.e., with a minimum effort) acquire their requested data from our enormous resource at GES DISC for studying their targeted hazard/event, we have thus initiated a "Bundle Data" approach in 2014, first targeting the hurricane event/topic. We have recently worked on new topics such as volcano and blizzard. The "bundle data" of a specific hazard/event is basically a sophisticated integrated data package consisting of a series of proper datasets containing a group of relevant ("knowledge-based") data variables readily accessible to users via a system-prearranged table linking those data variables to the proper datasets (URLs). This online approach has been developed by utilizing a few existing data services such as Mirador as search engine; Giovanni for visualization; and OPeNDAP for data access, etc. The online "Data Cookbook" site at GES DISC is the current host for the "bundle data". We are now also planning on developing an "Automated Virtual Collection Framework" that shall eventually accommodate the "bundle data", as well as further improve our management in "Big Data".

  20. Direct observation of aerosol particles in aged agricultural biomass burning plumes impacting urban atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. Y.; Shao, L. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Emissions from agricultural biomass burning (ABB) in northern China have a significant impact on the regional and the global climate. According to the Giovanni's Aerosol optical depth (AOD) map, the monthly average AOD at 550 nm in northern China in 2007 shows a maximum value of 0.7 in June, suggesting that episodes of severe aerosol pollution occurred in this region. Aerosol particles were collected in urban Beijing during regional brown hazes from 12 to 30 June, 2007. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry characterized the morphology, composition, and mixing state of aerosol particles. Potassium salts (K2SO4 and KNO3), ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic particles predominated in fine particles (diameter <1 μm) collected from 12 to 20 June, 2007. In contrast, from 21 to 30 June, 2007, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic particles were dominant. Potassium-dominant particles as a tracer of biomass burning, together with wildfire maps, show that intensive regional ABB in northern China from 10 to 20 June, 2007 contributed significantly to the regional haze. After long-range transport, ABB particles exhibited marked changes in their morphology, elemental composition, and mixing state. Heterogeneous reactions completely converted KCl particles from ABB into K2SO4 and KNO3. Soot particles were generally mixed with potassium salts, ammonium salts, and organic particles. In addition, the abundant aged organic particles and soluble salts emitted by ABB become more hygroscopic and increase their size during long-range transport, becoming in effect additional cloud condensation nuclei. The high AOD (average value at 2.2) during 12 to 20 June, 2007, in Beijing is partly explained by the hygroscopic growth of aged fine aerosol particles and by the strong absorption of internally mixed soot particles, both coming from regional ABB emissions.

  1. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory: Building partnerships and developing tools to support local Tribal community response to climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. D.; Wee, B.; Kuslikis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Response of Tribal nations and Tribal communities to current and emerging climate change challenges requires active participation of stakeholders who have effective access to relevant data, information and analytical tools. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory (TLC), currently under development, is a joint effort between the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri), and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). The vision of the TLC is to create an integrative platform that enables coordination between multiple stakeholders (e.g. Tribal resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, farmers, ranchers, and other local community members) to collaborate on locally relevant climate change issues. The TLC is intended to facilitate the transformation of data into actionable information that can inform local climate response planning. The TLC will provide the technical mechanisms to access, collect and analyze data from both internal and external sources (e.g. NASA's Giovanni climate data portal, Ameriflux or USA National Phenology Network) while also providing the social scaffolds to enable collaboration across Tribal communities and with members of the national climate change research community. The prototype project focuses on phenology, a branch of science focused on relationships between climate and the seasonal timing of biological phenomena. Monitoring changes in the timing and duration of phenological stages in plant and animal co­­­­mmunities on Tribal lands can provide insight to the direct impacts of climate change on culturally and economically significant Tribal resources . The project will leverage existing phenological observation protocols created by the USA-National Phenology Network and NEON to direct data collection efforts and will be tailored to the specific needs and concerns of the community. Phenology observations will be captured and managed within the Collaboratory

  2. Galileo as a Patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiene, G.; Basso, C.

    2011-06-01

    The clinical history of Galileo, as it turns out from hundred letters he wrote and received, is so informative as to make it possible to delineate the natural history of his body. It is well known that he suffered from recurrent episodes of fever (terzana) since 1606, when he was in Florence as guest of Cristina Lorena for education of the future granduke Cosimo II. By reading signs and symptoms he reported several times, it is clear that he had various diseases (rheumatism, haemorroids, kidney stones, arrhythmias). When in December 1632, at the age of 68, Galileo delayed his journey to Rome claiming sickness, Pope Urban VIII committed 3 physicians to examine him. They reported that Galileo was affected by "pulsus intermittens" (most probably atrial fibrillation), large hernia at risk of rupture, dizziness, diffuse pain, hypochondriacal melancholy as a consequence of the "declining age". It was in February 1637 that he started to have eye disease with lacrimation and progressive loss of sight, which in 10 months led to loose at first the right eye and then also the left one. According to the consultation, asked at distance to Giovanni Trullio on February 1538 in Rome, the diagnosis of blindness due to bilateral uveitis came out. Keeping with the current medicine, the illnes might have been explained in the setting of an immune rheumatic disease (Reiter's syndrome). The cause of Galileo's death, which occurred on 8 January 1642 at the age of 78, is not known since it was not submitted to autopsy. We can speculate cardiac death due to pneumonia complicating congestive heart failure.

  3. Crafting glass vessels: current research on the ancient glass collections in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Alexander; McCarthy, Blythe; Bowe, Stacy

    Our knowledge of glass production in ancient Egypt has been well augmented by the publication of recently excavated materials and glass workshops, but also by more recent materials analysis, and experiments of modern glass-makers attempting to reconstruct the production process of thin-walled coreformed glass vessels. From the mounting of a prefabricated core to the final glass product our understanding of this profession has much improved. The small but well preserved glass collection of the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. is a valid tool for examining and studying the technology and production of ancient Egyptian core formed glass vessels. Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919) acquired most of the material from Giovanni Dattari in Cairo in 1909. Previously the glass had received only limited discussion, suggesting that most of these vessels were produced in the 18th Dynasty in the 15th and 14th centuries BCE, while others date from the Hellenistic period and later. In an ongoing project we conducted computed radiography in conjunction with qualitative x-ray fluorescence analysis on a selected group of vessels to understand further aspects of the ancient production process. This paper will provide an overview of our recent research and present our data-gathering process and preliminary results. How can the examinations of core formed glass vessels in the Freer Gallery contribute to our understanding of ancient glass production and technology? By focusing on new ways of looking at old assumptions using the Freer Gallery glass collections, we hope to increase understanding of the challenges of the production process of core-vessel technology as represented by these vessels.

  4. Addressing and Presenting Quality of Satellite Data via Web-Based Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, C.; Ahmad, S.; Fox, P.; Zednik, S.; West, P.

    2011-01-01

    With the recent attention to climate change and proliferation of remote-sensing data utilization, climate model and various environmental monitoring and protection applications have begun to increasingly rely on satellite measurements. Research application users seek good quality satellite data, with uncertainties and biases provided for each data point. However, different communities address remote sensing quality issues rather inconsistently and differently. We describe our attempt to systematically characterize, capture, and provision quality and uncertainty information as it applies to the NASA MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth data product. In particular, we note the semantic differences in quality/bias/uncertainty at the pixel, granule, product, and record levels. We outline various factors contributing to uncertainty or error budget; errors. Web-based science analysis and processing tools allow users to access, analyze, and generate visualizations of data while alleviating users from having directly managing complex data processing operations. These tools provide value by streamlining the data analysis process, but usually shield users from details of the data processing steps, algorithm assumptions, caveats, etc. Correct interpretation of the final analysis requires user understanding of how data has been generated and processed and what potential biases, anomalies, or errors may have been introduced. By providing services that leverage data lineage provenance and domain-expertise, expert systems can be built to aid the user in understanding data sources, processing, and the suitability for use of products generated by the tools. We describe our experiences developing a semantic, provenance-aware, expert-knowledge advisory system applied to NASA Giovanni web-based Earth science data analysis tool as part of the ESTO AIST-funded Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor project.

  5. Customer-oriented Data Formats and Services for Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products at the NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H.; Kato, H.; Rodell, M.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current GLDAS data hosted at HDISC include a set of 1.0° data products, covering 1979 to the present, from the four models and a 0.25° data product, covering 2000 to the present, from the Noah model. In addition to the basic anonymous ftp data downloading, users can avail themselves of several advanced data search and downloading services, such as Mirador and OPeNDAP. Mirador is a Google-based search tool that provides keywords searching, on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting of selected data. OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) enables remote OPeNDAP clients to access OPeNDAP served data regardless of local storage format. Additional data services to be available in the near future from HDISC include (1) on-the-fly converter of GLDAS to NetCDF and binary data formats; (2) temporal aggregation of GLDAS files; and (3) Giovanni, an online visualization and analysis tool that provides a simple way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of data without having to download the data.

  6. Bundle Data Approach at GES DISC Targeting Natural Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Severe natural phenomena such as hurricane, volcano, blizzard, flood and drought have the potential to cause immeasurable property damages, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic loss of human life. From searching to assessing the Big, i.e., massive and heterogeneous scientific data (particularly, satellite and model products) in order to investigate those natural hazards, it has, however, become a daunting task for Earth scientists and applications researchers, especially during recent decades. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has served Big Earth science data, and the pertinent valuable information and services to the aforementioned users of diverse communities for years. In order to help and guide our users to online readily (i.e., with a minimum effort) acquire their requested data from our enormous resource at GES DISC for studying their targeted hazard event, we have thus initiated a Bundle Data approach in 2014, first targeting the hurricane event topic. We have recently worked on new topics such as volcano and blizzard. The bundle data of a specific hazard event is basically a sophisticated integrated data package consisting of a series of proper datasets containing a group of relevant (knowledge--based) data variables readily accessible to users via a system-prearranged table linking those data variables to the proper datasets (URLs). This online approach has been developed by utilizing a few existing data services such as Mirador as search engine; Giovanni for visualization; and OPeNDAP for data access, etc. The online Data Cookbook site at GES DISC is the current host for the bundle data. We are now also planning on developing an Automated Virtual Collection Framework that shall eventually accommodate the bundle data, as well as further improve our management in Big Data.

  7. Unified User Interface to Support Effective and Intuitive Data Discovery, Dissemination, and Analysis at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Bryant, K.; Johnson, J. E.; Ritrivi, A.; Shen, S.; Volmer, B.; Pham, L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been providing access to scientific data sets since 1990s. Beginning as one of the first Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) archive centers, GES DISC has evolved to offer a wide range of science-enabling services. With a growing understanding of needs and goals of its science users, GES DISC continues to improve and expand on its broad set of data discovery and access tools, sub-setting services, and visualization tools. Nonetheless, the multitude of the available tools, a partial overlap of functionality, and independent and uncoupled interfaces employed by these tools often leave the end users confused as of what tools or services are the most appropriate for a task at hand. As a result, some the services remain underutilized or largely unknown to the users, significantly reducing the availability of the data and leading to a great loss of scientific productivity. In order to improve the accessibility of GES DISC tools and services, we have designed and implemented UUI, the Unified User Interface. UUI seeks to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key services available at GES DISC, including sub-setting (Simple Subset Wizard), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other services. In this poster, we will discuss the main lessons, obstacles, and insights encountered while designing the UUI experience. We will also present the architecture and technology behind UUI, including NodeJS, Angular, and Mongo DB, as well as speculate on the future of the tool at GES DISC as well as in a broader context of the Space Science Informatics.

  8. TRMM Precipitation Application Examples Using Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Greene, M.

    2012-01-01

    Data services to support precipitation applications are important for maximizing the NASA TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and the future GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) mission's societal benefits. TRMM Application examples using data services at the NASA GES DISC, including samples from users around the world will be presented in this poster. Precipitation applications often require near-real-time support. The GES DISC provides such support through: 1) Providing near-real-time precipitation products through TOVAS; 2) Maps of current conditions for monitoring precipitation and its anomaly around the world; 3) A user friendly tool (TOVAS) to analyze and visualize near-real-time and historical precipitation products; and 4) The GES DISC Hurricane Portal that provides near-real-time monitoring services for the Atlantic basin. Since the launch of TRMM, the GES DISC has developed data services to support precipitation applications around the world. In addition to the near-real-time services, other services include: 1) User friendly TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS; URL: http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/); 2) Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/), a simplified interface for searching, browsing, and ordering Earth science data at GES DISC. Mirador is designed to be fast and easy to learn; 3) Data via OPeNDAP (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/services/opendap/). The OPeNDAP provides remote access to individual variables within datasets in a form usable by many tools, such as IDV, McIDAS-V, Panoply, Ferret and GrADS; and 4) The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/services/wxs_ogc.shtml). The WMS is an interface that allows the use of data and enables clients to build customized maps with data coming from a different network.

  9. Moon-Struck: Artists Rediscover Nature And Observe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    We discuss rare early depictions of the Moon by artists who actually observed Earth's nearest neighbor rather than relying on stylized formulas. The earliest, from the 14th and 15th centuries, reveal that revolutionary advances in both pre-telescopic astronomy and naturalistic painting could go hand-in-hand. This link suggests that when painters observed the world, their definition of world could also include the heavens and the Moon. Many of the artists we discuss - e.g., Pietro Lorenzetti, Giotto, and Jan Van Eyck - actually studied the Moon, incorporating their studies into several works. We also consider the star map on the dome over the altar in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo, Florence (c. 1442), whose likely advisor was Toscanelli. In addition, we examine representations by artists who painted for Popes Julius II and Leo X - Raphael and Sebastiano del Piombo, both of whom were influenced by individuals at the papal court, such as the astronomer, painter, and cartographer Johann (Giovanni) Ruysch and Leonardo da Vinci. We also discuss Leonardo's pre-telescopic notes and lunar drawings as they impacted on art and science in Florence, where Galileo would study perspective and chiaroscuro. Galileo's representations of the Moon (engraved in his Sidereus Nuncius, 1610) are noted, together with those by Harriot and Galileo's friend, the painter Cigoli. During the 17th century, the Moon's features were telescopically mapped by astronomers with repercussions in art, e.g., paintings by Donati Creti and Raimondo Manzini as well as Adam Elsheimer. Ending with a consideration of the 19th-century artists/astronomers John Russell and John Brett and early lunar photography, we demonstrate that artistic and scientific visual acuity belonged to the burgeoning empiricism of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries that eventually yielded modern observational astronomy.

  10. Astronomy in the Age of Leonardo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, B. L.

    1997-12-01

    In the 1450s, when Leonardo da Vinci was born, horoscopes were still based primarily on the 13th-century tables developed in the court of Alfonso el Sabio of Spain. By the 15th century European astronomers were computing revised forms of the tables. In Italy, for example, Giovanni Bianchini of Ferrara completed his Tabulae astronomicae in the 1440s. It was finally published posthumously in Venice in 1495. By the 1480s Domenico Maria Novara, a professor of astronomy in Bologna, was publishing annual prognostications of eclipses, conjunctions, and other celestial phenomena. Against this background of traditional astronomy in Italy, two Florentines recorded observations of the sun and moon, comets, and meteorology. Paolo dal Pozzi Toscanelli flourished in the first half of the 15th century and Leonardo da Vinci in the last half. Their observations of celestial phenomena were not primarily for astronomical purposes; they were spinoffs of other pursuits such as medicine, astrology, optics, engineering, and studies of light and shadow. As a physician and cartographer, Toscanelli practiced astrology, studied omens, observed comets and plotted their paths on homemade maps. He also was associated with the construction of a gnomon at the top of the Duomo to observe the summer solstice. It was this project that may have brought him into contact with the young artisan, Leonardo da Vinci. As a painter, Leonardo's approach to science and engineering was to observe, sketch and analyze. His interest in light and shadow led him to notice how the earth, moon and planets all reflect sunlight. His extant manuscripts have geometric sketches for eclipses and for the phenomenon known as "old moon in new moon's arms." Unfortunately, because neither Toscanelli nor Leonardo published their observations, they made no impact on the history of astronomical thought or observation. Their contemporaries did not know or write about their work. Astronomers in the 16th century did not know about

  11. The empire of the ear: Freud's problem with music.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, N M

    1996-12-01

    Freud's difficulty in appreciating music, even though he seems to have been one of Charcot's 'auditifs' and had given auditory imagery a central place in his psychology, is re-examined in the light of his dealings with various distinguished musicians, and with special reference to the musical career of 'Little Hans'. The author argues that Freud's exaggeration of his difficulty, combined with his ability to enjoy certain operas and his use of musical metaphors in the context of theory and therapy, confirms his own intuition of a conflict rather than a simple deficiency. This conflict is examined with reference to the theories of Eissler and of Vitz, and in the light of his own interest in classical Greek culture and in the nature of Art. Since opera was perhaps the only form of music that Freud could readily enjoy, the relation between words and melody in that genre is addressed. The significance for Freud of the specific works and passages that he mentions throughout his writings is examined in the light of some of his own theoretical concepts: (a) with special reference to 'oedipal' features, to the dynamics of 'eros' and 'thanatos', and to the balance between the 'primary' and 'secondary' processes in artistic creativity; and (b) as exemplified in his favourite operas 'The Marriage of Figaro', 'Don Giovanni', 'Carmen' and 'The Mastersingers'. The parts played, in his problem with music, by his envy of the artist's intuitive talent for seduction and by his own 'acoustic atrophy' are also considered. He is defended against the recent charge that, in order to avoid having to cede primacy to others on points of psychology, he deliberately misrepresented how much he knew about music. PMID:9119580

  12. Utilizing the NASA Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education Resource for Elementary Pre-service Teachers in a Technology Integration Education Course.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, E. M.; Moore, T.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.

    2014-12-01

    The preservice teachers enrolled in the EDUC 203 Introduction to Computer Instructional Technology course, primarily for elementary-level had created climate change educational lessons based upon their use of the NASA Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE). NASA climate education datasets and tools were introduced to faculty of Minority Serving Institutions through a grant from the NASA Innovations in Climate Education program. These lessons were developed to study various ocean processes involving phytoplankton's chlorophyll production over time for specific geographic areas using the Giovanni NASA software tool. The pre-service teachers had designed the climate change content that will assist K-4 learners to identify and predict phytoplankton sources attributed to sea surface temperatures, nutrient levels, sunlight, and atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with annual chlorophyll production. From the EDUC 203 course content, the preservice teachers applied the three phases of the technology integration planning (TIP) model in developing their lessons. The Zunal website (http://www.zunal.com) served as a hypermedia tool for online instructional delivery in presenting the climate change content, the NASA climate datasets, and the visualization tools used for the production of elementary learning units. A rubric was developed to assess students' development of their webquests to meet the overall learning objectives and specific climate education objectives. Accompanying each webquest is a rubric with a defined table of criteria, for a teacher to assess students completing each of the required tasks for each lesson. Two primary challenges of technology integration for elementary pre-service teachers were 1) motivating pre-service teachers to be interested in climate education and 2) aligning elementary learning objectives with the Next Generation science standards of climate education that are non-existent in the Common Core State

  13. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The presentation describes data management of NASA remote sensing data for Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Many types of ground and integrative (e.g., satellite, GIs) data will be needed and many models must be applied, adapted or developed for properly understanding the functioning of Northern Eurasia cold and diverse regional system. Mechanisms for obtaining the requisite data sets and models and sharing them among the participating scientists are essential. The proposed project targets integration of remote sensing data from AVHRR, MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US- satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEPNCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  14. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    could be possible to infer the genesis of the scarps as due to complex tectono-karstic phenomena. As for case (ii), our ongoing analyses are aimed to analyze the tectonic "significance" of some closed depressions, up to 4 km long and to 0,5-1 km large, that occur along the south-western slope of the Gran Sasso Range. All these small depression are NW-SE trending. As already described by Bosi et al. (1989), Galadini and Giuliani (1993), D'Agostino et al. (1998), Falcucci et al. (2015), these closed depressions are bounded by scarps carved onto the carbonate bedrock and, subordinately, onto early Quaternary slope deposits, reaching height of up to 5 m. These scarps are preferentially NE dipping, even if in few cases some SW dipping scarp are also present . The field work has permitted to attest that these scarps are related to shear planes that that displaced two subsequent of Early Pleistocene breccias formations (the Valle Valiano Fm. and Fonte Vedice Fm.; Bosi e Bertini, 1993; D'agostino et al., 1997). A paleoseismological trench was also performed across one of these scarps, attesting the activity of these shear planes also in recent times, providing indications result about the deformation style. Reference Bertini, T., & Bosi, C. (1993). La tettonica quaternaria della conca di Fossa (L'Aquila). Il Quaternario, 6(2), 293-314. Bertini, T., Bosi, C., & Galadini, F. (1989). La conca di Fossa-S. Demetrio dei Vestini. CNR, Centro di Studio per la Geologia Tecnica, ENEA, PAS in Elementi di tettonica pliocenicoquaternaria ed indizi di sismicita olocenica nell'Appennino laziale-abruzzese, Societa Geologica Italiana, L'Aquila, 26-58. Bosi, C., & Bertini, T. (1970). Geologia della media valle dell'Aterno. Memorie Società Geologica Italiana, 9(4), 719-777. D'Agostino, N., F. Speranza, & R. Funiciello., (1997) "Le Brecce Mortadella dell'Appennino Centrale: primi risultati di stratigrafia magnetica." Il Quaternario10.2: 385-388. D'Agostino, N., Chamot-Rooke, N., Funiciello, R

  15. PREFACE: International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberauer, Lothar; Raffelt, Georg; Wagner, Robert

    2012-07-01

    'Tor Vergata' K DanzmannMax Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics S DodelsonFermilab G DomogatskyINR Moscow E FioriniUniversità di Milano Bicocca & INFN K FreeseUniversity of Michigan M FukugitaICRR Tokyo T GaisserUniversity of Delaware G GerbierCEA Saclay F HalzenUniversity of Wisconsin W HaxtonLNBL & UC Berkeley J HoughGlasgow University E KomatsuUniversity of Texas E KatsavounidisMassachusetts Institute of Technology M LindnerMax Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics K LeskoLBNL & UC Berkeley A McDonaldQueens University & SNO Laboratory H MurayamaIPMU Tokyo & UC Berkeley A OlintoUniversity of Chicago L ResvanisUniversity of Athens A RubbiaETH Zurich S SarkarUniversity of Oxford A SmirnovICTP Trieste N SmithSNO Laboratory C SpieringDESY Zeuthen N SpoonerUniversity of Sheffield Y SuzukiICRR Tokyo M TeshimaMax Planck Institute for Physics J W F ValleIFIC & University of Valencia L VotanoLNGS E WaxmanWeizmann Institute J WilkersonUniversity of North Carolina TAUP Steering Committee F T AvignoneUniversity of South Carolina B C BarishCaltech E BellottiUniversity of Milan Bicoccia & INFN J BernabeuUniversity of Valencia A BottinoUniversity of Turin & INFN (chair) N FornengoUniversity of Turin & INFN T KajitaICRR Tokyo C W KimJohns Hopkins University & KIAS V MatveevINR Moscow G RaffeltMax Planck Institute for Physics D SinclairUniversity of Carleton M SpiroCEA Saclay Parallel Session Conveners Dark Matter - Candidates and Searches J-C LanfranchiTechnische Universität München T Marrodán UndagoitiaUniversity of Zurich T BringmannUniversität Hamburg Cosmology J WellerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität München S HannestadUniversity of Aarhus Double Beta Decay, Neutrino Mass M HirschIFIC/CSIC - University of Valencia A GiulianiCNRS Orsay Neutrino Oscillations T LachenmaierUniversität Tübingen F SuekaneTohoku University Low-Energy Neutrinos (Geo, Solar, Supernova) A DigheTIFR Mumbai M ChenQueen's University M WurmUniversität Hamburg Gravitational Waves E Coccia

  16. Time-dependent evolution of rock slopes by a multi-modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Della Seta, M.; Martino, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-modelling approach that incorporates contributions from morpho-evolutionary modelling, detailed engineering-geological modelling and time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling to analyse the rheological evolution of a river valley slope over approximately 102 kyr. The slope is located in a transient, tectonically active landscape in southwestern Tyrrhenian Calabria (Italy), where gravitational processes drive failures in rock slopes. Constraints on the valley profile development were provided by a morpho-evolutionary model based on the correlation of marine and river strath terraces. Rock mass classes were identified through geomechanical parameters that were derived from engineering-geological surveys and outputs of a multi-sensor slope monitoring system. The rock mass classes were associated to lithotechnical units to obtain a high-resolution engineering-geological model along a cross section of the valley. Time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling reproduced the main morpho-evolutionary stages of the valley slopes. The findings demonstrate that a complex combination of eustatism, uplift and Mass Rock Creep (MRC) deformations can lead to first-time failures of rock slopes when unstable conditions are encountered up to the generation of stress-controlled shear zones. The multi-modelling approach enabled us to determine that such complex combinations may have been sufficient for the first-time failure of the S. Giovanni slope at approximately 140 ka (MIS 7), even without invoking any trigger. Conversely, further reactivations of the landslide must be related to triggers such as earthquakes, rainfall and anthropogenic activities. This failure involved a portion of the slope where a plasticity zone resulted from mass rock creep that evolved with a maximum strain rate of 40% per thousand years, after the formation of a river strath terrace. This study demonstrates that the multi-modelling approach presented herein is a useful

  17. Middle to Late Pleistocene coastal deposits of Eivissa (Western Mediterranean): Chronology and evolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Valle, Laura; Pomar, Francisco; Fornós, Joan J.; Gómez-Pujol, Lluís; Anechitei-Deacu, Valentina; Timar-Gabor, Alida

    2016-04-01

    This study deals with the sedimentary and stratigraphical description of Pleistocene deposits from seven coastal areas of Eivissa (Balearic Islands). Twenty two sedimentary facies have been described involving the succession of eolian, colluvial and edaphic environments. Carbonate sandstones, breccias and silty deposits are the main component of these sequences. Despite the extensive eolian systems outcropping along the coast of Eivissa, there are very few studies performed to chronological framework of these deposits. Luminescence measurements were carried out using an automated RisØ TL/OSL-DA-20 reader in the Luminescence Dating Laboratory of Babes-Bolyai University (Cluj-Napoca, Romania) under low intensity red light. OSL dating of nineteen eolian levels indicate that their deposition took place between the Middle and Late Pleistocene, establishing a paleoclimatic evolution of Eivissa Island since 755 ka to 70 Ka. Eolian activity in the Eivissa Island can be correlated with regression episodes which took place during cold periods associated with different isotopic stages, concretely the MIS 18, 16, 12, 10, 8, 6 and 4. Similar results have been obtained from many sites along the western Mediterranean Sea such as Mallorca (Pomar i Cuerda, 1979; Nielsen et al, 2004; Fornós et al, 2009), Sardinia (Andreucci et al, 2009; Pascucci et al, 2014), Liguria (Pappalardo et al., 2013). Keywords: Eolian dunes, Pleistocene, Climatic evolution, Eivissa. References - Andreucci, S.; Pascucci, V.; Murray, A. S.; Clemmensen, L. B. 2009. Late Pleistocene coastal evolution of San Giovanni di Sinis, west Sardinia (Western Mediterranean). Sedimentary Geology, 216: 104- 116 - Fornós, J.J.; Clemmensen, L.B.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Murray, A. 2009. Late Pleistocene carbonate aeolianites on Mallorca, Western Mediterranean: a luminescence chronology. Quaternary Science reviews 28: 2697-2709. -Nielsen, K.A.; Clemmensen, L.B.; Fornós, J.J. 2004. Middle Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy and

  18. Developing Data Citations from Digital Object Identifier Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has been processing information for the registration of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for the last five years of which an automated system has been in operation for the last two years. The ESDIS DOI registration system has registered over 2000 DOIs with over 1000 DOIs held in reserve until all required information has been collected. By working towards the goal of assigning DOIs to the 8000+ data collections under its management, ESDIS has taken the first step towards facilitating the use of data citations with those products. When registering DOIs, ESDIS requires certain DOI elements be collected for the DOI landing page as recommended by NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). The landing page provides sufficient information to 1) identify NASA data as referenced in a science publication, 2) credit data creators and distributors, and 3) access the data itself enabling the trace-ability and reproducibility of the data. However, the required elements for this DOI landing page are also the core required elements for forming an Earth science data citation. Data citations are getting significant attention from the scientific community and data centers alike. So to encourage the citing of Earth science data products, each product DOI landing page displays a sample data citation and makes the required citation elements available to DataCite for use in its Data Citation generation tool. This paper will describe that process. ESDIS data centers are constantly developing technologies to better serve the Earth science user community such as Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI), Land and Atmospheric Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE), and advanced tools that support virtual data collections, and virtual data products. These all provide easier access to data and make possible the creation of data products with user specified parameters

  19. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    necessarily entirely exposed to scientists writing visualization queries, facilitates the automated construction of visualization pipelines. VisKo queries have been successfully used in support of visualization scenarios from Earth Science domains including: velocity model isosurfaces, gravity data raster, and contour map renderings. Our synergistic environment provided by our CYBER-ShARE initiative at the University of Texas at El Paso has allowed us to work closely with Earth Science experts that have both provided us our test data as well as validation as to whether the execution of VisKo queries are returning visualizations that can be used for data analysis. Additionally, we have employed VisKo queries to support visualization scenarios associated with Giovanni, an online platform for data analysis developed by NASA GES DISC. VisKo-enhanced visualizations included time series plotting of aerosol data as well as contour and raster map generation of gridded brightness-temperature data.

  20. Sensitivity studies of SREM instrument response and spectral unfolding to particle environment anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Xiao, Hualin; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw

    2016-04-01

    , p 1105-1112 [3] Martin Siegl, Hugh D. R. Evans, Eamonn J. Daly, Giovanni Santin, Petteri J. Nieminen, and Paul Bühler, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. vol. 57, no. 4, p 2017-2023 [4] H.D.R. Evans, P. Buehler, W. Hajdas, E.J. Daly, P.Nieminen, A. Mohammadzadeh, Results from the ESA SREM monitors and comparison with existing radiation belt models, Advances in Space Research 42, 1527 (2008)

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer and VRIJHK photometry of V582 Mon (Arulanantham+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulanantham, N. A.; Herbst, W.; Cody, A. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L. M.; Agol, E.; Windemuth, D.; Marengo, M.; Winn, J. N.; Hamilton, C. M.; Mundt, R.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Gutermuth, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have continued to obtain ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry over the last two years using A Novel Dual Imaging CAMera (ANDICAM) on the 1.3m telescope at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The instrument is operated by the SMARTS consortium. Data were collected almost nightly from 2013 October through 2014 April. Observations were resumed in 2014 September and continued until 2015 April. Each night, four 150s exposures were obtained in each of the three optical bands (VRI) along with 10-15 dithered exposures (30s each) in the near-infrared bands (JHK). All images have a 10.2'*10.2' field of view. The data acquisition and reduction processes are discussed briefly in Appendix A, and a more complete description is given by Windemuth & Herbst 2014 (cat. J/AJ/147/9). The VRIJHK magnitudes from the last two observing seasons have been added to the entire set of CCD data obtained since 1995, which is presented here as Table1. Images of KH 15D were collected with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during six observational runs with five separate PI's spanning three distinct epochs since 2004 (2004 Mar 6 and 2004 Oct 08, PI Giovanni Fazio, Program ID=37; 2004 Oct 5-12 and 2005 Oct 21-29, PI Massimo Marengo, Program ID=3441; 2006 Mar 23-27, PI Eric Agol, Program ID=3469; 2008 Nov 1-2, PI Lucas A. Cieza, Program ID=50773). The fifth set of observations was obtained by the CSI 2264 team (PI=John R. Stauffer, Program ID=61027, 80040) as part of a large campaign to monitor young variable objects in NGC2264 (Cody et al. 2014, cat. J/AJ/147/82). These data were obtained over 28 consecutive days of observation in 2011 December (2011 Dec 3-2012 Jan 1). A final set of observations was obtained on eight nights between 2013 December and 2014 January (2013 Dec 22-2014 Jan 20, PI William Herbst, Program ID=90154, 90098). The full set of Spitzer photometry at all epochs is given in Table3. (2 data files).

  2. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masahiko; Ueda, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    the conference. Finally, the chairs would like to express their thanks to all the participants for contributing to lively and fruitful discussions throughout the conference. Masahiko Takahashi and Kiyoshi Ueda International Advisory Board Lorenzo Avaldi (Italy)Klaus Bartschat (USA) Azzedine Lahmam-Bennani (France)Jamal Berakdar (Germany) Nora Berrah (USA)Igor Bray (Australia) XiangJun Chen (China)Claude Dal Cappello (France) Reinhard Dörner (Germany)Alexander Dorn (Germany) Danielle Dowek (France)Alexey Grum-Grzhimailo (Russia) Noriyuki Kouchi (Japan)Birgit Lohmann (Australia) Don Madison (USA)Fernando Martin (Spain) Andrew Murray (England)Bernard Piraux (Belgium) Roberto Rivarola (Argentina)Emma Sokell (Ireland) Giovanni Stefani (Italy) Conference photograph

  3. On the history of deformation phosphenes and the idea of internal light generated in the eye for the purpose of vision.

    PubMed

    Grüsser, O J; Hagner, M

    1990-02-01

    in this matter was performed by Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) and repeated and extended by Georg August Langguth (1711-1782). On the basis of their results, the case for physical light being generated in the eye by deformation was refuted definitively and slowly vanished thereafter from scientific literature. Deformation phosphenes were used in the 19th and 20th centuries as an instructive example of the percepts evoked by inadequate stimulation of a sense organ. J.E. Pŭrkyne in particular contributed to the study of deformation phosphenes, and finally in 1978, F. Tyler devoted a careful study to the differences between monocular and binocular deformation phosphenes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2209368

  4. Hamiltonian structure of a drift-kinetic model and Hamiltonian closures for its two-moment fluid reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  5. A-Train Data Depot: Integrating, Visualizing, and Extracting Cloudsat, CALIPSO, MODIS, and AIRS Atmospheric Measurements Along the A-Train Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Stephens, Graeme; Winkler, Dave; Leptoukh, Greg; Reinke, Don; Smith, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The succession of US and international Earth observing satellites that follow each other, seconds to minutes apart, across the local afternoon equator crossing is called the ATrain. The A-Train consists of the following satellites, in order of equator crossing: OCO, EOS Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, and EOS Aura. Flying in such formation increases the number of observations, validates observations, and enables coordination between science observations, resulting in a more complete virtual science platform (Kelly, 2000). The goal of this project is to create the first ever A-Train virtual data portal/center, the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD), to process, archive, access, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from various A-Train instruments along A-Train tracks. The ATDD will enable the free movement of remotely located A-Train data so that they are combined to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. Once the infrastructure of the ATDD is in place, it will be easily evolved to serve data from all A-Train data measurements: one stop shopping. The innovative approach of analyzing and visualizing atmospheric profiles along the platforms track (i.e., time) will be accommodated by reusing the GSFC Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) visualization and analysis tool, GIOVANNI, existing data reduction tools, on-line archiving for fast data access, access to remote data without unnecessary data transfers, and data retrieval by users finding data desirable for further study. Initial measurements utilized include CALIPSO lidar backscatter, CloudSat radar reflectivity, clear air relative humidity, water vapor and temperature from AIRS, and cloud properties and aerosols from both MODIS. This will be foilowed by associated measurements from TVILS, =MI, HIRDLS, sad TES. Given the independent nature of instrumentlplatform development, the ATDD project has been met with

  6. NASA A-Train Vertical Data (Curtains) in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Leptoukh, G.; di, L.; Lynnes, C.; Kempler, S.; Nadeau, D.

    2007-12-01

    Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, map data, and human-social data to make a real 3D interactive template of the world. It is revolutionizing the way that general public recognize our planet and professional scientists discover, add, and share information about different geographic-related subjects in the world. NASA Goddard Earth Science (GES) Data and Information Service Center (DISC) has done innovative work integrating NASA imagery in Google Earth in order to facilitate scientific research and releasing of geospatial- related public information. The NASA imagery includes two dimensional (2D) flat data and three dimensional (3D) vertical data. Here, a new solution is introduced to integrate the vertical data from the A-Train constellation satellites CloudSat, CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation), and Aqua (mainly MODIS and AIRS products) into Google Earth to vividly expose cloud, aerosol, and H2O characteristics and atmospheric temperature profile in the form of curtain along the satellite orbit. All kinds of vertical data are first processed by GIOVANNI (GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) A-Train system based on user-selected spatial/temporal range and physical parameters. The resultant image is processed into transparent small image slices with each image slice representing the fixed temporal internal orbit range. A generalized COLLADA (COLLAborative Design Activity) 3D model is designed to render the image slices in the form of 3D. Based on the designed COLLADA models and satellite orbit coordinates, an orbit model is designed and implemented in KML (Keyhole Markup Language) format. The resultant orbit curtain makes vertical data viewable, transparently or opaquely, in Google Earth. Thus, three- dimensional science research data can be made available to scientists and the general public in a popular venue. Also, simultaneous visualization and efficient

  7. An innovative multi-source approach for environmental monitoring of landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Mei, Alessandro; Paciucci, Lucia; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of downscaling approach, based on the products obtained by remote sensing and in situ survey, for the geo-environmental analysis of landfill site, located in the San Giovanni in Fiore Municipalty (CS) in the Southern Italy (Calabria District). The aim of the study focused on the optimization of techniques for the monitoring of landfill area by optical remote sensing, which represents a crucial issue since usual investigation methods are expensive and time-consuming. This approach integrated data with different spectral and spatial resolutions extracting parameters descriptive of superficial condition. The use of remote sensing provided a synoptic perspective considering time and spatial ranges which were useful for the monitoring of different environmental matrices and the assessment of biogas and leachate migration. Indeed the multispectral data of Worldview 2 (2012) and Pléiades (2014 and 2015) operating in the range from visible to near-infrared, were adopted for the retrieval of indices descriptive of the vegetation and soil targets with high spatial resolution. The orthophoto dataset integrated the temporal analysis not covered by spectral imagery showing a general increasing of land consumption and highlighting area with no or senescent vegetation cover. These evidences, due to the intensive human activities and to geological, hydraulic and land cover conditions, provided the general setting of the area and its evolution identifying ongoing processes in the study area. The Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) airborne sensor extended the remote sensing analysis up to the thermal domain highlighting superficial anomalies of landfill capping linked to local phenomena such as biogas migration or local humidity into the ground. The dataset of products obtained by remote sensing data processing was validated by in situ analysis. The evidences of ground anomalies were collected by field surveys and

  8. Linking Present Environmental Change on Earth to Rapid Climate Change on Mars at the Noachian/Hesperian Boundary: Implications for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastan, A.; Cabrol, N. A.; Phillips, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Earth has undergone numerous periods of climatic fluctuations over geologic time, but the abrupt and global change currently ongoing offers a unique opportunity to observe Earth's climate evolution in real time. This provides the chance to both better understand current and past changes on our own planet and extend our knowledge of other planetary climates. Mineralogy and morphology show that Mars underwent a period of rapid environmental change between 3.7 and 3.2 Ga, transitioning from a wet and possibly warm climate to the arid, cold environment seen presently. Here, we present results of satellite imagery studies and orbital remote sensing data acquired for four sites, over a period of almost a decade but extending to three decades in some instances. These locations were chosen as Mars analog environments on Earth, and are currently undergoing rapid environmental change. We use these studies to establish parameters that both characterize the nature and rapidity of the changes observed and could be employed to detect evidence of past global change on Mars. Using NASA's Giovanni databases, we have extracted aerosols, UV radiation, ozone levels, precipitation and atmospheric data such as relative humidity, air temperature, surface pressure, and others for four locations in the Andes: Aguas Calientes (23.21 S, 67.40 W); Llullaillaco (24.43 S, 68.32 W); Laguna Negra (33.38 S, 70.07 W); and Cipreses (34.42 S, 70.20 W). Initial results show a steady increase in carbon dioxide fraction. Temperature at the surface and throughout the atmosphere has remained stable in the past decade (2003-2011). H2O mass mixing ratios show a more varied result, with stable values at all atmospheric elevations above the surface, but larger variations often observed at ground level. Relative humidity values showed significant yearly fluctuations at all elevations in the atmosphere. In contrast, total aerosol levels appear to have decreased by almost a third in recent years (2000

  9. Assimilation of multiple river flow data for enhanced operational flood forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, Giulia; Castelli, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    that is minimized during the variational assimilation procedure.Results show that more significant improvements are obtained in floods events than in false alarms. For instance, error on peak flow reduces respectively of about 30% and 20% (lead time of nearly 20 hours) at the measurement station that is representative of river network outlet (S. Giovanni alla Vena).The best performances correspond to single peak flood events, while in some more complex cases DA does not significantly improve modeled discharges, possibly because of shortcomings in model structure.Forecasts at downstream locations enhance especially when peak flow of the main upstream tributaries is included in the assimilation window. In conclusion, the operational hydrologic forecasting chain can effectively benefits from the developed assimilation system, although in the limit of the model structure.

  10. PREFACE: 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Across Physical and Behavioural Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Rossi, Giovanni; Crenna, Francesco; Belotti, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    measurement, focused on a common objective: the human being. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Symposium Steering and International Programme Committees, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers presented here under a very short timescale, as well as our sponsor, National Instruments. The editors hope that this volume will provide a useful contribution to enhancing the science, technology, education, and training in measurement and instrumentation. Giovanni Battista Rossi, Francesco Crenna and Vittorio Belotti Editors Università degli Studi di Genova - DIME/MEC Laboratorio di Misure Via all'Opera Pia 15 a I - 16145 Genova Italy LogoLogoLogo

  11. Between a Map and a Data Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Strub, Richard; Vollmer, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A Digital Divide has long stood between how NASA and other satellite-derived data are typically archived (time-step arrays or maps) and how hydrology and other point-time series oriented communities prefer to access those data. In essence, the desired method of data access is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. Our approach to bridging the Divide is part of a larger NASA-supported data rods project to enhance access to and use of NASA and other data by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) and the larger hydrology community. Our main objective was to determine a way to reorganize data that is optimal for these communities. Two related objectives were to optimally reorganize data in a way that (1) is operational and fits in and leverages the existing Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) operational environment and (2) addresses the scaling up of data sets available as time series from those archived at the GES DISC to potentially include those from other Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data archives. Through several prototype efforts and lessons learned, we arrived at a non-database solution that satisfied our objectivesconstraints. We describe, in this presentation, how we implemented the operational production of pre-generated data rods and, considering the tradeoffs between length of time series (or number of time steps), resources needed, and performance, how we implemented the operational production of on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. For the virtual data rods, we leveraged a number of existing resources, including the NASA Giovanni Cache and NetCDF Operators (NCO) and used data cubes processed in parallel. Our current benchmark performance for virtual generation of data rods is about a years worth of time series for hourly data (9,000 time steps) in 90 seconds. Our approach is a specific implementation of

  12. On the use of Multisensor and multitemporal data for monitoring risk degradation and looting in archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risks which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world. They cause a massive loss of artefacts but also, and above all, a loss of the cultural context, which makes the subsequent interpretation of archaeological remains very difficult. Remote sensing offers a suitable chance to quantify and analyse this phenomenon, especially in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is not much effective and time consuming or non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In this paper we focus on the use of GeoEye and Google Earth imagery to quantitatively assess looting in Ventarron (Lambayeque, Peru) that is one of most important archaeological sites in Southern America. Multitemporal satellite images acquired for the study area have been processed by using both autocorrelation statistics and unsupervised classification to highlight and extract looting patterns. The mapping of areas affected by looting offered the opportunity to investigate such areas not previously systematically documented. Reference Lasaponara R.; Giovanni Leucci; Nicola Masini; Raffaele Persico 2014 ": Investigating archaeological looting using very high resolution satellite images and georadar: the experience in Lambayeque in North Peru JASC13-61R1 Cigna Francesca, Deodato Tapete, Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini, 2013 Amplitude Change Detection with ENVISAT ASAR to Image the Cultural Landscape of the Nasca Region, Peru (pages 117-131). Archeological Prospection Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1451 Tapete Deodato, Francesca Cigna, Nicola Masini and Rosa Lasaponara 2013. Prospection and Monitoring of the Archaeological Heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR Archeological Prospection (pages 133-147) Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1449 Lasaponara Rosa 2013: Geospatial analysis from space: Advanced approaches for data processing

  13. Numerical Modelling of the Seasonal Variability of Plankton and Forage Fish in the Gulf of Khambhat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Jayaraman, Girija

    2014-05-01

    chlorophyll-a with 9 and 4 km resolution are available at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni. The observed data have two peaks, one in February and the other in August. Model simulated results agree well qualitatively with SeaWiFs and MODIS Aqua Chlorophyll data, pattern of peaks being nearly the same.

  14. Global Long-Term SeaWiFS Deep Blue Aerosol Products available at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Sayer, A. M.; Bettenhausen, C.; Wei, J. C.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Hsu, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term climate data records of aerosols are needed in order to study regional air quality and the uncertainty of aerosol radiative forcing with numerical models. Recently, global long-term (over 13 years from 1997 to 2010) SeaWiFS Deep Blue (SWDB) aerosol products have become available. The SWDB aerosol dataset has been produced by the "Consistent Long-Term Aerosol Data Records over Land and Ocean from SeaWIFS" project led by Dr. N. Christina Hsu as part of the Making Earth Science data records for Use in Research for Earth Science (MEaSUREs) program. The latest Deep Blue algorithm retrieves aerosol properties not only over bright desert surfaces, but also vegetated surfaces, oceans, and inland water bodies. Comparisons with AERONET observations have shown that the data are suitable for quantitative scientific use. The resolution of the Level 2 pixels is 13.5x13.5 km2 at the center of the swath. The Level 3 daily and monthly data are composed by using best quality level 2 pixels at resolution of both 0.5x0.5 and 1.0x1.0 degrees. This presentation, focusing over the south Asia region, will show sample higher resolution Level 2 images of dust events and the Level 3 monthly climatology at large scale. The data are compared with the widely-used MODIS (Deep Blue and Dark Target) aerosol dataset. The SWDB aerosol data are available from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through a number of data services, such as FTP; the data search system, Mirador; OPeNDAP; and online subsetting services. The global daily and monthly Level 3 products are also available in the innovative online visualization and analysis system, Giovanni. More information about SWBD aerosol products can be found from the project portal: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/dust. Seasonal climatology of SeaWiFS Deep Blue Aerosol Optical Depth at 550nm for the period from 1997.09 to 2010.12.

  15. Remote sensing of plant emissions of volatile isoprenoids with PRI. Prospects for upscaling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuelas, J.

    2013-12-01

    Josep Peñuelas*1,2, Giovanni Marino1,2,3,4, Joan LLusia1,2, Catherine Morfopoulos1,2,5, Gerard Farre-Armengol1,2, Shawn Kefauver, Alex Guenther6 , Francesca Rapparini7 , Roger Seco1,2,6, Marc Estiarte1,2, Mónica Mejia-Chang1,2, Romà Ogaya1,2, Jordi Sardans1,2 , Andrew Turnipseed6, Peter Harley6, Osvaldo Facini7, Rita Baraldi7, Jim Greenberg6 , Iolanda Filella1,2 1 CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Catalonia, Spain 2 CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Catalonia, Spain 3 Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (IS), Italy 4 Institute for Plant Protection, National Research Council, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy 5 Division of Ecology and Evolution, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK 6 Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA 7 Biometeorology Institute, IBIMET-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy Abstract Terrestrial plants re-emit around 1-2% of the carbon they fix as isoprene and monoterpenes. These emissions play major roles in the ecological relationships among living organisms and in atmospheric chemistry and climate, and yet their actual quantification at the ecosystem level in different regions is far from being resolved. Phenomenological models are used to estimate the emission rates, but the limited understanding of the function and regulation of these emissions leads to large uncertainties in such estimations. Many measurements have been made at the foliar but few at the ecosystem level, and those that do exist are limited in space and time. We here provide evidence that a simple remote sensing index, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which is indicative of light use efficiency (LUE), is a good indirect estimator of foliar isoprenoid emissions and therefore can be used to sense them remotely. These results open

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Science and Eastern Orthodoxy. From the Greek Fathers to the Age of Globalization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaidis, E.; Sterken, C.

    2014-01-01

    the teaching of the history of science and philosophy. It is a well-researched work, with more than 450 notes, and a dozen pages of references. It is a pity, though, that the substantial geographical references and descriptions are not supported by even a single geographical map to guide the reader around Greece and Byzantium. Unfortunately, this publication is pockmarked by just too many typographical errors that were left in place during the copy-editing process. Worse even is the terrible habit of the translator of transposing native first names into modern English look-alikes: John the Grammarian, Marc Eugenicos, John Moisiodax, and the most ridiculous "John Dominique" Cassini (for Giovanni Domenico/Jean-Dominique).

  17. AIRS Version 6 Products and Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Hearty, T. J.; Theobald, M. L.; Vollmer, B.; Esfandiari, E.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission. The AIRS mission is entering its 11th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the Version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. Among the most substantial advances are: improved soundings of Tropospheric and Sea Surface Temperatures; larger improvements with increasing cloud cover; improved retrievals of surface spectral emissivity; near-complete removal of spurious temperature bias trends seen in earlier versions; substantially improved retrieval yield (i.e., number of soundings accepted for output) for climate studies; AIRS-Only retrievals with comparable accuracy to AIRS+AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) retrievals; and more realistic hemispheric seasonal variability and global distribution of carbon monoxide. The GES DISC is working to bring the distribution services up-to-date with these new developments. Our focus is on popular services, like variable subsetting and quality screening, which are impacted by the new elements in Version 6. Other developments in visualization services, such as Giovanni, Near-Real Time imagery, and a granule-map viewer, are progressing along with the introduction of the new data; each service presents its own challenge. This presentation will demonstrate the most significant improvements in Version 6 AIRS products, such as newly added variables (higher resolution outgoing longwave radiation, new cloud property products, etc.), the new quality control schema, and improved retrieval yields. We will also

  18. Between a Map and a Data Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Strub, R. F.; Vollmer, B.

    2015-12-01

    A "Digital Divide" has long stood between how NASA and other satellite-derived data are typically archived (time-step arrays or "maps") and how hydrology and other point-time series oriented communities prefer to access those data. In essence, the desired method of data access is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. Our approach to bridging the Divide is part of a larger NASA-supported "data rods" project to enhance access to and use of NASA and other data by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) and the larger hydrology community. Our main objective was to determine a way to reorganize data that is optimal for these communities. Two related objectives were to optimally reorganize data in a way that (1) is operational and fits in and leverages the existing Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) operational environment and (2) addresses the scaling up of data sets available as time series from those archived at the GES DISC to potentially include those from other Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data archives. Through several prototype efforts and lessons learned, we arrived at a non-database solution that satisfied our objectives/constraints. We describe, in this presentation, how we implemented the operational production of pre-generated data rods and, considering the tradeoffs between length of time series (or number of time steps), resources needed, and performance, how we implemented the operational production of on-the-fly ("virtual") data rods. For the virtual data rods, we leveraged a number of existing resources, including the NASA Giovanni Cache and NetCDF Operators (NCO) and used data cubes processed in parallel. Our current benchmark performance for virtual generation of data rods is about a year's worth of time series for hourly data (~9,000 time steps) in ~90 seconds. Our approach is a specific

  19. Secondary reconnection, energisation and turbulence in dipolarisation fronts: results of a 3D kinetic simulation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    regions in the fronts. [1] Hamrin, Maria, et al. "The evolution of flux pileup regions in the plasma sheet: Cluster observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 118.10 (2013): 6279-6290. [2] Wu, Mingyu, et al. "In situ observations of multistage electron acceleration driven by magnetic reconnection." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120.8 (2015): 6320-6331. [3] Schmid, D., et al. "Two states of magnetotail dipolarization fronts: A statistical study." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120.2 (2015): 1096-1108. [4] Lapenta, Giovanni, et al. "Secondary reconnection sites in reconnection-generated flux ropes and reconnection fronts." Nature Physics 11.8 (2015): 690-695.

  20. Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irène Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardiès, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on

  1. Reduction of CO2 and orbital debris: can CO2 emission trading principles be applied to debris reduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Giovanni; Kinnersley, Mark; Starke, Juergen; Hugel, Sebastian; Hartner, Gloria; Singh, Sanjay; Loubiere, Vincent; Staebler, Dominik-Markus; O'Brien-Organ, Christopher; Schwindt, Stefan; Serreau, Francois; Sharma, Mohit

    potential customers as satellite operators, agencies or international organisations Giovanni.Orlando@astrium.eads.net Tel.: +49-421-539-4032 juergen.starke@astrium.eads.net Tel.: +49-421-539-4573

  2. Pregnancy-related venous thrombosis: comparison between spontaneous and ART conception in an Italian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Michela; Dentali, Francesco; Colaizzo, Donatella; Tiscia, Giovanni Luca; Vergura, Patrizia; Petruccelli, Tiziana; Petruzzelli, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in an Italian cohort the incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Setting Thrombosis and Haemostasis Unit at I.R.C.C.S. ‘Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza’, S. Giovanni Rotondo. Participants A prospective cohort of 998 women advised to undergo ART was referred by local fertility clinics from April 2002 to July 2011. Follow-up information was obtained during the check-up and/or by phone interviews. In a cohort of women who consecutively gave birth (n=3339) after spontaneous conception in our Institution, information on the diagnoses of pregnancy-related venous thromboses was obtained by linkage to a patient administrative register. Primary and secondary outcome measures We calculated the incidence of VTE and superficial venous thrombosis in successful ART cycles and compared it with that of the general population conceiving spontaneously. Results Overall, 684 ART cycles were carried out by 234 women, who achieved a clinical pregnancy; in case of more than one successful cycle, only the first pregnancy was considered. Three vein thromboses (two VTE and one superficial vein thrombosis) were recorded. An antithrombotic prophylaxis with LMWH alone or combined with low-dose aspirin was prescribed in 23/234 (9.8%) women. In the reference cohort of 3339 women, a total of 11 vein thromboses were observed: six VTE and five SVT. The two-tailed Fisher exact test showed a trend towards statistical significance (p: 0.06, OR: 3.9, 95% CI 0.87 to 15.3). After the exclusion of superficial thromboses in both the groups, we found that the incidence of VTE in our population of women who had undergone ART was 2/234 pregnancies (8.5 ‰), whereas that in our reference population was 6/3339 (1.8 ‰) (p: 0.09). Conclusions Our data show a slightly higher incidence of vein thromboses in pregnancies after ART than in those after natural conception. PMID:26443651

  3. Finite Fault Modeling in Near-Real Time for Tsunami Warning Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Lundgren, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) provides notification to its clients in the Pacific basin of large earthquakes with an assessment of their potential for tsunamigenesis. It is our goal to issue our message products as soon as possible after the detection of a Pacific basin earthquake. Typically, our first official messages are issued within 15 minutes of an earthquake. The Achilles heel of the warning system has been its inability to predict the size of the waves when they arrive on shore. Due to taking a conservative posture, this has resulted in false evacuations. The tsunami modeling community has developed tools that give the tsunami warning system a nascent ability to forecast wave heights. This study is a step towards using a more realistic source, rather than rule of thumb source prescriptions based on Mw, which may be inadequate for complex events resulting in modeling errors in the near and regional fields. We are experimenting with computing slip distributions in near real time in an effort to provide a more realistic source for the purpose of tsunami modeling. The PTWC currently receives broadband data from as many as 100 stations at any given time. Hence we are well situated to do the fault modeling in near real time. The procedure requires a fault plane solution. We use a variant of the method used by Mendoza (SRL, Vol. 67, 19-26, 1996) to perform the inversion. Tests on synthetic earthquakes illustrate the limitations and parameter trade-offs inherent to bodywave inverse solutions. We have so far applied this technique to the Mw 8.4 2001 Peru earthquake and have obtained results that are broadly consistent with those found by previous studies Giovanni et al., ( GRL, Vol. 29, 14-1 - 14-4, 2002), Bilek and Ruff (GRL Vol. 29, 21-1 - 21-4, 2002) and Kikuchi ( wwweic.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/EIC/EIC_News/105E.html ). The resulting source time function as found by other studies is primarily bimodal, with one peak occurring at 15 sec, and a much larger

  4. Repair to the Huygens probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers examine the Huygens probe after removal from the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) at KSC. The spacecraft was returned to the PHSF after damage to the thermal insulation was discovered inside Huygens from an abnormally high flow of conditioned air. The damage required technicians to inspect the inside of the probe, repair the insulation, and clean the instruments. After returning from the PHSF to Launch Pad 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Cassini/Huygens launched successfully in October 1997, and reached Saturn in July of 2004. Scientific instruments carried aboard the Cassini orbiter will study Saturn's atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and several moons, while the Huygens probe will separate and land on the surface of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. The Cassini-Huygens mission owes its name to the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens and Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini. Both had spectacular careers as observers of the heavens, which included important discoveries about Saturn and its satellites. Huygens (1629-1695) discovered Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in 1655 and in 1656 described the shape and phase changes of Saturn's rings. Cassini (1625-1712) was the first to observe four of Saturn's moons, Iapetus, Rhea, Tethys, and Dione, in the 1670s and 1680s. He also, in 1675, discovered the gap in Saturn's rings, now called the Cassini Division, and proposed that the rings were formed from many tiny particles. Cassini-Huygens is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). JPL is managing the Cassini project for NASA. The mission was proposed in November 1982 by a group of European and American scientists from the European Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences. The Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council endorsed the idea in April 1983, and NASA and ESA began a

  5. Physiological Correlation of Airway Pressure and Transpulmonary Pressure Stress Index on Respiratory Mechanics in Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chun; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Yun-Hang; Liu, Wei; Urbino, Rosario; Ranieri, V Marco; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress index at post-recruitment maneuvers could be a method of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. However, airway pressure (Paw) stress index may not reflect lung mechanics in the patients with high chest wall elastance. This study was to evaluate the Paw stress index on lung mechanics and the correlation between Paw stress index and transpulmonary pressure (PL) stress index in acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients. Methods: Twenty-four ARF patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) were consecutively recruited from July 2011 to April 2013 in Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing, China and Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista-Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy. All patients underwent MV with volume control (tidal volume 6 ml/kg) for 20 min. PEEP was set according to the ARDSnet study protocol. The patients were divided into two groups according to the chest wall elastance/respiratory system elastance ratio. The high elastance group (H group, n = 14) had a ratio ≥30%, and the low elastance group (L group, n = 10) had a ratio <30%. Respiratory elastance, gas-exchange, Paw stress index, and PL stress index were measured. Student's t-test, regression analysis, and Bland–Altman analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: Pneumonia was the major cause of respiratory failure (71.0%). Compared with the L group, PEEP was lower in the H group (5.7 ± 1.7 cmH2O vs. 9.0 ± 2.3 cmH2O, P < 0.01). Compared with the H group, lung elastance was higher (20.0 ± 7.8 cmH2O/L vs. 11.6 ± 3.6 cmH2O/L, P < 0.01), and stress was higher in the L group (7.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9, P = 0.02). A linear relationship was observed between the Paw stress index and the PL stress index in H group (R2= 0.56, P < 0.01) and L group (R2= 0.85, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In the ARF patients with MV, Paw stress index can substitute for PL to guide ventilator settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02196870 (https

  6. The NASA Innovations in Climate Education Project: 'Instructional Strategies for Expanding Climate Change Concepts within Readng/Literacy Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton-Jaggers, L. J.; Johnson, D.; Hayden, L. B.; Hale, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. In 2010 the standards were designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that young people need for success in college and careers. In 2013 the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in connection with the CCSS developed revised science standards in performance, prior standards documents listed what students should know or understand, foundations were each performance expectation incorporates all three dimensions from a science or engineering practice, a core disciplinary idea, and a crosscutting concept, and coherence that connects each set of performance expectations lists connections to other ideas within the disciplines of science and engineering. Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina has joined with the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in Durham, New Hampshire under the NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) grant to empower faculty of education programs at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) to better engage their pre-service teachers in teaching and learning about global climate change through the use of NASA Earth observation sets. Specifically, professors from MSIs received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization And aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) to engage pre-service teachers in facets of climate education. Grambling State University faculty members served as participants of the NICE workshop for 2012 and were encouraged to develop lessons in climate education from information shared at the workshop. A corresponding project that incorporated the CCSS and NGSS at Grambling State University in Grambling, Louisiana was headed by Dr. Loretta Jaggers. This paper documents activities that pre-service students in the GSU Curriculum and

  7. PREFACE: International Workshop '60 Years of the Casimir Effect'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Gabriel; Carugno, Giovanni; Dodonov, Victor; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-07-01

    consists of work devoted to the current status of the theory and measurements related to Casimir forces. Readers must be warned that some topics in this field of research remain controversial (especially the dependence on temperature): they can and do generate debates that sometimes become quite heated. These controversies are reflected in the papers. We believe that at present it is not the business of conference organisers to adjudicate such issues, and hope that detailed expositions of different approaches and different points of view will help readers to formulate their own, and will eventually lead to a better understanding of the problems and of the solutions proposed. The other three groups contain contributions bearing on (1) topics related to causes and consequences of Casimir effects in quantum field theory and gravitation; (2) the so-called dynamical (or nonstationary) Casimir effect and motion-induced radiation, (3) some new manifestations and applications of the Casimir effect. We are grateful to the authors for making their papers so interesting; to the referees for their careful reading of the initial versions, and for their many helpful comments and suggestions; to the Institute of Physics for its kindness in offering to publish these Proceedings in Journal of Physics: Conference Series; and to the Institute of Physics office at the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow for essential help in the preparation of this volume. On behalf of the participants of the workshop, we thank the direction and staff of the ICCMP for their splendid organization of the event. Finally we acknowledge the support of the Brazilian scientific funding agencies FAP-DF and CNPQ, which covered the local and travel expenses of many participants. The Editors Gabriel Barton (University of Sussex, Brighton, UK) Giovanni Carugno (INFN - Sezione di Padova, Italy) Victor Dodonov (University of Brasilia, Brazil) Margarita Man'ko (Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) Workshop

  8. Europe's space camera unmasks a cosmic gamma-ray machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-11-01

    The new-found neutron star is the visible counterpart of a pulsating radio source, Pulsar 1055-52. It is a mere 20 kilometres wide. Although the neutron star is very hot, at about a million degrees C, very little of its radiant energy takes the form of visible light. It emits mainly gamma-rays, an extremely energetic form of radiation. By examining it at visible wavelengths, astronomers hope to figure out why Pulsar 1055-52 is the most efficient generator of gamma-rays known so far, anywhere the Universe. The Faint Object Camera found Pulsar 1055-52 in near ultraviolet light at 3400 angstroms, a little shorter in wavelength than the violet light at the extremity of the human visual range. Roberto Mignani, Patrizia Caraveo and Giovanni Bignami of the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan, Italy, report its optical identification in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters (1 January 1997). The formal name of the object is PSR 1055-52. Evading the glare of an adjacent star The Italian team had tried since 1988 to spot Pulsar 1055-52 with two of the most powerful ground-based optical telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere. These were the 3.6-metre Telescope and the 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. Unfortunately an ordinary star 100,000 times brighter lay in almost the same direction in the sky, separated from the neutron star by only a thousandth of a degree. The Earth's atmosphere defocused the star's light sufficiently to mask the glimmer from Pulsar 1055-52. The astronomers therefore needed an instrument in space. The Faint Object Camera offered the best precision and sensitivity to continue the hunt. Devised by European astronomers to complement the American wide field camera in the Hubble Space Telescope, the Faint Object Camera has a relatively narrow field of view. It intensifies the image of a faint object by repeatedly accelerating electrons from photo-electric films, so as to produce

  9. European team gauges a gamma-ray star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    Italian astrophysicists have pushed the Hubble Space Telescope to the limit of its powers in finding the distance of Geminga, a pointlike object 500 light-years from the Earth. It is the prototype of a novel kind of star, a radio-silent neutron star, which may be much more common in the Universe than previously supposed. Geminga is so weak in visible light that Hubble had to stare at the spot for more than an hour to register it adequately. The object is nevertheless one of the brightest sources of gamma-rays in the sky, and its output of this very energetic form of radiation can now be accurately ganged. Neutron stars, first discovered as radio pulsars in 1967, are fantastic creations of exploding stars, just one step short of a black hole. They are heavier than the Sun yet only about twenty kilometres wide. Made of compressed nuclear matter, they have gravity and magnetic fields many billions of times stronger than on the Earth. With the first direct measurement of the distance of a radio-silent neutron star, astrophysicists can assess Geminga's power and speed of motion. The astronomical task was like judging the width of a one- franc piece in Paris, seen from the distance of Sicily. Geminga's low brightness greatly aggravated the difficulties. Patrizia Caraveo and her colleagues at the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan arranged for Hubble's wide-field camera (WFPC2) to make its prolonged observations of Geminga three times. Their findings will be published in Astrophysical Journal Letters on 20 April 1996. Caraveo's co-authors are Giovanni Bignami and Roberto Mignani of Milan, and Laurence Taff of Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. The Italians took advantage of the European Space Agency's collaboration with NASA in the Hubble mission, which gives European astronomers privileged access to the Space Telescope. Shifts of millionths of a degree The three sightings of Geminga, made at intervals of six months, revealed small shifts in the position of the faint

  10. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    -alkyl C, aromatic C and phenolic C and carbonyl-carboxyl C. Moreover, in order to avoid the influence of pedogenesis, we decided to use "less complex OM", i.e. compost samples. The choice to use compost samples has been dictated by the fact that i) composting processes are well described and referenced in the literature, and ii) these samples have already been studied previously (Albrecht, 2009). Significantly high correlations are observed between classes, or indices, from RE pyrolysis and main classes of organic matter detected by NMR e.g. F1 and labile / easily degradable components (alkyl C et O-alkyl C); F3/F4 and humified OM (aromatic C and phenolic C); R index (contributions of bio-macromolecules) and phenolic and aromatic C; I index (related to immature OM) and labile / easily degradable components (alkyl C et O-alkyl C). This work confirms the interest of RE pyrolysis in soil science (notably by using the R/I index ratio). Compost was an ideal model with a clear chronological evolution of organic matter. The next step consists of using more complex samples such as bulk soil samples. REFERENCES Albrecht, R., Joffre, R., Le Petit, J., Terrom, G., Périssol, C. 2009. Calibration of Chemical and Biological Changes in Cocomposting of Biowastes Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(3), 804-811. Copard, Y., Di-Govanni, C., Martaud, T., Alberic, P., Olivier, J.E. 2006. Using Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis for tracking fossil organic carbon in modern environments: implications for the roles of erosion and weathering. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31(2), 135-153. Disnar, J.R., Guillet, B., Keravis, D., Di-Giovanni, C., Sebag, D. 2003. Soil organic matter (SOM) characterization by Rock-Eval pyrolysis: scope and limitations. Organic Geochemistry, 34(3), 327-343. Kogel-Knabner, I. 2000. Analytical approaches for characterizing soil organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 31(7-8), 609-625. Lafargue, E., Marquis, F., Pillot, D. 1998. Rock-Eval 6

  11. Studying the start of the Maunder Minimum to understand the current situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, Ralph; Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.

    2016-04-01

    To investigate whether we now enter a Maunder-like grand minimum, we have to compare the current situation with the time around the start of the Maunder minimum. Sunspot observations in the 1610s are of particular importance and relevance, because they are shortly before the start of the Maunder Grand Minimum. While the Maunder Minimum it is usually dated from 1645 to 1715, Vaquero & Trigo (2015) argue that what they call the "Extended Maunder Minimum" would have started in 1618 during or around a Schwabe cycle minimum around that time. We have therefore studied the sunspot record of that time in detail. Hoyt & Schatten (1998) compiled for all known telescopic observers a list of their observations; recent solar activity studies for the past four centuries are based on their compilation. In addition to 12 observers listed by Hoyt & Schatten (1998) for the 1610s, we list six more observers with datable spot observations. Furthermore, while Hoyt & Schatten (1998) argue that Simon Marius would have observed from mid 1617 to the end of 1618 almost every day, but would have never seen a spot, we can show with the original reports by Marius that he observed from Aug 1611 to spring 1619 with a lot of sunspot detections. Similar, while Hoyt & Schatten (1998) argue that Giovanni Riccioli would have observed on almost every day in 1618, but would have never seen a spot, he did not report any own observations at all that year, but quoted Argoli for that there were no spots during the periods with comets in 1618. The data base by Hoyt & Schatten (1998) has several more errors in the 1610s, as we show also for the observations by Harriot, Scheiner, Malapert, Saxonius, and Tarde. We also compare drawings from Jungius with the observations by Harriot, Galilei, and Marius. In contrast to what is specified in Hoyt & Schatten (1998), after Harriot, the two Fabricius (father and son), Scheiner and Cysat, Marius and Schmidnerus are among the earliest datable telescopic sunspot

  12. PREFACE: 33rd UIT (Italian Union of Thermo-fluid dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, Domenica; Ambrosini, Dario; Sfarra, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Paris Tech, Talence, France) and Prof. Walter Grassi (University of Pisa, Italy). The two invited Technical Seminars were given by Dr. Maurizio Santini (University of Bergamo, Italy) and Prof. Giovanni Tanda (University of Genova, Italy). There were also 13 oral sessions and three poster sessions. This special issue collects the five papers presented in the plenary sessions (keynote lectures and technical seminars) plus 60 papers selected from those presented and discussed during the congress. The UIT 2015 conference has been a useful occasion to stimulate discussion, further the understanding of heat transfer and related phenomena, present the state-of-the-art of some topics, discuss emerging trends and promote collaborations. We hope this issue will maintain and extend some of these features. A special thank you is due to the Organizing and Scientific Committees, to the sponsors and to all the participants.

  13. Study of Electron Acceleration and Multiple Dipolarization Fronts in 3D kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Walker, Raymond; El-Alaoui, Mostafa

    2014-05-01

    . [1] Ashour-Abdalla, Maha, et al. "Observations and simulations of non-local acceleration of electrons in magnetotail magnetic reconnection events." Nature Physics 7.4 (2011): 360-365. [2] Markidis, Stefano, and Giovanni Lapenta. "Multi-scale simulations of plasma with iPIC3D." Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 80.7 (2010): 1509-1519. [3] Baumann, G., Troels Haugbølle, and Å. Nordlund. "Kinetic Modeling of Particle Acceleration in a Solar Null-point Reconnection Region." The Astrophysical Journal 771.2 (2013): 93. [4] Daldorff, L. K. S., et al. "Coupling the BATS-R-US global MHD code with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPIC3D." Bulletin of the American Physical Society 58 (2013).

  14. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    44 submitted posters covered recent advances in these topics. These proceedings present papers on 35 of the invited talks. The Local Organizers gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, and the University of Kentucky Department of Physics and Astronomy. We also thank Carol Cotrill, Eva Ellis, Diane Yates, Sarah Crowe, and John Nichols, of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky for their invaluable assistance in the smooth running of the conferences; Oleksandr Korneta for taking the group photograph; and Emily Martin for helping accompanying persons. Nicholas L S Martin University of Kentucky Bruno A deHarak Illinois Wesleyan University International Scientific Organizing Committee Co-Chairs Don Madison (USA)Klaus Bartschat (USA) Members Lorenzo Avaldi (Italy)Nils Andersen (Denmark) Jamal Berakdar (Germany)Uwe Becker (Germany) Michael Brunger (Australia)Igor Bray (Australia) Greg Childers (USA)Nikolay Cherepkov (Russia) JingKang Deng (China)Albert Crowe (UK) Alexander Dorn (Germany)Danielle Dowek (France) Jim Feagin (USA)Oscar Fojon (Argentina) Nikolay Kabachnik (Russia)Tim Gay (USA) Anatoli Kheifets (Australia)Alexei Grum-Grzhimailo (Russia) George King (UK)Friedrich Hanne (Germany) Tom Kirchner (Germany)Alan Huetz (France) Azzedine Lahmam-Bennani (France)Morty Khakoo (USA) Julian Lower (Australia)Birgit Lohmann (Australia) William McCurdy (USA)Bill McConkey (Canada) Andrew Murray (UK)Rajesh Srivastava (India) Bernard Piraux (Belgium)Al Stauffer (Canada) Tim Reddish (Canada)Jim Williams (Australia) Roberto Rivarola (Argentina)Akira Yagishita (Japan) Michael Schulz (USA)Peter Zetner (Canada) Anthony Starace (USA)Joachim Ullrich (Germany) Giovanni Stefani (Italy)Erich Weigold (Australia) Masahiko Takahashi (Japan) Conference photograph

  15. The Oscillating History in the Exploration of the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Suzanne M. M.

    2009-10-01

    The oldest, and very vague, map of Mars was drawn in 1659 by Christiaan Huygens, who like Galileo, was pointing his telescopes to nearly anything the sky presented him. In the 1700s, William Herschel, followed by Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, observed Mars extensively and attempted to map its features. In the mid-1800s, Warren De la Rue refined the features on maps of Mars enough to first display, unknowingly, the north and south polar glaciers of Mars. In 1877 Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli observed a dense network of linear structures on the surface of Mars which he called ``canali'' (Italian: meaning ``channels'', but mistranslated as ``canals''). Schiaparelli also named the ``seas'' and ``continents'' of Mars. With canals and seas, massive speculation began about water and life on Mars, perhaps even a civilization responsible for the canals (and, one might hope, with gondolas and singing gondoliers). Percival Lowell was captivated by the implications of these purported canals and spent much of his life trying to prove the existence of intelligent life on the red planet in the early 1900s. On October 30, 1938, Orson Welles broadcast on radio an adaptation of H.G. Wells' novel ``War of the Worlds''. This caused some listeners to panic. The assumption that Martians were benevolent was severely dented. With NASA's early exploration of Mars - Mariner Missions in the 1960s, and the Viking Missions in the 1970s - Mars was returned to a desolated place, although it now seems possible that the Viking landers were literally inches away from discovering water ice on Mars, finally encountered in abundance over 30 years later by the Phoenix Mission. With the detection of water by the Odyssey Orbiter, geological evidence for ancient water found by the Rovers, the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the most recent discoveries by the Phoenix Lander, theories have almost come full circle in returning Mars to a place with water

  16. PREFACE: IUPAP C20 Conference on Computational Physics (CCP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troparevsky, Claudia; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    . We are grateful to the committees that helped put the conference together, especially the local organizing committee. Particular thanks are also due to a number of ORNL staff who spent long hours with the administrative details. We are pleased to express our thanks to the conference administrator Ann Strange (ORNL/CDP) for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, Sherry Samples, Assistant Conference Administrator (ORNL), Angie Beach and the ORNL Conference Office, and Shirley Shugart (ORNL) and Fern Stooksbury (ORNL) who created and maintained the conference website. Editors: G Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) and M Claudia Troparevsky (UT) http://ccp2011.ornl.gov Chair: Dr Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) Vice Chairs: Adriana Moreo (ORNL/UT) James Guberrnatis (LANL) Local Program Committee: Don Batchelor (ORNL) Jack Dongarra (UTK/ORNL) James Hack (ORNL) Robert Harrison (ORNL) Paul Kent (ORNL) Anthony Mezzacappa (ORNL) Adriana Moreo (ORNL) Witold Nazarewicz (UT) Loukas Petridis (ORNL) David Schultz (ORNL) Bill Shelton (ORNL) Claudia Troparevsky (ORNL) Mina Yoon (ORNL) International Advisory Board Members: Joan Adler (Israel Institute of Technology, Israel) Constantia Alexandrou (University of Cyprus, Cyprus) Claudia Ambrosch-Draxl (University of Leoben, Austria) Amanda Barnard (CSIRO, Australia) Peter Borcherds (University of Birmingham, UK) Klaus Cappelle (UFABC, Brazil) Giovanni Ciccotti (Università degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Italy) Nithaya Chetty (University of Pretoria, South Africa) Charlotte Froese-Fischer (NIST, US) Giulia A. Galli (University of California, Davis, US) Gillian Gehring (University of Sheffield, UK) Guang-Yu Guo (National Taiwan University, Taiwan) Sharon Hammes-Schiffer (Penn State, US) Alex Hansen (Norweigan UST) Duane D. Johnson (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, US) David Landau (University of Georgia, US) Joaquin Marro (University of Granada, Spain) Richard Martin (UIUC, US) Todd Martinez (Stanford University, US) Bill

  17. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2009-01-01

    three parts. There will be an overview of the MERRA system, the validation of the system and the native data format. Second, Instructors will provide examples of weather and climate data analysis using various software packages (primarily GrADS) as well as the online access tools for subsetting and download, as well as visualization (e.g. Giovanni and Google Earth). This will also include examples on changing the data format to fit user's preferences and also to regrid the data for comparisons to other reanalyses and observational data. Lastly, there will he time set aside for participants to have hands on access to the data and software while interacting with the instructors and other developers. The course convener is Dr. Michael Bosilovich, NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). He will be joined by several GMAO, Goddard Earth Science Data and information Services Center (GES DISC) and Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) staff.

  18. A brief history of the pathology of the gonads.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2005-02-01

    Our understanding of gonadal pathology has reached its current state as a result of the contributions of numerous outstanding investigators. Knowledge of testicular tumor pathology dates back to the great British workers Percival Pott and Sir Astley Cooper but the single greatest early stride was made with the description in 1906 by the French urologist Maurice Chevassu of the seminoma. The seminal 1946 paper of Nathan B Friedman and Robert A Moore, which segregated out as a distinct entity embryonal carcinoma, is, however, the foundation for the current classification of testicular tumors. In that year Pierre Masson described the distinctive neoplasm, the spermatocytic seminoma. The 1950s saw the publication of an important paper by Frank J Dixon and Dr Moore and they also wrote the first series fascicle on testicular tumors. In this same timeframe, and thereafter, Robert E Scully made significant contributions to testicular pathology, writing the first English language paper on spermatocytic seminoma, describing several subtypes of sex cord tumor, and also the distinctive lesion of intersex, the gonadoblastoma, as well as playing a major role in 1980 in formulating the current classification of premalignant lesions of the testis. The current classification of testicular tumors was arrived at in the early 1970s when the World Health Organization, under the leadership of Dr FK Mostofi, who himself made notable contributions to testicular pathology, devised what is fundamentally the current classification of neoplasms of the male gonad. Although comments on ovarian pathology were made by such legendary figures of earlier times as Giovanni Battista Morgagni and Matthew Baillie, it is only in the mid to later years of the 19th century that contributions, mostly in Europe, began to move knowledge of ovarian pathology to its current state. Thomas Hodgkin, Richard Bright, and Sir James Paget all wrote extensively on ovarian neoplasms. In 1870, Heinrich Waldeyer, and

  19. The Messinian Salinity Crisis: what can we expect from drilling the perched basins from the Balearic Promontory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanna, Lofi; Angelo, Camerlenghi; Agnès, Maillard; Diana, Ochoa

    2015-04-01

    place in the Mediterranean area potentially bearing some records of the MSC event that have been accumulated and preserved at various water depths in which post/Messinian tectonic deformation is low. A complete shallow-to-deep transect of sites across these stepped basins, provides a unique opportunity to quantify the amplitude of the Messinian draw-down and to test the hypotheses of a stratified water column and of a diachronous/synchronous onset and end of the salinity crisis. In order to address these persistent open questions, we propose to drill, core and log a shallow-to-deep transect on the Balearic Promontory as part of a daughter proposal (DREAM proposal) of a Multi-phase IODP Drilling Project entitled "Uncovering A Salt Giant" (857-MDP, coord. A. Camerlenghi). The DREAM Team: A. Giovanni, H. Christian, G. deLangeGert, R. Flecker, D. Garcia-Castellanos, Z. Gvirtzman, W. Krijgsman, S. Lugli, MakowskyItzik, M. Vinicio, T. McGenity, G. Panieri, M. Rabineau, M. Roveri, F.J. Sierro, N. Waldman.

  20. The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope

  1. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    'Aéronomie/CNRS, France 16:40 - Bruno Bezard, Co-Investigator, Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer, Laboratoire d'études spatiales et d'instrumentation en astrophysique, Observatoire de Paris, France 16:45 - Jonathan Lunine, Interdisciplinary Scientist, Titan surface-atmosphere interactions, LPL/U, Arizona (USA) and INAF/IFSI, Rome (Italy) 16:55 - Questions and AnswersV 17:05 - Coffee break 17:10 - Mars Express: results in the overall context of Martian science, Agustin Chicarro, ESA Mars Express Project Scientist 17:15 - Giovanni Picardi, MARSIS Radar Principal Investigator, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy Jeffrey Plaut, MARSIS Co-Principal Investigator, NASA/JPL, USA 17:25 - Martin Pätzold, Mars Radio Science Experiment, Principal Investigator, Universität Koln, Cologne, Germany 17:30 - Jean-Pierre Bibring, OMEGA Principal Investigator, Institut d’Astrophysique spatiale, Orsay, France 17:40 - Gerhard Neukum, HRSC Camera Principal Investigator, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany 17:45 - Questions and Answers 17:55 - Interview opportunities

  2. Non invasive sensing technologies for cultural heritage management and fruition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    monitoring of monuments and sites. In this way, we will be able to improve the appreciation of diagnostics and remote sensing technologies by the end-users. At the conference, we will show and discuss several study cases depicting the deployment of this knowledge chain in realistic conditions regarding the CH management. References Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Soldovieri F. 2011. GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration: the case of the cathedral of Tricarico, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 8 (3), 76-92, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/8/3/S08 Masini N., Soldovieri F. 2011. Editorial: Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 8 (3), 1-2, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/8/3/E01 Masini N., Persico R., Rizzo E., Calia A., Giannotta M.T., Quarta G., Pagliuca A. 2010, Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy), Near Surface Geophysics, 8(5), 423-432, doi:10.3997/1873-0604.2010012

  3. Classification in Astronomy: Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Astronomers have always classified celestial objects. The ancient Greeks distinguished between asteros, the fixed stars, and planetos, the roving stars. The latter were associated with the Gods and, starting with Plato in his dialog Timaeus, provided the first mathematical models of celestial phenomena. Giovanni Hodierna classified nebulous objects, seen with a Galilean refractor telescope in the mid-seventeenth century into three classes: "Luminosae," "Nebulosae," and "Occultae." A century later, Charles Messier compiled a larger list of nebulae, star clusters and galaxies, but did not attempt a classification. Classification of comets was a significant enterprise in the 19th century: Alexander (1850) considered two groups based on orbit sizes, Lardner (1853) proposed three groups of orbits, and Barnard (1891) divided them into two classes based on morphology. Aside from the segmentation of the bright stars into constellations, most stellar classifications were based on colors and spectral properties. During the 1860s, the pioneering spectroscopist Angelo Secchi classified stars into five classes: white, yellow, orange, carbon stars, and emission line stars. After many debates, the stellar spectral sequence was refined by the group at Harvard into the familiar OBAFGKM spectral types, later found to be a sequence on surface temperature (Cannon 1926). The spectral classification is still being extended with recent additions of O2 hot stars (Walborn et al. 2002) and L and T brown dwarfs (Kirkpatrick 2005). Townley (1913) reviews 30 years of variable star classification, emerging with six classes with five subclasses. The modern classification of variable stars has about 80 (sub)classes, and is still under debate (Samus 2009). Shortly after his confirmation that some nebulae are external galaxies, Edwin Hubble (1926) proposed his famous bifurcated classification of galaxy morphologies with three classes: ellipticals, spirals, and irregulars. These classes are still

  4. Waves, instabilities and turbulence properties in Depolarisation Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David L.; Olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Eastwood, Jonathan; Divin, Andrey; Pucci, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    dipolarization fronts and associated wave characteristics in the near-Earth magnetotail." Geophysical Research Letters 36.20 (2009). [4] Lapenta, Giovanni, et al. "Secondary reconnection sites in reconnection-generated flux ropes and reconnection fronts." Nature Physics 11.8 (2015): 690-695. [5] Vapirev, A. E., et al. "Formation of a transient front structure near reconnection point in 3-D PIC simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 118.4 (2013): 1435-1449. [6]Eastwood, J. P., et al. "Ion reflection and acceleration near magnetotail dipolarization fronts associated with magnetic reconnection." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120.1 (2015): 511-525. [7] Goldman, M. V., et al. "Čerenkov emission of quasiparallel whistlers by fast electron phase-space holes during magnetic reconnection." Physical review letters 112.14 (2014): 145002. [8] Divin, A., et al. "Evolution of the lower hybrid drift instability at reconnection jet front." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120.4 (2015): 2675-2690. [9] Eastwood, J. P., et al. "Energy partition in magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail." Physical review letters 110.22 (2013): 225001.

  5. Supporting NEESPI with Data Services - The SIB-ESS-C e-Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, R.; Schmullius, C.; Frotscher, K.

    2009-04-01

    (mainly from Earth Observation), current data holdings of SIB-ESS-C have been created in collaboration with a number of partners in previous and ongoing research projects (e.g. SIBERIA-II, SibFORD, IRIS). At the current development stage the SIB-ESS-C system comprises a federated metadata catalogue accessible through the SIB-ESS-C Web Portal or from any OGC-CSW compliant client. Due to full interoperability with other metadata catalogues users of the SIB-ESS-C Web Portal are able to search external metadata repositories. The Web Portal contains also a simple visualization component which will be extended to a comprehensive visualization and analysis tool in the near future. All data products are already accessible as a Web Mapping Service and will be made available as Web Feature and Web Coverage Services soon allowing users to directly incorporate the data into their application. The SIB-ESS-C infrastructure will be further developed as one node in a network of similar systems (e.g. NASA GIOVANNI) in the NEESPI region.

  6. AIRS Science Data Services at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Info Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Hua, X.; Won, Y.

    2007-12-01

    . Approximately 80% of AIRS NRT calibrated radiance products are available to the public within 2 hours after the time of observation, 3 hours for 80% of the NRT retrieval products. The AIRS NRT products are useful for those who need data low data latency; they have been utilized in regional weather forecast models as well as in support of regional field experiments. The GES DISC provides a range of value-added services in support of the AIRS user community. Generally, these services can be grouped into data search, access and retrieval, subsetting and format conversion, online data visualization and analysis. Highlights of some of these services include binned Level 2 data for precipitation studies, subsets by channel, parameter or spatial area, data visualization through the Giovanni tool, conversion to netCDF format, Web Map Services and access through OPeNDAP.

  7. Using a Ground Based radar interferometer during emergency: the case of A3 motorway (Salerno Reggio-Calabria) treated by landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Ventisette, Chiara; Intrieri, Emanuele; Luzi, Guido; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    An application of Ground Based radar interferometry (GB-InSAR) technique to monitor a landslide threatening infrastructures in emergency conditions is presented. During December 2008 and January 2009 intense rainfalls occurred in Italy, especially in the southern regions. These rain events occurred in the last days of January, worsened the already critical hydrogeological conditions of some areas and triggered many landslides. One of these landslides, named Santa Trada landslide, is located close to a periodical stream called Fiumara di Santa Trada, near Villa San Giovanni municipality (Reggio Calabria, Calabria Region). The volume involved is about 100 000 m3. This estimate represents the case of a collapse of the landslide which destabilize a larger part of the slope, involving other areas delimited by some fractures observed upstream. Nevertheless the landslide does not directly threaten the roadway, its complete collapse would hit the pillars of a motorway viaduct. Through GB-InSAR data it has been possible to obtain an overview of the area affected by movement and to quantify the displacements magnitude. The main benefit of the system was not only limited to the capability of fully characterizing the landslide in spatial terms, it also permitted emergency operators to follow, during the whole campaign, the evolution of the mass movement and to study its cinematic behaviour. This aspect is fundamental to evaluate the volume of the material involved and to assess the temporal evolution of the risk scenario. The GB-InSAR installed at Santa Trada points up toward the landslide from a distance of 250 m. The apparatus produces a synthesized radar image of the observed area every 6 minutes, night and day, with a pixel resolution of about 0.75 m in range and 1.2 m on average in cross range, performing a millimeter accuracy on the final displacement maps. The interferometric analysis of sequences of consecutive images allows the operator to derive the entire line of

  8. Candoglia Marble and the "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano": a resource for Global Heritage Stone Designation in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Castelli, Daniele; Corbetta, Elio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Alpine marbles have been widely used in the past for celebrated, both indoor and outdoor, applications. Among them, the Candoglia Marble, a worldwide known and appreciated georesource, and its "bastard brother" from the nearby Ornavasso area were and are exploited in the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarry basin of Northwestern Italian Alps. They crop out as lenses (up to 30 m in thickness) interlayered within high-grade paragneisses of the Ivrea Zone, a section of deep continental crust that experienced amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism of Palaeozoic age. The Candoglia and Ornavasso Marbles are pinkish to greyish, coarse-grained (> 3 mm), calcitic marbles with frequent, cm-thick, dark-greenish silicate layers containing diopside and tremolite; minor minerals include quartz, epidote, sulphides, Ba-feldspar, barite and, occasionally, phlogopite. First record of quarrying activities in the area arises to the Roman age (Ornavasso quarrying area). Both the Ornavasso and Candoglia Marbles were widely employed in local construction (San Nicola Church and Torre della Guardia at Ornavasso, Madonna di Campagna Church at Verbania, San Giovanni in Montorfano Church), but they became famous thanks to their application for the "Duomo di Milano" since the fourteenth century. At the beginning, the building stones employed for the construction of the Gothic style, Duomo di Milano were quarried in the Ornavasso area, but in a short time, the Candoglia quarry (property of the so-called "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo" that incessantly takes care of the Cathedral Church from 1387 A.D.) became the main quarry for the construction and maintenance of the Cathedral. The Candoglia quarry developed during the centuries, from open pit small quarries to a unique underground quarry, characterised by a very peculiar quarrying activities (subvertical bench characterized by strong lateral forces, which have to be contrasted and monitored). The Candoglia Marble was preferred to Carrara marbles

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowek, Danielle; Bennani, Azzedine; Lablanquie, Pascal; Maquet, Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces was held in Paris from 30 June to 2 July 2008. This biennial conference alternates with the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics which is a satellite of the International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) conference. Over 110 participants from 20 countries gathered to examine the latest developments in the field of radiation interactions with matter. These include electron-electron correlation effects in excitation and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. The present proceedings gathers the contributions of invited speakers and is intended to provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of the field. Special thanks are due to Université Paris Sud XI, CNRS, and the laboratories LCAM, LIXAM and LCPMR which provided financial support for the organization of the conference. We are also grateful to the contribution of the companies Varian and RoentDek Handels GmbH. Guest Editors: Danielle Dowek and Azzedine Bennani LCAM, Université Paris Sud XI, France Pascal Lablanquie and Alfred Maquet LCPMR, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Lorenzo Avaldi, (Italy) Alexei Grum Grzhimailo, (Russia) Klaus Bartschat, (USA) Nikolai Kabachnik, (Russia) Jamal Berakdar, (Germany) Birgit Lohmann, (Australia) Nora Berrah, (USA) Don H Madison, (USA) Michael Brunger, (Australia) Francis Penent, (France) Albert Crowe, (UK) Bernard Piraux, (Belgium) Claude Dal Cappello, (France) Roberto Rivarola, (Argentina) JingKang Deng, (China) Emma Sokkel, (Ireland) Alexander Dorn, (Germany) Giovanni Stefani, (Italy) Reinhardt Dorner, (Germany) Noboru Watanabe, (Japan) François Frémont, (France) LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Azzedine BENNANI (Chair

  10. The atmospheric degradation of a durable lithotype used in Northern Italy: the Oira stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniolo, Lucia; Bugini, Roberto; Gulotta, Davide

    2016-04-01

    since the early XX century. The onsite evaluation of the stone blocks of the façade after more than a century of exposition showed a distinctive surface colour alteration. The formation of a fragile superficial layer of few millimetres thickness with scaling and progressive detachment, has been observed and documented by portable digital microscopy. Samples of the stone have been collected and studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on loose fragments, thin sections and polished cross-sections. An interesting and unusualn phenomenon of alteration of the olivine phase has been pointed out [2]. The mineralogical and compositional features were also investigated by means of XRD and FTIR analyses. The results showed that the colour variation can be correlated to the chemical alteration of the stone, which results in the deployment of the magnesium and aluminium content of the most external portion of the material. The study has been conducted in the framework of the diagnostic and monitoring activity for the ongoing conservation work of the façade. [1] Cassinelli, R. (Ed). 1988. Monza anno 1300. La Basilica di S. Giovanni Battista e la sua facciata. Edizioni Cariplo, Milan, Italy. [2] Beard, J. S. et al. 2009. Onset and Progression of Serpentinization and Magnetite Formation in Olivine-rich Troctolite from IODP Hole U1309D. Journal of Petrology, Vol. 0, pp. 1-17.

  11. Exploring the Longwave Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansell, Richard A., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    .082N, 100.276E), a semi-arid region between the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts. NASA Goddards Giovanni system is used to help map out the spatial distribution of retrieved aerosol optical depths across the latter desert regions. 1-D radiative transfer model constrained by local measurements, including spectral photometry/interferometry and lidar for characterizing the spatiotemporal variability in dust properties and atmospheric conditions, is employed to evaluate the local instantaneous LW DARE of dust both at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere along with heating rate profiles for cloud-free atmospheres. The efficiency in LW DARE and its significance relative to the diurnally averaged SW effects are explored and compared in both studies. Found to be non-negligible, LW DARE is an important component in the study of regional climate variation with important implications for more detailed global assessments.

  12. Newly Released TRMM Version 7 Products, Other Precipitation Datasets and Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W. L.; Trivedi, Bhagirath; Kempler, S.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is home of global precipitation product archives, in particular, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products. TRMM is a joint U.S.-Japan satellite mission to monitor tropical and subtropical (40 S - 40 N) precipitation and to estimate its associated latent heating. The TRMM satellite provides the first detailed and comprehensive dataset on the four dimensional distribution of rainfall and latent heating over vastly undersampled tropical and subtropical oceans and continents. The TRMM satellite was launched on November 27, 1997. TRMM data products are archived at and distributed by GES DISC. The newly released TRMM Version 7 consists of several changes including new parameters, new products, meta data, data structures, etc. For example, hydrometeor profiles in 2A12 now have 28 layers (14 in V6). New parameters have been added to several popular Level-3 products, such as, 3B42, 3B43. Version 2.2 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) dataset has been added to the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS; URL: http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/), allowing online analysis and visualization without downloading data and software. The GPCP dataset extends back to 1979. Version 3 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) monitoring product has been updated in TOVAS as well. The product provides global gauge-based monthly rainfall along with number of gauges per grid. The dataset begins in January 1986. To facilitate data and information access and support precipitation research and applications, we have developed a Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC; URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation). In addition to TRMM, PDISC provides current and past observational precipitation data. Users can access precipitation data archives consisting of both remote sensing and in-situ observations. Users can use these data

  13. In-database processing of a large collection of remote sensing data: applications and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikhtenko, Vladimir; Mamash, Elena; Chubarov, Dmitri; Voronina, Polina

    2016-04-01

    Large archives of remote sensing data are now available to scientists, yet the need to work with individual satellite scenes or product files constrains studies that span a wide temporal range or spatial extent. The resources (storage capacity, computing power and network bandwidth) required for such studies are often beyond the capabilities of individual geoscientists. This problem has been tackled before in remote sensing research and inspired several information systems. Some of them such as NASA Giovanni [1] and Google Earth Engine have already proved their utility for science. Analysis tasks involving large volumes of numerical data are not unique to Earth Sciences. Recent advances in data science are enabled by the development of in-database processing engines that bring processing closer to storage, use declarative query languages to facilitate parallel scalability and provide high-level abstraction of the whole dataset. We build on the idea of bridging the gap between file archives containing remote sensing data and databases by integrating files into relational database as foreign data sources and performing analytical processing inside the database engine. Thereby higher level query language can efficiently address problems of arbitrary size: from accessing the data associated with a specific pixel or a grid cell to complex aggregation over spatial or temporal extents over a large number of individual data files. This approach was implemented using PostgreSQL for a Siberian regional archive of satellite data products holding hundreds of terabytes of measurements from multiple sensors and missions taken over a decade-long span. While preserving the original storage layout and therefore compatibility with existing applications the in-database processing engine provides a toolkit for provisioning remote sensing data in scientific workflows and applications. The use of SQL - a widely used higher level declarative query language - simplifies interoperability

  14. If not water then what? - The possible role of CO2 hydrates in terraforming processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falenty, A.; Kuhs, W. F.

    The presence of water on Mars is a subject of a hot debate for over hundred years since the discovery famous channels by Giovanni Schiaparelli. With advance in technology more and more observational facts for the existence of liquids on Mars, at least in the past, have been found. It is accepted that in the distant past water played an active role in shaping Martian landscape. The problems arise for the recent past. In this period Mars is no longer wet but cold and dry. In spite of this fact, fresh, few million years old, features like gullies, chaotic terrains or pancake domes have been observed. Their origin was ascribed to water, brines, liquid CO2 or CO2 hydrates [1]. Presently liquid water is not stable at the surface and close to it. Even under high salinity it is not able to stand the harsh Martian climate for a long time. Clathrates do not have this disadvantage and can stay in meta-stable form for geologically long periods ("anomalous or self-preservation"). This makes hydrates an excellent reservoir of water ice and gases like CO2 or CH4 . The meta-stable state may be easily destroyed by e.g. climate changes, meteorite impacts or earthquakes. In this way clathrates could replenish periodically or gradually the atmosphere in trapped gases. To provide a better basis for these ideas a number of experiments for CO2 hydrate formation and decomposition were performed in our laboratory mimicking Martian surface and sub-surface conditions [2], [3], [4]. Up to now self-preservation of gas hydrates was known to exist only above 240K, which limited the applicability of this phenomenon to Martian issues. Recent investigation on anomalous preservation reviled another previously unknown aspect. In a certain pressure range outside the stability field and below 240K, hydrates unexpectedly enter the self-preservation state. Although, the mechanism, which controls this phenomenon, seems to be different from the one already reported by Kuhs et al [5], the effect is quite

  15. Raman spectroscopy in the study of hydrothermal cave minerals: Implications for research on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Sanz, Aurelio; Audra, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Regarding that the ExoMars mission of the ESA, scheduled for launch in 2018 will be equipped with a Raman spectrometer, investigations by Raman spectroscopy on Earth's minerals are essential to interpret data coming from this further mission to Mars. Among terrestrial minerals, cave minerals represent an opportunity to better understand the genesis of Martian minerals and the evolution of Mars itself, in particular by studying minerals formed in hydrothermal conditions, as well as those generated due to hydrothermal alteration of previous materials. The absence of solar radiation, practically constant temperature at daily and seasonal scale and the presence of liquid water are some of the attractions which make caves interesting for Martian research. In the present work, we have studied a great variety of cave minerals from hypogenic/thermal mine-caves like the Giant Geode of Pulpí (south-eastern Spain), the caves of the Naica mine (northern Mexico), the caves of the San Giovanni Mountain (Sardinia, Italy) and Baume Galinière Cave (south-eastern France). Carbonate, sulphate, sulphurs and polymetallic oxyhydroxides are the most common minerals found in these cavities. Among them, it is worth noting the presence of several minerals of the jarosite group and gypsum, since these minerals have been recently discovered on the Mars surface. Both of them are hydrated minerals, which genetic mechanisms are linked to the presence of liquid water. In the case of jarosite minerals, identification of species like argentojarosite and plumbojarosite confers worth to the Raman technique against other methodologies, like XRD by which the characterization of the jarosite group minerals is difficult. As a consequence of the recent discovery of Ca-rich sulphates (probably gypsum) on the surface of Mars, attention has been focused on the terrestrial gypsiferous formations. The gypsum samples from the Giant Geode of Pulpí and the caves of the Naica mine, which are subject of this

  16. Europe's space camera unmasks a cosmic gamma-ray machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-11-01

    The new-found neutron star is the visible counterpart of a pulsating radio source, Pulsar 1055-52. It is a mere 20 kilometres wide. Although the neutron star is very hot, at about a million degrees C, very little of its radiant energy takes the form of visible light. It emits mainly gamma-rays, an extremely energetic form of radiation. By examining it at visible wavelengths, astronomers hope to figure out why Pulsar 1055-52 is the most efficient generator of gamma-rays known so far, anywhere the Universe. The Faint Object Camera found Pulsar 1055-52 in near ultraviolet light at 3400 angstroms, a little shorter in wavelength than the violet light at the extremity of the human visual range. Roberto Mignani, Patrizia Caraveo and Giovanni Bignami of the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan, Italy, report its optical identification in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters (1 January 1997). The formal name of the object is PSR 1055-52. Evading the glare of an adjacent star The Italian team had tried since 1988 to spot Pulsar 1055-52 with two of the most powerful ground-based optical telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere. These were the 3.6-metre Telescope and the 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. Unfortunately an ordinary star 100,000 times brighter lay in almost the same direction in the sky, separated from the neutron star by only a thousandth of a degree. The Earth's atmosphere defocused the star's light sufficiently to mask the glimmer from Pulsar 1055-52. The astronomers therefore needed an instrument in space. The Faint Object Camera offered the best precision and sensitivity to continue the hunt. Devised by European astronomers to complement the American wide field camera in the Hubble Space Telescope, the Faint Object Camera has a relatively narrow field of view. It intensifies the image of a faint object by repeatedly accelerating electrons from photo-electric films, so as to produce

  17. Mars Express scientists find a different Mars underneath the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    kilometres in diameter that we have found with MARSIS,” said Jeffrey Plaut, MARSIS co-Principal Investigator, from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California, “tells us that the underlying crust in the northern lowlands must be very ancient, dating to the Early Noachian epoch (lasting from the planet's birth to about 4 thousand million years ago).” The Early Noachian was an era in which impact cratering was very intense across the Solar System. The results suggest that the crust of the northern lowlands is as old as the oldest exposed southern highlands, also dated to the Noachian epoch, and that the dichotomy between northern and southern hemispheres probably formed very early in the history of Mars. “These results are truly interesting and unprecedented,” added Giovanni Picardi. “MARSIS can contribute to understanding of the geology of Mars through analysis of the surface and subsurface morphology. In addition, from detailed analysis of the instrument’s data, we can obtain valuable information about the composition of the materials.” Note to editors The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature, in the letter headed: “MARSIS radar sounder evidence of buried basins in the northern lowlands of Mars”, by T.R. Watters (National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, USA), C.J. Leuschen (Center for Remote Sensing of Ice-sheets, Univ. of Kansas, USA), J.J. Plaut, A. Safaenili and A.B. Ivanov (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CA, USA), G. Picardi (Infocom Dept., Univ. of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Italy), S.M. Clifford (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Texas, USA), W.M. Farrell (NASA/GSFC, Maryland, USA), R.J. Phillips (Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington Univ., Missouri, USA), and E.R. Stofan (Proxemy Research, Maryland, USA). The MARSIS instrument was developed in the framework of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It was developed by Alenia Spazio

  18. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  19. The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope

  20. ESA is hot on the trail of Geminga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    close to the neutron star. Geminga’s breathless rotation rate - once every quarter of a second - creates an extraordinary environment in which electrons and positrons, their antimatter counterparts, can be accelerated to extraordinarily high energies. At such energies, they become powerful high-energy gamma-ray producers. Astronomers had assumed that all the electrons would be converted into gamma rays. However, the discovery of the tails proves that some do find escape routes from the maelstrom. “It is astonishing that such energetic electrons succeed in escaping to create these tails,” says Caraveo, “The tail electrons have an energy very near to the maximum energy achievable in the environment of Geminga.” The tails themselves are the bright edges of the three-dimensional shockwave sculpted by Geminga. Such shockwaves are a bit like the wake of a ship travelling across the ocean. Using a computer model, the team has estimated that Geminga is travelling almost directly across our line of sight. Studies of Geminga could not be more important. The majority of known gamma-ray sources in the Universe have yet to be identified with known classes of celestial objects. Some astronomers believe that a sizeable fraction of them may be Geminga-like radio-quiet neutron stars. Certainly, the family of radio-quiet neutron stars, discovered through their X-ray emission, is continuously growing. Currently, about a dozen objects are known but only Geminga has a pair of tails! Note for editors During the search to track down this elusive celestial object, a co-author on the paper, Giovanni Bignami, named Geminga almost 30 years ago. He was Principal Investigator of XMM-Newton's EPIC camera from 1987 to1997 and is now Director of the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR). Geminga was first glimpsed as a mysterious source of gamma rays, coming from somewhere in the constellation Gemini by NASA's SAS-2 spacecraft in 1973. While searching to pin down its exact location

  1. PREFACE: IUPAP C20 Conference on Computational Physics (CCP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troparevsky, Claudia; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    . We are grateful to the committees that helped put the conference together, especially the local organizing committee. Particular thanks are also due to a number of ORNL staff who spent long hours with the administrative details. We are pleased to express our thanks to the conference administrator Ann Strange (ORNL/CDP) for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, Sherry Samples, Assistant Conference Administrator (ORNL), Angie Beach and the ORNL Conference Office, and Shirley Shugart (ORNL) and Fern Stooksbury (ORNL) who created and maintained the conference website. Editors: G Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) and M Claudia Troparevsky (UT) http://ccp2011.ornl.gov Chair: Dr Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) Vice Chairs: Adriana Moreo (ORNL/UT) James Guberrnatis (LANL) Local Program Committee: Don Batchelor (ORNL) Jack Dongarra (UTK/ORNL) James Hack (ORNL) Robert Harrison (ORNL) Paul Kent (ORNL) Anthony Mezzacappa (ORNL) Adriana Moreo (ORNL) Witold Nazarewicz (UT) Loukas Petridis (ORNL) David Schultz (ORNL) Bill Shelton (ORNL) Claudia Troparevsky (ORNL) Mina Yoon (ORNL) International Advisory Board Members: Joan Adler (Israel Institute of Technology, Israel) Constantia Alexandrou (University of Cyprus, Cyprus) Claudia Ambrosch-Draxl (University of Leoben, Austria) Amanda Barnard (CSIRO, Australia) Peter Borcherds (University of Birmingham, UK) Klaus Cappelle (UFABC, Brazil) Giovanni Ciccotti (Università degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Italy) Nithaya Chetty (University of Pretoria, South Africa) Charlotte Froese-Fischer (NIST, US) Giulia A. Galli (University of California, Davis, US) Gillian Gehring (University of Sheffield, UK) Guang-Yu Guo (National Taiwan University, Taiwan) Sharon Hammes-Schiffer (Penn State, US) Alex Hansen (Norweigan UST) Duane D. Johnson (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, US) David Landau (University of Georgia, US) Joaquin Marro (University of Granada, Spain) Richard Martin (UIUC, US) Todd Martinez (Stanford University, US) Bill

  2. Messinian Salinity Crisis - DREAM (Deep-sea Record of Mediterranean Messinian events) drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    objectives related to the MSC. Among these proposals, one will be fully dedicated to the MSC event. Improved quality of seismic data has allowed important advances in the recognition and understanding of MSC seismic markers (surfaces and depositional units) and lithological and stratigraphical calibrations are now critical. Therefore, the drilling strategy must include multiple sites covering representative locations of both Western and Eastern Mediterranean basins. A series of critical drilling targets were thus identified as follows: - A first set of drilling targets, dedicated to shallow water (< 2500 m water depth) MSC markers, includes the Messinian clastic wedges, the erosion surfaces and the MSC deposits (including thin salt bodies) trapped in small topographic lows observed at various water depths between the shoreline and the abyssal plain. Up to 10 sites, presented in this work, could be drilled with the riserless R/V Joides Resolution, provided the safety conditions are met; - Another critical drilling target is the full recovering of undeformed MSC sequence (including the Tortonian-Messinian and the Messinian-Zanclean boundaries) in the deep water (>2500m) of both the eastern and western Mediterranean basins. This will be possible thanks to R/V Chikyu riser drilling vessel and will be the scope of a second MSC IODP proposal. DREAM Team: A. Giovanni galod@locean-ipsl.upmc.fr, H. Christian huebscher@zmaw.de, G. deLangeGert gdelange@geo.uu.nl, R. Flecker r.flecker@bristol.ac.uk, D. Garcia-Castellanos danielgc@ictja.csic.es, C. Gorini gorini@upmc.fr, Z. Gvirtzman zohar@gsi.gov.il, W. Krijgsman krijgsma@geo.uu.nl, S. Lugli lugli@unimore.it, I. Makowsky yizhaq@univ.haifa.ac.il, M. Vinicio vinicio.manzi@unipr.it, T. McGenity tjmcgen@essex.ac.uk, G. Panieri giuliana.panieri@uit.no, M. Rabineau rabineau@univ-brest.fr, M. Roveri marco.roveri@unipr.it, F.J. Sierro sierro@usal.es, N. Waldman nwaldmann@univ.haifa.ac.il

  3. Obituary: Philip Morrison, 1915-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2005-12-01

    Philip Morrison, who died 22 April 2005 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was born in Somerville, New Jersey on 7 November 1915 to Moses and Tilly (née Rosenbloom) Morrison. Early childhood polio confined him for extended periods, during which he apparently developed his remarkable skill at speed reading. Speed writing (leading to a bibliography of more than 600 items) came later, and his memory must always have been exceedingly retentive. Morrison went on from the public and private schools of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to receive a BS in physics from Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon) in 1936. At the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the Young Communist League and later the Communist Party, letting his membership lapse in the early 1940s when work and war came to seem more important. He was officially the student of J. Robert Oppenheimer and worked also with postdocs Robert Serber and Leonard Schiff and with a number of his fellow Oppenheimer students (a spectacular crew, which included Robert Christy, Sidney Dancoff, Bernard Peters [born Pietrkowski], Hartland Snyder, Joseph Weinberg, Dale Corson, Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz, David Bohm, and Eugene Cooper). Following his 1940 PhD, Phil (his preferred signature) taught for a year at San Francisco State and then at University of Illinois (where he replaced Dancoff, who had gone on to a year at Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton). From Illinois, Morrison was recruited to the Metallurgy Lab (uranium project) at the University of Chicago by Christy in 1942. There he worked on the design for the Hanford Reactor, the main source of plutonium for the Trinity and Nagasaki bombs. He seems to have been sensitive to human relationships even in that context and was the author of a "Dear Opje" letter to Oppenheimer pointing out that the lack of cooperation between management and the scientists was getting in the way of the project. Morrison's early research was largely in theoretical nuclear physics

  4. The Project Serapis: High Resolution Seismic Imagingof The Campi Flegrei Caldera Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Virieux, J.; Capuano, P.; Chiarabba, C.; de Franco, R.; Makris, J.; Michelini, A.; Musacchio, G.; Serapis Group

    , Iannaccone Giovanni, La Rocca Mario, Saccorotti Gilberto, Cattaneo Marco, De Mar- tin Martina , Colasanti Gianfranco, Moretti Milena, Marcello Silvestri, Edoardo Gian- domenico, Raffaele Stefano, Graziano Boniolo, Maria Rosaria Tondi, Maistrello Mar- iano, Gomez Antonio, Piccareda Carlo, Paolo Di Bartolomeo, Marco Romanelli, So- phie Peyrat, Christophe Larroque, Claude Pambrun, Tony Monfret, Stephane Gaffet, Mark Noble, Sylvain Nguyen 2

  5. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  6. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    epitaxial In2O3 thin films grown on Y-stabilised ZrO2(111) K H L Zhang, V K Lazarov, T D Veal, F E Oropeza, C F McConville, R G Egdell and A Walsh Hydrogenated cation vacancies in semiconducting oxidesJ B Varley, H Peelaers, A Janotti and C G Van de Walle Reactive force field simulation of proton diffusion in BaZrO3 using an empirical valence bond approachPaolo Raiteri, Julian D Gale and Giovanni Bussi Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductorsP D C King and T D Veal A theoretical study of a ZnO graphene analogue: adsorption on Ag(111) and hydrogen transportIlker Demiroglu, Daniele Stradi, Francesc Illas and Stefan T Bromley The interplay between dopants and oxygen vacancies in the magnetism of V-doped TiO2 Ricardo Grau-Crespo and Udo Schwingenschlögl Electron and hole stability in GaN and ZnOAron Walsh, C Richard A Catlow, Martina Miskufova and Alexey A Sokol Holes bound as small polarons to acceptor defects in oxide materials: why are their thermal ionization energies so high?O F Schirmer

  7. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    -alkyl C, aromatic C and phenolic C and carbonyl-carboxyl C. Moreover, in order to avoid the influence of pedogenesis, we decided to use "less complex OM", i.e. compost samples. The choice to use compost samples has been dictated by the fact that i) composting processes are well described and referenced in the literature, and ii) these samples have already been studied previously (Albrecht, 2009). Significantly high correlations are observed between classes, or indices, from RE pyrolysis and main classes of organic matter detected by NMR e.g. F1 and labile / easily degradable components (alkyl C et O-alkyl C); F3/F4 and humified OM (aromatic C and phenolic C); R index (contributions of bio-macromolecules) and phenolic and aromatic C; I index (related to immature OM) and labile / easily degradable components (alkyl C et O-alkyl C). This work confirms the interest of RE pyrolysis in soil science (notably by using the R/I index ratio). Compost was an ideal model with a clear chronological evolution of organic matter. The next step consists of using more complex samples such as bulk soil samples. REFERENCES Albrecht, R., Joffre, R., Le Petit, J., Terrom, G., Périssol, C. 2009. Calibration of Chemical and Biological Changes in Cocomposting of Biowastes Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(3), 804-811. Copard, Y., Di-Govanni, C., Martaud, T., Alberic, P., Olivier, J.E. 2006. Using Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis for tracking fossil organic carbon in modern environments: implications for the roles of erosion and weathering. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31(2), 135-153. Disnar, J.R., Guillet, B., Keravis, D., Di-Giovanni, C., Sebag, D. 2003. Soil organic matter (SOM) characterization by Rock-Eval pyrolysis: scope and limitations. Organic Geochemistry, 34(3), 327-343. Kogel-Knabner, I. 2000. Analytical approaches for characterizing soil organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 31(7-8), 609-625. Lafargue, E., Marquis, F., Pillot, D. 1998. Rock-Eval 6

  8. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  9. GPR Prospecting and Endoscopic Investigation in a Renaissance Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Bianco, Nadia; Masini, Nicola; Leopizzi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    and migration in time domain. The propagation velocity of the electromagnetic waves has been estimated from the diffraction hyperbolas. The processing has been performed making use of the commercial code GPRslice, thanks to which also horizontal slices have been retrieved. As a less conventional aspect, moreover, some ground truthing has been performed on the basis of the horizontal slices by means of a drill with an extension and of an endoscopic survey within the holes made with the drill. This has allowed a more refined interpretation of some of the anomalies, as will be shown at the conference. The noticeable point is that this kind of ground truthing is minimally invasive, much faster than an excavation and of course much cheaper, and so it can be an alternative to it, when possible. References [1] F. Gabellone, G. Leucci, N. Masini, R. Persico, G. Quarta, F. Grasso, Nondestructive Prospecting and virtual reconstruction of the chapel of the Holy Spirit in Lecce, Italy, Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 11, n. 2, pp. 231-238, April 2013. [2] E. Utsi, The shrine of edward the confessor: A study in multi-frequency gpr investigation, proc. of 13th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, DOI: 10.1109/ICGPR.2010.5550263. [3] N. Masini, R. Persico, E. Rizzo, A. Calia, M. T. Giannotta, G. Quarta, A. Pagliuca, "Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy)." Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 8 (5), pp. 423-432, 2010. [4] G. Leucci, N. Masini, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri." GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration : the case of the Cathedral of Tricarico", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, vol. 8, pp. S76-S92, Aug. 2011. [5] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C. Atzeni, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, Advanced Processing Techniques for Step-frequency Continuous-Wave Penetrating Radar: the Case Study of "Palazzo Vecchio" Walls (Firenze, Italy), Research on

  10. Mars Express radar collects first surface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    This radar started its science operations on 4 July, the same day as its first commissioning phase ended. Due to the late deployment of Marsis, it was decided to split the commissioning, originally planned to last four weeks, into two phases; the second will take place in December. It has thus been possible to begin scientific observations with the instrument earlier than initially planned, while it is still Martian night-time. This is the best environmental condition for subsurface sounding, as in daytime the ionosphere is more ‘energised’ and disturbs the radio signals used for subsurface observations. As from the start of commissioning, the two 20m-long antenna booms have been sending radio signals towards the Martian surface and receiving echoes back. “The commissioning procedure confirmed that the radar is working very well and that it can be operated at full power without interfering with any of the spacecraft systems,” says Roberto Seu, Instrument Manager for Marsis, of University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Italy. Marsis is a very complex instrument, capable of operating at different frequency bands. Lower frequencies are best suited to probing the subsurface, the highest frequencies are used to probe shallow subsurface depths, while all frequencies are suited to studying the surface and the upper atmospheric layer of Mars. “During commissioning we worked to test all transmission modes and optimise the radar's performance around Mars,” says Professor Giovanni Picardi, Principal Investigator for Marsis, of University of Rome ‘LaSapienza’. “The result is that since we started the scientific observations in early July, we have been receiving very clean surface echoes back, and first indications about the ionosphere.” The Marsis radar is designed to operate around the orbit ‘pericentre’, when the spacecraft is closer to the planet’s surface. In each orbit, the radar is switched on for 36minutes around this point, spending the middle 26

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Mechanical Systems at the Quantum Limit FOCUS ON MECHANICAL SYSTEMS AT THE QUANTUM LIMIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspelmeyer, Markus; Schwab, Keith

    2008-09-01

    progress was reported almost on a monthly basis and new groups entered the field. We intend to keep submission to this Focus Issue open for some time and invite everyone to share their latest results with us. And finally, a note to our fellow colleagues: keep up the good work! We would like to call the next Focus Issue 'Mechanical Systems IN the Quantum Regime'. Focus on Mechanical Systems at the Quantum Limit Contents Parametric coupling between macroscopic quantum resonators L Tian, M S Allman and R W Simmonds Quantum noise in a nanomechanical Duffing resonator E Babourina-Brooks, A Doherty and G J Milburn Creating and verifying a quantum superposition in a micro-optomechanical system Dustin Kleckner, Igor Pikovski, Evan Jeffrey, Luuk Ament, Eric Eliel, Jeroen van den Brink and Dirk Bouwmeester Ground-state cooling of a nanomechanical resonator via a Cooper-pair box qubit Konstanze Jaehne, Klemens Hammerer and Margareta Wallquist Dissipation in circuit quantum electrodynamics: lasing and cooling of a low-frequency oscillator Julian Hauss, Arkady Fedorov, Stephan André, Valentina Brosco, Carsten Hutter, Robin Kothari, Sunil Yeshwanth, Alexander Shnirman and Gerd Schön Route to ponderomotive entanglement of light via optically trapped mirrors Christopher Wipf, Thomas Corbitt, Yanbei Chen and Nergis Mavalvala Nanomechanical-resonator-assisted induced transparency in a Cooper-pair box system Xiao-Zhong Yuan, Hsi-Sheng Goan, Chien-Hung Lin, Ka-Di Zhu and Yi-Wen Jiang High-sensitivity monitoring of micromechanical vibration using optical whispering gallery mode resonators A Schliesser, G Anetsberger, R Rivière, O Arcizet and T J Kippenberg Optomechanical to mechanical entanglement transformation Giovanni Vacanti, Mauro Paternostro, G Massimo Palma and Vlatko Vedral The optomechanical instability in the quantum regime Max Ludwig, Björn Kubala and Florian Marquardt Quantum limits of photothermal and radiation pressure cooling of a movable mirror M Pinard and A Dantan

  12. PREFACE: Dynamics of low-dimensional systems Dynamics of low-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, M.; Miret-Artés, S.; Toennies, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    Hedgeland, Andrew P Jardine, William Allison, John Ellis and Gil Alexandrowicz Fast emission dynamics in droplet epitaxy GaAs ring-disk nanostructures integrated on SiL Cavigli, S Bietti, M Abbarchi, C Somaschini, A Vinattieri, M Gurioli, A Fedorov, G Isella, E Grilli and S Sanguinetti Assessing the composition of hetero-epitaxial islands via morphological analysis: an analytical model matching GeSi/Si(001) dataR Gatti, F Pezzoli, F Boioli, F Montalenti and Leo Miglio Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholesIvano E Castelli, Nicola Ferri, Giovanni Onida and Nicola Manini Elastic fields and moduli in defected grapheneRiccardo Dettori, Emiliano Cadelano and Luciano Colombo Tuning the plasmon energy of palladium-hydrogen systems by varying the hydrogen concentrationV M Silkin, R Dìez Muiño, I P Chernov, E V Chulkov and P M Echenique Plasmon tsunamis on metallic nanoclustersA A Lucas and M Sunjic Ab initio characterization of graphene nanoribbons and their polymer precursorsRengin Peköz, Xinliang Feng and Davide Donadio First-principles phonon calculations of Fe4+ impurity in SrTiO3E Blokhin, E A Kotomin and J Maier Phonon dispersion of quasi-freestanding graphene on Pt(111)Antonio Politano, Antonio Raimondo Marino and Gennaro Chiarello Vibrations of Au13 and FeAu12 nanoparticles and the limits of the Debye temperature conceptGhazal Shafai, Marisol Alcántara Ortigoza and Talat S Rahman Triple quantum dots as charge rectifiers M Busl and G Platero

  13. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  14. Stellar Clusters Forming in the Blue Dwarf Galaxy NGC 5253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    . It may well be very similar to the progenitors in the early Universe of the old globular clusters we now observe in large galaxies like the Milky Way. In this sense, NGC 5253 provides us with a direct view towards our own beginnings. Note [1] The group consists of Giovanni Cresci (University of Florence, Italy), Leonardo Vanzi (ESO-Chile) and Marc Sauvage (CEA/DSN/DAPNIA, Saclay, France). More details about the present investigation is available in a research paper ("The Star Cluster population of NGC 5253" by G. Cresci et al.) to appear soon in the leading research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (a preprint is available as astro-ph/0411486).

  15. Europe goes to Mars - preparations are well under way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    -mail: psri@open.ac.uk HRSC (High/Super Resolution Stereo Camera), Gerhard Neukum, DLR, Institut für Planetenerkundung, Berlin, Germany, tel. +49 30 67055 300, fax. +49 30 67055 303, e-mail: gerhard.neukum@dlr.de MaRS (Radio Science Experiment), Martin Pätzold, University of Cologne, Germany, tel. +49 221 4703385, fax. +49 221 4705198, e-mail: paetzold@geo.uni-koeln.de MARSIS (Subsurface Sounding Radar/Altimeter), Giovanni Picardi, University of Rome, Italy, tel. +39 06 44585455, fax. +39 06 4873300, e-mail: picar@infocom.ing.uniroma1.it OMEGA (IR Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer), Jean-Pierre Bibring, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France, tel. +33 1 69858686, fax. +33 1 69858675, e-mail: bibring@ias.u-psud.fr PFS (Planetary Fourier Spectrometer), Vittorio Formisano, Istituto Fisica Spazio Interplanetario, Rome, Italy, tel. +39 6 49934362, fax. +39 6 49934383, e-mail: formisan@nike.ifsi.rm.cnr.it SPICAM (UV and IR Atmospheric Spectrometer), Jean-Loup Bertaux, Service d'Aéronomie, Verrières-le-Buisson, France, tel. +33 1 64474251, fax. +33 1 6920299, e-mail: jean-loup.bertaux@aerov.jussieu.fr. Additional contact: Christian Muller, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. B.USOC earth observations coordination, Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium, tel. +32-2-3730372, fax: +32-2-3748423, e- mail: Christian.Muller@oma.be

  16. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    regions of the star, they found that the ‘colour’ of the X-rays, which corresponds to their energy, changed as Geminga rotated. In particular, they could clearly see a distinct colour change when the hot spot came into view and then disappeared behind the star. This research closes the gap between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from neutron stars. XMM-Newton has shown that they both can originate through the same physical mechanism, namely the acceleration of charged particles in the magnetosphere of these degenerate stars. "XMM-Newton’s Geminga observation has been particularly fruitful," said Norbert Schartel, ESA’s Project Scientist for XMM-Newton. "Last year, it yielded the discovery of the source tails and now it has found its rotating hot spot." Caraveo is already applying this new technique to other pulsating neutron stars observed by XMM-Newton looking for hot spots. This research represents an important new tool for understanding the physics of neutron stars. Notes for editors The original paper appeared on 16 July 2004, in Science magazine, under the title 'Phase-resolved spectroscopy of Geminga shows rotating hotspot(s)'. Besides P. Caraveo, the author list includes A. De Luca, S. Mereghetti, A. Pellizzoni and G. Bignami. During the search to track down this elusive celestial object, a co-author on the paper, Giovanni Bignami, named it Geminga almost 30 years ago. He was Principal Investigator of XMM-Newton's EPIC camera from 1987 to 1997 and is now Director of the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR, Toulouse). Geminga was first glimpsed as a mysterious source of gamma rays, coming from somewhere in the constellation Gemini by NASA's SAS-2 spacecraft in 1973. While searching to pin down its exact location and nature, Bignami named it Geminga because it was a ‘Gemini gamma-ray source’. As an astronomer in Milan, Italy, he was also aware that in his native dialect ‘gh'èminga’ means ‘it is not there’, which he found amusing. It

  17. Obituary: Philip Morrison, 1915-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2005-12-01

    Philip Morrison, who died 22 April 2005 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was born in Somerville, New Jersey on 7 November 1915 to Moses and Tilly (née Rosenbloom) Morrison. Early childhood polio confined him for extended periods, during which he apparently developed his remarkable skill at speed reading. Speed writing (leading to a bibliography of more than 600 items) came later, and his memory must always have been exceedingly retentive. Morrison went on from the public and private schools of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to receive a BS in physics from Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon) in 1936. At the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the Young Communist League and later the Communist Party, letting his membership lapse in the early 1940s when work and war came to seem more important. He was officially the student of J. Robert Oppenheimer and worked also with postdocs Robert Serber and Leonard Schiff and with a number of his fellow Oppenheimer students (a spectacular crew, which included Robert Christy, Sidney Dancoff, Bernard Peters [born Pietrkowski], Hartland Snyder, Joseph Weinberg, Dale Corson, Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz, David Bohm, and Eugene Cooper). Following his 1940 PhD, Phil (his preferred signature) taught for a year at San Francisco State and then at University of Illinois (where he replaced Dancoff, who had gone on to a year at Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton). From Illinois, Morrison was recruited to the Metallurgy Lab (uranium project) at the University of Chicago by Christy in 1942. There he worked on the design for the Hanford Reactor, the main source of plutonium for the Trinity and Nagasaki bombs. He seems to have been sensitive to human relationships even in that context and was the author of a "Dear Opje" letter to Oppenheimer pointing out that the lack of cooperation between management and the scientists was getting in the way of the project. Morrison's early research was largely in theoretical nuclear physics

  18. Obituary: Janet Akyüz Mattei, 1943-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne

    2004-12-01

    in Belgium for AAVSO to hold its first European meeting in Brussels in July 1990. The meeting proved a huge success, and was followed in 1997 by a second AAVSO European meeting in Sion, Switzerland and a Pan-Pacific meeting in 2003 in Hawaii. Through Janet's leadership, AAVSO reached out to the observers who were already supporting the association with their observations. One of Janet's strong interests was in education. Using a grant from the National Science Foundation, she led efforts to create Hands-On Astrophysics (HOA) based largely on variable stars and AAVSO data. Though it took several years to develop, HOA became the basis for a number of popular teacher workshops and is sure to lead many high school students into careers in science. Janet also helped many future professionals in astronomy, including Karen Meech and Peter Garnavich, and a few in other areas, by providing opportunities for them to work at headquarters during their studies or during an intermission in their formal schooling. Janet was active in, and honored by, other professional and amateur organizations. A member of the American Astronomical Society (AAS), she received the AAS's George van Biesbroeck award in 1993, served on the AAS Annenberg Award Committee (1994-1997) and served as the first chair of the AAS Professional Amateur Cooperation Committee. Also in 1993, the Astronomical League with their Leslie Peltier Award honored Janet for her leadership of the AAVSO and contributions to variable star astronomy. Janet was elected a director of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) and served six years in that capacity (1994-2000), co-chairing at least one Pro-Am workshop with the ASP. She was a member of three IAU Commissions over her thirty-five years of membership in that organization. In 1995, Janet was honored by the award of the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal and was the first recipient of the Giovanni Battista Lacchini Award for collaboration with amateur

  19. Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    fact a long-period "spectroscopic" binary system. The separation between the two stars is probably more than one hundred times larger than that between the planet and the star it revolves around. The observed characteristics of the new planet, e.g., its rather large mass and almost circular orbit, associated with this double-star nature, indicate that planetary systems may form in other ways than the standard agglomeration scheme. For instance, recent theoretical calculations by Alan Boss (Carnegie Institute of Washington, USA) suggest that multi-Jupiter-mass planets may be formed through dynamical instabilities in a protoplanetary disk that are induced by the gravitational action of a nearby stellar companion. One important result of this new, extensive survey carried out in the southern sky will be to provide potential targets for the VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer), presently being built by ESO on Cerro Paranal. When it enters into operation some years from now, it will be able to provide exciting additional information about these planets and their nature. Note: [1] The team consists of Didier Queloz (also Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA), Michel Mayor, Luc Weber, Dominique Naef, Stephane Udry, Nuno Santos, Andre Blecha and Michel Burnet (Geneva Observatory, Switzerland) and Bastien Confino (St. Luc Observatory, Switzerland). The members of team want to express their gratitude to all the technical staff of the Geneva Observatory, in particular Daniel Huguenin, Rene Dubosson, Giovanni Russiniello and Charles Maire for their great efforts, from the design to the final installation of the Swiss Leonard Euler telescope at La Silla. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  20. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    teborg Cornelius Schmidt-ColinetEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Johannes SchmudeSwansea University Waldemar SchulginLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Domenico SeminaraUniversità di Firenze Alexander SevrinVrije Universiteit, Brussel Konstadinos SfetsosUniversity of Patras Igor ShenderovichSt Petersburg State University Jonathan ShockUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Massimo SianiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Christoph SiegUniversità Degli Studi di Milano Joan SimonUniversity of Edinburgh Paul SmythUniversity of Hamburg Luca SommovigoUniversidad de Valencia Dmitri Sorokin Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova Christos SourdisUniversity of Patras Wieland StaessensVrije Universiteit, Brussel Ivan StefanovUniversity of Patras Sigurdur StefanssonUniversity of Iceland Kellogg Stelle Imperial College London Giovanni Tagliabue Università di Milano Laura Tamassia Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Javier TarrioUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Dimitri TerrynVrije Universiteit, Brussel Larus Thorlacius University of Iceland Mario ToninDipartimento Di Fisica, Sezione Di Padova Mario Trigiante Politecnico di Torino Efstratios TsatisUniversity of Patras Arkady TseytlinImperial College London Pantelis TziveloglouCornell University, New York and CERN, Geneva Angel Uranga CERN, Geneva Dieter Van den Bleeken Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Ernst van Eijk Università di Napoli Federico II Antoine Van Proeyen Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Maaike van ZalkUtrecht University Pierre Vanhove Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Silvia Vaula Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cristian Vergu Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Alessandro VichiÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Marlene WeissCERN, Geneva and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Sebastian Weiss Université de Neuchâtel Alexander WijnsUniversity of Iceland Linus WulffUniversity of Padova Thomas

  1. Into the Epoch of Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    distant, evolved galaxies and also about the existence of associations of distant galaxies. A first clear example is the concentration of galaxies that appear uniformly yellow in PR Photo 06b/00 , apparently tracing a group of galaxies that was already assembled when the Universe was only 6 billion years old. A confirmation of the distance of a few of these galaxies has already been obtained by means of spectral observations in the framework of an ESO Large Programme , entitled "A Stringent Test on the Formation of Early Type and Massive Galaxies" and carried out by another group of astronomers [2]. A further clear example of a concentration of distant galaxies is seen in the upper right part of PR Photo 06b/00 . The very red colours of several galaxies in this sky area indicate that they are even more distant, "evolved" galaxies, already present when the Universe was only 1/3 of the current age. Notes [1] The European team consists of Emanuele Giallongo (Principal Investigator), Adriano Fontana , Nicola Menci and Francesco Poli (all at Rome Observatory), Stephane Arnouts and Sandro D'Odorico (European Southern Observatory, Garching), Stefano Cristiani (ST European Coordinating Facility, Garching) and Paolo Saracco (Milan Observatory). The data analysis was performed at the Milan ( P. Saracco ) and Rome ( A. Fontana , F. Poli ) Observatories. [2] This programme is conducted Andrea Cimatti (Principal Investigator) and Emanuele Daddi (both at Arcetri Observatory), Tom Broadhurst , Sandro D'Odorico , Roberto Gilmozzi and Alvio Renzini (European Southern Observatory), Stefano Cristiani (ST European Coordinating Facility, Garching), Adriano Fontana , Emanuele Giallongo , Nicola Menci and Francesco Poli (Rome Observatory), Marco Mignoli , Lucia Pozzetti and Giovanni Zamorani (Bologna Observatory) and Paolo Saracco (Milan Observatory). Technical note : The K-band image ( PR Photo 06a/00 ) is the result of 510 min of integration time with ISAAC at VLT ANTU. The 3-sigma magnitude

  2. VIMOS - a Cosmology Machine for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    bundle can simultaneously observe a continuous sky area measuring no less than 56 x 56 arcsec 2. A dedicated machine, the Mask Manufacturing Unit (MMU) , cuts the slits for the entrance apertures of the spectrograph. The laser is capable of cutting 200 slits in less than 15 minutes. This facility was put into operation at Paranal by the VIRMOS Consortium already in August 2000 and has since been extensively used for observations with the FORS2 instrument; more details are available in ESO PR 19/99. Fast start-up of VIMOS at Paranal ESO PR Photo 09d/02 ESO PR Photo 09d/02 [Preview - JPEG: 473 x 400 pix - 280k] [Normal - JPEG: 946 x 1209 pix - 728k] ESO PR Photo 09e/02 ESO PR Photo 09e/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 438 pix - 176k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 876 pix - 664k] Caption : PR Photo 09d/02 : The VIRMOS team in the MELIPAL control room, moments after "First Light" on February 26, 2002. From left to right: Oreste Caputi, Marco Scodeggio, Giovanni Sciarretta , Olivier Le Fevre, Sylvie Brau-Nogue, Christian Lucuix, Bianca Garilli, Markus Kissler-Patig (in front), Xavier Reyes, Michel Saisse, Luc Arnold and Guido Mancini . PR Photo 09e/02 : The spiral galaxy NGC 5364 was the first object to be observed by VIMOS. This false-colour near-infrared, raw "First Light" photo shows the extensive spiral arms. Technical information about this photo is available below. VIMOS was shipped from Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France) at the end of 2001, and reassembled at Paranal during a first period in January 2002. From mid-February, the instrument was made ready for installation on the VLT MELIPAL telescope; this happened on February 24, 2002. VIMOS saw "First Light" just two days later, on February 26, 2000, cf. PR Photo 09e/02 . During the same night, a number of excellent images were obtained of various objects, demonstrating the fine capabilities of the instrument in the "direct imaging"-mode. The first spectra were successfully taken during the night of March 2 - 3, 2002 . The slit

  3. UVES Analyses the Universe: A First Portfolio of Most Promising Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    of the ionised zinc (Zn II) 2026.136 Å transition , redshifted to a wavelength of 8895 Å and yielding an abundance of [Zn/H] = -2.06, when N(HI) = 2.6 x 10 21 is assumed. This shows that the absorbing object has a very low abundance and confirms that this galaxy is in the early stages of its chemical evolution. Compared with the larger abundances observed in DLA galaxies at lower redshift, this measurement provides a first hint of a cosmological chemical evolution in which abundances decrease with increasing redshift, i.e. with longer look-back times. The abundances of chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) were also obtained and were found to be similar to that of zinc. This coincidence in the abundances between refractory and non-refractory elements suggests that dust did not yet form in this protogalaxy . At the high redshift of this damped system, the O I 925 and 950 Å lines from atomic oxygen are visible in the UVES spectrum, although they fall within the Lyman-alpha forest shortward of the QSO Lyman-alpha emission, cf. PR Photo 09j/00 . These lines have line strenghts that are much smaller than that of the OI 1302 Å line, which is strongly saturated. They permit, for the first time, a rather accurate measurement of the oxygen abundance in a DLA at [O/H]= -1.85 . The pattern of the relative abundance of the alpha-elements like O, S, and Si with respect to iron-peak elements like Zn, Fe and Cr that emerges for this DLA suggests a model of galaxy evolution that is characterised by an episodic or low star formation rate , rather than a Milky-Way-type evolutionary model. An extensive discussion of these results is given in the paper by Paolo Molaro , Piercarlo Bonifacio , Giovanni Vladilo , Miriam Centurion , Paolo Dimarcantonio and Paolo Santin (Trieste Astronomical Observatory), and Sandro D'Odorico (ESO Garching), submitted to Astrophysical Journal . ESO PR Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.